A high-coverage Neandertal genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia


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A high-coverage Neandertal genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia
Series Title:
Prüfer, Kay
de Filippo, Cesare
Grote, Steffi
Mafessoni, Fabrizio
Korlević, Petra
Hajdinjak, Mateja
Vernot, Benjamin
Skov, Laurits
Hsieh, Pinghsun
Peyrégne, Stéphane
Reher, David
Hopfe, Charlotte
Nagel, Sarah
Maricic, Tomislav
Fu, Qiaomei
Theunert, Christoph
Rogers, Rebekah
Skoglund, Pontus
Chintalapati, Manjusha
Dannemann, Michael
Nelson, Bradley J.
Key, Felix M.
Rudan, Pavao
Kućan, Željko
Gušić, Ivan
Golovanova, Liubov V.
Doronichev, Vladimir B.
Patterson, Nick
Reich, David
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Vindija Neandertal Genome ( local )
Neandertal ( local )
Neanderthal Genome ( local )
Vindija Cave, Croatia ( local )
Southern Siberia ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


To date, the Neandertal genome that has been sequenced to high quality is from an individual found in Southern Siberia. We sequenced the genome of a female Neandertal from ~50,000 years ago from Vindija Cave, Croatia, to ~30-fold genomic coverage. She carried 1.6 differences per 10,000 base pairs between the two copies of her genome, fewer than present-day humans, suggesting that Neandertal populations were of small size. Our analyses indicate that she was more closely related to the Neandertals that mixed with the ancestors of present-day humans living outside of sub-Saharan Africa than the previously sequenced Neandertal from Siberia, allowing 10 to 20% more Neandertal DNA to be identified in present-day humans, including variants involved in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, schizophrenia, and other diseases.
Original Version:
Science, Vol. 358, no. 6363 (2017-11-03).

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