6.3 Sources of Water Aggressiveness – The Driving Force of Karstification

Citation

Material Information

Title:
6.3 Sources of Water Aggressiveness – The Driving Force of Karstification
Series Title:
Treatise on Geomorphology
Creator:
Auler, Augusto
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Acids ( local )
Aggressiveness ( local )
Bacteria ( local )
Carbon Dioxide ( local )
Epigene ( local )
Hydrogen Sulfide ( local )
Hypogene ( local )
Mixing Corrosion ( local )
Sulfuric Acid ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Abstract:
Chemically aggressive water is needed in order to promote bedrock dissolution and karstification. Aggressiveness is generated through a number of processes that include acids from the atmosphere and soil zone (epigenic acids) and from deep-seated mechanisms (hypogenic acids). Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are the main players, although additional acidity may be provided by processes that involve mixing of solutions with different degrees of saturation, temperature effects, and microbiological agents. Rainfall will generally have an acid pH due to natural CO2 and mostly anthropogenic gases such as H2S in the atmosphere. The soil zone will further boost acidity levels due to abundant CO2 production in the root and plant horizons. Although the buffering capacity of the carbonate will cause groundwater to quickly achieve saturation, mixing corrosion effects may rejuvenate aggressiveness in situations where waters of different chemistry are in contact. Bacterially mediated processes will both enhance and mediate processes of acid generation and dissolution. Mixing zones between fresh and salt water and between oxygen-rich groundwater (mostly epigenic) and rising thermal water will be important zones where increased levels of acidity will accelerate cave formation. The degree and effectiveness of aggressiveness will depend on a number of variables, such as the geological setting, solubility of the rock, position of the bedrock, and climate, sometimes operating together at various scales and strengths.
Original Version:
Treatise on Geomorphology, Vol. 6 (2013-03-05).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.

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University of South Florida
Karst Information Portal

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