Initial assessment of recharge areas for large karst springs: a case study from the central Zagros Mountains, Iran

Citation

Material Information

Title:
Initial assessment of recharge areas for large karst springs: a case study from the central Zagros Mountains, Iran
Series Title:
Hydrogeology Journal
Creator:
Vardanjani, Hossein Karimi
Chitsazan, Manouchehr
Ford, Derek
Karimi, Haji
Charchi, Abbas
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Karst ( local )
Groundwater Recharge ( local )
Water Budget ( local )
Hydrochemistry ( local )
Arid Regions ( local )
Iran ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Abstract:
Sousan Spring emerges from the Keyno Anticline, Zagros Mountains (Iran), and the mean annual discharge is ~24 m3 /s. Geological and hydrochemical evaluations suggest that the spring recharge is from the limestone Ilam-Sarvak Formation (Cretaceous) but the Mafaroon Fault, a major thrust feature, influences the regional groundwater flow path by juxtaposing other strata. Geological, geochemical, stable isotope and water balance studies were employed to interpret this behavior. Using the isotope data, the sources and elevations of the recharge area were found. Temporal variations of the isotopic data were compared with variations of electrical conductivity (EC). Unexpectedly, high EC was associated with a relative increase of discharge and depletion of δ18O. Several hypotheses were investigated and approximate water balance studies employed for validation. It was found that an elongated catchment on the Keyno Anticline plus a lesser catchment on a pair of parallel anticlines recharge the aquifer. While the long groundwater flow path along the Keyno Anticline plus guidance by Mafaroon Fault and the adjacent Garou shaly strata lead to increased EC in the Sousan Spring at the end of the dry season, a flow pulse from two adjoining anticlines (Mahalbakh and Shirgoon) arrives at the same time to increase the discharge and deplete the δ18O signal. Apparently the spring did not experience true base flow conditions during the recorded hydrological year. Although the spring response to specific precipitation events was similar to typical karst aquifers, standard interpretation of recession curves and related coefficients will not be practical at Sousan.
Original Version:
Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 26, no. 1 (2017-12-09).

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University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.

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