Archaeomagnetic evidence for climate change at Sibudu Cave

Citation

Material Information

Title:
Archaeomagnetic evidence for climate change at Sibudu Cave
Series Title:
Southern African Humanities
Creator:
Andy I.R. Herries
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Abstract:
In situ magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements were undertaken on the north, south and east section walls of the trial trench in Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. All three sections show similar down-section variations in MS. Laboratory-based mineral magnetic measurements on sub-samples identified two major mineral magnetic zones (MMZB and MMZA). MMZB consists of coarser rained ferrimagnetic minerals and a larger proportion of anti-ferromagnetic haematite from spalling of the sandstone rock shelter during the arid, cold conditions of Oxygen Isotope Stage 4 (OIS 4). MMZA, which incorporates all layers from P1 (~60 ka) to BSV and BSS (~1100 AD), is dominated by fine- to ultra-fine-grained ferrimagnetic minerals (magnetite and maghaemite) that reflect the input of derived soils by aeolian activity. MMZA can be divided into three broad Climatic Zones (CZ3, CZ2 and CZ1) that reflect changes in the concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals during three age clusters. These are ~60 ka in OIS 4 and ~50 ka in OIS 3 and ~1100 AD in OIS 1. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sequence suggests hiatuses between the age clusters. Small-scale oscillations of MS in the sequence are thought to be due to varying amounts of intermixed anthropogenic material from hearths. Burnt material is identifiable by a unique mineral magnetic signature similar to that of burnt material from other archaeological sites in South Africa, but unlike that in other areas of the world. This is due to the long-term weathering and natural burning of the South African landscape. The transitional layers between OIS 4 (MMZB) and OIS 3 (MMZA) are associated with gypsum nodule formation that was probably post-depositional. It may have occurred during moister periods of climatic warming when no deposition took place in the Sibudu profile.
Original Version:
Southern African Humanities, Vol. 18, no. 1 (2006-11-01).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
University of South Florida
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close

No images or PDF downloads are available for this resource.


Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.