Minerogenetic Mechanisms Occurring in the Cave environment: an overview


previous item | next item

Citation
Minerogenetic Mechanisms Occurring in the Cave environment: an overview

Material Information

Title:
Minerogenetic Mechanisms Occurring in the Cave environment: an overview
Series Title:
International Journal of Speleology
Creator:
Onac, Bogdan P.
Forti, Paolo
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Microorganisms ( local )
Minerogenetic ( local )
Caves ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Abstract:
Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not available elsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interesting from the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a single compound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although only a limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, some of which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversed by water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development of various minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydration-dehydration, sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly control most of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimes allow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico), but the presence of extremely small yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likely be focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the most important minerogenetic processes in caves.
Original Version:
International Journal of Speleology, Vol. 40, no. 2 (2011-07-01).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commerical License. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge the author and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00057 ( USFLDC: LOCAL DOI )
k26.57 ( USFLDC: LOCAL Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
University of South Florida
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

Downloads

This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

International Journal of Speleology 40 (2) July 2011 Available online at www.ijs.speleo.it & scholarcommons.usf.edu/ijs/International Journal of SpeleologyMinerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewINTRODUCTION -1 2 3 Onac B.P. and Forti P. 2011. Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview. International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). ISSN 0392-6672. DOI: 10.5038/1827-806X.40.2.1 teresting from the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a single important minerogenetic processes in caves. Keywords: Received 7 January 2011; Revised 5 February 2011; Accepted 17 February 2011 -Abstract: 1,2 3

PAGE 2

International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti a cave mineral is a secondary deposit precipitated inside a humansized natural cavity”speleothem SHORT HISTORY OF CAVE MINERALOGY Mineralogia magni Principatus Transilvaniae Viaggio alle Due Sicilie “but the most interesting object is a natural cave from which a column of smoke continuously exits Sublimated sulphur gives rise to conical yellow to pink stalactites up to 3 feet long and two inch [sic] thick. . Some water springs out from the cave wall giving rise to some deposits over the lava beds consisting of stalactitic alum sometimes with ammonium chloride. Deposits of iron sulphate are fairly common.” Fig. 1. Cave paintings in which the prehistoric man used red and Fig. 2. Alum Cave, Vulcano Island (after Spallanzani, 1797).

PAGE 3

International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview MINEROGENETIC MECHANISMS ACTING IN THE CAVE ENVIRONMENT th century up to present.

PAGE 4

Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Phase transition Segregation Sublimation PROCESS MECHANISM / REACTION T (C) COMMON PRODUCTS 1 > 100 2 3 Cooling 400 0 4 100 Solution 100 0 6 100 7 CO2 40 60 600 9 < 0 < 0 < 0

PAGE 5

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Thermal contact Cooling Fig. 5. Faggeto Tondo Cave (Italy): A) part of the limestone cave wall

PAGE 6

International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti 2+4 2to maintain Air movement Dissolution/Reprecipitation 2+, Na+2+, +4 2Fig. 7. A general view of the giant gypsum crystals of Cueva de Los sols and vapors.

PAGE 7

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011 Geochemical Oxidation/Reduction 22SO4 2 in Venezuela (photo: F. Sauro, Archivio La Venta).

PAGE 8

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011 Hydration/Dehydration 2 2SO422SO4) 42 4242O) ite (CaSO4242 Double replacement reactions Fig. 11. Barite helictites in a natural cavity inside Silius mine (Sardinia, Italy) (photo: Paolo Forti). sum core in Cala Fatente Cave (Italy) (after Forti & Mocchiutti, 2004,

PAGE 9

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewInternational Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011 2 ter with a relative high CO2 gypsum crystals via incongruent dissolution (Novella Cave, Bologna, Italy) (photo: P. Forti). CaCO2O+COCa2+ 3 2 -

PAGE 10

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti2 2+2+ 23 Biogenic activity SMeolosira),

PAGE 11

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewInternational Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Precipitation of guano-related minerals 3 Nitrobacter 3 The sulfur cycle Fig. 16. Main minerogenetic and speleogenetic processes related to the presence of guano deposits. Fig. 17. Sulfur cycle-related minerals and their genetic pathways.

PAGE 12

90 1 Sulfur 2 Gypsum 2SO4 3 Calcite 4 Goethite, Hematite, Magnetite, Lepidocrocite, Braunite, Pyrolusite, Romanechite, Hausmannite Barite, Anglesite, Brochantite, Fibroferrite, Jarosite, Halotrichite, Melanterite, Rosenite, Zaherite in 6 Siderite, Aurichalcite, Azurite, Malachite, Cerussite, Rosasite, Hydrozincite 7 Hopeite, Parahopeite, Tarbuttite, Scholzite, Tinticite, Sampleite Opal and/or Quartz Allophane, Halloysite-10 9 Pyrite, Marcasite 90 90 Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti Water phase change Guano combustion

PAGE 13

91 91 Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewInternational Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011 Freezing Sublimation Segregation Fig. 18. Layer of thermally-transformed sediments within the guano permission). (photo: A. Danieli).

PAGE 14

92 92 92 Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo FortiExtensive search for new minerals Geomicrobiology Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies WHAT LIES AHEAD FOR CAVE MINERALOGY? (photo: P. Forti).

PAGE 15

93 93 Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewInternational Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011 Stable isotope geochemistry CONCLUSIONS Cave Minerals of the World Cave Minerals CommissionFig. 22. Climatic induced effects on the calcite/gypsum speleothems within gypsum cavities.

PAGE 16

94 94 94 Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo FortiREFERENCES The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms Journal of Speleology, Variable winter moisture in the southwestern United States linked to rapid glacial climate shifts3 rence of jurbanite [Al(OH SO4)H2O], associated with alunogen [Al(SO4)3H2O] and tschermigite [NH4Al(SO4)2H2 Cave, France 69(2) Fleischer’s glossary of mineral species Caves in the glaciers of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Antarctica) 1 Introduction to cave microbiology: a review for the non-specialist. 68(2) Geomicrobiology in cave environments: past, current and future perspectives. 69(1) Microbial life in the underworld: biogenicy in secondary mineral formations 18 Dias antrorum mirabilis naturae, glacialis alterius, alterius halitus noxios eructantis 41(452) La Grotta dello Zolfo nei Campi Flegrei 20 Delle stufe e de’ bagni di Sciacca Palermo Nota sul giacimento di epsomite di Tanai Val Serrata (Ticino)14(4) Particolare ambiente minerogenetico in una grotta delle argille scaglioseogy, Bari, 1 Beitrag zur Hhlenkunde Siebenbrgens 4 Life below and life “out there” 45(8) The microbial communities of sulfur caves: a newly appreciated geologically driven system on Earth and potential model for Mars. Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology, and geochemistry-A tribute volume to Derek C. Ford and William B. White. 404 Cave biosignature suites: microbes, minerals and Mars 1(1) Sulphur isotope evidence for the origin of cave evaporites in Ogof y Daren Cilau, south Wales 55 Niahite – a new mineral from Malaysia 47 Secondary mineralization in the cavern environment 2(5) The speleothems in gypsum caves and their paleo53(5) Opere dell’Abate Melchior Cesarotti padovano , 1 Ice Age Terminations 326 A proposito di un partidi Grave Grubbo (Verzino, Calabria) 32 Aereosols: are they a mechanism for speleothem growth? Cave minerals of the worldThe role of aerosols in cave deposition“Hades” a remarkable cave on Oldoinyo Lengai in the East African Rift Valleyternational Journal of Speleology, 27B(1/4) Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies of calcite, quartz and barite from karstic caves in the Masua mine, Southwestern Sardinia, Italy 46 BroCave deposits in Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama, Chile) Geological Constrains on the Onset and Evolution of an Extreme Environment: the Atacama area. 2 Climate and vegetation history of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: a speleothem record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA 282

PAGE 17

Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewInternational Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011 Crystalline secondary deposits in the Kungurskaya cave, UralsProcesses in karst systems. Physics, chemistry and geology Evidence for obliquity forcing of glacial termination II, 325 Hydrothermal cave minerals Cave minerals of the world Caves and karst as model systems for advancing the microbial sciences. Frontiers in karst research 13 Extract of a letter describing the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky I 11Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology (2I minerali di grotta. Speleo, 9 Studio mineralogico ed evolutivo dei nodule ferrosi della grotta Pod Lanisce (Friuli) 11(1/2) speleogenesis International 1 Speleothems and cave minerals in gypsum caves 25(3) Thermal karst systems. 25 Biogenic speleothems: an overview. International Journal of Speleology, 30A(1/4) Speleology in the 3rd millennium: achievements and challenges15 Paleotectonics from speleothems Encyclopedia of caves and cave sciences Genetic processes of cave minerals in volcanic environment: an overview. 67(1) Chemical deposits in caves: a new tool to study ecosystems Genesis and evolution of the caves in the Naica Mine (Chihuahua, Mexico) 54(2) Le condizioni ambientali che permettono l’evoluzione di speleotemi di zolfo in cavit ipogeniche: nuovi dati dalle grotte di Capo Palinuro (Salerno, Italia) 4 I nitrati del Pulo di Molfetta: mineralogia e meccanismi geneticiThe role of CO2 in gypsum speleogenesis: 1st contribution of Speleology, Un nuovo minerale di 4 Peculiar minerogenetic cave environments of Mexico: the Cuatro Cinegas area 35(2) Speleothems and speleogenesis of the Faggeto Tondo Cave (Umbria, Italy) International 1 The peculiar mineralogical site of the Alum Cave (Volcano, Sicily) La Grotta Cutrona (MC1) sul Monte Etna e i suoi speleotemi metastabili The Hibashi lava tube: the best site of Saudi Arabia for cave minerals 33(2) Mineralogia Magni Principatus TransylvaniaeOccurence of hypogenic caves in karst region: examples from central Italy , 26 The formation of natural gypsum megacrystals in Naica, Mexico 35(4) Mellite di Grotta Romanelli. 43(1) Les mmoires historiques de la Repub Sequanoise, et les princes de la France Lettera del Sig. Canonico D. Giuseppe Maria Giovena, Vicario generale di Molfetta al Sig. Abate Alberto Fortis, contenente varie osservazioni sulla nitrosit naturale della Puglia. – Opuscoli scelti sulle scienze e sulle arti, 20 A brief history of cave studies in the United States before 1887 (16th to the 19th century)

PAGE 18

96 96 96 International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti Aerosol sinter and cave development Depth of the Earth Cave minerals Saltpeter mining: gunmakingMineralogy of cave nitrates 43(4) Origin of cave saltpeter 43(4) Geology of Carlsbad Caverns and other caves in the Guadalupe Mountains 117 Sulfur redox reactions: hydrocarbons, native sulfur, Mississippi Valley-type deposits, and sulfuric acid karst in the Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas 25 Soda-niter in earth cracks of Wupatky National Monument39(4) Cave minerals of the world (1 Cave minerals of the world (2 Cave mineralogy and the NSS: Past present and future. 69(1) History of the sulfuric acid theory of speleogenesis in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico , 62(2) Encrustations from lava caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A preliminary reportport, 10 A radiocarbon dated bat guano deposit from N.W. Romania: implications for the timing of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly Microbes in caves: agents of calcite corrosion and precipitation Tufas and speleothems: unraveling the microbial and physical controls336(1) Mineral encrustation in Icelandic lava cavesVolcanogenic speleo-minerals in Cheju Island, Korea14 Hjeobaje cave system, a pseudo-calcareous cave in Jeju Island, South Korea 9 Cave secondary formations of aerosol origin 57(1) Speleothem of aerosol origin: reply 59(1) svnys kozettani kzlemnyek Erdlybol 8(10) Beitrage zur Kenntnis del Eiskeulen in Hohlen 72 Climatic and environmental controls on speleothem oxygen-isotope valuesLa miniera pre-protostorica di Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro, Cosenza) Topoclimatic zones and ice dynamics in the caves of the northern Yukon 41 Speleothems and climate: a special issue of The Holocene, 9(6) Processes in ice caves and their ExFrasassi cave system, Italyology, 9(6) The chemistry of agriculture On australian bat guano and some minerals occurring therein 85(2215) Sasaite, a new phosphate mineral from West Driefontein Cave, Transvaal, South Africa. 42 Mbobomkulite, hydrombobomkulite and nikelalumite, new minerals from Mbobo Mkulu cave, eastern Transvaal 14(2) Sveite, a new mineral from Autana Cave, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela 83 Lonecreekite, sabieite and clairite, new secondary ammonium ferric-ion sulphates from Lone Creek Fall cave, near Sabie, eastern Transvaal 17 Swaknoite [Ca(NH4)2(HPO4)2H2O, orthorhombic]: a new mineral from Arnhem Cave, Namibialetin, 32 The combustion of bat guano – a poorly known phenomenon 33 Two new minerals originated from bat guano combustion in Arnhem Cave, Namibia. 33

PAGE 19

97 97 International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overviewGwihabaite (NH4,K)NO3, orthorhombic, a new mineral from Gcwihaba Cave, Botswana. Bulletin, 36 IMA/CNMNC list of mineral names Geomicrobiology of caves: A review 18 Microbiology in caves Encyclopedia of caves and karst science.Microorganisms and speleothems Cave minerals of the worldEvidence for geomicrobiological interactions in Guadalupe caves 62(2) State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies 56(1) in press Minerals Encyclopedia of caves (2 accepted 4High-temperature and “exotic” minerals from the Cioclovina Cave, Romania: a reviewlogia, 52(2) Depositional environment for metatyuyamunite and related minerals from Caverns of Sonora 24(1) Ikaite in the Scrioara Ice Cave (Romania): origin and 13 Tracing the sources of cave sulfates: a unique case from Cerna Valley, Romania in review Hydroxylellestadite from Cioclovina Cave (Romania): Microanalytical, structural, and vibrational spectroscopy data 91 Revisiting three minerals from Cioclovina Cave (Romania)The relationship between cave minerals and H2S-rich thermal waters along the Cerna Valley (SW Romania) 38 Cave geology Sulfate-induced diagenesis in the Madison Aquifer of South Dakota Breakthroughs in karst geomicrobiology and redox geoposium held February 16 through 19, 1994, Colorado Springs, Colorado 1 Generation of cave aerosols by alpha particles: critical evaluation of the hypothesis. 59(3) Sulfate minerals: their origin in the Central Kentucky karst50 Nouvelles histoires tragiques By-product materials related to H2S – H2SO4 of Carlsbad, Lechuguilla, and other caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico 63: Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems, 319 Age and origin of Carlsbad Cavern and related caves from 40Ar/39Ar of alunite 279 Cave Monographic study. A chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem.Breakthroughs in karst geomicrobiology and redox geochemistry. 1 Memorie mineralogiche e geologiche della Campania 3 Neue Funde von Bohnerzen und Pyrit in der Dachstein-Mammuthhle 26 History of cave science Historical introduction Cave minerals of the world-

PAGE 20

International Journal of Speleology, 40 (2), 79-98. Tampa, FL (USA). July 2011Bogdan P. Onac & Paolo Forti Nitrammite 24 On two new minerals: monetite and monite 23(137) Activities on preservation and restoration of Kungur ice cave glaciation in 20042005 Glacier Caves and Glacial Karst in High Mountains and Polar Regions A Voyage to the Islands of Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christopher’s and Jamaica, with the Natural History . . . of the Last of those Islands 1 Glacier caves and glacier pseudokarst Encyclopedia of caves and karst science Viaggi alle Due Sicilie ed in alcune parti dell’Appennino, 2 Prehistoric salt mining in the Mammoth Cave System Of caves and shell mounds in west-central Kentucky Description du labyrinthe du Candie, avec quelques observations sur l’accroissement et sur la gnration des pierres. Constraining Holocene sea levels using U-Th ages of phreatic overgrowths on speleothems from coastal caves in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean) , 35(7) Il termalesimo di Sciacca dalla preistoria al XX secolo Un nouveau processus de gense des perles de caverne, 12 Cave mineral studies, 1955-1960 19(8) Cave minerals and speleothems In: The science of speleology Thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics, activation barriers, and reaction mechanisms for chemical reactions in karst terrains Geology, 30(1/2) Equilibrium and mechanism of dissolution of Mg-calcites. The fate of the fossil fuel CO2 in the ocean The origin of the speleothems in Dangcheomul Cave, Jeju Island, Korea 36(4) Stable isotopes of subfossil bat guano as a long-term environmental archive: insights from a Grand Canyon cave deposit 72(2) Ice in caves Encyclopedia of caves and karst scienceCryogenic carbonates in cave environments: A review International, 187(1) Cryogenic cave calcite from several Central European caves: age, carbon and oxygen isotopes and a genetic model , 206 Su alcuni minerali della Grot ta dello Zolfo a Miseno Voyage la nitrire naturelle qui se truove Molfetta dans la terre de Barien Apulia.


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close


  • info Info

    There are only PDFs associated with this resource.

  • link PDF(s)



Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.