Cave invertebrates in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil: endemism, threats and conservation priorities


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Cave invertebrates in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil: endemism, threats and conservation priorities

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Cave invertebrates in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil: endemism, threats and conservation priorities
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ACTA CARSOLOGICA
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Henrique Simões, Matheus
Souza-Silva, Marconi
Lopes Ferreira, Rodrigo
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Slovenia ( local )
Tracer Test ( local )
Hydrology ( local )
Karst Aquifer ( local )
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Due to their high economic value, karstic areas and caves have been affected for decades in Brazil. Accordingly, such systems have been receiving the attention of managers, environmental agencies and researchers, especially in recent years. The present study collected information regarding the cave invertebrate fauna of the Northwest region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, such as species richness and endemisms, besides the impacts and threats occurring in these environments, identifying caves and more vulnerable areas and proposing conservation actions. Three caves were identified as a priority for conservation: Lagoa Rica cave in Paracatu, and Lapa Nova and Lapa da Delza caves in Vazante. Another three areas were considered in need of conservation actions: regions of Arinos, Paracatu and Cabeceira Grande/Unaí. The main threat found in the area was the conversion of forests into pastures for cattle breeding, registered in the surroundings of 85% of the caves. The main recommendations were the recuperation of the surroundings, awareness raising of the population and biospeleological inventories in other caves of the area. The studied caves were very heterogeneous, presenting unique characteristics. Thus, the study of the highest possible number of caves of the region of interest is always recommended, to aid in conservation and action plans for cave fauna.
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ACTA CARSOLOGICA, Vol. 43, no. 1 (2014-09-02).

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CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION PRIORITIES. J AMSKI NEVRETENARJI V SEVEROZAHODNEM PREDELU M INAS G ERAIS , B RAZILIJA : ENDEMIZEM , OGROENOST IN VIDIKI VAROVANJA Matheus Henrique S IM’ES 1,2 , Marconi S OUZA S ILVA 3 & Rodrigo Lopes FERREIRA 1 . Izvleek UDK 551.435.84:502.17(815.1) Matheus Henrique Simes, Marconi Souza-Silva & Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira: Jamski nevretenarji v severozahodnem pre delu Minas Gerais, Brazilija: endemizem, ogroenost in vidi ki varovanja Kraka podroja in jame v Braziliji so zaradi visoke gospodar ske vrednosti e desetletja prizadeta. Posledino so, zlasti v zad njih letih, pritegnila pozornost upravljalcev, okoljskih agencij in raziskovalcev. V priujoi tudiji so zbrani podatki o jamski favni severozahodnega obmoja Minas Gerais v Braziliji s pou darkom na bogastvu vrst in endemizmu, poleg ugotovljenih vplivov in nevarnosti, ki se pojavljajo v teh okoljih ter jam in drugih ranljivih predelov, za katere predlagamo ukrepe za nji hovo ohranitev. Tri jame so bile opredeljene kot prednostne za ohranitev: jama Lagoa Rica v Paracatu in jami Lapa Nova in Lapa da Delza v Vazante. Poleg tega so bile prepoznane tri regi je, kjer naj bi se izvajali ukrepi varovanja: Arinos, Paracatu in Cabeceira Grande/Una. Najveja gronja na teh obmojih, kjer je registriranih 85% jam, je izsekavanje gozdov in sprememba v panike za vzgojo govedoreje. Glavna priporoila so zaita podroja, ozaveanje prebivalstva in biospeleoloke raziskave v drugih jamah na prouevanem obmoju. Vse raziskovane jame so heterogene, z edinstvenimi lastnostmi. Priporoene so raziskave v im vejem tevilu jam, kot dodana vrednost pri nartih za ohranjanje in varovanje jamske favne. Kljune besede: nevretenarji, jame, varovanje, endemizem. 1 Laboratrio de Ecologia Subterrnea, Setor de Zoologia/Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Cx Postal 3037, Campus Universitrio, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail: drops@dbi.ua.com.br 2 Programa de Ps-Graduao em Ecologia Aplicada, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Cx Postal 37, Campus Universitrio, CEP 37200 000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e-mail: matsimoes@hotmail.com 3 Ncleo de Pesquisas em Cincias Biolgicas (www.npcbio.org) /Centro Universitrio de Lavras (UNILAVRAS), e-mail: marconisouza@unilavras.edu.bra Received/Prejeto: 18.02.2013 COBISS: 1.01 ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1, 159, POSTOJNA 2014 Abstract UDC 551.435.84:502.17(815.1) Matheus Henrique Simes, Marconi Souza-Silva & Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira: Cave invertebrates in northwestern Minas Ge rais State Brazil: endemism, threats and conservation priori ties Due to their high economic value, karstic areas and caves have been aected for decades in Brazil. Accordingly, such systems have been receiving the attention of managers, environmental agencies and researchers, especially in recent years. e pres ent study collected information regarding the cave inverte brate fauna of the Northwest region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, such as species richness and endemisms, besides the impacts and threats occurring in these environments, identifying caves and more vulnerable areas and proposing conservation ac tions. ree caves were identied as a priority for conserva tion: Lagoa Rica cave in Paracatu, and Lapa Nova and Lapa da Delza caves in Vazante. Another three areas were considered in need of conservation actions: regions of Arinos, Paracatu and Cabeceira Grande/Una. e main threat found in the area was the conversion of forests into pastures for cattle breeding, registered in the surroundings of 85% of the caves. e main recommendations were the recuperation of the surroundings, awareness raising of the population and biospeleological in ventories in other caves of the area. e studied caves were very heterogeneous, presenting unique characteristics. us, the study of the highest possible number of caves of the region of interest is always recommended, to aid in conservation and ac tion plans for cave fauna. Key words : invertebrates, caves, conservation, endemisms.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 160 M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA Caves are habitats for several species that use them for the most diverse purposes (Culver & Pipan 2009). e troglobites, a strictly cave species, stand out in function of the frequent evolutionary modications of morpho logical, physiological and behavioral character that make them highly specialized to live in these environments (Culver & Wilkens 2000). As such, caves are places of great importance for the study of evolutionary processes moulded by the selective pressures typical of these envi ronments, such as permanent absence of light, shortage of food resources, high moisture/humidity and constant temperatures, among others (Culver & Pipan 2009). Many troglobitic species occur in a single cave or a small group of caves. Once these environments have been extensively altered, especially in recent decades, it is possible that many species have disappeared without even having been described (Elliott 2000). Furthermore, caves are important for the maintenance of the ecosys tems where they are inserted, because they frequently possess drains that supply the surface and are shelters of species that provide recognized ecological services to the external ecosystem, as for instance, the bats (Elliott 2000). Although the importance of the subterranean habi tats is evident, caves have been threatened over the years by anthropic interventions (Watson et al . 1997). ese interventions are resulting in negative eects, such as hydric resource pollution and reduction, changes in the hydrologic regime, habitat alterations and local species population decline, among others (Gillieson & urgate 1999; Parise & Pascali 2003; De Waele & Follesa 2003; Neill et al . 2004; Van Beynen et al . 2007). Given these threats, karstic areas and caves are receiving the attention of managers, environmental agencies and researchers, mainly in recent decades, due to the great importance of those areas to science (geology, paleontology, archeology and biology), as well as to human values (spiritual, re ligious, aesthetic, recreational and educational) (Watson et al . 1997). Due to the socioeconomic importance of karstic ar eas and the consumption increase of natural goods and products it is unlikely that some caves do not come to be aected, even those that present rare species (Gibert & Deharveng 2002). As such, to recognize locals with con servation priority is an important step for the creation of preserved areas and maintenance of the subterranean biodiversity. In Brazil, studies with the objective of proposing ar eas that need emergency action for subterranean fauna conservation have been conducted, especially in recent years (Souza-Silva 2008; Zampaulo 2010; Bento 2011; Souza 2012). Such studies are based mainly on three as pects: (I) presence of troglobite species considered rel evant in function of the “evolutionary status”, knowledge inadequacy, restricted distribution and fragility facing random habitat alteration events (Culver & Wilkens 2000; Culver & Pipan 2009), (II) species richness, by enabling complex ecological interactions and processes (Ferreira 2004) and (III) the conservational state of the cave surroundings and interiors, which can reveal the impact degree and the threats imposed to the fauna (Souza-Silva 2008). Recently a National Action Plan was published (PAN) for the conservation of the speleological patri mony in the karstic areas of the So Francisco river basin (Cavalcanti et al . 2012), the third largest hydrographic basin and one of the most important in Brazil. Among the three karstic areas within the scope of PAN, the Re gion I, located in Middle San Francisco Basin (karstic areas of the Parano Group, Bambu Group and Vazante Formation), can be considered the most lacking in stud ies related to the cave fauna. e few works regarding the subterranean fauna were only made at one cave, Lapa Nova, located in the municipal district of Vazante, state of Minas Gerais (Pellegrini & Ferreira 2012a, b; Souza & Ferreira 2012). As such, the present study gathered information of the cave invertebrate fauna, such as spe cies richness and endemisms, and the impacts and the threats occurring to the environment, identifying caves and more vulnerable areas and proposing conservation actions. INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS STUD Y AREA e study was carried out in 47 caves distributed in ei ght municipal districts of the Northwest area of Minas Gerais, Brazil. e caves are inserted in Region I of the National Action Plan for the conservation of the speleo logical patrimony in the karstic areas of the So Francis co river basin (PAN Caves of So Francisco) (Cavalcanti et al . 2012) (Fig. 1).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 161 CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION ... INVERTEBRATE SAMPLING e collection of invertebrates was conducted through active searches throughout whole cave with the aid of tweezers, brushes and hand nets. During the collections, organic deposits were prioritized (plant debris deposits, carcasses, guano, etc.) and micro-habitats (under stones, moist soil, openings, speleothems, etc.). All of the col lected specimens were conditioned in vials with 70% al cohol. e collection team was always composed of four biologists with experience in speleology and collection of invertebrates in caves, as recommended by Weinstein & Slaney (1995). All of the organisms were identied until the lowest taxonomic level accessible and separated into morphospecies, as in other works (Souza-Silva 2011b; Oliver & Beattie 1996; Derraik et al . 2002; Ward & Stanley 2004; Derraik et al . 2010). All of the specimens are deposited in the subterranean invertebrate collection of Lavras (ISLA), at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). e identication, in the specimens, of “troglo morphic” traits, was used for classication of potentially troglobitic species. Such characteristics vary among the groups, but are frequently represented by the reduction of pigmentation, reduction of ocular structures and ap pendage elongation (Culver & Wilkens 2000). CAVE RATING TOOLS e denition of the priority areas for conservation was based on the overlapping of the biological relevance, troglobitic species presence and impact degree in the caves as described below (modied from Souza-Silva 2008). Biological relevance e biological relevance categories were dened as extreme, high, medium and low, based on the total and relative species richness. e relative species richness in each cave was calculated through the ratio among the total richness, the horizontal projection of the cave and extension of the entrance (Souza-Silva 2008). e highest value obtained for richness and relative richness was divided by four. us we obtained four cat egories of total and relative richness (extreme, high, me dium and low) with intervals of number of species. For the categorization of the biological relevance of the caves, weights were attributed to the total and relative richness categories. Caves with extreme total richness re ceived Weight 8; high total richness Weight 6; medium total richness Weight 4 and low total richness Weight 2. Caves with extreme relative richness received Weight 4; high relative richness Weight 3, medium relative richness Weight 2 and low relative richness Weight 1. It was dened that the total richness should receive the double the weight of the relative richness in function of the real and direct importance of the absolute num ber of species, as a parameter of preservation of a given system. In case only the relative richness was used, one would run the risk of preserving reduced caves, but with a relatively high number of species to the detriment of extensive caves and with high absolute richness (SouzaSilva 2008). e biological relevance for each cave was deter mined through the sum of the weights of the total and relative richness for each cave. e highest biological F ig. 1: M ap of South America highlighting B razil, Rio San F rancisco hydrographic basin, and the state of M inas G erais. Inside the San F rancisco basin the karstic areas inserted in P AN San F rancisco are highlighted. e caves of the present study are distributed through eight municipal districts of the Northwest area of M inas G erais, belonging to the karstic area 1 of P AN Caves of So F rancisco.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 162 relevance served as a basis for the inclusion of the caves in the categories of extreme, high, medium and low nal biological relevance. Caves with extreme biological rel evance received Weight 4; high nal biological relevance received Weight 3, medium nal biological relevance received weight 2 and low nal biological relevance re ceived Weight 1. Troglomorphic species categories e highest values of troglomorphic species rich ness found served as the basis for classication of the caves as extreme (Weight 4), high (Weight 3), medium (Weight 2) and low (Weight 1) troglomorphic species richness. Characterization of impacts Environmental impacts were dened for each cave in function of the presence or absence of alterations in their internal and external environments. e surveyed alterations were classied in relation to uses and impacts . Tourism and religious activities were considered uses, impacts being trampling, illumination, and the conse quent alterations by these activities. From the identication of the impacts in the caves we proceeded to a second analysis concerning the mag nitude of these impacts that can cause alterations in the communities. Such analysis considered from impacts that could cause minimum alterations to those that would considerably aect the cave fauna. In the impact denitions, three types of modica tions were considered ( depletion , enrichment and altera tion ). e rst modication type is that which can lead to depletion, in other words, the reduction of trophic re sources or the fauna in function of the anthropic activi ties and the second type, the alterations that lead to the enrichment in the availability of organic resources for the fauna. e third type of modication is that which modies, in space and time, the physical structure of habitats or micro-habitats in the caves, called alteration impacts. It is emphasized that the same impact can lead to more than one type of these three modications. For attribution of the weights, the impacts were clas sied according to the potential, into intense (potentially the cause of intense alterations in the fauna – Weight 2) or tenuous (potentially the cause of reduced alterations on the fauna – Weight 1). A second classication added to the impact analysis the deals with their permanence. e permanence refers to the period of time the im pact persists. us, the impacts were considered of short (Weight 1) or continuous duration (Weight 3). We opted for a weight attribution three times higher for continu ous impacts for the fact that the continuity of the impacts can cause much greater damage than those of short du ration. e last impact classication refers to the range of the impact. P unctual impacts received Weight 1, while those that occur over a wide range ( systemic impacts) re ceived Weight 2. e impacts that presented more than T ab. 1: V aluation of the impacts to the caves. D: depletion, E: enrichment, A: alteration, I: intense; T : tenuous; CD: continuous duration; SD: short duration; GI: general impact; LI: localized impact; W: weigh of impacts; FIW: nal impact weights (= w potencial + w permanence + w range ); *: impacts inside the caves (M odied from Souza-Silva 2008). Impacts Modication Potential W Permanence W Range W FIW Mining D + A I 2 + 2 CD 3 GI 2 9 Garbage E + A I 2 + 2 CD 3 GI 2 9 Bare soil A I 2 CD 3 LI 1 6 Roads surroundings A T 1 CD 3 LI 1 5 Trail A T 1 CD 1 LI 1 3 Erosion A I 2 CD 3 LI 1 6 Siltation A I 2 CD 3 LI 1 6 Area burned A I 2 SD 1 LI 1 4 Deforestation D T 1 SD 1 GI 2 4 Impermeability of the soil A I 2 CD 3 LI 1 6 Livestock A T 1 CD 3 LI 1 5 *Destruction of speleothems A T 1 CD 1 LI 1 3 * Mining tailings D + A I 2 + 2 CD 3 GI 2 9 *Silting of drainage D + A I 2 CD 3 LI 1 6 *Grati A T 1 SD 1 LI 1 3 * trampling A I 2 CD 3 GI 2 7 *Constructions A I 2 SD 1 LI 1 4 *Bonres A T 1 CD 1 LI 1 3 *Burning tire D + A I 2 + 2 CD 1 LI 1 6 M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 163 RESULTS A total of 1,348 invertebrate species was registered dis tributed in at least 170 families. e average richness was 63 () species. e Lapa Nova cave presented the high est richness (155 species) and the V01 cave presented the lowest species richness (15 species) (Tab. 2). Among the 47 caves, 4.26% were classied as of ex treme total richness (117 species), 19.15% as high (78 species), 59.57% medium (39 species) and 17.02% low (less than 39 species) (Tab. 2). e highest relative richness registered was at the Gruta Nove cave (3.822) and lowest in the Lapa Nova cave (0.001). us, 2.13% of the caves presented extreme (2.868 to 3.822), 2.13% high (1.913 to 2.867), 8.51% medium (0.956 to 1.912) and 87.23% low relative richness (under 0.956) (Tab. 2). e highest sum obtained through the weights at tributed to the caves starting from the total and relative richness classications was nine. As such, 25.53% of the caves were classied as with extreme (7 to 9), 57.45% high (5 or 6) and 17.02% medium (3 or 4) biological relevance (Tab. 2). No cave presented low biological rel evance. irty six troglomorphic species were distributed throughout 19 caves, all with at least one endemic spe cies, representing 80% of endemic species for a single cavity. Some troglomorphic species are presented in Fig. 2. e caves with the highest troglomorphic species richness were the Lagoa Rica cave, in Paracatu, with sev en species and the Lapa Nova cave, in Vazante, with six species. erefore, 4.26% of the caves were classied as of extreme (6 or 7 species), 2.13% high (4 or 5 species), 21.28% medium (2 or 3 species) and 72.34% low troglo morphic species richness (0 or 1 species) (Tab. 2). e main use of the surroundings was the pas tures, registered in 85.11% of the cave surroundings. e main use of the interior was tourist visitation, ob served in 23.4% of the caves. e main impact found in the cave surroundings were trails, registered in 72.34% of the caves surroundings. e main impact observed in side the caves was the trampling, registered in 38.3% of the caves. Mining was considered as the main potential impact in the surroundings, being likely to occur in the future in 34% of the caves. e pollution of water bod ies stood out as the main impact inside the caves, being likely in 27.6% of the caves. Some impacts are presented in Fig. 3. e highest sum of the weights attributed to the caves regarding the observed impacts was registered for the Lapa do Campo de Futebol, located in the munici pal district of Matutina (61), it being the only cave with extreme impact degree (46 to 61). 12.77% of the caves presented high (31 to 45), 38.3% medium (17 to 30) and 46.8% of the caves presented low degree of impact (be low 16) (Tab. 2). e highest sum of the weights attributed to the three items considered in this study regarding impor tance for cave conservation (biological relevance, tro globitic species presence and conservation state) was 11, registered for the Lapa Nova, municipal district of Vazante. As such, 6.38% (three caves) of the caves were classied as those of extreme vulnerability (9 to 11), 68.09% as high (6 to 8) and 25.53% of medium vulner ability (3 to 5). No cave presented low vulnerability (be low 3) (Tab. 2). e priority caves for conservation were the Lagoa Rica cave (Paracatu municipality), Lapa Nova cave and one of the three alterations (depletion, enrichment or al teration) had the intensity weights added. Tab. 1 shows some examples of impacts that were registered for the interior and surroundings of the caves and the weights attributed to each one. Note that the nal weight can vary among the caves, because the same impact can present intensity, permanence and dierent range for each cave. e categorization of the caves regarding the im pact degree was conducted starting from the sum of the values obtained in each cave. e highest sum of impacts served as the basis for the separation of the caves regard ing the degree of impacts into extreme (Weight 4), high (Weight 3), medium (Weight 2) and low (Weight 1). Vulnerability and priority caves for conservation e degree of vulnerability of the invertebrate com munities of each cave was obtained from the sum of the weights of the nal biological relevance, richness of tro glomorphic species and the impacts present in each cave. e highest vulnerability value was used for the inclu sion of the caves in the vulnerability categories extreme, high, medium and low. Caves classied as extreme vulnerability were con sidered as priority caves for conservation. Regions with caves with high vulnerability were highlighted as areas of secondary priority and that need some conservation action. CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 164 T ab. 2: List of the caves studied in the municipal districts of the Northwest area of M inas G erais, B razil, between the years 2009 and 2011. Location in UTM (X, Y, Z), total number of species (S), classication as to total number of species (SC), relative richness (RR), classication as to the relative richness (RRC), biological relevance (BR), troglomorphic species richness (R T), classication as to the tro glomorphic species richness (R T C), degrees of impact (DI), vulnerability ( V ), extreme (E), high (A), medium (M) and low (B), presence of water (PW) (R: rivers, P : pools; PP : phreatic pounds; D: dry). Municipalities Caves X Y Z PW S SC RR RRC BR RT RTC DI V Arinos Camila 353310 8240506 23L R 115 H 0.192 L E 2 M L H Arinos Capa 357713 8236358 23L R 113 H 0.014 L E 0 L L H Arinos Marcela 354261 8240358 23L R 94 H 0.002 L E 0 L M H Arinos Suindara 354162 8240098 23L D 55 M 0.021 L H 0 L M H Arinos Salobo 369279 8287176 23L P 50 M 0.188 L H 2 M M H Arinos Taquaril 369401 8295327 23L R 78 H 0.104 L E 1 L L H Arinos Velho Juca 354106 8240266 23L D 46 M 0.093 L H 3 M M H Cabeceira Grande Caid 259885 8206642 23K D 70 M 0.006 L H 1 L M H Cabeceira Grande Porco Espinho 257418 8206250 23K D 35 L 0.529 L M 0 L L M Joo Pinheiro Sapecado 350114 8015342 23K D 26 L 0.867 L M 0 L L M Joo Pinheiro Tau 350312 8015352 23K D 22 L 0.055 L M 0 L L M Matutina Cachoeira 399044 7874960 23K P 61 M 0.229 L H 0 L M H Matutina Nove 399102 7874933 23K D 48 M 3.822 E E 0 L H H Matutina Campo de Futebol 398585 7874853 23K D 42 M 0.112 L H 0 L E H Paracatu Lagoa Rica 309267 8102836 23K PP 55 M 0.055 L H 7 E H E Paracatu Tamandu II 311508 8070394 23K D 41 M 0.539 L H 0 L M H Paracatu Cava 297248 8132338 23K D 48 M 0.383 L H 0 L M H Paracatu Santa F 297342 8133601 23K D 30 L 0.018 L M 0 L H H Paracatu Brocot 308134 8083657 23K D 72 M 0.533 L H 0 L M H Paracatu Brocot II 308165 8083812 23K D 73 M 0.243 L H 0 L M H Paracatu Santo Antnio 306536 8105656 23K P 51 M 0.055 L H 0 L H H Presidente Olegrio Caieira 385073 7974405 23K D 61 M 0.014 L H 0 L L M Presidente Olegrio Juruva 385747 7973888 23K R 112 H 0.030 L E 1 L L H Presidente Olegrio Vereda da Palha 380964 7981211 23K R 119 E 0.034 L E 1 L L H Una Abriguinho 256233 8206485 23K D 34 L 0.654 L M 0 L L M Una Barth Cave 279196 8183910 23K D 47 M 0.021 L H 1 L M H Una Cachoeira do Queimado 251574 8205653 23K D 57 M 0.007 L H 2 M M H Una Encosta 255335 8206050 23K D 52 M 0.650 L H 0 L L M Una Mata dos Paulista 278976 8183510 23K R 64 M 1.422 M H 0 L L M Una Frangas 279221 8183417 23K D 41 M 1.051 M H 0 L L M Una Deus Me Livre 279976 8182900 23K D 106 H 0.236 L E 0 L L H Una Rio Preto 259263 8205827 23K D 56 M 0.320 L H 2 M L H Una Malhadinha 257965 8206112 23K D 108 H 0.311 L E 3 M L H Una Sapezal 297937 8141547 23K P 71 H 0.041 L E 0 L L H Vazante Abrigo da Escarpa 307964 8016869 23K D 36 L 0.900 L M 0 L M M Vazante Escarpa 307911 8016928 23K D 62 M 0.332 L H 0 L M H Vazante Urtigas 308192 8017657 23K D 70 M 0.006 L M 2 M M H Vazante Urubus 307785 8016598 23K D 93 H 0.063 L E 3 M L H Vazante No Cadastrada 308230 8017482 23K D 49 M 1.332 M H 1 L M H Vazante V01 306704 8017075 23K D 15 L 1.500 M M 0 L L M Vazante V02 306618 8017108 23K D 37 L 2.467 A H 2 M L H Vazante Delza 298146 8010447 23K PP 46 M 0.008 L H 5 A H E Vazante Mata Velha 299617 8007387 23K P 61 M 0.054 L H 0 L L M Vazante Guardio Severino 300039 8010088 23K D 47 M 0.063 L H 0 L L M Vazante Lapa Nova 299765 8010652 23K PP 155 E 0.001 L E 6 E H E Vazante Lapa Nova II 299691 8010585 23K D 55 M 0.020 L H 3 M M H Vazante Sumidouro da Vaca Morta 306446 8016811 23K D 72 M 0.639 L H 0 L M H M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 165 CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION ... F ig. 2: Examples of troglomorphic species recorded in the Northwest region of the state of M inas G erais, B razil. A: Hyallela vere dae (Hyallelidae). (Endemic to V ereda da P alha cave), B) Lygromma sp. (P rodidomidae) (Endemic to Cachoeira do Queimado cave); C) T richorhina sp. (Endemic Camilo cave); D) Acherontides sp. and E) Chthoniidae sp. (Endemic to region of V azante), F) T etrablemmidae sp. and G) Speleoleptes sp. (Endemic Lagoa Rica cave), H) Hirudinea sp. (Endemic to Salobo cave).

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 166 M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA Delza cave, (both located in Vazante municipality) (Fig. 4, Tab. 3). ree regions were dened as priority for conservation: (1) the region of Arinos, (2) Cabeceira Grande and Una and (3) Paracatu (Fig. 4, Tab. 3). Table 3 F ig. 3: Some impacts found in the surroundings and interior of the caves studied in the Northwest of the state of M inas G erais, B razil, between the years 2009 and 2011: A) Urban district on a cavity (M atutina); B) Discard of organic and veterinary trash (P aracatu); C) Removal of the external vegetation in the area of the surroundings (P aracatu); D) Discard of organic and veterinary trash (P ara catu); E) Discards of urban trash ( V azante); F) Discard of toxic waste (P aracatu); G) Silting of the cave by mining tailings; H) silting of the surrounding area by mining tailings ( V azante). summarizes the recommendations for the priority caves for conservation and the areas with need of conservation action, as well as the criteria used for indication.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 167 CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION ... T ab. 3: Caves and karstic areas in need of conservation action with the respective indication criteria, the main threats and the recommendations for conservation measures. Site Indication criteria Main threats Recommendations Endemic Species Lagoa Rica cave High species richness and richness of troglomorphic species (seven species), six endemic to this cave. Located in a mining area. Pollution of the groundwater lake. Recovery of the cave surroundings. Constant supervision. Tetrablemmidae sp.; Oonopidae sp.; Collembola sp.; Harpacticoida sp.; Speleoleptes sp. and Oniscodesmidae sp. Lapa Nova cave The biggest cave in this study and the higher observed richness (155 species); six troglomorphic species, two endemic to this cave. Touristic cave, subject to impacts from such use. Eective environmental protection of the reserve that exists around the cave and the execution of the management plan proposed by Pellegrini and Ferreira (2012). Oonopidae sp. and Eukoenenia virgemdalapa Souza e Ferreira, 2012. Delza cave Five troglomorphic species, two endemic to this cave. Inserted in the urban center of the municipality. Entrance used as a garbage dump by residents. Pollution of perennial water body. Awareness of local residents not to throw garbage at the cave entrance. Lygromma sp. and Oniscodesmidae sp. Region of Arinos Caves with great length, with rivers within, extreme biological relevance (25% of all species in the northwest of Minas Gerais studied), seven troglomorphic species recorded only in caves of this region. Removal of native forest for pasture. Pollution of water bodies. Recovery of the caves surroundings. Creation of a protected area in the region. Hirudinea sp.; Collembola sp.; Trichorhina sp.; Styloniscidae sp.; Oniscodesmidae sp.; Polyxenida sp. and Turbellaria sp. Region of Paracatu Cave with the highest troglomorphic species richness registered in this study located in this region (Lagoa Rica cave) and other caves with high biological relevance and highly impacted. Mining. Removal of native forest for pasture. Religious use. Recovery of the caves surroundings. Biospelological inventories in other caves in the region. Tetrablemmidae sp.; Oonopidae sp.; Collembola sp.; Harpacticoida sp; Speleoleptes sp. and Oniscodesmidae sp. Region of Cabeceira Grande and Una Caves with extreme biological relevance, seven troglomorphic species recorded only in caves of this region. Removal of native forest for pasture. Construction of dams. Pollution of water bodies. Recovery of the caves surroundings. Biospelological inventories in other caves in the region. Trombidiformes sp.; Prodidomidae sp.; Ochiroceratidae sp. Pselaphidae sp.; Collembola sp.; Trichorhina sp.; and Oniscodesmidae sp.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 168 BIOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND ENDEMISMS Many studies regarding the subterranean fauna have been conducted in dierent regions of Brazil (Bento 2011; Bernardi et al. 2012; Cordeiro 2008; Ferreira 2004; Ferreira & Horta 2001; Ferreira et al. 2009; Ferreira et al. 2010; Santana et al. 2010; Souza 2012; Souza-Silva & Ferreira 2009; Souza-Silva et al. 2011a,b; Zampaulo 2010; Zeppelini Filho et al. 2003; Fundao Estadual do Estado de So Paulo 2010a,b,c,d). e average richness of those studies is 50 species (20). In the present study the average found was higher than the general average for the Brazilian caves, but it is within the standard devi ation. erefore, the study area cannot be highlithed as one of the richer areas concerning cave fauna in Brazil. However, thirteen caves deserve prominence, because they present richness above average, plus the standard deviation, when compared to the other regions of Brazil (Tab. 2). Regarding the troglobitic species, the distribution restricted to one or few caves, added to their potential low reproduction rate, make those organisms sensi tive to alterations in the environment (Culver & Pipan 2009). Accordingly, they become an important tool for cave conservation (Elliott 2007; Borges et al . 2012). In the present study the troglobitis species presented a high degree of endemism and all of the caves that shelter tro globites possess at least one endemic species. erefore, even if not being classied as the most vulnerable, these caves should be inserted in future conservation plans. THREATS AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF THE AREA e inadequate use of the land for agricultural activi ties, expansion of cities, surface and subterranean water use, mining activities, among others, have been the main threats imposed to the karstic areas (Watson 1997). In the study region the main threat is the removal of forests for creation of pastures. Locally endemic cave species can become extinct if the surrounding area is de forested (Reboleira et al . 2011). Furthermore, the remov al of the vegetation from the cave entrance surroundings can reduce the resource contribution and alter the envi ronment in these areas, for instance, changing the local temperature and humidity/moisture. e entrances work as ecotones and they shelter a wide diversity of species that depend on the resource imported from the external environment (Prous et al . 2004). e main potential threat for the caves of the stud ied region is the pollution of their water bodies, a fact M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA F ig. 4: Distribution map of the caves sampled in the Northwest area of the state of M inas G erais, B razil, between the years 2009 to 2011, and their respective classications as to the vulnerabil ity. e gure highlights the priority caves for conservation (red stars), as well as the regions in need of conservation actions (el lipses). 1: Region of Arinos, 2: Region of Cabeceira G rande and Una and 3: Region of P aracatu. DISCUSSION

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 169 that can result in severe alterations to the environment and cave fauna. As an example, the agricultural practices carried out in the surroundings of the Tumbling Creek cave, (Missouri, USA), are aecting the water quality and they may be decreasing the population of aquatic species sensitive to these changes ( Antrobia culveri ) (Neill et al . 2004). Although the region, as are all the karstic areas of the world, is subject to impacts of anthropic origin, there are still places that are preserved, as is the case of the northern portion of the region, like the municipal dis trict of Arinos. e caves of this municipal district are considerably preserved if compared to other caves of the study. A good example is the Lapa da Capa, where no visible impact was found, to the surroundings as well as to the interior the cavity. Nevertheless, the area is in serted in the Cerrado biome, known for high diversity and constant threats (Myers et al . 2000), always in need of conservation actions. LEGAL PROTECTION AND PUBLIC EDUCATION e lack of laws specically dedicated to the karst is very common all over the world. Even when the legislation considers these environments, the potential benets do not indeed exists, mainly due to the lack of enforcement on the part of the authorities (Parise & Gunn 2007). roughout the world, there are only few countries that possess some type of specic legislation for cave pro tection; some that do for instance, are the United States, France, Slovenia, Australia and Brazil (Tercafs 1992; Kepa 2001; Resticar et al. 2006; Ferreira et al. 2007). ere are examples of legally protected caves and areas, as is the case of regions considered as World Heritage sites due to the characteristics of their karstic landscapes (Williams 2008). However, karstic areas and caves have been sometimes protected in an indirect way, mainly by the establishment of reserves for reasons that do not in clude the importance of their karstic characteristics, as in the case of Central American countries (Day 1996; Kueny & Day 2002) and some countries of Southeast Asian (Day & Urich 2000). Brazil is the only country that has an agency de voted specically to the study, protection and manage ment of caves, which comprises the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservao de Cavernas (CECAV) (Na tional Cave Research and Conservation Center (CECA V ). Historically, the Brazilian caves could not be destroyed for being patrimonies of the Union (Federal Constitu tion 1998; Decree 99556/1990). However in 2008, the caves started to be susceptible to supression (Decree 6640/2008), as long as they were previously studied dur ing the enterprise licensing process. During the study the caves should be classied, according to their relevance, as maximum, high, medium and low, according to crite ria proposed in the Instruction Normative Number 2 of 2009. Caves with maximum relevance are not able, under any circumstances, to be suppressed, and caves included in the other categories are susceptible to irreversible al terations, including suppression. Such a decree has been severely criticized and con sidered a setback for cave conservation in the country (Figueiredo et al . 2010). However, the rigidity of the previous law caused, in cases of strong social and eco nomical demand, caves suppression (Auler 2006), many times without there being previous study. It is important to point out that protection based only in laws is not enough. Real and ecient protec tion should count on the support of the population and a continuous program of public education regarding the protection of resources (Watson 1997). Furthermore, the appropriate use of the land can increase the sustain able development of the economy in these areas (Linhua 1999). CAVES CONSERVATION IN THE WORLD Dierent strategies for conservation of caves and karstic areas have been used all over the world. Indices have been used to evaluate the impact degree and threats, seeking to identify karstic areas most threatened and/or that deserve priority attention for conservation strategies (Elliott 2007; Van Beynen & Townsend 2005; 2012). Van Beynen & Townsend (2005) created a karstic area disturbance index with dierent indicators, includ ing the subterranean fauna, which has been used in works that seek to propose priority areas for conserva tion (Cal & Parise 2006; Van Beynen et al. 2007; Borges et al. 2012). Van Beynen & Townsend (2005), however, armed that the selection of individual species as indi cators would be problematic because of disagreements about which species to use. erefore, only in Borges et al. (2012) was the biological component used as in dicator, based on the troglobite richness, endemism and rarity. Recently a karst sustainability index was created (KSI) (Van Beynen & Townsend 2012). is index is based on indicators that incorporate measurements of the three resources use domains: the social, the environ mental and the economic. e species distribution was used to identify places with threatened species and to propose conservation priorities by Culver et al. (2000) and Lewis et al. (2003), both in areas of the United States, and by Ferreira et al. (2007) in karstic areas of France. Elliott (2007) used the species richness, troglobite richness and endemism as indicators for an index used to rank biodiversity relevance of caves in Missouri, Unit CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION ...

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 170 M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To the Fundao de Amparo Pesquisa e Extenso de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) for nancial support, project APQ-01854-09. To friends of the Grupo de Estudos em Ecologia Subterrnea da Universidade Federal de Lavras. To Espeleo Grupo de Braslia for information about the caves in the region. ed States, for conservation plans. Such index uses the expression B = SRTSE, where, B is: biodiversity, SR: species richness, T: troglobites richness, SE: local ende mism. In several regions of Brazil, studies are using meth odologies similar to those used in this work to propose priority areas and caves for conservation (Souza-Silva 2008; Zampaulo 2010; Bento 2011; Souza 2012). Good results have been obtained, as is the case of the creation of the Parque Nacional da Furna Feia, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, where 36% (205 caves) of all of the caves known to the state are inserted and legally protect ed. at area had been pointed out by Bento (2011) as priority for conservation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte in function of his work that used the same meth odology as employed here. CONSERVATION ACTIONS Although protected areas, in themselves, do not guar antee the preservation of nature, they are fundamental tools, separating elements of the biodiversity from the processes that threaten Nature (Margules & Pressey 2000). In karstic landscapes the creation of buer zones in between the preservation area and the neighboring lands is important, reducing the inuences and conse quences of environmental damage to the adjacent lands (Barany-Kevei 1999). In Brazil, the creation of reserves faces serious problems. Caves inserted in preservation areas suer visitation impacts, as for instance, trampling, garbage and speleothem depredation, among others (Lobo 2008; Souza-Silva & Ferreira 2009). us, the creation of na ture reserves for the protection of caves or cave species should be very well appraised and elaborated, besides possessing an eective site management plan, integrating scientists, managers and tourism professionals, besides specic studies on each cave used for tourist visitation (Lobo et al . 2013). Although direct impacts (e.g. mining) are the most worrisome, because they can cause immediate losses, other impacts can create countless problems for the fau na, although over the long term. e pollution of water bodies is an example. Karstic land possess discontinui ties through which potential pollutants can be transport ed to remote locations, such as springs and caves with groundwater and rivers (Parise & Gunn 2007). ere fore, to reduce the exploration and water pollution on karstic land would be important for the maintenance of caves that possess groundwater and rivers (De Waele & Follesa 2003). FINAL REMARKS To study the subterranean biodiversity in the maximum number of caves in the Cerrado is of addition impor tance, because it is a highly diverse environment and under constant threat (Myers et al . 2000). As such, the present study presented results that can aid conservation actions in a little studied region in this biome. Further more, other karstic areas in the So Francisco river ba sin should be investigated regarding their conservation priority, providing subsidies for the National Action Plan for conservation of caves and cave fauna of that region. Caves and karstic areas are being aected all over the world, mainly by anthropic action. Although prob able, it is impossible to determine if such impacts have been causing the loss of species in these environments, mainly through lack of information of the primary char acteristics of the communities prior to the impacts. Even facing the diculty of quantifying the cave biodiversity loss before alterations in the environment, it is certain that loss exists. Although the impacts that cause irreversible alterations in the caves, such as min ing, are the main targets for environmentalists, others are also highly troubling. In the study region, as well as throughout the world, the removal of forests appears as one of the most disturb ing alterations, not only for the epigean biodiversity, but also for the subterranean. Cave species depend, largely, on the importation of resources from the external envi ronment (Culver 1982) and the removal of forests can reduce that importation. Another important fact is that tropical forests shel ter a great diversity of species and they are subject to var ious impacts of anthropic origin, mainly linked to agri cultural activities, that provoke, in almost all cases, high epigean biodiversity loss (Gibson et al . 2011). Once the epigean biodiversity is decreased, possibly fewer species will be using the cave environment.

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 171 Auler, A. S., 2006: Relevncia de cavidades naturais sub terrneas: contextualizao, impactos ambientais e aspectos jurdicos .Ministrio de Minas e Energia (MME), pp. 166, Braslia. Australian Speleological Federation, 2010: Minimal Impact Caving Code (MICC).[Online] Avail[Online] Avail able from: http://www.caves.org.au/downloads/ MICC2010.pdf [Accessed 3rd October 2012]. Australian Speleological Federation. Minimum Impact Code of Ethics for Scientic Investigation in Caves and Karst (Science MIC), 3pp, 2010. Available from: http://www.caves.org.au/downloads/ScienceCode Jul2010.pdf [Accessed 3rd October 2012]. Balk, I. Jano, J., Stea, L. & P. Bosk, 1999: Agricul ture and nature conservation in the Moravian karst (Czech Republic).International Journal of Speleol ogy, 28B, 71. Barany-Kevei, I., 1999: Impacts of agricultural land use on some Hungarian karst regions.International Journal of Speleology, 28B, 89. Bento, D.M., 2011: Diversidade de invertebrados em ca vernas calcrias do oeste potiguar: subsdios para de terminao de reas prioritrias para conservao. M.D. esis. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, pp. 160. Bernardi, L.F.O., Pellegrini, T.G., Taylor, E.L.S. & R.L. Ferreira, 2012: Aspectos ecolgicos de uma caverna grantica no sul de Minas Gerais.Espeleo-Tema, 23, 5. Borges, P.A.V., Cardoso, P., Amorim, I.R., Pereira, F., Constncia, J.P., Nunes, J.C., Barcelos, P., Costa, P., Gabriel, R. & M.L. Dapkevicius, 2012: Volcanic ca ves: priorities for conserving the Azorean endemic troglobiont species.International Journal of SpeleInternational Journal of Spele ology, 41, 101. Cal, F. & M. Parise, 2006: Evaluating the human distur bance to karst environments in southern Italy.Acta Carsologica, 35, 47. Cavalcanti, L.F., Lima, M.F., Medeiros, R.C.S. & I. Me guerditchian, 2012: P lano de ao nacional para a conservao do patrimnio espeleolgico nas reas crsticas da B acia do Rio So F rancisco, (Srie Es pcies Ameaadas, 27) .Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservao da Biodiversidade, pp. 140, Braslia. Constituio da Repblica Federativa do Brasil, 1988: [Online] Available from: http://www.planalto.gov. br/ccivil_03/constituicao/ConstituicaoCompilado. htm [Accessed 3 rd September 2012]. Cordeiro, L.M., 2008: F auna caverncola da Serra da B o doquena: reviso bibliogrca e um estudo de eco logia de comunidades .M.D. esis. Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, pp. 119. Culver, D.C. & H. Wilkens, 2000: Critical review of rel evant theories of the evolution of subterranean ani mals.In: Wilkens, H. et al. (eds.) Ecosystems of the World V ol30: Subterranean Ecossystems . Elsevier Press, p. 381, Amsterdam. Culver, D.C. & T. Pipan, 2009: e biology of caves and other subterranean habitats .Oxford University Press, pp. 254, Oxford. Culver, D.C., 1982: Cave life: Evolution and Ecology .Harvard University Press, pp. 189, Massachussets and London. Culver, D.C., M.D. L.L., Christman M.C. & H.H. Hobbs, 2000: Obligate cave fauna of the 48 contiguous United States.Conservation Biology, 14, 386. Day, M. & P. Urich, 2000: An assessment of protected karst landscapes in Southeast Asia.Cave and Karst Science, 27, 61. Day, M.J., 1996: Conservation of Karst in Belize.Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 58, 139. De Waele, J. & R. Follesa, 2003: Human impact on karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia).International Journal of Speleology, 32, 71. Decreto N 6.640, 2008: [Online] Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato20072010/2008/Decreto/D6640.html [Accessed 3 rd Sep tember 2012]. Decreto N 99.556, 1990: [Online] Available from: http:// www2.camara.gov.br/legin/fed/decret/1990/decre to-99556-1-outubro-1990-normaatualiza da-pe.html [Accessed 3rd September 2012]. Derraik, J.G., Closs, G.P., Dickinson, K.J., Sirvid, P., Bar ratt, B.I.P. & B.H. Patrick, 2002: Arthropod Mor phospecies versus Taxonomic Species: a Case Study with Araneae, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera.Con servation Biology, 16, 1015. Derraik, J. G., Early, J.W., Closs, G.P. & K.J. Dickinson, 2010: Morphospecies and taxonomic species com parison for Hymenoptera.Journal of Insect Sci ence, 10, 1. Elliott, W.R., 2004: Protecting caves and cave life.In: Culver, D.C. & W.B. White, (eds.). Encyclopedia of caves . Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 458, San Diego. CAVE INVERTEBRATES IN NORTHWESTERN MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL: ENDEMISM, THREATS AND CONSERVATION ... REFERENCES

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ACTA CARSOLOGICA 43/1 – 2014 174 Ward, D.F & M.C. Stanley, 2004: e value of RTUs and parataxonomy versus taxonomic species.New Zea land Entomologist, 27, 3. Watson, J., Hamilton-Smith, E., Gillieson, D. & K. Kier nan, 1997: G uidelines for cave and karst protection : IUCN, pp. 63, Gland/Cambridge. Weinstein, P. & D. Slaney, 1995: Invertebrate faunal sur vey of Rope Ladder cave, Northern Queensland: a comparative study of sampling methods.Journal of Australian Entomological Society, 34, 233. Williams, P., 2008: World Heritage Caves and Karst . IUCN, pp. 57, Gland. Zampaulo, R.A., 2010: Diversidade de invertebrados na provncia espeleolgica de Arcos, P ains, Dorespolis (MG): Subsdios para a determinao de reas prio ritrias para a conservao .M.D. thesis. Universi dade Federal de Lavras, pp. 190. Zeppelini Filho, D., Ribeiro, A.C., Ribeiro, G.C., Fracas so, M.P.A., Pavani, M.M., Oliveira, O.M.P., Oliveira, S.A. & A.C. Marques, 2003: Faunistic survey of san dstone caves from Altinpolis region, So Paulo Sta te, Brazil.Papis Avulsos de Zoologia, 43, 93. M ATHEUS H ENRIQUE S IM ’ ES , M ARCONI S OUZA S ILVA & R ODRIGO L OPES F ERREIRA


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