SBE Turismo e Paisagens Cársticas

Citation
SBE Turismo e Paisagens Cársticas

Material Information

Title:
SBE Turismo e Paisagens Cársticas
Series Title:
Tourism and Karst Areas
Alternate Title:
Revista Científica da Seção de Espeleoturismo da Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia
Publisher:
Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia
Publication Date:
Language:
Portuguese

Subjects

Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

General Note:
Capa, Expediente, Sumário e Editorial ARTIGOS ORIGINAISShow cave development with special references to active caves Desenvolvimento de cavernas turísticas com especial destaque às cavernas ativas Arrigo A. Cigna Water as a focus of ecotourism in the karst of northern Puerto Rico A água como recurso ecoturístico no carste do norte de Porto Rico Andrea B. Hall Michael J. Day Hongs of Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Hongs da Baía Phang Nga, Tailândia Liz Price Monitoring of water temperature of the Roncador river: contribution to speleoclimate analysis and tourist management of the cave of Santana (Iporanga, Brazil) Monitoramento da temperatura da água no rio Roncador: contribuição à análise espeleoclimática e ao manejo turístico da caverna de Santana (Iporanga-SP, Brasil) Heros Augusto Santos Lobo O registro fotográfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na Gruta do Lago Azul em Bonito/MS: retrospectiva de duas décadas - 1989 a 2010 The photographic record applied in environmental studies at the Gruta do Lago Azul in Bonito/MS: retrospective of two decades - from 1989 to 2010 Maria de Fátima Bregolato Rubira de Assis; Maria de Fátima Lessa Bellé; Marina Brun Bucker; Mercedes Abid Mercante Silvio Carlos Rodrigues Turismo e conservação de tufas ativas da Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul Tourism and conservation of active tufas of the Bodoquena Plateau, Mato Grosso do Sul state Paulo César Boggiani; Ana Cristina Trevelin; William Sallun Filho; Emiliano Castro de Oliveira Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 4, no. 1 (2011)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-03702 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.3702 ( USFLDC Handle )
8816 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
1983-473X ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Description
Capa, Expediente,
Sumrio e Editorial
ARTIGOS ORIGINAISShow cave development with special
references to active caves Desenvolvimento de cavernas
tursticas com especial destaque s cavernas ativas Arrigo A.
Cigna Water as a focus of ecotourism in the karst of northern
Puerto Rico A gua como recurso ecoturstico no carste do norte
de Porto Rico Andrea B. Hall & Michael J. Day Hongs of
Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Hongs da Baa Phang Nga, Tailndia Liz
Price Monitoring of water temperature of the Roncador river:
contribution to speleoclimate analysis and tourist management
of the cave of Santana (Iporanga, Brazil) Monitoramento da
temperatura da gua no rio Roncador: contribuio anlise
espeleoclimtica e ao manejo turstico da caverna de Santana
(Iporanga-SP, Brasil) Heros Augusto Santos Lobo O registro
fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na Gruta do Lago
Azul em Bonito/MS: retrospectiva de duas dcadas 1989 a 2010
The photographic record applied in environmental studies at the
Gruta do Lago Azul in Bonito/MS: retrospective of two decades -
from 1989 to 2010 Maria de Ftima Bregolato Rubira de Assis;
Maria de Ftima Lessa Bell; Marina Brun Bucker; Mercedes Abid
Mercante & Silvio Carlos Rodrigues Turismo e conservao de
tufas ativas da Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul Tourism
and conservation of active tufas of the Bodoquena Plateau, Mato
Grosso do Sul state Paulo Csar Boggiani; Ana Cristina
Trevelin; William Sallun Filho; Emiliano Castro de Oliveira
& Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida



PAGE 2

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1

PAGE 3

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1 1 EXPEDIENTE Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia ( Brazilian Society of Speleology ) Endereo ( Address ) Caixa Postal 7031 Parque Taquaral CEP: 13076 970 Campinas SP Brasil Contatos ( Contacts ) +55 ( 19) 3296 5421 turismo@cavernas.org.br Gesto 2009 2011 ( Management 2009 2011 ) Diretoria ( D irection ) Presidente: Luiz Afonso Vaz de Figueiredo Vice presidente: Ronaldo Lucrcio Sarmento Tesoureira: Delci Kimie Ishida 1 Secretrio: Luiz Edu ardo Panisset Travassos 2 Secretrio: Pvel nio Carrijo Rodrigues Conselho Deliberativo ( Deliberative council ) Rogrio Henry B. Magalhes Presidente Heros Augusto Santos Lobo Carlos Leonardo B Giunco ngelo Spoladore Fernanda Cristina Loureno Bergo

PAGE 4

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1 2 TOURI SM AND KARST AREAS ( Formalmente/ F ormally : Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas ) Editor Chefe ( Editor in Chief ) MSc. Heros Augusto Santos Lobo IGCE/UNESP, Brasil Editor Associado ( Associ ated Editor ) Dr. Cesar Ulisses Vieira Verssimo Universidade Federal do Cear UFC, Brasil Editor Executivo ( Executive Editor ) Esp. Marcelo Augusto Rasteiro Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia SBE, Brasil Conselho Editorial ( Editorial Board ) Dr. Andrej Aleksej Kranjc Karst Research Institute, Eslovnia Dr. Angel Fernndes Corts Universidad de Alicante, UA, Espanha Dr. Arrigo A. Cigna Interntional Union of Speleology / Interntional Show Caves Association, Itlia Dr. Edvaldo Cesar Moretti Unive rsidade Federal da Grande Dourados UFGD, Brasil Dr. Jos Alexandre de Jesus Perinotto IGCE/UNESP, Brasil MSc. Jos Antonio Basso Scaleante Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia SBE, Brasil MS c. Jos Ayrton Labegalini Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia SBE, Brasil Dra. Linda Gentry El Dash Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Brasil Dr Luiz Afonso Vaz de Figueiredo Centro Universitrio Fundao Santo Andr FSA, Brasil Dr Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de Minas Gerais PUC/MG, Brasil Dr. Marconi Souza Silva Faculdade Presbiteriana Gammon Fagammon/Centro Universitrio de Lavras UNILAVRAS, Brasil Dr. Marcos Antonio Leite do Nascimento Univ ersidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte DG/UFRN, Brasil Dra. Natasa Ravbar Karst Research Institute, Eslovnia Dr. Paolo Forti Universit di Bologna, Itlia Dr. Paulo Cesar Boggiani Universidade de So Paulo IGc/USP, Brasil Dr. Paulo dos Santos Pir es Universidade Vale do Itaja UNIVALI, Brasil Dr Ricardo Jos Calembo Marra Centro Nacional de Estudo, Proteo e Manejo de Cavernas I CMBio/CECAV Brasil Dr. Ricardo Ricci Uvinha Universidade de So Paulo EACH/USP, Brasil Dr. Srgio Domingos de Oliveira UNESP/Rosana, Brasil Dr. Tadej Slabe Karst Research Institute, Eslovnia Dra. rsula Ruchkys de Azevedo CREA MG, Brasil Dr. William Sallun Filho Instituto Geolgico do Estado de So Pau lo IG, Brasil Dr. Zysman Neiman Universidade Federal de So Carlos UFSCAR, Brasil Comisso de T raduo ( Translation Committee ) Dra. Linda Gentry El Dash Ingls

PAGE 5

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1 3 SUMRIO (CONTENTS) Editorial 04 ARTIGOS ORIGINAIS / ORIGINAL ARTICLES S how ca ve development with special references to active caves D esenvolvimento de cavernas tursticas com especial destaque s cavernas ativas Arrigo A. Cigna 07 Water as a focus of ecotourism in the karst of northern Puerto Rico A gua como recurso ecoturstico no carste do norte de Porto Rico Andrea B. Hall & Michael J Day 17 Hongs o f Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Hongs d a Baa Phang Nga, Tailndia Liz Price 27 M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river: contribution to speleoclimate analysis and tou rist management of the cave of S antana (Iporanga, Brazil) Monitoramento da temperatura da gua no rio R oncador: contribuio anlise espeleoclimtica e ao manejo turstico da caverna de S antana (Iporanga S P Brasil) Heros Augusto Santos Lobo 33 O registro f otogrfico apl icado em estudos ambientais na G ruta do Lago Azul em Bonito/MS: retrospectiva de duas dcadas 1989 a 2010 The photographic record applied in environmental studies at t he Gruta do Lago Azul in Bonito /MS: retrospective of two decades from 1 989 to 2010 Maria de Ftima Bregolato Rubira de Assis; Maria de Ftima Lessa Bell; Marina Brun Bucker; Mercedes Abid Mercante & Silvio Carlos Rodrigues 45 Turismo e conservao de tufas ativas da S erra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso d o Sul Tourism and conserv ation of active tufas of the Bodoquena Plateau, Mato Grosso d o Sul state Paulo Csar Boggiani; Ana Cristina T revelin ; William Sallun F ilho; Emiliano Castro de Oliveira & Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida 55

PAGE 6

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1 4 EDITORIAL Em sua edio que abre o quarto ano de c irculao de nossa revista, trazemos s comunidades cientfica e espeleolgica uma srie de mudanas que visam potencializar o nosso crescimento e ampliar a visibilidade dos artigos publicados. Iniciamos este trabalho dentro da Sociedade Brasileira de Espe leologia em 2008. Na ocasio, um grupo de pesquisadores e espelelogos, do Brasil e do Exterior, entendeu que existia espao, primeiramente no mbito nacional, para a criao de um peridico cientfico cuja especificidade tratasse das formas de uso sustent vel das reas crsticas e cavernas, tendo o turismo como principal vetor de desenvolvimento das atividades humanas. Desde ento, diversas adaptaes foram sendo realizadas, como a alterao do nome do peridico, de Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crstic as (nome este que, oficialmente, ainda consta em seu ISSN) para Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas e o reconhecimento em mbito nacional por parte da academia e dos rgos que avaliam a produo cientfica no Brasil, como a CAPES, por meio de seu ndice Qualis Tambm recebemos os primeiros artigos de colegas estrangeiros neste perodo, oriundos da Malsia e de Portugal. Isto j nos despertou para um potencial de visibilidade mais ampla do peridico. Assim, tendo em vista que acreditamos neste potencial e que o manejo sustentvel de reas crsticas e cavernas um tema de amplo interesse, passamos neste quarto volume para uma nova fase de nosso peridico, que passa a se chamar Tourism and Karst Areas. A mudana de nome apenas o primeiro, de muitos passos a ser em dados rumo internacionalio e em busca de novos padres de qualidade tcnica, cientfica e editorial. Para esta edio de inaugurao da fase internacional da Tourism and Karst Areas lanamos uma edio temtica especial sobre o uso recreativo das guas em reas crsticas. Sendo a gua um recurso fundamental em tempos pretritos para a evoluo desta peculiar paisagem e, ao mesmo tempo, escasso nos dias atuais, julgamos o tema como estratgico para a questo do manejo sustentvel do carste e das cave rnas. Nossa comisso editorial, nesta edio especial composta por Andrej Kranjc, Angel Fernndez Corts, Emerson Galvani, Lvia Medeiros Cordeiro Borghezan, Luiz Afonso Vaz de Figueiredo, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos, Ricardo Jos Calembo Marra, Ricard o de Souza Martinelli e Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira, selecionou seis trabalhos que abordam, em diferentes escalas e aspectos, a relao entre o turismo e as guas em reas crsticas e cavernas. O artigo que abre esta edio de autoria de Arrigo Cigna, tratand o de um modo geral o propondo diretrizes gerais para seu manejo e conservao. Os demais artigos apresentam resultados de pesquisas em diferentes nveis de detalhe com diversas possibilidades de uso das guas em reas crsticas para o turismo. O segundo artigo, de Andrea B. Hall e Michael J. Day ressalta a importncia da gua como recurso para o ecoturismo em Porto Rico, descrevendo as principais atividades desenvolvidas em sua costa Norte e ressaltando a importncia dos rios alognicos neste contexto paisagstico. Em seguida, o terceiro artigo, de Liz Price, ilustra o potencial cnico e recreativo das paisagens crsticas na zona costeira da Tailndia, em uma particular forma de dolina, as hongs, da baa Phang Nga. O quarto artigo de autoria de Heros Augusto Santos Lobo, que apresenta os resultados de um monitoramento da temperatura da gua do rio Roncador, e suas possveis implicaes na dinmica atmosfric a da caverna de Santana, no Brasil, e em seu manejo espeleoturstico. Os dois ltimos artigos, apresentados apenas em portugus, abordam dois dos principais cones tursticos do carste da Serra da Bodoquena, no Brasil. O quinto artigo, escrito por Maria de Ftima Bregolato Rubira de Assis, Maria de Ftima Lessa Bell, Marina Brun Bucker, Mercedes Abid Mercante e Silvio Carlos Rodrigues, traz uma anlise comparativa das transformaes da paisagem na gruta do Lago Azul por meio de registros fotogrficos a par tir dos anos de 1980. Finalizando este nmero, Paulo Cesar Boggiani, Ana Cristina Trevelin, William Sallun Filho, Emiliano Castro de Oliveira e Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida, abordam o uso das tufas carbonticas da Serra da Bodoquena para o turismo, com a spectos sobre a sua conservao e a perspectiva de criao de um Geoparque na regio. Desejamos a todos uma boa leitura, agradecendo, por fim, todos aqueles que tornam a realizao e publicao da Tourism and Karst Areas possvel: autores, leitores e equ ipe editorial Heros A. S. Lobo E ditor Chefe

PAGE 7

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1 5 EDITORIAL In this edition which opens the fourth volume of circulation of our journal, we bring to the scientific and speleologic communities a series of changes that allow the growth and the wide visibility of the published articles. The edition of this journal was started in the Brazilian Society of Speleology in 2008. In that year, a group of researchers and speleologists from Brazil and other countries understood that the national scenario had space for a new scientific periodic, focused in the sustainable use of the karst areas and caves, having the tourism as the focus of the development of human activities. Since that time, many adaptations was realized, as the alteration of the name of the journal, which w as Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas (Researches in Tourism and Karst Areas, in Portuguese, until now the official name registered in the ISSN) and was reduced to Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas (still in Portuguese in this first change), as well th e recognition of the governmental agencies that endorse the scientific production in Brazil, with the insertion of the journal in the Qualis index. We also received the first articles of stranger authors in this period, from Malaysia and Portugal. This fac t made we think about the potential of the journal around the world. With this, considering that we believe in this potential and also that the sustainable management of karst areas and caves is a theme with worldwide interest, in this 4th volume we are st arting a new phase of the journal, starting with its new name, Tourism and Karst Areas The official translation of the name is the first step, in a long way to the definitive internationalization and for the search of a better pattern of technical, scient ific and editorial qualities. To this first English edition of Tourism and Karst Areas we launched a special thematic edition about the tourist use of the water in karst areas. Water is one of the main agents that govern the evolution of karst systems. In the other hand, is a strategic resource in the present days in karst areas, mainly for their sustainable tourist use. Our editorial staff, in this special edition composed by Andrej Kranjc, Angel Fernndez Corts, Emerson Galvani, Lvia Medeiros Cordeiro Borghezan, Luiz Afonso Vaz de Figueiredo, Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos, Ricardo Jos Calembo Marra, Ricardo de Souza Martinelli and Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira, selected six articles which address, in different scales and aspects, the relationship between th e tourism and the water in karst areas and caves. The first article of this number is written by Arrigo Cigna. The author treats in a general basis the development of tourism in active caves, presenting their specificities and proposing general guidelines to the cave management and conservation. The other five articles show results of researches with a few possibilities of tourist use of karst waters. The second article, written by Andrea B. Hall and Michael J. Day, highlights the importance of water as a r esource to the ecotourism in Porto Rico, describing the major activities of ecotourism developed in the karst of the north coast of the country and emphasizing the importance of the allogenic rivers in this context. In the sequence, Liz Price presents the scenic and recreational potential of the west coast of Thailand, in the Phang Nga Bay and its particular forms of dolines, the hongs. The fourth article, of Heros Augusto Santos Lobo, presents the results of a water temperature monitoring in the Roncador river, cave of Santana, Brazil, and its possible implications in the atmospheric dynamics and tourist management. The two last articles, published only in Portuguese, were related to the main tourist icons of the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, in Brazil. T he fifth article, written for Maria de Ftima Bregolato Rubira de Assis, Maria de Ftima Lessa Bell, Marina Brun Bucker, Mercedes Abid Mercante and Silvio Carlos Rodrigues, brings a comparative analysis of the transformations of the landscape of the Lago Cesar Boggiani, Ana Cristina Trevelin, William Sallun Filho, Emiliano Castro de Oliveira and Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida, describes the tourist use of carbonatic tu fa in the Serra da Bodoquena, including considerations about geoconservation and the creation of a geopark in the region. We wish you all a good read, and finally, we want to thanks to all those that make the completion and publication of the Tourism and Karst Areas feasible: authors, readers and editorial board Heros A. S. Lobo Editor in Chief

PAGE 8

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1 6 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally /formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Brazilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleolo gia ( SBE) www.cavernas.org.br/turismo.asp

PAGE 9

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 7 SHOW CAVE DEVELOPMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO ACTIVE CAVES DESENVOLVIMENTO DE CAVERNAS TURSTICAS COM ESPECIAL DESTAQUE S CAVERNAS ATIVA S Prof. Arrigo A. CIGNA Past President of the Union Internationale de Splologie Cocconato Asti / Italy arrigocigna@tiscali.it Abstract The development of a wild cave into a show cave requires a careful study to evaluate the benefits and risks, by taking into account all pertinent factors such as the access, the synerg y and possible conflict with other tourism related activities in the surrounding area, the availability of funds and many other related factors. The conversion should only take place if the results of the studies are positive. Some recently developed plas tic materials have the advantage of a very long life, are easy to install and are relatively easy to modify. The development of an active wild cave, i.e. a cave with a watercourse, requires a typical approach, which is different with respect to fossil wil d caves. Lampenflora is typical problem of show caves, because the light that is necessary for the visitors supplies enough energy to some plants, mainly algae and mosses, which may grow to the point of defacing and damaging seriously the cave itself. Sust ainable development means that the environment meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To this purpose the compliance with the Management Guidelines, recently adopted by the Union Inter nationale de Splologie, is instrumental for the protection of the cave environment Key Words : energy balance; pathways; lighting; management guidelines Resumo A transformao de uma caverna sem interferncias em uma caverna turstica requer um estudo c uidadoso para avaliar os benefcios e riscos desta transformao, levando em conta todos os fatores pertinentes ao processo, como a acessibilidade, sinergia e os possveis conflitos com outras atividades tursticas correlatas em seu entorno, a disponibilid ade de recursos e muitos outros fatores relacionados. A transformao deve ser realizada somente se os resultados destes estudos preliminares forem positivos. Sobre as estruturas de visitao, alguns materiais plsticos recentemente desenvolvidos tm a van tagem de apresentar maior vida til, facilidade de instalao e manuteno relativamente simples. O desenvolvimento de uma caverna ativa especfico, o qual diferente em relao s cavernas fsseis em estado natural. Outro problema tpico das cavernas tursticas a gerao de plantas e musgos em seu interior, porque a luz que necessria para os turistas oferece um aporte energtico que permite o seu pleno desenvolvimento, a ponto de causar danos ambientais na caverna. O desenvolvimento sustentvel implica que o ambiente pode atender as necessidades do presente, sem comprometer a possibilidade das geraes futuras de prover suas prprias necessidades. Com es te propsito, apresentam se as Diretrizes de Manejo recentemente adotadas pela Unio Internacional de Espeleologia (UIS), como instrumento para a proteo do ambiente caverncola Palavras Chave : Balano energtico; roteiros de visitao; iluminao; Diret rizes de Gesto 1. INTRODUCTION The fundamental principles for the development of a show cave are the protection of the environment, the safety of the visitors and profit. A process of optimisation among these aspects assures the best equilibrium and the reduction of the negative effects to a minimum level. 2. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT A cave is an environment with little contact with the exterior. Some years ago, Heaton (1986) reviewed the concept of energy levels as applied to caves. He classified caves into one of three categories: high energy, moderate energy, and low energy levels. High energy caves experience high energy events on a regular basis. An example would be those caves that undergo periodic flooding. The strongest forces normally encou ntered by moderate

PAGE 10

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 8 energy caves are orders of magnitude lower than those associated with high energy caves. The most significant forces may be running water, persistent wind, or even the activities of animals. Low energy caves are again orders of magnitude smaller. Often in these caves the highest energy event may be a falling drop of water. According to this classification, high energy passages will be minimally affected by tourist activities because such passages will be rearranged by rock fall or floodin g within a year. A river or a subterranean lake plays an important role in maintaining the natural equilibrium because they may absorb, more easily than rock, any further input of energy as it will be discussed later with more details. In a show cave both the visitors and the electric lighting system release energy into the environment. A person who is walking will release nearly as much energy as a 200 watt bulb at a temperature of about 37C. Therefore the total energy released by hundreds, or thousands, of visitors in a day is not negligible as an absolute amount. The heat released by the electric lighting system has the same order of magnitude (Cigna, 1993). There are different ways to keep the additional energy input into the cave as low as possible. A limit of the number of visitors is given by the so called "visitors' capacity" which is defined as the maximum number of visitors acceptable in a time unit under defined conditions, which does not imply a permanent modification of a relevant parameter. Oth erwise, instead of reducing the number of persons, the time they spend in the cave may be reduced. This result may be easily achieved when people enter the cave through one entrance and exit along another passage, instead of returning along the same pathwa y they entered the cave by. Using high efficiency lamps can reduce the contribution of the electric lighting system. A further reduction can be obtained if the lamps are switched on only when visitors are in the vicinity. Another perturbation of the cave environment is caused by the lint (hair, dry flaking skin, dust from shoes and material from clothing) left by visitors. In caves visited by a large number of people the accumulation of lint becomes a real problem to be solved by careful removal. In fact i t would cause deterioration of formations and reduce their pristine white beauty to a blackened mess. Lint released into a cave might be reduced by means of air curtains at the entrance. Such a solution sam e time, isolate the cave environment from the exterior since an air curtain acts as an invisible door and avoids airflow through it. The protection of the environment of a show cave is fundamental, both from the point of view of avoiding any damage to a n on renewable patrimony, and the conservation of the source of income for the cave management. Therefore such a common interest may have an important role in the implementation of any action aiming to safeguard the cave environment. Visitors also release ca rbon dioxide as a result of their breathing. Until a few years ago such carbon dioxide was considered a threat to the cave formations since it could have increased the water acidity and, consequently corrosion, instead of the deposition of new formations. Further accurate studies (Bourges et al, 1998) have shown that in many instances the carbon dioxide produced by natural processes (oxidisation of organic matter in the soil above a cave) may introduce, through the water percolating into the cave, amounts v ery much larger than the carbon dioxide released by visitors. When the percolation water, with a relatively high concentration of carbon dioxide, reaches the cave environment it immediately releases part of this carbon dioxide, which is not in equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the air. Therefore the chemical reaction moves towards the deposition of calcium carbonate and the formations continue to grow. In general, rather small caves with a high visitor flux, and without any input of natural carbon dio xide, might have formations corroded because the chemical reactions would be reversed when the carbon dioxide in the air dissolves into water, particularly when water vapour condenses on the cave walls. Another form of environmental pollution may occur th rough the joint contribution of visitors and light. People may release cave spores or seeds of plants into the cave and they may grow in the vicinity of lamps if the light flux is high enough. The result is the so called "lampenflora" i.e. green plants (ge nerally algae, fern, moss) developing on cave walls or formations close to a light source. Such plants cover the surfaces with a greenish layer, which can become covered by the calcite deposit and no longer be removable. In fact lampenflora can be washed a way by bleach or hydrogen peroxide if it is not covered by calcite. Special care must be taken to avoid any damage to the cave fauna. The growth of lampenflora can be avoided by the employment of light sources with a very low emission of light that does no t encourage the

PAGE 11

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 9 chlorophyllian process and low light flux at the rock surface. 3. SAFETY OF THE VISITORS As it has already been pointed out in the previous paragraphs the physical and chemical equilibriums of the environment should not be modified outsi de the range of the natural variations. At the same time, any source of harm to the visitors must be avoided. This means that the pathways must be strong enough to withstand very high humidity and, sometimes, also floods. In the past, wooden structures we re often used, but they had to be replaced frequently. Today, there are some use wood because this material is natural. Nevertheless the rather short life of a wooden structure in the cave environment im plies an additional cost, which is not justified. On the contrary the rotten wood provides large amounts of food modifying the equilibrium of the cave life. There is only one particular situation when wooden structures are to be preferred: and that is in t he ice caves. In fact wood surface is less slippery than any other material and the low temperature avoids its decay. emphasised the criterion to use only structures, which can be easily decommissioned, once they are no l onger needed. Such an argument is substantially wrong because, once it is no longer viable to operate a show cave, no one will spend any money to take any structure out of the cave even if they are relatively easy to decommission. In the meantime, it is pr eferable to use a material that is compatible with the cave environment and will not release pollutants in the long run. At present, these materials are concrete, stainless steel and plastic. Concrete in itself is economical but its use in a cave may becom e rather expensive when it must be carried along difficult passages where the use of mechanical aids is not allowed. However, any change in the future would make it difficult to disassemble the pathways and dispose of the waste. Handrails made from stainl ess steel are also a convenient solution, particularly when they are also used as pipes to provide fresh water in different parts of the cave to wash the pathways. In fact, this higher cost of stainless steel is justified by a lack of any maintenance after many years of operation. Recently plastic structures have been used in caves to build pathways. Presently the best material available on the market is a fiberglass reinforced plastic. Its key product features are that it is lightweight, corrosion resistan t, non conductive, low maintenance, slip resistant, fire retardant, etc. In addition this material has a high strength to weight ratio with one third the weight of steel, allowing easy installation, with no heavy equipment, and less manpower. In fact simpl e tools easily work such materials and the different parts of the structure are assembled with stainless steel bolts. Another interesting advantage is the possibility of modifying any pathway very easily. On the other hand, other mixtures, e.g. of plastics and sawdust, must never be used because they are easily degraded by mould and their mechanical characteristics are quite poor. An active cave is obviously subject to floods. Recently the climate changes have not really modified the annual amount of rainw ater but its distribution is less uniform. For this reason periods of heavy precipitation are followed by relatively dry periods. Therefore since the size of the cave passages has not changed, the chance of important floods has increased and the water flow inside a cave might reach levels higher than in the past. To avoid a collapse of the pathways, these structures must be designed in order to withstand not only a vertical charge due to the visitors but also a horizontal force due to an exceptional water f low. It is obvious that in general the tourists will not be allowed inside a cave during heavy storms with the risk of floods, nevertheless these floods should not damage the pathways seriously. In any case it is possible that, sometimes, rocks displaced by the water flow may damage some parts of the pathways. The structure obtained with plastics, as reported before, are the most suitable to replace rather easily the damaged elements at low cost and in a short time, by reducing to a minimum the economical consequences. 4. PROFIT Before starting any procedure to develop a wild cave into a show cave, a detailed study of the whole situation is required. Nearly twenty years ago, two great experts of cave management, Russell and Jeanne Gurnee (1981), wrote: "T he successful development and operation of a tourist cave depends on a combination of factors, including: 1) Scientific investigation 2) Art 3) Technology

PAGE 12

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 10 Scientific study is recommended at the beginning, as the first phase, in order to dete rmine which hydrologic and geologic factors may have an influence on the development. Art is necessary both in determining the routeing of trails and selecting particular cave scenes to feature, and in lighting which is in itself a combination of both ar t and the next factor, technology. The technology necessary to control water and other natural forces within the cave and to design suitable trails again combines with art to create a tasteful and agreeable cave tour. Management continues from the time the first plans are laid, through the developed or operational phase. The four factors listed above apply both to the development of private caves and public or government lands. Often, because of limited financial resources of a private owner, one or more of these factors is not considered, and poor development and lack of financial success may result. Failure of a cave to succeed, either through the development phase or after, when the cave is open to the public, can lead to an unprotected area which has bee n advertised and known to the public that can be subsequently subject to vandalism. In order to ensure that a cave has the highest chance of success as a tourist endeavour, a comprehensive study and evaluation should be made before any physical work is co mmenced. A cave study provides a "blueprint" which investors, technical people, workmen, exhibitors and administrators can follow to bring about a successful cave operation. The study plan is coordinated by management in order to develop a plan for the bes t display of the cave. With a detailed study and cost prospectus, at the time the development is originally proposed, a cave can be successfully developed less expensively, more effectively and in less time. Technological advances in the past fifty years i n lighting, communications, transportation, marketing techniques and almost every phase of cave development, make it important to find the most efficient ways to complete the project. Every cave must be looked at from the position of the businessman, artis t, engineer, speleologist and conservationist. The modification of a natural cave to permit easy visitation of the public requires all of these viewpoints. Balance among these views, through decisions made before beginning the venture, will assure a sound development. Speleological associations, which bring together those caves being considered for tourism, can be of great service not only to the group developing a cave, but also in preserving the cave as e really rather difficult to have a better description of the procedure to adopt for the development of a tourist cave. In addition to an Environmental Impact Assessment, the procedures suggested in the planning phase commonly include those that can quant ify certain parameters (topographical, social and economic) used to predict tourist flows. Some of these methodological procedures, well known and successfully applied in the geographic economic field, tend not to be employed in the development of show cav es because of some lack of knowledge. The rather widespread feeling among speleologists, and people in general, that a cave is "lost" to science when it is developed as a tourist attraction, is not at all supported by the important scientific results obtai ned from many show caves. Sometimes the borderline between use and abuse may be difficult to define; nevertheless a careful development continuously monitored may be the most efficient way to protect a cave. It is evident that the economy of a region arou nd a show cave to be can be radically modified by the cave development. Therefore strenuous opposition to any tourist visitation appears to be rather unfair towards the local people, particularly when a suitable compromise between strict conservation and a sound development can be found. But in any case, as it was previously reported, a cave development cannot be accepted if it is not supported by appropriate preliminary research. A recent evaluation of the number of show cave visitors all around the world (Cigna & Burri, 2000), based on data obtained for about 20% of all show caves, estimate a global number of more than 150 million visitors per year. By assuming a budget per person as reported in Table 1 the total amount of money spent to visit the show ca ves is around 3 billion US $ (2008). The number of the local people directly involved in the show cave business (management and local services) can be estimated to be up to several hundred per cave, i.e. some hundreds of thousands of individuals in the wor ld. By taking into account that there are several hundred other people working indirectly to each person directly connected with a show cave (Forti & Cigna, 1989), a gross global figure of about 100 million people receive income from the show cave busines s. Therefore, it can be roughly assumed that for each tourist visiting a show cave there is about one other person directly or indirectly connected who is earning income from the visit.

PAGE 13

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 11 In addition to show caves, the existence of karst parks, which include a cave within their boundaries, must also be considered. As reported by Halliday (1981) the number of visitors to the top three karst national parks in USA (Mammoth Cave, Carlsbad Caverns and Wind Cave) amounted to about 2,500,000 tourists each year. Ther efore karst parks give a further increase to the number of people involved in the whole "karst" business. Table 1 Rough estimation of the annual direct and local budget of a show cave per each visitor (in US $, 2008). Source US$ Direct income 6.5 Othe r local income: Souvenirs & snacks 2.0 Meals 6.5 Transportation 2.5 Travel agency 2.5 TOTAL 20.0 There are many other human activities that involve a larger number of people; nevertheless the figures reported above are not negligible, and give an i ndication of the role that show caves play in the global economy. led to the development of a model very useful to describe the stages of evolution of a tourist attraction (Swarbrooke, 1999) as reported in Fig. 1. Once the critical range of elements of capacity is reached, i.e. the level of stagnation, there are four possibilities of evolution. If the management does not act, the evolution may be comprised betwee n decline and stabilisation according to other factors independent from the management itself. If a whole set of socioeconomic factors is negative a decline will start. On the other hand, if such a set is not negative there is a chance that stagnation last for a longer time without a decline. But, if the management is more careful and diligent, then it can take some initiatives. Such initiatives may be simple actions, which could be just enough able to counteract the stagnation and start again a further gro wth of the number of visitors. If, on the contrary, such initiatives are much more effective, a true rejuvenation can be obtained and the growth of the number of visitors could be the sign of a new era in the life of the cave. Such a change is typical of t he development of a new attractive to be developed either inside the cave outside (park area, tourist attractions, etc.). 5. THE MANAGEMENT OF SHOW CAVES In 1997 the IUCN World Commission on Protected Are as issued a booklet (Watson et al., 1997) with guidelines for cave and karst protection, taking care of caves in general, i.e. wild caves. The principia included in this publication provided a good basis but it was deemed necessary to have guidelines direc ted particularly to show caves The concept of establishing guidelines to be used as general parameters for good show cave management, originated during informal discussions between members of the International Show Caves Association at the time of the inau gural meeting of ISCA in Genga, Italy, in November 1990. These discussions continued over time and were first drafted for consideration at an ISCA meeting held on 17 th September 2004 during the 30 th Anniversary of the opening of Frasassi Cave, in Italy, t o the public (Cigna, 2005). Fig. 1 Tourist area cycle of evolution (Swarbrooke, 1999)

PAGE 14

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 12 The idea of creating guidelines, received strong recommendations from the UIS Department of Protection and Management at the 14 th Inte rnational Congress of Speleology held in Kalamos, Greece, in August 2005 (Cigna, 2008). These management guidelines are the result of wide cooperation between the International Show Caves Association (ISCA), the Union Internationale de Splologie (UIS) an d the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The intention was to create commonly accepted guidelines that all show caves managers can work towards, taking into account both the protection of the environment and socio economical constraints. Many recommendations and suggestions have been received in the course of nearly twenty years, and therefore the document reported here can be considered as the result of an active cooperation among specialists involved in this matte r (Cigna, 2009; 2010). Since the General Assembly of ISCA in Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovakia, October 2010, has not approved such guidelines for reasons outside the scientific domain, they are now issued as a UIS document. UIS Management Guidelines for Show C ave 1 DEVELOPMENT OF A WILD CAVE INTO A SHOW CAVE The development of a show cave can be seen as a positive financial benefit to not only itself, but also the area surrounding the cave. The pursuit of these anticipated benefits can sometimes cause pressure to be applied to hasten the development of the cave. Before a proposal to develop a wild cave into a show cave becomes a physical project, it is necessary to carry out a careful and detailed study to evaluate the benefits and risks, by taking into account all pertinent factors such as the access, the synergy and possible conflict with other tourism related activities in the surrounding area, the availability of funds and many other related factors. The conversion should only take place if the results of t he studies are positive. A wild cave that is developed into a show cave, and is subsequently abandoned, will inevitably become unprotected and be subject to vandalism in a very short time. A well managed show cave assures the protection of the cave itsel f, is a source of income for the local economy and also may contribute to a number of scientific researches. 1 1 A careful study of the suitability of the cave for development, taking into account all factors influencing it, must be carried out, and must b e carefully evaluated, before physical development work commences. 2 ACCESS AND PATHWAYS WITHIN THE CAVE In many caves it has been found to be desirable to provide an easier access into the cave for visitors through a tunnel, or a new entrance, excavated i nto the cave. Such an artificial entrance could change the air circulation in the cave causing a disruption of the ecosystem. To avoid this, an air lock should be installed in any new entrance into a cave. On the other hand it must be mentioned that in some very exceptional cases a change in the air circulation could revitalize the growth of formations. A decision not to install an air lock must be only taken after a special study. 2 1 Any new access into a cave must be fitted with an efficient air lock system, such as a double set of doors, to avoid creating changes in the air circulation within the cave. Caves are natural databases, wherein an incredible amount of information about the characteristics of the environment, and the climate of the cave, ar e stored. Therefore any intervention in the cave must be carried out with great care to avoid the destruction of these natural databases. 2 2 As much as possible, any development work carried out inside a cave should avoid disturbing the structure, the de posits, and the formations of the cave When a wild cave is developed into a show cave, pathways and other features must be installed. This invariably requires materials to be brought into the cave. These materials should have the least possible impact o n both the aesthetics of the cave and its underground environment. Concrete is generally the closest substance to the rock that the cave is formed in, but once concrete is cast it is extremely expensive and difficult to modify or decommission. Stainless steel has the distinct advantage that it lasts for a long time and requires little, to no, maintenance but it is expensive and requires special techniques to assemble and install. Some recently developed plastic materials have the advantage of a very long life, are easy to install and are relatively easy to modify 2 3 Only materials that are compatible with the cave, and have the least impact on the cave, should be used in a cave. Cement, concrete, stainless steel and

PAGE 15

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 13 plastics that do not emit volatile o rganic chemical are examples of such materials The environment of a cave is usually isolated from the outside and therefore the introduction of energy from the outside will change the equilibrium balance of the cave. Such changes can be caused by the rel ease of heat from the lighting system and the visitors and also by the decay of organic material brought into the cave, which introduces other substances into the food chain of the cave ecosystem. In ice caves, the environmental characteristics are compat ible with wood, which is frequently used for the construction of pathways, as it is not slippery. 3 LIGHTING The energy balance of a cave should not be modified beyond its natural variations. Electric lighting releases both light and heat inside the cave. Therefore high efficiency lamps are preferred. Discharge lamps are efficient, as most of the energy is transformed into light, but only cold cathode lamps can be frequently switched on and off without inconvenience. Light emitting diode (LED) lighting is also very promising. As far as possible, the electric network of a cave should be divided into zones to enable only the parts that visitors are in to be lit. Where possible a non interruptible power supply should be provided to avoid problems for the visitors in the event of a failure of an external power supply. Local code requirements may be applicable and these may permit battery lamps or a network of LEDs or similar devices 3 1 Electric lighting should be provided in safe, well balanced networks. The power supply should preferably be non interruptible. Adequate emergency lighting should be available in the event of a power outage Lampenflora is a fairly common consequence of the introduction of an artificial light supply into a cave. Many kinds of algae, and other superior plants, may develop as a result of the introduction of artificial light. An important method to avoid the growth of green plant life is to use lamps that do not release a light spectrum that can be absorbed by chlorophyll 3 2 Lighting should have an emission spectrum with the lowest contribution to the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll (around 440 nm and around 650 nm) to minimize lampenflora Another way to prevent the growth of lampenflora is the reduction of the energy re aching any surface where the plants may live. The safe distance between the lamp and the cave surface depends on the intensity of the lamp. As a rough indication, a distance of one meter should be safe. Special care should also be paid to avoid heating the formations and any rock paintings that may exist 3 3 Lighting sources should be installed at a distance from any component of the cave to prevent the growth of lampenflora and damaging the formations and any rock paintings The lighting system should be installed in such a way that only the portions of the cave occupied by visitors are switched on, leaving the lighting in the portions of the cave that are not occupied switched off. This is important from the aspects of reducing the heating of the cave environment and preventing the growth of lampenflora, as well as decreasing the amount of energy required and its financial cost 3 4 Lighting should be installed to illuminate only the portions of the cave that are occupied by visitors The lighting syst em should be installed in such a way that only the portions of the cave occupied by visitors are switched on, leaving the lighting in the portions of the cave that are not occupied switched off. This is important from the aspects of reducing the heating o f the cave environment and preventing the growth of lampenflora, as well as decreasing the amount of energy required and its financial cost. 4 FREQUENCY OF VISITS AND NUMBER OF VISITORS The energy balance of a cave environment can be modified by the releas e of heat by visitors. A human being, moving in a cave, releases about 150 watts approximately the same as a good incandescent lamp. Consequently, there is also a limit on the number of visitors that can be brought into a cave without causing an irreve rsible effect on the climate of the cave. 4 1 A cave visitor capacity, per a defined time period, should be determined and this capacity should not be exceeded. Visitor capacity is defined as the number of visitors to a given cave over a given time period which does not permanently change the environmental parameters beyond their natural fluctuation range. A continuous tour, utilizing an entrance and another exit, can reduce the time that visitors spend

PAGE 16

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 14 in a cave, compared to the use of a single entrance /exit. In addition to the normal tours for visitors, many show caves have special activities, sometimes with speleological equipment for use in wild sections of the cave. If such a practice is not prop erly planned, it may cause serious damage to the cave. 4 2 When visits to wild parts of a cave are arranged, they must be carefully planned. In addition to providing the participants with the necessary speleological safety equipment, the visitors must alw ays be guided by a guide with good experience in wild caves. The pathway, where visitors are to travel along, must be clearly defined, for example with red and white tape, and the visitors should not be allowed to walk beyond this pathway. Special care m ust be taken to avoid any damage to the cave environment, and the parts beyond the pathway must be maintained in a clean condition. 5 PRESERVATION OF THE SURFACE ECOSYSTEM WHEN DEVELOPING BUILDINGS, PARKING, REMOVAL OF SURFACE VEGETATION AND WASTE RECOVERY It is important that the siting of the above ground facilities, such as the buildings, parking and waste recovery, be well planned. There is a natural tendency to try and place these development features as close as possible to the cave entrance. Someti mes these features are built over the cave itself, or relevant parts of it. The hydrogeology above the cave must not be modified by any intervention such as the watertight surface of a parking area. Any change in the rainwater seepage into a cave can hav e a negative influence on the cave and the growth of its formations. Care should be exercised also when making any change to the land above the cave, including the removal of the vegetation and disturbance of the soils above the bedrock. 5 1 Any siting of buildings, parking areas, and any other intervention directly above the cave, must be avoided in order to keep the natural seepage of rainwater from the surface in its original condition. 6 MONITORING After the environmental impact evaluation of the devel opment, including any other study of the cave environment, it is necessary to monitor the relevant parameters to ensure that there is no deviation outside acceptable limits. Show caves should maintain a monitoring network of the cave environment to ensure that it remains within acceptable limits. 6 1 Monitoring of the cave climate should be undertaken. The air temperature, carbon dioxide, humidity, radon (if its concentration is close to or above the level prescribed by the law) and water temperature (if a pplicable) should be monitored. Airflow in and out of the cave could also be monitored. When selecting scientists to undertake studies in a cave, it is very important that only scientists who have good experience with cave environments be engaged for cave related matters. Many, otherwise competent scientists, may not be fully aware of cave environments. If incorrect advice is given to the cave management, then this could result in endangerment of the cave environment. Cave science is a highly specialize d field. 6 2 Specialized cave scientists should be consulted when there is a situation that warrants research in a cave. 7 CAVE MANAGERS The managers of a show cave must never that it must be preserved with great care. It is necessary that persons involved in the management of a show cave receive a suitable education, not only in the economic management of a show cave, but also about the environmental issues concerning the protection of the environment at large. 7 1 Cave managers should be competent in both the management of the economics of the show cave and its environmental protection. 8 TRAINING OF THE GUIDES The guides in a show cave have a very t he cave and the visitor. Unfortunately, in many instances the guides have not been trained properly and, not withstanding that they are doing their best, the overall result will not be very good. It is very important that the guides receive proper instru ctions about the environmental aspects of the cave as well as dealing with the public. It is important that

PAGE 17

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 15 guides are skilled in tactfully avoiding entering into discussions, which can have a detrimental effect on the overall tour. The guides are the gu ardians of the cave and they must be ready to stop any misbehaviour by the visitors, which could endanger the cave environment. 8 1 Cave guides should be trained to correctly inform the visitors about the cave and its environment 6. CONCLUSION Following the cycle of Fig. 1, after the decline, stabilization, reduced growth and rejuvenation. The first one, i.e. decline is the consequence of an outside factor (crisis, decrease of interest, etc.), which is not counterbalanced by any action of the cave management. The stabilization may happen if the influence of the outside factors is not too strong. The reduced growth may develop if the outside factors are minimal or, at least, the cave management adopts s ome actions to add some improvement if the cave development. The most interesting case is the rejuvenation, i.e. an important addition of new sources of interest for the potential visitors. Such a result may be achieved both inside the cave, after an impor tant change of its structures (new passages developed for visitors, new lighting system, etc.) or the development of other source of interest outside the cave (natural park, monuments, tourist attractions, etc.). Examples of such interventions in France ar e reported by Gauchon & Biot (2010). Obviously the last case is the most effective and should always be taken into account by a cave into the cave and its environment. In conclusion the whole show cave "industry" must be constantly and carefully changing to adapt to the shifts that are brought to us all by our rapidly changing world. There are challenges that we must all rise up and meet. Finally, the UIS Management Guidelines for Show Cave, reported a bove, are a strong recommendation to be adopted by show cave managers in order to assure the protection of the cave environment, the safety of the visitors as well a sustainable development, which means that the environment meets the needs of the present w ithout compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs REFERENCES BOURGES F., D'HULTS D AND MANGIN A., tude de l'Aven d'Orgnac. Rapport final, Lab. Souterrain de Moulis C.N.R.S. Gologie Environnement Consei l, p.1 84, 1998. BUT LER R.W. The Concept of a Tourist Area Life Cycle of Evolution. Canadian Geographer, 24, p. 5 12, 1980. CIGNA A.A. Environmental management of tourist caves. The examples of Grotta di Castellana and Grotta Grande del Vento, Italy. Environmental Geology v. 21, n.3, p. 173 180, 1993. Also as: Report ENEA RT AMB 93 09. CIGNA A.A. Alcuni criteri di base per lo sviluppo di grotte turistiche: la "Charta di Frasassi" Atti Incontro Internazionale di Speleologia Frasassi 2004 Senigallia: 73 76, 2005 CIGNA A.A., So me basic principles for the devemopment of show caves: the Frasassi Charta. Proc. 14 th Int. Congr. Speleology, Kalamos, Greece, 1 : 364 365, 2008. CIGNA A.A., 2009 The ISCA Management Guidelines for show caves. Proceedings 15th Int. Congr. of Speleolog y, Kerrville, Texas, USA, 2 :1085 1088, 2009. CIGNA A.A., 2011 Draft management guidelines for show caves. ACKMA Journal No. 80, September 2010: 28 30. CIGNA A.A. & BURRI E. Development, manage ment and economy of show caves. Int. J. Speleol., v. 29 B, n.1 4, p.1 27, 2000

PAGE 18

Cign a S how cave development with special references to active caves Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 16 CIGNA A.A. & SUMMERS D. The International Commission on Sustainable Development in Show Caves. Proceedings 15 th Int. Congr. of Speleology Kerrville, Texas, USA, v. 2 p.1089 1091, 2009, FORTI P. & CIGNA A.A. Cave tourism in Italy: an overview. Cave Tourism, Proc. Int. Symp. 17Oth Anniv. Postojnska Jama, Postojna, Nov. 10 12, 1988. Centre Scient. Res. SAZU & Postojnska Jama Tourist and Hotel Organiz., p. 46 53, 1989. GAUCHON C. & BIOT V. Valorisation touristique du karst: grottes amenag es et paysages extrieurs. In: AUDRA PH. (Dir.) Grottes et karst de France. Karstologie Mmoires, n. 19, 2010, p. 114 115. GURNEE R., GURNEE J. The study report on the development of Harrison Cave, Barbados, West Indies. Atti Conv. Int. Grotte Turistiche Borgio Verezzi 20 21 Marzo 1981; Grotte d'Italia, s.4, v.10, p.101 107, 1981. HALLIDAY W.R. Karstic national parks: international economic and cultural significance. Proc. Int. Symp. Utilization of Karst Areas, Trieste March 29 30, 1980. Ist. Geol. e Pal eont. Commissione Grotte Boegan, CAI Trieste, p.135 144, 1981. HEATON T. Caves. A Tremendous Range in Energy Environments on Earth. National Speleological Society News, August, p. 301 304, 1986. SWARBROOKE, J. Sustainable tourism management. Wallingford UK, CABI, 1999. WATSONJ., HAMILTON SMITH E., GILLIESON D. & KIERNAN K. (Eds.) Guidelines fo Cave and Karst Protection IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, p. 1 53, 1997. Fluxo editorial : R ecebido em: 11 01 .20 1 1 Corrigido em: 18.03.2011 Aprovado em: 1 9 0 4 .201 1 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally /formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Brazilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleologia (SBE) www.cavernas.org. br/turismo.asp

PAGE 19

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 17 WATER AS A FOCUS OF ECOTOURISM IN THE KARST OF NORTHERN PUERTO RICO A GUA COMO RECURSO ECOTURSTICO NO CARSTE DO NORTE DE PORTO RICO Andrea B. HALL & Michael J. DAY Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin Milwa ukee Milwaukee WI / U.S.A andrea.brooke.hall@gmail.com ; mickday@uwm.edu Abstract Karst landscapes are fundamentally characterized by underground drainage systems that ultimately create many of the landforms that make karst unique, and which generally result in a scarcity of surface water. Where surface water does exist in karst, it represents an important resource for wildlife and human populations, particularly in the burgeoning realms of rec reation and tourism. On the highly urbanized Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, karst landscape covers approximately one third of the land area, especially oriented tourism is focused here because it is the least fragmented remaining habitat. The northern karst region is traversed by several major allogenic rivers which effectively dissect the karst into distinct karst blocks with little surface drainage and virtually all water underground. The ri vers themselves are a primary focus of ecotourism in the karst belt because they provide accessibility and represent a resource for transportation, entertainment and education, and they are used by individuals and tour operators to maximize their use and e njoyment of the karst landscape. Ecotourism activities focused on the rivers include caving, water sports, canyoneering, climbing, hiking, zip lining and bird watching. Without water, levels of ecotourism within the karst would be considerably reduced, s o water, although limited, provides a critical recreational and economic resource in the karst landscape Key Words : Puerto Rico, Caribbean, karst, water, ecotourism Resumo As paisagens crsticas so fundamentalmente caracterizadas por sistemas de drena gem subterrnea, que originam muitas formas de relevo que as tornam nicas, e que geralmente resultam na escassez da gua em superfcie. Quando a gua est presente na superfcie das paisagens crsticas, ela representa uma importante fonte de recursos para a vida selvagem e as populaes humanas, particularmente para as atividades de recreao e turismo. Em Porto rico, uma ilha densamente urbanizada do Caribe, as paisagens crsticas correspondem a aproximadamente um tero do territrio, especialmente no tre cho adjacente costa Norte. Muitas das atividades de turismo de natureza na ilha so desenvolvidas nesta regio, por se caracterizar como um habitat menos fragmentado. O carste do Norte de Porto Rico atravessado por grandes rios de recarga alognica, qu e efetivamente dissecam o relevo crstico em distintos trechos com pequena drenagem superficial e, eventualmente, grandes aquferos subterrneos. Estes rios so os focos primrios do ecoturismo na regio do carste, dado que so de fcil acesso e representa m tambm um recurso estratgico para o transporte, entretenimento e educao. Os rios so utilizados por pessoas e operadores tursticos, de modo a maximizar seu uso e buscar o melhor aproveitamento da paisagem crstica. As atividades ecotursticas desenvo lvidas nestes rios incluem espeleoturismo, esportes aquticos, canionismo, escaladas, montanhismo, arborismo e visualizao de aves. Sem as guas, o desenvolvimento do ecoturismo nesta regio crstica seria reduzido. Assim, a gua, embora seja um recurso l imitado no carste, possibilita um fator recreacional e econmico crtico nesta regio Palavras Chave : Porto Rico; Caribe; Carste; gua; Ecoturismo 1. INTRODUCTION Water in karst Water is fundamental to the development of karst because of its central rol e in the carbonate dissolution process (Ford; Williams 2007). Paradoxically, surface water is often scarce in karst landscapes because the drainage is predominantly underground via a spectrum of voids ranging from microscopic pores to large conduits. Alt hough much of the underground flow eventually reappears at the surface as springs, these are typically located around karst peripheries and, for this reason, water is a particularly critical resource within the interior of

PAGE 20

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 18 karst areas, and sites where it i s present at the surface represent important foci both for wildlife and for human activities. Historically, human activities in karst areas have centered on accessible surface water sources, although advances in drilling and pumping technology have rende red wells increasingly efficient and reliable, such that more than 25% of karst aquifers (Ford; Williams 2007). Water continues to play a critical role in human use of karst areas, particularly in the burg eoning realms of recreation and tourism. Karst landscapes provide significant venues for ecotourism (e.g. Bundschuh et al. 2007) and the scarce water sources within karst can play a major role in promoting recreational and tourism opportunities (Scott et al. 2004). Few studies have examined this topic in detail, and a particularly striking example is presented here. Karst in Puerto Rico Puerto Rico consists of three physiographic regions: a volcanic central mountainous area (the Cordillera Central) of late Jurassic to Eocene age, a marginal Tertiary karst belt and a discontinuous coastal plain (Monroe 1976, Troester 1992, Troester et al. 1987). Carbonate deposition began in the early Cretaceous period but peaked in the early Tertiary period, with deposi tion of the limestones beginning and ending earlier in the south than the north. After active volcanism and tectonism ceased, extensive middle Oligocene to Pliocene limestones and terrigenous sediments were deposited over the older rocks, particularly alon g the northern flanks of the mountains, forming the northern karst belt (Monroe 1976). There are marked climatic differences between the northern and southern portions of Puerto Rico, with the north being characterized by a moist, humid climate while the south is much drier (Lugo et al 2001). Different climates lead to different rates of karstification and different (more/less developed) features, with the north having better developed karst with more distinctive karst landforms, such as cockpits and towe rs. Karst covers between 28% (Lugo et al 2001) and 34% of Puerto Rico (Monroe 1976) and is most extensive in the northern karst belt, which is the best documented (Monroe 1976, Troester 1992, Lugo et al 2001). The northern karst belt extends about 70km east west parallel to the northern coast west of San Juan, with a maximum width of about 22 km south of Arecibo. The karst belt encompasses approximately 1,600 km or about 20% of the land area of Puerto Rico (Giusti 1978), and accounts for about 90% of th e karst in Puerto Rico, with the residual 10% in the south and in scattered outcrops in the Cordillera Central (Figure 1). Figure 1: Distribution of karst in Puerto Rico. Source: Monroe (1976) in Lugo et al. (2001) Six distinct limestone formatio ns are recognized in northern Puerto Rico: in ascending order, the San Sebastin Formation, the Lares Limestone, the Cibo Formation, the Aguada Limestone, the Aymamn Limestone and the Camuy Formation (Giusti 1978). The northern karst belt includes exten sive areas of dry valleys and sinkholes, together with more dramatic landforms

PAGE 21

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 19 such as cockpits and mogotes Cockpits are deep, often steep sided depressions separated by broadly conical residual hills (Monroe 1976, Day 2004, Day; Chenoweth 2004). Mogotes isolated residual hills surrounded by a relatively flat alluviated plain, are a type of tower karst, with the hills having a rounded or conical shape, rather than the classical vertical tower shape of other tower karst areas (Day 1978, Day; Tang 2004). Mo gote s occur particularly along the northern edge of the northern karst belt, and they are perhaps the most distinctive and obvious landforms of the northern karst (Lugo et al 2001). There are also numerous cave systems (Miller 2009). The limestone belt is traversed by several major perennial rivers whose headwaters rise in the volcanic and mountainous terrain to the south and which flow north through the limestones to the north coast (Figure 2). The largest of these are the Ro Grande de Arecibo and the R o Grande de Manat, both of which cut across the karst belt via surface alluviated valleys. Smaller rivers, such as the Ro Encantado and the Ro Tanam traverse the karst belt via discontinuous cave systems and deep, narrow canyons. The north flowing rive r valleys (the Ro Camuy, Ro Guajataca, Ro Grande de Manat, Ro Grande de Arecibo, Ro Encantado, Ro Tanam, Ro de la Plata and Ro Cibuco) largely follow structural (fault) lines and effectively dissect the northern karst belt into distinct karst blo cks, mostly forested, that have little surface drainage, with virtually all flow underground (Giusti 1978, Lugo et al 2001). Valley systems are an important component of tropical karst landscapes (Day 2002) and those in Puerto Rico are particularly signif icant. Throughout the Caribbean, human activities have had widespread adverse impacts on karst landscapes (Day 1993, 2010) which are predicted to increase (Day; Chenoweth 2009). In this context, the northern karst belt of Puerto Rico has an interesting hi story of colonial agricultural expansion and contraction, followed by depopulation and then urban and industrial encroachment (Pico 1974, Lugo et al 2001). Recently it has been regarded as one of Belson 1 999) and it has been a focus of karst conservation efforts on the island (Day; Kueny 1998, Mujica Ortiz; Day 2001). Paradoxically, although the karst is under extreme human pressure, it still represents the least fragmented natural habitat in Puerto Rico, making its use, conservation and management all the more critical (Lugo et al. 2001). By surface area, water occupies less than 5% of the northern karst belt, with virtually all of that being in the form of the through flowing allogenic rivers (Figure 2). Water is also exposed where sections of major cave systems, such as those of the Ro Camuy and Ro Tanam, have been uncovered by collapse of cave roof sections (Gurnee; Gurnee 1974, Lugo et al 2001). Additionally, surface water is present at springs, p articularly where groundwater exsurges peripheral to the main body of the karst but also locally within the karst blocks. Water is also present in many caves, particularly those at lower elevations and peripheral to the main drainage systems. Figure 2: The northern karst belt. Source: Giusti (1976) in Lugo et al. (2001)

PAGE 22

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 20 Ecotourism in Puerto Rico The definition of ecotourism is complex, multiple definitions exist, and the term has varied meanings to different people and to various organizations. Al though there are a plethora of definitions available to choose from, most definitions include certain criteria. Fennel (2001), for example, suggests that ecotourism is a type of specialty travel that is nature oriented, promotes conservation, protects loc al culture, benefits the local population, and promotes education. Activities conducted under the title of ecotourism are varied and can take place in many different environments. Examples include such bird watching and astronomical observation. Others are limited to specific landscapes and thus are more 'specialized': caving and SCUBA diving are examples. In karst landscapes both general and specialized ecotourism occur and tourism is becoming an imp ortant aspect of human use of karst areas, with attendant impacts (Huppert et al 1993, Day 2010). The Caribbean karst, including that in Puerto Rico, appeals to tourists because of its natural environment and unique topography. These assets create uniqu e visitor experiences. The karst also contains diverse and endemic plant and animal populations, and provides a wide variety of outdoor activities while supporting biological, ecological and geomorphological diversity (Lugo et al 2001). Increasingly aw are of sustainability issues, Puerto Rico has recently turned to ecotourism and sustainable development in an effort to conserve and protect its natural resources (Frederique 2004). With a land area of 13,790 km and a population of nearly 4 million peopl e (CIA 2010), Puerto Rico has a population density of more than 430.5 people per km, second in the Caribbean only to Barbados (Scarpaci; Portela 2009). Sustainable development and ecotourism have become particularly important national issues precisely be small size and high population density. Well planned sustainable tourism development should lead not to the deterioration of natural areas but to their conservation (Page; Dowling 2002). Although surface water is uncommon in many k arst areas, in other landscapes water is an important component of mainstream tourism and ecotourism provides opportunities for a wide range of activities that are not feasible on land (Jennings 2006), and is also a magnet for wildlife, for whose existence it is critical (Sinclair et al. 2006). 2. METHODOLOGY Ecotourism activities in the northern Puerto Rican karst were investigated through literature reviews and field research during 2009 (Hall 2010). A preliminary analysis of tourism and ecotourism websites was first conducted in order to discern what types of activities are offered in the karst. Ten adventure tour companies that operate extensively within the karst were identified and three that appe ared to have particular affinity with the northern karst were contacted. Subsequently, appointments were made to participate in selected ecotourism activities in the karst landscape, and the companies themselves became a primary source of information. The three companies were selected because they represent the size spectrum and scale of tourism operations in the Puerto Rican karst. They also offer a wide range of ecotourism activities that appear to typify those offered within the karst landscape, and the y were available during fieldwork. Participant observation, surveys and interviews were the primary research methods employed. Further details of the research methodology are provided by Hall (2010). 3. RESULTS Water as an ecotourism focus Numerous ecot ourism activities take place in the karst landscape, and virtually all of these are related to or focus primarily or exclusively on the water. Overall, it is estimated that about 40% of ecotourism in Puerto Rico takes place within the karst (Hall 2010), a nd 85% of the ecotourism activity within the karst itself is water centered. Water, particularly as represented by the rivers and the river valleys, plays three pivotal and intersecting roles within the northern karst. First, it provides access and a mean s of transportation, facilitating entry into the karst and passage through it. Major roads across the karst follow the major valleys, and many minor roads follow courses of dry valleys. More significantly, the rivers and valleys represent the route ways via which ecotourists enter and traverse the karst, on foot, on horse or via the rivers themselves by tube, canoe, kayak or swimming (Figure 3). Second, water within the karst provides a fundamental source of entertainment, providing the essential medium f or enjoyable activities such as swimming, diving, body rafting (Figure 4), tubing, canoeing and kayaking. Drinking the river water is inadvisable, but some ecotourists imbibe and seek out spring water, and valley side waterfalls,

PAGE 23

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 21 particularly those that ar e spring fed, offer opportunities t o wash off any riverine debris. Figure 3: Tourists using river as form of t ransportation/entertainment in the karst. Source: Andrea Hall (2009) Figure 4: Body rafting down the Ro Tanam. Source: Andrea Hall (200 9) Third, water plays a significant educational role within the karst, particularly since water is the fundamental agent in karst landscape development and cave formation. Surface rivers, unroofed caves, cave streams (Figure 5) and springs all provide op portunities for educational activities within ecotourism, focusing on hydrology, geomorphology and biogeography. Through the medium of water, ecotourists learn about karst and cave development, aquatic biology and other aspects of karst science. Water al so represents an important tool for communicating information about potential degradation of the karst, focusing, for example, on the potential for water contamination and rapid transfer of pollutants. Additionally, the surface serves as a major focus for wildlife viewing and tracking, particularly bird watching, which is one of the primary ecotourism activities (Raffaele 1989). Many of the ecotourism activities within the karst use the water in multipl e and complementary ways, combining access, entertainment and education in numerous and diverse ways. In itself, water in the rivers and springs represents a dramatic scenic element within the karst, and thus plays multifaceted roles, which may be exempli fied by brief discussion of some s pecific ecotourism activities. Hiking is a basic component of much of the karst based ecotourism, either as the primary activity or as a means to other ends, such as climbing, caving or bird watching. Many hiking trails enter the karst via valleys, and most organized hikes begin and/or terminate at the rivers, particularly providing post hiking swimming opportunities. In some locations, trails cross the rivers via fords or bridges, adding a different or additional dimens ion to hikes (Figure 6). Figure 5: Entrance of river cave on Ro Tanam. Source: Andrea Hall (2009) Figure 6: Hammock bridge over Ro Tanam. Source: Andrea Hall (2009) Climbing and rappelling are more specialized ecotourism activities within the karst, and often take place adjacent to the rivers where valley side cliffs provide suitable and accessible locations.

PAGE 24

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 22 Canyoneering, in which participants navigate along the narrower river valleys through combinations of hiking, free climbing, swimming a nd body rafting, center on the rivers by necessity (Figure 7). Zip lining, descending using gravity by means of a pulley running down a fixed, inclined cable line, is not restricted to river valleys but is often located there because of the local relief a vailable between the valley edges and the river bed, which provides for significant elevations, swift transgress and impressive views (Figure 8). Figure 7: Canyoneering, Ro Tanam. Source: Andrea Hall (2009) Figure 8: Zip lining over the Ro Tana m. Source: Andrea Hall (2009) Caving is, of course, an ecotourism activity that is inextricably linked to karst, and particularly to the role of water in karst. While caving does not necessarily involve intimate interaction with water, most caving tou rs do involve water, either in the caves themselves or at the surface before or afterwards. Ecotourism activities in the karst are variable in terms of their specificity towards the karst (Hall 2010). Some, such as caving, are karst specific, while others are less intimately focused on the karst itself. Nevertheless, water remains a critical focus, as documented above. Although all the rivers provide potential ecotourism sites, the Ro Tanam is seemingly the most important river for ecotourism in the kar st of Puerto Rico. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, but revolve around scenic considerations, accessibility, its size, and proximity to other attractions. Although water pollution is problematic throughout the karst (Hunter and Arbona 1995), the lower Ro Tanam has a relatively unspoiled character, with relatively low levels of apparent water contamination. The Ro Tanam Valley is also very scenic, with steep valley sides, canyons, waterfalls and sections where the river passes through shor t caves. The downstream section of the Ro Tanam is readily accessible, giving access to natural areas with well developed trails and other facilities. The Ro Tanam is also close to the Arecibo Observatory, which is another major tourism focus within the karst (Hall 2010). 4. CONCLUSION Even though surface water is limited in occurrence in the northern karst of Puerto Rico, it plays a pivotal role in influencing ecotourism in the karst, which is itself a major tourism focus. In particular, the rivers which traverse the karst provide transportation, entertainment, and educational opportunities, which are used by individuals and tour operators to maximize their use and enjoyment of the karst. The rivers provide access and a means of transportation to a nd through the karst landscape. Water in the karst landscape also provides a fundamental source of entertainment, as many of the activities available are related to the water resources. Ecotourism activities within the karst, such as caving, water sports, canyoneering, climbing, hiking, zip lining and bird watching are strongly linked to the rivers and to other water sources. The rivers provide a significant educational role, development and formation of karst landforms.

PAGE 25

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 23 Water plays a critical role in human use of karst areas, particularly in recreation and tourism. Karst landscapes provide significant venues for ecotourism and the scarce water sources within karst play a major role in promoting recreati onal activities and tourism opportunities. Without water, levels of ecotourism within the karst would be considerably reduced, so water, although limited, provides a critical recreational and economic resource in the karst landscape REFERENCES BUNDSCHU H, J.; BIRKLE, P.; FINCH, R.C.; DAY, M.J.; ROMERO, J.; PANIAGUA, S.; ALVARADO, G.E.; BHATTACHARAYA, P.; TIPPMANN, K.; CHAVES, D. Geology related tourism for sustainable development. In: Central America: Geology, Resources, Hazards J. Bundschuh; G.E. Alva rado (Eds). New York: Taylor and Francis, Vol. 2, p.1015 1098, 2007. CIA. World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency, 2010. Available at: http://www.cia.gov/library /publications/the world factbook/geos/rq.html Accessed on: February 3, 2010. Water Policy, Tourism, and Recreation Washington D.C.: RFF Press, 240p. DAY, M.J. Morphology and distribution of residual limestone hills (mogotes ) in the karst of northern Puerto Rico. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 89(3), p.426 432, 1978. DAY, M.J. Human impacts on Caribbean and Central American karst. Catena Supplement 25, p.109 125, 1993. DAY, M.J. The role of valley systems in the evolution of tropical karstlands. In: Evolution of Karst: From Prekarst to Cessation F. Gabrovsek (Ed). Zalozba ZRC, Ljublana, p.235 241, 2002. DAY, M.J. Cone karst. In: The Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science J. Gunn (Ed). New York: Taylor and F rancis, p.241 243, 2004, 902p. DAY, M.J. Human interaction with Caribbean karst landscapes: past, present and future. Acta Carsologica 39(1), p.137 146, 2010. DAY, M.J.; CHENOWETH, M.S. Cockpit Country cone karst, Jamaica. In: The Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science J. Gunn (Ed). New York: Taylor and Francis, p.233 235, 2004, 902p. DAY, M.J.; CHENOWETH, M.S. Potential impacts of anthropogenic environmental change on the Caribbean karst. In: Global Change and Caribbean Vulnerability BARKER, B.; DODMAN, D.; MCGREGOR, D. (Eds). UWI Press, p.100 122, 2009. DAY, M.J.; TANG, T. Tower karst. In: The Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science GUNN, J. (Ed). New York: Taylor and Francis, p.734 736, 2004, 902p. FENNEL, D.A. A Content Analysis of Ecotourism Definit ions. Current Issues in Tourism Vol. 4, No. 5, p.403 421. FORD, D.C.; WILLIAMS, P.W. Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology Chichester, UK: Wiley, 2007. 562p. FREDERIQUE, E.A. Tursmo, medio ambiente y reas naturales protegidas en Puerto Rico: Perspectiva s y retos para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible en este sector en el estado libre asociado de Puerto Rico San Juan: Colegio de Agronomos de Puerto Rico 2004.

PAGE 26

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 24 GIUSTI, E.V. Hydrogeology of the Karst of Puerto Rico U.S. Geological Survey Professional Pape r 1012, 1978, 68p. GURNEE, R.; GURNEE, J. Discovery at the Rio Camuy New York: Crown Publishers, 1974, 183p. HALL, A.B. Ecotourism in the karst landscape of Puerto Rico. 2010. 151p. MS Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. HU NTER, J.M.; ARBONA, S.I. Paradise lost: an introduction to the geography of water pollution in Puerto Rico. Social Science and Medicine Vol. 40, No. 10, p.1331 1355, 1995. HUPPERT, G.;BURRI, P.; FORTI, P.; CIGNA, A. Effects of tourist development on caves and karst. In: Karst Terrains: Environmental Changes and Human Impact WILLIAMS, P. (Ed). Catena Supplement 25, p.251 268, 1993. JENNINGS, G. (Ed). Water Based Tourism, Sport, Leisure and Recreation Experiences. New York: Butterworth Heinemann, 2006, 320p KUENY, J.A.; DAY, M.J. An assessment of protected karst landscapes in the Caribbean. Caribbean Geography, 9(2), p.87 100, 1998. LUGO, A.E., CASTRO, L.M., VALE, A., LOPEZ, T., PRIETO, E.H., MARTINO, A.G., ROLON, A.R.P., TOSSAS, A.G., MCFARLANE, D.A., MIL LER, T., RODRIGUEZ, A., LUNDBERG, J., THOMLINSON, J., COLON, J., SCHELLEKENS, J.H., RAMOS, O. and HELMER, E. Puerto Rican Karst A Vital Resource U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report WO 65, 2001, 100p. MILLER, T. Puert o Rico. In: Caves and Karst of the USA PALMER, A.N.; PALMER, M.V. (Eds). National Speleological Society, Huntsville, p.332 345, 445p. MONROE, W.H. The Karst Landforms of Puerto Rico U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 899, 1976, 68p. MUJICA ORTIZ, B.; DAY, M.J. Karst conservation and protected areas in northern Puerto Rico. Caribbean Geography 12(1), p.11 23, 2001. PAGE, S.J.; DOWLING, R.K. Themes in Tourism: Ecotourism New York : Prentice Hall, 2002, 338p. PICO, R. The Geograp hy of Puerto Rico Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co, 1974, 439p. RAFFAELE, H.A. A Guide to the Birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Princeton University Press, 1989, 272p. SCARPACI, J.L.; PORTELA, A.H. Cuban Landscapes: Heritage, Memory, and Place. Lo ndon and New York: The Guilford Press, 2009, 215p. SCOTT, T.M.; MEANS, G.H.; MEEGAN, R.P.; MEANS, R.C.; UPCHURCH, S.B.; COPELAND, R.E.; JONES, J.; ROBERTS, T.; WILLET, A. Springs of Florida Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66, 2004, 377p. SINCLAIR, A.R. E.; FRYXEL, J.M.; CAUGHLEY, G. Wildlife Ecology, Conservation and Management Oxford: Blackwell, 2006, 469p. TROESTER, J.W. The northern karst belt of Puerto Rico: a humid tropical karst. In: BACK, W.; HERMAN, J.S.; PALOC, H. (Eds). Hydrogeology of Selecte d Karst Regions Hannover, Verlag Heinz Heise, p.475 486, 1992.

PAGE 27

Hall & Day W ater as a focus of ecoto urism in the karst of northern Puerto R i co Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 25 TROESTER, J.W. et al. In: GARDNER, T.W.; BACK, W.; BULLARD, T.F.; HARE, P.W.; KESEL, R.H.; LOWE, D.R.; MENGES, C.M.; MORA, S.C.; PAZZAGLIA, F.J.; SASOWSKI, I.D.; TROESTER, J.W.; WELLS, S.G. Ge omorphic Systems of North America, Chapter 10: Central America and the Caribbean. GRAF, W.L. (Ed). Geological Society of America, Centennial Special Volume 2, p.347 353, 1987, 643p. d Karst Ecosystems. National Speleological Society News September 1999, 265 267 and 283, 1999 Fluxo editorial : R ecebido em: 07 12 .20 1 0 Aprovado em: 30 0 4 .201 1 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally / formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Br azilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleologia (SBE) www.cavernas.org.br/turismo.asp

PAGE 28

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1

PAGE 29

Price Hongs o f Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 27 HONGS OF PHANG NGA BAY, THAILAND HONGS DA BAA PHANG NGA, TAILNDIA Liz PRICE Independent Researcher Kuala Lumpur / Malaysia lizprice@hotmail.com Abstract Hongs are dolines within fengcong karst that are in vaded by the sea. They are surrounded by steep walls and sheer cliffs, and are only accessible through sea level caves within the tidal zone. The isolated limestone islands of Phang Nga Bay in Thailand rise steeply from the sea and are often forest covered and contain scenic hong lagoons. They are a very popular place for tourism. Kayaking into the hongs is a lucrative operation for tour companies. Visitors are attracted by the beautiful landscape and the chance to explore dark caves by kayak and to see th e hidden gardens inside the hongs Key Words : hong, doline, marine karst, tidal cave, Thailand, Southeast Asia Resumo Hongs so dolinas do carste de fengcong que so invadidas pelo mar. Elas so circundadas por paredes ngremes e penhascos, e so acessv eis somente por cavernas ao nvel do mar, na zona das mars. As ilhas calcreas isoladas da baa de Phang Nga so muito elevadas em relao ao nvel do mar e muitas vezes so cobertas por florestas, alm de abrigarem lagoas cnicas nas hongs. Elas so um l ugar muito popular para o turismo. Passeios de caiaque nas hongs so uma opo lucrativa de passeio para as operadoras de turismo. Os visitantes so atrados pela beleza da paisagem, bem como pela chance de explorar cavernas afticas em um caiaque e observ ar os jardins ocultos das hongs Palavras Chave : Hong; Dolina; Carste costeiro; Cavernas de mars; Tailndia; Sudoeste asitico 1. INTRODUCTION Phang Nga Bay or Ao Phang Nga lies south of the province of Phang Nga in the Isthmus of Kra in south Thailand. The Isthmus of Kra is a narrow landbridge that connects the Malay peninsula to Thailand. The Thai peninsula has the Andaman Sea to the west, and the Gulf of Thailand to the east. Phang Nga Bay is located in the Andaman Sea and is surrounded on three sides by the resort towns of Phuket, Phang Nga and Krabi. The west coast of the southern Thai peninsula has numerous limestone islands. These islands extend southwards down the Thai coast and as far as the Langkawi islands in northwest Malaysia. Limestone is al so found on the mainland, occurring as karst towers in Phang Nga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang and Satun provinces, and across the Malay border into Perlis and Kedah. Phang Nga Bay is a large karst area that has been flooded by the sea, leaving the karst plain ful ly submerged, and resulting in islands that rise dramatically from the sea. It is a stunning landscape. The islands generally have sheer cliffs and rugged profiles, and can be compared to the famous World Heritage site of Ha Long Bay in Vietnam [photo 01 ] Photo 1: General view of limestone towers in Phang Nga Bay The limestone of the Phang Nga area dates to the Permo Carboniferous period. The walls of the cliffs show solution notches, formed when the sea level was higher. Dissolution and wave action sha ped the cliffs. There are clusters of steep sided hills typical of fengcong karst, as well as individual single towers. Some of the towers have fossil caves with entrances high up in the cliffs. There are younger sea level caves as well as drowned caves wh ich are now below sea level.

PAGE 30

Price Hongs o f Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 28 Many of these islands contain hongs. Hong is a Thai word meaning room. Hongs are basically large dolines that are open to the sky and are surrounded by steep limestone cliffs and contain tidal lagoons. The hongs can only be re ached through the caves, unless one wants to climb up and over the sheer limestone walls. Access through the caves depends on the tides. During high tide the entrance and possibly the whole cave will be underwater, but as the tide lowers, a way through the cave is revealed. Many of the caves have low entrances which are close to the water level, and have deep water throughout. This means that access through the cave is limited to short periods of maybe an hour or so around the low tides. Some caves have hig h ceilings inside and are well decorated with stalagmites and stalactites, and some even have colonies of bats and swiftlets. These creatures must use other dry entrances and not the tidally submerged ones. [photo 02] Photo 2: Kayaks entering sea cave The sea level caves may pre date the hongs, or may have been formed as a result of them. The hongs, which can be more than 300 m in diameter, may have originally had a roof. Today they are open to the sky, admitting sunlight which allows the growth of flo ra. This presents a beautiful area akin to a hidden garden. Mangroves are found at sea level, and small forests may be found if there is sufficient dry land. Plants are able to grow on the sheer walls, especially c ycads which can be seen high up on the wal ls. c ycads are the oldest group of seed bearing plants and have undergone relatively very little change over the last three hundred million years or so, There may be endemic species of palms and figs. [photo 03] Photo 3: Mangroves are commonly found inside hongs The fruiting tress such as figs provide seasonal food for many species of birds and primates. Long tailed macaques feed on fruit and insects, as well as crabs and crustacea at water level. [photo 0 4] Dusky langurs, or leaf monkeys are vegetarian and can survive on the plants inside the hong. Even gibbons may be found on the larger karst islands where there is continuous forest cover big enough to support their dietary needs. At water level, monitor lizards, snakes and other reptiles may be seen. Birds are common inhabitants. Photo 4: Dusky langur (also known as leaf monkey, spectacled la ngur, or spectacled leaf monkey ) (Trachypithecus obscurus) can be seen inside the hongs

PAGE 31

Price Hongs o f Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 29 Local people have known about these caves within the caves. Fisherman also go to the hongs. But the vast majority of visitors are tourists. South Thailand has been a popular tourist destination for decades, and for the last 20 years, sea kayaking into the hongs has been a lucrative operation for tour companies. Flotillas of canoes go to the hongs each day. Visitors are attracted by the beautiful landscape and the chance to explore dark caves by kayak, or even a long swim, and t o see the hidden gardens inside the hongs. 2. TOURISM IN PHANG NGA Flying into the international airports of Phuket or Krabi you can get a good view of the limestone islands dotted around the coastline. This area of southern Thailand is heavily visited by tourists all year round. There are renowned tourist sights such as James Bond Island, or Ko Phing Kan, which was made famous when the area was used for filming Apart from boat trips and recreational diving, sea canoeing is very popular in the Krabi and Phuket areas. There are many accessible islands to explore in the Phang Nga bay area, which has sheltered waters. The area is part of National Marine Parks and there are strict controls on tour groups. This helps to protect th e islands and caves. One negative aspect of the visitors is the feeding of the sea eagles from the boats. The birds are fed with scraps of chicken, and this routine is upsetting their natural diet as well as making them reliant on free hand outs. Phuket is the main base for sea canoe trips. These range from day trips to seven day tours. On the day trips, a large boat takes the tourists to the island, and from there they paddle single or double kayaks into the hongs. [photo 05] Ko Hong or Hong Island is one of the most visited islands. In the centre is a hidden lagoon. After a low entrance the cave roof rises, revealing some stalagmites and stalactites on the dry banks. Then the roof suddenly lowers and the walls close in leaving a gap not much larger than a kayak. The canoeists have to lie flat to get through. This tunnel leads out into a hong. The sheer limestone walls rise more than 100 m, and are capped with green vegetation. The grey and white cliffs are streaked with red, orange and black striations, cre ated by algae and lichens. Green pandanus and other palms and shrubs cling to the precipitous walls. Ther e are mangroves at water level. Photo 5: Karst tower of Ko Hong Ko Panak is a larger island off the Phuket coast. It has at least nine hong lakes, four of which are each more than 100 m across and are used for tourism. Mangrove Cave, Tham Pa Chai Len, is a dark cave leading to a hong with mangroves, which is used by fishermen. Diamond Cave, Tham Phet, is just south of Mangrove Cave, and named from a nice flowstone inside the dark cave. The 70 m long cave leads to one hong, then an arch passes to another hong. Bat Cave, Tham Khang Khao, on the west side of the island is 150 m long and dark, and houses colonies of insect bats which seem oblivious of the kayaking tourists. The cave leads to a very large hong, 120 m across. Troops of crab eating Long Tailed macaques inhabit the hong. The fourth cave is Oyster Cave, Tham Man Hoi, 50 m long and leading to a small hong. [photo 06] Photo 6: Paddling through the cave into a hong Further north in Phang Nga Bay, Tham Lod is a tunnel cave that small tourist boats pass through. Nearby, the sea caves of Ko Thalu are popular with visitors in kayaks, but no hongs are known. To the

PAGE 32

Price Hongs o f Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 30 east, Ko Kudu Yai has three small hongs but it is not known if there is access to them though sea level caves. With the constant flow of tourists in the area, there are many more sea level caves and smaller hongs that have been found by local kayak companies. [photo 07] Photo 7: Karst towers in close proximity and provide a stunning landscape There are also mainland caves used for kayak tours. On the east side of Phang Nga bay is Krabi province, and 40 km north of Krabi town is Ao Luk. From here tourists are taken to Than Bokkhorani Na tional Park. The main attraction of this park is its waterfalls and flora, but there are also ancient caves, petroglyphs, cave tunnels and mangroves. The canoe tours start at Bo Tho Pier, paddling down the river to Tham Lot Nua (Lot Tai) a 90 m long cave t unnel in a small hill. The southern entrance is 30 m wide and the northern is 15 m. The roof is about 8 m high and there are some nice hanging stal. Daylight penetrates the whole cave. Dusky langur monkeys are commonly seen. [photo 08] Photo 8: Tham Lot Nua Tham Phi Hua To is famous for its ancient petroglyphs. The cave is upstream from Tham Lot Nua and only accessible by boat. Concrete steps lead up to the cave entrance, the steps were built in 2525, i.e. 1982 on the Gregorian calendar. Tham Phi Hua To is also identified as Tham Hua Kalok, and is known as Big Headed Monster Cave. A big headed ghost reputedly lived in the cave. There are three entrances and the cave is basically two large chambers, each about 30 m across. [photo 09] The seen on one of the walls. It is a petroglyph, one of several ancient paintings which can be found on the walls. They have been dated at 2000 3000 years old. There are various pictures portraying animals such as fish, dugong, shark and crocodile. In human f orm there are people, a shaman, and an alien with a triangular head. There are paintings of hands, one of which had six fingers. The paintings are red and black in colour, the red from tree bark and the black from squid ink. The cave chambers go through th e hill and are lit by daylight. The back entrance gives a good view over the mangroves to the coast, with lots of limestone hills jutting up. There are lots of shells littering the floor of the cave, once eaten by ancient man. Photo 9: Petroglyph in Tha m Phi Hua Going upstream from Bo Tho Pier leads to Tham Lod. This is dark, due to a bend which prevented daylight from penetrating. It emerges in a

PAGE 33

Price Hongs o f Phang Nga Bay, Thailand Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 31 beautiful hong, circular and surrounded by high cliffs. There are cycads clinging to the sheer cliffs, and oyster shells on the lower walls. Near the town of Krabi is the very popular beach area at Ao Nang. This includes Rai Ley Bay and Phra Nang Bay. Although part of the mainland, this small peninsula is only accessible by boat from Ao Nang. The area has becom e a mecca for rock climbers, with hundreds of people climbing every day. There is one lagoon accessible from Rai Ley beach, but instead of entering by sea cave, visitors have to climb up the hill and then down to the lagoon, which is called Sa Phra Nang or Holy Princess Pool. REFERENCES DUNKLEY, John (1995) The caves of Thailand Sydney: Speleological Research Council. 124pp. PRICE, Liz & WALTHAM, Tony (2007) Hongs of southeast Asia Cave & Karst Science, (BCRA), (published 2008), 34(2)77 82, (20 fig.). Fluxo editorial : R ecebido em: 0 5 01 .20 1 1 Aprovado em: 18 02 .201 1 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally /formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Brazilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleologia (SBE) www.cavernas.org.br/turismo.asp

PAGE 34

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1

PAGE 35

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 33 MONITORING OF WATER TEMPERATURE OF THE RONCADOR RIVER: CONTRIBUTION TO SPELEOCLIMATE ANALYSIS AND TOURIST MA NAGEMENT OF THE CAVE OF SANTANA (IPORANGA, BRAZIL) MONITORAMENTO DA TEMPERATURA DA GUA NO RIO RONCADOR: CONTRIBUIO ANLISE ESPELEOCLIMTICA E AO MANEJO TURSTICO DA CAVERNA DE SANTANA (IPORANGA SP, BRASIL) Heros Augusto Santos LOBO Programa de Ps GRaduao em Geocincias e Meio Ambiente UNESP Instituto Ekos Brasil Indaiatuba SP heroslobo@hotmai l.com Abstract The monitoring of cave environments for tourist management is necessary for the establishment of limitations in visitation, thus promoting the preservation of caves. With this in mind, the water temperature of the Roncador river was mon itored in the cave of Santana, along with that of the atmosphere, in order to verify their participation in the atmospheric system of the cave and possible impacts of tourism to be considered during management decisions. The results show that for a large p ortion of the river gallery, at distances greater than 300m from the resurgence, the air temperature is governed by the temperature of water. This has made it possible to establish conclusions identifying the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, the disper sion of the impacts of visitation, and the capacity of the Roncador river to maintain the stationary state of the atmosphere in the gallery of the river in the cave of Santana Key Words : Environmental monitoring; Energy flow; Cave management; Speleotouris m; microclimate Resumo O monitoramento dos ambientes caverncolas para fins de manejo turstico deve ser realizado em uma base ampla, de forma a considerar todas as possibilidades e limitaes para o seu uso. Nesse sentido, realizou se um monitoramento da temperatura da gua do rio Roncador, em conjunto com o monitoramento de variveis atmosfricas, na caverna de Santana, com o intuito de verificar sua participao no sistema atmosfrico da cavidade e possveis interferncias no manejo turstico. Os result ados demonstraram que grande parte da galeria do rio, em trechos em distncia superior a 300 m de sua ressurgncia, possuem a temperatura do ar governada pela temperatura da gua. Com isso, foi possvel estabelecer concluses que do suporte para a dinmic a de circulao atmosfrica, a disperso de impactos de visitao e a capacidade do rio Roncador na manuteno do estado estacionrio da atmosfera na galeria do rio na caverna de Santana Palavras Chave : Monitoramento Ambiental; Nveis de Circulao de Ene rgia; Manejo de Cavernas; Espeleoturismo; Microclima 1. INTRODUCTION The management of caves for tourist purposes requires a wide array of environmental studies in an attempt to preserve the subterranean environment and make its use sustainable. From a p ractical point of view, speleoclimatic parameters are among the most important for the management of caves because they have proved to have a relation of cause and effect, with environmental alterations due to visitation can be identified, whether they are transitory or permanent, direct or indirect (CIGNA; FORTI, 1988; LOBO, 2008; ROCHA, 2010). The presence of bodies of water inside caves also exercises a decisive role in tourist management, since they objects of considerable attraction for tourism (LOBO, 2007); moreover, they play a role as vectors in the dispersion of impacts (HEATON, 1986; PULIDO BOSCH et al., 1997), and they influence the relative and absolute humidity of the air (DUBLYANSKY; DUBLYANSKY, 1998; BUECHER, 1999; CARRASCO et al., 2002), as w ell as the temperature, with the size of the effect depending on the size of this body of water. In

PAGE 36

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 34 extreme cases, the temperature of the water can even make a direct contribution to condensation corrosion at higher temperatures (SARBU; LASCU, 1997) or, at greatly reduced temperatures, participate in the formation of speleothems of ice (PFLITSCH et al., 2006; PIASECKI et al., 2006). The present paper presents partial results of research monitoring the speleoclimate in the cave of Santana, located in Iporang a city, Brazil, focusing of the temperature of the water of the Roncador river. This river has already been the focus of earlier studies which have emphasized its role in the evolution and dynamics of the local karst (KARMANN, 1994), as well as the sources of recharge and hydrological connections within the system (AYUB, 2007). Here, the monitoring of the temperature of the water was focused on the identification of its possible correlation with the temperature of the air, serving as a basis for the underst anding of the physics of the thermal system of the cavity and its atmospheric resilience in relation to the impact of visitation. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in the cave of Santana which is partially located within the bounds of the State Touristic Park of the Upper Ribeira River (PETAR) in the municipality of Iporanga in the southwestern part of the state of So Paulo. The cave is located in a limestone massif, more than 200m below the surface. At present, some 7.2km have been mappe d, and hundreds of meters are left to be explored. The traditional visitation circuit encompasses some 460m of galleries in three of the six levels, close to the resurgence of the Roncador river. The total vertical variation is 54m, with the resurgence loc ated at an altitude of 250m above sea level. The cave of Santana in a subtropical zone, is surrounded by dense Atlantic Coastal Rain Forest, with rains concentrated between December and February, an annual average of 1,500mm of rain, and daily accumulat ions of up to 300mm (GUTJHAR; TARIFA, 1993). The lower gallery of the cave of Santana is traversed by the Roncador river; the main swallet is located in the Prolas cave. Recharge here is mainly allogenic, although autogenic recharge is also quite active, as can be seen in periods of intense rain, when segments of the upper galleries suffer partial flooding (Figure 2). Figure 1 Location of cave of Santana and points of data collection

PAGE 37

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 35 Figure 2 Variation in water level in cave of Santana : a) normal level of the Roncador river, with the paths for visitation clearly evident (historic photo from 2007, when the cave still had a gate); b) raised water level, with the river covering the paths; c) normal level of water in the Meeting Room, with rimstone da ms apparently totally fossilized; d) rimstone dams filled with water, showing active autogenic flow in the upper gallery The choice of the cave of Santana for the realization of this study was due to its importance in the regional and national context of ecotourism and speleotourism. The cave receives an average of 20,000 visits per year, with peaks of over 30,000. The carrying capacity at present is limited to 117 visits per day, as established by Lobo (2008), although recent studies by Lobo et al. (2011 ) suggest the feasibility of an increase to 297. The monitoring of atmospheric parameters and the temperature of the water was conducted with Testo instruments (series 175 and 177). Only the data about temperature and relative humidity of the external stat ion and a single point in the river gallery some 300m from the entrance of the cave are presented here for the comparison of the temperature of the water (Figure 1). The accuracy of the instruments is 0.2 C for air temperature, and 0.1 C for that of wate r, as well as 2% for relative humidity. The precision of the temperatures presented here is 0.1 C and 0.1% for the relative humidity of the air The sensors were installed against the walls of the cave, which may alter the results somewhat in relation to the integration of the readings with the underground atmosphere of the specific passage. However, preliminary studies in the cave of Santana have shown that for the scale of accuracy of the sensors, this difference is not detectable. Monitoring was carried out for a continuous period of a year, although instrument failures left certain gaps in the data. Collections were made every 30 minutes, for a total of 48 readings per day. The river station was monitored continuously from April 1 to December 11, 2009, but at this time the flooding of the gallery of the river interrupted the functioning of the thermohygrometer. During the period of effective monitoring, the cave continued to receive regular tourist visitation from Tuesday to Sunday, from 9 am to 5 pm. Th e first set of analyses involves descriptive statistics. These provide averages of central tendency (medium, mode, and average) and variability (height, standard deviation, and variance) for each daily, monthly, and annual series. This procedure made it po ssible to determine the

PAGE 38

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 36 simplification necessary to conclude the other statistical analyses. The mode was used as the main measurement of central tendency for the analysis because the daily series involved great repetition and the standard pattern of vari ability could be identified for each of the parameters. The use of the mode is also justified, as pointed out by Gerardi; Silva (1981), because it is efficient for the graphic presentation of data. The average, on the other hand, was used to present the di sadvantages of asymmetric series (GERARDI; SILVA, 1981), such as was found for the external monitoring points. Statistics were used for the analysis of speleoclimatic parameters (e.g. MANGIN, 1984; LAROCQUE et al., 1998; MANGIN et al., 1999; FERRARI; KARM ANN, 2008), as well as for speleoclimatology (e.g. CALAFORRA et al., 2003; FERNNDEZ CORTS et al., 2006). The statistical analyses of temporal series are initiated with a moving average. In addition to the graphs with the moving averages, the revelation o f greater discrepancies in the original series, led to the plotting of the residuals. Analyses were also made using three temporal functions: autocorrelation, spectral density, and cross correlations. Autocorrelation quantifies the relation of linear depen dence for successive values in an interval of time. The spectral density corresponds to a transformation of the domain of time to that of frequency using a Fourier transformation of the function of autocorrelation. Cross correlation verifies the independen ce of two series of variables, showing whether they are equal to or distinct from each other. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Temperature and relative humidity of air The results from the monitoring of the temperature and relative humidity of the air outs ide the cave are presented in Figure 3. The highest maximum temperatures during the period were registered in the months of September (31.2 C) and November (32.1 C). On the other hand, the minimum temperatures were registered in June (9.7 C) and August (9.5 C). These absolute values cannot be seen in Figure 3, which provides only the moving averages. The month which was the hottest during the period monitored was November, while July and August were the coldest. Measures of central tendency of the ext ernal temperature series revealed an annual average of 19.9 C, with a mode of 17.9 C and a median of 19.9 C. For the relative humidity, the central tendency and dispersion reflected in the mode and median, as well as the maximum, were 99.9%, while the a verage was 98.9% and the low 60.2%. The variation over the year was a spread of 23.4 C for temperature and 39.7%.for humidity. Figure 3 Smoothed series based on moving averages of temperature (red) and relative humidity of air (blue) for the extern al monitoring station for the period from April 1 to December 11, 2009.

PAGE 39

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 37 The various gaps in the original series make a global statistical analysis of the data via temporal series impossible; consequently, the analyses here are limited to the longest un interrupted period of the original series, from July 1 to December 13, 2009, a total of 166 days, which includes part of the winter and part of the summer. In this series, autocorrelation and spectral density were calculated, as presented in Figures 4 and 5 for air temperature Figure 4 Autocorrelation function for entire series (A) and in detail for the first 500 hours (20,8 days) (B) in external station A utocorrelation was used to study the series of 3984h (166 days). The variation shows a cyc lic periodicity of 24 hours, as can be seen in Figure 4A; details can be seen in Figure 4B. The memory effect of the system is approximately 930h (38.75 days), when the r index reaches a value of 0.198. In general, the autocorrelation function shows a decr ease over time, a pattern that is repeated for the other series analyzed by other monitoring stations. Figure 5 Spectral density of series selected at external monitoring station Spectral density shows peaks at 24h and 12h, which is coherent with th e atmospheric dynamics and the results of autocorrelation. However, the high spectral density is close to zero, with the existence of periodic phenomena which extend beyond the time period analyzed. For the monitoring station near the point of collection of data in the river, Figure 6 shows the averages of dispersion and central tendency for the entire series for the air temperature. The relative humidity of the air at this point was constant throughout the monitoring period, with a value of 99.9%, showin g the saturation of the air. The minimal temperature fell to 17.3 C at 9am on June 4, 2009, at this monitoring station, although the temperature here had been close to this for hours (17.4 C between 5:30am and 8:30am). At the other extreme, the high regi stered was 20.2 C at 6:30pm on July 4; this same temperature was registered at other monitoring stations in the same cave. Except for this single elevated value, the maximum registered was 19.3 C. The daily thermal variation was normally less than 1 C. Visual analysis of the graph suggests that the air temperature at this station is correlated with that of the outside air in relation to the minimum. A B

PAGE 40

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 38 Figure 6 Simplified series of air temperature at station in gallery of river, with measures of dispe rsion (maximum and minimum) and central tendency (mode) for the period from April 1 2009 to March 31, 2010. An analysis of the entire temperature series for the air at this station reveals an annual average of 18.28 C, a mode of 18,1 C and a median of 18,2 C. The annual temperature variation was 2.9 C, if the extreme of 20.2 C is included in the analysis, but only 2 C if it is ignored. Any variation in humidity was observed at this station, with all the measures of central tendency being equal to 99 .9% throughout the period monitored. The smoothing of the data involved the adoption of the moving average; the graph of the respective residuals is presented in Figure 7. The smoothed series does not reveal any large differences in relation to the origin al series of data (Figure 7A), suggesting the lack of anthropic influence at this point in the cave. The only exception deviating from the general behavior of the temperature at this point occurred on July 4, reflecting an event of unknown origin also reve aled in Figure 6 and the residuals observed in Figure 7B. The results of the autocorrelation and spectral density functions for the temperature of the air in the gallery of the river are presented in Figure 8. The analysis of the data was applied to a ser ies of 6120h (255 days). The autocorrelation function (Figure 8A) shows a slow decrease, revealing reduced atmospheric dynamics at this point. The memory effect was found after 2266h (94,41 days), when r was equal to 0,2. On the other hand, the spectral de nsity (Figure 8B) shows that the cut off frequency was very low at this point, so that only the visualization of a single 24h cycle of low spectral density was possible. Figure 7 Original series for temperature (T) and relative humidity (R H), showing moving averages (A) and the graphs of the respective residuals from smoothing x moving average (B) measured at the station in the gallery of the river for the period from April 1 to December 11, 2009. A B

PAGE 41

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 39 Figure 8 Functions of autocorr elation (A) and spectral density (B) for the series of air temperature at the station in the gallery of the river. 3.2. Water temperature The results of the monitoring of the temperature of the water with the measures of dispersion and central tendency of the series collected are presented in Figure 9. The temperature of the water was coldest on July 27, with a temperature of 17,1 C between 5:00h and 15:30h. On the other hand, the maximum was registered in November, reaching 19,3 C between 16h on Novem ber 28 and 4h on the 29th. For most of the days monitored, the variation in daily temperature was zero. The only unusual value was registered for July 27, when this variation reached 0.8 C. On a daily scale, the high, low and mode were the same. Table 1 p resents the descriptive statistics for water temperature on a monthly scale. Although the annual series was incomplete and rainfall was not measured, the increase of the temperature of the water during November and December, as well as the decrease in the months of June through August are in agreement with historical rainfall data for the region, with summer (December to February) registering the most rain and winter (July to August) the least (GUTJHAR; TARIFA, 1993). In July, the daily temperature variatio n was the greatest, 0.8 C, which gave rise to a sudden increase in the temperature of the water on July 22. In the same month, a daily variation of 0.6 C was also found, as well as other lesser variations in the range of 0.1 C to 0.2 C on 18 other days of the month; hence, July was the month with the greatest variation in temperature of the Roncador river. Figure 9 Simplified series of water temperature at station in the river gallery, with measures of dispersion (maximum and minimum) and central tendency (mode) for the period from April 1 to December 11, 2009. A B

PAGE 42

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 40 Table 1 Measures of dispersion and central tendency for the water temperature on a monthly scale. Measure April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Maximum (C) 18,40 18,40 18,30 18, 20 18,20 18,40 18,60 19,30 19,20 Average (C) 18,40 18,29 18,23 17,79 17,88 18,22 18,37 18,91 19,07 Mode (C) 18,40 18,30 18,20 18,00 17,90 18,20 18,30 18,90 19,10 Minimum (C) 18,30 18,00 18,10 17,10 17,40 18,10 18,00 18,60 18,90 Daily variation (C) 0,10 0,10 0,10 0,80 0,10 0,20 0,20 0,30 0,10 Standard deviation 0,005 0,066 0,048 0,304 0,191 0,063 0,150 0,154 0,075 On the other hand, on a broader time scale, the temperature variation during the entire period of 8 months and 11 days was minimal, sh owing the great thermal stability of the water. The variation during the entire period was 2.2 C, with an average of 18,29 C and a mode and median of 18,3 C. The temperature series for the water was also analyzed by statistical techniques for temporal s eries. Figure 10 shows the results for the moving average and the autocorrelation function. For the analysis of the temperature of the water, a series of 6120h (255 days) was adopted. The smoothing of the series did not generate any major variation in rel ation to the original data collected (Figure 10A). Even for those days of greatest variation in temperature in July, the residuals generated did not surpass 0.1 C, showing that the variation was gradual and slow. The autocorrelation function (Figure 10B) supports the conclusion of a system with low dynamics of exchange, especially in comparison with the dynamics of the gallery of the river; the memory effect was 1851h (77,12 days). On the other hand, the dynamics of the water was greater than that of the a ir at this point in the cave, as shown by the autocorrelation function of air temperature presented in Figure 8A. Based on the data collected, an attempt was made to identify the existence of a relationship between the variation of the temperature of the water and that of the air in an attempt to verify the role of water as a vector in the dispersion of atmospheric impacts. For this purpose, the results of correlation tests were crossed with those of the temperature series (Figure 11). The temperature of t he air at the point monitored in the gallery of the river had a low correlation with that outside the cave, with a total lag of 435h (Fig. 11A). This values differs from that at other points monitored in the gallery of the river, and even in one of the upp er galleries (LOBO et al., 2009), where the lags differed between 1 and 4 hours. On the other hand, Figure 11B shows the high correlation between the temperatures of the water and air at this point in the gallery of the river, with an index of 0.422 in the zero interval. Figure 10 original temperature series for the water and the moving average (A) and respective autocorrelation function (B) for the period from April 1 to December 11, 2009 A B

PAGE 43

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 41 Figure 11 Cross correlations between external a ir temperature and that at the collection point in the gallery of the river (A) and between that of the air in the gallery of the river and that of the water (B) The time it takes for the water of the Roncador river to traverse the distance from the swal let to the region of the ressurgence varies from 44 to 51h 20min (AYUB, 2007). With this, the water suffers little influence from the external temperature, an influence limited to specific points and the limited variation mentioned in Table 1. The water th us takes on the thermal characteristics of the rock, which, in the long run, governs the thermal system of caves ( FREITAS; SCHMEKAL, 2003; LUETSCHER; JEANNIN, 2004). This is especially true in the case of confined underground aquifers, such as is the case of the Prolas Santana system, which for much of the trajectory is a freatic system without any contact with the underground atmosphere. On the other hand, the low correlation between the air temperatures outside and inside the cave at this point reveals a limited gas exchange, which may be caused either by the rise of masses of warmer air to the upper galleries or by the gradual difference in air density generated by the differences in temperature and relative humidity, which causes a certain atmospheric i solation along part of the gallery of the river, and which may indeed extend for the entire trajectory after this point. These results show the importance of water temperature in the maintenance of the stationary state of the thermal system of the cave of Santana after this stretch of the river gallery, where a buffer effect on temperature is introduced These results corroborate those of Pflitsch; Piasecki (2003), who affirm that the water is much more influential in thermal alterations than are air curren ts, since the water has a greater capacity for the retention of heat. As a result of this behavior, it seems that hypothesis that the impacts generated by visitation of the downstream gallery of the river and that of the upper galleries should not be exte nded to the deeper regions of the cave. This hypothesis is in agreement with what is known about the movement of masses of air as a function of the direction of water flow (CIGNA, 1967) or even variation in the depth of bodies of water, which show an effec t of air movement resembling a piston (PULIDO BOSCH et al., 1997). The effect of the water temperature on the dynamics of the circulation of energy in the cave of Santana is clear. In caves with active rivers, the courses of the water are the main determin ants in the energy balance (see article by Arrigo Cigna in this volume of the journal). In the cave of Santana the data presented show the influence of water in the energy balance for a large part of the cave, which complements with details the results of the studies of Lobo; Zago (2007) on the energy flow in a cave from the perspective of the analysis of Heaton (1986). This influence decreases in importance in the regions close to the resurgence and in the upper galleries, where the energy balance is stro ngly influenced by air currents. 4. CONCLUSIONS Based on this study in the cave of Santana, it is possible to conclude that: The temperature of the water exerts an influence on the temperature of the air in the gallery of the river up to 300m from the re surgence. Given the dynamics of the Roncador river and the physical shape of the galleries of the cave of Santana these results can be extended to the A B

PAGE 44

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 42 gallery of the river upstream from the monitoring station. Based on the mechanism of thermal regulation linking the water in the Roncador river and the atmosphere of the cave, the impacts from visitation to downstream areas and in the upper galleries are not the same as those observed for this point and upstream from it. Therefore, monitoring the temperature of the water has proved to be an efficient tool for speleotourist management, making it possible to establish a limit for sustainability in the face of impacts from touristic visitation. Its use can contribute to the establishment of hydrothermal zones in side a cave with distinct patterns of variation in temperature and relative humidity. Moreover, the patterns of water temperature identified may also contribute to the classification of the levels of energy circulation in a cave, thus serving as an importa nt indicator for speleological management and of dispersion and/or accumulation of the impacts of visitation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the suggestions of prof. Emerson Galvani (FFLCH/USP), which have contributed to an improve ment in the original manuscript, and also prof. Linda Gentry El Dash (Unicamp) for the translation of the final text REFERENCES AYUB, S. Aplicao de rhodamina WT no estudo hidrolgico de sistemas crsticos em Iporanga, estado de So Paulo. Espeleo Tema Campinas, v.19, p.1 14, 2007. BUECHER, R.H. Microclimate study of Kartchner caverns, Arizona. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies Huntsville, v.61, n.2, p.108 120, 1999. CARRASCO, F.; VADILLO, I.; LIN, C.; ANDREO, B.; DURN, J.J. Control of environmenta l parameters for management and conservation of Nerja cave (Malaga, Spain). Acta Carsologica Ljubljana, v.31, n.1, p.105 122, 2002. CIGNA, A. A. An analytical study of air circulation in caves. International Journal of Speleology Bologna, v.3B, n.1/2, p. 42 54, 1967. CIGNA, A.A.; FORTI, P. The environmental impact assessment of a tourist cave. In: UIS (ed.) CAVE TOURISM INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM AT 170 ANNIVERSARY OF POSTOJNSKA JAMA, 1988, Postojna (Yugoslavia), Proceedings. Postojna: UIS, 1988. p. 29 38. DU BLYANSKY, V.N.; DUBLYANSKY, Y.V. The problem of condensation in karst studies. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies Huntsville, v.60, n.1, p.3 17, 1998. FERNNDEZ CORTS, A.; CALAFORRA, J.M.; SNCHEZ MARTOS, F. Spatiotemporal analysis of air condition as a t ool for the environmental management of a show cave (Cueva del Agua, Spain). Atmospheric Environment v.40, p. 7378 7394, 2006. FERRARI, J.A.; KARMANN, I. Comportamento hidrodinmico de sistemas crsticos na bacia do rio Betari, municpio de Iporanga SP. G eologia USP Srie Cientfica So Paulo, v.8, n.1, p.1 13, 2008. FREITAS, C.R. de; SCHMEKAL, A. Condensation as a microclimate process: measurement, numerical simulation and prediction in the Glowworm cave, New Zealand. International Journal of Climatology v.23, p.557 575, 2003. GERARDI, L.H. de O.; SILVA, B.C.N. Quantificao em geografia. So Paulo: Difel, 1981. 161 p. GPME GRUPO PIERRE MARTIN DE ESPELEOLOGIA. Mapa da caverna de Santana. So Paulo: GPME, 2009. 1 mapa. Escala 1:500.

PAGE 45

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 43 GUTJAHR, M.R.; TARIF A, J.R. Critrios relacionados a compartimentao climtica de bacias hidrogrficas: a bacia do rio Ribeira de Iguape SP. In: SIMP"SIO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA FSICA APLICADA, 5, 1993, So Paulo. Anais. So Paulo: USP, 1993. p.447 449. HEATON, T. Caves: a tremendous range in energy environments on earth. National Speleological Society News Huntsville, v.08, n.44, p.301 304, 1986. IGC INSTITUTO DE GEOCINCIAS DA USP. Mapa da caverna de Santana. So Paulo: IGc/USP, 1991. 1 mapa. Escala 1:500. KARMANN, I. E voluo e dinmica atual do sistema crstico do Alto Vale do Rio Ribeira de Iguape, Sudeste do estado de So Paulo. 1994. 228 p. Tese (Doutorado em Geoqumica) Instituto de Geocincias, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo. 1994. LAROCQUE, M.; MANGIN, A. ; RAZACK, M.; BANTON, O. Contribution of correlation and spectral analyses to the regional study of a large karst aquifer (Charente, France). Journal of Hydrology v.205, p.217 231, 1998. LOBO. H.A.S. Mtodo para avaliao do potencial espeleoturstico do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena, MS. Caderno Virtual de Turismo Rio de Janeiro, v.7, n.3, p.99 110, 2007. LOBO, H.A.S. Capacidade de carga real (CCR) da caverna de Santana, PETAR SP e indicaes para o seu manejo turstico. Geocincias Rio Claro, v .27, n.3, p.369 385, 2008. LOBO H.A.S.; ZAGO S. Classificao dos nveis de circulao de energia no circuito turstico da Caverna de Santana PETAR Iporanga, SP. In: ENCONTRO BRASILEIRO DE ESTUDOS DO CARSTE, 2, So Paulo Brasil Resumos expandidos e simples. So Paulo: Redespeleo, 2007. p.113 122. LOBO, H.A.S.; PERINOTTO, J.A. de J.; POUDOU, S. Anlise de agrupamentos aplicada variabilidade trmica da atmosfera subterrnea: contribuio ao zoneamento ambiental microclimtico de cavernas. Revista d e Estudos Ambientais Blumenau, v.11, n.1, p.22 35, 2009. LOBO, H.A.S.; MARINHO, M. de A.; TRAJANO, E.; SCALEANTE, J.A.B.; ROCHA, B.N.; SCALEANTE, O.A.F.; LATERZA, F.V. Projection of tourist scenario integrated with environmental fragility maps: a framewor k to the provisory tourist carrying capacity in caves in Brazil. 2011. Article in analysis for publication. LUETSCHER, M.; JEANNIN, P.Y. Temperature distribution in karst systems: the role of air and water fluxes. Terra Nova v.16, n.6, p.344 350, 2004. MA NGIN, A. Pour une meilleure connaissance des systems hydrologiques partir des analyses corrlatoire et spectrale. Journal of Hydrology v.67, p.25 43, 1984. dun systme naturel (le exemple de la grotte prhistorique de Gargas, Pyrnes franaises). Sciences de la Terre et des Plantes v.328, n.5, p.295 301, 1999. MARINHO, M. de A. Contribuio geomorfologia crstica do Vale do Betari, Iporanga Apia, So Paulo. 1992. 73 p. Trabalho de concluso de curso (Graduao em Geografia) Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Cincias Humanas, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo. 1992. PIASECKI, J.; SAWINSKI, T.; STRUG, K.; ZELINKA, J. Selected characteristics of t he microclimate of the Demnovsk Ice cave (Slovakia). In: ZELINKA, J. (Ed.) INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ICE CAVES, 2, Liptovsky Mikulas, 2006. Proceedings. Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovak Caves Administration, 2006. p.50 61.

PAGE 46

Lobo M onitori ng of water temperature of the R oncador river Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 44 PFLITSCH, A.; PIASECKI, J. Detection o f an airflow system in Niedzwiedzia (Bear) cave, Kletno, Poland. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies v.65, n.3, p.160 173, 2003. PFLITSCH, A.; PIASECKI, J.; SAWINSKI, T.; STRUG, K.; ZELINKA, J. Development and degradation of ice crystals sediment in Dobsins ka ice cave (Slovakia). In: ZELINKA, J. (Ed.) INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ICE CAVES, 2, Liptovsky Mikulas, 2006. Proceedings. LIptovsky Mikulas, Slovak Caves Administration, 2006. p.38 49. PULIDO BOSCH, A.; MARTN ROSALES, W.; L"PEZ CHICANO, M.; RODRGUEZ NA VARRO, M.; VALLEJOS, A. Human impact in a tourist karstic cave (Aracena, Spain). Environmental Geology Berlin, v.31 n.3/4, p.142 149, 1997. ROCHA, B.N. Estudo microclimtico do ambiente de cavernas, Parque Estadual Intervales, SP. 2010. 107 p. Dissertao (Mestrado em Geografia Fsica) Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Cincias Humanas, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo. 2010. VIANA JNIOR, O. Hidroqumica, hidrologia e geoqumica isotpica (O e H) da fcies de percolao vadosa autognica, caverna San tana, Municpio de Iporanga, Estado de So Paulo. 2002. 113 p. Dissertao (Mestrado em Geoqumica) Instituto de Geocincias, Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo. 2002 Fluxo editorial : R ecebido em: 04 03 .20 1 1 Corrigido em: 1 9.04 .2011 Aprovado em: 23 0 5 .201 1 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally /formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Brazilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleologia (SBE) www.cavernas.org.br/turism o.asp

PAGE 47

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 45 O REGISTRO FOTOGRFICO APLICADO EM ESTUDOS AMBIENTAIS NA GRUTA DO LAGO AZUL EM BONITO/MS: RETROSPECTIVA DE DUAS DCADAS 1989 A 2010 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD APPLIED IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AT THE GRUTA DO LAGO AZUL IN BONITO /MS: RETROSPECTIVE OF TWO DEC ADES FROM 1989 TO 2010 Maria de Ftima Bregolato Rubira de ASSIS (1) ; Maria de Ftima Lessa BELL (1); Marina Brun BUCKER (1); Dra. Mercedes Abid MERCANTE (2) & Dr. Silvio Carlos RODRIGUES (3) (1) Mestranda em Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Regional Universida de Anhanguera Uniderp (2) Professora da Universidade Anhanguera Uniderp (3) Professor da Universidade Federal de Uberlndia MG Ufu Campo Grande MS fatimabrubira@hotmail.com ; lessabelle@ibest.com.br ; mbbucker@terra.com.br ; mercante@terra.com.br ; silgel@ufu.com.br Resumo Este artigo pretende mostrar o uso da fotografia como recurso para o registro da paisagem, a fim de documentar as transformaes ocorridas durante um determinado perodo. As fotografias so da Gruta do Lago Azul, municpio de Bonito/MS, importante atrao turs tica da Serra da Bodoquena. A regio foi escolhida para demonstrar a importncia do uso de imagens para registros como forma de comparao e demonstrao da evoluo da conscincia ambiental no local. Dessa forma, por intermdio da visitao Gruta do Lag o Azul, foram feitas fotografias do local que, comparadas com outras fotografias retiradas no final da dcada dos anos de 1980, nos permitiu uma anlise comparativa da paisagem em seus aspectos geogrficos, humanos e culturais Key Words : imagem fotogrfi ca; turismo ecolgico; preservao ambiental Abstract This paper aims to show the use of photography as a means to record the landscape in order to document the changes occurring during a given period. Photographs are from the Gruta do Lago Azul, Municip ality of Bonito/MS, is the main natural tourist attraction in the Serra da Bodoquena. The region was chosen to demonstrate the importance of using images for records as a means of comparison and demonstration of the evolution of environmental awareness at the site. Thus, through the visitation to the Gruta do Lago Azul photographs were taken of the site, which compared with other photographs taken in the late 1980s, allowed us a comparative analysis of the landscape, in its geographic features, human and c ultural rights Palavras Chave : Photographic image; ecological tourism; environmental preservation 1. INTRODUO O presente artigo resultado de uma atividade da disciplina Prtica de Campo, do curso de Mestrado em Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Region al da Universidade Uniderp Anhanguera, em parceria com a Universidade Federal de Uberlndia MG, realizada na regio da Serra da Bodoquena MS. Entre os vrios locais visitados, foi escolhida para o estudo a Gruta do Lago Azul, localizada no municpio de Bon ito/MS, um dos principais pontos tursticos da regio. A imagem fotogrfica da gruta usada pela mdia como atrativo turstico do municpio por ter sido uma das primeiras formas de divulgao do turismo em Bonito. O primeiro folder elaborado em 1989, tra z na folha de rosto sua imagem, como mostrado na figura 1. Por ter sido uma das primeiras formas de divulgao pela mdia, hoje pode ser usada como um exemplo para avaliar a melhoria decorrente da regulamentao do processo de visitao da Gruta e as mudan as da conscincia ambiental. Segundo Boni e Moreschi (2007, p. 138): forma de obter registro que serve como fonte escolhido como uma forma apropriada para documentar a evoluo de cuida dos ambientais no referido ponto turstico. H trabalhos cientficos que apresentam imagens do local, tais como Boggiani (2007, 2008) e Sabino (2003), acompanhadas de explicaes

PAGE 48

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 46 detalhadas sobre as caractersticas geolgicas e geogrficas, fundamentais pa ra qualquer estudo, inclusive para aqueles em stios espeleolgicos pela raridade de patrimnios tombados em nosso pas. Figura 1: imagem digitalizada do primeiro folder dos atrativos tursticos de Bonito/MS (1989). A visita ao local, acompanhada das explicaes de professores e guias especializados, proporcionou aos participantes a possibilidade de registros das caractersticas do lugar observado, visando coleta de dados para estudos ambientais, envolvendo tpicos geogrficos e geolgicos, biolgico s, ecolgicos e sociais. Diante da relevncia da Gruta do Lago Azul como patrimnio histrico, destacamos a necessidade e a importncia dos registros fotogrficos datados dos ltimos vinte anos para avaliar a possibilidade da associao da prtica do ecot urismo aos cuidados e respeito aos recursos naturais. Segundo Rouill (2009, apud SANTOS, 2009 p. 2 tempo e sempre, cincia e arte, registro e enunciado, ndice e cone, referncia e composio, aqui e l, atual e virtual, documento e expresso, funo e Como se observa na figura 2, o uso do recurso fotogrfico possibilita ao pesquisador o registro de fsseis para estudo cientfico no piso do lago subterrneo da Gruta do Lago Azul sem a necessidade de toc ar ou remover o objeto de estudo. Na atualidade, na qual o avano das tecnologias digitais promove importante melhoria na preciso e detalhamento na produo de imagens, o recurso da fotografia torna possvel o registro e o estudo cientfico de determinad a realidade existente, sem necessidade de alter la, especialmente em ambientes sensveis ao antrpica. Figura 2: Imagem do piso do lago subterrneo da Gruta do Lago Azul, com ossadas desarticuladas de mamferos fsseis do Pleistoceno (fotografia Is mael Escote). MS 2008). 2. REA DE ESTUDO A Gruta do Lago Azul um dos mais importantes atrativos tursticos do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. O nome se deve ao lago subterrneo cujas guas adquirem a cor azul por conta da incidncia dos raios solares. A formao geolgica do Planalto da Bodoquena explica parte da plasticidade das surgncias. Estudos mostram que o subsolo do planalto formado por rochas calcrias pu ras, originadas h 550 milhes de anos. A pureza e a antiguidade das rochas tornam as guas lmpidas (BOGGIANI, 1999). O calcrio dissolvido na gua absorve e decanta as poucas impurezas restantes, tornando a gua mais cristalina ainda. Em alguns locais, a visibilidade debaixo da gua chega a 60 m, uma das guas mais transparentes do mundo (SABINO; ANDRADE, 2002 apud SABINO; ANDRADE, 2003, p.2 ). A Gruta do Lago Azul, importante atrativo turstico, revelada na figura 3, insere se no contexto geolgico da Se rra da Bodoquena, onde so identificados dois compartimentos geomorfolgicos principais: o Planalto da Bodoquena e a Depresso do Rio Miranda. Em ambos: [...] a paisagem influenciada pela presena das rochas carbonticas do Grupo Corumb, com inmeras c avernas, dolinas e demais feies tpicas de relevo crstico. Nesse contexto a Gruta do Lago Azul situa se

PAGE 49

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 47 na Depresso do Rio Miranda em dolomitos do Grupo Corumb (Formao Bocaina), em domnio de plancies crsticas com morros residuais (SALLUN FILHO; KARMANN, 2007 apud BOGGIANI, 2008, p. 4). Figura 3: Aspecto do lago subterrneo ao fundo da Gruta do Lago Azul (Bonito/MS) que adquire a cor azul sob incidncia dos raios solares. Fonte: Artigo Onde a luz do sol se torn BOGGIANI, 2008). Foto J Sabino. Boggiani (2008), em uma breve retrospectiva histrica, esclarece que o incio da visitao turstica ao local se deu em 1970. No mesmo ano foram feitos estudos para utilizao da gua, porm a idia no prosperou. Em 1978 foi encaminhada pelo Secretrio de Estado proposta de tombamento das Grutas do Lago Azul e Nossa Senhora Aparecida, cujo processo foi aprovado pelo IPHAN Instituto de Patrimnio Histrico e Artstico Nacional. Em abril de 1982, ambas foram adqui ridas pelo governo do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Em 1984, sob a coordenao do arquiteto Clayton Ferreira Lino foram realizados, por uma equipe multidisciplinar, levantamentos topogrficos do local e apresentado um plano de manejo turstico da regio. F oi ento construdo um caminhamento no interior da Gruta do Lago Azul com blocos calcrios, para facilitar a visitao turstica. (BOGGIANI, 2008). A gruta est localizada entre os crregos Anhumas e Taquaral, a uma distncia de 19 km da cidade de Bonito que, por sua vez, fica a 280km da capital de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande. Alm da paisagem subterrnea, a gruta tem importncia cientfica porque, em 1992, a Expedio Franco Brasileira de Espeleomergulho, coordenada pelo francs Mathias Rossello e po r Augusto Auler, hidrogelogo membro do Grupo Bambu de Minas Gerais, encontrou fsseis de um bicho preguia gigante do perodo pleistoceno (10 mil a 1,6 milhes de anos), de um tigre dente de sabre e de um servdeo (ancestral do veado ou corsa), segundo o Tambm foram encontrados, alm dos fsseis de mamferos pleistocnicos, minerais raros e crustceos endmicos. Figura 4: Localizao e acesso Gruta do Lago Azul. onito, MS A Gruta do Lago Azul composta de um grande salo principal de 224m NW SE por 184m NE SW, e 150 metros de desnvel que, em sua maior parte, encontra se submerso. Na entrada, h o Salo do La go, com 143m de extenso e 50m de desnvel, com piso rico em espeleotemas e teto com estalactites esparsas. A entrada circular tem aproximadamente 40m de dimetro, permitindo entrada de luz at o lago. Prximo ao nvel do lago encontra se a Salo do Quarti nho, com 10m de

PAGE 50

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 48 comprimento. Tem se ainda um salo lateral Salo Superior no extremo oeste da caverna, adornado com estalactites, estalagmites e espeleotemas, estes tambm presentes no Salo dos Corais. (BOGGIANI, 2008.). Os espeleotemas tm crescimen to bastante lento, qual seja, cerca de um milmetro por ano. Como revelam as variaes climticas do local, so amparados por proteo legal contra qualquer depredao. A Gruta do Lago Azul e a Gruta Nossa Senhora foram tombadas pelo Instituto de Patrimni o Histrico e Artstico Nacional IPHAN, em 13/10/1978, gozando de proteo tambm do IBAMA. Em 11/6/2001, foi criado pelo governo do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, na rea das cavernas, o Monumento Natural da Gruta do Lago Azul, uma unidade de conservao estadual, porm ainda no demarcada. (BOGGIANI, 2007). Em virtude da falta de estrutura, to somente a Gruta do Lago Azul est autorizada a receber turistas. A visitao administrada pela Prefeitura do municpio de Bonito. A constituio da Gruta do Lag o Azul apresenta um salo principal, com piso inclinado, e um lago subterrneo ao fundo, com 50 metros de profundidade e outros sales secundrios. Contm uma entrada circular com 40 metros de dimetro, o que possibilita a entrada de luz natural. Em razo da incidncia dos raios solares no lago, mais precisamente nos meses de setembro a fevereiro, as guas adquirem uma colorao azul intensa, o que motivou a denominao dada gruta. (BOGGIANI, 2007). A visitao Gruta ocorre com acompanhamento de guias credenciados, em nmero limitado de turistas, a fim de minimizar os impactos ambientais provocados ao local. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo da capacidade de carga de visitao turstica coordenada pelo professor Paulo Cesar Boggiani no perodo de 26/6 /1999 a 29/09/2000. Houve o monitoramento da temperatura e da umidade da caverna, interna e externamente, sem que fosse necessria a interrupo da visitao turstica. Segundo consta do Estudo de Impacto Ambiental e Relatrio de Impacto Ambiental (EIA RI MA, 2007) da Gruta, o equilbrio da temperatura depende da quantidade de energia recebida/perdida. A transferncia de energia pode se dar: por conduo meio direto (aquecimento do solo); por conveco pela movimentao do ar no interior da caverna; por radiao luz solar. Quanto maior a abertura da caverna, maior a troca de energia entre os ambientes subterrneo e superficial. As cavernas, pelo fluxo relativamente baixo de energia, so consideradas ambientes fechados, ressalvando se aquelas que aprese ntam rios subterrneos ou as que sofrem inundaes peridicas. O monitoramento da temperatura e umidade permite determinar a capacidade de carga real (CCR) por intermdio do Mtodo de Cifuentes. Ainda segundo o EIA RIMA (2007), os dados confirmaram que, d evido grande dimenso e abertura para o meio externo, a Gruta do Lago Azul no sofre influncia da visitao no que se refere variao da temperatura e umidade. Ressalta se, porm, que a identificao da influncia da visitao foi dificultada pelo fat o de ela coincidir com o horrio em que naturalmente a atmosfera da caverna sofre aumento da temperatura ocasionado pela variao da temperatura externa. (EIA RIMA, 2007). O caminhamento percorrido no interior da Gruta foi construdo em 1984, com blocos de calcrio rejuntados com argamassa e no h corrimo de apoio. A aparncia rudimentar proposital para no provocar impacto na paisagem interna da caverna. Os visitantes, acompanhados de um guia, descem em grupos de quinze. A visitao feita no perodo diurno e leva em torno de uma hora e meia. O percurso o mesmo tanto na subida como na descida. Permanecem simultaneamente no interior da caverna no mximo trs grupos que fazem quatro paradas durante o perodo da descida, quando ento so fornecidas info rmaes sobre essa atrao turstica. A ltima parada fica a dez metros acima do nvel do lago, no sendo permitido chegar at ele. Segundo o EIA RIMA (2007) da Gruta do Lago Azul (em fase de anlise pelo CECAVI IBAMA), a Lei Municipal 689/1995 tornou ob rigatria a visitao dos passeios somente com acompanhamento do guia de turismo, sendo at hoje as grutas de Bonito as nicas no Brasil com este nvel de exigncia. O acesso gruta feito percorrendo uma mata que, segundo o EIA RIMA (2007), pode ser ut ilizada como fonte de informao nas visitaes tursticas. J na rea sobre a gruta, a diversidade e a densidade foram muito baixas quando comparadas com a rea de acesso. Constatou se que o local j sofreu ao do fogo com destruio da vegetao origin al. Possivelmente o fogo e outras atividades anteriormente desenvolvidas na rea causaram o empobrecimento da vegetao e a diminuio da cobertura vegetal. Da a necessidade de recuperao da vegetao pela possibilidade de degradao irreversvel no inte rior da caverna, uma vez que a quantidade de vegetao pode influenciar na

PAGE 51

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 49 infiltrao de gua para o interior. Tambm importante seria o aumento das reas protegidas no entorno da gruta para diminuir o efeito de borda causado por atividades agrcolas. O e studo do professor Boggiani (2008) ressalta a importncia de um caminhamento fixo para a visitao de cavernas, favorecendo o clculo de sua capacidade de carga, a proteo contra o pisoteamento de certos espaos da fauna, bem como evitam se locais com ris co de contgio de doenas. Foi sugerido um novo caminho e tambm a criao de um museu para possibilitar ao visitante a 3. METODOLOGIA A imagem fotogrfica da Gruta do Lago Azul utilizada como atrativo turstico do municpio de Bonito/MS. Por ter sido uma das primeiras formas de divulgao, hoje pode ser usada como recurso para avaliar a melhoria decorrente da regulamentao do processo de visitao da Gruta e as muda nas de conscincia ambiental. Representa o marco inicial do turismo na regio da Serra de Bodoquena. Para a realizao do presente artigo, foram pesquisados outros artigos cientficos sobre a Gruta do Lago Azul, o EIA RIMA (2007) do Monumento Natural da Gruta do Lago Azul Bonito/MS, artigos sobre turismo na regio de Bonito e estudos sobre o uso de fotografia. O registro fotogrfico, pela sua veracidade de comunicao, foi escolhido como a melhor forma para documentar a evoluo de cuidados ambientais naq uele ponto turstico. Na visitao Gruta do Lago Azul, realizada no dia 25 de junho de 2010, dentro da Prtica de Campo foram tiradas pelos alunos algumas fotos digitais que possibilitaram comparaes com registros fotogrficos tradicionais, constantes d e acervo pessoal de uma das pesquisadoras, datado de julho de 1989. Na primeira etapa do trabalho, para o embasamento terico, foram consultados artigos cientficos essenciais compreenso do tema, haja vista que o registro fotogrfico da imagem no se e xplica por si s, assim, a contextualizao se faz necessria. Um estudo em fontes primrias e secundrias sobre ecoturismo, preservao ambiental, uso de imagens fotogrficas e histria da regio da Serra de Bodoquena MS foi realizado para melhor anlise das fotografias segunda etapa do trabalho. Em um terceiro momento, foi idealizada e realizada a construo do artigo com vistas a revelar a importncia desse recurso em trabalhos cientficos. A proposta de apresentar imagens fotogrficas em dois espaos temporais para anlise interpretativa permitiu a percepo na mudana da paisagem decorrente da observncia legislao ambiental. As fotos do ano de 1989 foram tiradas com uma cmera Yashica analgica, de uso domstico (modelo da poca) e que utilizava filme Kodak. Na atualidade as fotografias foram tiradas em cmeras digitais, apresentando notvel qualidade de imagem. Foram tambm coletadas imagens produzidas em artigos cientficos e folders tursticos. 4. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSO As fotos escolhidas e t ransformadas em objeto de anlise se referem a dois momentos, a saber, 1989 e 2010, os quais registram a visitao na Gruta do Lago Azul. No decorrer desse perodo, inmeras discusses foram feitas acerca da preservao da natureza e da necessidade da educ ao ambiental para que a prtica do turismo ecolgico no contribua para a degradao do meio ambiente. O acesso Gruta h vinte anos se dava de forma bem mais agressiva ao meio ambiente. Era permitido aos turistas chegarem com seus veculos at a grade de proteo da entrada. Atualmente foi construda uma base de apoio recepo em uma distncia planejada para possibilitar a recuperao e proteo da biodiversidade do entorno da gruta, como j mencionado. Como mostram as figuras 5, 6, 7 e 8 h necess idade de percorrer uma trilha dentro da mata at a grade de proteo. Na recepo so fornecidos os equipamentos de proteo e orientaes aos visitadores, como apresenta a sequncia de figuras: Figura 5: caminhamento de acesso entre a recepo e a grut a.Fonte: BUCKER, Marina (2010).

PAGE 52

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 50 Figura 6: caminhamento de acesso entre a recepo e a gruta. Fonte: BUCKER, Marina (2010). Figura 7: grade de proteo ao acesso gruta. Fonte: BUCKER, Marina (2010). Figura 8: entrada da Gruta do Lago Azul. Fonte: BUCKER, Marina (2010). O caminhamento nos sales da Gruta tambm sofreu mudanas significativas. As pessoas que aparecem nas imagens do ano de 1989, adultos e crianas so objetos de comparao e servem de parmetro para anlise quanto s modificaes oco rridas na regulamentao da visitao com vistas preservao do patrimnio (figura 9). Figura 9: presena de uma criana menor de 05 anos. Fonte: BELL, Ftima (1989). Nesse acervo, observa se que, no ano de 1989, o acesso de visitadores se dava sem nenhum equipamento de segurana, nem calados apropriados. Era permitido o acesso de crianas sem qualquer restrio etria. Na atualidade, no se permite a entrada de menores de 05 anos na Gruta do Lago Azul. O turismo na cidade de Bonito intensificou se nos anos de 1990 e tornou se um dos principais destinos do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Dessa maneira, a preocupao com a alterao da paisagem pela ao do homem fez com que o nmero de visitaes, a limitao da quantidade de pessoas por grupo e a pres ena obrigatria de guia turstico para orientaes e esclarecimentos fossem obrigatrias, evitando acidentes tais como da figura 10 a seguir, que registra uma estalagmite quebrada. Figura 10: imagem da estalagmite quebrada na Gruta do lago Azul. Fonte: BELL, Ftima (2010). Nesse sentido, a educao ambiental se faz necessria no intuito de valorizar as reas naturais da regio, bem como para evidenciar populao a importncia de preservar o meio ambiente, partindo do pressuposto de que os recursos n aturais so

PAGE 53

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 51 esgotveis. Dentro desse processo, a documentao, por meio do registro fotogrfico, da agresso natureza provocada pela ao antrpica um instrumento que pode ser usado de forma a sensibilizar a populao com vistas sustentabilidade do p laneta. Segundo Sabino e Andrade (2003): A atividade turstica, quando mal conduzida, pode afetar negativamente os componentes sensveis do ambiente (e.g., Bratton, 1985; Garber & Burger, 1995; Cole, 1997). Para a prtica correta do ecoturismo, devem ser e stabelecidos protocolos de visitao que visam minimizar o conflito entre recreao e conservao da natureza (Cole, 1993), preparando o visitante para compreender e respeitar as caractersticas dos ambientes (Niefer & Silva, 1999; Mitraud, 2001; Sabino & Andrade, 2002). O acesso ao Lago Azul foi modificado, como se observa nos registros fotogrficos. A descida, em 1989, se dava pela lateral direita e era permitido chegar at o lago (figura 11). Na atualidade, a descida feita pela esquerda (figura 12) e os visitantes so proibidos de atingir as proximidades do lago. Figura 11: caminhamento de acesso ao lago da gruta. Fonte: BELL, Ftima (1989). Ao retomar a imagem de 21 anos atrs (figura 11), percebe se que no havia a presena de grupos organizado s com controle de visitao. Tambm no se observa a presena do guia no grupo e nem a utilizao de equipamentos de segurana, como capacetes. A figura 12, registro feito durante a aula de prtica de campo, permite observar os alunos do curso usam capacet e branco, esto acompanhados do guia, fazendo a visitao dentro dos padres de segurana estabelecidos. Figura 12: caminhamento de acesso ao lago da gruta. Fonte: PAIVA, Izabela (2010). Ao retomar a imagem de 21 anos atrs (figura 11), percebe se que no havia a presena de grupos organizados com controle de visitao. Tambm no se observa a presena do guia no grupo e nem a utilizao de equipamentos de segurana, como capacetes. A figura 12, registro feito durante a aula de prtica de campo, permite observar os alunos do curso usam capacete branco, esto acompanhados do guia, fazendo a visitao dentro dos padres de segurana estabelecidos. Considerando que a fotografia pode representar a realidade presa na imagem, como objeto de estudo pode se tran sformar em instrumento capaz de, mediante as informaes percebidas, possibilitar a anlise, comparao e avaliao das paisagens. Os registros abaixo nos permitem comparar a alterao na vegetao da entrada da gruta. Todos os registros foram feitos na es tao do inverno ms de julho sendo que as fotos, figuras 13, 14 e 15 so de julho de 1989 e as figuras 16 e 17 so registros do ano de 2010. Os registros fotogrficos de paisagem, em um primeiro momento, prendem a ateno pela beleza cnica neles ref letida. Como se observa, algumas medidas de proteo foram tomadas para evitar que o pisoteamento destrusse a vegetao. Por isso, reforamos a necessidade de um conhecimento pr existente da realidade representada na imagem, elemento indispensvel para a nlise interpretativa do que se v. A comparao entre as imagens permite constatar que a prtica do turismo, dentro de um aparato legal normas e legislao somado educao ambiental, protege a natureza.

PAGE 54

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 52 Figura 13: foto da entrada da Gruta. Fonte : BELLE, Ftima (1989) Figura 14: foto do caminhamento dentro da gruta. Fonte: BELLE, Ftima (1989) Figura 15: imagem lateral da entrada da gruta. Fonte: BELLINCANTA, Joel (1989). Figura 16: imagem da entrada da gruta. Fonte: GOMES, Suellem (2010). Figura 17: Imagem da lateral direita da Gruta do Lago Azul. Fonte: GOMES, Suellem ( 2010). 5. CONSIDERA'ES FINAIS O uso da fotografia, como material de resgate, suporte de anlise, documento ou como objeto de estudos, permitiu constatar as transforma es ocorridas na visitao da Gruta do Lago Azul, principalmente com relao ao respeito e preservao do meio ambiente. A proposta contributiva deste artigo foi buscar revelar que o registro fotogrfico um recurso excelente como metodologia adequada de pesquisa e anlise comparativa das transformaes ocorridas na paisagem num determinado espao de tempo. Os resultados demonstraram que as imagens no se prestam to somente contemplao, mas tambm para despertar no observador a conscincia

PAGE 55

Assis, et al. O registro fotogrfico aplicado em estudos ambientais na gruta... Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4(1), 2011 53 ambiental, envolvimento, preocupao com a degradao, enfim, desejo de preservao. Constatou se que a utilizao de imagens fotogrficas mais uma ferramenta de resgate, suporte de anlise, documento, ou ainda, como objeto de estudo, pretende explicar ou demonstr ar as alteraes sofridas na natureza, quando o turismo ecolgico no respeita o meio ambiente. Nesse sentido, a inteno desse artigo foi demonstrar que, por intermdio do uso de imagens fotogrficas, um recurso bastante significativo e pouco explorado em educao ambiental, pode se desenvolver um trabalho de conscincia ambiental. Mediante as imagens fotogrficas possvel constatar que o turismo ecolgico deve ser realizado sem, contudo, deixar de respeitar a natureza. A anlise de imagens fotogrficas da Gruta do Lago Azul possibilitou verificar que, com normas de segurana e com estudos cientficos para avaliar a capacidade de carga da gruta, torna se possvel a prtica do turismo e o trabalho para o desenvolvimento de uma conscincia ambiental REF ERNCIAS BOGGIANI, P. C. et al,. Definio de Capacidade de Carga Turstica das cavernas do monumento natural da gruta do lago azul. In: Revista Geocincia So Paulo, Unesp, vol.26, n. 4, p. 336 348, 2007. BOGGIANI, P. C. et al. 2008. Gruta do Lago Azul, Bonito, MS Onde a luz do sol se torna azul. In: WINGE, M. (Ed.) et al. Stios Geolgicos e Paleontolgicos do Brasil Disponvel em: http://www.unb.br/ig/sigep/sitio107/sitio107pdf Acesso em : 20 de junho de 2010 BONI, P. C.; MORESCHI, B. M. Fotoetnografia: a importncia da fotografia para o resgate entogrfico. Doc On line n.03, dez. 2007, Disponvel em: http://www.doc.ub i.pt/03/artigo_paulo_cesar_boni.pdf Acesso em 20 set.10. BRASILTURIS Jornal, maro/2 quinzena 1993, p. 15. EIA RIMA Estudo de Impacto Ambiental e Relatrio de Impacto Ambiental e Plano de Manejo Espeleolgico da Gruta do Lago Azul Monumento Natural G ruta do Lago Azul, Bonito MS. Complementado em junho de 2007 (terceira verso). SABINO, J.; ANDRADE, L. P. Uso e conservao da ictiofauna no ecoturismo da regio de Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul: o mito da sustentabilidade ecolgica no Rio Baa Bonita (Aqu rio Natural de Bonito). Biota Neotropica v. 3, n 2, 2003. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v3n2/pt/abstract?point of view+BN00403022003 SANTOS, A. C. L. dos A fotografia entre documento e expresso Disponvel em: http://compos.com.puc rio.br/media/gt10_ana_carolina_lima_dos_santos.pdf Acesso em: 05 ago. 2010 Fluxo ed itorial : R ecebido em: 10 02 .20 1 1 Corrigido em: 23.05.2011 Aprovado em: 09 0 6 .201 1 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally /formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Brazilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleologia (SBE) www.cavernas.org.br/turismo.asp

PAGE 56

Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 20 1 1

PAGE 57

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 55 TURISMO E CONSERVAO DE TUFAS ATIVAS DA SERRA DA BODOQUENA, MATO GROSSO DO SUL TOURISM AND CONSERVATION OF ACTIVE TUFAS OF THE BODOQUENA PLATEAU, MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE Paulo Csar BOGGIANI ( 1 ) ; Ana Cristina TREVELIN ( 2 ) ; William SALLUN FILHO ( 3 ) ; Emilian o Castro de OLIVEIRA ( 4 ) & Luis Henrique Sapiensa ALMEIDA ( 5 ) (1) Instituto de Geocincias USP (2) Bioncleo Gesto e Desenvolvimento Bonito MS ( 3 ) Instituto Geolgico Secretaria do Meio Ambiente (So Paulo ) (4) Programa de Ps Graduao em Geoqumic a e Geotectnica Instituto de Geocincias USP (5) Curso de Geologia Instituto de Geocincias USP So Paulo SP boggiani@usp.br ; ana@bionucleo.com.br ; luisalmeida87@hotmail.com ; wsallun@gmail.com ; emiliano.oliveira@usp.br Resumo A atividade turstica da Serra da Bodoquena (Estad o de Mato Grosso do Sul) caracterizada por empreendimentos tursticos privados em suas nascentes e ao longo dos principais rios, como os rios Formoso e Mimoso, alm de suas cavernas, com destaque para a Gruta do Lago Azul e o Abismo Anhumas. Os rios da S erra da Bodoquena so de grande valor paisagstico, devido a limpidez das guas e pelo contnuo crescimento de tufas calcrias (tufas ativas), que so sedimentos e rochas carbonticas que se desenvolvem pela precipitao de carbonato de clcio associada atividade biolgica, motivo pelo qual dependem da qualidade das guas. No presente trabalho, feita uma anlise da atividade turstica nos atrativos com tufas e seu grau de conservao frente aos preceitos do geoturismo, levando se em considerao a propo sio de um geoparque na regio, nos moldes propostos pela UNESCO Palavras Chave: tufa, Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, turismo, geoturismo, geoparque Abstract This paper presents a panorama of touristic activities in the Bodoquena Plateau (Stat e of Mato Grosso do Sul). The attractions involves springs and both the Formoso and Mimoso rivers, as well as caves, especially those of Lago Azul and the Anhumas pit. The great beauty of the rivers of the area is due largely to the quality of the water, w hich is clear and blue, and the widespread active limestone tufas formed by the constant accumulation of precipitated calcium carbonate, in association with biological activity. An analysis is made here of tourist activity in sites where this tufa is found for the creation of a geopark in the region candidate to a Globa l Geopark Network assisted by UNESCO K ey Words: Tufa; Bodoquena Plateau; Mato Grosso do Sul State; Tourism; Geotourism; Geopark Introduo A Serra da Bodoquena constitui feio de relevo de destaque no sudoeste do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, com direo Norte Sul, e s margens da plancie do Pantanal (figura1). Trata se de um planalto escarpado a oeste, no limite com o Pantanal do Nabilique, com suas drenagens correndo para leste, no sen tido do Rio Miranda, cortando macio calcrio contnuo, com aproximadamente 400 km de comprimento e 30 a 40 km de largura. A atividade turstica na Serra da Bodoquena concentra se ainda na regio de Bonito, que recebeu em 2010 o total de 276 164 visitas em seus atrativos, segundo dados da Prefeitura Municipal de Bonito, e tem, como principal atrativo, os rios de extrema transparncia e grande valor cnico no contexto de paisagem crstica, onde se realiza atividades de mergulho, flutuao, rafting em trechos dos rios com cachoeiras e represas de tufas ativas. O carste da Serra da Bodoquena caracterizado por sales e condutos submersos e nascentes e rios com ampla formao de tufas calcrias que continuam em crescimento, na forma de cachoeiras e represas nat urais ao longo das drenagens (figura 2).

PAGE 58

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 56 Figura 1 Localizao da Serra da Bodoquena e das principais localidades com atividades tursticas em tufas.

PAGE 59

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 57 Figura 2 Cachoeira de tufa ativa no Rio Formoso, Serra da Bodoquena. As tufas so depsitos c arbonticos fluviais frgeis e facilmente erodidos e quebrados. Por se encontrarem em formao, so dependentes das condies fsico qumicas e biolgicas de suas guas, cuja descaracterizao pode causar danos irreversveis s tufas e consequente comprome timento da atividade turstica. No presente trabalho apresentado um panorama da atividade turstica em rios com tufas ativas e discutido o enquadramento dessa atividade entre os princpios do geoturismo, modalidade do ecoturismo que tem o uso do Patrimn io Geolgico como benefcio da comunidade local. Essa discusso se faz necessria, assim como proposta de conservao desse patrimnio, diante do processo de criao do Geoparque Bodoquena Pantanal. Atividades tursticas em tufas na Serra da Bodoquena ( Mato Grosso do Sul) O turismo em Bonito teve origem incipiente no incio da dcada de 1980 e tinha, como principal atrativo, a Gruta do Lago Azul, que chama ateno devido ao lago subterrneo que adquire a cor azul intensa, com a incidncia dos raios solar es. De forma secundria, era visitada tambm a Gruta Nossa Sra. Aparecida, ambas de forma precria e sem nenhuma infra estrutura. Juntamente com as grutas, outro local visitado era a Ilha do Padre, na poro mdia do Rio Formoso, nico naquela poca com um a precria estrutura para receber turistas, restrito a visitantes da prpria regio. A primeira agncia de turismo, criada por volta de 1990, de nome Happakany Tour Viagens e Turismo, tinha por objetivo organizar as descidas de bote inflvel atravs das ba rragens de tufas ao longo do Rio Formoso, atividade iniciada pelo mesmo grupo que j realizava, de forma pioneira no Brasil, as atividades de rafting no Rio Paraibuna no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dava se incio, assim, estruturao do turismo em Bonito, o qual teve como importante marco o primeiro curso de formao de guias de turismo, realizado entre dezembro de 1992 e abril de 1993 e depois com a instituio do Conselho Municipal de Turismo de Bonito (COMTUR Bonito) em 1995 (Barbosa e Zamboni, 2000; B oggiani 2001). Apesar da presena de grutas com valor cnico excepcional, como a Gruta do Lago Azul e o Abismo Anhumas, pode se afirmar que so os rios e nascentes, com guas extremamente lmpidas, associados diversidade e arranjo da biota, que proporcio nam regio o pleno desenvolvimento do turismo de natureza (Boggiani & Clemente 1999, Oliveira 2009). Os balnerios e atrativos com cachoeiras de tufas so os mais procurados e com maior nmero de visitao. So tambm os visitados repetidamente, devido balneabilidade, principalmente por parte do turista do prprio Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, ainda mais por ser uma regio sem acesso direto a praias. Os empreendimentos tursticos concentram se ainda no Municpio de Bonito, com capacidade hoteleira para por volta de 5.000 hspedes. Nesse municpio, no percurso do Rio Formoso, existem quatro empreendimentos com licena ambiental, na forma de balnerio (Balnerio Municipal Rio Formoso, Balnerio do Sol, Balnerio do Gordo e Praia da Figueira), dois com ativ idade de flutuao e mergulho livre (Parque Ecolgico Rio Formoso e Bonito Aventura) e trs operadoras de mergulho autnomo que oferecem atividades de mergulho em diferentes trechos do rio. A atividade de maior fluxo turstico tem sido ainda a de rafting oferecida por sete operadoras com uso de botes inflveis (com capacidade para at 10 pessoas cada) e duas que com uso de boias O local de embarque nos botes no Rio Formoso depende da operadora, j o des embarque o mesmo para todas, efetuado na localidade conhecida como Ilha do Padre, onde foi criada a unidade de conservao estadual Monumento Natural do Rio Formoso (Decreto Estadual MS 11.453 03, de 23 de outubro de 2003), porm ainda no estruturada co mo tal. O percurso realizado com os botes inflveis ao longo do Rio Formosos de aproximadamente 3 km, com transposio de cinco barragens naturais.

PAGE 60

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 58 Alm da descida de bote, outro atrativo muito procurado o Balnerio Municipal Rio Formoso que contou, em 2010, com 12.617 visitantes. Nessa contagem, no foi contabilizado o nmero de visitantes residentes em Bonito, para os quais no cobrado ingresso e, por isso, sem controle numrico de visitas. Tabela 1 Nmero de visitantes em atrativos tursticos c om tufas calcrias em Bonito (Mato Grosso do Sul) em 2010. Atividades Tursticas em Tufas no Rio Formoso, em 2010 Total de Visitas Flutuao e Mergulho Livre (Aqurio Natural, Bonito Aventura, Parque Ecolgico Rio Formoso, Bike e Cavalgada no Rio Sucuri) 16.714 Balnerios (Balnerio Municipal Rio Formoso, Praia da Figueira, Balnerio do Sol, Ilha do Padre, Balnerio Ilha Bonita) 35.954 Boia Cross (Boia Cross Cabanas e Boia Cross Eco Adventure) 10.421 Passeios de Bote (Iber, Bonito Scuba, Karaj, Natura MM Expedies, Hotel Fazenda 41.608 Mergulhos Autonomos (Caimn, Bonito Scuba e Dive Bonito) 994 Total de visitas nos atrativos com tufas 105.691 Total de visitas em Bonito 276 164 Fonte: Dados da Secretaria Municipa l de Desenvolvimento Agrrio, da Produo, da Indstria, do Comrcio e do Turismo de Bonito (MS). Alm do Rio Formoso, tambm em Bonito o Rio Mimoso tem empreendimentos tursticos de grande procura turstica. Nesse rio, o turismo teve incio na propriedad e do Sr. Taika, onde se encontra a Cachoeira do Taika, uma das maiores da regio. Atualmente os turistas percorrem duas trilhas, uma de cada lado do rio, nos atrativos conhecidos como Parque das Cachoeiras (margem direita) e Estncia Mimosa Ecoturismo (mar gem esquerda) figura 3. Onde, segundo a Secretaria Municipal de Turismo, Indstria e Comrcio de Bonito/MS, em 2010 esses dois atrativos tursticos receberam 22.684 turistas. Mais ao Norte, o Rio do Peixe, com as mesmas caractersticas de tufas, tambm tem atrativo turstico, na Fazenda gua Viva, chamado da dcada de 1990, o qual contou, em 2010, com 11.033 turistas. Ainda no Municpio de Bonito, no seu extremo oeste, existe uma grande concentrao de tufas na nica drenagem que corre para oeste, atravs da escarpa da Serra da Bodoquena, no sentido do Pantanal. Essa concentrao ocorre no Rio Aquidaban, que possui mais de 11 cachoeiras, sendo a maior com aproximadamente 120 m de altura (figura 4), onde j se realizou atividades tursticas no perodo entre 1995 a 2003, mas atualmente a propriedade rural dedica se exclusivamente a pecuria. Figura 3 Conjunto de represas de tufas no Rio Mimoso, Estncia Mimosa. Figura 4 Cachoeira de tufa do Aquida ban, com aproximadamente 120 m de altura, em rio de mesmo nome, na borda oeste da Serra da Bodoquena. Fora do Municpio de Bonito, existe ao Norte, no Municpio de Bodoquena, o atrativo Boca da Ona Ecotur, que possui a maior cachoeira do Mato

PAGE 61

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 59 Grosso do Sul, com 156 m de altura, em escarpa originada pelo entalhamento do Rio Salobra, na forma de garganta no macio calcrio central da Serra da Bodoquena, onde se desenvolve a prtica de rapel a partir de plataforma artificial, montada para que a descida com corda seja realizada em vo livre, sem contato direto com as tufas, que recobrem os paredes. Ainda em Bodoquena, existe o Rio Betione, com potencial turstico, porm com empreendimentos que se encontram atualmente fechados, inclusive um balnerio municipa l, alm de drenagens menores, como o Crrego Campina, com inmeras barragens e cachoeiras de tufas, porm com alturas inferiores a um metro. Ao Sul, no Municpio de Jardim, tem se o Balnerio Municipal de Jardim no Rio da Prata, outro rio com grande potenc ial turstico que conta com o atrativo turstico Recanto Ecolgico Rio da Prata. Somados os nmeros de visitas dos atrativos relacionados chega se ao total de 170 mil visitas por ano. Com base apenas na observao visual, pode se dizer que a atividade, a t o momento, no tem causado danos significativos s tufas, o que resultado dos cuidados na infra estrutura de visitao e orientao por parte dos guias que acompanham a visitao, principalmente para se evitar o pisoteio. Se considerarmos a rea de di stribuio das tufas e as concentraes, principalmente do Rio Formoso e seu afluente Formosinho, e Rios Mimoso, Perdido e Salobra, Aquidaban e Betione, pode se afirmar que as Tufas da Serra da Bodoquena constituem um dos maiores conjuntos de tufas das Am ricas e sem dvida se encontra entre as maiores do mundo, perdendo apenas para o de Plitvice na Crocia e o de Jiuzhaigou, na China, ambos declarados Patrimnio da Humanidade pela UNESCO. Demais ocorrncias de tufas no mundo ocorrem na forma de depsitos i solados e relativamente menores, como as cachoeiras de tufas de Gordale Scar (Norte de Yorkshire Inglaterra), ou barragens que no ultrapassam um metro de altura ao longo de pequenas drenagens (Ford & Pedley 1996). Levantamento realizado por Pentecost (1 995), na Europa demonstra a existncia de 320 depsitos carbonticos, entre esses 227 de tufas e 93 de guas termais sendo, que entre as 227 tufas, apenas 156 ativas. Entre os depsitos termais, destaca se o do Yellowstone National Park (EUA), considerado uma entre as maiores ocorrncias de travertinos ativos do mundo e tambm os depsitos de travertino da Itlia, na regio de Roma e da Toscana, de importncia histrica devido a ampla utilizao em construes da poca do Imprio Romano. Outra rea turstic a em fontes termais com precipitao carbontica (travertinos) so os depsitos de Pamukkale, na Turquia (Herrero & Escavy. 2010). No Brasil existem outras ocorrncias de tufas ativas, ainda com relativamente baixa atividade turstica, em rios da Serra das Araras (Estado de Mato Grosso) e no Estado de So Paulo, na Serra do Andr Lopes (Sallun Filho et al. 2011), no interior do Parque Estadual Caverna do Diabo e APA Quilombos do Mdio Ribeira, criados em 2008 com o desmembramento do Parque Estadual de Jacup iranga. Evoluo das Tufas da Serra da Bodoquena e sua conservao No existe ainda nenhum projeto constante e de longo prazo de monitoramento do grau de preservao das Tufas da Serra da Bodoquena, alm da observao visual, a qual possibilita constatar que as tufas, no geral, encontram se em bom estado de conservao, com pontuais locais de degradao fsica apenas. Estudos especficos foram realizados para se verificar o impacto negativo da descida dos botes inflveis sobre as represas de tufas do rio F ormoso o que, aparentemente, no tem causado degradao. A maior ameaa conservao das tufas o intenso turvamento das guas em funo dos desmatamentos e falta de manejo adequado dos solos para as atividades de pecuria e agricultura. No passado, out ra ameaa era o lanamento de esgoto da cidade de Bonito no rio Formoso. Havia uma pequena estao de tratamento, mas essa tratava apenas 10% das residncias. Atualmente, todas as residncias e hotis de Bonito tm recolhimento e tratamento total de seus e fluentes. No foi encontrado, na bibliografia disponvel, relao dos principais parmetros das guas que poderiam ser selecionados para estabelecimento de monitoramentos ambientais com al. (2006), em estudo sobre a poluio das guas e sedimentos dos lagos de Plitvice (Crocia), cita a medirem o carbono orgnico dissolvido na gua desses lagos, constaram que o aumento do C orgnico pode alterar ou mesmo interromper o processo de precipitao de tufa.

PAGE 62

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 60 como objetivo principal investigar at que ponto o aumento da e utrofizao, na forma de intenso crescimento vegetal em alguns lagos do Plitvice Lakes National Park, seria natural ou antrpico, atravs da anlise de elementos traos, nutrientes e carbono orgnico dissolvido das guas e sedimentos e concluram, em fun o de no constarem nenhum valor anmalo de elementos traos, que o fenmeno seria natural. A anlise das guas foi realizada sazonalmente durante dois anos em 15 pontos, com medio in situ da temperatura, pH, condutividade, oxignio dissolvidos e coleta de amostras para anlise de elementos traos (B, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, P) e nions (SO 4 2 Cl F NO3 NO 2 HPO 4 2 ), alm da anlise de testemunhos de sedimentos (40 cm de profundidade) de cinco localidades diferentes. Na localidade de Jiuzhaigou na China, com cachoeiras de tufa de 70 metros de altura, a poluio das guas j vem sendo apontada como problema, principalmente devido ao fato do regime hidrolgico vir a ser um sistema interligado de lagos barrados, o que implica em maior reteno das guas, de forma semelhante ao que ocorre no Rio Formoso em Bonito. Pentecost (2010) aponta que a preocupao maior seria com a poluio por fosfato, oriundo dos fertilizantes, este composto seria ligado ao carbonato e agiria como um inibidor das superfcies de crescimento, por reduzir a nucleao carbontica. O autor cita exemplos de onde isso j vem ocorrendo, como pequenos depsitos no Reino Unido e Frana. Estudos desenvolvidos na Europa Mediterrnea, citados por Pedley (2009), tm demonst rado que teria ocorrido maior razo de crescimento de tufas entre 7.300 e 6.800 anos e por volta de 4.600 anos atrs. O segundo pulso de maior crescimento relativo teria ocorrido aps a ltima glaciao e concomitante ao optimum climtico atlntico, depoi s do qual teria ocorrido declnio abrupto de desenvolvimento das tufas, marcado por perodos menos midos seguidos por mudanas na vegetao, o que tambm teria acontecido na Espanha por volta de 2.700 anos atrs (Taylor et al. 1998). No estudo de Pedle y (2009) fica demonstrado que existem discrepncias nas idades dos eventos de maior ou menor formao de tufas na Europa, o que seria reflexo de variaes regionais ou de atitudes, s quais o clima encontra se relacionado, mas possvel traar um quadro g eral, para a Europa Mediterrnea, que do incio ao meio do Holoceno (entre 10.000 a 5.000 anos) teria ocorrido um mximo de formao de tufas com o declnio na formao dessas entre 4.000 e 2.000 anos antes do presente. Os perodos de maior formao de tuf as seriam coincidentes aos intervalos midos e quentes entre as glaciaes e tambm aos com maiores nveis de CO 2 na atmosfera (Griffiths & Pedley 1995). Muitas podem ser as razes para explicar o constatado declnio na formao das tufas da Europa, mas en tre elas a principal pode ter sido a diminuio no volume das descargas dos rios e ai a discusso se essa diminuio seria natural ou causada pelo Homem (Goudie et al. 1993, Smith et al. 2004). Mudanas na composio qumica tambm so consideradas, uma vez que diminuio no contedo de carbonato nos solos, desmatamento e consequente diminuio do aporte de nutrientes influenciam no crescimento das tufas. Apesar de no trabalho de Pedley (2009) no se comprovar a ao antrpica como responsvel para o decl nio da formao de tufas na Europa, aps 2 700 anos antes do presente, um alerta para demonstrar a fragilidade desses depsitos, e que os mesmo podem ter o desenvolvimento comprometido com modificaes nas drenagens. Para as tufas da Serra da Bodoquena, com base em sntese das dataes disponveis, Sallun Filho et al. (2009) interpreta que as tufas teriam incio de formao desde cerca de 6.500 anos cal. antes do presente com decrscimo por volta de 2.700 anos cal. Em tempos mais antigos do que 2.700 an os antes do presente, interpreta se que provavelmente teria ocorrido um perodo de maior umidade, quando o crescimento de tufas teria sido maior, dada a grande extenso dos depsitos atuais e antigos frente ao atual quadro de distribuio da drenagem. Esse aparente declnio na formao das tufas da Serra da Bodoquena, por volta de 2.700 anos atrs, no pode ser associado interferncia humana, uma vez que os registros arqueolgicos na Serra da Bodoquena so escassos e no foram encontradas evidncias de al terao antrpica da drenagem naquele intervalo de tempo. Os exemplos acima reforam a importncia da manuteno das condies de drenagem para preservao das tufas, o que poder ser colocado como fator de preocupao a possibilidade de mudanas no volume das guas, ao menos de alguns rios, como o Rio Mimoso. Nesse rio, foi relatado que ao final de 2007 e incio de 2008 ele ficou totalmente seco durante meses de estiagem, tendo inclusive levado ao fechamento temporrio de atrativos tursticos. Fora as possi bilidades de alterao das Tufas da Serra da Bodoquena por poluio das guas superficiais, tufas na forma de barragem podem ser

PAGE 63

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 61 quebradas por falta de cuidado no pisoteio, como j ocorreu no Balnerio Municipal de Bonito, e vem se discutindo a possibilida de de desgaste das mesmas em funo das frequentes descidas de botes ( rafting ), mas no geral, como abordado adiante, os conjuntos de tufas, seja na forma de cachoeiras ou de barragens, encontram se em bom estado de conservao, alm de excepcional conjunto totalmente preservado ao longo do Rio Perdido, no interior do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena, onde no h ainda nenhum tipo de visitao turstica. Nota se, face ao exposto, que a maior degradao das tufas encontra se em funo dos desmatamentos, principalmente de matas ciliares (riprias), porm em reas especficas e ainda relativamente restritas e que, no geral, no h evidncias claras na degradao das tufas. Proposta de uso geoturstico das tufas da Serra da Bodoquena O potencial geotursti co das Tufas da Serra da Bodoquena ainda pouco utilizado e esse dever ser aprimorado com vistas s intenes de implantao de um geoparque na regio. A definio de geoturismo assemelha se a de ecoturismo o qual, segundo as Diretrizes para um Poltica Nacional de Ecoturismo de 1994 definido forma sustentvel, o Patrimnio Natural e Cultural, incentiva sua conservao e busca a formao de uma conscincia ambientalista atravs da interpretao do am biente, promovendo o bem estar da Sociedade Internacional de Ecoturismo, segundo a qual ecoturismo a visita responsvel a reas naturais conservando o ambiente e melhorando o bem estar das populaes loc ais. As definies acima de ecoturismo so semelhantes a de geoturismo o qual, segundo reviso de Brilha (2005), diferem apenas quanto a maior nfase no uso dos aspectos geolgicos dos destinos tursticos, porm so enfticas quanto ao fim social e o bem estar das comunidades que residem nas localidades tursticas. Alm da visitao e desenvolvimento de projetos educacionais, a atividade geoturstica inclui o incentivo comercializao de artesanato feito geralmente com rochas e minerais da prpria locali dade. Nesse aspecto, o uso das tufas para esse fim no recomendado, uma vez que implicaria em procedimentos de depredao. Nas tufas so encontrados com relativa frequncia fsseis de plantas na forma de moldes, com reproduo perfeita e delicada princip almente de folhas. De acordo com a legislao brasileira, no possvel comercializar fsseis, por outro lado, a confeco de rplicas possibilita a reproduo desses fsseis, com uso de resina ou gesso, o que pode vir a ser excelente fonte de renda e emp rego. Os atrativos tursticos em tufas calcrias, na Serra da Bodoquena, so em sua grande maioria empreendimentos privados, com exceo apenas dos balnerios municipais de Bonito e Jardim. No de Bonito, a populao residente tem acesso gratuito, mas os de mais atrativos no apresentam nenhuma forma de visitao com objetivo social, como abertura em determinados dias para escolas ou determinadas faixas sociais, como pessoas de baixa renda, terceira idade, portadores de necessidades especiais ou algo do gner o, muito menos projetos educacionais, o que demonstra estarem longe de serem definidos como atividade geoturstica, ou mesmo ecoturismo, uma vez que no vm proporcionando claros benefcios comunidade local e so raros os projetos educacionais. No h pl acas, painis ou folhetos explicativos sobre a gnese e importncia das tufas, apenas alguns Guias de Turismo se preocupam em passar essas informaes. Diante do exposto acima, se h a inteno de implantar um geoparque na regio, essa questo ter que ser analisada levando em considerao principalmente o estabelecimento de visitaes pblicas, ao menos nas concentraes de tufas no Rio Perdido, no interior do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena, o que deve ser analisado em seu plano de manejo. Outra pos sibilidade a reabertura do Balnerio Municipal de Bodoquena e de alguns atrativos ao longo do Rio Betione, onde algumas estruturas j existem, na forma de pequenos campings, medidas essas que poderiam ser incrementadas atravs do geoparque, que tem como um dos objetivos ampliar a atividade turstica ao longo da Serra da Bodoquena, ainda muito concentrada em Bonito. Na parte mdia a baixa do Rio Salobra, foi analisada a implantao de turismo para benefcio do Assentamento Cana, localizado na sua margem, por parte da ONG ambientalista ECOA, porm o grau de degradao de suas margens, principalmente devido aos desmatamentos, tornou essa parte do rio muito degradada, o que inviabilizava, naquela poca, por volta de 1995, o desenvolvimento desse projeto. Apes ar das tufas na forma de cachoeiras e barragens serem as mais procuradas para atividade turstica, outro tipo de tufa de ocorrncia significativa na Serra da Bodoquena na forma de gros finos a mdios inconsolidados (pulverulenta)

PAGE 64

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 62 que constituem depsito s antigos, minerados para uso como corretivos de solo e para rao animal. Esses depsitos, apesar de no terem interesse direto ao turismo, aps a lavra originam se espaos na forma de lagos artificiais, alguns utilizados como balnerio, como o caso do das tufas lacustres, com formao e sedimentao de lama calcria biognica no fundo, coberta por concentraes de algas do gnero Chara Determinadas reas de ocorrncia de tufas antigas ricas em fsseis vegetais, em regies j degradas e distantes das de tufas em formao, poderiam tambm vir a ser objeto de projetos educacionais com atividade de coleta de fsseis, desde que devidamente orientadas por profissionais capacitados e as coletadas destinadas a colees paleontolgicas ou uso didtico, desde que respeitada a legislao a respeito. Concluses e Recomendaes Apesar de no existir ainda na Serra da Bodoquena como um todo e nem em Bonito, onde se concentra o turismo em atr ativos com tufas, efetivo e contnuo monitoramento das tufas, no h evidncias conclusivas de degradao das mesmas, restrita apenas a destruies localizadas, sem comprometimento dos conjuntos maiores de tufas. Medidas tomadas nos principais atrativos, c omo construo de plataformas e pontes de madeira, e orientao aos turistas, por parte dos guias, o que efetivamente evita o pisoteio, tem se mostrado eficaz na proteo. Para o futuro, considera se necessrio estabelecer pontos chaves para monitoramento s das guas fluviais com objetivos especficos para proteo das tufas, uma vez que essas propostas para a regio tem priorizado a fauna aqutica ou qualidade das guas apenas, e no as tufas calcrias que continuam em processo de formao. Para o estabele cimento da atividade geoturstica na regio, durante a implantao do geoparque proposto (Geoparque Bodoquena Pantanal) ser necessrio implantar recursos geotursticos, na forma de placas e folhetos educativos, com informaes a respeito da geologia e p aleontologia das tufas e explicaes sobre o processo de formao, ainda pouco divulgado entre os turistas. Projetos educacionais, com envolvimento de alunos das escolas da regio e de outras localidades, sero tambm necessrios, uma vez que o desconhecim ento sobre essas formaes grande ainda entre as populaes locais, apesar do contato frequente com as tufas em suas atividades de lazer REFERNCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS BARBOSA, M. A. C. & ZAMBONI, R.A. 2000. Formao de um cluster em torno do Turismo de Na tureza Sustentvel em Bonito MS. CEPAL Comisso Econmica para a Amrica Latina e Caribe e IPEA Instituto de Pesquisa Econmica Aplicada. 32 p. BOGGIANI, P. C.. 2001. Cincia, meio ambiente e turismo em Bonito: a combinao que deu certo? In: Qual Para so. lvaro Banducci Jnior & Edvaldo Cesar Moretti (editores), So Paulo e Campo Grande: Edio Chronos Ltda e Editora da UFMS, 151 168. BOGGIANI. P.C. & CLE MENTE J. 1999. A questo do Licenciamento Ambiental de Empreendimentos Tursticos no Planalto da Bodoquena Mato Grosso do Sul. Revista de Geografia UFMS, AGB Dourados, (9): 24 32. BOGGIANI, P.C.; COIM BRA, A.M.; GESICKI, A.L.; SIAL, A.N.; FE RREIRA,V.P.; RIBEIRO F.B.; FLEXOR, J.M. 2002. Tufas Calcrias da Serra da Bodoquena, MS: cachoeiras petrific adas ao longo dos rios. In: schobbenhaus, C.; campos, D.A.; queiroz, E.T.; winge, M.; berbert born, M. eds. Stios Geolgicos e Paleontolgicos do Brasil. Braslia DF, DNPM, 2002. p. 249 259. BRILHA, J. (2005). Patrimnio Geolgico e Geoconservao: A Cons ervao da Natureza na sua Vertente Geolgica. Braga: Palimage Editores, 190 p. GOUDIE, A.S., VILES, H.A. AND PENTECOST, A. (1993) The late Holocene tufa decline in Europe. Holocene, 3, 181 186.

PAGE 65

B oggiani, et al. T urismo e conserva o de tufas ativas da Serra da B odoquena .. Campinas, SeTur/SBE. Tourism and Karst Areas 4 ( 1 ), 201 1 63 GRIFFITHS, H.I. AND PEDLEY, H.M. (1995) Did changes in the l ate last glacial and early Holocene atmosphere CO2 concentrations control the rates of tufa precipitation? Holocene 5, 238. HERRERO, M. J.; ESCAVY, J. I. 2010. Economic Aspects of Continental Carbonates and Carbonates Transformed under Continental Conditi ons. Developments in Sedimentology v.62, p.275 296. the Plitivice Lakes by Water and Sediment Analyses. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 6 :475 485. OLIVEIRA, E. C. 2009. Tufas Calcrias da Serra da Bodoquena, MS Dissertao de Mestrado, Instituto de Geocincias da Universidade de So Paulo, So Paulo, 149 p. PEDLEY, M.; ROGERSON M.; MIDLETON, R. 2009 Freshwater calcite precipitates from in vitro mesocosm flume experiments: a case for biomediation of tufas. Sedimentology, 56 :511 527. PENTECOST, A. 2010. Continental Carbonates Preservation of Natural and Historic Heritage Sites. In DEVELOPMENTS IN SEDIMENTOLOGY CARBONATES IN CONTINENTAL SETTINGS: GEOCHEMISTRY, DIAGENESIS AND APPLICATIONS (Editors A.M. Alonso Zarza & L.H. Tanner). Developments in Sedimentology n. 62, Elsevier, p. 297 311. SALLUN FILHO, W.; ALMEIDA, L.H.S.; BOGGIANI, P.C.; KARMANN, I. 2011. Quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes, State of So Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies no prelo. SALLUN FILHO, W. ; KARMANN, I. ; BOGGIANI, P. C. ; PETRI, S. ; CRISTALLI, P. S. ; UTIDA, G. 2009 A deposio de tufas quaternrias no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul: proposta de definio da Formao Serra da Bodoquena. Geologia USP Srie Cientfica, v. 9, p. 47 60. SMITH, J.R., GIEGENG ACK, R., SCHWARCZ, H .P., MCDONALD, M.A.A ., KLEINDIENST, M.R. HAWKINS, A.L. AND CH URCHER, C.S. (2004) A reconstruction of Quaternary pluvial environments and human occupations using stratigraphy and g eochronology of fossil spring tufas, Kharga Oasis, Egypt. Geoarchaeology 19, 407 439. KRAJCAR, I., & SLIEP (1985). Procesi processes in karstwaters with special emphasis on the Plitvice Lakes, Yugosla via). Carsus Iugoslaviae 6), 101 204 (in Croatian with English Abstract). TAYLOR, D.M., PEDLEY H.M., DAVIES, P. A ND WRIGHT, M.W. (1998) Pollen and mollusc records for environmental change in central Spain during the mid and late H olocene. Holocene 8, 605 612. Fluxo editorial : Recebido em: 08 02 201 1 Aprovado em: 1 3 .0 7 .2011 TOURISM AND KARST AREAS ( formally /formalmente: Pesquisas em Turismo e Paisagens Crsticas) Brazilian Society of Speleology / Sociedade Brasile ira de Espeleolo gia (SBE) www.cavernas.org.br/turismo.asp


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close
Choose Size
Choose file type
Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.