Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: stratiform “super-K” zones

Citation

Material Information

Title:
Prominence of ichnologically influenced macroporosity in the karst Biscayne aquifer: stratiform “super-K” zones
Series Title:
Geological Society of America Bulletin
Creator:
Cunningham, Kevin J.
Sukop, Michael C.
Huang, Haibo
Alvarez, Pedro F.
Curran, H. Allen
Renken, Robert A.
Dixon, Joann F.
Publisher:
Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Applications ( local )
Aquifer ( local )
S Arthropoda ( local )
Atlantic Coastal Plain ( local )
Biogenic Processes ( local )
Biscayne Aquifer ( local )
Broward County Florida ( local )
Burrows ( local )
Carbonate Rocks ( local )
Computed Tomography Data ( local )
Cores ( local )
Crustacea ( local )
Cyclostratigraphy ( local )
Data Processing ( local )
Digital Simulation ( local )
Florida ( local )
Ground Water ( local )
Hydraulic Conductivity ( local )
Hydrostratigraphy ( local )
Ichnofossils ( local )
Invertebrata ( local )
Karst ( local )
Karst Hydrology ( local )
Lattice Boltzmann Method ( local )
Malacostraca ( local )
Mandibulata ( local )
Miami-Dade County Florida ( local )
Mollusca ( local )
Ophiomorpha ( local )
Permeability ( local )
Petroleum ( local )
Porosity ( local )
Reservoi ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Abstract:
A combination of cyclostratigraphic, ichnologic, and borehole geophysical analyses of continuous core holes; tracer-test analyses; and lattice Boltzmann flow simulations was used to quantify biogenic macroporosity and permeability of the Biscayne aquifer, southeastern Florida. Biogenic macroporosity largely manifests as: (1) ichnogenic macroporosity primarily related to postdepositional burrowing activity by callianassid shrimp and fossilization of components of their complex burrow systems (Ophiomorpha); and (2) biomoldic macroporosity originating from dissolution of fossil hard parts, principally mollusk shells. Ophiomorpha-dominated ichnofabric provides the greatest contribution to hydrologic characteristics in the Biscayne aquifer in a 345 km (super 2) study area. Stratiform tabular-shaped units of thalassinidean-associated macroporosity are commonly confined to the lower part of upward-shallowing high-frequency cycles, throughout aggradational cycles, and, in one case, they stack vertically within the lower part of a high-frequency cycle set. Broad continuity of many of the macroporous units concentrates groundwater flow in extremely permeable passageways, thus making the aquifer vulnerable to long-distance transport of contaminants. Ichnogenic macroporosity represents an alternative pathway for concentrated groundwater flow that differs considerably from standard karst flow-system paradigms, which describe groundwater movement through fractures and cavernous dissolution features. Permeabilities were calculated using lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) applied to computer renderings assembled from X-ray computed tomography scans of various biogenic macroporous limestone samples. The highest simulated LBM permeabilities were about five orders of magnitude greater than standard laboratory measurements using air-permeability methods, which are limited in their application to extremely permeable macroporous rock samples. Based on their close conformance to analytical solutions for pipe flow, LBMs offer a new means
Original Version:
Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 121, no. 1-2 (2009-01).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.

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Karst Information Portal

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