Protecting Stone Heritage in the Painted Desert: Employing the Rock Art Stability Index in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona


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Protecting Stone Heritage in the Painted Desert: Employing the Rock Art Stability Index in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona

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Protecting Stone Heritage in the Painted Desert: Employing the Rock Art Stability Index in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Series Title:
Heritage
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Groom, Kaelin M.
Cerveny, Niccole Villa
Allen, Casey D.
Dorn, Ronald I.
Theuer, Jason
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MDPI
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English

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Rasi ( local )
Rock Art Stability Index ( local )
Petrified Forest National Park ( local )
Petroglyphs ( local )
Stone Heritage ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Located in northeastern Arizona (USA), Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO) presents a unique story of both geologic and human history. Though perhaps most well-known for its abundant petrified wood and being part of the Painted Desert, visitors are often surprised when they discover PEFO hosts many ancient petroglyph sites. Over the years, many attempts have been made to record the petroglyph sites, but nothing has been done to assess their geomorphic stability. To address this shortcoming, we employed the Rock Art Stability Index (RASI) to assess geologic stability and (potential) deterioration of rock art sites in PEFO. Used for more than a decade as a triage for researchers assessing which rock art panels/sites are in the most danger of eroding, RASI uses a rank-based system to assess over three-dozen rock decay parameters, resulting in an overall condition analysis of a rock art panel. The findings can then be grouped together by site location to gain a clearer understanding of overall decay processes responsible for (potential) erosion. This study highlights RASI, its use as a low-cost, non-invasive, rapid field assessment technique, and assesses the geomorphic stability of five major petroglyph sites in the Petrified Forest National Park.
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Heritage, Vol. 2, no. 3 (2019-07-24).

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K26-05133 ( USFLDC: LOCAL DOI )
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Article ProtectingStoneHeritageinthePaintedDesert: EmployingtheRockArtStabilityIndexinthe PetriedForestNationalPark,Arizona KaelinM.Groom 1,4, y , *,NiccoleVillaCerveny 2,4, y ,CaseyD.Allen 3,4, y ,RonaldI.Dorn 1,4 and JasonTheuer 5 1 SchoolofGeographicalSciencesandUrbanPlanning,ArizonaStateUniversity,P.O.Box875302,Tempe, AZ85287-5302,USA 2 CulturalScienceDepartment,MesaCommunityCollege,7110EastMcKellipsRoad,Mesa,AZ85207,USA 3 DepartmentofBiologicalandChemicalSciences,FacultyofScienceandTechnology,TheUniversityofthe WestIndies,CaveHillBB11000,Barbados 4 StoneHeritageResearchAllianceLLC,Tremonton,UT84337,USA 5 JoshuaTreeNationalPark,74485NationalParkDrive,TwentyninePalms,CA92277-3597,USA * Correspondence:kaelin.groom@asu.edu;Tel.: + 1-303-910-2614 y Theseauthorscontributedequallytothiswork. Received:20June2019;Accepted:20July2019;Published:24July2019 Abstract:LocatedinnortheasternArizonaUSA,PetriedForestNationalParkPEFOpresentsauniquestoryofbothgeologicandhumanhistory.Thoughperhapsmostwell-knownforitsabundantpetriedwoodandbeingpartofthePaintedDesert,visitorsareoftensurprisedwhentheydiscoverPEFOhostsmanyancientpetroglyphsites.Overtheyears,manyattemptshavebeenmadetorecordthepetroglyphsites,butnothinghasbeendonetoassesstheirgeomorphicstability.Toaddressthisshortcoming,weemployedtheRockArtStabilityIndexRASItoassessgeologicstabilityandpotentialdeteriorationofrockartsitesinPEFO.Usedformorethanadecadeasatriageforresearchersassessingwhichrockartpanels/sitesareinthemostdangeroferoding,RASIusesarank-basedsystemtoassessoverthree-dozenrockdecayparameters,resultinginanoverallconditionanalysisofarockartpanel.Thendingscanthenbegroupedtogetherbysitelocationtogainaclearerunderstandingofoveralldecayprocessesresponsibleforpotentialerosion.ThisstudyhighlightsRASI,itsuseasalow-cost,non-invasive,rapideldassessmenttechnique,andassessesthegeomorphicstabilityofvemajorpetroglyphsitesinthePetriedForestNationalPark. Keywords:RASI;RockArtStabilityIndex;PetriedForestNationalPark;petroglyphs;stoneheritage 1.IntroductionCulturalheritagemanagementinvolvestheblendingofscience,history,art,architecture,andpolicywithhistoricallyimportantandenvironmentallysensitiveheritagesites,especiallythoseinaridenvironments,remainingsusceptibletohumaninteractionandinduceddeteriorationinadditiontonaturalstresses[1–3].Rockartrepresentsonesuchtangiblepieceofculturalstoneheritage,andunderstandingbothrockartanditspotentialdecayremainsimportantforitsmanagement,conservation,and/orprotection[4–9].Non-invasivetechniquesinrockartassessment,suchastheRockArtStabilityIndex[RASI,see7],provideabaselinestudyfromwhichtheseimportantpiecesofculturalheritagemaybeidentiedandanalyzedfortrendsinpolygeneticdeteriorationprocesses.RASIassessmentsincorporatemultiplestonedecayaspects,includinggeneralconditionofthehoststone,itssubstrate,vulnerabilitytoperceivedandinherentdecayprocesses,andexternal/internalinuences.Heritage 2019 , 2 ,2111;doi:10.3390 / heritage2030127www.mdpi.com / journal / heritage

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2112Thisproject'sgoalcenteredoncreatingamuch-neededbaselineforthethousandsofpetroglyphpanelsinPetriedForestNationalParkPEFO,Arizona,USA,withtheaimofmonitoringandreassessingthesitesacrossdierenttimeframestohelpPEFO'sculturalresourcemanagementteammakeinformeddecisionsregardingirreplaceablerockartandinscriptionsthathaveenduredincreasedtourism,humancontact,climatechange,andtime.AlthoughRASIhasbeen—andcontinuestobe—usedsuccessfullyinvaryingenvironmentsaroundtheworldformorethanadecadecf.,[4,8–12],thisarticlecentersonthecontributionRASImadetofurtheringthemanagementofrockartsitesintheariddesertconditionsofPEFO.Thisarticlebeginswithabriefoverviewofthestudy'slocation—includingprominentclimatepatterns,geology,andregionalgeomorphology—aswellasanin-depthexplanationofRASI.Then,beforeoeringasuccinctconclusion,siteassessmentresultsarepresentedforseveralkeylocationswithinthepark,withspecicattentionfocusedonthedominantrockdecayprocessesa ectingandinuencingeachsite. SiteSettingManagedandcuratedbytheUnitedStatesNationalParkServiceNPS,thePetriedForestNationalParkPEFOcoversnearly600km2andhousesamyriadofgeologic,paleontological,andhistoricresources.Roughly200milessoutheastoftheworldfamousGrandCanyonNationalPark,thestunninglycolorfulhyper-andsemi-aridPaintedDesertsitsatthesouthernrimofthemassiveColoradoPlateau,resultingindramaticmulti-tonedcanyons,buttes,andvalleysseenthroughoutthepark,oftenscatteredwiththeglittering,colorfulpetriedwoodthatgivetheparkitsname.Geologically-speaking,PEFOhoststwoformations:onefromlateTriassicPeriodmyaandtheotherfromMio/PlioceneEpochmya.Thelatterconsistsofpaleolakelacustrinedepositsandvolcanicmostlyphreatomagmaticactivity,andtheformerbeingmainlyuvialdeposits,withafairly-richaccompanyingfossilrecord[13].OntopoftheMio/Pliocenedepositsrestssand,alluvium,andseveralsmallduneareas—someasrecentas1000ya—depositedduringthelatePleistoceneandHoloceneEpochs.Someofthesesedimentsarestillloose,andsometimestransportedbyaeolianand/orintermittentstreamprocesses,andcontainmorerecentfossilevidencee.g.,elephantandmammoth.Perhapsnotsurprisingly,thePEFOlandscapehostsamesa-buttetopography—includingsometowersandhoodoo—alongsideitsmoretraditionalbadlandstopography,wherethemoreresistantcaprockprotectsitsupperrocklayers,butleavesitssidesexposedtogreaterdecay.MostoftherockartinPEFOcanbefoundintheNewspaperRocksandstoneformationoftheBlueMesaMember.Consideredahighdesertwithlittlehigh-altitudeaeolianfactors,airqualityremainsexcellent,andPEFOisshort-listedtobecomeanInternationalDarkSkyregion.Still,changesinweatheroccurthroughouttheyear,mostnotablytheArizonaMonsoonseason.WhilePEFOreceivesanaverageof25cmofprecipitationeachyear,summerthunderstormscanbringrapidchangestothePark,oftenintheformofashoodswhichreshapethelandscape.Whilesummerhightemperaturescanreachmorethan30C,winterscanbestarklychilly,withlowsreaching)]TJ/F224 9.9626 Tf 1.02 0 0 1 384.033 255.532 Tm [(5Candperiodicsnowcover.Thestill,calm,winterair,however,setsthestagefor150+kmvisibility,furtherenhancingPEFO'saestheticvalue. 2.Methods:RockArtStabilityIndexUsablebybothnon-specialistsandexpertsalike,RASIhasbeendesignedasanon-invasive,cost-eective,andrapideldassessmenttechniquecenteredonthedecayprocessesassociatedwithanystonetype[7].Areliableandreplicablesystemwithminimaltrainingtime,completingaRASIassessmentforarockartsiteorindividualrockartpanelresultsinascoreofinstabilityseverity,providingmanagerswithasnapshotofthecurrentstate,strength,andpotentiallongevityofrockartpanels,orrockfaces,withasneadetailedassessmentasnecessaryforanygivenproject.Usingthesedata,sitemanagerscancreatespecicprioritiesbyintegratingRASIresultsforindividualsitesinageographicinformationsystemGISdatabasecf.,[14,15],andthosesitesingreatestdangercanthen

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2113bemappedacrossscales—whetheritbeacrossastate,province,country,withinaspecicsite,ortherockartpanelitself.TheRASIclassiesoverthree-dozenrockdecayforms,undervebroadcategories,organizedtofacilitatetrainingandalignedwithrockdecayliteratureTable1.Researchersratetheseverityofdecayforeachlistedformorprocessona0scaleacrosstheveoverarchingcategories,resultinginsixdegreesofriskthatcoincidewithspecicscoresTable2.Therstcategoryfocusesonthegeneralsitesettingandoverallgeologicweaknessesinthehoststone'sbedrocke.g.,rockhardness,lithicationprocesses.Then,thoseportionsoftherockartpanelthatcoulderodeintheforeseeablefuturee.g.,scaling,aking,roots,undercuttingareassessed.Thethirdcategoryaccountsforlossoflargepiecesofstonee.g.,humanactivity,undercuttingofthesurface,roots,whilethefourthcategorycentersonsmaller,incrementalformsofrockloss/erosion,suchasabrasion,akingandscaling,lithobiontactivity,andsplintering,amongothers.Rockcoatingsusuallyhelppreserverockartbystabilizingthehostrock'ssurface,buthumanrockcoatingslikechalkandgratidegradethesurfaceandtheartitself,andnaturaldepositssuchassaltsleadtosurfaceloss.Hence,boththepotentialpreservationcapabilitiesandpotentialforlossviarockcoatingsarecapturedinthefthcategory.Asixth,qualitativecategoryforassessingpotentialoutsideinuencesisalsoincludedintheRASI,allowingresearcherstocatalogbasicobservationsthatasitemanagermightuseintheiroverallsiteassessmente.g.,livestock,visitorimpact.CollaboratingwithaNationalScienceFoundationNSFfundedappliededucationprogrambyMesaCommunityCollege,ArizonaStateUniversity,andUniversityofColoradoDenver,aCooperativeEcosystemsStudyUnitgrantbetweentheNationalParkServiceNPSandUniversityofColoradoDenver,andtheRockyMountainMiddleSchoolMathandScienceNSFgrantalsoatUniversityofColoradoDenver,seeacknowledgements,RASIeldworkwasconductedperiodicallyfromspring2009to2012coveringtheentiregeographicareaofthepark,includingnewparkterritoryacquiredduringtheprojectperiod.Whereverpossible,RASIdatacollectedcorrespondedwithexistingNPSarchaeologicalrecordsandsurveysmappingrockartpanelsandsitestopreventredundanciesorreplicationofsitedocumentation.Additionally,manyrockartsitesinPEFOhavebeendocumentedovertheyearsbyvolunteerssuchastheCivilianConservationCorpsCCC,aUSgovernmentinitiativeinthe1930s,theAmericanRockArtResearchAssociationARARA,andtheWesternArchaeologicalConservationCenterWACC,andthesedatawereoccasionallyusedtoaidinsiteandpanellocationeortsforthisstudy.However,insomecases,newsitesurveyswerecollectedinsitubyanaccompanyingNPSstamemberifnoneexistedorrecordsweredeemedinadequatebyNPSsta.Todate,morethan300sitesandover3500individualpetroglyphpanelshavebeenanalyzedinPEFOusingRASIovertheproject'sfour-yearduration.

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2114 Table1.Rockdecayi.e.,weatheringelementsrankedwhenperformingRockArtStabilityIndexRASIonarockartpanel.Note:examplesofRASIandeachoftheseoverarchingcategoriescanbefoundatSupplementaryMaterials. RASIDecayElementsbyCategory SiteSetting Fissuresindependentofstone lithication Fissuresdependenton lithication ChangesintexturalanomaliesInherentrockweakness ImpendingLoss FissuresolDevelopmentRootsPlantgrowthnearoronpanelScaling&akingpreparing SplinteringpreparingUndercuttingpreparingWeathering-rinddevelopmentOtherconcerns LargeDecayEventsAnthropogenicActivitiesFissuresol / calcretewedging Fire Undercutting Othernaturalcauses IncrementalLoss AbrasionAnthropogenicCuttingAlveolization / TafoniCrumblydisintegration FlakingFlakingoftheweatheringrindGranulardisintegrationLithobiontpitting LithobiontreleaseLossparalleltostonestructureRockcoatingdetachmentRoundingofpetroglyphedge Scaling Texturalanomalyfeatureserode di erently Splintering Otherformsofincremental erosion RockCoatingsAnthropogenicRockcoatingpresentCasehardening Salte orescenceof suborescence OtherConcerns Gra ticommentsOthervandalismcommentsTrashcommentsVisitorimpactcomments LanduseissuescommentsNaturalprocessesthatareamajorconcerntoyoucomments Table2. ThesixdescriptiveRASIscorecategoriesusedtoquicklysortandidentifypanelsatmostrisk. RASIDescriptiveCategories ScoreRangeDescription < 20ExcellentCondition 20GoodStatus 30ProblemsthatCouldCauseErosion 40UrgentPossibilityofErosion 50GreatDangerofErosion 60SevereDangerofErosion

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2115 3.ResultsWiththespeciclocationsofmanyrockartsitesremainingcondentialforprotectionpurposes,thispaperonlypresentsdatafromvepubliclyknownsitesindierentareasofthepark:LaceyPoint,PuercoPuebloEast,PuercoPuebloWest,TwinButtes,andRainbowForestFigure1.ThesevelocationsprovidenotonlyabroadgeographicrepresentationofrockartinthePark,butalsoaninterestingrangeofhumaninteractionandland-use.Forexample,LaceyPoint,notfarfromthenorthparkentranceandvisitorcenter,wasapopulartrekkingdestinationforseveraldecadeswhileTwinButtes—locatedinthewildernessarea—experiencesverylimitedvisitoraccess.ThetwositesatPuercoPuebloalsooeraninterestingcasestudyseeingas,despitetheircloseproximitytoeachother,theeastsideofthehighwayisamongthemostheavilytouristedrockartsitesintheparkwithinformationalplaques,ashortinterpretivetrail,andviewingplatforms,whilethewestsideisstrictlymonitoredandrestrictedtoNPSpersonnelaccessonly.Thelastsite,RainbowForest,isneartheRainbowForestMuseum,thePark'sarchaeologicalandpaleontologyinformationcenterbythesouthernParkentrance,abuttingapopularwalkingtrailtoviewtheparksfamouseldsofmulticoloredpetriedwood.Atthissite,thepetroglyphsarehighlyvisibletovisitorsbutarenotthemainattraction,andoftenremainoverlooked.Additionally,allvesitesexhibitprominentdecaybehaviorsandconservationchallengesfoundthroughouttheparkTable3. Table3.RASIscoresanddescriptionsfromthevecasestudysitesexploredinthispaper.Thesitesrangedinsizefrom35individualpanelstoover120panels,withPuercoPuebloWestexhibitingthehighestaveragescoreandTwinButtesthelowest. SiteName TotalNumber ofPanels RASIScores PrimaryThreats Secondary Threats MinMaxAvg. LaceyPoint35168848.81 ScalingandFlaking; WeatheringRind Development;RockCoatingDetachmentRoundingof PetroglyphEdges; LossParallelto StoneStructure; CalcreteWedging Puerco PuebloEast 1221410048.48 ScalingandFlaking preparing; Anthropogenic Activity Fissures Dependentof Lithication;Fissuresol;Flaking Puerco PuebloWest 53169655.96 FissuresDependent ofLithication; Fissuresol preparing Fissuresol; Flaking; Splintering TwinButtes10549237.69 PlantGrowthNear Panel;Scalingand Flakingpreparing; Roundingof PetroglyphEdges; Abrasion Flaking;Scaling Rainbow Forest 121148238.03 ScalingandFlaking preparing; Splintering Fissures Dependentof Lithication; Scaling;Flaking

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2116 Figure1.LocationofthevecasestudysitesinthePetriedForestNationalPark.Theinsetshowsthepositionoftheparkinrelationtothemorewell-knownGrandCanyonNationalParkintheUSSouthweststateofArizona.CartographybyK.M.Groom. 3.1.LaceyPointPerchedonasmalloutcropvisiblefromtheParkhighway,LaceyPointwasamongtherstsitesrecordedbytheRASIresearchteam,andthenre-assessedin2010byamoreexperiencedteaminresponsetorelativelyinconsistentpanelscoresfromtherstdatacollection.Curiously,thesecondsetofscoresremainederratic,thoughslightlyhigherthantheoriginalscores—indicatingthesiteeitherexperiencednoticeablysignicantdeteriorationbetweenthedatesofdatacollectionor,morelikely,thedecaybehaviorexhibitedatLaceyPointismorediculttodistinguishandthreatsarepotentiallymaskedbyapparentstability.FurtherinterpretationofRASIscoresbytrainedrockdecayi.e.,weatheringspecialistsrevealedevidencetosupportthelatter.Structurally,thebouldersarerelativelystable,withonlyafewssuresi.e.,cracksorsignsofphysicalstress,therefore,themainconcernsremainatthesurface.Themajorityofpanelsatthesiteexhibitedthick“casehardening”development,thebuildupofaresistant“shell”acrossthestone[16,17].Thisprocessistypicallyseenasbenecial,asitcreatesagenerallymoreresilientsurface,however,asseenatLaceyPoint,smallbreachesorcracksinthisprotectivecoatingconsequentlyconcentrate

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2117decayprocessesinsubsurfaceareas,softeningthestonebeneath,andcreatinganextremelyfragilesubstrate[16,18].Regardlessofhowhardenedorstablethesurfacehasbecomeasaresultofthecasehardeningprocess,oncethecompromisedinnerlayerdecaysentiresectionsofthepaneldetachfromthehoststoneandarelost,explainingthediscrepancyatLaceyPoint:panelsmayappearstabletoanuntrainedeyebecauseoftheirhardenedsurfaces,butinreality,thesiteisimmenselyfragileFigure2.Infact,nearlyalltheprimaryandsecondarythreatsidentiedinthesecondRASIassessmentatLaceyPointpertaintoeitherpartialorcompletelossofsurfacematerialseeTable3.Anotherpotentialinuenceofsitedecaybehaviorcomesfromrelativelyhighvisitationandhumaninteraction.Historically,LaceyPointwasarelativelywell-knownlandmarkforstagecoachtravelinthemid–late1800sasahalfwaypointlayoverbetweenInscriptionRock,NewMexico,andFlagsta,Arizona[19].Stagecoacheswouldregularlystopforextendedperiodsoftimeallowingamuch-neededrespitefortravelers,whothenwouldinvestigatetheareaandinteractwiththerockart,sometimesleavingnamesorinitialscarvedinto/onstones.Morerecently,multiplepilesofgatheredpotterysherdsandarchaeologicalremainscanbefoundaroundtheoutcrop,suggestingregulartouristactivityatthesite.Unbeknownsttovisitors,whoarepresumablyleavingtheir“treasures”inneatlittlepilesforfuturehikerstoenjoy,thishoardingbehaviordestroysthesite'sarcheologicalintegrityandscienticviabilityforanyfutureresearch.Alongwiththeimmenseinformationalloss,artifactcollectionalsofalselysuggeststhatvisitorscanfreelyexplorethissite,potentiallyencouragingclimbingonandaroundcriticallyweakenedrockartpanels.Thedeceptively“stable”visualappearanceofLaceyPointportraysafalsesenseofsecuritythatcouldbecomedetrimentaltothesite'slong-termmanagementandfutureconservationeorts,anissuetheNPScannowaddress,supportedbydetailedRASIanalysesforeachpanelatthesite. Figure2.RepresentativerockartpanelatLaceyPointexhibitingextensivecasehardeningwithcorrespondingcoresoftening,aswellasrelativelylargesectionsoftexturalanomaliesandpebble-banding.Thecleandarksurfaceofthehardenedshellshowcasesthemisleadingappearanceofstabilitywhilethesubsurfacecontinuestodecay.PhotoprovidedbyRASIresearchteamandannotationbyK.M.Groom. 3.2.PuercoPuebloEastThissitewasrstrecordedin1988byARARA,thoughtheirmapcontainedafewdiscrepancies,makingsomepanelsdiculttond.Still,PuercoPuebloEastrepresentsthemostvisitedsiteinthepark,andlargestbyarea.Itincludesseveralpartialbuildingfootprintreconstructionsandashortinterpretivetrailfromtheparkinglottothepetroglyphviewingsite.Beingthemostvisitedsitemeansanabnormallyhighvolumeoftrac,andgreaterpotentialsusceptibilitytovandalism,scratching,theftofartifactsandlithics,andlittering.Themotifsofthissitearemuchmorediversethanothersinitiallysurveyedforthisstudy.ProbablyduetoitsproximitynearthesacredHopiNativeAmericanTribeareaofPuercoPuebloWest,thepanelsherearemuchmorespiritualandincludeglyphsofprayersticksandmotifsofdances.

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2118Engravingsofdeerandsheepherdsarealsofoundthroughoutthissite,aswellasimagesoftheinfamousNata'askaamythical,crocodile-headed,boogeyman-likecreaturefromHopilore.Foundatthetopofthesite,andperhapsthissite'smostinterestingpanelisasolsticemarker.Eventhoughthesitehostsawealthofpetroglyphs,itisalmostcompletelyvoidoflithics,mostlikelyfromrelichuntingactivitiesbeforetheparkwasestablished.Themostdominantandpotentiallydamagingdecayformsandprocessesatthissiteincludescalingandaking.Minor,butstillproblematicdecaymechanisms,includessuresdependentonlithication,ssuresolsi.e.,“dirtcracking”,see[20],andakingontherockpanelsandglyphsthemselves.Thehighestscoringpaneli.e.,mostendangeredoftheentirestudywasfoundhere,anultimatedemonstrationofpanelinstabilityanddegradation.Thishighlyerodedandhighlydecay-susceptiblepaneldisplayedadvancedscaling,aking,splintering,undercutting,abrasion,tafoni,roundingofpetroglyphedges,andmanyothernaturalandanthropogenicconcernssuchasgrati.Whilethisrepresentsanextremecase,manyotherpanelsatthissitedisplayeddisturbinglysimilardeteriorationconcerns,suchaspanels2Figure3.Situatedprecariouslyonafallenboulder,thispanelexhibitsbothlithologicallydependentandpost-formationstressindependentssures,indicatingbothintrinsicvulnerabilitiesbetweenstrataaswellasexternalforcesleadingtoadvanceddecay.Asillustratedinthegure,manyofthetopicalandsurfacedecayprocesses,suchasaking,weatheringrinddevelopment,andscalingareconcentratedalongthesessures.Thewidespreadoccurrenceofsplinteringdevelopmentalsodisplaysaninherentweaknessalongthestone'snaturalbeddingplanesthatpresentsasignicantconcernforfuturedeterioration.Thecombinationofthesedecayfeatures,alongwithotherstoalesserextent,earnedthepanelatotalscoreof88,wellwithinthe“SevereRiskofDecay”category. Figure3.Panel2atPuercoPuebloEast.Scoring88inRASI,thispanelishighlyunstableandvulnerabletoadvanceddecayinthenearfuture.Keydecayfeaturesandpetroglyphmotifsarehighlightedinthelargerimagewiththepainpanelfaadeshowninthelowerinset.GraphicbyK.M. GroomandphotographbyCarolynFlaharty.Obviouslyclosingthesitetopublicaccesswouldbethemosteectivemeansofprotectingthepetroglyphs,butasthisrepresentsthemost-visitedsiteinthePark,suchactionisnotfeasible.Thatsaid,perhapsincreasingsurveillanceandtrackingtheamountoffoottracallowedinthisareamayhelppreventunwantedvandalismandanthropogenicdecayofthepanels.

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2119 3.3.PuercoPuebloWestBeforethisassessment,nopreviousrecordinghadbeenconductedatPuercoPuebloWest,presumablybecauseofitsclosenesstoasacredHopiNativeAmericansite.Thesitealsocontainsoneoftheoldest14Cyearsbeforepresent,see[21]geometricrockartmotifs,andhostsabundantanimalandgeometricmotifs,themostprominentofwhicharesnakes.Still,eventhoughthissitehasnotbeenpromotedaspartofPEFO'srockartsitestothegeneralpublicfordecades,highlevelsofdecaywerediscoveredonitsrockartpanels,includingvandalismandhistoriccarvings.Panelsatthissitearespreadoutandfoundalongasteepslopeandhigherupontheclifaceand,aswiththerestofPEFO,thegeologyispredominantlyhighlydecayedsandstoneandbentoniteclay,whichhasledtoincreasinglyunstableslopeconditions.Infact,severalpanelsrequiredremoteanalysisbecauseofthedangerousslopeconditions.Additionally,abundantground-basedwildlifeisevidentaroundthisareaincludingrabbits,packrats,andbats,whichcanfurtherdestabilizethearea.Partofthisinstabilitycouldbeduetoamaintenanceroadbeinglocatedonlyseveralmetersfromthemainclusterofpanelswhichhasbeeninusefordecadesbeforeaccessbecamerestricted.Additionally,theareaatthebaseofthesandstonecliswasutilizedasacampsiteinthe1930sbytheCCCworkersinthePark,thoughtheoriginalcampsitenowliesbeneathamorerecentmigratingsanddune.Intermsofrockdecayformsandprocessesspecically,overallRASIassessmentatthissitesuggestssubstantialdamagefromssuresdependentoflithicationandssuresolspreparingtodetachi.e.,“dirtcracking”,see[20].Fissuresolsaremicro-soildepositsfoundwithinfracturesoftherock,andincludeacombinationofrockcoatings,aeolianfallout,andotherdecayedmaterial[22].Otherissuesaectingdestabilizationofthepanelsincludessuresolsalreadydetached,aking,scaling,andsplinteringFigure4.Almosthalfofthemorethan40panelsatthissitewererankedas“severeriskoferosion”,withtheremainingpanelsearningeitheran“urgent”or“great”riskscoreTable3.Thedangerouslyerodingandprecariouscliface,unstablegeology,andpotentialanthropogenicimpactleavethissiteincriticalcondition. Figure4.VisualexampleofcommondecayfeaturesfoundinPuercoPuebloWest.ThispanelexhibitssplinteringinbothformsassessedinRASI:preparinganddetachedoroccurred.Thepresenceofbothonmanyofthepanelsandhostbouldersatthissitesuggestapossibleinherentweaknesswithinthelithicationofthesandstoneitselfthathasbeenexacerbatedbyhumanand/ornaturalstresses.ImagebyK.M.Groom. 3.4.TwinButtesConductedbytheWesternArcheologicalConservationCenterWACCin1998,theoriginalstudyofTwinButtesrecorded71panels,butdidnotproduceamapofanykind.WhentheParkrstopened,wagonscarriedvisitorsonatour,andTwinButteswastherststop.Althoughithasbeenclosedtothepublicfordecades,thereisstillstrongindicationsofheavyfoottracinthearea,andanarcheologicaldigisalsolocatedjustnorthofthissite.ThemotifsatTwinButtesincludemostlydesertanimals

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2120andgeometrics.Snakesandlizardsareseenonmanypanelsthroughoutthissite,andimagesofshhavealsobeenfound—exceptionallyinterestingforanaridclimate—aswellashumanfootprintsandmultiplecircles.Environmentalimpactsareuniqueatthissite.Anearbyarcheologicalsitecontainsevidenceofafarmingcommunity,andproofofarupturedearthendambetweenthetwobuttes—aswellasandsoilscontainingheavieramountsofironandsalts—denotewaterwaspresentandmightalsosuggestthisareawasonceunderwater.Thispreviousexposuretowatergreatlyaectsthechemicalandstructuralintegrityoftherocks,destabilizingthecrystallinematrix.Lithobionts—organismssuchaslichensandmossesthatliveorockmineralsandcoatings—remainprevalentatthissite,sometimescoveringentirepanels.Thedesertvegetationisheavyinthisareaandcausesabrasionandscouringonseveralpanels.Anotherconcernisconsiderabledamagefromabrasionbyuvialsedimenttransport.ThisoccursattheTwinButtessitemuchmorethananyothersitesurveyedinthisstudy,andcouldbeduetoitsaquatichistoryor,perhapsmorelikely,itspositioninaoodsusceptibleareasuchaspanelsnearorontheground.Theseenvironmentalfactorsarereectedinthesite'sRASIanalysesTable3.Plantgrowthnearpanels,abrasion,preparationforscaling,androundingofpetroglyphsedgesallscoredhighandarereasonforconcern.Minorissuesincludedakingandscaling.Thedecayanderosionatthislocationremainsintensebutismostlyduetoitslocationandthepresenceofwatermoresothananyothersite.Thehumanimpacthereisnoticeablebutnotcritical,butthesitestillexperiencesfrequenterosionevents.Manypanelshavealreadysuccumbedtolichenorplantrelateddegradation,andthelower-sittingpanelsareatgreatriskofabrasionorbeingburiedinsubsequentood / uvialevents. 3.5.RainbowForestThesouthernmostsitereviewedinthispaper,RainbowForest,islocatedonthesoutheastslopeofalargemesaoverlookingtheRainbowForestMuseumandhikingtrail.BuiltbytheCCCduringthe1930s,astonestairwaythroughthesitetothetopofthemesaisstillusedtoday.Inaddition,aswascommonatthetime,someCCCparticipantscreatedtheirown“artwork”ontherocks,suchasinitialsorcrudedrawings.Theseinscriptionsarenowconsidered“historic”andprotectedunderTheNationalHistoricPreservationActof1966.In1988,ARARAdocumented132rockartpanelsatthisrelativelylargesitebut,unfortunately,theirsurveyandcorrespondingphotographswerenotofreplicablequality,sonewrecordswerecreatedbyNPSstatofacilitateRASIdatacollectionwithanewtotalcountof121panels.ThediversepetroglyphmotifsdisplayedatRainbowForestarequiteunique,addingtothesite'sarchaeologicalandculturalvalueFigure5.Accordingtolocaltribalelders,imagesdepictingmenghtingeachothersupportthetheorythatthissiteseparatesHopiandDinNavajotriballandswiththerockartreectingviolentcompetitionbetweenthetwoNativeAmericantribes[23].Additionally,thesitecontainsvariousrepresentationsofsnakes,birds,huntingscenes,stylizedsquaresandmazes,aswellasKokopelli—afertilitydeityoftheNativeAmericansfromthisarea[24,25].Despiteconsiderablehumanmanipulationofthesite,RASIanalysessuggestrelativelystableconditions,withthemostsignicantdecayprocessesimpactingthisarearelatingtohistoricrockslidesandgeneral,inherentweaknessesinsandstonesuchasdeteriorationfollowingthestone'snaturalstriationsandbeddingplanes.Parkrecordsindicatethesiteexperiencedalargerockslidepre-1930which,alongwithothersubsequentsmallerrockfallevents,alteredthelocationsandaspectsofmanybouldersthathostpetroglyphs.Somepanelsmovedintomoreexposedandvulnerablepositions,whileothersarenowlocatedinmoreprotectivesettings.TheinuenceofgenerallocationisreectedintheRASIscores,withmoreexposedpanelslocatedontheedgesofthesite'sconcavesloperatinghigherdegreesofdecay,whilepanelsenclosedinthemoreprotectedsitecentergenerallyexhibitlowerscores.Still,fromarockdecayperspective,thesiteremainsrelativelystableTable3.PrimaryRASIelementsofmostconcernincludescaling,aking,aswellassplintering—allcommondecayprocessesinsandstone.Someofthefrequentlyscoreddecayprocessesmaybeinuencedinthefuture

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2121bydustaccumulationandfoottrac,soitcouldbesuggestedthatthesite'sproximitytothemainroad,creationanduseofCCCstaircase,andrelativelyunrestrictedvisitoraccess,maynegativelyinuencethefutureintegrityofthesite'srockart. Figure5.ExamplesofdierentuniquerockartmotifsfoundatRainbowForest,andothersitesinPetriedForestNationalParkPEFO.ASmallgeometricandhistoricinscriptionsfromearlyparkvisitors.PhotobyMarlinW.BRumoured“warglyph”depictingahunteraimingabowandarrowatanothergure—thoughwhetherthetargetisahumanoranimalisuncertain.PhotobyK.M.Groom.CDecorativeKokopellipetroglyphwithiconichunchedposture,largeheaddress,andlargemusicalute.Kokopelliofvarioussize,detail,anddesigncanbefoundthroughoutthepark.PhotobyK.M.Groom.DCollectionoftwo-toedgoats,includingthesuspectedalphasdrawnlargerandabovetherestoftheherd.Suchpanelsarecommonlythoughttomarkpotentialrestingpointsorwateringholesfornomadicshepherds.PhotobyMarlinW. 4.DiscussionThisarticledemonstratesthattheRockArtStabilityIndexRASIservestoinformculturalresourcemanagerswhenmakingconservationandprotectiondecisionsconcerninghistoricallyimportantandenvironmentallysensitiveheritagesites.Specically,identifyingchallengesinthehighariddesertsofthesouthwest,PetriedForestNationalParkPEFOprovidedanexceptionalcasestudyutilizingthisnon-invasiverockartassessmenttechnique,resultinginamuch-neededbaselineforlimitedresourceallocationbasedonevidenceofrealnotjustperceivednaturalandhumaninducedstresses / threats.AllveoftheselectedPEFOsitesanalyzedinthispapershareacommonthreadofeitherbeingacurrentorhistorichighlightedvisitorlocation,indicatingthathumanthreatstovaryingdegreesareexpected.Thischaracteristic,however,allowsmanagerstoascertainthelongevityofhumaninduceddecaycharacteristicsonimportantsitesandmakeinformeddecisionsaboutopeningnewareasand/orclosing/monitoringthreatenedareasmoreclosely.Naturalstonedecaycharacteristicsateachsitevariedaccordingtotheirmicro-environments,indicatingthataParkcannothavethesameconservationorpreservationplanforitsentirety,butmustmakenerandmoredetailedanalysisinthemanagementoftheirresourcesandpotentialmitigations.MorespecicallytotheNPS'scommitmenttoresponsibleheritageandlandmanagement,theRASIscoresprovidedbythisstudyhaveproveninstrumentalindeterminingasite'scapacityforvisitationandquantifyingvulnerabilities.Forexample,LaceyPointhadbeenapopular,andfairlyregular,stoponParkServiceguidednaturewalks,butafterRASIscoresrevealeddangerouslyfragilefacadesdespitetheirappearancethesiteisnowclosedforaperiodofrecoverandfurtherdocumentation.Othernearbysiteswithsignicantlylower,thusmorestable,scoresweresuggestedaspotentialalternativedestinationsinthemeantime.Similarly,whilethestudywasbeingconducted,sitemanagementwereconsideringopeningPuercoWesttothepublictoreducecongestionandlandscapestressesexperiencedacrosstheroadatPuercoPuebloEast.However,supportedbynumericalstabilitydatashowingintensenaturaldecay,theplanwasabortedinfavorofndinganother,lessvulnerable,siteto

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2122diverttourism.Inthissense,RASIwasnotonlyusefulinidentifyingthreatenedorunstablesitesinneedofconservationordocumentation,butalsorelativelystablesitesandthosewiththepotentialtosustainincreasedhumaninteractionandheritagetourism.WiththeNationalParkService,andmanyothersimilaragencies,dedicatedtonotonlyprotectnationalheritagebutalsokeepitaccessibleandshareitwithfuturegenerations,itisnecessarytoemployresearchmethodsthatnotonlyhighlightweaknessesbutstrengthsaswell—methodssuchasRASI.ThevalueofRASIasamanagementstrategyandtriagetoolhasbeenseentimeandagainthroughoutvaryingenvironmentsaroundtheworld.Sincethisinitialstudywascompleted,severaladditionalstudiesutilizingRASIhavebeenconductedintheCaribbean[9,10],theArkansanOzarksSoutheastUS,[7],theArabianDesertHisma,Jordan,[14],andfuturestudiesplannedforotherregionsinconjunctionwiththeStoneHeritageResearchAlliance'songoingresearchagenda.Withadvancementsintechnologiesandchangingclimates,conductingrepeatassessmentsofsiteswithinPEFOwouldservetoinformPEFO'songoingeortstomanagethispricelessheritageresource.ItwouldalsofurtherthevalueofRASIasatechniquewhenappliedtostoneheritageandconservationbecause,whenitcomestoassessingrockartintermsofitsgeomorphologicalstability,RASIcanprovidesitemanagerswithquantitativedatatohelpinformtheirdecision-makingprocessesandlong-termmanagementstrategies. SupplementaryMaterials:MoredetailsontheRockArtStabilityIndexandpreviousRASIstudiesareavailableonlineathttps: // www.shralliance.com / rasi. AuthorContributions:Conceptualization,N.V.C.,C.D.A.,R.I.D.;Datacuration,K.M.G.,N.V.C.,C.D.A.,R.I.D.,J.T.;Formalanalysis,K.M.G.;Fundingacquisition,R.I.D.,N.V.C.,C.D.A.,J.T.;Investigation,K.M.G.,N.V.C.,C.D.A.,R.I.D.,J.T.;Methodology,N.V.C.;Projectadministration,N.V.C.,C.D.A.,J.T.;Resources,K.M.G.,N.V.C.,C.D.A.,R.I.D.,J.T.;Supervision,R.I.D.;Validation,K.M.G.,N.V.C.,C.D.A.;Visualization,K.M.G.;Writing—originaldraft,K.M.G.;Writing—review&editing,K.M.G.,C.D.A.,N.V.C.,R.I.D.,J.T. Funding:FundingforMesaCommunityCollegeandUniversityofColoradoDenverstudentresearcherscamefromtwoNationalParkServiceCooperativeEcosystemsStudyUnitgrants,aswellaspartialsupportfromNationalScienceFoundationgrantNo.0412343.TheNationalScienceFoundationfurthersupportedthisresearchundergrantNos.DUE-0837451,DUE-0837051,andDUE-0836812.Anyopinions,ndings,andconclusionsorrecommendationsexpressedinthismaterialarethoseoftheauthorsanddonotnecessarilyreecttheviewsoftheNationalScienceFoundation. Acknowledgments:WegivespecialthankstoNationalParkServiceCulturalResourceAnthropologistsatPetriedForestNationalParkforprovidingaccesstorockartsites.WealsowishtothankthestudentworkerswhoconductedRASIassessmentsintheeld. ConictsofInterest:Theauthorsdeclarenoconictofinterest.Thefundershadnoroleinthedesignofthestudy;inthecollection,analyses,orinterpretationofdata;inthewritingofthemanuscript,orinthedecisiontopublishtheresults. References 1.Migon,P.Thesignicanceoflandforms—ThecontributionofgeomorphologytotheWorldHeritageProgrammeofUNESCO. EarthSurf.ProcessesLandf. 2014 , 39 ,836.[CrossRef] 2.Stipe,R.E.Ed.ARicherHeritage:HistoricPreservationinthe21stCentury;TheUniversityofNorthCarolinaPress:ChapelHill,NC,USA,2003;608p. 3.VanGrieken,R.;Delalieux,F.;Gysels,K.Culturalheritageandtheenvironment.PureAppl.Chem.1998,70,2327.[CrossRef] 4.Cerveny,N.AWeathering-BasedPerspectiveonRockArtConservation.Ph.D.Thesis,ArizonaStateUniversity,Tempe,AZ,USA,2005. 5.Darvill,T.;Fernandes,A.P.B.Open-AirRock-ArtConservationandManagement:StateoftheArtandFuturePerspectives.Routledge:NewYork,NY,USA;London,UK,2014. 6.Dorn,R.I.;Whitley,D.S.;Cerveny,N.V.;Gordon,S.J.;Allen,C.D.;Gutbrod,E.TheRockArtStabilityIndex:ANewStrategyforMaximizingtheSustainabilityofRockArtasaHeritageResource.Herit.Manag.2008,1,37.[CrossRef] 7.Groom,K.M.FadingImagery:AMixedMethodAnalysisofRockArtDeteriorationintheArkansanOzarks.Int.Newsl.RockArt 2016 , 74 ,14.

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Heritage 2019 , 2 2123 8.Whitley,D.S. HandbookofRockArtResearch ;AltamiraPress:Oxford,UK,2001. 9.Allen,C.D.;Groom,K.M.AGeologicAssessmentofGrenada'sCaribStones.Int.Newsl.RockArt2013,65,19. 10.Allen,C.D.;Groom,K.M.EvaluationofGrenada's“CaribStones”viatheRockArtStabilityIndex.Appl.Geogr.2013 , 42 ,165.[CrossRef] 11.Groom,K.M.RockArtManagementandLandscapeChange:MixedFieldAssessmentTechniquesforCulturalStoneDecay.Ph.D.Dissertation,UniversityofArkansas,Fayetteville,AR,USA,2017. 12.Martz,J.W.;Parker,W.G.;Skinner,L.;Raucci,J.J.;Umhoefer,P.;Blakey,R.C.GeologicMapofPetriedForestNationalPark,Arizona;ArizonaGeologicalSurveyContributedMapCR-12-A;ArizonaGeologicalSurvey:Tucson,AZ,USA,2012;18p. 13.Allen,C.D.;Cutrell,A.K.;Cerveny,N.V.;Theurer,J.AdvancesinRockArtResearch.LaPintura2011,37,4.14.Groom,K.M.;Bevan,G.;Al-Zalabieh,M.D.;Al-Anoaimat,S.M.;Allen,C.D.ProtectingtheheritageoftheHismadesert:CommunityengagementandgeologicassessmentofstoneInscriptionsandpetroglyphsintheWadiRumprotectedarea,Jordan.In GlobalPerspectivesfortheConservationandManagementofOpen-AirRockArtSites;Fernandes,A.B.,Marshall,M.,Sanz,I.D.,Eds.;Routledge:NewYork,NY,USA;London,UK,accepted. 15.Dorn,R.I.;Dorn,J.;Harrison,E.;Gutbrod,E.;Gibson,S.;Larson,P.;Cerveny,N.V.;Lopat,N.;Groom,K.M.;Allen,C.D.CaseHardeningVignettesfromtheWesternUSA:ConvergenceofFormbyaDivergenceofHardeningProcesses. Assoc.Pac.CoastGeogr.Yearb. 2012 , 74 ,53.[CrossRef] 16.Mol,L.;Viles,H.A.Theroleofrocksurfacehardnessandinternalmoistureintafonidevelopmentinsandstone. EarthSurf.ProcessesLandf. 2012 , 37 ,301.[CrossRef] 17.Dorn,R.I.PetroglyphsinPetriedForestNationalPark:RoleofRockCoatinginasAgentsofSustainabilityandasIndicatorsofAntiquity.InACenturyofResearchatPetriedForestNationalPark:NaturalandCulturalHistory;Parker,W.G.,Thompson,P.A.,Eds.;MuseumofNorthernArizona:Flagsta,AZ,USA,2006;pp.53. 18.ArizonaStateParksandTrails.HistoricTrailsofArizona-BealeWagonRoad.Availableonline:https:// azstateparks.com / historic-trails-of-arizona-beale-wagon-roadaccessedon20June2019. 19.Dorn,R.I.Revisitingdirtcrackingasaphysicalweatheringprocessinwarmdeserts.Geomorphology2011,135 ,129.[CrossRef] 20.Dorn,R.I.;Jones,A.T.;Bock,A.J.;Bock,F.PreliminaryDataonRadiocarbonDatingofPetroglyphsatPetriedForestNationalPark,Arizona. Am.IndianRockArt 1993 , 19 ,31. 21.Villa,N.;Dorn,R.I.;Clark,J.Finematerialinrockfractures:Aeoliandustorweathering?InDesertAeolianProcesses ;Tchakerian,V.,Ed.;Chapman&Hall:London,UK,1995;pp.219. 22.Hopi;PetriedForestNationalPark,AZ,USA.PersonalCommunicationwithHopiEldersonSite,2010. 23.Hawley,F.KokopelliofthePrehistoricSouth-WesternPuebloPantheon.Am.Anthropol.1937,39,644.[CrossRef] 24.Malotki,E. Kokopelli:TheMakingofanIcon ;UofNebraskaPress:Lincoln,NE,USA,2004. 25.Slifer,D. Kokopelli:TheMagic,Mirth,andMischiefofanAncientSymbol ;GibbsSmith:Layton,UT,USA,2007. 2019bytheauthors.LicenseeMDPI,Basel,Switzerland.ThisarticleisanopenaccessarticledistributedunderthetermsandconditionsoftheCreativeCommonsAttributionCCBYlicensehttp: // creativecommons.org / licenses / by / 4.0 / .


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