Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals


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Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals

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Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals
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Science Advances
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Alex, Bridget
Barzilai, Omry
Hershkovitz, Israel
Marder, Ofer
Berna, Francesco
Caracuta, Valentina
Abulafia, Talia
Davis, Lauren
Goder-Goldberger, Mae
Lavi, Ron
Mintz, Eugenia
Regev, Lior
Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella
Tejero, José-Miguel
Yeshurun, Reuven
Ayalon, Avner
Bar-Matthews, Mira
Yasur, Gal
Frumkin, Amos
Latimer, Bruce
Hans, Mark G.
Boaretto8, Elisabetta
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Radiocarbon Chronology ( local )
Manot Cave ( local )
Isreal ( local )
Upper Paleolithic Dispersals ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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Abstract:
The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP. This timing is consistent with proposed migrations or technological diffusions between the Near East and Europe. Specifically, the Ahmarian could have led to the development of the Protoaurignacian in Europe, and the Aurignacian in Europe could have spread back to the Near East as the Levantine Aurignacian.
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Science Advances, Vol. 3, no. 11 (2017-11-15).

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ANTHROPOLOGYCopyright©2017 TheAuthors,some rightsreserved; exclusivelicensee AmericanAssociation fortheAdvancement ofScience.Noclaimto originalU.S.Government Works.Distributed underaCreative CommonsAttribution NonCommercial License4.0(CCBY-NC).RadiocarbonchronologyofManotCave,Israeland UpperPaleolithicdispersalsBridgetAlex,1*OmryBarzilai,2*IsraelHershkovitz,3,4OferMarder,5FrancescoBerna,6ValentinaCaracuta,7,8TaliaAbulafia,5LaurenDavis,5MaeGoder-Goldberger,5RonLavi,9EugeniaMintz,8LiorRegev,8DaniellaBar-YosefMayer,4,10,11José-MiguelTejero,12,13ReuvenYeshurun,14AvnerAyalon,15MiraBar-Matthews,15GalYasur,15AmosFrumkin,16BruceLatimer,17,18MarkG.Hans,17ElisabettaBoaretto8*ThetimingofarcheologicalindustriesintheLevantiscentralforunderstandingthespreadofmodernhumans withUpperPaleolithictraditions.Wereportahigh-resolutionradiocarbonchronologyforEarlyUpperPaleolithic industries(EarlyAhmarianandLevantineAurignacian)fromthenewlyexcavatedsiteofManotCave,Israel.The datesconfirmthattheEarlyAhmarianindustrywaspresentby46,000calibratedyearsbeforethepresent(calBP), andtheLevantineAurignacianoccurredatleastbetween38,000and34,000calBP.Thistimingisconsistentwith proposedmigrationsortechnologicaldi ffusionsbetweentheNearEastandEuro pe.Specifically,theAhmariancould haveledtothedevelopmentoftheProtoaurignacianinEurope,andtheAurignacianinEuropecouldhavespread backtotheNearEastastheLevantineAurignacian. INTRODUCTIONAlthoughdistinctpopulationsofmo dernhumanslikelydispersedto Eurasiaatdifferenttimes,thegroup thatsuccessfullycolonizedEurope after~50,000yearsagowasassocia tedwithasuiteofbehavioraland technologicalinnovations,broadlyreferredtoastheUpperPaleolithic ( 1 ).Alongthedispersalroute,theLevantisakeyregionforunderstandingtheoriginsandspreadofUpperPaleolithictraditionsand peoples( 2 , 3 ).DuringthetemporalphaseknownastheEarlyUpper Paleolithic(EUP),thereweretwoarc heologicalculturesintheLevant attributedtomodernhumans,theEarlyAhmarianandtheLevantine Aurignacian(textS1)( 4 , 5 ).IthasbeenproposedthattheEarly AhmarianledtotheProtoaurignacianinEurope( 6 )andthatmakers oftheAurignacianinEuropebackmigratedtotheNearEast,producingtheLevantineAurignacian( 7 ). Thelikelihoodofthesehypothesesdependsonthesimilarities betweenindustriesandtheirrelativeages.Thisstudyfocusesonthe latter,addingnewdatatotheLevantineEUPchronologytotestproposedrelationsbetweenindustries.Althoughchronologyalonecannot provethesehypotheses,itcanbeconsistentwiththemoritcanrefute them,ifshownthataproposeddesce ndantindustryactuallypredated itsallegedantecedent. However,thusfar,thistesthasbeeninconclusiveforLevantine EUPindustriesbecausetheregionalchronologyisnotfirmlyestablished.DatesforAhmarianassemblagesdifferbyseveralmillennia betweensites,clusteringintoearlyappearancedates[~46thousand calibratedyearsbeforethepresent(kacalBP)]thatallowforan Ahmarian-Protoaurignaciandevelopment( 8 )andlateappearance dates(~40kacalBP)thatrefutethishypothesis( 3 , 9 ).Regardingthe LevantineAurignacian,theavaila bledatesarenotpreciseenoughto evaluatewhethertheindustrycouldhavederivedfromtheAurignacian inEurope( 3 ).Asitstands,theregionalch ronologyisdi fficulttoresolvebecauseitincludeschronometricsamplescollectedfromunclear contextsofoldexcavationsanddates producedthroughanalyticalproceduresthatfailedtodemonstratetheremovalofcontaminants. Here,wepresentaresearchprogramforradiocarbondating,designedtoamelioratetheseissuesthrough(i)theuseofgeochemical methodstocharacterizesamplesan dtheirarcheologicalcontextsand (ii)experimentallydeterminedpretreatmentprocedures,customized forthedatedmaterials.Themethodologyisappliedtonewlyexcavated EUPassemblagesfromManotCave,Israel,resultinginahigh-resolution chronologyof47radiocarbondates.I ntegratingtheradiocarbondates, geoarcheologicalanalyses,andartifactanalysis,thefollowingminimumrangesaresuggestedforculturalphasesatManot:EarlyAhmarian, from46to42kacalBP;LevantineAurignacian,from38to34kacalBP; apost-LevantineAurignacianindu stry,from34to33kacalBP.These reliabledatesprovideafoundationfortheLevantineEUPchronology, whichisconsistentwiththehypothesesthattheAhmarianledtothe ProtoaurignacianinEuropeandthattheAurignacianinEuropegaverise totheLevantineAurignacianthroughthemovementofpeopleorideas.RESULTSSitedescriptionandcultural-chronometricsequence Excavatedfrom2010to2017,ManotisanactivekarsticcaveinnorthwestIsrael,about10kmfromthepresent-dayMediterranean(Fig.1) 1DepartmentofHumanEvolutionaryBiology,HarvardUniversity,Cambridge,MA 02138,USA.2ArchaeologicalResearchDepartment,IsraelAntiquitiesAuthority,POB 586,Jerusalem91004,Israel.3DepartmentofAnatomyandAnthropology,DanDavid CenterforHumanEvolutionandBiohistoryResearch,ShmunisFamilyAnthropologyInstitute,SacklerFacultyofMedicine,TelAvivUniversity,TelAviv,Israel.4TheSteinhardt MuseumofNaturalHistory,TelAvivUniversity,POBox39040,TelAviv6997801,Israel.5DepartmentofBible,ArchaeologyandtheAncientNearEast,Ben-GurionUniversityof theNegev,POBox653,Beer-Sheva8410501,Israel.6DepartmentofArchaeology,Simon FraserUniversity,8888UniversityDrive, Burnaby,BritishColumbiaV5A1S6,Canada.7LaboratoryofArchaeobotanyandPalaeoec ology,UniversityofSalento,Lecce73100, Italy.8MaxPlanck-WeizmannCenterforIntegrativeArchaeologyandAnthropology, DANGOORResearchAcceleratorMassSpec trometryLaboratory,WeizmannInstitute ofScience,Rehovot7610001,Israel.98DanStreet,Modi ’ in7173161,Israel.10Institute ofArchaeology,TelAvivUniversity,POBox39040,TelAviv6997801,Israel.11Peabody MuseumofArchaeologyandEthnology,Harva rdUniversity,CambridgeMA02138,U.S.A.12CNRS,UMR7041,ArScAnéquipeEthnologiepréhistorique,92023Nanterre,France.13Seminarid ’ EstudisIRecerquesPrehistòriques,UniversitatdeBarcelona,08001Barcelona, Spain.14ZinmanInstituteofArchaeology,UniversityofHaifa,Haifa3498838,Israel.15GeologicalSurveyofIsrael,30MalkheIsraelStreet,Jerusalem95501,Israel.16InstituteofEarth Sciences,HebrewUniversityofJerusalem,Jerusalem91904,Israel.17DepartmentofOrthodontics,CaseWesternReserveUniversitySchoolofDentalMedicine,10900EuclidAvenue, Cleveland,OH44106,USA.18DepartmentofAnatomy,CaseWesternReserveUniversity, Cleveland,OH44106,USA. *Correspondingauthor.Email:balex@fas.harvard.edu(B.A.);omry@israntique.org.il (O.B.);elisabetta.boaretto@weizmann.ac.il(E.B.) SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 1of9

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( 10 ).Amodernhumancalvaria,Manot1,wasrecoveredfromthecave surfacebutwasnotassociatedwith artifacts.Itwasuranium-thorium (U-Th) – datedtoaminimumageof54.7±5.5ka( 11 , 12 ).Thesite ’ s archeologicalfindsconstituteastr atifiedsequenceofEUPindustries (Table1,textS2,figs.S1andS4,andtablesS1andS2).Theuppermost culturalphase,locatedbythecaveentrance(areaE),isclassifiedas post-LevantineAurignacianandcont ainsendscrapers,burins,Dufour bladelets,andpartiallyretouchedtwistedbladelets.Itisunderlain byaLevantineAurignacianassemblage,characterizedbyendscrapers (carinated,nosed,andflat),carina tedburins,bladeswithAurignacian retouch,andDufourbladelets.TheAurignacianfindsalsoinclude boneawls,antlerprojectilepoints,shellbeads,andaperforatedred deercanine.Nearthebaseofthecave(areaC),anotherAurignacian depositoverlaysanEarlyAhmarianassemblage,characterizedbya technologyoflong,narrowblade/bladeletsfromuni-orbidirectional coresandatoolkitofendscrapers,burins,andel-Wadpoints.Asmall numberofInitialUpperPaleolithic(IUP)andMiddlePaleolithic(MP) artifactshavebeenfoundinthecav e,buttheseindustrieshavenotyet beenuncoveredinstratigraphicsequence. Here,wereport47radiocarbondatesusedtoestablishtheEUP chronologyandtounderstandsitef ormationprocessesatManot(Fig.2 andtableS5).Thedateswerepro ducedfrom41charcoaland6sedimentsamples,someofwhichweredividedandsubjectedtodifferent pretreatmentproceduresforatotalof86acceleratormassspectrometry (AMS)measurements(textsS4andS5andtablesS3andS5).Radiocarbondatesinthetextarereportedascalibrated68%probabilitydensityfunctions(PDFs).Datedsamplescamefromthemostintensively excavatedareas,EandC(textS2andfig.S1).Bythecurrentcaveentranceatthetopofthewesttalus,areaEhaspreservedoccupational surfacesindicatedbysemibrecciatedsediment,concentrationsofartifacts,andinsituhearths(fig.S2andtableS1).Datedcharcoalswere collectedfromhearthsinareaE( n =8),associatedwithpost-Levantine AurignacianandLevantineAurig nacianartifacts(fig.S10). AreaCisnearthebottomofthewesttalus,approximately30m southeastand20mbelowthecurrentcaveentrance(figs.S3and S11).Noclear-cutoccupationalsurfaceswereobservedthroughexcavationorgeoarcheologicalanalyses.However,anthropogenicmaterial seemstohavebeenredepositedinsequencefromprimarycontexts higherontheslope,resultinginapackageofAurignacianartifacts overlyingapackageofAhmarianartifacts(fig.S4andtableS2). Isolatedcharcoals( n =23),collectedfroma1.5-m-longsection, showincreasingagewithdepth,dividingintoayoungerandolder cluster.Theyoungerclusterof38to34kacalBPcamefromhigher inthesection(unit4andtopofunit5)associatedwithmostlyAurignacianartifacts.Theolderclusterof46to42kacalBPcamefrom lowerinthesection(unit7andbottomofunit6),associatedwith mostlyAhmarianartifacts.Onlythreedatesdeviatefromthispattern. Thesamples(RTD-7783A,RTD-7785,andRTD-7786)camefrom midwaythroughtheareaCsectionandshowreversestratigraphyor decreasingagewithdepth.This15-cmportionofthesection( z = 205.50to205.35)isrelativelyrocky,suggestingstrongerwateractivity,whichcouldhaveledtomixedandmissingdeposits.Wedo notconsiderthisareaofthesectionrepresentativeofthecultural sequenceandhaveexcludedthesedatesinestimatingtheagesof culturalphases. Radiocarbonpretreatmentandstatisticalanalysis Toremovecontaminantsfromfossilcharcoalsbeforeradiocarbon dating,laboratoriesroutinelyapplya numberofpretreatmentprocedures, Sources: USGS, ESRI, TANA, AND 050100 Kilometers 1 2 3 6,7 8 4 11 12 13 15 17 16 5 9 10 14 N Fig.1.MapofL evantineEUPsitesmentionedinthetext. Sitesincludedinregional chronologyarered.TheManotCaveisindicatedbyastar.1,Üça š zl š ;2,Ksâr ‘ Akil;3, Manot;4,Kebara;5,WadiKharar16R;6,Hayonim;7,Meged;8,Raqefet;9,Qafzeh; 10,NahalEin-GevI;11,Mughrel-Hamama h;12,TorSadaf;13,BokerA/BokerTachtit; 14,NahalNizzanaXIII;15,QadeshBarnea;16,LagamaVII;17,AbuNoshra.USGS,U.S. GeologicalSurvey;ESRI,EnvironmentalSystemsResearchInstitute;TANA,Telugu AssociationofNorthAmerica;AND,AutomotiveNavigationData. Table1.Excavationcontextsanddaterangesofculturalphases. CulturalphaseContextdated DaterangescalBP 68.2%(samplenumber) Post-Levantine Aurignacian Insituoccupationalsurfaces AreaE,unit2,layerI,loci 500and501 34,030 – 33,050(6) Levantine Aurignacian Insituoccupationalsurfaces AreaE,unit2,layerIV, locus502 36,860 – 35,960(2) Secondarytalusdeposit AreaC,unit4;areaC,unit 5above z =205.50 38,260 – 34,050(11) AhmarianSecondarytalusdeposit AreaC,unit6below z = 205.35;areaC,unit7 45,940 – 41,560(8) 49,440 – 41,600(9) SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 2of9

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includingtheacid-base-acid(ABA)method,acid-basewetoxidation (ABOx)method,andsteppedcombustion.Controlledstudies,comparing theeffectivenessofdifferentpretreatmentprocedures,haveproducedinconclusiveresults.Numerousstudieshaveyieldedolderandmore reliabledateswiththeharsher ABOxandsteppedcombustion methods( 13 , 14 ).However,studiesofcharcoalsfromcertainLevantineEUPsitesfoundthatABA-treatedfractionshadbetterpreservationparametersandolderorstatisticallyindistinguishabledates comparedtotheirABOx-treatedpairs(textS4,fig.S8,andtable S4)( 8 , 9 , 15 ).Theseresultsindicatethattheappropriatepretreatment methodforfossilcharcoaldependsonthepreservationstateanddepositionalenvironmentofthesamplesandthusshouldbeexperimentallydeterminedforagivensite( 8 , 16 ). Here,experimentalcharcoalsfromManotwereseparatelydivided intohomogenizedsubsamplesandtreatedwithsixdifferentprocedures:ABA,ABOx,andthosemethods,followedbysteppedcombustionto630°or900°C(textS4,fig.S6,andtableS3).Thefractions treatedbyABAwithoutsteppedcombustionproducedthesmallest percentmoderncarbon(pMC)valuesandFouriertransforminfrared(FTIR)spectra,showingtha tsedimenthadbeenremovedfrom samples(fig.S7).Radiocarbondatesofthetotalorganiccarbonin sedimentwere16to10kayoungerthanassociatedcharcoals,sowe expectanycontaminationfromse dimenttohavemadedatesyounger ratherthanolder(textS5andtableS5).Thesecombinedresults — smallestpMCvaluesanddemonstratedremovalofyounger-aged sediment — indicatedthatABAwithoutsteppedcombustionwasthe mosteffectivemethodforcharcoalsfromManot.Werecommend themethodologyandparametersusedtoreachthisconclusion(FTIR andpMCbydifferentpretreatments)beusedinfuturestudiestodeterminethemosteffectivemethodf orsamplesfromothersites,which maynotbethesameasManot. Bayesianmodelswereproducedthatconstraindatesbasedon stratigraphicinformationtotestforoutliersandestimatethespan ofculturalphases(textS6,fig.S12,andtablesS7toS9).However,our conclusionsarebasedontheunmodeledranges,whicharelessinfluencedbyinterpretationsofstratigraphyanddepositionalhistory. Theculturalspanmodel(model1)co mprisedthreesequentialphases ofAhmarianbeforeAurignacianbeforepost-LevantineAurignacian. ItincludeddatesfromcombustionfeaturesofareaEandthesequenceinareaC(Jsquareswiththeexceptionofthreedatesdescribedabovethatshowedreversestratigraphy).Inthismodel,only 1of28dateswasidentifiedasanoutlier(fig.S12andtableS7). ThiswasRTD-7116,adateof49to48kacalBPthatissignificantly olderthananyotherradiocarbondatesfromManot.Althoughthe sampleproducedafiniteradiocarbonage(48,700±70014CyearsBP), itextendsbeyondthe50,000-yearagelimitofthecalibrationcurve at95.4%confidenceandthereforemayexceedtheagelimitofthe radiocarbonmethod.Thesamplecamefrommidwaythroughunit 6andcouldbetheoldestAhmariandateatManotorrepresentan earlierphasebecauseartifactssuggestiveoftheIUPandMPwererecoveredfromthebaseofthesequence.Thelatterseemsmorelikely, consideringthetightspreadofotherAhmarian-associateddatesof 46to42kacalBP. Themodeledspanswerethesameastheunmodeledranges,except thattheAurignacianwasreduced to~2000yearsfromanunmodeled rangeof38to34kacalBPtoamodeledspanof37to35kacalBP. TheimprovedprecisioncomeswiththecaveatthatthereisnocontinuousinsitustratigraphicboundarybetweentheAhmarianand Aurignaciansequences;rather,theboundaryisinferredonthebasis ofartifactcompositionandclusteringofdatesinareaC(textS6).In contrast,theendoftheAurignacianisboundstratigraphicallybythe overlyinginsitupost-LevantineAurignacianlayerinareaE,datedto 34to33kacalBP.Moreover,themodeledrangealignswithdates fromthemostsecureLevantineAurignaciancontextatManot,the combustionfeatureinareaEdatedto37to36kacalBP. Area CUnit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7Area ELocus 502Locus 500Locus 501Post-Levantine Aurignacian Levantine Aurignacian Early Ahmarian(221.46–221.42) (221.41–221.36) (221.41–221.38) (221.02) (220.99) (220.37–220.19) (220.18) (220.08–220.02) (206.14) (206.03) (206.00) (206.00) (205.95) (205.95–205.94) (205.93) (205.70–205.60) (205.60–205.52) (205.56) (205.54) (205.50) (205.42) (205.38) (205.31–205.16) (205.31–205.16) (205.25–205.14) (205.06) (205.04–204.90) (205.03–205.91) (205.02–204.90) (204.80–204.70) (204.70–204.60)H4 H5NGRIP 18O (‹) 2 2 221.4 2 ) 2 2 221.3 6 ) 2 2 221.3 8 ) ( 221.02 ) 2 20.19 ) 2 2 220.0 2 ) 2 2 205.9 4) Fig.2.RadiocarbondatesforarcheologicalchronologyofManotCave. SamplesfromareasEandC.JsquaresareshownasPDFscalibratedwithOxCal v4.2( 59 )andIntCal13( 60 ).Datesarelistedinstratigraphicsequencebylaboratory code,followedbyabsoluteelevationortheelevationrangeofthesample ’ sexcavationbasket.Theassociatedarcheologicalcultureisindicatedbycolor:postLevantineAurignacian,green;LevantineAurignacian,orange;EarlyAhmarian, pink.NGRIP,NorthGreenlandIceCoreProject. SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 3of9

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DISCUSSIONImplicationsforLevantineEUPchronology InadditiontoManot,therearefoursiteswithlargesequencesof radiocarbondates(>10)producedbymodernanalyticalmethods andassociatedwithEUPassemblages(Figs.1and3,textS7,and datasetS1).ThreeofthesearecavesorrocksheltersalongtheMediterraneancoast:Üça š zl š inTurkey( 17 ),Ksâr ‘ AkilinLebanon ( 9 , 18 ),andKebarainIsrael( 8 ).ThefourthisMughrel-Hamamah intheJordanValley( 19 ).Othersitesinthesouthernaridzone,includingAbuNoshraIandII,BokerA,QadeshBarnea,andthe Lagamansites,havefewerdates,andthoseweremostlyproduced inthe1970sandearly1980swithlessreliablemethods( 20 , 21 ). Thus,asitstands,theLevantineEUPchronologyisbasedonMediterraneancoastalsites,whichunderrepresenttheassemblagevariabilityoftheregion.Relationsbetweencoastalandaridsitesare unclear,andthetimingandcharacterofindustriesmayhavediffered betweenthesezones. Thepost-LevantineAurignacianassemblageatManotistightly datedto34to33kacalBPbycharcoalsfrominsitucombustionfeatures.Itissimilartoassemblages,describedasAtlitian,locatedinthe Mediterraneanzone(textS2).Theageoftheseassemblageshasbeen estimated~27or26kacalBP — youngerthantheManotdates — butis consideredproblematicbasedonlimi tedstratigraphicandchronometricdata( 22 , 23 ).ThesecureManotdatesdoalignwiththefewdates fromAtlitianlayersatKsâr ‘ Akil(phase6,levelVI),approximately35 to32kacalBP( 9 , 18 ). Datesincludedintheregional chronologyfortheLevantine Aurignacian,comingfromKsâr ‘ Akil( n =3)andKebara( n =7), havelargeuncertainties,whichonlyconstrainthetimingofthephase tosometimebetween42and34kacalBP.TheManotdataprovide arelativelylargesequenceofhigh-precisiondatesfortheindustry ( n =13),whichestablishesafirmchronologicalpegfortheLevantineAurignacianatleastbetween38and34kacalBPandprobably morepreciselybetween37and35kacalBP.TheLevantineAurignacianatManotisalsostratigraphicallyboundbytheinsitupostLevantineAurignaciansurfacedatedto34to33kacalBP.These chronostratigraphicdatasupportviewsthattheLevantineAurignaciansensustrictowasarelativelyshort-livedarcheologicalphenomenon(~2000years),restrictedtotheMediterraneanvegetation belt( 24 ). Kuhn et al . 2009 Douka 2013Üçašzlš Ksar AkilDouka et al . 2013 Bosch et al . 2015 Manot Kebara MHM Area C Area E Bar Yosef et al . 1996 Rebollo et al . 2011 2012 2015 M&T 1989 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53Kcal BP 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53Kcal BP MP IUP Ahmarian Aurignacian Other or undetermined Charcoal ShellLegend Manot post-Lev Aurignacian Fig.3.RegionalchronologyofradiocarbondatesforstratifiedEUPsitesbetween50and30kacalBP. Verticallinesarecharcoaldates,andcrossedlinesareshell dates.Datesarecalibratedas68.2%PDFsusingtheOxCalv4.2software( 59 )andtheIntCal-Marine13calibrationcurve( 60 ).Datesarecolor-codedbyassociated archeologicalindustryandorganizedintocolumnsbysiteandstudy.Withinagivenstudy,datesareorderedinstratigraphicsequence(fromthelowe stelevation orlayeronthelefttothehighestontheright),aspreciselyasthisinformationisknown.Theshadedblocksrepresentthephaserangesreportedbypar ticularstudies. TheserangesaretheresultofBayesianmodels,withtheexceptionofManot,whichshowsthefullunmodeledrange.M&T,MellarsandTixier( 61 );MHM,Mughr el-Hamamah.Datesassignedto “ otherorundetermined ” donotnecessarilyrepresentthesameindustrybetweensitesandstrata.Siteanddateinformationisfoundin textS7anddatasetS1. SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 4of9

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TheEarlyAhmarianappearstohavebegunby47.5to46kacalBP atKebara( 8 )andManotandthenaround43kacalBP( 18 )or40kacal BP( 3 )atKsâr ‘ AkilandÜça š zl š .This3000-to7000-yeardifference maybebecausepeopleatManotandKebaraproducedtheEarly AhmarianseveralthousandyearsearlierthanpeopleatKsâr ‘ Akil andÜça š zl š .Thediscrepancymayalsoresultfrommischaracterizationofarcheologicalassemblagesorincorrectassumptionsthatnamed stonetoolindustriesweremadebysociallyrelatedpeople.However, therelevantassemblage satManot,Kebara,Ksâr ‘ Akil,andÜça š zl š showahighdegreeoftechnotypologicalsimilaritywithinanarrow geographicandstratigraphicrange,correspondingtothe “ Northern EarlyAhmarian ” ( 25 ).TheEarlyAhmarianis thoughttohavedevelopedlocallyfromtheIUP( 26 , 27 ).Althoughthemoresouthernsites ofManotandKebaradonothavestratifiedIUPassemblages,the well-datedEarlyAhmarianlayersareearlierthanorcontemporaneouswiththeIUPatKsâr ‘ AkilandÜça š zl š .Inthiscase,thepeople ofKsâr ‘ AkilandÜça š zl š wouldhavegraduallydevelopedanindustry3000to7000yearsafteritwasfullydevelopedlessthan500km tothesouth. Alternatively,thedisagreementc ouldbeexplainedbydifferences inthereliabilityofradiocarbondatesrelatedtosamplecontext,material,andpretreatmentmethods(te xtS7).Regardingtheissueofcontext,radiocarbonsamplesfromManotwerecollectedduringrecent excavationsfromcombustionfeaturesandknownstratigraphic positions,whichwerecharacteriz edbyseveralgeochemicalmethods (textS3).Radiocarbonsample sfromAhmarianlevelsofKsâr ‘ Akilwere recoveredinthe1930sto1940swithoutdatedexcavationmethods,and inthedecadessince,somespecimenslikelybecamemislabeledinterms ofprovenience( 9 ).Inaccurateproveniencesmayexplainthelarge numberofoutliersinBayesianmodelsthatconstrainKsâr ‘ Akildates tostratigraphicposition[9of39datesinthestudyofDouka etal. ( 9 ) and6of16datesinthestudyofBosch etal. ( 18 )]. Next,lateappearancedatesfortheEarlyAhmarianfromKsâr ‘ Akil andÜça š zlš wereproducedprimarilyfromshells,whereastheearly appearancedatesfromManotandK ebarawereproducedfromcharcoals.Evidencethatcontaminationhasbeenremovedfromsamples shouldbebasedonindependentanal ysesofthedatedmaterialsrather thantheagesobtained.Forcharcoa l,severalsuchmethodshavebeen developed( 28 – 30 )andprovenreliableinintercomparisonstudies betweenlaboratories( 8 ).Forshell,itisdifficulttodetectanddemonstratetheremovalofdiageneticcarbonatefromtheoriginalbiogeniccarbonate( 31 ). Last,whendisagreementsarisebetweencharcoaldatesforagiven event,theolderdatesaregenerallyconsideredmorereliableandthe youngerdatesarethoughttoreflectcontamination( 32 , 33 ).Thisis becauseasmallamountofmoderncarbon(<1%)canmakeLatePleistocenesamplesappearthousandsofyearsyounger( 34 ).OurpretreatmentexperimentsshowedthatforcharcoalsfromManot,the ABAmethodproducedthesmallestpMCvalues(andoldestdates) andpurestFTIRspectra.Thesamepatternwasfoundforcharcoals fromKebara( 8 ).Wehypothesizethatthisisbecauseharshertreatments(ABOxandsteppedcombustio n)destroymoreofthecharcoals. Then,anysurvivingcontaminantclaycomprisesagreaterportionof themeasuredsample( 28 ),andsomeofthesecontaminants(forexample,siliceousaggregates)arereactivewithatmosphericCO2( 8 ).Because datedsedimentatManotisapproximately15to10kayoungerthan associatedcharcoals,contaminationfromclaywouldmakedatesyounger.Thus,wearguethattheAhmarianappearedintheLevantbyatleast 46kacalBPbasedontheearlyappearancedatesfromKebaraandManot. ThisageisalsoolderthansomedatesfortheAhmarianfromthe southernaridzonesoftheLevant(NegevandSinai)( 20 , 21 ).Thearid zonedatesshouldbeviewedwithcau tionbecausetheyincludeasmall numberofsamplesandwereproduceddecadesago.However,they highlightapotentiallyinterestingpatternforfutureresearchthatthe AhmarianmayhaveoriginatedinthecoastalLevantandthenspread southwardintothearidzones. ImplicationsforrelationsbetweentheNearEastandEurope Here,weusetheManotchronologytoevaluateproposalsthatthe AhmarianledtotheProtoaurignacianinEuropeandthattheEuropeanAurignacianledtotheLevanti neAurignacian.Thesehypotheses arefoundedonthepremisethatarch eologicalindustriescanbeused totracemigrationsandrelationso fpasthumangroups.Althoughthis approachiswidelyapplied,itmustbejustifiedforeachcontext( 35 ). Assemblagesshouldbesystematicallycomparedwithinaframework thatconsidersartifacttraitsresultingfromsociallylearned,idiosyncratic choicesinmaterialcultureproducti ontodistinguishbetweenhypothesesofindependentinventionandculturaltransmission( 36 ).Although thisresearchisongoing,itisalsoessentialtotesttheconclusionsagainst chronometricdata.Accuratechronologiesconstrainhypothesesbyrefutingscenariosthatdonotaccordwiththetimingofarcheological industries. IthasbeenproposedthattheLeva ntineAurignacianwasanintrusiveindustry,introducedbymakersoftheEuropeanAurignacian(text S1)( 7 , 37 – 39 ).TheviewthattheLevantineAurignacianwasnonlocal issupportedbystatisticalcompariso noftechnologicalandtypological traitsoflithicsfromKsâr ‘ Akil,showingthatLevantineAurignacian levels(phase5,levelsVIIItoVII)differsignificantlyfromallother EUPlayers( 40 ).RegardingtiestotheEuro peanAurignacian,thebroad similaritiesincludethickscrapersmadeonflakes(nosed,carinated, andshouldered),Dufourbladelets,b one/antlerpoints,andanimaltooth pendants( 40 – 43 ).Someofthesharedfeaturesarecharacteristicofthe EarlyAurignacian[AurignacianI( 44 – 46 )],suchasAurignacianretouchedblades,scraperswithscalarlateralretouch,andflatcarinateditems( 7 , 39 ).However,otherfeatures,includingnosedand shoulderedpieces,twistedDufourbladelets,andsimple-basedantler points,resembletoolsofthelaterEvolvedAurignacian[Aurignacian IIandIII( 46 , 47 )].Thus,linkingtheLevantineAurignaciantoaparticularphaseoftheEuropeansequenceisanopenquestion,which mustbeaddressedthroughsystematiccomparisonsofassemblages betweenregions.Therehavebeenfewstudiesofthisnature,although Tostevin( 36 )showedthatblankproductionandtoolkitmorphology oflithicsfromAurignacianlayersofKebaraandCentralEurope (Stránskáskála,CzechRepublic)aremoresimilartoeachotherthan toprecedingstrataateachsite.Inaddition,Tejero etal. ( 47 )demonstratedsimilaritiesbetweenAurignacianassemblagesatManotand Europeintheusesandproducti onmethodsofosseoustools. Intermsofchronology,thesecureLevantineAurignaciandates fromManotarecontemporaneouswithorslightlylaterthanthe39.5 to35.5kacalBPmodeledstartdatesoftheEvolvedAurignacianin SouthwestFrance/NorthernIberiaatL ’Arbreda,LaViña,andAbri PataudandsubstantiallylaterthanEarlyAurignacianassemblages, whichbeginbetween43.5and40kacalBPacrossEuropeatsitesincludingAbriPataud,Labeko Koba,andWillendorfII( 48 , 49 ).Thus, datesfromManotdonotrefutethehypothesisthattheLevantine AurignaciandevelopedfromaEuropeanAurignacianprecursor. ItisoftenclaimedthattheAhmarianledtotheEuropeanProtoaurignacian( 1 , 6 )basedonsharedfeaturesofshellornamentsand SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 5of9

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long,straightblades/bladeletsproducedbysofthammerreduction, possiblyforprojectileweapons( 50 ).TheProtoaurignacianappears tobeintrusiveinEuropeansequencesbecauseitistypologicallyand technologicallydistinctfromassemblagesinprecedinglayers( 51 ). However,systematicstudiescompari ngAhmarianandProtoaurignacian assemblagesarelacking.TheAhmarian-Protoaurignacianhypothesis hasbeenchallengedbecauselateappearancedatesfortheAhmarian of~40kacalBPfromKsâr ‘ AkilandÜça š zl š ( 3 )areyoungerthanthe earliestProtoaurignaciandateso f44to41kacalBPfromsitesincludingIsturitz,RiparoMochi,L ’ Arbreda,andFumane( 48 ).Incontrast, earlyappearancedatesfromManot andKebarabegintheAhmarian by46kacalBP,securelybeforetheearliestProtoaurignacian,andthereforeallowforthehypothesisthattheAhmarianoftheLevantgaverise totheProtoaurignacianofEurope. TestingproposedaffinitiesbetweentheAhmarianandProtoaurignacian,aswellastheEuropeanAurignacianandLevantine Aurignacian,willrequiremoresystematiccomparisonsofthematerialculturalremains(thatis,lithic,shell,bone,andantlerartifacts)fromeachregion.However,thesehypothesescannotbe evaluatedwithoutaccurate,high-precisionchronologies.Theresults fromManotCaveprovideachronologicalfoundation,whichis criticalforunderstandingthespreadofmodernhumansandUpper Paleolithictraditions.MATERIALSANDMETHODSRadiocarbondating Thearcheologicalchronologywasbasedonradiocarbondatesofcharcoals(Fig.2,Table1,andtableS5).InareaE,thecharcoalsamples wereselectedfromcombustionfeat ures,whereasinareaC,charcoals werechosentocoverasmuchofthesequenceverticallyaspossible. Charcoalpieceswerecollectedbyhandduringexcavationorfromexposedsectionsandwrappedinaluminumfoilwithassociatedsediment. Severalcharcoalswerecollectedfrommicromorphologyblocks,asthe blockswerecutandremoved.Charcoalswereidentifiedusingametallographicmicroscope(NikonEcl ipseLV150N).Thevastmajorityof charcoalsatManotare Amygdalus sp.(almond),andalldatedspecimenswereidentifiedasbelongingtothistaxon.Nobonesyieldedcollagen.Approximately40bonesweresampled,collectedfromall excavationareas,andinvaryingtaphonomicstates.Althoughdietary andornamentalmarineshellswererecovered,theywerenotdated becauseitisunclearwhetherdiageneticcarbonatecanbeseparated fromoriginalbiogeniccarbonate( 31 ). Sampleswerecharacterizedandpreparedforradiocarbondating basedontailor-madeproceduresattheDANGOORResearchAcceleratorMassSpectrometry(D-REAMS)Laboratory(textS5)( 8 , 28 , 52 ). Beforeandafterpretreatment,sampleswereanalyzedbyFTIRspectrometrytotestthepurityofthematerial.Approximately50mgof eachcharcoalpiecewascleanedofsedimentwithascalpelandhomogenizedbycrushingwithanagatemortarandpestle.Mostsamples werethentreatedwiththefollowingABAprocedure:(i)acidtreatment in1MHClfor30min,followedbyrinsingwithNanopurewateruntil itreachedpH6,(ii)basetreatmentof0.1MNaOHfor15min,followed byrinsinguntilitreachedpH6,and(iii)acidtreatmentin1MHClfor 1hourinawaterbathof80°C,followedbyrinsinguntilitreachedpH6. Becauseoftheirsmallsize,fourch arcoalsincludedinthechronology weretreatedwithawater-base-acidregime,whichfollowedthesame procedureexceptthatthefirstacidtreatmentwasreplacedbyawash withNanopurewater. Samplesweredriedovernightat~60°C,combustedtoCO2with ~200mgofCuOat900°C,andthenreducedtographiteinavacuum line.Foursamplesweredividedand underwentgraphitizationonthe standardvacuumlineandonanultra cleanline,dedicatedtosamples over30,00014CyearsBP.SampleswithlaboratorycodeRTDwere measuredbyAMSattheD-REAMSLaboratory( 53 ),whereasthose withRTKweremeasuredattheNationalScienceFoundation(NSF) – ArizonaAMSFacility,Universityo fArizona.StableisotopemeasurementswereconductedattheGeologicalSurveyofIsrael. Radiocarbondateswereproducedforsedimenttoevaluatehow contaminantsedimentwouldaffectcharcoaldates.Foursediment samplesweredirectlyremovedfro mdatedcharcoalsamples,andtwo additionalsedimentsampleswerecol lectedfromthesection.Thesedimentsampleswerecrushed,homogenized,andthendissolvedin1M HCl,followedbythreerinseswithNanopurewater.Theremaining fractioncontainedthe totalorganiccarbon(TOC)andwasprepared tographite,asdescribedabove.ThesedimentTOCdateswerebetween16,000and10,000yearsyoungerthantheirassociatedcharcoals(tableS5). Determinationofradiocarbonpretreatment Todeterminethebestpretreatment methodforcharcoalsfromManot, fourcharcoalsamplesfromareaC wereseparatelyhomogenized,divided,andpreparedbydifferentprocedures(textS4).Theseexperimentalcharcoalsweresubjectedtosixprocedures:ABA,ABOx,and bothofthosetreatmentsfollowe dbysteppedcombustionat630°or 900°C.TheABOxprocedureconsist edofthefollowing:(i)6MHCl for1hour,followedbyrinsingwi thNanopurewater,(ii)1MNaOH for1hour,followedbyrinsingwithNanopurewater,and(iii)0.1M K2Cr2O7in2MH2SO4at60°Covernight.AfterrinsingwithNanopurewater,sampleswereoven-driedat105°C.Thestepcombustion procedurefollowed(i)precombustionat300°Cin750torrO2for 30min(thisshouldremovethemorerecentcontamination),(ii)combustionat630°CwithCuOfor2ho ursinvacuumandcollectionof theCO2,and(iii)combustionat900°CwithCuOfor3hoursand collectionoftheCO2.Intotal,31fractionsweremeasuredfromtheoriginalfourcharcoals.TheresultsarereportedaspMC(fig.S6andtableS3).The samebackgroundcorrectionof0.263±0.032pMCwasappliedto allfractions,whichreflectsgraphitizationandAMSsteps.ThepretreatmentbackgroundcorrectionwasnotappliedsothatpMC valuesresultingfromdifferentprocedurescouldbedirectlycompared.Inthisway,thepMCvaluesindicatetheeffectivenessofthe specificpretreatments;however,abackgroundcorrectionreflecting graphitization,AMS,andpretreatmentwasappliedincalculating thereportedradiocarbondatesintableS5.Theresultsshowthat theABAtreatmentprocedurewithoutstepcombustionproduced thesmallestpMCmeasurementsando ldestages.Explanationsforthis patternarediscussedintextS4. Geoarcheologicalanalysis InconjuncturewithothergeoarcheologicalworkatManotCave,focusedmineralogicalanalyseswere conductedtosupportradiocarbon samplingandinterpretation.Theanalysesincludedmicromorphology,loosesedimentcharacterization,andexperimentalheatingof localcontrolsediment.Formicromorphologicalstudy,intactsedimentblocksweretakenfromthroughouttheverticalsectionofarea C(fig.S3)andfromspecificfeaturesinareaE.Air-driedblockswere impregnatedwithpolyester/styreneresin,cured,cutwitharocksaw, SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 6of9

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andsenttoSpectrumPetrographics,wheretheywerepreparedinto 30m m-thinsections.Thethinsectionswereanalyzedwithapetrographicmicroscopeanddescribedusingconventionalcriteriaand terminology( 54 , 55 ).Loosesedimentsampleswerecollectedfrom surfaces,fromsections,andwithradiocarbonsamplesandthenanalyzedbyFTIR.ForallFTIRmeasurements,afewmilligramsofsample weregroundandhomogenizedwithanagatemortarandpestle.Approximately0.2mgofthesamplewasmixedwith~50mgofKBrpowderand pressedintoa7-mmpelletwithahandpress(QwikHandi-Press, Spectra-TechIndustriesCorporation)oramanualhydraulicpress (Specac).FTIRspectraweremeasuredataresolutionof4cm 1for 32scansbetween4000and400cm 1usingaNicolet380(Thermo FisherScientific)( 56 , 57 ).Spectraandphotographsofthinsections areavailableuponrequest. Controlsedimentwascollectedfromthesurfaceofthecavebase (areaA)foranexperimentalheatingstudy( 58 ).Thesedimentwas heatedtosettemperaturesandanalyzedbyFTIRtodeterminethe temperature-relatedtransformationsoftheclaymineralscontained inthelocalsediment.Thiscalibrationwasthenusedtoestimatethe temperaturesreachedbysedimentassociatedwithputativecombustionfeatures.Fiftygramsofsedimentwashomogenizedand separatedinto10samples(5geach).Thesampleswereplacedin ceramiccruciblesandheatedtodifferenttemperatures(0°Cand 200°to1000°Cat100°Cincrements) for4hoursinamufflefurnace (A.Mandel,T21typecoupledwithaEurotherm3216temperature programmer).Afterheating,thesedimentswereanalyzedbyFTIR, asdescribedabove. SUPPLEMENTARYMATERIALSSupplementarymaterialforthisarticleisavailableathttp://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/ content/full/3/11/e1701450/DC1 textS1.LevantineEUP textS2.Sitedescriptionandarcheologicalsequence textS3.Geoarcheologicalresults textS4.Charcoalpretreatment:ABA,ABOx,andsteppedcombustioncomparisons textS5.Charcoalpreservationandradiocarbonresults textS6.Bayesianmodeling textS7.Regionalchronology fig.S1.TopviewandprofileviewofManotCave. fig.S2.ExcavationareaEwithcombustionfeatures. fig.S3.AreaCshowinglocationsofradiocarbonsamplesandmicromorphologyblocks. fig.S4.ArtifactsfromManotCave. fig.S5.FTIRspectraofsedimentexposedtodifferenttemperaturesinexperimentalheating study. fig.S6.RadiocarbonmeasurementsofManotcharcoalsamplespreparedbydifferent pretreatments. fig.S7.FTIRspectraofcharcoalsamplebeforepretreatment,afterABA,andafterABOx. fig.S8.ComparisonofABAandABOxcharcoaldatesfromLevantineEUPsites. fig.S9.Characterizationof Amygdalus sp.charcoalbyscanningelectronmicroscopeandFTIR. fig.S10.CalibratedradiocarbondatesfromareaEplottedbyabsoluteelevation. fig.S11.CalibratedradiocarbondatesfromareaCplottedbyabsoluteelevation. fig.S12.Bayesianmodelsandoutlieranalysis. tableS1.LithicassemblageinareaE. tableS2.LithicassemblageinareaC. tableS3.RadiocarbonmeasurementsofManotcharcoalsamplespreparedbydifferent pretreatments. tableS4.ComparisonofABAandABOxcharcoaldatesfromLevantineEUPsites. tableS5.RadiocarbonsamplesanddatesforManotCave. tableS6.Excavationcontextswitharcheologicalclassificationsanddateranges. tableS7.OutputsofBayesianmodel1basedonculturalphases. tableS8.Culturalphaseestimatesforeightrunsofmodel1. tableS9.OutputsofBayesianmodel2basedonlithostratigraphicunits. datasetS1.Publisheddatesusedtoconstructregionalchronology. 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Am.J.Archaeol. 116 ,697 – 699(2012). 116.B.Weninger,O.Jöris,A14Cagecalibrationcurveforthelast60ka:TheGreenland-Hulu U/ThtimescaleanditsimpactonunderstandingtheMiddletoUpperPaleolithic transitioninWesternEurasia. J.Hum.Evol. 55 ,772 – 781(2008). Acknowledgments: WethankS.WeinerandM.Thibodeauforthemicroarcheologywork; C.Klöcker,J.Kakayuk,andP.Sathyanarayanforcarryingoutthesedimentheatingexperiment; andthreeanonymousreviewersaswellasD.Pilbeam,O.Bar-Yosef,andC.Tryonfortheir commentsonthispaper. Funding: AnalyticalworkwasfundedbyNSFDoctoralDissertation ImprovementGrant(1334615),FulbrightStudentScholarshipfromtheU.S.-IsraelEducational Foundation,andNSFGraduateResearchFellowshipProgramAward(DGE-1144152)toB.A. RadiocarbondateswerefundedbytheExilarch ’ sFoundation,D-REAMS,andtheMaxPlanckWeizmannCenterforIntegrativeArchaeologyandAnthropologyawardstoE.B.Paleobotanical analysiswassupportedbytheMinistryofScience,TechnologyandSpace,Israel,andthe MinistryofForeignAffairsandInternationalCooperationGeneralDirectorateforPoliticalAffairs &Security,ItalianRepublic(IMOS3-13329)awardstoE.B.andV.C.ManotCaveexcavationis fundedbytheDanDavidFoundation,theIsraelA ntiquitiesAuthority,CaseWesternReserve University,theLeakeyFoundation,theIreneLeviSalaCAREArchaeologicalFoundation,the KerenKayemetL ’ Israel,andtheBinationalScienceFoundation(2015303)toI.H.,B.L.,O.B.,and O.M.andbythetheIsraelScienceFoundation(338/14)toI.H.,O.M.,andO.B.Geoarcheological workwassupportedbyawardstoF.B.fromtheSocialSciencesandHumanitiesResearch CouncilofCanada(awardno.430-2013-000546)andtheBerthaandLouisWeinsteinResearch Fund,andresearchwassupportedbytheKimmelCenterforArchaeologicalScience. Author contributions: B.A.andE.B.designedtheradiocarbonsamplecollection,characterization, anddatingprotocols.B.A.,O.B.,O.M.,andE.B.designedthepaper.B.A.andE.B.wrote themanuscriptwithcontributionsfromO.M.,O.B.,T.A.,L.D.,F.B.,andM.G.-G.,andallco-authors assistedinrevisions.B.A.andO.M.conductedtheregionalreview.O.B.,I.H.,andO.M. directedtheManotCaveresearchproject.E.B.directedtheradiocarbondatinglaboratory. F.B.andB.A.conductedthegeoarcheologicalwork.V.C.conductedtheanthracologicalanalysis. O.B.,O.M.,T.A.,andL.D.analyzedthelithicartifacts.M.G.-G.andR.L.ledtheexcavationand stratigraphicinterpretationsofareasCandE,respectively.B.A.,E.B.,E.M.,andL.R.performedthe radiocarbonanalyses.D.B.-Y.M.,J.-M.T.,andR.Y.studiedthefaunalremainsandartifacts.A.A., M.B.-M.,andG.Y.performedtheU-Thdating.A.F.conductedthegeologicalstudyofthecave. I.H.,B.L.,andM.G.H.studiedthehumanremains. Competinginterests: Theauthorsdeclare thattheyhavenocompetinginterests. Dataandmaterialsavailability: Alldataneededto evaluatetheconclusionsinthepaperarepresentinthepaperand/ortheSupplementary Materials.Additionaldatarelatedtothispapermayberequestedfromtheauthors. Submitted11May2017 Accepted23October2017 Published15November2017 10.1126/sciadv.1701450 Citation: B.Alex,O.Barzilai,I.Hershkovitz,O.Marder,F.Berna,V.Caracuta,T.Abulafia,L.Davis, M.Goder-Goldberger,R.Lavi,E.Mintz,L.Regev,D.Bar-YosefMayer,J.-M.Tejero,R.Yeshurun, A.Ayalon,M.Bar-Matthews,G.Yasur,A.Frumkin,B.Latimer,M.G.Hans,E.Boaretto,Radiocarbon chronologyofManotCave,IsraelandUpperPaleolithicdispersals. Sci.Adv. 3 ,e1701450(2017). SCIENCEADVANCES | RESEARCHARTICLEAlex etal ., Sci.Adv. 2017; 3 :e170145015November2017 9of9


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