Growth of extensional faults and folds during deposition of an evaporite-dominated half-graben basin; the Carboniferous Billefjorden Trough, Svalbard


Material Information

Growth of extensional faults and folds during deposition of an evaporite-dominated half-graben basin; the Carboniferous Billefjorden Trough, Svalbard
Series Title:
Norwegian Journal of Geology
Braathen, Alvar
Baelum, Karoline
Maher, Harmon
Buckley, Simon John
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Extensional Faults ( local )
Extensional Folds ( local )
Deposition Of Basin ( local )
Billefjorden Trough ( local )
Svalbard ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


Normal-sense movements along two major strands of the Billefjorden Fault Zone controlled sedimentation in the Carboniferous Billefjorden Trough. The Billefjorden Trough is a more than 2000 meters thick, west-dipping half-graben basin where accommodation was provided by combinations of extensional faulting and folding throughout the basin history. Whereas previous workers have interpreted several of these folds as due to Tertiary contraction, we argue that they developed during rifting, as extensional forced folds in the style described by other workers from rifts such as the Gulf of Suez. The present basin geometry indicates that accommodation was facilitated by a combination of fault relief and fault-related folds such as extensional fault-propagation monoclines, longitudinal rollover folds and a broad syncline that developed in the hanging wall of the master faults. Major fault-tip monoclines with sharp hinges and steep fold-limbs were allowed to develop in the basin as it became dominated by thick sabhka deposits. Some of the monoclines can be traced laterally into intra-basinal half-grabens where we document significant growth of the hanging wall stratigraphy. The basin shows a close link between structural style and the distribution of main facies associations, confirming a tectonic control on the main depositional systems. Three major alluvial fan complexes formed the main fairways for clastic supply into the basin; of which two were associated with relay ramps. The alluvial fan systems mostly kept up with subsidence or prograded far into the basin. This restricted the extent of marine incursions, and resulted in the development of isolated playas. Initial floodplain deposition in the gently subsiding rift-basin centre was followed by marine flooding events localized mainly to the hinges of longitudinal folds and to relay zones. The gently dipping fold flanks caused tidal flats to be developed in lenticular depocentres. As the main segments of the BFZ linked during strain localization, the western basin-mar
Original Version:
Norwegian Journal of Geology, Vol. 91 (2011-01-01).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This object is protected by copyright, and is made available here for research and educational purposes. Permission to reuse, publish, or reproduce the object beyond the bounds of Fair Use or other exemptions to copyright law must be obtained from the copyright holder.

USFLDC Membership

University of South Florida
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information



Download Options


No images or PDF downloads are available for this resource.

Cite this item close


Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.


Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.


Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.


Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.