Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Kalamos, Hellas. Volume 1

Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Kalamos, Hellas. Volume 1

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Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Kalamos, Hellas. Volume 1
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14 International Congress of Speleology. Volume 1
International Congress of Speleology. Organizing Committee
Petreas, Christos, editor
Hellenic Speleological Society
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Speleology ( lcsh )
Caves ( lcsh )
Karst ( lcsh )
Conference papers and proceedings ( lcgft )

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/1\ ... .1 -i . -. " ~., . 1 ._:-l t . _c -, '"le ', :. .. l .. ~.,' I 32, Sina str., Athens 10672 Greece/ tel. +30 210 3617824 e-mail:


Proceeclinvs of the 14th International Congress of S11eleoloay~ 21-28 August 2005~ Kaian10s~ Hei/[Js Volurne 1 HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 32, Sina str ... ATHENS .. 106 72 GREECE Tel.: +30 210 3617824 FAX: +30 210 3643476 .. mail: /,gr Athens 2005


Published by: HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Volume 1: ISBN 978-960-98020-0-0 ISBN 978-960~98020-l-7


Hul!enic S1wlen/oafcu! TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 1 Introduction ......... .. .............. .. ........... ....................................... .............................................. ..................... ... ........... .. ... .. . . .. .. .. . . .. ........ .. .... .... .. .. .. ... 2 5 0-1 Study of karst development and possible leakage from the sazbon dam, Iran Raeisi, E., Aghdam, J., Zare, M, and Karimi, H. Department of Geological Science, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran ................. .. .................................. ............... .... .. ........ .... . . ...... ............................... 39 0-2 Karst surface symbols: Proposition of a standard symbol set P. Hauselmann Swiss Speleological Society, UISIC Working Group "Topography and mapping" ................ ........................................ ........... ......................................... 42 0-3 Factors, conditions and main development stages of the associated paleokarst kaolin deposits system in northeastern Bulgaria T.l Krastev ...................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................... 45 0-4 The Speleogenesis of the Caves in Crnopac Mt. Area IvHaden Kuhta & Andrej Stroj Institute of Geology, Sachsova 2, Hr-10000 Zagreb, Croatia, E-mail:; ................. .. ..................................................... ....... .46 0-5 Sediments and groundwater in the Baradla and Beke caves, Hungary J. Berenyi Uveges, G. Vid, I. Berenyi Uveges Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service, Budapest, Budaorsi, Hungary .................................. .48 0-6 The Stratigraphy of the Kabwe Cave of Rhodesian Man A. Bartsiokas Univ. of Thrace, Komotini, Greece .............................................................................................................................................................. 49 0-7 The small mammal fauna from the loutra Aridea Bear-cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) with emphasis on the third chamber A. Chatwpoulou = Department of Geology, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece ..................... _. ............................................................ .49 0-8 Palaeontological remains from the Manga Larga Cave (Santo Antcmio plateau, Porto de Mo-s, Portugal)-Panthera pardus (L., 1758) and Felis sylvestris Schreber, 1777 a case study between speleology and palaeontology F. Regala, J. L. Cardoso AESDA, Torre Vedras, Portugal .................................... .................... .... ............ ................ ................................................... 52 0-9 Caves in the odyssey D. N. Brison \ 57 0-10 Parfum de Grece C. Fait, J.C. Fait O Speleo-club de La Ciotat La Salamandre ......................................... ........................................................... ..................................... 60 0-11 Pre,cise Measurement of Surveying-Sections Using Image Processing Techniques S. Canbek, N. Adar Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey ................ ............................................................. ......................................... .......... ...... 63 0-12 Urban storm water management for cities built upon karst: Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA G.L. Cesin, N. Crawford, J. Richardson Center for Cave and Karst Studies, Bowling Green, USA ............................................................. ............... 66


Heff imic Sf)e/eoloaicuf Society 0-13 Experimental Research on the use of Thermography to locate heat signatures from caves J. Thompson Jim Thompson & Co. Blackwell, Missouri, USA .......................................................................................................................................... 70 0-14 Preliminary data recorded by a monitoring station to sudy the hypogean climate in a ice cave: The lo le 1650 ice cave "abisso sol margine dell'alto bregai" (Grigna Settentrionale, Lecco -Italy) S. Turri, M. Citterio, A. Bini, V. Maggi, M. Favaron, D. Fraternali, A. Alberici, S. Borghi, M. Colombo, R. Gottardi, D. Zappala Earth Sciences Dept. "Ardito Desio", University of Milanoltaly Environmental and Territorial Sciences Dept., University of Milano -Bicocca S.T. Servizi Teritorio S.r.l. Italy Osservatorio Meteorologico di Milano Duo mo, Milano ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 4 0-15 The propagation oi the seasonai heat wave into crystai and fantasy caves ( Bermuda ) A. A. Cigna ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 79 0-16 The caves of Thrace region ( Northwestern Turkey) K. Tork, L. Nazik, K. Tuncer, .E. Ozel ................................................................................................................................................................................ 80 0-17 The effect of the relief systems of the Bey~ehir lake and the Kembos Polje basins on the cave development of the area L. Nazik, K. Tork, K. Tuncer, E. Ozel ................................................................................................................................................................................ 81 0-18 The geological and morphological origine and distribution L, Nazik; K, Tork, K, Tuncer, E, Ozel ................................................................................................................................................................................ 81 0-19 Karst and rock fantoms in the Netherlands H. De swart Speleo Nederland ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 0-20 Caves of the Shan Plateau, the union of Myanmar (EX-BURMA) C. Mouret. .......................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... 82 0-21 Processes governing Speleogenesis in the rocks C. Mouret. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 86 0-22 The Maronia cave in the numulitic limestone (Thrace, Greece). Geology, palaeontology and archaeology S. Pavlides, E. Tsoukala, A. Chatzipetros, A. Chatzopoulou, B. Melfos, M.K. Basiliadou, G. Lazarides, M. Vaxevanopoulos Aristotle University, Department of Geology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece ................................................................................................................... 88 0-23 Since 2001 to 2004: paleontological excavations in the "Grotta inferiore dei Covoli di Velo" (Veneto -Italy) R. Zorzin, F. Bona, M. Accordini Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, Verona (Italy) ........................................................................................ 91 0-24 Milk teeth of Quaternary carnivores from Northern Greek Caves S. Pappa, E. Tsoukala, G. Lazaridis Aristotle University ofThessaloniki, Greece .......................................................................................................... 98 0-25 Paleontological research in Pella cave bears and late pleistocene associated faunal remains from Loutra Arideas cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) E. Tsoukala, G. Ra bed er Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece ........................................................................................................................... 106 21-28 Auoust 2005. Kafomas. He/las


Hef/ enic Sae/e o/D(}ica l Soc ie/y 0-26 The pursuit of elephants in Grevena (W. Macedonia, Greece) E. Tsoukala Aristotle University ofThessaloniki, Greece ........... ... ...... ..... .... ............. ................ .. ................ ....... ........ .. .. .............. ... . ... ..... .. .. ....... ......... 114 0-27 Mineralogy of the hybrid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave, Kii Peninsula, central Japan. N. Kashima, K .. H.isatomi .... ... ........ ........... ........ ........ . .. . ........ .................. ........... ........... ...... ........................ ... ......... ..................... .. ... ....... . . .... .......... 118 0-28 Activators of Luminescence of Speleothems Organic Versus Inorganic Y.Y. Shopov University Center for Space Research and Technologies, University of Sofia, Bulgaria .......................................................................... . 121 0-29 An Introduction to Genetic Mineralogy and the Concept of "Ontogeny of Cave Minerals" C. A. Self, C. A. Hill University of New Mexico .... ... .. ....... ............ ............ ............... .......... .... ..... .... .... ... .... ... ................. ..... .. .......... .. . ... ..... .............. 125 0-30 Identification of Cave Minerals by Raman Spectroscopy: New Technology for Non-Destructive Analysis W.B. White Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA ............................. ............................. 130 0-31 Vashegyite from the Gaura cu Musca Cave (Locvei Mountains, Romania): a new and rare phosphate occurrence B.P. Onac, J. Kearns, L. Zaharia ........... .. ......... .. ............ .... ............. .. .......... ....... ..... ... ............ ......... ................................................................ ...... ........ ... 133 0-32 Cave minerals of some limestone caves of Saudi Arabia P. Forti, E. Galli, A. Rossi, J. Pint, S. Pint University of Bologna Italian Institute of Speleology, University of Bologna, Italy ...... ........................... 134 0-33 New approach of the karstic evolution of the canyon of the Peruacu river J. Rodet, M.J. Rodet, D.F. Mariano, L. Willems, A. Pouclet, L.B. Piles ........................................................................................................................ 139 0-34 Explorations and Geomorphology of the Velebita Pit on the North Velebit Mt. in Croatia World's Deepest Subterranean Shaft D. Bakis, A. Stroj, M. Kuhta Institute of geology, Faculty of Forestry, Institute of Geology, Zagreb, Croatia .. ...... .. ..... ...... ........ ...... ........................ 144 0-35 The 'karstic delta' concept, as a morphological expression of climatic variations of the base level in coastal areas -the example of the Eastern English Channel region (Normandy, France) J. Rodet, B. Laignel, N. Massei, M. Fournier, J.P. Dupont .. ....... ............. ... .............. .............. ...... .......... .. ................ .... ........... ........ ....... ........ ..... ... 148 0-36 Karst system genesis in the chalk of the Lower Meuse L Willems, J. Rodet, M. Fournier, N. Massei, B. Laignel, L. Dussart-Baptista, J.C Schyns, M. Dusar, C. Ek. ....................................................... 153 0-37 Towards a global denudational model of cave development A.S. Auler, P. L. Smart CP MI'C Instituto de Geociencias ............................... ..... ........... .. ..... ............ .......... .... ... .......... .... ........................ .. . .... ..... .. 15 7 0-38 "Folia Drakou" Cave (Potamoi, Drama, Macedonia, Greece) Geological-Speleological study. Preliminary report E. Vavliakis, M. Vaxevanopoulos, G. Lazaridis, C. Pen nos, S. Zahariadis, H. Garlaouni Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece ............... 162 0-39 Archaeological Excavations in Hourriyeh Cave (Qadisha valley Lebanon) F. Beyano, C. Mattar, H. Abdul-Nour Association Libanaise d'Etudes Speleologiques (ALES), Beirut, Lebanon ....... ......... ... ................ ................. 165 f 4fh lntern a tionol Cunumss of Stmloo!uqv


He llenic S f}e/e u/0 ;/c al Soc iefy 0-40 Cave Explorations on the Islands of Karpathos and Kasos (South Aegean, Greece) H Jantschke, T R a thgeber ....................... . . .... ......... .. .. _. ... ... .. .... ...................................................... ............................................ .. ................................ 166 0-41 Remarks on the problems of the palaeolithic terminology N.A. Poulianos ..... . .... ...... ... ........................... ............. .. ........ .. .. ....... ....... ................... .... .. .. ........ .. ........... ....... .. ....... .. .... ... ............ .. ................................. 171 0-42 The absolute datings of petralona cave N A. Poulianos ...... ............. .... ....................................................... ... .................... ... ..... .................... ................... .. ........ ............ ... ... .... ....... ........ ....... ..... .. 172 0-43 The Palaeobotany of Caves in the Aegean F. Megaloudi Aeegan University, Depariement of Mediterranean Studies, Rhodes Greece ............. ..................... .. .... .... ...... .... .. ... ..... . . . .. .. ............. 178 0-44 Biospeleology of juxtlahuaca caves: 20 years later G. Castano-Meneses, J. G Palacios-Vargas, E. Torres-Puga, M. Mohar-Frcsan Laboratorio de Ecologia y Sistematica de Microartropodos, Departamento de Ecologia y Recursos Natura/es, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, D. F ....... .............. .. .............. 178 0-45 Why Are Cave Animals Colorless? Mechanism of Pigemnt Cell Regression in the Cavefish Astyanax W.R. Jeffery University of Maryland, University of Maryland, College Park, MD U s. A ........... ....... ............... .... ....................................... ............. 185 0-46 The biodiversity in three cenotes from Cozumel Island L. M. Mejva-Ortvz, M. L(jpez-Mejva, G. Yanez, R. G. Hartnoll Universidad de Quintana Roo -Cozumel, Lab. de Bioespeleologvay Carcinologva ............ 188 0-47 Biosp1hologie, sommeil paradoxal et Monde souterrain A. Chama See Mzdecine du Travail, Service de Mzdecine du Travail,Es-Smia(Oran,ALGERJE) .. ................................................................................. 190 0-48 Progressive Lowering of the Water Table in the Grand Canyon, AZ, USA as recorded by cave and mine deposits C.A. Hill, V.J. Polyak .......... .. . ....................................... ......... ................... ,. ....................................................................................................................... 192 0-49 Karst on Cayman Brae R. Tarhule Lips, D.C. Ford McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada ................. : ................. .... ......... .......... ..... ................ . ........ ......................... .. ... 197 0-50 Looking back with Cupolas A. Osborne University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia ......................................... ; ..... .. ...... ........ ...... .. ............................................... ... .... ..... ........ .. ... ...... 197 0-51 Filling deposits of an ancient alluvial cave system in the alpine karst of MT. Canin (Julian Alps, NE Italy) P. Paronuzzi, D. Lenaz, R. Semeraro di Georisorse e Territorio, Udine, Italy Scienze de/la Terra, Trieste Italy Geokarst Engineering srl, Trieste, Italy .. ...... .................... .. ................... .................................. ... .... .. ............ ... ...... ................................ . ............. .......................... 197 0-52 A simple growth model for allogenic Karrentische S.E Lauritzen Department of Earth Science University of Bergen, Norway ............................... ... .................. ... ........................ ................. ...... .......... 202 27-28 Auoust 2{)05. Knfamos. Heilns


He llenic Srw leolDUica l Soci e/y 0-53 The karstic forms and the Greek mythology I.D. Mariolakos National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment Division of Applied Tectonic, Applied Geology ..... .. . ........... .... ... ..... . .. ... ..... . ... ...... .. ................. .. .... .......... .. . . .. . ... . .. .. .. ..... ... .. .. ... . .. .... .. ....... ... ... ..... ; .. ..... .. . .. .... ..... .. .. ...... .. ... . 206 0-54 Grotte e leggende dell'antica Grecia R Gherlizza Club Alpinistico Triestino Gruppo Grotte .... ............................................ ... ........... ........................ ........................................... ...... .. .. ..... 206 0-55 Sea caves at Lampedusa (Italy) G Ferrari ........................... .. ...... ... ... ... .......... ....... ................. ... ....... .... ........ ... ..... ........ ............ ....................... .. .. .............. .. ....................... ..... ...... ...... 213 0-56 The deepest and the longest caves in Greece K. Adam opoulos SELAS Club, Athens, Greece ....... ............ ......................................................................................................... . .. ............ .. .. ........... . 219 0-57 The cave of Kapsia at Mantinia and its anthropologican findings C. M : erdenisianos University of Athens, Athens, Greece ........ ...... .......... ......... ..................................................... ..... ........................................ . ............. 230 0-58 A new speleothemic carbonate deposit in grave Grubbo cave ( Southern-Italy): Microbiological and stratigraphycal aspects P, Cacchio, G. Ferrini, A. Lepidi University of L 'Aquila, Coppito, Italy ...................................... .. ............................................................................... 233 0-59 Stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) as indicators of trophic structure in central Texas (USA) cave ecosystems S,J, Taylor, K. Hackley, J.K. Krejca, S.E. Greenberg, M.L. Denight.. .. .............. ...... .... ................................................................................................ 233 0-60 Salt ing estion caves C. A. Lundquist, W.W. Varnedoe University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville Grotto NSS, Huntsville AL, USA ................................................. 234 0-61 20 years Paleoluminescence Techniques for Reconstruction of Past Environmental Changes UIS Contribution Y. Y. Shopov University Center for Space Research and Technologies, University of Sofia, Sofia ................................................................................ 238 0-62 Comparative Studies of Oligotrophic Bacterial Species Cultivated From Jack Bradley Cave, Kentucky A. Pemberton, J. Millette, H. A. Barton Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY, USA ..... .. . ............... ......................................... ... .... 245 0-63 Skin weathering, micro phytokarst, epikarst and deep meteoric karst; is there a simple, common equation? S.E. Lauritzen Department of Earth Science University of Bergen, Norway .................. .. ................ ......... .............. .. .. ...... .............. ............................. 250 0-64 Quaternary speleogenesis and landscape evolution in Scandinavia and Svalbard S.E. Lauritzen Department of Earth Science University of Bergen, Norway ..................................................................... ...... ............... .... ................ .... 253 0-65 Maze caves in stripe karst: Examples from Nonshauggrotta, northern Norway R. 0vrevik-Skoglund, S.E. Lauritzen University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway ........ .. ................................................................................. ........ .... .... 254 0-66 Watershed Delineation in Karst Areas of the Tongass National Forest, Southeastern Alaska J Kovarik, J. Baichtal, C. Ranger Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA .............. .. ........................................................... .... ......... 258 14th Jntenwlionol Congress of Soelealogy


Helleni c SfJefea/ogicu/ Soci ety 0-67 A Quantitative Analysis of Relationships Between Land-Use and Base-Level Conduit Sedimentation in South-Central Kentucky, USA B. Tobin, S. Kenworthy Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA ............................ .. .............................. ... .. .. .. ............. ...... .. ... ... ........ 258 0-68 New type of englacial channels B.R. Mavlyudov Institute of geography RAS, Institute of geography RAS ...................................................................................................................... 258 0-69 Modification of cave entrances in Norway by marine action T. Faulkner Limestone Research Group University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield .................................................................................. 259 0-70 Is it possible to correlate sediments in a glacial cave? H. Hestangen S.E. Lauritzen University of Bergen Norway ....... .... .. .. ..... .. ................ ...................... .......................................................................... 264 0-71 Chemical denudation rates in a polar karst catchment: Londonelva, Svalbard W.E. Krawczyk, L.E. Pettersson University of Silesia, Sosnowie c, Poland; Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate Oslo, Norway .. ...................................... 264 0-72 The reasons of high biodiversity in karst landscapes of the Northern taiga S. Goryachkin, J. Zakharchenko, M. Glazov, V. Malkov, L. Puchnina, A. Rykov, A. Semikolennykh, E. Shavrina I. Spiridonova, T. Tuyukina Institute of Geography, Moscow Russia .. ........ .......... ................... ... .... . ... ... .... .. ... ...... ...... ..................... ..... ............................................ 265 0-73 Vertebrate Species Use of Cave Resources T. R. Strong, J. R. Goodbar National Cave & Karst Research Institute US. Bureau of Land Mangement Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA ................. 269 0-74 An overview on biodiversity of cave dweeling copepods (crustacea) in Romania S. Iepure Speleological institute Emil Racovita" Cluj Romania ... .. ................................ ........ ........... .. ...................................................................... 274 0-75 How diverse is the Romanian subterranean fauna? 0. Moldovan Speleological institute "Emil Racovita", Cluj, Romania .................................. .... ............................... ...... .............................................. 275 0-76 The Impact of Organic Load on Geomicrobial Mineral Transformation in Cave Environments N. Taylor, M. Kreate, J. Bertog, H. A Barton Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY, USA ..... .......................................................... 275 0-77 Landscape evolution and speleogenesis in Gratadalen valley, Northern Norway. T. Solbakk, S.E. Lauritzen Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Norway ............................................................................................. 279 0-78 The Iza Cave studies previous and present work T. Tamas Emil Racovitza Speleological Institute, Cluj Napoca Romania .................. ... ...................................................... .. .. .. ............................ .... ...... 281 0-79 The morphology of the Izvorul Izei Cave (Rodnei Mountains, Romania) T. Tamas, A. Persoiu Emil Racovitza Speleological Institute, Cluj-Napoca, Romania ...................................................................... ; ........... .... ............. 281 0-80 Chats and facts about the Quarry cave (Bermuda) A.A. Cigna UIS-SSI .................. .. .................................................................................... .... .............................................................................................. 282 21-28 Auoust 2005. l(alamos. Hellos


Helfe n ic S/Je/eotamcal Society 0-81A Polyphased karst systems in sandstones and quartzites of Minas Gerais, Brazil Luc WiJlems1 Joel Rodet2, Audre Pouclet3, Sergio Melo, Maria Jacqueline Rodet4 Augusto S Auler5 1 EuReKarst, Laboratory of Sedimentology, Dept of Geology, B20, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium, 2 EuReKarst, UA1.R 6143 CNRS, Continental and Coastal Morphodynamics, Laboratory of Geology, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France, 3 EuReKarst, JSTO, Earth Sciences Institute, University of Orleans, France, 4 PhD student in Archaeology, University of Paris-}{, CNPq grant holder, France, 5 CPMIC-Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, .... ......................... .............................. ............. 284 0-81B APXAIO AATOMEIO AABYPIN00~ fOPTYNO~ HPAKAEIOY KPHTH~ EIEHf.H TH:E : KONIAPH EAENH .... ... ........ .... ................ . ....................... .. ......... ... ....... .... ..... ...... .. .. .... .... ... .. ......... ... . ... ... ...... .............. .. . ........ 289 0-82 2-D Geoelectrical survey to identify the entry and sectors of the natural cave of Sidirokastro, N. Greece A Atzemoglou, E. E]eftheriad is Institute of Geology and mineral exploration, Thessaloniki Natural History Museum of Sidirokastro . ......... ... .. 291 0-83 Some New Speleological Research of Caverns in route of the Highways in Croatian Karst M. Garasic University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Croatia Croatian Sopeleological Federation, Croatia ......... .... ... .. ....... ........ .... . .... 291 0-84 The most important and spectacular Greek caves G. Avagianos HSS. Athens, Greece .. .... ... .......... ............ ................ .. ......................... .. ..................... .. ..... ... ......... .... .. ...... .. .... ..... ..... ..... ... . .. ... ............. 293 0-85 Open air and in caves rock carvings athe gorge of Aggitis at the prefecture of serres L. I. Chatzilazaridis .. ....................... .. ... ...... ....... . .. ...................................................... ....................................... .. ................. .......................................... 294 0-86 Karstmorphologie von Akarnanien und der Insel Lefkada(West-Griechenland) M.H . Fink .. .... .. .................................... .. .. ........................ ............. ...................................................................... .... .......... .... ......... .. ... ............................. 303 0-87 Mineralogy of mine caves in Sardinia (Italy) J. De Waele, P. Forti Dipartimento di Scienze de/la Terra, Italy Jstituto Italiano di Speieoiogia, Italy ....................................... .. .............................. 306 0-88 Cave Aragonite in NSW, Australia J. Ro,vling ... . .......... ..... ................................... ........... ... . ....... ................. ..... ............ ...... .... ... ... .. .......... ..... ....... .... .. ........ . .. . ...... ... ..... ..... ... .................. 311 0-89 Various types of gypsum crystals from Tajna jama, Slovenia N. Zupan Hajna Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZ .......... ... .... .... .......... .. ..................... .... ......... . .. .. ................. ..... ....... .. ... .. ...... .............. ... ................ 315 0-90 The pearls of the Kanaan Cave (Lebanon): petrographic and geochemical studies J. Doummar, R Nader American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon ...... .. ... ..... .. ... ....... .. ................. ... .. ... . . .... .. .. ......... . ... .. ... .... .. ............ .. . . ...... 317 0-91 How geometric factors determine which type of speleothem will grow in a cave environment C .A. Self, C .A Hill Mineralogy Commission, UIS .............. ......................... ........... ........................ ....... ...... .. ... .. .. ... ..... .......................... .. ... ..... ...... 318 0-92 Silicate pseudo-speleothem in Gradasnica Cave (Mt.Miroc, Eastern Serbia) P. Djurovic .. .............. .. ........... ......... .. .. ...... .................... ... ... .... ........ ............. ... ........ .. .......... .......... ... ... ............................... ... ............ .. ....... .. .................. 321 14t h Jntmnolinnal C nnur ess of Soeleolnuy


Hellenic S1J e/ealouica/ Society 0-93 High-Resolution Speleothem Records from Soqotra Island (Yemen), Provide Clues to the Indian Ocean Monsoon System P. De Geest, S. Verheyden, H. Cheng, L. Edwards, E. Keppens Vrij e Universiteit Brussel, Department of Geolo gy, Brussels Belg i um ...... ..... .... 325 0-94 Karst Connection Model for the Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA C.A. Hill, N. E b erz, R. H. Buecher Universi ty of New Mexico Albuque r que, NM USA .................................. .... .. ..... .... .. .............. .. .. .. ..... . ... ...... .. ...... 325 0-95 Eogenetic karst, glacioeustatic cave-pools and anchihaline environments in Mallorca island. A discussion on coastal speleogenesis A G i ne s J. Gin e s Univers i tat de Je s Illes Ba/ears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain ..................... .. ............. ... ......... .. ............................. ............................ .. 330 0-96 The Roie of Joint Slope on the Shafts Speleogenesis at a Base of Epikarst I. Baro n Czech Geological Surve y Brno, C z ech Republic ... .... . ...... ........ ....... ... .. .... .. .. ............... . ... .. . .. . .. ................ .. . ......... .... .... .. .. ..... ...... .. ... ... 3 3 0 0-97 Karst as a settling factor V. A ndre yc huk Uni v ersity of Silesia Poland ....................................... ... .......... .. ... ..... ..... .. .......... ...... ........... ... ... ........... ... ......... ... .............. ... .............. 331 0-98 Analysis of the Karst Dynamic System of Vertical Zoned Climate Region in Jinfo Mountain State Nature Reserve, Chongqing, China C. Zhan g, Z. J ian g, s. H e ... ............. ....... ....... .. .. ....... ..... ............ ... . ........ . .. .. ........ .... .. ........ .. .. ............ ............ .. ......... ..... .......... ..... ......... ..... .......... ..... 334 0-99 Study on the rainfall sensitivity and hydrochemical variations in epikarst system and its comparison with phreatic system Y L i u, D Yuan .... ............. ... ..... . ... ........ ... ..... .... ... .. .. .... .. .... ...... .. .. .... .. ........ . .... ..... . ... .. ............. . .. ... .. .. . ...... .. ..... .. . ... . ..... .... ........... ... ........ .......... 334 0-100 A reconnaissance on the use of the speleothems in Korean limestone caves to retrospective study on the regional climate change for the recent and geologic past K.S W o o K.N J o, G H. H ong B C Suk Kangwon National Univ. Chun c heon Korea Korea Ocean Res e arch and Dev e lopment Institute Ansan, Knr P.a ..... . .. ..... .... . ... ......... ....... ...... . .......... .. ......... .. ... : ................................................................ .. .. .. ... ... .. .. .. . .. .... ....... . ... ... ..... .. ........ .. . 334 0-101 Lessons learned from the investigation of an active, sulfidic cave L. D. Hose National Ca v e and Karst Re s earch Institute, 1400 University D r ive Carlsbad, NM 88220 USA .......... ; .. .. ..... .. ...... ...... .. .... .... ...... .. .. ..... .. 336 0-102 Chemistry of cave water in cave from the urban area: A case of Smocza Jama cave, city of Krakow, Poland J. Motyka M G ra d zi ii.s ki K. Ro z k ow ski A. G orn y Faculty of Mining AGH, University of Scie7! ce and T e chnology Krakow, Poland .............. .. 337 0-103 Cave and child integrated educational Programme: "An underground world" E. K am ilak i C. Mavrok o sta Spel e ological Club of Crete, SPOK ...................... .. .. .. ........................ ... ........ .... ........... .. .............. .. .............. .. ............ ..... 337 0-104 Karst field studies offered by Western Kentucky University's center for cave and karst studies and the mammoth cave national park international center for science and learning L.A. C rof t, N. Cr a w fo r d, M. De P oy Center for Cave & Karst Studies Western Kentucky University, Bowling Gre e n, Kentucky USA .... ............ .... 338 0-105 Caves of Marvel: Speleology as Adult Environmental Education N. K o ura m pas Office of Lifelong L e arning, Uni v ersity of Edinburgh Edinburgh Scotland, UK .. ...... ........ .... ....... ..... .... ... .... .... .. ................ .. ............. 340 21-28 Auuust 2DD!i. Ku/umas Helfns


Hellenic S11eieotor1ica! Society 0-106 Change in attitudes after first visit to a cave: A Q-methodological study L. G. El-Dash, 0 A. F Scaleante O State University of Campinas, Campinas, BRAZIL .... ........ .. . .. ................ .. ................ .. ... ....... ..... ............... ... ....... ... 346 0-107 A Century of Linkages and Synergy: Western Kentucky University and the Mammoth Cave System D Groves, C. Groves, W. Hawkins Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA ................................................. .................... .. ..... 351 0-108 Caves connected with gravitational spreading of the elevated mountain ridges in the Moravian-Silesian Beskids (Czech Republic) 0. Krejci R Hubatka, J Svancara Czech Geological Survey Brno, Czech Republic KOLEJKONSULT Brno, CR Masaryk University Brno, CR .... .... 352 0-109 Seismothems caused by neotectonic activity in the Eastern Alps L. Plan, Ch. Spotl, B. Grasemann, K. Decker, K.H. Offenbecher, G Wiesmayr Institute for Geological Sciences, University of Vienna Institute for Geology and Paleontology, University of Innsbruck ...... ....... ..... .... ....... ... ... .... . ...... ................................... .... ... ..... ....... ... ......... ..... 354 0-110 Ghost Cave, Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan J. All, C. Groves P. Kambesis Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA ................................................................. .. ... .... ................ ..... 355 0-111 Cave systems in the Eastern Totes Gebirge (Austria) and their implication on alpine speleogenesis R. Sccbachcr, M. Behm, L. Plan Caveingclub of Upper Styria, Austria Caveingr.luh for Vienna and Lower Austria, Vienna, Austria ............. .... .. 357 0-112 Geological investigation of the speleothems' in limestone caves, Korea R. Kim, K. S. Woo, D. W. Choi Cave Research Institute of Korea, Kangwon National University, Korea .............................. .. ........... ..... ........ .. ........ 358 0-113 Climate information record in the stalagmites in the Chongqing regions, China T. Li, D. Yuan, L. Wang, X. He, J. Wang School of Resource and Environment Sciences, Southwest Normal University, Chongqing, Beibei, China Karst Dynamic Laboratory, Ministry of Land and Resources, Guangxi, China .............. ... ...................... ....... ...... ............. ......... ............................. 359 0-114 Submerged Speleothem and Groundwater Chemistry of Inazumi Cave, Oita Prefecture, Japan K. Yoshimura, K. Kurisaki, K. Urata, H. Schwarcz, D. Ford Kyushu University, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan ......................... .. ........ .. ....... 360 0-115 Polycyclic origin of fossil karst at Hranice Paleozoic, Czech Republic J. R. Otava Czrch Geological Survey, Brno, Czech Republic ...................................................................................... ..... .. .. .... ... .. ...... ...... ...... ....... ..... .. 360 0-116 Cosmic Rays, Solar Luminosity or Orbital Variations Drive the Earth's Climate?-Speleothem Arguments. Y. Shopov, D. Stoykova University Center for Space Research and Technologies, University of Sofia, Bulgaria ............... .... ..... .. .... ............... .. ....... .. 362 0-117 Decadal and Century Climatic Cycles in North Italy Derived from HighResolution Luminescence Speleothem Records D. Stoykova, Y Shopov, L. Tsankov, U. Sauro, A. Borsato, F. Cucchi, P. Forti, S. Frisia University Center for Space Research, Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria .............. .. ....... ....... .... .... ..... .... .. ... ..... .. .... ..... ....................... ......... .............................. ... .......... ......... 363 0-118 The Brazilian Governmental Experience in a question of on protecting Brazilian speleological heritage R. de Cassia Surrage de Medeiros, R. J. Calembo Marra IBAMA Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural ResourcesBrasilia/Brazil ....... ................. .. ... .... ... ..... . ........................................... .. ...... ..................... ..... .. ................ ........................................................................ 3 63 l!Jf/ 1 fn terr wti ur w! C on un:s s of S 11e feuf nu v


H ellenic S11e/eolo u ical S ocie t y 0-119 Demonstrations and observations of cave animals in show caves J. Dumer, A. Mihevc ZRC SAZU, Karst Researchlnstitute .......................................................................... ........................................................... ...... 364 0-120 Evaluating show cave potential in Lebanon M. Metni, J. Taouk, K. Moarkech Speleo Club du Liban .... .. ... ....... .. ... ... ....... ...... .... .. .......... ......... ....... ... .................................. .. ............................. 364 0-121 Some basic principles for the development of show caves: the "Frasassi Charta" A.A. Cigna UIS-!SCA ................... .................................. ................ ....... .. ...... .......................................... . ........................................ ....................... 364 0-122 Ecological researches in show caves of Romania 0. Moldovan "Emil Racovitza 'Speleological Institute, Cluj, Romania ...................................... ....................... .. ................. .. ................................. ... ... 365 0-123 Exploration et topographie de la grotte de Diros P. Deriaz, L. Casati, J.J. Bolanz, V. Giannopoulos Prometeo ricerche .............. ... .. .. .................. ....... ................ .. ............... .. .... .. .. ... .. .. .. ...... ..... .. . .... 366 0-124 Exploration et topographie du lac Vouliagmeni P. Deriaz, L. Casati, J.J. Bolanz, V. Giannopoulos Prometeo richerche ........ .. ........ :_. .............. ....... ; ........ ................ ........ ........ ....... .. ....... ..... ........ 369 0-125 The topographic survey of the Jeita cave network (central Lebanon): a structural /geomorphological approach F.H. Nader American University of Beirut I Speleo-Club du Liban, Beirut, Lebanon . ..................................................................................... ............. 372 21-28 Auou s t 20 0 5 Kalamos. He/las


Hellenic SfJfJ/eu/ur;ical Society TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 2 0-126 Classification of karst features in Mount Lebanon F. Nader American University of Beirut I Speleo-Club du Liban, Beirut, Lebanon ........... ................... ......... .. ..... . .... . .... .......................................... 375 0-127 Cave Ulica and the denudation of the karst surface case study from Kras, SW Slovenia A. Mihevc Karst research Institute ZRC SAZU, Postojna, Slovenia ... .... ........ .. . ....... .......... . ..... ................................................................................ 375 0-128 The underground legend of Carbon Dioxide heaviness G. Badino Dip. Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino .................................................................................................................................................... 375 0-129 Calibrated Holocene Paleotemperature Record for North America from Stable Isotopic Analyses of Speleothems and their Fluid Inclusions P.A. Beddows, R. Zhang, D.C. Ford, H.P. Schwarcz School of Geography & Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada ........... 379 0-130 Origin of the Climatic Cycles from Orbital to Sub-Annual: Speleothem data Y Y. Shopov, D. Stoykova, L.T. Tsankov, D.C. Ford, C.J. Yonge University Center for Space Research and Technologies, University of Sofia, Bulgaria ................................................................................................................................................... : ........................................................................... 379 0-131 Periodicity in environmental change revealed from New Zealand speleothems P.W. Williams, D.N.T. King, J.X. Zhao, K.D. Collerson Auckland University, New Zealand ....... .. ... .. ........................................................................ 380 0-132 A register of Italian sea caves G. Ferrari ....... ... ......................... ............ ..... ... ......... .................................................................................................................................................... 380 0-133 A school for cave rescue managers G. Ferrari Corpo Nazionale Soccorso Alpino e Speleologico, Milano, Italy .................................................................................................................. 385 0-134 Chemical and stable isotopes profiles along two cores from the snow deposit in the Lo Le 1607 ice cave (Grigna Settentrionale, Italian Alps) M. Citterio, S. Turri, A. Bini, V. Maggi, B. Stenni, R. Udisti Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra "Ardito Desio", Universita di Milano, DISAT Dipartimento di Scienze dell 'Ambiente e del Territorio, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Ambientali e Marine, Universita di Trieste Dipartimento di ChimicaAnalitica, Universita di Firenze, Jtaly ...................................................................................... 389 0-135 The speleologist' s psychology and fears G.T. Katsiavos ................................................................................................................................................................. ... . ..................... ....................... 394 0-136 The formation "scientific team-member" of the French Federation of Speleology S. Jaillet, D. Cailhol, M. Meyssonnier Commission scientifzque Lyon France ............................................................ ..... ....... .. .... ......................... 395 0-137 Qattine Azar Cave in Lebanon: From Speleology to Socio Economic development A. Comaty, J. Saadeh Association Libanaise D 'Etudes Speleologiques-ALES, Lebanon .................................................................... ....................... .401 14!1! lnlenwf!onal Conoress of Soe!eofouy


HellelliC Sf)e/eofD!liCU! Society 0-138 The role of chemical weathering in the erosional speleogenesis of some caves in igneous rocks L.D. Hose National Cave and Karst Research Institute, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 USA ................................................................. 404 0-139 Decoupled and depth stratified circulation in a coastal carbonate aquifer: Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico P.A. Beddows, P L. Smart, S.L. Smith, F.K Whitaker School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 405 0-140 Improving the Accuracy of Subsurface Cartography Using Geophysics and GIS J. A. Tallent, N. C. Crawford, P. Kambcsis Center for Cave and Karst Studies, Bowling Green, KY USA .................................................................. 405 0-141 Recent karst and cave studies of the Aladaglar Massif, Central Taurus, Turkey, and their significance to paleogeographic reconstructions L. Nazik, S. Bayari, A. Klimchouk, N. Ozyurt, K. Tork Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, Turkey Hydrogeological Engineering Section of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine .............................................................................................................. 409 0-142 Results of the Field Work in Kapovaya Cave (Shulgantash) Yu. Lyakhnitsky, A. Solodeinikov, A. Yushko Team from the A. Karpinsky All-Russia Research Geological Institute of the Russian Geographic Society, Saint-Petersburg, Russia ............................... : .. ........................................................................................................................ 410 0-143 Main 2001 To 2004 results on the Khammouane karst, Central Laos 1 C. Mouret. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 411 0-144 Specific conductivity in karst waters what can we learn from it ? W.E. Krawczyk, D.C. Ford University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland; McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada ...................................................... .415 0-145 Phenomenon of the underwater caves of Riviera Maya, Mexico Z. Motycka Czech Speleological Society, Czech Republic .............................................................................................................................................. .415 0-146 The formations of the grutas del palmito (Bustamante, Nuevo Leon, Mexico) Preliminary results P. Forti,A.A. Cigna Univ. Bologna, Bologna, Italy .......................................................................................................................................................... 417 UIS-SSI, Italy 0-147 The hydrodynamic Behaviour of Cretaceous and Oligomiocene karstic aquifers of Boroujerd (West of Iran) M.Ahmadipour, B.Ebrahimi Lorestan University, Iran Isfahan Regional Water Board, IR.Iran ............................................................................... 420 0-148 Recent exploration undertaken by S.EL.A.S. club in the "Dersios" sink-hole at Paleochora, Arcadia N. Mitsakis, S. Zacharias S.EL.A.S Club ........................................................................................................................................................................ 420 0-149 Environment research regarding the use of the potentially therapeutical factors which exist in the cavities of a salt mine for the performance of certain perspectives of speleotherapy development in Romania I. Simionca, M. Hoteteu, N. Grudnicki, J. Kiss, L. Enache, G. Petec Calin, R. Rogojan, M. Matei National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Balneoclimatology, Bucharest The Romanian Permanente Commission of Speleotherapy2 National Salt Society "SALROM" S.A., Bucharest, Romania ................................................................................................................................................................................ 421 21-28 Auausi 2[105. l

Helle nic S1wfeulooi cuf Socielv 0-150 The structure of the therapeutic (speleotherapeutical) factor in the salt mines Primordial element in speleotherapy mechanism and ef fect l. Simion ca Nationa l Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Ba lneocli matology, Bucharest, Romania . ..... ........................ .. .... .. ........ ...... 426 0-151 Natural and artificial air ionization in under ground spaces An envir onmental factor with therapeutic potential Enache, C. Filipescu, Simion ca, S. Botea, M. Hoteteu, J. Kiss, C. Petec, R. Rogo_jan National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Bal neo climatology Bucharest,Romania Romanian Permanent Commission of Speleotherapy,Bucharest,Romania "Vic tor Babe s" National Institute of Research and Development in Pathology and Biomedic a l Sciences, Bucharest, Romania ......... . ... ..... .............. ........ .... ...... ... ... .426 0-152 Recent research into Vjetrenica and the current view of the cave regarding its candidature for the World Heritage List Lucic, D. Baksi<\ J. Mulaomerov ic, R. Ozimec Speleologic a l Society Vjetrenica Popovo polje, Bosnia & Herzegovina Speleological Section of University Mountaineering Club Ve lebit, Zagreb Speleological Society Speleo-Dodo Bosnia & Herzegovina Cr iatain Biospeleological Society, Zagreb .... ..... ............................ ... .... ......... .................. .......... .. .. ... ....... ............... .. .... .. ... ......... .............................. .. ... ... .. ....................................... 430 0-153 The destructive development of Alistrati cave (Greece) N A. Poulianos Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of Palaeoanthropology-Speleaology .. ... ............ .................................................................................. 435 0-154 Introduction and tourist developement of Postojna cave from 1818 2004 B. Debevc Postojnskajama, turizem Postojna, Slovenia ...................................................................................... ..................................................... .... 436 0-155 The antiquity of the famous Belianska Cave (Slovakia) B.Pa vel, P. Bosak, J, Glazek, H. Hercman, D Kidnska, T. Nowicki S. Pavlarcik, P. Pruner Sprava slovensychjaskyn, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovakia Geologicky itstav AV CR, Praha 6, Czech Republic., Instytut Geologii UAM, Poznan, Poland Jnstytut Nauk Geologicznych PAN, Warszawa, Poland Staine lesy TANAP, 059-60 Tatranska Lomnica, Slovakia ......... ............ ....................... ................................................................ ..................................... 437 0-156 Evolution of Lodowe Spring Cave System in the Western Tatra Mts. (Poland) J. Glazek, H. Hercman, D. Kicinska, T. Nowicki Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland In stit ute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Scienc es, Warszawa, Poland ................................................................. ............................ .... .............................................. 43 7 0-157 Underground streams of Crete C. l VCavrokosta Speleological Club of Crete, SPOK ... ... ... ...... .. .. ............................. .................... .. .................. ... .......... ...................... ..................... ...... 438 0-158 I:nf1Amop6:pa0po AvopiTo~, IltAonovft

Hell eoic Sf)e/eo l oaica / So c iety 0-162 The Artificial Cavities..of Trentino Alto Adige: An overview M.Meneghini Regional registry of the artificial cavities ofTrentino,Trento Italia ......... ...... .... ... ..... .. .. ... ........ ......... .... .. ..... ... .. .. ...... ........ .. ...... .. ... .. .. .455 0-163 The stufe di Nerone (Nero's Oven): An ancient artificial cave near Naples (Italy) A.A. Cigna, G.J. Middleton ..... ...... ........................................ .. . ........ ........................... .... .. ... .................................... ... ... .. .... ................................... . 459 0-164 The speleological bibliography of Sardinia (Italy) J. De Waele Dipartimento di Scienze de/la Terra, via Trentino 51, 09127 Cagliari, Italy ............ .. .... .. ................ ..... . .... .. ...... ........................... ....... .461 0-165 L' ardeche souterraine P . Brunet FFS, IVRY, France ...... .. ............. : ................................ .. ....... .. ....................... . .. .. .. ..... .. .. . ....................... . . . .... ..... ... . .. ....................... .. .... .. 466 0-166 Speleo-discography: A progress report D. N. Brison ... .. ....... ......................................................................... ... ................................... .. .................................. .. ........ ........................................ 466 0-167 Advances in computer-aided cave survey data acquisition; the Auriga Palm OS freeware for underground and field use L. Le Blanc Societe quebecoise de speleologie, Montreal, Canada . .. ........... .. ............... .......................... ........................ ........... .. .......... ....... ... .. ..... .470 0-168 Use of a non-linear curve fitting program to separate the emission spectra of multiple fluorescent dyes from spectrofluorophotometer analysis used in groundwater dye tracing S. Roach, N. Crawford Center for Cave and Karst Studies Western Kentucky University .... ... ....................................................................... .... ..... .473 0-169 An Open-source Web-based National Cave Database M. Lake P. Matthews Australian Speleological Federation, Sydney, Australia .. ............. ... ... ... ... .. .................. ... .. .......... .. .......................................... 473 0-170 Contribution to the cave origin by mechanical weathering in temperate zone L. Gaal Slovak Cave Administration, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovakia .................................. ..... ........................................ ....... ............................ .. ..... ... 4 7 5 0-171 Infiltration in the dolomitic karstic system of nerja cave (Southern Spain) B. Andreo Navarro, C. Linan F. Carrasco, C. Batiot, C. Emblanche, J.J. Duran Departamento de Geologia Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain) ........................... ... .. ... ........................... ... ..................................... .......... .... ........................... . . . ..... . 478 0-172 Unusual subaqueous speleothems from Zlomisk Cave (Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia) M. Gradzinski P. Holubek Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University ....... . .. .. .... .... ......................... ..... .. .. .. ................... .... ............ . .481 0-173 Cueva Charles Brewer (Chimanta) and Cueva Ojos de Cristal (Roraima) the greatest quartzite caves of the world, table mountains, Venezuela B. Smida, C. Brewer-Carias, M. Aud y .F. Mayoral Slovak Speleological Society (SSS, Slovakia) Grupo Espeleol6gico de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Natural es (SVCN, Venezuela) Czech Speleological Society (CSS, Bohemia) .................................. .. ......................... ............ .482 0-174 Velika klisura (Gryka e Madhe) in Kosovo the discovery and exploration of one of the biggest cave systems at Balkan B. Smida J. Smoll Slovak Speleological Society (SSS, Slo v akia) . ... ................... .... .. .. ............. .. ........ ......... ...... ........ .............................................. 488 21-28 Auaust 2005. Kalrmws. /fellas


H eif1mir: S;Je /euf uuicu/ Socie/y -0-175 Karst protect i on and conserva t ion i n Venezuela ; Inventor y o f ca v es in Natural Park s and protected areas using GIS techniques C. Silva Aguilera .. .. . ... . .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. . .... .. . .. ... ...... .. ... .... .. .. .... .... .... .... .. ...... ..... .. ... . . .. .. .. ... ... ... .. ......... .. ... ... ..... .. . . ... .... ..... ............ ... .... .. ............ .. 488 0-176 Potential Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage on the Hydrogeologic System of Russell Cave National Monument Alabama, USA W. Haw k i ns, P. Kam besis, Gro ves Western Kent ucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA ..... . .. .......................... .. ... ... . ... ...... . ........ ................. .489 0-177 Underground Beauty Show without Destruction J. Novomesky" COMLUX sro, Bratislava, Slovakia . ......... ... ... .. . .. ... .. .. .... ... ... ... .. ... . .... ..... .. .. ... .............. .. ... ... .. ...... .... ... .. .. ..... ...... .. ... .. .. .... ... 489 0-178 Cave and Karst Cente rs of Excellence J.R. G oodbar $ Bureau of Land Management, Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA ... ...... ... ..... . . .. .. ..... .. ...... .. .. .. .. ........ ...... .. . ..... . ..... . ................................ . 492 0-179 The cadaster of speleological objects in Serbia the support to research, protection and sustainable use of karst .B. Va s Hjevic Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection of Republica Serbia . .. . ... ... .. . ...... ....... ................. ... . . .. ....... ........... ...... .. .. .. ... .... . 492 0-180 The Maladie Verte (Green Disease) of the caves C. M erdenisianos" Univers ity of Athens, Athens, Greece .. ....... .......... . . ............... ....... ... .. ......... .. .. ............................................ .... ........... ....... .. .. .... .493 0-181 Fifty springs on the Niagara Escarpment, Ontario, Canada D. Fo rd, S. \Vorth i ng ton ........................................................................ .. ................... ................ ... . ...... ...... ... . . ..... .. ... .... . . .. .. .. ... ..... ... .... ...... ... .. 495 0-182 Hydrogeology and speleogenesis in the karstic aquifer of the chain "peaks of the rnusi mountain" (Western julian fore-alps, ne Italy) R. Semeraro Geokarst Engineering S r.l. Trieste, Italy .... ... .. .. .. . .... .. .. ...... ..................... .. . ... .. .. .. ... .. . . .. .... ... .... . ........... ... .......... . .................. ..... . .. 496 0-183 Karst hydrogeology of Lookout mountain: A synclinal mountain in the folded appaiachian mountains of south central Tennessee, USA Sakofs ky, I(. Ba ile,v, N. Cr::nvfor d ...... .. . ............ .. ...... ... .. .. .... .. .... : .. ..... ... ........... . .......... ... .. .. ... ..... .... .. ...... . ...... . ... .. .. .... ................................... 500 0-184 Intensive monitoring of drip water in two shallow caves G. Veni, B.L Shade George Veni & Associates, San Antonio, USA .. .... ........ .. .. ..... .......... ... ..... . .... .... . ....... ............. .. ... ... ....... . ......... .. . . . .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ....... .... ....... ...... ... .. 504 0-185 Groun dwater Sensitivity Mapping of t he Beaver Darn and Campbellsvill e 30' x 60' Quadrangles P.K ambesis, A. Croskrey C. G roves Hoffman Environmental Research Instit ute Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY USA .. .......... 509 0-186 A Tale of Looting of Paleontological Cave Resources D.A. Hubbard, Jr. Virginia Spe l eological Survey, US.A ........... ..................... .. . ... . .... . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .... .................... .................. .... ....... .......................... 509 0-187 Model development of the Petralona cave by the Anthropological Association of Greece (AA G ) N. Goulopoulos Anthropo logical Association of Greece, Athina Hellas (Greece) .. ......... . .. .. .. .. ....... ... .... . .. .. .... .. . . ...... . . . . . ... .. .. .... ... . . ....... .. 511 0-188 Protection and utilisation of caves in Slovakia B. Pav el, P. Gazik $ S lovak Caves Administration, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovak ia . .. .. ..... .. .. ........... .. ...... ... . . ...... ........ . . ... ... ... .. ............... .. .......... .... . 5 I 2 l4ili lnlernntiunnl Cunuress of StJeleoluo.v


Hellenic Spe/eo!oqica/ Socie ty 0-189 Protection of caves and their findings N. Goulopoulos Anthropological Association of Greece, Athina-Hellas (Greece) ............................ ............................................................................. 516 0-190 The climate of Kartchner caverns (Arizona, USA) A.A Cigna, R.S. Tomey, G. Nolan .................................................................................................... ............................................................................... 517 0-191 Ground Water Flux Distribution between Matrix, Fractures, and Conduits: Constraints on Modeling W. B. White, E. L. White The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA ............................................... .. ..................... .. ............ 520 0-192 The hydrogeological rebus of the coastal karst of 0rosei (East Sardinia, Italy) J. De Waele Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, via Trentino 51, 09127 Cagliari ltaly .... .................................... .. ............. .. ...................................... 524 0-193 Application of dye tracer techniques in the preparation of conceptual hydrogeologic models for contaminated karst aquifers N. Crawford Center for Cave & Karst Studies, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA ..................... ........... .... ........... ............ 528 0-194 Development of Innovative Karst Hydrogeologic Research Techniques for Solving Karst Environmental Problems L.A. Croft, N. Crawford, C. Adair, J. Brewer, M. Coffelt, R. Elrod, M. Firkins, B. Ham, J. Howard, C. Martin, P. Kambesis, R. Moore, C. Ray, J. Ray, J. Tallent, R. Taylo1; A. Williams, A. Zimmerman Center for Cave and Karst Studies, Applied Research and Technology Program of Distinctionm, Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky USA ................................. 531 0-195 Drip-water monitoring in a superficial Alpine cave (Cogola di Giazzera, Trentino, NE Italy) R. Miorandi, A. Borsato, S. Frisia, F. Corradini Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento, Italy lstituto Agrario di S.Michele all 'Adige, Trento, Italy ............................................................................................................................................................................ ....... .. ................... ...... ........ 535 0-196 The geothermal flux shielding by deep drainage conduits G. Badino Dip. Fisica Generale, Universita di Torino .......................... : .............. .............. .............................................................................. .. ........ .. ... 538 0-197 Perspective of development of Maronia cave and the surrounding area (Thrace, Greece) S. Pavlides, I. Chatzigogas Aristotle University ofThessaloniki ................................................................................................................... ... .............. 541 0-198 Exploring Cave Interpretation: Towards a set of key principles for interpreting tourist caves R. Black, P. Davidson Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia ................................................................................................................................. 543 0-199 Caves of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico P. Kambesis Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA ..................... : .................................................................. ...... ............ .. ................. 543 0 200 In pursuit of geo-national park status in Fengshan county, Guangxi, Southern China; the balance between the needs of the local population, tourism and conservation. G. Campion Twisleton, Ingleton, North Yorkshire ........................................................................................................................................... ..... ........... 543 0-201 The Lebanese perception of the Endokarstic inheritance L. Doumit, J. Adjizian-Gerard, C. Gauchon D1partement de Gwgraphie, Universitl Saint-Joseph de Beyrouth, Liban -EDYTEM ........................ 545 21-28 August 2005. Kalnmos. Hellas


Hulfenir: S1wleuhH1icu/ Sociutv 0-202 Sustainable Tour i stic Use of the Caves of Salado III (Chorriaca), La Laguna (Balsa Huitrin) and Los Gatos (Rincon de los Sauces). Neuquen Province, Argentina J. AHemaml., L. Loyza, E. Lipps" Sociedad Argentina de Espeleologia (SAE) and KARST O.A.I.E., Buenos Aires, Argentina ... . ..... ............. . .... .. .... 548 0-203 Results of Bulgarian-Albanian Speleological Researches in Albania (1991-2004) A. Zhalov Bulgarian Federation of Speleology Sofia, Bulgaria ... .... .. .......... .. ........ .. ........... ... ..... .. ......... .. ... .. ......... .. .. ... .. .... .................. ... ..... ...... .. .. .... 551 0-204 Historical data for karst Phenomena in the province of Macedonia, Greece (XVII-XX C.) A. Jalov, M. Stamenova "Speleo club "Helictit" (Sofia) & Bulgarian Federation of Speleology ....................................................................... ............. 558 0-205 The speleological researches in South-West China of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona (Italy) R. Zorzin, L Latella 0 Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, Verona (Italy) .. ... .............................................................................................. .. .. .. 562 0-206 Saga of the Boston Grotto E. Pothos, N. Stokowski, ,J, Steven, C. Tayfor, .J. Evans, M. Gasser, G. Ehrenfried, A. Budreau Boston Grotto, Boston, USA .............................. 562 0-207 The international speleological expedition to Tanzania organisation pre-during-post expedition E. Van den Broeck . ................ .......... .. .... .. ....................................................................................................................................................................... 567 0-208 Lukina jama-Manual II, Slovacka jama, Meduza, and the share of the Slovak cavers at discovering some of the deepest abysses of the world and of underground superverticals in Velebit Mts.(Croatia) in the years 1990 2004 B. Smida Slovak Speleological Society (SSS), Slovakia ................................................................................................................................................... 567 P-1 The karst in the mezdra structural-denudation depression (Bulgaria). Assessment of natural and anthropogenic processes and hazards D. Angelova@ Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria ........................................................................................................ 573 P-2 Ethnospeleology: The study of the cultural manifestations of ethnic groups and their relations with the caves J.G. Aires Lima, M P. Pais, H. Queiroz de Medeiros"' CECAV I IBAMACuiaba, Brazil ............................................................................................ 573 P-3 Fossil tooth of a second human from Petralona cave N.A. Pm.dhu:ws Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of PalaeoanthropologySpeleaology .......................................................................................... .. ....... 574 P-4 The Discovery of VII-XII cc Underground Churches and Settlements in Qasharagh by the 2002-2003 Expedition: of ASC S M. Shahinyan State Engin. Uni.of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia .................................................................................................................................... 576 P 5 Cave Man of XXI c H. Ghazaryan, S. M. Shahinyan State Engin. Uni.of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia ................................................................................................... .. .... 578 P-6 Temporarily earth pyramids in caves. Example from the cave of "Zesta N era" (Sidirokastro, Serres, Macedonia, Greece) E. Vavliakis, G. Lazaridis, C. Pe1mos "Aristotle University ofThessaloniki, Greece ..................................................... ............................................... 579 P-7 Eptamili caves (Serres, Macedonia, Greece) Speleogenesis and development E. Vavliakis, C. Pemws, G. Lazaridis "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece ..................................................................................................... 581 14th lnlenrnfionul Conuress of Sueleoloov


Helleoic S1Je/eolouicul Society P-8 The cenotes (anchialine caves) from Cozumel Island, Quintana Roo, Mexico. L.M. Mejva-Ortvz, O.F. Martvnez, Y.J. Tun Chim, M. LGpez-Mejva, G. Yanez II Universidad de Quintana Rao -Cozumel ..................................... 585 P-9 Geological and structural setting of Ermakia cave, northern Greece A. Chatzipetros, E. Thomaidou Aristotle University, Department of Geology, Thessaloniki, Greece ........................................................................... 585 P-10 Sedimentation cycles in eastern Brazilian caves: Origin and palaeoclimatic and geomorphic significance A.S. Auler, X. Wang, P.L. Smart, R.L. Edwards, H. Cheng, D. Correa, P. Figueiredo ............................................................................................. 586 P-11 Unique features of fissure quartzite caves of the Inficionado Peak, central Brazil i\.S. Auler, Y.O. Sta vale, T.A. Nicoli ................................................................................................................................................................................. 588 P-12 The Svarthammar Project, North Norway. S.E. Lauritzen, L. Baastad, J. Bj0rlien Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway ........................................................... 588 P-13 The karst in the Besapara heights, the Rhodopes mountain (Bulgaria) D. Augelova Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria ........................................................................................................ 592 P-14 Speieogenesis of the Tromsdaien area, Verdai, Norway A. 0ystese, F. Johannesen, S. E. Lauritzen Department of Earth Science, Bergen, Norway ........................................................................................ 592 P-15 Groundwater Basin Delineation by Dye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA N. Crawford 41 Center for Cave and Karst Studies, JiVestern Kentucky University, Bowling Green .................. ................................................. .............. 594 P-16 Sub-daily cycles and hydrological behaviour of Bus de la Spia -Acquasanta karst system (Brenta Dolomites, NE Italy) A. Borsato, M. Zandonati Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento, Italy ............................................................................................................ 598 P-17 Characterization of a karstic-pseudokarstic Alpine aquifer by means of field fluorometer tracing tests (Tovel Valley, NE Italy) P. Ferretti, A. Borsato Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Via Calepina 14, 1-38100 Trento, Italy ................................................ ......................... 598 P-18 Cave development in se Spain during upper pleistocene under periglacial conditions A. Gonzalez-Ramon, B. Andreo Navarro, A. Ruiz-Bustos, D. A. Richards .................................................................................................................. 598 P-19 Lateral planation and notched forms of cave georelief B. Pavel Slovak Caves Administration, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovaki ................................................................................................................................. 601 P-20 Caracterizacion geomorfologica e hidrogeologica preliminar de la zona carsica del tercio inferior de la cuenca del rio guanabo, en el occidente de Cuba A. N. Abraham Alonso, M. Guerra Oliva, M. Sanchez Cebula, 0. Duran Zarabozo Instituto de Geografia Tropical, CITMA, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 605 2 7-28 August 2005. Knlnmos. lie/las


fief /en!{: SDe! eu!uoical Society P-21 D evelopm ent of limestone pedestals in g l aciated karst S.E. Lauritzen ., Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway .. ... ... ........ ....... .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ....... . ... ................ ............. ........ 605 P-22 The Gnmli Seter project, northern Norway R. 0vr evikSkoglun d, Hes tan gen, S. M Sku.t faberg, S.E. Lauritzen University of B e rgen, Bergen, Norway ... ... ... ..... .. ................ .... .. ........ .... 609 P-23 Speleotheme dating from Svarthammerhola and MIS 7 oxygen isotope and uranium series study E. Fedje, S .E. Lauritzen $ Department of earth sciences, University of Bergen, Norway ..... ......... .. .. ............. ... . ... ........ . ... .. ................. ...... . . ... . ... ... 613 P-24 First Th / U-series dated speleothem record from Southern Siberia S. Breitenbach, B. Min.gram, H Oberhansli, G. Haug, J. Adkins GFZ, Potsdam, Germany California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA ..... 614 P-25 Palaeomagnetic and palaeontological rese arch in Raciska pecina Cave, SW Slovenia P. Bosak, P. Pruner, A. Mihevc, N. Z. Hajna, I. Hora9ek, J Kad l ec, 0. Man, P. Schnabl Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Praha 6, Czech Republic ... .. .... ............ ...... .... ... .. ......................... ....................................................... .. .. 619 P-26 About Several Problems on Dating Stone-Door Tunnels and Caves S. M. Shahinyan State Engin. Uni .of Arme nia, Yerevan, Armenia ... ....... . ..... ... .. .. .... .. ...... . . ... .... ..... ..... ... .. ... ...... ... ....... ..... ... ............. . . . .. .... ... ..... 619 P-27 The origin of the gypsum flower in the Okgye Cave, Kangwondo, Korea D.\

Hell enic SfJefe alooic ul Societ y P-35 Speleology in Armenia A. Harutunian, V. Ter-Khazaryan Armenian Speleological Center, Yerevan, Armenia .............................................................. ... ............................... 630 P-36 Speleology in Armenia A. Grigoryan Armenian Speleological Center, Yerevan, Armenia ................................................................................................................................... 630 P-37 Investigation ofZagedanskaya in the honor of A.V. Alexeev cave A.S. Gusev, S.Yu. Lipchenko, O.B. Tsoy, A.L. Shelepin Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia Russian Geographic Society, Moscow, Russia SSCC Hydrogeoecology, Cherkessk Russia Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia .......... . .... ..... 630 P-38 La glace souterraine de la cote occidentale du Bai'kal comme indicateur des changements climatiques E.V. Trofimova Universite d'Etat d'Irkoutsk .......................................................... ........... .............................................................................................. 636 P-39 The ecology of niicrobial communities in soil habitats and gypsum caves in taiga region (Northern Europian Russia) A. Semikolennykh, A. Ivanova, T. Dobrovolskaya, M. Gorlcnko Institute of Geography, Moscow .............. .......... ........... ........ ............... ...... .......... 642 P-40 About the Seismic-Stability of Ancient Engineer Constructions S.M. Shahinyan State Engin. Uni.of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia ........... .................................................. ; ............. ................... ................................... 647 P-41 Revue historique de la speleologie de la Siberie et de l'Extreme-Orient E.V.Trofimova Universite d'Etat d'Irkoutsk .................................................................................................................................................................... 649 P-42 Conservation of Ballet Cave H. David Grupo Bambui de Pesquisas Espeleol6Ricas ...................................................................... ....................................... ... .... ............ ....... .......... 649 P-43 Assessment of recreation resources in the karst terrains of high atlas mountain (Morocco) and Vitosha Mountain (Bulgaria) D. Angelova, M. Alaeddin Bclfoul, A. Delchev, S. Bouzid, F. Faik Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria .... .. . ....... 65 3 P-44 The creation of pseudokarst landforms and the impact to the environment as a result of bauxite mining activity in Ghiona mountain A. Mertzanis, A. Papadopoulos, A.Pantera T.E.I. of Lamia, Annex of Karpenisi, Department of Forestry, 36100 Karpenisi, Greece .. .... .... ........... 653 P-45 The Barrois covered karst (NE France): a recorder of valley incision and cover retreat S. Jaillet EDYTEM UMR 5204 CNRS France .. ... .. ... ... .. .............. ...... .. ........ ........ ......... ...... ....... .... ........ .... .... .. ... .. ........ ......... ... .................................. 656 P-46 The Karstic system of the Mountain Kerketio (Koziakas) and its exploitation G. Bathrellos, E. Verikiou-Papaspyridakou, H. Skilodimou National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Geology, Department of Geography-Climatology ........................................................................... ... ............................................................................................... 659 P-47 Reconstruction of vaegetation changes in Western Tatra Mts. (Poland) basing on Carbon isotopic composition of speleothems calcite H. Hercman, T. Nowicki Institute of Geological Sciences Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland ............................................................... 664 2 7-28 Auu ust 2005. l(o!mnos. Hell us


!fe/l enic Sf]e/eo/agical SocieJy P-48 Diktaeon Andron: Environmental impacts as a result of human activities and touri st exploitation of the cave (Crete-Greece) A. Mertzanis, G. Vavizos, A. Zannaki TE.I. of Lamia, Annex of Karpenis i, Department of Forestry, Karpenisi, Greece Eco-Consultants S A., Ho largos Athens, Greece ... .. ....... . ... . .................. .... .... ..... .. ................ .... .. ......... .. . ............ . ........... ...... ... .. .... . . . .. ... . .. .... . ... ..... .. ... .... ............ 664 P-49 Columns of Cretan ear th: "The speleothem and the s ymbel" E. Nikitea, A. Kroystalaki Speleological C lub of Crete, SPOK. ........................................ ... . . . ... ......... .. ... .. ......... . .. ... .... ... ....... ..... ... .. .. . ......... ... ... 668 W-1 Exploration and Preservation of the Kipuka Kan ohina Cave System, Ka 'ti Hawai'i C. K. Heazlit ........................ .. ..... .. .......... ...... .... ................. .. .. ....... ..... . ........ .. ... ............. .. .. .. ...... .. .... ....... .. .. .. .... .. .. .......................... ............... . . ... ..... 668 W-2 Revealing the Caves of Soqotra Island (Yemen), the Soqotra Karst Project (2000-2005) P. De Geest and the members of the Soqotra Kar st Project ... . ....... ...................................... . ..................... .. ... .. .... .. ... .... ..... ..... .. .................. ... ...... 669 W 3 Systeme Mara Milopotamos -Drama P. Reile ... ....... ... .................................... .. ... ..... ................... ... ..... . .. ... . ... . ... .. . ..... ............ .. .. ... .......................................... .. ..... ........ ..... ............ ....... ... .. 669 W-4 The Lava Tube Caves of Rwanda M. Laun1anns .... ................... .... ........................ ................ .......... .. ................................... .. .... ..... . ... . .. ... ................... .......... ...... ...................... ..... ...... 677 W-5 An Overview of Caving Regions in Northern Laos J. Dreybr odt, M :. Lau manns .............. .. ... ..... ......................... ..... .. ..... . . ....... ..... ................... ................ ....................................................................... '. ..... 678 W-6 Karst, Caves and Speleology in the Islamic Republic of Iran V. Madelat, J. Ash,jari, H. Akbarzadeh, M. Laumanns ............ .. ................................................................................................................................... 682 W-7 Recent explorations in Krubera-Voronja cave (West Caucasus). D. Provalov, I. Zharkov ................ .. ......... .. ...................... ... .. .. ................................................ ... .................................. ............... ................................ .. 682 W-8 CIRS geospeleological research in Ethiopia in the 2003/2005 years R. Ruggieri. .... ... ... . ................. .. ........ .... .. .... .. ... .... .... ............ ... . ... ..... . ... .. .... ...... . ...... .......... ... ..... .. ..... ................... .... . .. .. .. .. .............. .... .. ..... ............ 682 W-9 New speleological developments in Africa and the Middle East F~ H. Nader . ....................... ....... .. .... .. ... ... ...... .. .......... .... .. ............... ... ....... .. ......... .. ... ...... . ...... .......... ... ..... ........... ....... ....... ............. ......................... ...... 686 W-10 Speleological Notes on Afqa Cave, Syria I\/1. Metni, I. Bou J awdeh ........ .. .. .... .. .. ......... . . ............................. .. ...... .. ...................... .. ... ....... ...... ... ... ... .. ... ..... .... .... ... ... .... .................................. 687 W-11 Speleological exploration of Hober Goll massif (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria) Z. Rysiecki, K Najdek ...... ............ ... .... ...... ... .............................. .. .......... . .. ..... ............. ...... .. .. ... .. .. ... ... .. . .. ....... ....... .. ............................................. . .. 687 14th lnternu!iunof Cunuress of StJ/?/eotuuv


Hellenic StJelenfogical Societ y W-12 Report on Multiyear Project to Map and Photograph Caves for the Belize Institute of Archaeology D. Larson, E . Burns Larson, B Pease, W Hunt .................. ........ ................................................................................... .......... .. .. .. ...... .... ............ .... ...... 68 7 W-13 New Information on the Plutonic and Tectonic Prerequisites of the Genesis of "Arjer" Cave S. M. Shahinyan ........ ..................... .... ... ............................. .... .. . ............................... ............................................... .. ....... ................................... . .. ... 688 W-14 Activities of Czech and Slovak cavers in Riviera Maya, Mexico Z. l\'lotycka .............................. .. ...... .............. ....... .......... .. . .. ........... ..... ... .................. .. ........ . ... ....... ..... ......... ... .. . .. .. ....... .. . .. .... .. ... .......... ................ ... 689 W-15 Chinese/American Cooperation in Cave Exploration and Survey in Water Resource Development, Da Long Dong, Hunan China C. Groves, P. Kambesis, H. Shiyi, J. Zhongcheng, D. Groves Hoffman Environmental Research Institute, We s t e rn K en t ucky University Bowling Green, Kentucky USA, Institute of Karst Geology of China, Guilin Guangxi, CHINA .... ........ .... .... ............... .. .. ...................................... .... ............... ... 69 2 W-16 Cave Complex Samsar G. H. Pogosyan Armenian Spel e ological Center, Yerevan, Armenia .......................... .......................... .. .............................................................. .. .. .... .. 692 W-17 Due~a Speleological Cave System J. Neves M. Soares, M. Pessoa, S. Medeiros, L. Cunha F e dera c;ao Portuguesa de Espeleologia Coimbra Portugal.. ............................................ 69 7 W-18 Kuzgun Cave: the first super-deep cave in the Aladaglar Massif, Turkey A. Klimchouk, Y. Kasjan, G. Samokhin, L. Na z ik S. Bayari,K. Tork .......................... ......... ...... ............................... ............ ....................... .. .... ....... 702 W-19 Krubera Cave in the Arabika Massif, Western Caucasus: the first 2000m deep cave on Earth A. Klimcbouk,Y. Kasjan, N. Solovjev Ukrainian Speleological Association, Kiev, Ukraine ......... ....... ..... .... ...... .... .. .... .. .. .. ........ .. .. .. ..................... ..... 702 W-20 Recent Explorations in Leuka Ori Mnt. on Crete K. Adamopoulos, P. Stavropoulos K. Limakis SELAS Club, Athens, Greece ............ .... .................................................................................. ........ .. .. 703 W-21 International Speleological Expedition "Anogia Ntelina 2002" K Adamopoulos, N. Mitsakis, A. Christodoulou SELAS Club, Athens, Greece .... .......................... .. .. ... ... .......... .. .... ... .................. ................. .... .......... 7 03 W-22 Results of the International Speleological Expedition in Tanzania 2005 J.P.Bartholeyns, S. Gotto, A. Kobayashi, H.F. Nader, Pinto Roemer, E. Van Den Broeck ............... .............. .... ...... ........ ................... ...................... 703 W-23 Remapping of Humpleu Cave (Romania): First results P. Hauselmann, B. P. Onac .......... ....... .......... ..... ..... ......... ........................ ...... ... ......... .. ... ...... ........ .. .................. ........ ....... .. .. .................... ..... ............ 7 04 Participants list ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 07 21-28 lwuust 2005. Kalomos. Hellos


14th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS Qf the INTERNATIONAL UNION OF SPELEOLOGY (U I S) 21 ~28 August Kalamos, Hellas WITH THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE ANO THE HELLENIC MINISTRY OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT HELLENIC NATIONAL TOURISM ORGANIZATION UNDER THE AEGIS OF THE CITY OF ATHENS Congress Organization: HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY HELLENIC FEOERA TION OF SPELEOLOGY In collaboration with the EPHORATE (DEPARTMENT) OF PALEOANTHROPOLOGY AND SPELEOLOGY, HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE Proceedings edited by: Christos Petreas, General Secretary, 14th IC S Organizing Committee With the assistance of: Grigoris Papadopoulos, Hon. Gen. Secretary Hellenic Speleological Society HSS Eliza Chatzicharalambous Member HSS (abstracts and paper proofing) Martha Deltouzou, Member HSS (graphic design) Nicolas Grintzias, (abstracts and papers proofing) Photographs by: Giorgos Avagianos, Member HSS (also cover photo Speleo Award) Fanis Ellinas Member Administrative Council HSS Evangelos Tsimbanis, Gen. Secretary HSS & Treasurer, 14th ICS Organizing Committee Grigoris Papadopoulos Hon. General Secretary HSS Philippos Pantoulias, Member HSS Christos Petreas, General Secretary, 14t h ICS Organizing Committee Published by: HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Athens, Greece (Hell as), 2005 Volume 1: ISBN 978-960-98020-0-0 ISBN 978-960-98020-1-7 Volume 2: ISBN 978-960-98020-0-0 ISBN 978-960 .. 98020 2 4 Printed in Athens Greece Distribution: All 14th ICS Participants Main Libraries of relevant Universities Departments Contact: HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 32 Sina Street -Athens GR-106 72 Greece (Hellas) Tel: +30-2103617824 I Fax: +30-2103643476 e-mail: & Cover photos by George Avagianos Best Speleo Photo Awards l:.ii/1 !nternufiunu! ConmRss of Soeleu!nuv


14t h INTERNATIONAL AT HF. HS Z OO{) CONGR E S S OF S P ELE O LOGY Qf lb ~ INTERNATIONAL UNIQt:! 9 SPELEOLOGY Lll.!l 21 "'28 Augus t 2005, Ka l amos, Hellas W ITH TH E S P O NS O RS H IP O F T HE HELLEN I C M IN I ST R Y O F CU L TU R E AND THE HE L L E NI C M IN I ST R Y O F T O U RI S M D E V EL O P M E N T HELLENIC NATIO N AL TO U RI S M ORGAN I ZA TI O N UNDER THE AEGIS OF THE CITY OF ATHENS .-. Congress Organization: H EL L EN iC SP E LE O LO G IC A L S OC IE T Y HELLENIC FEDERATION OF SPELEOLOGY I n co ll aboration w m 1 th e EPHORATE (DEPARTMENT) OF PALEOANTHROPOLOGY AND S PE LE OL O G Y HE LL E NIC MIN I ST R Y OF CULTU R E Th e 14th I nt e rna ti on al C on g re ss of S pe l eolo g y was d ed ic at ed to t he m e rno r y of J o hn a n d A nn a P et rochil o s w h o fou n de d th e He lle ni c S pel e olo g ical Society and for more th a n 50 ye a rs w or ke d fo r t he e xp l oration and recording of more than 8000 ca v es i n Gree c e Ho n orar y '. Pa olo FORT I (I ta ly) fr e sidents 1 Mu~erHR~MH ( A~St r i ~) 1 Arrigo A. CIGNA ( Italy) : Adolfo ER A SO R O M ER O (Sp ai n) UIS P a st -! Derek C FORD (Canada) o , f; :1 s , a e,,' ._ _ t J _1 _-_ 1 P_ a G1-l --o -F--.0 ... R T _,._ l __ \' l ta !y. : _1 Mr s Ju lia M ar y J A ME S ( A ust ra lia) ..... . ~ -___ ,.~ .... ~ ~.~~r !J~IMM ~~ ( ~ ~~ r, i _~ L .. ...... .. . ... .. Maurice AUD E T A T ( Sw i tze rl and) R e no B ER N AS C ON I (Swi tz erl a nd) U I ~ 8 j Arrigo A CIGNA ( I taly ) ::, u reau A dol fo ERASO R O ME1R O (S pain ) H o norary P I F O RT I 1 1t \ M b a o,o a y, em ers M rs. Julia Mary JAMES (Australia) Vladi m ir P A NO S (Cz e ch R ep ub lic) Hu b ert TRIMMEL ( Au stri a) In t ro d uc tio n by A ndr e w J. E a vis P re sid en t UI S Vice -! Andrew Ja me s E A V!S ( G reat Britain) Presidents I Alexander KUMCHO U K (Ukraine) ""' ~- -' -------s~;~:~ < I Pavel BOSAK ( C ze c h Republic) ffim a n H AP K A (Sw i tzerland) eorge HUPPERT ( U SA) deceased 2001 -eo rg e VEN! ( U SA) tram 2002 ,.. An d rej MIH E VC (S l ovenia) S e cr eta '.1 ~:; Cl a ude MO U RET (France) Arj;omt F adi NADER (Lebanon) Armstrong OSBOR NE (Austrafia) Lin h ua S O NG (Chi n a P.R.) Ab e l V ALE Puerto Rico i t is wi t h g r eat pl e asure and an el e m e nt of relief tha t I in t roduce these Pro ce ed i ngs fo r th e 1 4th In t ernational Congress of Speleol ogy. Th e Congress took place exactly in the s ame manner as the O l ympic Game s, the p revious year; the C ongress wa s ve ry su c ce ss fu l in almost ev er y re sp ec t o th er th an 1t w as rat he r s ho rt of d elegates. Those 500 or so spele o log is ts fr om the en ti re world w h o did attend had an excellent time and there have bee n ver y f ew complaints. T he Programme of le c tu res was extensive as you will read in the Proceedings ; pa rti c u l a r highlights for me were landmark pape r s on S pele oPa le o Hi st ory p a rt icu lar ly on S p ele oth e m s and films a nd r e ports on some of the sport's most dan g e rous and d i fficult expeditions i ncluding of course, the discovery of the fi r st 2000m d eep c a v e, Krubera. S o ci a l event s d u ri n g t he Congress were as ever very successful and all with an excellent infor ma l at m o s phere which is aiways th e tr ade m ark of s pel eol o gic al pa r tie s. Andy Eavis f -2 8 A uu us t 2UUf.i V ulm n os_


CONGRESS PREPARATION The decision for the organization of ihe lnh .. tnational ,,r,,,.-..,..,:.,,.,,. o{ Spe/e!o/ogy in Greece was voted at the 13th Congress in Brazil in 200, The C)rganizing Cornrnitteo vvas then formed and the process of the preparation of the Congress starlecJ; a series of n1e:etings with the UIS Bureau rnernbers took place to discuss the various aspects of the organization The venue tor lhe f CS was eventually selected to be the small seaside resort town of Kalamos, a short distance north of Athens, in Attica. The Congress accornmocf ation hotels were either on the beach or very near: and a camping I dormitory facility was nearby. LEFT: One of the first posters announcing the 14th International Congress of Speleology


With more than 10,000 recorded caves, Greece still has many unexplored that are awaiting eager speleologists. All types of karst are found throughout the mainland and islands. Caves are precious archives of nature that provide valuable information. Caves in Greece are especially known as rich archaeological and palaeontological sites, as well as for some outstandingly beautiful show caves. Speleology in Greece starled with the first recorded exploration in 1841. Modem Greek Speleology has its roots in the 1950 founding of the Hellenic Speleological Society and has been continuously developing since, with the founding of the Hellenic Speleological Federation in 2001 and the Balkan Speleological Union in 2002. The 3rd SYMPOSIUM on CAVE ARCHAEOLOGY, GEOLOGY & PALAEONTOLOGY "New perspectives in Archaeological, Geological and Palaeontological research in Caves", took place in Athens in October 2003. The Symposium was well attended by more than 100 parlicipants, while about 50 papers were presented. The Symposium was an opportunity for UIS Bureau members to meet with various representatives of Greek speleo groups. The Symposium was also attended by Mr. Roman Hapka, UIS Bureau member and President of the Archeology and Paleontology in Caves Commission. In the previous Symposium photo standing from left to right Gen Secretary, Mr. Evangelos Tsimbanis HSS Gen. Secretary and Treasurer 14th !CS Org. Committee, Prof. Huberl Trimmel (Austria) UIS Bureau, former President, Mr. Linhua Song (China) UIS Bureau, Dr. George Veni (USA) UIS Bureau, Dr. Andrej Mihevc (Slovenia) UIS bureau, Mr. Pavel Bosak (Czech Republic) General Secretary UIS, Mrs. Stavrou/a Samarlzidou Archaeologist, Director of the Paleanthropology and Speleology Ephorate Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Dr. Petros Theme/is Professor of Classical Archaeology, Former Director of the Palaeoanthropology and Speleology Ephorate President 14th JCS Org. Committee & Symposium President, Mr. Costas Zoupis President of the Hellenic Federation of Speleology (HFS), Mr. Jose Labagalini President of UIS, Dr. George Antonopoulos HSS President, Mr. Andy Eavis Vice-President of UIS. SPELEO NATIONS EXHIBIT during Athens Olympic Games 2004 Following a proposal by the Organizing Committee, a number of speleologists volunteered for putting together the "Speleo Nations Exhibit" which was displayed at the Olympic Townships of Alimos and Palaia Faliro during the 2004 Olympic Games. Even though all the countries were invited to send posters, only a few responded within the deadline. The Exhibit poster-panels (2 m. high) were set-up on the boardwalk near the beach access of the two townships; and in one case next to the tramway station. All the countries that responded to the call were presented. HSS put together an "Exhibition Team" whose members mounted the display panels and setup the exhibition at the two coastal sites. The 14th /CS Organizing Committee thanks all the parlicipating countries and speleological organizations for their response.


The Poster of Great Britain The Poster of Korea The Poster of Samcheok City The Poster of Croatia The Poster of .. Japan The Poster of Austria The Poster of .. Jeju Island The Poster of Romania The Poster of Poland


The Poster of HSS The Poster of Ireland The USA Poster The Speleo Exhibit at night nex t to the Tramway Station was a point of focus of the passengers coming for the beach and the co a stal area facilities, both during daytime and at night "WHAT I S THE UIS" by Jo s e labegalini, UI S President 2001-2005 (extract from the Congress Circular) The acronym UIS stands for the Union Internationale de Speleologie, in the original French. The UIS is a non-profit, non-govern menta l organiza ti on which promotes interaction betwe e n academic and more technical speleologists of a wide ra n ge of nationalities to encourage and facilita te th e co or dinat ion of international speleology and promote its dev elo pmen t, wheth er scientific, techni cal or cultural. Speleology only t ook its first steps towards becoming a recognized scie nce at the end of the 19th century. In the mid-1900's, the international speleological commun it y, mostly Europeans had the idea to hold an international speleological congress, and the first was organized in Paris, Franc e in 1953. Since then, international speleological co ng resses have be e n held in Ital y (Bar i -1958), Austr i a (Wien-1961), Yu goslavia (Ljubljana-Postojna-1965), Germany (Stuttgart-1969), Cz ec hoslovakia ( Olomouc-197 3), Gr eat Britain ( S heffield-1977), USA (Bowling Green 198 1 ), Spain (Barcelona-1986) Hungary (Budapest-1989), Ch in a (Beijing-1993), Switzerland (La Chaux-des Fonds 1997), and Braz i l (Brasil ia 2001 ) The ini tiative o f some of t he sp e leologists at the 1965 con gr ess led to the proposal of the creation of an international entity to unite speleologists from all over the world and coordinate their activities. The UIS was then founded on Se pt ember 16, 1965 du rin g the cl osing s ession in the Festival Room of the Postojna Cave during the 4th International Congress of Speleo l ogy. The first statutes were a p proved and the first board of officers elected: Bernard Geze (France) as President, Gordon T. Warwick (England) as Vice-President, Stjepan Mikulec ( Yugos lavia) as second Vice-President, and Albert Anavy (Leba non) as G eneral Secretary. In order to supervise the work o f exploration and international expeditions, the UIS instituted a Code of Ethics. This code, although i t does not have the force of law provides ethica l guidelines fo r such activities to promote the development of spele olo g y, in cr ea se ou r knowledge about internat iona l speleological heritage, and foster interactions between speleologica l commun i ties.


THE CONGRESS AUGUST 2005 IN GREECE: 539 registered participants coming from 51 countries, set the background for a productive Congress, in excellent weather, at th e peaceful resort of Kala mos, in the outskirts of Athens on the beach 12-20th August 2005 Pre-Congress excursions (start dates will vary but all will end in Athens on 21 August 2005) Sunday 21st August 20 0 5 First day registrations Opening R ecept ion Monday 22nd August 2005 Se ssion s me etings Congress activities Opening of Photo Exhibit and "Speleo Stands" Tuesday 23rd August 2005 Sessions -meetings Congress activities Organizational assemblies / meetings Wednesday 24th August 2005 Relaxation day: Day trip, Show cave visit Peloponnese Thursday 25th 2005 Friday 26t h August 2005 Saturday 2i h August 2005 Sunday 28th August 2005 Sessions -meetings -Congre ss activities Evening Festival Greek night Sessions meetings -Congress activities Organizationa l assemblies/ meetings Ga la Dinner Sessions -meetings Congre ss activities Congress closing Post-Congress excursions Participants departures 1/ e/Jen ic Suele ulouirnl Socielv ALG ER IA 2 A RGEN TINA 2 ARMENIA 17 AUSTRALIA 12 AUSTRIA 1 BELGIUM 18 BOSNIA 1 BRAZIL 10 BULGARIA 5 CANADA 6 CROATIA 3 CZECH REPUBLIC 8 FRANCE 39 GERMANY 11 GHANA 4 GREECE 45 HUNGARY 10 IRAN 5 ISRAEL 1 ITALY 34 JAPAN 8 JORDAN 1 LEBANON 19 LUXEMBOURG 2 MEXICO 6 NEW ZEALAND 2 NIGERIA 2 NORWAY 15 P.R. CHINA 3 POLAND 6 PORTUGAL 13 PUERTO RICO 5 REP DEM. CONGO 1 ROMANIA 12 RUSSIA 11 SERBIA & MONTENEGRO 5 FYROM 1 SLOVAKIA 7 SLOVENIA 12 SOUTH KOREA 9 SPAIN 17 SWEDEN 9 SWITZERLAND 8 TANZAN I A 2 THE NETHERLANDS 3 TOGO 2 TURKEY 10 UNITED KINGDOM 24 UKRAINE 5 USA 64 VENEZUELA 2 Undeclared 17 !~1th !nternn!ionnf Cunur es s uf Saeleutoa.v


Hellenic S{]e/ealauicnl Society 09:00 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 14th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY OPENING CEREMONY MONDAY 22 AUGUST 2005 Arrival of congress participants Speleological photo show Arrival of Deputy Minister for Tourism H.E. Mr. A. Liaskos Receiving the Deputy Minister and other political officials: Prof. Petros Themelis, President of the Organizing Committee I\Ar. r.hric:tnc: Dotro~c:, ~onor~I ~ot"'rot~ry nf tho nrg~ni7ing r.nmmitfoo Mr. Jose Labegalini, President of UIS-Union Internationale de Speleologie Mr. Andrew James Eavis, Senior Vice-President of UIS Union Internationale de Speleologie & Ex-Officio Member of the Organizing Committee Mr. George Antonopoulos MD, President of the Hellenic Speleological Society Mr. Konstantinos Zoupis, President of the Hellenic Federation of Speleology Opening Ceremony of 14th International Congress of Speleology Masters of Ceremony: Mr. Andrew Eavis & Mr. Christos Petreas Official Introduction/ Welcome Prof. Elias Mariolakos, Organizing Committee 1st Vice-President Official Opening of Congress H.E. Mr. Anastasios Liaskos Deputy Minister for Tourism Welcome from the Ministry of Mrs. N. Kyparissi, Director of Prehistoric and Culture Classical Antiquities, Ministry of Culture Welcome from the Organizers Mr. George Antonopoulos, President of the Hellenic Speleological Society Mr. Konstantinos Zoupis, President of the Hellenic Federation of Speleology Welcome from the UIS -Union Mr. Jose Labegalini, Internationale de Speleologie UIS Bureau President Official inauguration of Exhibits H.E. Mr. Anastasios Liaskos and Stands Deputy Minister for Tourism International Speleological Mr. J. Labegalini, UIS President, Photo Exhibit and Mr. Andrew Eavis, UIS Senior Vice President, Special Photo Exhibit of HSS Prof. E. Marilakos, 1st Vice President, and Mr. Christos Petreas General Secretary, Cave Exploration in Evia 14th ICS Organizing Committee, Island Mr. George Antonopoulos, President of the Exhibit Stands by National Hellenic Speleological Society Associations, Clubs, Mr. Konstantinos Zoupis, President of the Organizations, and Speleo Hellenic Federation of Speleology Groups other UIS, international and Greek officials Press Interview by Deputy Minister, UIS and Greek officials 21-28 A u qusl WD5, Hn!o n ws Helf as


SPELEO AWARDS 14th ICS AT HENS 2005 SP ELEO A WARD S Special Prize: The Encyclopedia of Caves Edited by David C. Culver and William B White, Published by Elsevier, 2005 Spe cial Prize: Enc yclop edia of C aves and Kars t Scie nce Edited by John Gunn, Published by Fitzroy Dearborn, 2003. 1st ) Speleo-karstologie et environnement en Chine, Publisher: FFS Publications Aw ard s & Association Franc; aise de Karsto log ie, 200 4, Authors : Richard Maire, Jean-Pie rr e Barbary, Zhang Shouyue Na t halie Vanara, Jean Bottazzi 2nd ) Die St. Be atu s-Hohfen, Publisher Spel e o Projects 2004, Editor Philipp Hau selma nn 2nd ) Beneath the Cloud Forest A History of Cave Exploration in Papua New Guinea, Publisher Speleo Projects, 2003 Author Howard M. Beck. 1st ) International Cave exploration team CaveX Team and film stud io ( Krylia Rossi i) "Speleology: a .Journey to the Centre of Earth": The explora t i o n of th e 208 0 m deep Vo roniaK r ubera Cave Best Film Awards in summer 2003. 2nd ) N Chalkiopoulous and K Adamopoulos, "Anogeia 2002 Caving e xp edition i n C rete" 3rd ) Ian Ellis Chand l er, "In Sight of Light" 1s t ) "Origin and diagenesis of cave corals in the lav a tubes of Jeju Island, Korea K.C. Lee, D .W. Cho i and K.S. Woo Best Posters Awards 2nd ) "Conservation of Ballet cave Brazil", H. David 2nd ) "The Svarthammar proj ect", North Nor.N ay, S E. Lauritzen, L. Baastad and J Bjorlier. 1st ) Robbie Shone, "T itan taken from roof dome 145 meters above floor leve l showing the breakthrough window where the surface Best Pictures Awards shaft connects" 2nd ) George Avagianos, "Cave of Lakes" 3rd ) George Avagianos, "Re flectin g dr ops" Best Portfolio Awards 1s t ) George Avagianos "Caves of Greece" 2nd ) Michael Queen, Stuart Kogod & ,Jack Soman, "Guadalupian im ages by Ka rst Features" 1s t ) The "Krubera Cave", Abkhazie, in Georgia -2080 m deep; the Best Discovery and first cave situa t ed deep er than 2k m Expedition "The Call of the Exploration Aw ards Aby ss" group of the Ukr ai nian Speleologica l Soc iety Honour pr i ze: The exploration of "L'Ardeche soute r r aine" France. More than 60 km of submerged galleries had been connected Uih lnte rnn!ionu l Conu res s of Soef eotu uy


Helle nic Stw leu! ouirnl Socie li 2 Former UIS President Prof Mrs Julia James made the award presentations. In her speech to the participants and the awardees, she stated (in summary): It is with great pleasure and I'm very honoured to be able to present both the speleomedia and the UIS prizes. It's been a novel experience for me and for all categories we had an international team of judges. First we will start with the film s and there is no doubt that the film made of the history of the exploration of Cuba is one of the most important events of the new millennium and this period of UIS history. There were many novel and new attempts of making films and here I'd like to mention that the Lebanese are rather novel and surprising entry. The next prize was very-very difficult, for both slides and pictures and pr i nts. We had to judge them together and i t was very hard because we would have awarded two gold, if we had two gold prizes; but we feel the pictures of Titan shaft by Robby Shone of the U.K. were in fact fantastic and very fitting for an expedition theme, so we awarded the gold to these. For George Avagianos we would like to give the second and third prize, the pictures were magnificent; without doubt they are the best slides I've seen in a long time. George also present ed a fantastic portfolio and not that many of you were there to see the pictures of Greek caves which are sup erb. And the second prize goes to the "Gua dalupian images by karst features". If there is anything more fun than actually taking the pictures it's having a chance to share them with people who enjoy them. All I want to say is that speleology is also an art as well as a science. I think the speleomedia revealed quite clearly that caving is a cooperative sport and to produce anything is a great cooperative effort. We, as UIS, would like to make two specia l awards, in thi s Congress, we would like to honour the "Encyclopedia of Caves,,, which has been edited by David Culver and William White and it has many excellent articles Everybody knows that this has been a real active period in book publishing and we would like also to honour John Gunn as editor of the "Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science". I assure you they are not the same. Both books are very valuable contributions to science and we, as UIS, are happy to honour these publications. Now, you all know that there is a UiS book prize. We must recognize that the prizes really are to encourage groups to publish; judging this time has been exceptionally difficult, because in the period 2001 to 2005 there have been many excellent publications. We have however an out standing winner which both covers karst and env ironment al science. But there are other books that we feel deserve honourable mention Next we have the prize for the best poster and they were a great team effort to organize and to count the votes. Again it wa a very difficult task; however they were three outstanding entries that got an average of a hundred and fifty votes each, that's very good. Finally we come to the discovery prize. The hottest prize of al! because in 2001 in Brazil the prize was awarded to the same cave, during this period it is beating its own record and gone even deeper: it is the first over two kilometer deep cave. When I was president I requested that the cave team to go out and find me at two thousand meter deep cave, they are a bit late but I can still make the award. We felt that something that was a very late ent ry and in fact was entered as a film, was an exploration which was equally difficult; we felt very much that the under water explorations connecting scientifically and by diving, the passages of the Ardeche River, merited a prize. This major job is over, so I can hand back to the Organizing Committee, but I may first of all acknowledge the help I've had from a small group of persons, the international experts that have judged with me, and I think we sho u ld always include in the final gen eral assembly a cel eb ratio n like this.


CONGRESS CLOSING The 14h Congress also was the scene for the change of the UIS Presidency from Latin America to Europe. Andrew James Eavis, until now Senior Vice President was unanimously elected the new President of UIS. The new President is a well known British explorer and avid speleologist. The two UIS Presidents Acceptance Speech by new UIS President Mr. Andrew J. Eavis (Extracts) Ladies and Gentlemen, It is with enormous pleasure that accept the post of UIS President I am particularly pleased to be taking over from a President who has handled it so well for the last four years and left many things particularly the necessary bureaucracy-in a very good state. In addition, I am delighted that we have such a wonderful team to be steering the UIS over the next four years. It is with some sadness that we see Pavel Bosak reduce his role but it is great to know that the job is being taken by a very capable and energetic youngster, Fadi Nader, Pavel has promised to continue helping from the sidelines. In addition the choice of the USA for the next Congress under the leadership of George Veni gives me a great deal of confidence for the future and I am sure will be as good as this Athens/Kalamos Congress, but attended by rather more people. The Americans have assured us that they will do everything within their powers to improve the situation regarding visas and travel. We must all hope that there are no political incidents before July 2009! Many thanks again to the organizers of this Congress. I think it has been one of the most enjoyable ever with some of the best science ever. Thanks particularly to all the persons involved who worked as a team, and pulled it all together on the day! We must not, of course, forget the input of the Hellenic


Speleological Society and the Hellenic Speleological Federation. On a personal level, I should like to thank George Antonopoulos, Christos Petreas, Kostas Adamopoulos and Kostas Zoupis who along with other members of the Society and Federation have given me so much support and help during my numerous visits to Greece over the last two years. I look forward to visiting Greece on holiday maybe next year to spend some quality vacation time in the country! I look forward immensely to the four years ahead. A final thanks to everyone who has supported me in the past. Andy Eavis The Congress Organizers made special presentations to UIS Bureau members. Making the presentations Dr. Antonopoulos President of HSS and Mr. Zoupis President of HFS. RIGHT: President of the Organizing Committee Prof. Theme/is exchanging views with former French Federation of Speleology FFS President, Philippe Brunet LEFT: 14 /CS Organizing Committee President and Vice President follow the proceedings An important aspect of each "ending General Assembly" is the voting for the next Congress. In this case there was one candidate, the USA, whose senior representative, Dr. George Veni Member of the UIS Bureau, made a ve,y descriptive presentation, following which, the official voting representatives, unanimously selected the USA for the organization of the 15th International Congress of Speleology. The logo of the next 15th /CS in the USA Many UIS Officials together


Hellenic S11eleof ouicul Society 0 -1 Study of karst dev e lopment and possible leakage from the sazbo n dam, Iran Raeisi, E., Ag hdam J Za re, M and Karim i, H Department of Geolog ic al Science, S hira z Univ e r s i ty, Shiraz, Ira n Abstract The Sazbon Dam site is located on Seymareh River in the upper parts ofKarkheh Basin, Ilam province, west oflran. The dam will be construct ed on karstified Asmari Formation and part of the reservoir will be in direct contact with this formation. The Asmari Formation is sandwiched between the two impermeable marly formations of Pabdeh-Gurpi and Gachsaran. In 18 piezometers constructed for this purpose the water level was measured daily during the w e t season and onc e per week in the dry season for a period of 10 months. The major ions electrical conductivity and temperature were measured six times in all the piezometers springs and six locations within the Seymareh River. Based on the water level in piezometers, the direction of flow is determined to be from the dam abut ments towards the Seymareh River. The piezometers were classified based on the geochemistry and permeability. Ten kilograms of uranine were in jected in a 200 meter deep borehole in the right abutment and inside the reservoir. This borehole constructed in the Upper Asmari Formation, had very high permeability. All the piezometers, springs and the six locations of Seymareh River were sampled for five months. The dye concentration was measured by a Schimadzo Spectrofluorometer. Dye was detected in four boreholes on the left abutment two of them downstream the dam site. The dye tracing revealed that the water flows against the dip of the Lower and Upper Asmari Formations. The dye velocity was in the range indicative of a diffuse regime. Two alternative schematic models of flow direction and karst development were proposed based on the dye tracing results. One of the models was selected as the most probable alternative based on dye tracing, water table level electrical conductivity, perme ability, and geological setting. The karst aquifer in the Sazbon Dam area may still have a conduit system in spite of the dye tracing results. The low gradient of ground water level, valley development by Seymareh River, high permeability of boreholes, lack of specific discharge points, limited information from only one dye tracing, combination of diffuse and con duit flow in the flow route, and characteristics of the Asmari Formation in other regions of Zagros are collective evidences of possible conduit flow in the Sazbon Dam site. Introduction Leakage from dam reservoirs in karst terrains has been reported for many dams all over the world. The prerequisite to a safe and reliable dam reservoir is the proper understanding of the aquifer characteristics and the karst conduit system. The Sazbon Dam will be constructed in the west oflran, with a height of 152 m and a reservoir capacity of 1.6 billion cubic me t er s The re s e rv oir will e xt ensively be i n direct con tact with the karstic Asrnari Formation. The objective ofthis study is to determine the flow regirne(s) (diffuse and/or conduit) and to present a schematic model for flow direction in the karstic formation of Sazbon Dam, using sodium fluorescein dye tracer Hydrogeology of the Study Area The study area, the Lina Anticline, is located in the Zagros Simply Folded Zone, Harn Province, west of Iran. The exposed core of the Lina Anticline in decreasing order of age is made of Tertiary P a bdeh-Gurpi (marl and shale), Tertiary Asmari Formation (karstified limestone), Terti ary Gachsaran Formation (gypsum and marl) and Pliocene Conglomer ate (Fig. 1 ) The Asmari Formation is divided into the Lower and Upper Asmari (Mohab Ghods 1996). The more extensive surface karst features and massive thickness of the Upper Asmari imply that it is more capable of karst development than the Lower Asmari. The Seymareh River flows on the surface of the Gachsaran Formation, and through a narrow valley in the Asmari Formation (Fig. 1). The Sazbon Dam will be constructed on the Lower Asmari Formation of the northern flank of Lina Anticline. The reservoir water will extensively be in direct contact with the Asmari Formation and may thus leak via the possibly existing small conduits in the Asmai Formation, and consequently to the downstream sections of the Seymareh River QT Al luvial Deposit GS Gachsaran F ormation U .As U pp erAsm ari LAs Lowe r As m ari P d P abdeh F or matio n ,,, 1 Geolog ica l B ou ndary }} so// F AU L T :;( Anticline an d Plung e N d irection spring B o reh o le L AS L. AS ---I I I ~s1 GS GS I \ :' Q / !) ; GS '\ r I ~ I 8 0 I / / F U A S GS U AS Figure 1 G e ological map of the study area Method of Study The major ions, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature were measured six times in all piezometers, springs and six locations within the Seyrnareh River. The water level in 28 piezorneters was measured daily during th e w e t season and once per week in the dry season for ten months. An injection borehole (S1 ), with a depth of 200 rn, was constructed inside the reservoir on the Upper Asrnari (Fig 1 ). The depth to water table was about 120 rn in this borehole. The permeability of S1 was more than 100 lugeon in most parts Ten kilograms of sodium fluorescein were injected into the S1 borehole. Injection of water into the borehole at a rate of 1 1/s was continued for 20 days in order to push the dye into the conduit system Water samples were collected from 14 boreholes, 7 springs, and 7 sections of the Seymareh River (Fig 1) for a period of five months. Bags of acti vated charcoal were placed in all the resurgences. The sodium fluorescein concentration was measured in all water samples by a Schimadzu spec troflurometer (model RF 5000) with a detection limit of 0.001 ppb. 14111 lnlernntional Conoress of S11eleof ooy


fle/tenic S /Jeteat agicul Sacie iy Figure 2. Piezometer s water level above mean sea level and flow dir ec tion in the study area (A ug. 24. 2004) N Ill group A X GroupB CJ Group C i __ .,. Firs t Schematic model \ I \ I - -Seco nd Schematic model I v t ~ ~I \ X ,a r,,. Geologioal Boundary U AS / \ / S2 \ / \ &89-St37 X. S3a '---,,.~ -" )(.S61 o SB3 SB4 L.As S813 Gs Figur e 3. Schematic model of flow dir ec tion and classifi c ation of bor e holes in the s tud y ar e a f o. f -- ,,, ,,, .. a ,,.,,,, ........ ... . i 02 Figure 4 Dye concentration versus time in the S10 S1 3 S11 and SB5 boreholes Result and Discussion The water level in the piezometers shows that the flow direction in the dam site is towards the river with a hydraulic gradient of 0.001 (Fig. 2). EC increases towards the river but the EC of the river itself is lower than the EC of the boreholes near the river, implying that river-water does not flow into the adjacent aquifer Based on the dominant permeability the 21-WAuaust 2005 l(ulamos. Hellus boreholes are clas s ified to three groups (Fig. 3) A (50 to 100 Lugeon) B (10 to 50 lugeon) and C (less than 10 Lugeon). Group C includes only SB3 and Group B includes SB1 and SB9 SB3 and SB1 are located in the Pabdeh Gurpi Formations and SB9 far from the river. The high permeability of most of the boreholes is indicative of possible karst developments in the damsite. The S eym areh River discharge is more than 150 m3/ s in the wet season, which decreases to 50 m3/ s in the dry season. No dye was detected in any of the sampling sites except for the S10 S1 3 S11 and SB5 boreholes. These boreholes are located in the left side of the Seymareh River (Fig 1). The dye concentration curves of the boreholes are presented in Figure 4. The maximum dye concentration was 0.529 ppb in borehole S10 The dye was injected in the right side of the Seymareh River but it was detected in the left side so it must be flowing below the Seymareh River. Two alternative models of flow direction are proposed (Fig 3) In model A, water from the injected borehole flows from the Upper Asmari to th e Lower Asmari in the left side of Se yma reh River (Fig 5). Part of the water joins the Seymareh River and a part flows below the Seymareh River towards the right side of t he river, being detected in the S10 S13 S11 and SB5 boreholes. S E NW Pd, F i gure 5. Schemati c fl ow direction in model A (flow direction ) The dye was not detected in the Seymareh River, because it was diluted by the high flow of the Seymareh River to values below the detection limit by the spectrofluorometer. The flow velocity of this model ranged from 1.15 to 2.03 m/h based on the first appearance of dye in the boreholes, and 0.67 to 0.97 m/h based on time to peak dye concentration, assuming a tortuosity of 1.5. The isopotential map shows that the direction of flow is from the left side of the Seymareh River towards the river while the dye flows beneath the river, being observed in the boreholes on left side of Seymareh River (Fig.5). The flow of groundwater in two different direc tions is hydraulically possible (Freeze and Cherry1979), but it requires discharging points for ea c h direction. This seems to be an unlikely model for the following reasons: 1. The S2 borehole is located near the path of this model, therefore the dye is expected to be detected in this borehole, at least as a result of dispersion 2. The groundwater must have a discharging point after flowing be neath the Seymareh River. No discharging points can be determined for this model. 3. The flow route is mainly through the Lower Asmari Formation, which is less karstified than the Upper Asmari Formation. In the second model (B) the water of the injected borehole flows to wards the left si de of Seymareh River in the upstream region (Fig. 3). Part of the water joins the Seymareh River and part flows below the river. The dye was not detected in this part of the river because the flow of Sey mareh River reduced the dye concentration below its detection limit by the spectrofluorometer. The water then moves against the dip of the Upper Asmari Formation parallel to the Seymareh River. Small fractures transfer


the water to th e area of th e S10 S13 S11 and S B5 b or ehol es an d finally to the river itself This model is bas~d on the following reasonings : l. Water flows in th e Upper Asmari Formation in most parts of it s route. This formation i s more capa ble of karst development than th e Lower Asmari. 2 The direction of water from the right side t o the left side corre sponds with bedding planes and a fault. 3 Several small faults perpendicular to the dip of the Upper Asmari Formation increase the chance of a water route in t hi s direction. 4 The water table level and EC maps confirm the flow direction of the proposed model in the region of the damsite on the left side of Seymareh River 5 The discharging points are the Seymareh River, but t he dye can not be detected in the river because of high Seymareh R iv er flow rates In model B the flow velocity in all the boreholes varies from 1. 7 to 3.27 m/h based on the first appearance of the dye, and from 0.94 to 1.64 m/h based on the time to peak dye concentration. What follows justifies a diffuse flow regime in the dam site area based on the dye tracing results: 1. Flow velocities through karst conduits for straight lines of more than 10 km range from 4 5 to 1450 m/h (Aley, 1973; Bakalowicz, 1973; Kruse, 1980; and Williams, 1977). Millanovic (1981) reports that from 281 dye tests carried out in Dinaric karst, flow velocities varied over a range of7.2 to 1880 m/h. Vdm.:ilies less than 18 111 / h involve long underground retentions (Ford and Williams 1989). The maximum velocities of both models are less than 3.27 m/h based on the first appearance of dye and less than 1.64 m/h based on the time of peak dye concentration, therefore it may be con cluded that the type of flow is mainly diffuse. 2. No cavities were observed in any of the boreholes. 3. No sinkholes were evident on the Asmari Formation outcrops. Determination of the flow type is mainly based on the results of dye tracing, but other criteria suggest that a conduit system may well exist in the study area: 1. The valley has developed by the action of the Seymareh River. This river was in direct contact with the different sections of Asmari Formation for a long period, and the river water flowed inside the joints and bedding planes especially during high floods making possible the development of a conduit system. 2 The slope of water table on both sides of the Seymareh River is about 0.001 which denotes the development ofkarst above the wa ter table. The Seymareh River acts as a base of erosion, therefore the recharge water must be discharged in the Seymareh River 3. The dye tracing results are only applicable below the water table The permeabilities of most of the boreholes above the water table are in the range of 50 to 120 Lugeon which imply a possible con duit flow above the water table 4. The injected borehole may be located in a region of diffuse flow, taking the dye a long time to reach the main conduit. The dye-de tected boreholes may not be intersected with the main conduit, but the water diverts to the boreholes via small fissures, increasing the dye travel time. In other words the dye route may be a combination of diffuse and conduit flow, but the longer travel time of a diffuse flow system reduces the average velocity to the range typical of diffuse flow 5. The detection of dye in a specific discharge point such as a spring is the most reliable method to determine the type of flow regime. Nel!e!l i c S11e/eutuuica J S ociety The discharge poi nts are most prob abl y be nea th the surface of Sey mareh River The absence of a distingu is habl e discharge point re duces the credibility of the calculated velocity. 6 B i g springs emerge from the Asma ri Formation in other regions of Iran, suggesting that this formation has th e potential of co ndu i t development (Raeisi et al., 1999; Karimi et al., 2003; and Raeisi, 2004) but the high flow rate and depth of the Seymareh River con ce als the springs 7. The entrance of fossil caves are most probably fille d by sediment washes on the steep slopes of anticlines in the Zagros (Raeisi and Laumanns, 2003), therefore the absence of big caves on the steep slopes of Lina Anticline is not necessarily a proof of diffuse flow in the region. Dye tracing pre se nts the characteri s tics of a karst aquifer from the in jected boreholes to the dye-detected boreholes. Therefore, it is not capable of determining karst characteristics above the water table and in regions outside of the dye route. It may be concluded that the results of the present study are not conclusive enough to determine the type of flow and degree of karstification in the study area and consequently, the dimensions of the grout curtain. A short grout curtain may increase the leakage from the reservoir and a long one is very expensive. An extensive study on karst hydrogeology including hourly variations of water table in boreholes and river level during the wet season, distribution map of surface karst fea tures, valley evolution, water balance of Lina Anticline, geomorphology, and geophysics is required to give a deep insight of the study area. One dye tracing test does not provide enough information to determine the karst hydrogeology of the study area. It is recommended that at least two dye tracings be done on both abutments of the damsite. The dye injected borehole should be located in front of the proposed grout curtain, as close as possible to the dam, thus allowing the determination of karst develop ment before and after the proposed grout curtain. Conclusions The future Sazbon dam abutments and part of the reservoir are in di rect contact with the karstic Asmari Formation. Dye was injected into a borehole inside the reservoir of thisfoture dam. The dye was detected at low concentrations in four boreholes on the left side of Seymareh River. The dye velocity was in the range of diffuse flow. The most probable sche matic flow model is proposed considering the dye tracing results. Based on this model, the water flow path is from the right side to the left side of the Seymareh River in the bedding plane of the Asmari Formation, then it changes its direction perpendicular to the dip of the Asmari Formation. The small fissures transfer the water to dye-detected boreholes and finally to the Seymareh River. The karst aquifer in the Sazbon Dam region may have a conduit system in spite of the dye tracing results. The low gradient of groundwater level, valley development by Seymareh Rive r, high per meability of boreh ol es lack of information of spe cifi c discharge points limited information from only one dye tracing, combination of diffuse and conduit flow in the flow route and characteristics of the Asmari Forma tion in other regions of the Zagros are collective evidences of possible conduit flow in the Sazbom Dam site. Extensive karst hydrogeological studies and at least two more dye tracings are recommended to determine the possible conduit system in the study area. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this re-14!/ 1 l nierr w tinn u! C on ure ss of Sne !e o!u[J y


Helle ni c Sf)e/eolau i cal Sar:ie/y search, by the Power and Water Resources Development Company of Iran. Thanks are also due to Shiraz University for providing the facilities and leave-time to work on this research. References Aley, T 1975. A predictive hydrological model for evaluating the ef fect of land use on the quantity and quality of water from Ozark Spring. Ozark Laboratory Missouri. B a kalowicz M 1973. Les Grandes manifestations hydrologique s de s karsts dans le monde. Spelunca 2 38-40. Freeze, R. A. and J. A. Cherry 1979 Groundwater. Englwood Cliffs Prentice-Hall Inc., 604pp. Ford D. and P. Williams. 1989 Karst geomorphology and hydrology. Unwin Hymam, London. 601pp. Karimi, H, E. Raeisi and M. Zare. 2003. Hydrodynamic Behavior of the Gilan Karst Spring West of the Zagros Iran. Journal of Cave and Karst Science. Vol. 30, No. 1, pp 15-22. Kruse P. B.1980. Karst investigation of Maligne basin Jasper National 0-2 Karst surface symbols: Proposition of a standard symbol set Philipp Hauselmann Park Alberta MSc Thesis University of Alberta, Canada. Millanovic, P. T. 1981. Karst hydrogeology. Colorado Water Resources Publication. Mohab Ghods Consulting Engineers 1999. Engineering Geology Report of the Sazbon Dam. Power and Water Resources Development Company of Iran. Raeisi E. M. Zare and P. Eftekhari.1999 Application of dye tracing for determining characteristics of Sheshpeer karst spring. Theoretical and Applied Karstology Vol. 11-12, pp. 109-118 Raei s i E., and M. Laumanns. 2003. Cave Directory of Iran Berliner Hohlenkundiiche Berichte, iSSN i 617-8572, Beriin. Raeisi, E. 2004. Iran cave and karst in Encyclopedi a of Cave and Karst, Editor John Gunn, Fitzroy Dearborn New York. Williams P. W. 1977. Hydrology of the Waikoropupu Springs: a ma jor tidal karst resurgence in northwest Nelson (New Zealand). Journal of Hydrology, 35, 73-92. Institutfar Bodenkultur, Peter Jordan Strasse 70 1190 Wien, Austria pra ez is@geo.unibe ch Introduction After the successful installation of a standardized cave symbol set in 1999, the idea to standardize also the surface karst symbols was born. In the last five years the list presented below was created mostly based on the works of B i ni et al. (1986) and Joly (1997). Since symbols at the surface are not only of importance to cavers (and thus to t he UIS) the Interna t ional Geographical Union IGU (John Gunn) as well as the International Association of Hydrogeologists (Heinz Hootzl) were iin formed and asked for collaboration. The present list The list presented below (Figs. 1-3) is the result of a rather long and tedius work involving three iintemational bodies. Most of the ideas that were presented were taken into account, and thus the list is near comple tion. The presentation here in Greece is thought to give a last opportunity to other input before the 1 ist is voted by the nationa 1 delegates that are representated in the UISIC "Topography and mapping" working group. Any country not having a delegate yet is kindly asked to get in touch with me (address below) in order to be heard. The 1 ist concetrates itself on karst features, and it is meant to be "open This means that features not covered by the present list may be added (of cou~se it is expected that they be accompanied by a legend!). 21 -28 A uuu sl 200 5. K afam as. fle lla s The final aim of the list is that karst surface maps have a common and internationally understandable set of symbols. The future? After presentation of the 1 ist in Athens eventual ideas and suggestions will be considered. After that the UIS delegates will vote on the finalised list. Parallel to that the IGU will consult the list. The final vote is expected to be in early spring 2006. Then the "Topography and mapping" working group will have to cons i der another of the many tasks awaiting. Everyone having a ques tion or an idea is welcomed to contact the working group (address of the author) Bibliography Bini, A., Meneghel, M & Sauro, U. (1986): Proposta di legenda per una cartografia geomorfologica delle aree carsiche. -Atti e memorie della Comm Grotte "E. Boegan" 25, 21-59. Joly F. (1997) : Glossaire de geomorphologie: base de donnees semi ologiques pour la cartographie. -Armand Colin Paris, 325 pp.


Hel/e11ir: Sf/eleo t oaicu/ Society Karst surface symbols -conventional signs 1 It I CJ Karra, field sptzk arren field raun dkaman field co verrnd k arr a, field Rinn B1 karra, He:el-'in t k a.rren Tri ttk arr en kama,itsas nivakars1ic niche Perched ljocks Daine ddine with steep SIOf:ES dine rim not wal defined [D partly eroded doline r--7 field f cblines .~ 18 I U~a ,_..r,._) I' ................ --.. 'l -_J U val a with cl flu se ecge \. j, ....... ) I* I [2] E] 'Whale.back Chicot cane hill hum, moPte small scarp &h ich ttrepf:B1 k arst rim of acti \IE pjje rim of inactiiuE J:Dlje 141/J lnternnlion nl ConfJr ess of Stw l eoluov


Hellenic S1Je/ealouical So ciety Karst surtace symbols -conventional signs 2 I 7/77 I I 3I Jc:;J [=] [=] undef. rim of act. Jlje u ndef. rim af inactive pjj e flu viakars1ic can)On dryvalley{V) dry valley (U) tlind valley p:ck et vaJ I ey vertical (vauclusian) s ~ing (rs, e1ra tj e) vertical fDnor (cave pan etra.t.1 e) \t'ertical dry cave snow pt esta vale (\S"t.tlariz.lmp) 21-28 Auoust 2005. ( nfumos Hellas haizontaJ sp-ing (cave P3netral:ie) h cri zontat ~nor (cave J:En etrati e) ti cri zontaJ dry ca v.e Limit of u nderg-u nd catchment area ca Jjured s p-ing ij mp) imp. s 17ing (arrow as sh aw, in p:tck et valley o pti a, al) fD1 m (1 m P3n etrat:1 e } stream tern ~ar y stream inactive valleyfloa talveg u ndergou nd river cannecfia, cave {un dErgraun d)


Hellenic Sue!eu!or1ica! Sor:ietv Karst suriace symbols -co n ventional signs 3 0 0 --. ---0-3 roof l ess c ave n a tu ra.l a r ch. t tidge kar sfi c infill in gs s pE4eothem s ( not tufa) tu fa Fact ors c o nditio ns a nd m ain dev elopmen t s ta ges of th e a ssocia te d pa l eoka r st k aoli n depos it s system in nor t heastern Bulgar i a T .I. Kra s t e v A bs tr ac t Th e associated syste m o f p a l eokarst kao li n de po sits i n No rt h easte rn Bu l garia represents a geomorphologic phenomenon which is unique not only for the territory of Bulgaria but also for the World. The surface morpho logical c omple x of pal e okarst occupies an area of3 600 square kilometers. Tectonically thi s re gion belongs t o the Mo es ian platform and occupies the nortwe s t e rn wing of large first order structure known as the North Bul garian Dome. The rocks making i t lie almost horizontally, slightly slop ing (3-40 rarly 5-70) to the North and Northeast. There are no surface tectonic breaches. The major lithostratigraphic units of natural outcrop in studied region relate to karst genesis and are of wide geomorphological range : Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian Barremian Aptian and Albian) Paleogene (Eocene) and Neogen e (Sarmatian-Romanian), up to Quater nary (Pho-Pleistocene Pleistocen e and Holocene) The widely spread limestones of the Rousse formation (Upper Hauterivian -Barremian Lower Aptian) have been subject to intensi v e and continious karstifi cation. The fossilized paleokarst morphology includes as small dish-like slumps of isometric form sized 50x50, or lO0xlO0 m so some huge loop ing slumping forms covering areas from 0 3 0,6 up to 8-12, which dominat e in the paleoka r st topography. Among them some separate li me stone swellings bulge (typical hums") A great depth characterizes the paleokarst surface morphological complex running down to 140-170 m. The morphology and morphogenesis of the paleokarst indicate that its has been modeled in the conditions of tropical climate, about 117-118 Ma BP (Late Aptian -Lower Albian). Based on data from complex investigations the main stages of paleogeographic development on the studied territory have been identified. l01t/1 Jn te nw!iun n f Cun m ess uf S ;rn /eolou y


Hellenic SfJelealaoical Society 0-4 The Speleogenesis of the Caves in Crnopac Mt. Area Mladen Kuhta & Andrej Stroj Institute of Geology Sachsova 2, Hr-1 0000Zagreb, Croatia, E-mail:; Abstract Velebit Mt. is the longest (145 km) mountain range of Croatia. The Velebit region is the part of Dinaric karst that coverts southern half of Croatian territory. Its strikes in the NW-SE direction along the Adriatic coast, and although the distance from the sea is only several km, the region ofVelebit Mt. has a mountain climate type. Crnopac Mt. is located on the most southern part of the Velebit massif. As a morphological barrier (up to 1403 m a.s.l.) between the Lika region (550 m ~u:.1 ) in thP. north, l'lnrl thP. K mpl'I l'lnrl 7n-mmjl'I R iyPr uallPy" tl-rnt 1; .. close to the sea level, in the south, the area of Crnopac Mt. was exposed to intensive karstification processes. Its surface geomorphology indicates an advanced karstification which is even more stressed in the underground. Up to date 119 caves were discovered and explored. Due to the complexity of natural conditions including, horizontal ground water flow through the massif from the sinking zone in the Lika polje (550 m .a.s.l.) to the discharge area along Krupa and Zrmanja River valleys, and simultaneous vertical circulation through a deep unsaturated zone, different types of caves were formed. The speleogenesis of the most im portant caves was analysed in respect to the lithological characteristics of rocks, geological structure, hydrographic network, and hydrogeological relations. Introduction The Velebit region is the part of Dinaric karst that covers southern half of Croatian territory. It strikes in the NW-SE direction along the Adriatic coast in length of 145 km. Crnopac ML is located on the most southern part of the Velebit massif and it forms the morphological barrier (up to 1403 m a.s.l.) between the Gra_a_ko polje (547-560 m a.s.l.) in the north, and the Zrmanja and Krupa River valleys which lie close to the sea level (0-150 m a.s.l.) in the south According to its geomorphologic and hydro geological characteristics, the Gra _a_ ko polje is a classical example of a karstic field covering the area of about 10 km2. The Otu_a River flows along the field (medium annual flow ... m3/s) which sinks underground along its southern border, i.e. at the foot of steep northern slopes of Crn opac Mt. Despite the fact that average annual precipitations in the Crnopac area reach around 2500 mm, mountain area is entirely waterless. Extreme indentedness, in which numerous and frequently rather deep dolinas often occur, indicates an advanced karstification which is even more stressed in the underground. Up to date 119 caves were discovered and explored in the area of about 40 km2. Review of exploration First speleological explorations of this area date from the beginning of 20th century (Poljak, 1929) but they were primarily connected to the dis covery of Cerova_ ke Caves (in 1912 during the construction of the rail road) and to explorations of smaller objects in its surroundings. Detailed speleological explorations of mentioned caves started in 1948. Besides significant length; Gornja (Upper) Cerovac Cave about 1200 m, Donja (Lower) Cerovac Cave about 2000 m, paleontological explorations point ed out that these caves are a significant Paleolithic locality. Both caves belong to the group of typical "Bear Caves". Furthermore, descriptions of the first findings of Upper Paleolithic man in the Dinaric Karst originate from the Upper Cave (Malez, 1956). First Speleological explorations in the higher parts of Crnopac Mt. started in 1978 and lasted till 1990 (JAL_I_, 1984; LUKI_ 1991; KUHTA 1992). During that period about 50 caves were explored including Burinka (-295 m) and Muni_ aha (-448 m). A new phase of explorations has initiated dur-21-28 Auuust 2005. l(utamos He/las ing the year 2000 and up to date it resulted in a discovery of 64 new caves (KUHTA, 2003; KUHTA et al., 2004; BOROVEC, 2005). Highlyparmeab r a rocks; --1': K u 1,;2 Pg Ng Me dium permeable (Oci< s; r;, J~l J; ,l Ji Mains p rings P onors1s 1nkhole s) I nvestig ated area Fig. 1 Simplified hydrogeologi c al map of the investigated area (geology aft er: JVANOV/_ et al., 1973 and PAV/_1-1 1995) Geological and Hydrogeological settings The oldest rocks in the area of the Cmopac massif are dolomites and limestones originating from the Middle and Upper Triassic (T22, T32 3) which cover NW slopes from the level of the Gra a _ko polje to around 850 m above sea level. On the Triassic sediments continuously follow Jurassic carbonate development ( dolomites and limestones) in the strati graphic range from Lower Lias (JI 1,2) to Middle Malm (J31,2). Outcrops of Jurassic sediments are noticeable along NW slopes, all the way from the very massif bottom to maximum 1100 m a.s.l.. Cretaceous sediments built up the southern slopes of Crnopac and valleys of the Zrmanja and the Krupa rivers. They are represented by carbonate breccias (Kl,2) in the lower part and limestones from Upper Cretaceous Age (K21,2). Central parts of the massif, and a part of NE slopes all the way to the level of the Gra _a_ ko polje, are constructed of Tertiary carbonate breccias (Pg,Ng) also known as Jelar-deposits. As the youngest lithostratigraphic mem ber, they lied down unconformably on all older sediments. The largest number of explored speleological objects was formed precisely in these sediments. The investigated area, as well as the whole Velebit Mt., is situated within ,. structural complex of the Dinaric carbonate platform along its contact zone with Adriatic carbonate platform (HERAK, 1986). The recent geo logical structure is a consequence of two main periods of tectonic activity. During the Tertiary tectonic cycle, which lasted from Eocene to the end of Miocene, compressive movements oriented NE-SW reached their cumu lative maximum with orogenesis of the Dinarides. As a consequence of the mentioned regional tangential stress, the deep nappa structures, folds and regional faults have been formed. Beside that, the formation of car bonate elastic Jelar-deposits is to be considered as the process accompa-


nying the rupture deformations caused by mentioned orogenic movements (BAHUN, 1974) During the later Neotectonic period, the main stress changed to N-S, resulting in further uplift and transpressive deformation of older structures which were broken in the smaller structural units and tectonic blocks In the area of Crnopac Mt. the summary amplitudes of vertical neotectonic movements were estimated to the more than 900 m (PRELOGOVI_ et al., 1979). Although the considered area is entirely made of carbonate sediments, they can be classified into three categories (Fig 1) concerning their per meability to water and hydrogeological characteristics. The largest part of the terrain is built up of highly permeable and intensively karstified Cretaceous breccias and limestones (Kl ,2, K2 l ,2), and especially Tertiary carbonate breccias (Pg, Ng). In the same category belongs Upper Jurassic limestones (131,2) too. The sediments of the Middle Triassic Age (T22) Lower (Jl 1,2, J14) and Upper Jurassic Age (J2) go into the category of the rocks of medium permeability. The permeability of these sediments de pends on the share of dolomites. Precisely due to a bigger presence of do lomites in relation to limestones, Upper Triassic sediments (T32,3) belong to the group of rocks of low permeability. Hydrogeological relations are defined by the position of the massif between the Gra_a_ko polje (547560 m a.s.l.) in the north, and the Zrmanja and Krupa River valleys that lie close to the sea level (0-150 m a.s.1.) in the south. Results of groundwater tracings showed a connection of the River Otu_a ponors (sinkholes) to springs in the valleys of the Krupa and Zrmanja. The groundwater flow velocities range from 0,37 to 3,85 cm/s, depending on hydrologic condi tions at the time of tracing Cave geomorphology and genesis As already mentioned up to date 119 speleological objects have been ex plored in the Cmopac area. Concerning their depth and length, they are classified into 4 categories shown in Table 1. The smaller caves with depth or length below 50 m prevail in this area. The most significant speleologi cal objects are Muni_aba (-448 m, 3700 m), Kita Ga_e_ina (-338 m, 1002 m), Burinka (-290 m, 325 m), Michelangelo (-274 m, 65 m) Alibaba's Jama/Pit (-212 m, 250 m), Gornja Cerova ka Cave (-42 m, 2682 m) and Donja Cerova_ka Cave (-22 m, 1295 m). We also have to mention that explorations ofMuni_aba i Kita Ga_e_ina have not yet been finished. Table 1 Review of speleological objects by their dimensions Depth category Number of Caves Length category Number of Caves <50m 75 < 50m 83 50-100 m 26 50-lO0m 20 100-200 m 13 100-500 m 12 >200m 5 > 500m 4 Total 119 Total 119 Total depth (m) 6691 Total length (m) 13565 Average depth (m) 56 Average length (m) 114 In a geomorphologic sense, the explored area can be divided into two zones. The area of side slopes spreads from 550 m a.s.l. (the sea level of the Gra_a_ko polje) to approximately 900 m a s.1. The area above 900 m a.s.l. all the way to the very top (Veliki Crnopac, 1403 m a s.l. ) can be considered the peak part of the massif. Although the karstic plateau spreading in the area of the Krupa and Zrmanja canyons can be also put among the massif slopes, this area was not taken into consideration here. The researches have not been finished and it is expected that further ob jects will be discovered; however, the existing sample can be representa tive enough for a basic statistical analysis In the area of the massif slopes, only 20 caves were explored (17 % ). The total depth of those objects is 1170 m, and the total ground-plan length is 5970 m. This evidences that mostly horizontal speleological objects are present in this area. The fact that Upper and Lower Cerova ka Cave (all together 3977 m long) are f/e llemc S1mf eolouir:11! Sor:ietv situated in this a r ea certainly contributes strongly to such results Based on the stated data, the relation of the vertical and horizontal karstification component was calculated to 1:5,1. In the peak massif part (>900 m a.s.l.) there are entrances into 99 objects (83 %) Although pit-type objects pre vail here, the total depth of the explored objects is 5521 m while their total ground-plan length is 7595 m. The relation of the vertical and horizontal karstification component is 1:1,4. The mentioned length of underground channels, i .e the horizontal karstification component, is a consequence of the large length of Muni_aba (-448 m, 3700 m) and Kita Ga_e_ina (-338 m, 1002 m). Concerning the fact that entrances into these two caves are rather low i.e. at 915 and 940 m a.s.l ., their horizontal parts are entirely developed in a lower hypsometric zone If the total length of channels in the peak zone decreased for their length and is added to the length of channels in the area from 550 to 900 m a.s.l. the relation of the vertical and horizontal karstification component in the peak zone changes to 2: 1 and in the lower (slope) zone to 1 :9, 1. Ratios of the vertical and horizontal karstification component calculated in this way fit rather well in the es sential frame of the genesis of speleological objects in the Cmopac area. Recent studies performed in the Dinaric karst terrain indicate that the present landscape is very young. The majority of the most important and most developed morphological features were created during the Pleis tocene and Holocene (FRITZ, 1992). In the explored area the general karstification processes were directed by the position of local erosion basis i.e., the Gra_a_ko polje (550 m a.s.1.) in the north and Zrmanja and Krupa River valleys (0-150 m a.#s.1.) in the south. Under such circumstances, as a morphological barrier Crnopac Mt. has a very important role and controls the groundwater conditions and underground discharge from Gra_a_ko polje toward south At the same time, the underground of Crnopac Mt. was exposed to strong karstifica tion. Constant tectonic uplift of Velebit Mt contributed to the develop ment of such strong karstification processes in the studied area. As it was already mentioned, the summary amplitude of Neotectonic movements for Crnopac area is estimated to more than 900 m. Simultaneously, the Gra a _ko polje north of the Lika fault, as well as Krupa and Zrmanja valleys south of the Velebit fault, represent relatively descended blocks The groundwater flows through the carbonate massif from the Gra _a_ ko polje toward the spring zone along the Krupa and Zrmanja valleys tended to compensate these movements and thus it developed a network of deep underground channels and the cave systems The described mechanism took important part in development of largest explored caves. The Cerovac Caves that lie on 624 and 671 m a.s.1. represent old ponors (sinkholes) of the Otu_a River. Recent permanently or temporally ac tive, ponors developed along the south border of the Gra _a_ ko polje (550 m a s 1.) Their entrances are choked up by deposited matter thus making speleological explorations impossible. In spite the fact that the en trances elevation of the two large caves Muni_aba (915 m a.s.l.) and Kita Ga_e_ina (940 m a.s.l.) belong to the higher morphological unit (zone), their development should be related to the same genesis pattern, as well as the activity ofsinking waters from the Gra_a_ko polje Namely the largest parts of mentioned caves represents generally horizontal channels which developed within altitude range from 500 to 650 m a.s.l. Lower channels characterised by large dimensions have been developed by strong and concentrated underground flow. Recently discovered entrance vertical shafts should be considered the youngest parts. The lowest point in Muni_ aba reached the elevation of 467 m a s.l., that is about 80 meters below the altitude of Gra _a_ ko polje, but there is still no evidence of any active groundwater circulation. The speleological and cave-diving explorations in the discharge area both in the Krupa and Zrmanja River valleys, pointed out the existence of several permanently or temporally active spring caves. The caves are up to several hundred meters long. The genesis of the caves in the higher zone (900-1400 m a.s.l.) is related to dominantly vertical circulation through a deep unsaturated zone. The !4th ut Soe!eulorrv


H e llenic Sm1/r:oluuicul S ociety large number and density of caves is the consequence of a favourable lithology. Namely, the uppermost part of terrain built up the massive calcareous breccias that are very liable to karstification. The results of cave exploration conducted in same deposits on other parts of Velebit Mt prove the mentioned fact (KUHTA & BAK_I_, 2001). The largest pits Michelangelo (-274 m) andAlibaba's Pit (-212 m) are located on altitudes of 1283, i.e. 1080 m a.s.l. and they are too shallow to reach even the zone of ancient horizontal circulation. Conclusions Although difficult access and movement along the terrain as well as the lack of potable water makes explorations significantly difficult, the area of rrnopl'lr Mt, i~ vpry Mtrl'lrtivP for ~relenlogirl'll PYplorMinn~. Centnil p!'!rk of Crnopac are built up of Neogenic carbonate breccias, also known as Jelar deposits. Lower parts of the mountain northern slopes are composed of Triassic and Jurassic carbonate rocks while the Cretaceous sediments are in the south. Their common hydro geological characteristic is a good permeability which has enabled underground discharge of surface flows from the Gra_a_ko polje (Otu_a River) towards the springs in the Krupa and Zrmanja River valleys. In these circumstances significant horizontal speleological objects have been formed in the border, hypsometricaly lower parts of the massif while jamas/pits prevail in the higher parts of the terrain, i.e. in the zone of emphatically vertical circulation. Although the zone of active underground flow for the time being has not been reached anywhere, such enterprise would result in an extremely deep (and prob ably also a very long) object. Taking into account the fact that peak parts of the massif go as high as 1400 meters above sea level and that the spring zones of the Krupa and Zrmanja valley are situated at elevations from 70 to 150 meters above sea level, the depth potential of Crnopac is up to 1000 meters. References BAHUN, S. 1974: The tectogenesis of Mt. Velebit and the formation of 0-5 Sediments and groundwater in the Baradla and Beke caves, Hungary J Berenyi Uveges, G Vid, I Berenyi Uveges Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service, Budapest, Budaorsi, Hungary Several studies were carried out on the genesis of Baradla and Beke caves but no reliable information was available on the composition and char acteristics of the sediments filling the bottom of these caves. The aim of our research was to gain basic information on these sediments. Sampling was carried out by drilling. Particle size distribution and plasticity index were determined as the first step. The majority of the sediments are loam, sandy loam and clay loam. The samples from the Beke cave and the upper part of the Baradla borehole are coarser and the bottom part of the Baradla borehole is finer. Groundwater was found in both caves in the boreholes. A water level observation well was constructed in the borehole in the 21-28 Auuusl 2005. Kufnmos. He/las Jelar deposits. Geolo_ki vjesnik 27, Zagreb: 35-51. BOROVEC, M. 2005: Alibaba s Jama on the Crnopac Mountain. Spe leolog 52, Zagreb: 18-22. FRITZ, F. 1992: Effect of recent sea level change on the development of Karst phenomena. Proceedings of the International Symposium "Geomor phology and Sea". Mali Lo _inj : 85-92. HERAK, M. 1986: A new concept of geotectonics of the Dinarides. Acta geologica 16/1, Zagreb: 42 p. IVANOV!_ A., SAKA_, K., MARKOV!_, B., SOKA_ B. _U_NJAR, M., NIKLER, L. & _U_NJARA, A. 1973: Basic Geological Map, scale 1: 100 000, sheet Obrovac State Geological Survey, Beograd. JAL_I_, B. 1984: Bezdanka kod _abri_a on Velebit Mt. Na e planine 1112, Zagreb KUHTA, Ivi. i992: Caving explorations ofthe Crnopac area in the Veiebit Mt. Speleolog 38/39, Zagreb: 25-28. KUHTA M. & BAK_ I_, D. 2001: Karstification Dynamics and Develop ment of the Deep Caves on the North Velebit Mt. Croatia 13 Interna tional Congress of Speleology, Proceedings Brasilia KUHTA, M. 2003: Some recent results of speleological exploration on Mt. Cmopac. Speleolog 48 / 49, Zagreb : 36-44. KUHTA M., BOROVEC, M. & HOSNER, N. 2004: Cpeleological ex plorations of Crnopac from 2002 and 2003. Speleolog 50/51, Zagreb : 48-55 LUKI 0. 1991: Speleological explorations of the Crnopac area on the Velebit Mt.. Speleolog 36/37, Zagreb: 14-26. MALEZ M. 1956: Erster Found des oberdiluvialen Menschen im di narichen Karst. Bull. sci. Cons. Acad. Yougosl. 3/2, Zagreb: 47-48. PAVI_I_, A. 1995: Hydrogeological conditions for the construction of reservoirs in the Velebit Mt. hinterland. Unpublished. Ph.D. Thesis, Uni versity of Zagreb, Croatia, 124 p. POLJAK J. 1929: Mountaineering Guidebook on Velebit Mt. Zagreb. PRELOGOVI_, E. 1979: Seismotectonic activity in the area of the Zr manja valley Geolo ki vjesnik 31, Zagreb : 123-136. Baradla cave. The groundwater level varied between 236 and 295 cm. The hydraulical characteristics were tested by pumping test and inverse pumping test. The water percolation is very slow, the well was not refilled within 24 hours. The basic chemical parameters of the water in both holes were analyzed. They were related to the analytical data measured in the springs related to the two cave systems (Josva, Komlos, and Rovid-also springs). The statistical method was cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The presence of groundwater influences the hydrological charac teristics of these caves.


0-6 The Stratigraphy of the Kabwe Cave of Rhodesian Man A. Bartsiokas Univ. of Thrace, Komotini, Greece Abstract The Stratigraphy of the Kabwe Cave of Rhodesian Man by Antonis Bartsiokas Here, a reconstruction of the stratigraphy and speleogenesis of the Kabwe Cave is provided based on the descriptions of the cave and the known mineralogy of lead-zinc deposits found elsewhere. The tapho nomy of Kabwe (Rhodesian) man is also provided. The lead-zinc ore of the cave has been formed 650-800 million years ago. The upper part has been opened in sandstone and the lower part in limestone. The two parts (bedrocks) of the steeply dipping cave were separated by a water table. It appears that lead and zinc would have been originated from the limestone itself or the nearby Post Palaeozoic shales and deposited as galena and sphalerite in the cavities or the cave was formed during the dolomitization of the limestone. It is conchtded that in Broken Hill, where the Kabwe 0-7 Cave was formed, the protore of galena-sphalerite-pyrite core was oxi dized into cerussite -that occupied mainly the lower part of the cave -as well as hemimorphite and limonite respectively -that occupied mainly the upper part of the cave. Therefore, the stratigraphy of the cave from top to bottom has as follows: Smithsonite and hemimorphite, relict galena, cerussite, and finally sphalerite with galena. The whitish colour of cerus site and the yellowish colour of limonite have stained the bones of the cave accordingly. Because the endocranium of the skull of the Rhodesian man is covered by hemimorphite it follows that the skull was originally deposited in the upper cave and soon after it was transported in to the lower cave where it was finally found. The water of the cave was respon sible for the lead poisoning of the Rhodesian man and the accumulation of the cultural and bone material. The stratigraphy from the Loutra Arideas Bear-cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) with Emphasis on two new chambers Katerina Chatzopoufou Geology School, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract The Loutra Arideas Bear-Cave (Northern Greece) yielded a rich Late Pleistocene fauna including large and small mammals. In the present study, the stratigraphy of all excavated chambers is presented and revised. The supply of the sediments and the possibility of a correlation between the stratigraphical columns are also discussed. Two new stratigraphical columns are added to the previous ones; a new square (R2) in the third chamber of the cave (LAC III) and a new grid in the chamber of gours (LAC le). The excavation project is still in progress. Introduction The cave-site of Loutra (LAC: Loutra Arideas Caves) is located in North Greece on the slopes of Voras mountain (2524 m), very close to the former Yugoslavian border, about 2km from Loutraki village and 120km north-west of Thessaloniki (Fig.I). A system of caves has been developed mainly in the north side of the V-shaped Rema Nicolaou gorge. The broader area is situated near the geological boundary between Almo pia zone to the east and Pelagonian zone to the west (MERCIER 1968, MOUNTRAKIS 1976) and it consists of Mesozoic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The Rema Nicolaou gorge consists of Maestrichtian limestone (Pelagonian zone) with intense karstik phenomena caused by the Tertiary faulting of the area. A NW-SE striking ore-bearing fault zone and the ENE-WSW striking Loutraki fault of 10 km length dominate the wider area (PAVLIDES et al. 1990). Furthermore, several thermal springs and travertine deposits that occur in the area are also attributed to the neotectonic activity of the Loutraki fault (MOUNTRAKIS 1976, ELEFTHERIADES 1977). The gorge of Loutra has a depth of 150 m, through which Thermopotamos stream flows. The fact that the whole area has been uplifted due to the intense neotectonic activity of the Loutraki fault, could possibly explain the intense erosion. The investigation of this area started in 1990 due to the great palae ontological interest. Eleven systematic excavation circles including mi cromammalian research, took place in 1992-1994, 1996, 1999-2005 by Geology School of Aristotle University in cooperation with the Ephoria of Palaeoanthropology and Speleology, Ministry of Culture and the Vienna University. At first, there were three excavation-blocks of squares in three chambers (LAC I, LAC II and LAC lb) of the cave. During the excavation in 2000, 2001 and 2005 a new grid was opened in the chamber LAC III and another one was excavated in the chamber LAC le during 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 in order to add data to the study. The aim of the research is the sediments as well as the palaeontological material of all chambers to be correlated. The research is still in progress. x Hominid skeletal remains !2l Excavated area of E horia of Paleoanthro olo & S eleolo Ministr of Culture Figure 1. Bear-cave LAC, location and ground plan. On the ground plan the excavated trench squares are shown. Palaeontology More than 15.000 ursid remains, that are described and analyzed from five blocks of squares, are determined as Ursus ingressus. Other large mammalian fauna remains found in association with cave-bears, confer to: Vulpes vulpes, Crocuta crocuta spelaea, Panthera pardus, Panthera leo spelaea, Bos primigenius, Capra ibex, Dama

Hellenic SfJefeolaaical Society teeth remains. All taxa excluding chiropters that have been recorded up to now from the excavations from LAC I, lb, II, III are: Erinaceus cf. europaeus, Sorex sp. (S. araneus group), Sorex cf. minutus, Crocidura sp., Spermophilus sp., Arvicola terrestris, Microtus arvalis, M. agrestis, M. nivalis, M. (Pitymys) cf. multiplex, Clethrionomys sp., Apodemus aff. mystacinus, A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, Cricetulus migratorius, Mesocri cetus newtoni, Glis glis, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus cf. avellanarius, Sicista subtilis, Spalax leucodon and Lepus cf. europaeus (CHATZO POULOU et al. 2001, CHATZOPOULOU 2003, 2005). Stratigraphy During the excavating progress, the stratigraphical data were recorded and samples of the sediments were collected. Some of the stratigraphical columns were discussed in previous studies (CHATZOPOULOU 2001, 2003, 2005). In this paper two new square-trenches are presented with emphasis on the third chamber of the cave (LAC III) and the chamber of gours (LAC le). The previous reported columns ( chambers LAC lb, LAC I, LAC II and LAC III) are being revised. Chamber LAC le. The chamber of gours is situated very close to the today's entrance of the cave. The floor is covered with gour structures and is situated at the highest level among all chambers. The reddish and gray sterile sediments overlie the fossiliferous beds (Fig.2). The fossiliferous layer appears to be very thick in this square ( ~ 140 cm) although the fos sil material is relatively poor. A great number of pebbles were observed throughout the brownish layer although there are fewer and smaller to the bottom. The external surface of the stones of the lower fossiliferous beds shows an alteration probably due to weathering. A sequence of thin calccrust layers with gray sand underlies the fossiliferous layer. All beds show a SW inclination towards the center of the chamber. All the sediments of this chamber are bored by plant roots due to its closeness to the open-air slope of the gorge. Figure 2. Stratigraphical sections of square GJO (LAC Jc). The depth in the sections is considered from the r~ference-zero point of the cave and it is counted in cm. The fossiliferous layer appears to be very thick in this square (~ 140 cm) although the fossil material is relatively poor. Chamber LAC lb. This is a very small chamber. Actually it is a sinuos ity of the main chamber showing a great palaeontological interest regard ing the abundance ofiarge mammal bone remains (Fig.I). The sedimenta tion in V 4 is basically elastic. All beds display the maximum thickness at V4 and are wedging out towards the walls of the cave and the connection to the main chamber (LAC I). The reddish and gray sediments overlying the fossiliferous beds are similar to those of LAC le ( square G 10). At the superior beds of the fossiliferous layer in V 4 a great accumulation of large 21-28 Augusl 2005. l(olmnos. He/las stones and pebbles was observed (Fig.4). The lithological composition of the pebbles represents the rocks of the broader area (limestones, dolomites, ophiolites, phyllites). The fossiliferous layer is relatively thin (~40cm). Thick gray sterile micaceus sand underlies the fossiliferous layer. Chamber LAC I. The central chamber is the wider one, while the level of the floor is the lowest in the cave. The diversity of sediments is the most remarkable of all chambers. In trench-square NIO, the elastic mate rial dominates, although there are four thin calc-crust layers interposed (Fig.4). The sediments are mainly brownish and small grained (clay and silt). Below 250cm from the reference-zero point sandy beds with many pebbles seems to be the deepest layer of the entire cave. The fossiliferous layer is very close to the surface (<20cm). It is thin (~25 cm) and the upper beds are consolidated to crust, sometimes with enclosed fossils. Chamber LAC 11. The accumulation of sediments in Bear-cave was in cyclic intervals. The alternation of elastic and chemical sediments is more evident in DI0. The calc-crust layers (Fig.4, oblique stripes) were deposited during warm and humid intervals, while the elastic sediments (sand, clay, silt) were accumulated during colder periods. The study of the small grain size of the elastic sedimentation of the floor of the Bear-cave is an evidence of slow water flow in the deposition site. This is the result of the surface increase of water mass flowing inside the cave, as well as of probable climate changes from wet to dry (TSIRAMBIDIS 1998). The surface beds (Fig. 4, above the dotted line) are disturbed by unauthorized diggings, resulting in an unequal thickness (25-60 cm) to the fossiliferous layer. Chamber LAC III. This chamber is the deepest area of the cave, al though there is a passage that links LAC III with the gour chamber (LAC le) (Fig. I). At first, square RI was excavated. The sedimentation is basi cally elastic and rather monotonous. The fossiliferous layer appears to be very thick (~120cm). It is mainly brownish sandy clay dotted with white calcareous pebbles and gravels. Some blackish lenses appear close to the surface of the column. The fossiliferous layer ends on the limestone of the floor of the cave. The small mammals in this square are very abundant while the remains of large mammals are scarce and not well-preserved. The excavation of R2 added new data when a series of layers were re vealed. All beds show a SW inclination ( dip angle 30) and are wedging out towards the walls of the cave. That is expected since the layers are thicker towards the center of the third chamber. The fossiliferous layer is less extended, ending on a calc-crust. This crust must have been a palaeo floor of the cave since a stalagmite in situ ( consolidated to the upper part of the crust) is preserved (Fig.3). The fossiliferous beds must have filled this part of the cave afterwards. The gray and reddish sterile sediments un derlying the fossiliferous beds show no similarity to those of other cham bers. Sedimentation ends on the limestone of the floor of the cave. squareR1 Figure 3. Stratigraphical sections of squares RI and R2 (LAC III). The depth in all the sections is considered from the reference-zero point of the cave and it is counted in cm. The fossiliferous layer appears to be thicker in south-eastern part of the squares. All ~~llhtsioDi:l are wedging out towards the walls of the cave.


Five stratigraphical columns are presented from the five square-trench es Gl0, V4, NlO, DI0 and R2 of the chambers LAC le, LAC lb, LAC I, LAC II and LAC III respectively (Fig.4). The only safe chronological and sedimentological correlation of the five trenches is the foss ilifero us layer that is characterized by the presence of Ursus ingressus (TSOUKALA & RABEDER 2005). Despite the distinctly different sedimentation in the five square-trenches and the deviation in thickness, it is obvious that the fossiliferous layer is placed at the same depth (-130cm) in the cave The mammalian fauna of the cave indicates a Late Pleistocene age Two dating projects of the sediments are in progress concerning trench square Nl0, one in cooperation with Vienna University (Cl4-AMS meth od-Centre for Isotope Research, Uni ver sity of Groningen) and the sec ond by the Laboratory of Archaeometry of "Demokr itos" Athens (ESR method). The age of the paleofauna is measured by Cl4 AMS method about 37.000 years B.P. (dating of a bone sample from LAC I) (RAB EDER et al. in press) The ESR-absolute dating of the crust underlying the fossiliferous layer indicated an age more recent than 20.000 years (KAM BOUROGLOU et al. 2006) The best preserved and abundant remains of large mammals are ex cavated from the center of the cave (LAC lb, I & II), while in LAC le & LAC III the material is scarcer. On the contrary, the abundance of small mammals is remarkable in LAC III and is reduced towards the today's entrance of the cave (material from LAC Ic has not been stud ied yet). Moreover, soJlle teeth and bones of both macro and micromammals show traces of transportation by water These features could be the result of the surface increase of water mass flowing inside the cave. During Late Pleistocene the Thermopotamos stream was probably flowing 80m higher than its today's level. The lithological composition of the pebbles as well as the small-grained depositions of the cave represents the eroded rocks of the broader area. It is likely that during floods of the river, micro and macromammalian remains were scattered inside the cave or entered the cave like th e sediments. Heavier material (long bones skulls and l ar ge pebbles) was deposited close to the supply of the sediments in the cave, while lighter fine-grained assemblages (sediments and micromammalian remains) were transported into deeper parts of the cave. Acknowledgements My warmest thanks to my teacher, E T so ukala for her helpfulness. Deepest thanks to E. Chatzopoulou for linguistic corrections. I also thank IKY (State Scholarship 's Foundation) and the Research Committee of A.U.Th for providing grants during my post-graduate studies. References CHATZOPOULOU K., VASILEIADOU, A., KOLIADIMOU K., TSOUKALA, E RABEDER, G & NAGEL, D., 2001 Preliminary re port on the Late Pleistocene small mammal fauna from Loutraki Bear cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece).-Cadernos Lab. Xeol6xico de Laxe, 26: 485-495, Corufia. CHATZOPOULOU K. 2001 Contrib ution to the study o f Quaternary micromammals and the stratigraphy of the Cave A from Loutra Arideas (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) Postgraduate thesis (unpublished). Aristotle University, Thessaloniki (in Greek). CHATZOPOULOU, K. 2003 The Late Pleistocene small mammal fauna from the Loutra Ar idea Bear-cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) -Ad ditional data. -Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat., 49 (suppl.): 35 -4 5, Trieste. CHATZOPOULOU, K., 2005 -The small mammal fauna from the Loutra Aridea Bear-Cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) with Emphasis on the Third chamber. -In: "Ne ue Forschungen zum Ho hlenbaren in Europa" eds. Ambros, D., Gropp, C Hilpert B. & Kaulich, B. -Naturhistorische Gesellschaft Ntimberg, Ab h. 45/2005: 57-64, Ntirnberg. ELEFTHERIADES, G., 1977 Study of the volcanic rocks in South l/el le mc S1 mle ul u u1 r:n l Su r:i e!; Almopia Thesis Di ssert Ar istotle University, 1-173, T hessaloniki. KAMBOUROGLOU E., BASSIAKO S, I. & BOUZAS D. 2006 T he Cave A' in theAridaia-LoutrakiArea -Proceedings of the annual Ar ch aeological Meeting "Archaeological Works in Macedonia and Thrace 18, 2004" eds. Adam Ve l eni P & Tzanavari K.: 573-589 Thessaloniki (in Greek). MERCIER, J., 1968 Etude geologique des zones intern es des Hel lenides en Macedoine centrale (Grece). An nal es Geologiques des Pays He lleniques, 20 : 1 792, Athens. MOUNTRAKIS D ., 1976 Geological study of the Pelagonien and Vardar Zone boundary in the Almopia area (North Macedonia). The sis Dissert. Aristotle University, 1-164 Thessaloniki PAVLIDES, S MOUNTRAKIS, D., KILIAS,A. TRANOS, M., 1990 -The role of strike-slip movements in the ex tensional area of North ern A egean (Greece) A case of trans tensional tectonics Ann al es Tectonicae Special issue, 4 (2): 196-211. TSIRAMBID IS, A., 1998 Study of floor sediments from the Agiasma Cave of Loutraki, Pella (Macedonia, Greece). -Bulletin of the Geological So ciety of Greece, 34 : 339-349, Patra (in Greek ). TSOUKALA E., 1994 Barenreste aus Loutraki (Macedonien, Griechenland)-"Ursus spelaeus -2nd Hohlenbaren Symposi um (Corvara, 15-18 September), Italy. TSOUKALA E., 1996 Comparative stu dy of ursid remains from the Quaternary of Greece, Turkey and Is rael. -Acta Zool.Cracov., 39 (1) : 571576, Krakow. TSOUKALAE RABEDER, G & VERGINIS S 2001 Ursus spe laeus and Late Pleis tocene associated fauna! re mai ns from Loutraki (Pella, Macedonia, Greece)-Excavations of 1999 Cademos L ab. Xeo l6xico de Laxe, 26: 441-446, Corufia. TSOUKALA E. & RABEDER, G., 2005 -Cavebears and Late Pleis tocene associated faunal remains from Loutra Arideas (Pe lla Macedo nia, Greece). 15 years of research. -In: "Ne ue Forschungen zum Hoh lenbaren in Europ a" eds Ambros, D Gropp, C., Hilpert, B. & Kaulich, B. -Naturhistorische Gesellschaft Nurnberg, Abh 45/2005: 225-236, Nurnberg. RABEDER, G., TSOUKALA, E. & KAVCIK, N., (in press) Chrono logical and systematic position of cave bears from Loutra Arideas (Mac edonia, Greece)Proceedings of 12th International Cave Be ar Symposium (Aridea / Loutra, 2-5 November 2006), Greece. Figure 4 Stratigraphical sections of trench square GJO (LAC Jc), V4 (LAC lb) NJO (LAC!), DIO (LAC II), and R2 (LAC III). The depth in all the section s is consid ere d from the reference-zero point of the cave and it is cou nted in cm The fossiliferous layer appears to be thicker in GI O ( ~ 140cm) Despite th e distinctly different sedimentation in the five sq uare-tr enc hes and the deviation in thickness, it is obvious that the fossiliferous layer is p laced at the same d ep th (-13 0 cm) in the cave. 1 1!/J


Hel lenic S112 ieo/or1 ica/ So ciet y 0-8 Palaeontological remains from the Manga Larga Cave (Santo Antonio plateau, Porto de Mos, Portugal) Panthera pardus (L., 1758) and Felis sylvestris Schreber, 1777 a case study between speleology and palaeontology Frederico Tata Regafa* & Joao Luis Cardoso** A bstract During a s peleological s urvey at the Man g a Larga Cave, a photographic record made at the time shows photographs of an incomplete mammal skeleton layi ng nearly 100 meters below t he entranc e of the cave Analysis of the photographs revealed the identity of the skull -its morphology and size showed that it belonged to a large fetid, probably a leopard. Th is identification was subsequently confirmed by the osteometric data obtained from the analy s is of the sp e c imen. After t hey were retrieved from the site and s tudied the s kull showed some uncommon morphological features. The comp let e palaeontological study was carried out unde r the scientific s uper vision of J. L. Cardoso. It is briefly described in this p aper and will be the subj ec t of a detailed forthc oming edition. The presence of t hi s and other palaeon to l ogical remains, namel y fron1 wild ca t in a profound a nd inacces s ible area of the cave, re veals the existence of unexplored ga1Ieries leading out. Comprehensive co nsiderations concerning th e taph onomi c processes determining the deposition of the remains of the leopard are also discuss ed . Location and brief description of the cave Located on the western bord er of the Santo A ntonio plateau ( Porto de Mos), the Manga Larga Cave is a karst cavity dev elop ed in the Jura ss ic lim estone. The only known entra nce opens at the altitude of 468 meters above Sea Level, on a sl ope over the Mencliga polje. The geographic co-ordinates for the site are: 29 514622 E; 4 37 4672 N (UTM Euro pe an Datum). The cave i s formed by successive ve rtical pits and inclined galleries with a ve1t ical entrance shaft measuring 55 mete rs deep. The bottom of this shaft l ea ds on to an ascending galle ry and to a small tunnel followed by a seri es of four other pits, each of less than ten meters in depth. These are followed by a narrow corridor openin g int o the ga llery where the bone remain s of the leopard were found, consisting of a sloping meander of fourteen meters with a ge ne ra l so uth-north orientation, narrowing abruptly into a crevice. The walls. covered with flowstone and fragile sub aeri al coralloids, converge grad ually toward the top. The proximal third of the ground is composed of diverse sized bl ocks revealing two dis tinct collaps e moments in its history. Fir st, a base l ayer of larg er blo cks covered with flowstone cem ent ed t o e ach other and to the \:1,,1alls and an upper layer of fre e sma ller s tones, without any flowstone, resul t ing from a l a t er collapse. B eyo nd this area of collapsed s tones the ground i s covered with flowstone. The cav e con tinue s to the southwe st ascending irregularly and down again in to new pits and galleries. However des cri bing the remai nder of the cave mu st rema in out s ide the scope of this paper. According to the topographic mapping taken by SA GA Sociedade dos Amigos

of the neck bones and front legs were found disarticulated. the positioning of the metacarpals 1,vas nearly in correct anatomical order. However, the recorded location of some of the parts does not mach their original distribution because of consecutive handling by other cave explorers. Nevertheless, according to information given by the first discoverer, Joao Neves (SAGA), the bones remained in the original area where they were first seen. The skulL initially found in a passage, was carefully moved to a lateral point near the other bones. Collection of the remains Regarding the specimen's obvious fragility, adequate measures were taken to prevent further deterioration. When extracting the bone material from the enviromnent that preserved it, special attention was taken concerning variations of temperature and humidity levels, besides the necessary protection against vibration during carriage. The bone elements were individually wrapped with consecutive layers of pneumatic plastic (with air bubbles) and packed in a stiff plastic box. Empty spaces in the box were filled with the same soft tnaterial to improve physical protection. No foam or cotton was used to avoid sudden dehydration. After collection, the remains were kept for a 24-hour rest period before unwrapping so that temperature could gradually reach equilibrium with exterior environment levels. Drying occurred naturally in a dark indoor enviromnent. Collection, carriage and temperature/humidity adequacy, were performed successfully, resulting in no visible damage to the remains. Description and brief comparative discussion The rernains of P. pardus in the Manga Larga Cave AH the visible bones were collected, except part of an extremely damaged long bone, small vertebrae fragments and unidentifiable splinters. They are deeply lixiviated and friable, exhibiting porosity and fissures along the surface. Jugal dentition and the incisor teeth shmv good preservation levels. Upper and lower canine teeth are considerably more deteriorated. with broken crowns and deep fissures. The collected parts consist of: skull, rnandible. cervical vertebrae, right humerus (incomplete) and left metacarpal bones (metacarpals II, III and IV). The third metacarpal kept its integrity, but the other two lack their distal extremities. Exhaustive osteometric comparative study goes beyond the scope of this paper, being the object of a forthcoming pubiication. A summary of the data concerning the skull and the dentition are here given: Skull considerably well preserved, with loss of some bone and dental material; it shmvs fractures that affect mainly the buccal/nasal and occipital/parietal regions, and the zygomatic arches. Skull sutures are not visible and the dentition is fully developed showing no relevant dental wear, indicating an adult but not senile individual. The dimensions of the skull are generically close to the lmvest sizes recorded for Panthera pare/us. In spite of the reduced longitudinal size of the skull. transversal measurements of anatomical configurations reveal considerable differences over the proportions~ when compared with the other analysed fossil and living specirnens. Manga Larga's leopard skull is in fact the smallest of the fossil specimens known, with a snout wide and short, broad and high forehead with spaced eyes. One of the most striking characteristics is the reduced condylobasal length proportionally compared \vith the breadth features, responsible for the notoriously convex appearance of the skull's profile. Dentition All the measurements fit within the variation amplitudes recorded for P. pan/us by SCHMID (1940). When compared with other fossil specirnens most tooth sizes are below average, around the average values obtained for living leopards. The upper rows are slightly above the actual size averages, particularly the canine and third premolar. Contrarily, the lower row has most of the odontometric values slightly under the corresponding averages, vvith the remarkable exception of the quite srnaller fourth premolar.


fl ellenir: St wleoluu ir:ai Sur: ielv Chronological consideration There are no archaeological materials or strat igraphy suitable to establish a chronology for the remains found. Making use of a sma ll fragm en t extracted from the diaphysis of the humerus, an AMS radiocarbon dating was considered, unfortunate l y without success since there wasn t enough collagen present. Under the circ umstances a comparative chronological framework will have to be established with other known remains found throughout Europe, especially in the Iberian Peninsula. It is generally accepted that the most ancient remains of P. pardus known from Europe until now, date back to Crornerian times. This is the case with the spec imen s from Mauer (SCHUTT, I 969; KURTEN, 1968) and Voigstedt (KO TSAKf S & PALOM BO 1979). The re is, however, the possibility that som e of the specimens go further back in time such as those from H u nds heim and VaJonnet. According to BONIFAY (1971 ), because the ancestral fonn s of the leopard a re not known, its origins may have been outside the European continent. The expansion of the European leopard attained its peak by the end of Middle Pleistocene, reaching the south of Eng land and the Alps of Transylvania by the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene (KURf EN, 1968). Climatic deterioration during Wlirm seems to be responsible for the extinction of the leopard in Europe, not surviving beyond the A urignacian outside the Iberian Peninsula. In fact, Iberia appears to have been the last refuge of the European leopard acc ording to some Portuguese and Spanish archaeological contexts that included remain s of this species. In this region, most of the remains are reported to the Aurignacian (ALTUNA & MARIEZK UR RENA, 1984 ), but they also occur later. This is the situation of other Portuguese specimens found in Solutrean level s of Gruta do Caldeirao and in a deposit dated to 22 730 880; 790 BP from Gruta das Fontafnhas, (ANTUNES et al., 1989 ; CARDOSO, 1993). In Spain, at Bolinkoba (Bis cay) more recent leopard bones were collected from the Lower Magdalenian level III (CASTANOS, 1987). ALTONA ( l 972), quoting Vega del Sella, mentions the presence of leopard in the Azilian context of La Riera cave, suggesting cautious ly the possibility that this species survived in that region until the Mesolithic. Attending to the above, a time span of 700 thousand years is considered, with hardly defined limits through the Middle and Upper Pleistocene. Consequently, we can only think of a probable chronology, with most leopard remains from Portuguese and Spanish sites dating from the end of Upper Pleistocene, especially during the Aurignacian period. This wou ld allow us to accept, with caution, that the leopard from the Manga Larga Cave may possibly be dated between 20 000 to 35 000 years BP. On the presence of the leopard in the Manga Larga Cave The leopard is characterised by expressive versatility, adapting to diverse habitats and food regimens. It inhabits wide areas of Africa and Asia, through diverse environments varying from savannah to forest, plain to mountain, hot climate to sub-zero temperatures. His presence in the Santo Antonio Plateau and its surroundings is therefore not a surprise. Subterranean cavities are frequently used as shelters by females during the first stages of parental care. It is also natural that, in the pursuit of prey, a leopard runs into a gallery or falls accidentally into a natural pit. On the other hand, the skeleton that forms the subject of this study was found in a very deep and inaccessible gallery, raising questions about the cause s of Stich an apparently improbable occurrence Actually, it's not probable that a leopard would manage to go through all the pits, cotTidors and passages that lead into the place of deposition, starting by the known entrance. His fall into the first 55 meters of the shaft wouldn t be surprising but the same can't be said about the possibility of s urviving to such a violent fall, in order to reach the next pit of eight meters, fall again, and repeat that feat three more times in the following thre e vertical shafts, connected by irregular corridors. He would have to move by his own means after each fall, to reach the spot where he was actually found. For that reason we accept that this animal got into the cave through another entrance, still to be found. The gallery with the remains ends to the north into an unsurpassable narrow crack. Yet, it's narrowing was formed by the gradual thickening of the parietal flowstone depo sition, so it would ha ve been somewhat larger in previous times. On the opposite side, the cave goes on forming a to1tuous gallery with vertical and sub-vertical unlevelling forming a laborious progression for the speleologist and absolutely insurmountable for a leopard lost in total darkness. This gallery leads to another vertical shaft reaching new lower levels of galleries. One of these extends southwest until it gets too narrow for speleological progression, but may communicate or has once communicated with the outside. Such i s probable considering the presence there of two wild-cat skeletons, one of them laying in anatomical connection in mid gallery and the other dispersed over the area where human progres s ion becomes very difficult. It would be possible for a n anim al with the constitution of a small leopard to eventually enter through this passage, but it excludes the hypothesis of reaching the superior spaces for the obvious reasons of inaccessibility. Nevertheless, this occurrence shows that in a deeper area of the cavity, animal remains from the outside are still present, indicating the existence of unregistered galleries that communicate with the exterior. The observation of the bone parts allows deducing that this feline's death didn't occur in the place where the remains were found. In fact, most of the interior a nd interstitial spaces of the bones are filled with clay, showing that they were once totally or partially embedded in sediment and suffered posterior anataxic phenomena. The infill of spaces in the cancellous bone of the humerus indicates that the fracture occurred in the past, possibly being contemporary with the 21 28 A ugust 2fJU5. l{a!amos. I/el/us


Hellen ic SfJe/eolouicul Society primary deposition. The absence of most parts of the sk eleto n and its anatomical disconnection denote also the intervention of post -depositional factors Moreover, the bone surfaces are \.vashed an d lixiviated, a situ ation that indicates exposure to water. This is corroborated by the traces related to the evacuation of sediment from inside the s kull, forming drainage channels coincident with the natu ral orifices. Thin fissur es in the bone surface, caused by long exposure to t he cave's aerial or su b-aerial environment are not filled 'Nith sediment, meaning that they formed after the secondary deposition. The existence of smashed bones with clean fractures may have been caused by a violent episode related with the final deposition, or posterior to that. Same of the fractures could be recent, eventually caused by previous cavers, but simple handling would not be responsible for such an intense fragmentation, and the location of the smashed bones is near the wall, not on the passage area. Furthermore, no clear signs of trampling where found and vandalism is excluded because it would certainly fall upon the most significant parts. PROFILE ALOIIR OA hlANOA I.A.ROA PLAN VIEW PLAN VIEW 191!6 -1 981 t Another factor that substantiates the idea of a natural violent occurrence involving the remains is the fact that the destroyed bones were found in a restrict area combined with a thin layer of clay. The collapse of elastic and clay material over a part of these would explain them being smashed, but their origin remains unexplained. Consequently, it's sustainable that the bones were incorporated among the materials that collapsed, which would explain the existence of a small part of the skeleton, merely from the animal's anterior portion, anatomically displaced. It s possible that some bone elements contained in a clay volume, or on top of it, could suffer no significant damage during subsidence, and others, caught by an impact zone, would be totally smashed. In the mean time, water flow may have removed most of the clay material only a small part retained in cavities of the bones and irregularities on the rock, especially in the area of collision, together with the smashed bones. If the explained hypothesis is corr,ect there must exist a gallery above that area, with access to the exterior. In it, the thanatic phase of the process occurred as well as the primary deposition, whose deposit collapsed partially forming the secondary deposition under study. Attempts were made to find the upper gallery from where the materials proceeded. The speleologists Rui Lufs, Hugo Pelerito and Bruno Oliveira performed a climbing and discovered an unrecorded overlapping gallery with no signs of paleontological vestiges On a higher level, 13,5 meters above the top of the coIIapsed stones, they found another opening to o narrow for speleological progression due to the amount of flowstone. However, according to information given by Rui Luis, there was an air flow and a scent usually felt in subterranean spaces connected with the surface, with large am oun ts of humus. No osteological remains are visible th ere. However, it is possible th at carbonate deposits may 14th fn tern nlion ul Com ness of Soeteu lo JV


Hellenic S1wleo!uuir:a/ Sur: ie/y have covered them completely. If the bone remains originate from that area, we have no conclusive evidence for that yet. Another aspect to consider is the location and development of the cave itself. It must be noted that the cave was formed it a slope. Although the referred gallery reaches more than 100 meter s above the entrance, that doesn't mean that this is the shortest distance to the exte rior. It is possible that other karst openings connect or have once connected in a more direct way to the vicin ity of that place. Other faunal remains found in this cave demonstrate the validity of this idea. In the same gallery were found a few skull fragments of a juvenile cat and the complete sk eleton of a bird, probably a chough. As referred already, in a deeper gallery, to the south, two more wild-cat skeletons were discovered (see topography). Note that most of these faults are crevice-shaped, forming high chimneys of obviously difficult exploration and undefined highs. Conclusion The l eopa rd discovered in the Manga Larga Cave shows very peculiar osteometric char acteristics but their representat iveness is diminished by the polymorphic tendency of the species. This is further evidenced by the number of described subspecies. Besides the reduced dimensions of the specimen, the most remarkable morphological feature is the proportion between the length and breadth of the skull, particularly the anterior region. It belongs to a small leopard vit h broad head and s hort snout. The features that distinguish Manga Largas P. pardus strengthens the conjecture proposed by HEMMER (1974) and susta ined by CARDOSO (1993: 452) that southern Europe cou ld have functioned as a refuge area for distinct population groups of diverse geographical provenience, pushed by glaciation transgressions. The presence of the remains in an inaccessible zone of the cave must be evaluated against the background of dynamic phenomena involved in the modification of the cave itself. Taking into account that this animal lived several thousands of years ago, one must consider the effects of seismic events, hydric regimen modifications and carbonate deposition. In fact, once open galleries may have become narrowed or obstructed through the formation of thick flowstone layers. The absence of most of the skeleton, the distribution of the remains and even their location, indicate the participation of post-depositional factors, s ugge sting that the bones came from a subterranean upper level, during a subsidence event. Despite de speleological survey preformed, the specific location of the primary deposition is yet to be found. Bibliography ALTUNA, J. (1972)-Fauna de mamfferos de los yacimientos prehistoricos de Guipuzcoa. Munibe, 24 (1/4): 464 p. AD'UNA, J. & MARIE'ZKURRENA, K. (1984) -Bases de subsistencia de origem animal de Ekain. In El yacimiento prehist6rico de la cueva de Ekain (Deba, Guipuzcoa) p. 2 l l-280. Sociedad de Estudios Vascos. Guipuzcoa. ANTUNES. M.T.; CABRAL J.M.P.; CARDOSO, J.L.; PAIS J.& SOARES, A.M. (1989) Paleolitico medio e superior em Portugal: datas 14C estaclo actual dos conhecimentos, sintese e discussao. Ciencias da Terra (UNL}, 10: 127-138. BO NIFAY, M.-F. (1971) Carnivores quaternaires du Sud-Est de La France. Menz. Mus. Nat. Hlist. Nat., N.S.(C), 21 (2), 43~377. CARDOSO, J. L. ( 1993) Contribuirao para o conhecimento dos grandes mam[feros do Plistocenico superior de Portugal. (dissertac;ao de doutoramento apresentada a Universidade Nova de Lisboa), Camara Municipal de Oeiras. CASTANOS, P. (1987) -Los carnivoros prehi st oricos de Vizcaya. Kobie, 16:776. GUERIN, C. & PATHOU-MATHIS, M. (l 996) -Les grands mammiferes Plio-Pleistocenes d'Europe. Masson. HEMMER, H. (1974) -Zur Kenntnis pleistozaner mitteleuropaischer Leoparden (Panthera pardus). N. lb. Geol. Paliiont. Abh., 138 (1): 15-36. KOTSAKIS, T. & PALOMBO, M.R. (1979) Un cranio di Panthera pardus (L.) del Pleistocene medio superiore di Monte Sacro (Roma). Geologica Rom. 18:137-155. KURTEN. B. (1968)-Pleistocene mammals of Europe, 303 p. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Londres. SCHMID, E. (1940) -Variationsstatistische Untersuchungen am Gebis pleistozaner und rezenter Leoparden und anderer Feliden. Zeitschrift Jar Siiugetierkunde., 15 (I), 179 p. SCHUTI', G. 5:299-310. Panthera pardus sickenbergi n. subsp. aus den Mauerer Sanden. N. lb. Geol. Palaont., Mh. Hf. STROGANOV, S. U. (1962) -Carnivorous Mammals of Siberia. Moskva (versao traduzida: Israel Program for Scientific Translations). THOMAS, C. (1985)-Grottes et Algares du Portugal. 230 p. Lisboa. 21-28 Auuust 2005. l(a!amas Hellos


0-9 Caves in the Odyssey Dav i d N Brison 8 rue d'Alsace Lorraine 92100 Boulogne sur Seine, France Down through the centuries Homeric scholars explorers, and naviga tors have debated if the places Odysseus visited could ever be located. Two schools of thought developed for interpreting the events described in Homer's epic poem. The literary scholar's approach claims that all the incidents following the moment when Odysseus passed Cape Malea must be purely mythical and imaginary. Whereas the historic geogra pher's approach sees plenty of evidence that whole sections of this work incorporate ancient Phoenician pilot's instructions for known coastlines and tales based on authentic experiences of those ancient mariners By careful study of The Odyssey text, the latter school has put forward many theories as to where to look in the Mediterranean area for the nine caves that Homer described. In 1624 Philipp Cluver, a professor in Leiden, Holland, published one of the earliest studies on the route of Odysseus and he put Calyp so's Ogygia Island in Malta (Wolf 1968) In the centuries that followed many others published their own confused theories, some of which were so far-fetched as to put Odysseus in the Caspian Sea, or the Black Sea, or as far north as Norway, and even in Iceland. In the last decade of the 19th century one of the first serious researchers working in the field was Samuel Butler who located the Cyclops Cave of Polyphemus near Trapani in Sicily. Between 1906 and 1912, Victor Berard did much to advance the research, although some of his sites do not conform well with the text. In the early 1920s, Richard Halliburton traced his own logical route. Then in the 1950s, Lewis Pocock placed most of the landfalls in or near Sicily and Gaetano Baglio proposed yet another route. One of the most consistently reliable geographers, Emle Bradford, sailed to all his proposed sites dur ing the 1950s. Around 1963, Attilio Route of Odysseus suggested by Bradford 1963 S l' Al N r ;' .. 611hric /J Gaudio visited the landfalls indicated by Berard. Tim Severin sailed a route in 1985 to establish that Odysseus must have encountered the Cy clops in Crete and then sailed up the west coast of Greece, right past his homeland of Ithaca Recently, at the tum of the century, Jean Cuisenier, summed up some of the earlier theories and sailed to many of his own chosen sites. Each author seemed intent on promoting their own original ideas re garding the routes followed by Odysseus, ignoring most of the previous research. Frequently researchers would lock onto one seemingly accurate landfall and then build the entire route around that. Homer's text is cited when it nicely corroborates their theories, but Homer's troublesome little details are systematically omitted when they do not conform to a chosen landfall. Hel!rnir: S1Jefeoiouicuf Society The text tells us that, after the leaving the land of the Lotus-Eaters (probably in Tunisia), his squadron of twelve warships arrived in the land of the Cyclops in a "thick fog" and beached on the shores of a "luxuriant island" located "not very far from the harbor of their coast, and not so near either ... which was the home of innumerable goats." Many writers on Homeric geography, intent on tracing the route of Odysseus, have skipped over and neglected to locate this Goat Island or have found some island off a likely coast but found that it lacks a landing beach. Bradford tells us that the Isle of Favignana, off the northwest coast of Sicily was called "Aegusa" or Goat Island in classical times, and, that when approaching it from the south with the south winds blowing, one often finds these islands enveloped in fog. At the head of the harbor on this island, Homer writes "there is a stream of fresh water, running out of a cave in a grove of popular trees." Bradford noted that at Cala Grande on the southwest coast here there was a shelving sand beach where Greek warships coming from the south could easily land. The Italian Touring Club guidebook lists seven caves for Favignana Island, some of which were found to contain either Paleolithic or Neolithic remains.( del Salvio et al. 1989) Any cave near Cala Grande that shows signs of a discharge point aught to meet the requirements. Seeing the smoke from the fires in the neighboring land of the Cy clops, Odysseus decided to take his ship and investigate. Sailing "no great distance to the mainland coast ... as we approached its nearest point, we made out a cave there, close to the sea, with a high entrance overhung by laurels. Here large flocks of sheep and goats were penned at night, and round the mouth a yard had been built with a great wall of stones." Various extravagant ideas have been put forward to localize the Cave of Polyphemus, some even as improbable as the Canary Islands. Berard puts the cave at Posillipo near Naples, but this is an entirely artificial tunnel dating to Roman times and never visible from the sea. Several research ers, starting with Butler in 1897, locate this cave not far from Favignana Island about five kilometers north of Trapani near Pizzolungo Point. Hal liburton hiked out there in the 1920s and took shelter from the rain in a walled-in sheep pen cave near the coast called Grotta di Polifemo, which he estimated to be fifty feet ( 17 meters) square and thirty feet ( 10 meters) high Thirty years later Bradford checked out this same cave and agreed that "a band of men could easily be trapped" here. After loosing the rest of his fleet to the cannibal Laestrygonians, Odys seus arrived on his ship at Aeaea Island, the home of the goddess-sorcer ess, Circe. He climbed a crag to reconnoiter and found that the island was "for the most part low-lying, as all round it in a ring I saw the sea stretching away to the horizon Later Circe tells Odysseus "to drag your ship onto dry land and stow your belongings and all the ship's tackle in l,4/1 1 l n!e nw tiu nnf Co nur uss of So e/uolou y


Hl!!len i c S11elealouical Soc i ety a cave," and then come and stay as her guests They would need to hide the oars, rigging, and plundered treasures from local thieves. The ancient Greek geographer, Strabo, situated Circe's home at Monte Circeo in Italy and numerous Homeric geographers since have agreed. This 540-meter high promontory is attached to the continent by flat marshlands today, but in the Late Bronze Age the sea may have covered this lowland. Over 30 marine caves run around the base of this limestone mount and many of them could have served as a boat storage cave. Berard proposed the Grotta delle Capre which he measured at 36 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 10 meters high. Today tourists are shown a large marine cave, Grotta Azzurra della Maga Circe, but the text clearly states that Circe lived in "a well-built castle of dressed stone." Among other likely locations for Circe's Island, Gaudio has proposed the low-lying, volcanic Isle of Ponza (27 kilometers south of Mount Circeo) as fitting the island's description more suitably and Pocock proposed the Isle of Ustica (70 kilometers northwest of Palermo) with its Grotta della Barche, where boat tackle is stored even today. Next Odysseus must visit Hades, the Underground-Cavern of the Dead and Circe tells him that the North wind will blow him to a "wild coast and to Persephone's Grove." Homer puts the entrance to Hades' Kingdom where "the River of Flaming Fire and the River of Lamentation, which is a branch of the Styx, unite around a pinnacle of rock to pour their thunder ing streams into Acheron." Traditionally there are at least four entrances to Hades: two in Greece and two in Italy. At the southernmost point of Greece, in the ancient Tenarian settlement on the tip of the Mani peninsula in the Peloponnese is a marine cave entrance that Orpheus used when he went to bring Eurydice from the Underworld. In Epirus of northwestern Greece at the confluence of the Acheron and the Cocytus, the River of Woe and the River of Wailing, is a rock where another entrance can be found. In centrai Siciiy, near Enna, a cave on the south shore of Lake Per gusa is where Hades came out of the Underworld, kidnapped Persephone, and took her back underground to be his bride.( del Salvio et al. 1989) But the traditional location in Italy, for consulting the oracle of the dead and entering Hades, was at the Lake Avernus, north ofBaiae and west of Na ples. Many think that the latter location is where Odysseus went to dig a trench and offer sacrifice so as to be able to converse with the dead spirits that came forth to meet him. But, as Severin points out, the entrance to Hades in Epirus fits better with the directions given in Homer. Returning to Circe's Island, Odysseus is given precise sailing instruc tions that will get him back to his home in Ithaca. After safely passing the Sirens at the Galli Islands, he continues south and must pass through the Strait of Messina. Now the early Phoenician mariners knew the whirlpools of Charybdis on the Sicilian side and the headland at Scilla in Calabria. The strait is from three to four kilometers wide, but in Mycenaean times the dangerous currents and whirlpools of Charybdis must have been quite formidable for a war galley. So Circe warns him to hug closely the high rock promontory of Scylla and beware that, "halfway up the crag there is a misty cavern, facing the west and running down to Erebus, past which, my lord Odysseus, you must steer your ship. The strongest bowman could not reach the gaping mouth of the cave with an arrow shot from the ship below. It is the home of Scylla, the creature with the dreadful bark ... she has twelve feet, all dangling in the air, and six long necks, each ending in a grisly head with triple rows of teeth." The monster could well be a hybrid mythical creature composed of elements of giant squid, dog's heads, and shark's teeth. The 18th-century Italian natural historian, Lazzaro Spallanza ni, reported that several small caves and a large one cailed, Dragara, couid be found at the base of this 75-meter-high limestone headland and that the waves crashing into these caves produced strange sounds. In 1912, Berard spotted a retaining wall, halfway up the rock, that seemed to conceal a fis sure cave entrance and he tried to explore it but was stopped by the Italian Coast Guard. Several observers have surmised that the earthquake of 1783 destroyed any cave that was there. After losing six men to the monster, a violent storm came up and Od-2128 Au uu st 20 0 5. Kafomo s He /las ysseus was persuaded by his men to land on Thrinakia Island. Thrinakia means "Island ofthe Trident," but the name commonly given to Sicily in classical times was "Trinakria," meaning "Three-Angled Island," for its shape is an almost equilateral triangle. So, the text says, "we beached our ship and dragged her up into the shelter of a cave, a pleasant spot which the Nymphs used as a dancing-ground and meeting-place." Berard tried to locate this littoral cave at a cape marked "La Grotta," not far from the strait, north of Messina, but all he found under the remains of a church destroyed by an earthquake was the collapsed ceiling of a cave with a spring. Bradford calculated that the ship should have sailed further down the coast in a day's time and would have reached the cove where Taormina is now located. He writes, "there are still caves in plenty in this cove, as well as two or three small beaches." Later his ship and all his men are lost in a storm, but Odysseus survived by tying the mast and keel together. For nine days he drifted on the sea and reached the "lonely" Isle of Ogygia, "far away in the middle of the seas," where the goddess, Calypso, welcomed him. Her "cave was sheltered by a verdant copse of alders, aspens, arid fragrant cypresses ... Trailing round the very mouth of the cavern, a garden vine ran riot, with great bunches of ripe grapes; while four separate but neighboring springs four crystal rivu lets were trained to run this way and that; and in soft meadows on either side the iris and the parsley flourished." More than any other, this landfall has generated considerable speculation by Homeric geographers. In 1624, Philip Cluver proposed the Isle of Malta for Ogygia and later, both Baglio in 1958 and Bradford in 1963 followed suit. In 1897, Butler suggested the Isle of Pantellaria, located southwest of Sicily Calypso was the daughter of Atlas, who "with his own shoulders supports the great columns that hold the earth and sky apart." The At las Mountains are in Morocco and the "great columns" are the Rock of Gibraltar on one side and Mount Acho on the other, so Berard searched along the Moroccan coast and found Perejil Island, whose name means "parsley." There he discovered a "vaulted cave" some 50 meters long and, over on the African mainland, another cave with four springs. Throughout his investigation Berard persists in ignoring that Perejil Island is situated close to the mainland, not in "the middle of the seas," and it is far too distant, almost 2000 kilometers, from the Strait of Messina for sonieone drifting on a mast-keel raft, with a speed of at best one knot, to be able to reach in nine days As early as the 3rd century B.C., the director of the library at Alexan dria, Callimaque, had proposed the Isle of Gozo, just northwest of Malta, as Calypso's Ogygia Island. An old engraving shows this cave as an arched opening at the north end of a limestone escarpment above Ramla Bay. In the 1920s, Halliburton estimated the cave at thirty feet (10 m) square and ten feet (3 m) high and "hung with beautifully shaped stalactites." There were "signs of the chisel everywhere," indicating that some portions of the cave were artificial. Later massive collapse occurred due to local quarrying near and over the cave. In 1952, Shaw wrote that "the interior of the cave consists of a series of low crawlways between shattered chambers floored with angular fragments of rock." While visit ing this cave in 1986, I found it much the same. After seven years, Odysseus built a raft, sailed east for seventeen days, and reached Scheria (modem-day Corfu) where the Phaeacians heard his tale and escorted him south to his homeland of Ithaca. He landed there in the cove of Phorcys and hid the treasures he had received from the Phaea cians in a nearby cave. The text reads, "At the head of the cove grows a long-leafed olive tree and nearby is a cavern that offers welcome shade and is sacred to the Nymphs whom we call Naiads. This cave contains a number of stone basins and two-handed jars, which are used by the bees as their hives; also great looms of stone where the Nymphs weave marve lous fabrics of sea-purple; and there are ~prings whose water never fails. It has two mouths. The one that looks north is the way down for men. The other, facing south, is meant for the gods; and as immortals come in by this way it is not used by men at all." Nearly all Homeric geographers


and scholars are in agreement that this cave is Marmarospilia or the Cave of the Nymphs, located south of Dexia Bay near Vathy. Its entrance faces northwest and a second skylight entrance is 80 meters to the northeast. Ancient terracotta lamps and figurines were recovered there which are on exhibit at the Vathy Archeological Museum. Much vandalism of the "looms of stone" has occurred and broken stalactites have become sad ornaments on the terraces above the entrance. From this cave, Odysseus followed a path to Eumaeus' hut at the Raven's Crag in the southern part ofithaca, where he stayed until return ing to his home to fight the suitors. The swine herder, Eumaeus, watered his pigs at the Spring of Arethusa, just below these cliffs. This discharge point is in a shelter cave of thin-bedded limestone in a small gorge that occasionally carries surface water from the cliff. Homer tells us that, while Odysseus slept at the hut, Eumaeus "went off to pass the night where the white-tusked porkers slept under an overhanging rock sheltered from the northerly winds." This rock shelter is either the one at the base of the Raven's Crag or the one I noticed further north across the slope. Homer s vague descriptions of distant Mediterranean landfalls were prob ably gained from oral tradition and mariner's tales, but some feel that his accurate mastery of the geography of Ithaca was based on a personal knowledge of that island. At Polis Bay in the northern part of Ithaca in 1873, a local man found a bronze sword and a tripod-cauldron under the remains of the collapsed Louizos Cave. Following this lead, Sylvia Benton, working for the British School at Athens in 1932 found in this cave shrine twelve more bronze tripod-cauldrons, dated from the tenth to early eighth century B.C.(Benton 1938) Now the number of bronze tripods that Odysseus had been given as parting gifts by the rulers in Scheria was thirteen according to Homer. So the tantalizing question remains: did Homer know about these thirteen tri pods in the cave at Polis Bay and decide to work them into his epic poem? (Luce 1998) Benton also dug up a fragment of a terracotta mask dating from the second or first century B.C. and bearing the words, "Votive offer ing to Odysseus." This was clear proof that the cult of the hero Odysseus had been associated with this cave in the Hellenistic period. Thanks to The Odyssey we know more about Odysseus than about Homer himself. Never an adventure seeker, "Odysseus of the nimble wits" used his intelligence to conquer obstacles, which were placed in his path. He had all the makings of a great caver prudent, ingenious, perseverant, and courageous. He showed that the true power of a man or woman lies not in their muscles or their technical knowledge, but in their ability to think. All this debate about the different landfalls is not terribly important. What is essential is Homer's Odyssey one of the first true classics of Western literature. If cavers both science and sport cavers would only develop the cultural side of their education, maybe we could all better spread the message of how beautiful caves are and how important it is to protect them. This epic poem has shown all generations for almost three thousand years the beauty of nature and the weakness of man in face of Hui/el/Ir: Sf)e/eo/agfca/ Society that nature. Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Sophie Courcelles for her help and also several libraries in Paris: American Library, Bibliotheque Nationale, Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve, Bibliotheque de la Sorbonne, Goethe Institut, and Isti tuto Italiano di Cultura. References: Baglio, Gaetano 1958, Odisseo nel Mare Mediterraneo centrale L'Erma di Bretschneiser, Rome Benton, Sylvia 1938, Excavations in Ithaca, III, The Annual of the British School at Athens, n. 35, 193435, Macmillan, London, p. 45-74 Berard, Victor 1927-1929, Les navigations d'Ulysse: Ithaque et la Grece des Acheens, vol. 1, 1927, Armand Colin, Paris Calypso et la mer de l'Atlantide, vol. 3, 1929, Armand Colin, Paris Nausicca et le retour d'Ulysse, vol. 4, 1929, Armand Colin, Paris Berard, Victor & Boissonnas, Frederic 1933, Dans le sillage d'Ulysse, Armand Colin, Paris Blanc, Albert 1940, The Fossil Man of Circe's Mountain, Natural His tory, v. 45. n.5, May 1940, p.280-281 Bradford, Ernle 1963 (2004), Ulysses Found, Hodder & Stoughton, London Butler, Samuel 1897, The Authoress of the Odyssey, Jonathan Cape, London Casteret, Norbert 1954, Exploration, Perrin, Paris, p. 184-192 Cuisenier, Jean 2003, Le periple d'Ulysse, Fayard, Paris Cuisenier, Jean 2004 Dans le sillage d'un heros de fiction, Geo-Hors Serie, Nov. 2004, p. 22-25 Gauci, Anthony 1966, Gozo, St. Joseph's Home Printing Press, Malta, p. 73 Gaudio, Attilio 1964-65, Dans le sillage d'Ulysse, Sciences et Voy ages, Aout 1964; Dec. 1964; Janv 1965; Mars 1965; Avr. 1965; & Mai 1965 Grosvenor, Melville 1973, Homeward with Ulysses, National Geo graphic, v. 144, n. 1, July 1973, p. 1-11 Halliburton, Richard 1927, The Glorious Adventure, Garden City Pub. Co., New York, p.196-204, 230, 282, 326-331 Homer, L'Odyssee, Tome 1-3, (Translated by Victor Berard, 1924), Les Belles Lettres, Paris Homer, The Odyssey, (Translated by E.V. Rieu, 1946), Penguin Clas-74!/J ln!emofionnl Conuress of Sneteoluuy


Hellenic Soeleaf u{J i cal Sur:ie/y sics, London Luce, J.V. 1998, Celebrating Homer's Landscapes, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn., p.191-204, 224-230 Petrocheilou, Anna 1984, The Greek Caves, Ekdotike Athenon Ath ens, p. 64-65 Pocock, Lewis 1957, The Sicilian Origin of the Odyssey, Wellington, New Zealand del Salvio, Elena; Ferrari-Bravo,Anna; & Lissoni, Marco 1989 (2000), Sicilia, Guida d'Italia, Touring Club Italiano, Milan, p. 295-296, 503 Severin, Tim 1987, The Ulysses Voyage, Guild Pub., London, p. 158167, 224-234 0-10 PARFUM DE GRECE Par Catherine et Jean-Car l o FAIT Shaw, T.R., The Caves of Malta, The American Caver, NSS Bull. n.14, Sept.I 952, p. 39 Spallanzani, Lazzaro 1792-1797 (Translated from Latin by Angelo Fabroni, 1825), Viaggi alle due Sicilie e in alcune parti dell' Appenino, Torno II, Milan, p. 443-444; (Translated into French by G. Toscan, 1797) Voyage dans les deux Siciles, Tome IV, Maradan, Paris, p. 113-114 Steinhart, Matthias & Wirbelauer 2002, Aus der Heimat des Odysseus, Philipp von Zabem, Mainz, p. 72-77 Wolf, Hans-Helmut & Armin 1968, Der Weg des Odysseus, E. Was muth, Tiibingen, p. 48-49, 124-125 Speleo-club de La Ciotat La Salamandre 7 Les Om belles III Avenue Guillaume Dulac 13 600 La Ciotat (1980 2004) Villa jujube 19, chemin de Fardeloup 13600 La Ciotat (2005) Tel/Fax: 04 42 08 56 31 e-mail:jcfait@mairie-laciotatfr Resume: Catherine et Jean-Carlo FAIT, sont membres fondateurs du Speleo club de La Ciotat (Bouches du Rhone France) qu 'i!s dirigent de main de maftre depuis 25 ans. Jean-Carlo FAIT possede a son actif /'exploration de plus de 1500 grottes, a ecrit de nombreux ouvrages et realise des films sur /es cavernes et les falaises de La Ciotat, dont ii est le specialiste incontournable. En decembre 1989 ii cree l'lnstitut du Monde Mineral. Ne d'un pere ltalien et d 'une mere franr;aise ii possede la double nationalite et est ne a Karditsa, en Grece, le 5 decembre 1959. Apres avoir ete pendant longtemps tresoriere du Speleo-club de La Ciotat, Catherine REGNAULT-FAIT est aujourd'hui presidente de la Maison des F alaises, creee en 199 3, pour gerer et valoriser le site nature/ classe des plus hautesfalaises maritimes d Europe. Au mots de septembre 1987 Catherine et Jean-Carlo ont organise un voyage en Grece en compagnie de sa mere Rosette Tommasi et Jo son beau-pere. Ce voyage initiatique d'un mots est pour Jean-Carlo un pelerinage sur sa terre de naissance: d'abord sur /es traces des bergers du plateau d'Astraka ou s 'ouvre le mythique Abfme de la Provatina l 'une des plus grandes verticales souterraines du monde, mais aussi a Karditsa, a quelques kilometres des Meteores region centrale de la Grece et dont /es conglomerats rappellent etrangement ceux du Bee de l 'Aigle a La Ciotat. Un voyage de 6000 km a travers l 'ltalie et I 'ex Yougoslavie, a la rencontre de l 'origine de la civilisation, de la Grece antique: Delphes Athenes, Mycene, Olympe sans oublier le canal de Corinthe qui vibre sur un air de Sirtaki. Presidentjondateur du Speleo-club de La Ciotat, fonde en 1980, photographe et cineaste, Jean-Carlo FAIT, Catherine son epouse et leurs deux enfants souhaitent profiter de l 'organisation a Athenes du 14 congres international de speleologie au mots d'Aout 2005 pour redecou vrir ce Parfum de Grece et promouvoir leur regard nouveau sur la speleologie a l'heure ciotadenne a travers la presentation d'unfilm sur la Grotte du Grand Drai'oun Cette communication est dediee a mes parents, Silvio FAIT et Rosette FAIT, nee TO MMASL decedes brutalement debut 2004 ; et a Marcelle 21-28 Auuusl 2005 l ( alumos. He/las REGNAULT, nee Gregeois, qui vient de nous quitter en ce debut d'avril 2005. Abstract In La Ciotat, Jean-Carlo and Catherine Fait founded in 1980, the Spe leo-club "La Salamandre", then in 1993 the Cliffs-House, with a main aim : to give the opportunity to discover and add value to this natural site of the highest sea cliffs in Europe. The Mineral World Institute was finally created in 1999. Jean-Carlo Fait explored more than 1500 caves, wrote different books and realised films on La Ciotat's cliffs and cavities, that he is nowadays the most respected specialist of them. The dynamic support of his wife relayed his activity in the field, in co operation with local actors of the sportive and associative life in La Ciotat and with nature lovers. The couple has 30 years of practice in organisation of various kinds of events, outings and courses for all ages and types of groups. And their activity strengthened the speleology in La Ciotat area. Therefore, they are extremely interested in participating in this congress and transmitting their experience, since Jean-Carlo, born greek of an Ital ian father and a French mother, took his wife and his mother back to his roots, eighteen years ago, on the Astraka table-land where the mythical Provatina abyss opens, with a great enthusiasm Now, with an increased motivation, they wish to take advantage of this 14th congress to take their children with them and transmit them the "perfume of Greece" and bring together the speleological interest of La Ciotat through the presentation of the film on the Drai'oun Cavity, the most important of Calanques, lei Commence L'aventure Je suis ne a Karditsa, en Thessalie, a quelques kilometres des celebres Meteores le 5 decembre 1959 au matin. Le premier airquej'ai respire en venant au monde est done le parfum de la Grece mon pays natal. Mon pere Silvio Fait, italien de nationalite, a quitte son tyrol natal en


1956 pour venir travailler aux Chantiers Navals de La Ciotat en tant que manceuvre puis soudeur. 11 raconte dans son cahier-joumal: Ragazzi quella laggiu e La Ciotat, la cittadina che ci portera fortuna o che finira di rovinarci I En compagnie d'une dizaine d'italien entre vingt et vingt cinq ans, c'etait ajoute-t-il: la prima volta che andavamo all'estero ... Son travail le conduira a travers toute la France, puis en Grece ou pendant un an il sera soudeur hautement specialise, et contribuera a la mise en place des conduites forcees qui alimentent la centrale hydroelectrique de Karditsa ou ma mere, nee a La Ciotat de parents emigres de Toscane, me mettra aumonde. A ma naissance impossible de bouger. Les Grecs m'avaient ficele dans des bandelettes, comme une momie et lorsque ma mere me sortait pour aller promener les passants me crachaient dessus pour, dit-on eloigner le mauvais ceil. J'ai oublie le nom du docteur qui m'a mis au monde, mais ma mere me racontait souvent les problemes de comprehension dus a la difference de langue, qui se terminaient souvent par un fou rire. Ainsi, un jour ou j 'etais malade elle fit appel au docteur qui m'a mis au monde: J' ai mis du miel dans son biberon. Non, Madame -Si,j'en ai mis ... vous dis-jc Mais non, ne vous inquietez pas ii n 'a pas l'anemie I J' ai done commence a explorer le monde en Crece, sur des bases d'incomprehension. Et, il me faudra attendre 28 ans pour retoumer dans mon pays natal en compagnie de ma mere, Rosette. Un prenom predestine qui rappelle celui de la fameuse Pierre de Rosette dechif free par Champollion C'est le compte rendu inedit de ce Voyage en Grece septembre 1987 que je voulais publier en memoire de mes parents a l'occasion de ce 14eme congres international de speleologie. Avec Cathy nous avons prefere faire un bulletin special La Salamandre en le completant de notre experience de 2005. Jene donnerais done ici que les grandes lignes de notre periple .. de 1987 Et je remercie d'avance nos collegues speleologues Grecs pour leur accueil a !'occasion de ce congres qui est une occasion inesperee, pour moi-meme et toute ma famille, de retrouver mes racines non sans une certaine emotion. Ainsi je puis dire que depuis 45 ans, je suis Gree de naissance, italien par le sang et frarn;ais par l'esprit. On ne saurait rever meilleur lien pour sceller une solide amitie europeenne Recit d'un Voyage en Grece septembre 1987 par Catherine REG NAULT-FAIT Samedi 12 septembre 1987, 8 h. Enfin le depart tant attendu de La Ciotat (Bouches du Rhone -France). Un periple de pres de 10 000 kilometres, longuement prepare. N'avons nous rien oublie, tout est-il dans la voiture? Les bagages sont-ils bien arrimes sur le porte-bagage charge a craquer? En effet, nous emportons 200 metres de corde et tout le materiel d' exploration pour descendre dans la Provatina qui hante nos reves. Dernieres verification du sac a main: les cartes d'identites, les sous, tout yest, nous pouvons partir, mais pour se faire, il ne faut pas oublier les cartes routieres de la Yougoslavie et de la Grece. Pour aller en Italie, pas besoin d'indications nous connaissons le chemin ... depuis le temps que nous circulons entre Toscane et Trentino a !'occasion des vacances. Mais la Grece nous para'it bien lointaine, isolee par la barriere geographique de la Yougoslavie, ou nous n'avons jamais mis les pieds. Que de reves, que d'espoir, que de retrouvaille dans cette Grece antique, berceau de notre civilisation Hellenic S;wlea!o1Jica/ SocieiY Apres un parcours autoroutier sans encombre nous debarquons, sa medi vers 20 h, chez beau papa, a Saltaria, pres de Rovereto (TN) ouf Je suis un peu fatiguee et dire que 7000 Kms (aller-retour), nous attendent ; la dans la vieille maison familiale nous etablirons l'itineraire que nous ne suivrons que de tres loin Tout d'abord la Yougoslavie pays de desolation de tristesse, les gens sont presses, les enfants courent pour aller a l'ecole de peur d'etre en retard ; il fait bon, mais les femmes sont habilles de robe, de chandail et portent des bas ; pas un sourire sur les levres, seulement la tristesse. Les enfants 5 a 6 ans ( comment leur donner un age ?) viennent mendier trois sous, trois bonbons tandis qu'un petit vieux, fatigue de sa longue marche, vient se rafraichir a la fontaine ou nous nous sommes ar retes pour nous desalterer ... et d'un pas leste, s'evanouit dans la foret, ou va-t-il ainsi, combien de kilometres lui reste t-il a parcourir? Notre premier objectif touristique en Yougoslavie sera la grotte de Postumia. Magnifique, grandiose mais trop touristique a mon gout. Je prefere beaucoup Sokjean Jame, plus pittoresque et mysterieuse avec son torrent souterrain qui gronde sous des voutes de cent metres de hauteur Nous ne quitterons pas ce pays sans aller voir les lacs de Plitvice. Un petit train vous depose dans un grand pare reserve naturelle, ou les lacs abondent. Trente six parait-il, de droite et de gauche, les lacs, les cascades de tuf se succedent aussi etincelantes les unes que les autres. Nous aurons peu de temps pour la visite aussi nous ne feront que le trajet le plus court. Quel dommage, il faudrait passer des jours entiers dans ce lieux enchante et romanesque. Notre sejour n'est que de trois semaines et nous n'avons pas le temps de nous attarder. Nous poursuivront notre periple vers la Grece, ou l 'histoire et la mythologie nous attendent. Arrivee en Grece. Nous commencerons par le plateau d' Astraka. Nous installerons nos tentes dans un petit village, des plus pittoresques. Notre but est clair a Jean et moi: aller voir l' Abime de la Provatina, sur le tres haut plateau d' Astraka, mais le temps est a la pluie Et apres 10 heures de marche lourdement charges (200 m de cordes plus le barda du parfait speleologue) nous rebrousserons chemin au grand desespoir de Jean, dans la nuit et sous les hurlements des chiens qui gardent les troupeaux dans la montagne. Dans la plaine de Thessalie, les Meteores rochers de gres et poudingues ou s'accrochent de splendides monasteres nous redonnent de l'espoir. 11 faudrait la aussi rester des semaines, en admiration devant ces beautes de la nature et des hommes. On se demande comment les pretres, les semites a l' epoque ont pu construire leurs monasteres la haut, pres du ciel. Je crois que de tout ce que j'allais voir de la Grece, c est l'endroit qui m'a le plus frappe. Puis nous irons a Karditsa, ville ou Jean est ne, le 5 decembre 1959. A la grande stupefaction de ma belle-mere, Rosette, la maison ou elle etait logee (rue kolokotroni) est toujours la, a l'abandon 28 ans se sont ecoules ... tout est en place, comme si le temps avait ete suspendu. Hasard ou signe du destin? Jean prend quelques photos. 11 n'y a la, rien de par ticulier dans cette petite ville. Le soir, vers 18 h, sur la place principale les gens defilent dans un sens puis dans l' autre sans arret jusque tard dans la nuit ; meme les boutiques ouvrent-leur portes. Avant de continuer, nous irons voir la conduite forcee qui descend de la montagne a Mitropolis C'est la que mon beau-pere, Silvio FAIT, travaillait comme soudeur hautement qualifie lors de son sejour d'un an en Grece. A kastania, au bord du lac artificiel, nous rencontrons un vieil homme moustachu et ride, assez fort, qui nous dit avoir travaille a la construction du barrage entre 1952 et 1965, epoque ou mon pere etait done sur place. Le barrage fait 83 m de haut pour 220 m de long nous precisera t-il. 14111 ln tem uti onu f Com He ss ut Soe! eol oo y


Hellenic S11elealooical Society Puis nous arriverons a Delphes, site archeologique majeur. Merveil leux: il faut gravirn la montagne, passer entre les temples (enfin ce qu'il en reste) pour atteindre le stade, immense et bien plat presque inimagina ble au milieu des montagnes. Enfin nous visiterons ATHENES, la capitale. Je fus tres de9ue par cette ville, rien n'y est particulier, les gens sont presses, les magasins identiques a ceux que nous avons vus. Bien sur il y a le Parthenon comme pose sur un piedestal de gres, mais par rapport a certain site que nous avons visite je ne crois pas que ce soit le plus beau, surtout avec tous ces echafaudages ... qui creent un barriere visuelle En revanche les cariatides sont elles magnifiques de souplesse et de fragilite. Nous franchirons le canal de Corinthe, dont je garde une forte im pression sur un fond de Sirtaki. Les boutiques sont nombreuses et nous achetons quelques cassettes audio qui egrenerons les longues heures de notre voyage de retour. Faute de temps, notre periple dans le Peloponese se limitera a Mycene et Olympe ... et il nous faudra attendre dix huit ans pour partir enfin a sa decouverte. LE JOURNAL DETAILLE DE NOTRE VOYAGE en 1987 et de celui de 2005 SERA PUBLIE DANS LA SALAMANDRE N 75 a notre retour de voyage. 2 photos Astraka, 2 photos Meteores, Athenes et coucher de soleil sur la baie de Vougliagmeni. QUEQUES SPECIALITES GREQUES QUI NOUS ONT MAR QUEES EN 1987 Au cours de notre sejour en Grece nous avons decouvert des special ites et us et coutumes locales: Boissons: Vin au fort gout de resine: RETSINA Aperitif gout d'anis: OUZO Tarama: Tzatziki: Salade Grecque: Souvlaki: Marchants Ambulants: mousse aux reuf de cabillaud yaourt au concombre et a l' ail concombre, tomate, feta, olives, brochettes Donner = polpete + brochette Risotto in Cavroman viande de mouton, artichauts a la grecque Fromage local de chevre: la feta Patisseries: baclavas a base de miel, kovmos: creme au citron lokoum kata'ifi, loukoumades. Gateau tiropito : riz + reuf + creme Specialites grecques: Moussaka: ragout de viande hachee, tomates + becha-mel, verdure frite, fiomage Dolmates: feuille de vignes froid en entree: riz, oignons, feuilles de men thes chaud, plat de resistance: riz + fromage ou viande hachee + reuf 21 -2 8 Au u usf 20 05. Ha lan w s. He fl us Le Diner Night/cabarets: vers 10 h le soir Athenes et littoral du Piree a Vouliagmeni Monnaie: Le drachme 1 drachme = 100 leptas / 1 F = 10 drachme = 4,95 prix a diviser par 20 environ Cheques non acceptes Banques: Ouverture de 8 h a 14 h 30 1 h de decalage par rapport a la France(+ lh) GRANDS GOUFFRES et GROTTES DE GRECE La revue Spelunca de la Federation Franr;aise de Speleologie avait publie deux articles en 1976 et 1977 sur deux des principales verticales souterraines grecques, situees sur le plateau d' Astraka: 1) La Provatina (grece ): pindhos oros, loaninna, Plateau d' Astraka qui domine le village de Papigon. Bibliographie: Spelunca 1977, n p 159. 160 Acces: Canyon raide (quelques passages d'escalades ou sentier au Nord Ouest qui contourne les falaises ). Descente -6m spit+ crochet ; 2iem e spit 3m sous le palier -177m 2) Le gouffre Mavro Skiadi Spelunca 1976 n 4 p155 -158 Grottes: Perama (Perama, loaninna, Ipeiros ), developpement 1700 m. Vlyhada ou Glyphada (Diros, Lakonie, Peloponnisos, developpement 3400 m. grotte touristique au bord de mer. Curiosites: Cote de Vouliagmeni, pres d' Athenes, piscine naturelle d'eau douce. Yougoslavie, pres de Lubljana, pont naturel et gorge du RAK REKA, pres du village de Skocjan -gouffre. 14eme congres international de speleologie a Athenes Aofit 2005. Depuis ma naissance ceci est mon troisieme sejour en Grece: 5/12/1959: Naissance a Karditsa. Mes parents sont arrives en Grece en aout, pour un an. -Septembre 1987: Retour sur mon lieu de naissance et decouverte de la Grece antique. Aout 2005: Congres de speleologie et decouverte du milieu souter rain Gree avec ma famille. Un seul regret, ne pas l'avoir fait avec mon pere decede le 28 fevrier 2004. Aussi etait-il normal que je lui dedie une partie de mon reuvre de speleologue qui s'inscrit dans le gres et le poudingue des plus hautes falaises maritimes d'Europe, a La Ciotat; mais aussi dans le marbre de Toscane et dans les dolomies du Trentin. Desormais, un triangle sacre s 'est forme entre le Tyrol du Sud, la France et la Grece, en passant par la Toscane ; un hymen invisible unira pour moi et pour l'etemite ses lieux charges d'histoire. Apres tout mon nom, FAIT ne derive-t-il pas de l'allemand Veit, en italien Vito, nom qui signifie vie etemelle Au sommet du Bee de l 'Aigle, rocher de poudingue caracteristique qui protege depuis des temps immemoriaux la ville de La Ciotat, existe un petit abri rocheux cache par des oliviers d'ou le regard scrute la mer vers l'Est a la recherche de quelque navire venu de Grece. N'est-ce pas au pied de ce monolithe de poudingue roux, qui semble deployer les ailes d'un rapace flottant sur les eaux turquoises que les premiers Grecs vinrent jeter


l'ancre dans l' Anse du pre qui deviendra, bien plus tard, La Ciotat, escale inevitable sur la route maritime de MASSALIA ? Je dedie done la petite grotte au sommet de cette pierre a Rosette ma mere et le pas d'acces depuis le Belvedere du large (pare du Mugel) a mon pere Silvio. Etj'invite nos amis Grecs, speleologues ou non, a venir nombreux decouvrir les plus hautes falaises maritimes d'Europe, sur les traces de leurs ancetres venus s'installer a Massalia (Marseille), et surtout a faire !'ascension du Bee de l' Aigle dont le poudingue n'est pas sans rap peler les celebres Meteores de Thessalie. Hasard ou correspondance ? A UN AN DE LA TRAGEDIE Il ya plus d'un an, au deces de mes parents j ai decide de leur dedier une partie de mon travail d' exploration et de mise en securite des sites naturels de La Ciotat notamment la creation des Randonnees du ver tiges Au cours de l'ete 2004 j'ai depose une plaque de marbre et cette inscription au sommet du Bee de l' Aigle: 0-11 Je dedie cette pierre a Rosette, ma mere Soutien fidele de mes plus hardies peregrinations. Je dedie le Passo Silvio a-mon pere Qui, bien avant moi a gravi Helle nic Sueleolouica! S o cie/y Le Bee de l'Aigle et les montagnes De son Tyro 1 natal Je dedie cet abri de la mante religieuse Aux artisans meconnus qui ont ouvert la voie . Des randonnees du vertige a L a Ciotat. Et baptise les rappels qui suivent Au nom du Pere, du fils et du Saint Esprit Incames dans les rochers des Trois Secs ABRACADABRA. Une chanson les represente comme trois filles trois Maries. Un veritable cimetiere marin repose au pied de ce mirador. Depuis l'ile verte, ce monolithe rocheux vu de profil Peut faire penser a un rapace, animal venere par les Egyptiens. Les Grecs et les Romains ont ete impressionnes par Sa splendeur immortelle et sa majeste. Gageons que ceux qui suivront nos pas sauront le respecter Jean-Carlo FAIT (Fils eplore 28 fevrier et 6 mars 2004) Photo Bee de l Aigle a La Ciotat. Precise Measurement of Surveying-Sections Using Image Processing Techniques Sel9uk Canbe k*, Ni hat Adar elcuk @ tr, n adar @ ogu edu t r Osmangazi University Computer Engineering Department, Eski~ehir, Turkey In this research, a method for surveying of cave, tunnel, and closed volumes is developed. In traditional methods section height and width is estimated or measured manually. Approximated 3-D map of volume can be produced connecting those sections. In order to get more precise map, operator shall measure sections with many points that is very time con suming process. In this study, measurement process is automated by tak ing pictures of sections and those pictures are post processed using image processing techniques to produce precise cutting contours of measured sections. This method called Photo-Survey. Photo-Survey uses a specially modified light source (battery operated light source with 180-degree view angle). Operator uses this lamp to il luminate the section and to obtain sharp shadow edges at measurement locations Then, a digital photograph of illuminated section is taken. On the back of the light source, an object ( circle picture) with known size is attached. These pictures are processed as following, afterwards. First, a median filter is applied to eliminate noise and reflections. In order to produce shadow contours of section edge detection methods are used on pictures. Having shadow contours, measurement can be applied on these pictures if they satisfy two criteria. The first one is that camera should be perpendicularly positioned to sections surface. In other words, camera should be located on the normal axis of section surface. If one knows an gle between section surface normal and camera picture taken with any an gle can be used for measurement. A method to find normal axis of a circle in a picture is developed. Thus, the picture can be corrected using affine transform methods using calculated angle. Second criteria, camera used in this method should be inserted far enough so that perspective distortion is negligible However this is not a proper restriction to follow in caves, because, we do not enough space in caves to get pictures from far away. The camera used in Photo-Survey method is calibrated and a method is devised so that its pictures can be transformed from perspective to parallel projection allowing us to take pictures closer to measured sections Photo-Survey method allows users to take pictures freely and fast. Next, these pictures are post processed to make measurements precisely. This lets operators to spend less time for measurement in caves or tunnels ( only time to take pictures for each measured section). Having precise cutting contours of each measured section one can produce 3-D map of volume. 1. Introduction Cave studies are made by researchers from different disciplines. Geologists, archeologists biologists, speleologists and others use similar research methods in cave studies. While some researchers study rocks and underground water, others only might interest intersects, flora in caves. In order for them to make research in caves, cave maps must exist. Cave maps can serve many uses in an investigation; depend upon what is being attempted. Some disciplines uses cave map to find their ways in caves, some others tries to point the location where they picked the samples. Speleologists need to know how far and deep they reached in caves. Traditional maps give rough information about shape and distances in the caves. When researchers use cave maps for volume calculation or distance measurement, map's precision becomes important [YAMAC 03, TASKIRAN 03, ARIKAN 03, PANCARCI 03). The standard survey technique consists of the measurement of azimuth and distance between consecutive survey stations and depth, width, and height at each station Survey stations were established at turns in the guideline and at junctions between cave passages. Once the survey data has been collected checked and tabulated, the next step in the mapping process was to convert the data into a Cartesian coordinate system such that the data could be plotted and compared to other forms of spatial data. Numerous computerized cave mapping programs are available that will automatically generate cave maps. Some of the more popular programs include Compass2, Survex3, and WinKarst4. Some of the available pro grams are capable of three-dimensional plotting and statistical analysis of 14th lntemuliorwl Cumness of Soefeulouy


Hellenic Sfle le a faai cul Socie ty survey data [BTOPCU 05]. Most programs, however, are tailored for sur vey data that manually collected. In this research, we proposed a method that automates the survey data collection. People preparing cave maps have to study with light and a few equip ments because the measurement process is hard and v e ry time-consuming work. Thus, maps prepared by these traditional methods give information about shape and rough distances in the caves and most of the details are not included (Readings taken from a navigational compass can be con sidered accurate to within +/-1 ; Distance measurements taken can be considered accurate up to + / -I meter). Because of the lack of the preci sion, to make surface or volume calculations using traditional maps is not possible. Techniques used in traditional cave mapping methods are main cause of this precision problem. In traditional mapping methods, distance between measurement stations and direction information's precision is important. However, precise cutting contours of the measurement section at stations have no much importance. They usually measure height and width of the section and the shape of the section contours are roughly hand drawn. Most of the time, the height of the section at stations is es timated. As a result, maps prepared using traditional methods cannot be used for precise calculations of the cave distances and volumes. A method to produce precise cutting contours of the sections, called section-cut, is proposed. Thus, precise 3-D maps of the caves can be constructed using section-cuts produced by our method. 2. Photo-Survey Method In traditional mapping methods, section-cuts are measured using right, left top and bottom distances at stations and section-cut shape is hand drawn roughly on to papers (Figure 1 ) Since th1s processes handled by the person who stands at station location, most of the details are lost in these hand drawn section-cuts. Figure 1: Traditional section-cut m e asurement method. Actual contour of the section and distances measur e d on the left A typical hand drawn approximation of the same se c tion on the right In Photo-Survey method, neither distance measurements nor hand drawing the contour of the section are needed. Only a picture of the sec tion is taken and then post processed. These post processed pictures than can be used to make distance measurements and produce precise contour oftheA /\ Figure 2: Th e Photo Surve y M e thod. Pictur e o f the section w i th light sourc e on th e l e ft the contour of th e section aft e r post processing o n the right. 2 7-28 August 2005. l(alwnos. Hellos 2.1. Material and Method In this method, a camera for taking pictures and a point light source that lightens the half sphere are needed. 2.1.1. Camera: A digital camera with fixed lens can be used. In this study, Canon EOS 1 OD-photo camera with 20 mm fixed lens is being used. Cameras with zooming lenses cannot be used because lens distor tions are corrected with software techniques and these techniques cannot be applied to zooming lenses. While taking pictures, camera is fixed using a standard tripod. Using higher resolution camera increases the measure ment precision. Our camera s resolution is 6.5 pixels. Its picture, taken 5 meter away from camera, can be used to calculate distances with mm tolerances. 2.1.2. Light source: The light source should be small and have high intensity in order to create sharp shadow contours. In this application, 55W halogen light bulb is used. Since light source should lighten half sphere homogenously we inserted the light bulb into one side open cylin drical cover (Figure 3). The cylindrical cover is positioned using a tripod at stations. On the back of the cylindrical bulb cover a circle with known radius is drawn This circle is being used as reference object in pictures. 0 Bu l b F r ont view Left v lew R ear view Figure 3: The front side and r e ar views of th e li g ht source 2.2. Taking Pictures The light source is located at station where the contour of the section is needed. Camera is positioned at some distance ( distance registered for later use) so that it can get the picture of the whole section (Figure 4). Light source lightens the section away from camera. Fi g ure 4: Taking se ction pictur e In the picture the contours of the section is marked by shadow edge ~ (Figure 5) / Additionally, traditional mapping measurements, using DistPro laser range finder, are taken at every section and compared with Photo-Survey method results. 2.3. Post Processing In order to use the picture, taken from survey location, i t has to be post processed by image processing techniques. The post processing opera lions are handled at several stages as shown in Figure 6.


Figure 5: A sample section picture Figure 6: Post Processing Operations 2.3.1. Perspective to Parallel Conversion: The light rays of the ob ject go through camera lenses and poses camera sensors. Camera lenses and detectors cause's distortions near the picture frame borders Taking picture further away from the section alleviates the distortion problem however caves are small places. Most of the time, pictures has to be taken in short distances. In addition, lenses with wide angles (24 mm) have more distortion. In order to make measurements on the pictures, this distortion has to be corrected. For this purpose, a picture of the test image (black and white 16x16-checker board picture) has taken and a correction filter is constmcted by software. A correction filter for each lens has to be constmcted. 2.3.2. Rotation: Another criterion to meet in order to make measure ments on a picture is that the camera should be perpendicularly positioned to sections surface. However, this is not an easy task to achieve especially in caves. A method to find normal axis of a circle in a picture is developed so that camera can be positioned with any angle to section surface. After pictures, using circle on the back of the light source, the angle between section surface normal and camera direction is calculated. Thus, knowing the angle, the rotated picture, that is same as the picture taken with a camera that located on the nonnal axis of the section surface, is reproduced by affine transforms [CANBEK 04]. After rotation process, measurement on the picture using pixel counts can be achieved. The unit distance a pixel represents can be calculated by the radius of the circle drawn on the back of the light source. 2.3.3. Image Enhancement: Cave's environmental conditions do not allow us to take picture with same quality all the time. Noise and un necessary details should be filtered away from the picture. In this stage, a median filter is used. 2.3.4, Shadow Filter: The contour of the section is produced by shadow edges in the picture. In this stage, shadow edges are sharpened and detected to use as a contour of the section. As a result, each section picture is post processed and the precise contours of the sections are pro duced (Figure 7). Figure 7: Section picture on the left. The contour of the section produced on the right 3, Results and Discussion Photo-Survey method allows users to take pictures freely and fast. Next, these pictures are post processed to make measurements. This lets operators spend less time and effort for measurements in caves or tunnels (only time to take pictures for each measured section). Using a standard camera and a light source, mm tolerances are easily achieved. Once the precise cutting contours of each measured section, section-cut, is col lected, the next step in the 3-D mapping process is to connect section-cuts to generate three-dimensional plot of the cave. In order to produce 3-D cave maps, connecting the section-cuts of the Photo-Survey method is be ing studied currently. In this research, each stage of the post processing is done by different software modules. Our next goal is to produce a single software module so that image-processing phase can be handled faster. 4, References [CANBEK 04] Canbek S., Adar N., Aksoy E., "Ytizey Yonlenme lerinin Belirlenmesinde <;:emberdeki Bic;im Bozulmasmm Kullamm1", Havac1hkta ileri Teknolojiler ve Uygulamalan Sempozyumu, pp 537-540, 9-10 December 2004, Istanbul, Turkey. [YAMAC 03] Yamac; M., "Biology of Caves (Biospeology)", Conservation of the Cave Ecosystem and Cave Use in Turkey, pp 33-44, 6-7 December 2003, Antalya, Turkey. [TASKIRAN 03] Ta~k1ran H., "The Importance of Caves From the Point of View of Prehistoric Archaelogy", Conservation of the Cave Ecosystem and Cave Use in Turkey, pp 77-82, 6-7 December 2003, Antalya, Turkey. [ARIKAN 03] Ankan N., Evci D Caves, "Tourism, Human and Environmental Health", Conservation of the Cave Ecosystem and Cave Use in Turkey, pp 83-89, 6-7 December 2003, Antalya, Turkey. [PANCARCI 03] Pancarci M., Unlti P., "Sportive Usage of Caves", Conservation of the Cave Ecosystem and Cave Use in Turkey, pp l 03-114, 6-7 December 2003, Antalya, Turkey [BTOPCU 05] Btiyuktopc;u F., "AutoCAD ile Fotograflardan En Kesit ve 3 Boyutlu Goriintlintin Elde Edilmesi", speleoTURK-Karst and Cave Explorations Periodical, pp 28-34, Vol 2, 2005, Turkey


Hellenic SfJe/eo!ar1icn! Socie!Y 0-12 URBAN STORM WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CITIES BUILT UPON KARST: BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY, USA Gina L ee C es in N ich ol a s C. C r a wfo r d Center for Cave and Karst Studies, Applied Research and Technology Program of Distinction Department of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, Kentucky USA Abstract Cities built upon well-developed karst have serious problems associ ated with storm water management, such as, sinkhole flooding, ground water contamination from storm water runoff, spills of toxic chemicals, and storm water induced regolith collapse sinkholes. Bowling Green, Kentucky, with a population of about 60,000, is a city located entirely upon a sinkhoie piain with virtuaUy aU storm water runoff flowing into the cave streams that drain the city. This paper discusses sinkhole flood ing problems, regolith collapse sinkholes induced by storm water runoff and storm water quality issues. The Center for Cave and Karst Studies (CCKS) has assisted the city of Bowling Green and Warren County with its karst environmental problems since it was established within the De partment of Geography and Geology in 1978. Research discussed in this paper includes the use of dye traces combined with water table measure ments to determine the general flow routes of cave streams that drain the karst aquifer beneath the city. The CCKS has also mapped the accessible caves under the city and located the general route of other caves by using the geophysical techniques of microgravity and electrical resistivity. The CCKS has prepared a GIS map showing springs, karst windows, caves and other karst features. The map also shows the general flow routes taken by cave streams as determined by over 100 dye tracer tests. It also shows the contours for the water table surface beneath the city and the groundwater basin catchment area boundaries for the major springs. The paper discusses the storm water management plan enacted by the Bowl ing Green -Warren County Planning Commission in 1976 that prohibits construction within sinkhole flood plains and requires storm water reten tion basins. Two case studies are presented where the CCKS has assisted the city with sinkhole flooding problems and the removal of contaminants from storm water runoff. Sinkhole Flood Plains Bowling Green, Kentucky is located entirely upon a sinkhole plain with virtually all of the storm water runoff flowing into the cave streams that drain the city. Virtuc1lly all of the city is located on the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve Limestone which is characterized by large, shallow sink hole basins with large catchment areas for storm water runoff. This low relief sinkhole plain has resulted in serious sinkhole flooding problems throughout much of the city. Just to the east of the city the underlying St. Louis Limestone outcrops and is characterized by numerous large, deep sinkholes. This high relief sinkhole plain has few problems associated with sinkhole flooding because the catchment areas are smaller, and the bottoms of the sinkholes are obvious. Therefore, people have not built houses or buildings in the sinkhole flood plain, and this area is presently characterized by low-density, suburban development or farmland. The sinkhole flooding problem within the city was addressed by the Bowling Green -Warren County Planning Commission when they en acted their Storm Water Management Plan in 197 6. This plan requires that any time there is a land use change within the County, an engineering con sulting firm must prepare a storm water management plan that delimits the sinkhole flood plain elevation for all the sinkholes that would be impacted by the land use change. The sinkhole flood plain is defined as the flood elevation in each sinkhole that would result from a 100-year probability three-hour storm event. This is equal to 10.2 cm ( 4 in) of precipitation 7-28 Auuust 2005. l

and in the bottoms of bowl-shaped sinkholes where water stands after hard rains. Although the regolith collapse sinkholes are numerous, they rarely occur under homes or buildings in the Bowling Green area. Some times the ones that occur along ditches do impact the adjacent highway. Since the great majority of the collapses tend to occur near the bottoms of bowl-shaped sinkholes and along ditches, they are often used to direct storm water into the karst aquifer. The collapse identifies an open vertical crevice down into the karst aquifer. These collapses are, therefore, often excavated to bedrock to expose the crevice, and a well is then constructed, sometimes several meters (feet) in diameter, to direct storm water runoff into the vertical Caves and Open Throat Sinkholes Since Bowling Green is built entirely upon a sinkhole plain, virtually all storm water runoff sinks directly into the karst aquifer at thousands of locations. At some of these locations, the city has directed additional storm water runoff into cave entrances and open throat sinkholes. Storm Water Quality In the well-developed karst of Kentucky, cave streams are quite com parable to surface streams Storm water runoff flows directly into caves at swallets and at numerous open throat sinkholes on the sinkhole plain. Therefore, the cave streams function as storm sewers just as surface streams also function as storm sewers in non-karst areas. Cities over 100,000 population have been required for several years by USEPA to test, and if need be, to treat storm water runoff in an attempt to increase the water quality of surface streams. Two years ago, USEPA extended these regulations to all towns within the U.S. with populations of I 0,000 or more. Therefore, Bowling Green, with a population of approximately 60,000, is now required to meet USEPA Phase II Storm Water Manage ment Plan regulations. The city has recently passed a tax increase and hired five people just to deal with storm water quality. The USEPA is still permitting the direct injection of storm water runoff into the karst aquifer beneath the city, but like other towns with more than 10,000 population, Bowling Green must now test its water quality and take steps to improve the quality of storm water runoff. The Center for Cave and Karst Studies (CCKS) has assisted the city and county with sinkhole flooding problems, sinkhole collapses and groundwater quality issues since it was founded in 1978. The faculty and professional staff and students associated with the CCKS are now actively involved in assisting the city to meet the USEPA Phase II Storm Water Management Plan regulations. Groundwater Flow Map of Bowling Green A GIS map showing the approximate groundwater flow routes within the karst aquifer in the vicinity of Bowling Green was prepared based upon: 1) dye traces, 2) cave maps, 3) caves located by microgravity and electrical resistivity, and 4) water table measurements. This map repre sents research performed by the faculty, professional staff and students of the CCKS since 1978 The numerous dye traces are shown as red lines on the map. Water table elevation contours as estimated from measure ments taken at: 1) open borehole water wells, 2) storm water drainage wells that extend below the water table, 3) cave streams, 4) springs, and 5) surface streams are shown as blue lines. The approximate groundwater basin catchment boundaries based upon the dye traces and water table elevations are shown as dashed green lines. The map identifies the ap proximate groundwater flow routes to springs for the following major groundwater basin catchment areas : 1) Lost River, 2) Graham Springs, 3) Hobson Grove Springs, 4) Double Springs, 5) Mt. Ayr Blue Hole and Bluff Springs, and 6) Harris Spring Included on the map are dye trace and water table contours northeast of Barren River performed by Dr. James Quinlan and Mr. Joe Ray (1981, revised 1989) This compilation of karst groundwater data onto one map was prepared to assist the City of Bowling Green in meeting the USEPA Phase II Storm Water Managemen t Plan re quirements and to assist Bowling Green with emergency response to any future spills of hazardous liquids. A poster paper authored by Brewer and Crawford (2005), entitled, "Groundwater Basin Delineation by Dye Trac ing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques : Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA", is presented at this conference. Case Study: Egypt Parking Lot One serious sinkhole flooding problem occurred in the vicinity of the Egypt Parking Lot at Western Kentucky University. After heavy rains, the sinkhole flooding covered not only the Egypt Parking Lot but also a major highway. This sinkhole has flooded repeatedly over the past 50 years, and during the last large flood, over eighty cars were inundated. Two storm water drainage wells had been drilled in the past in an attempt to alleviate the flooding. The wells did not help, and they actually resulted in increased contamination of the karst aquifer by receiving the first flush of storm water during every storm event. The CCKS investigated the problem for the University, the city of Bowling Green, and the Kentucky Department of Transportation. Dye tracer tests and water table mapping indicated that the large Lost River Cave was located near the vicinity of the flooding problem. Microgravity and electrical resistivity traverses were made perpendicular to the hypothesized route of Lost River Cave (Crawford, Fryer and Calkins, 2000). Exploratory borings were made into prominent low-gravity, high-resistivity anomalies These borings intersected the large Lost River Cave. With the cave location established at one location, other traverses were performed in a "leapfrog" fashion to map the location of the cave as it extended under the Egypt Parking Lot (Crawford, Lewis and Webster, 1999). A boring into a low-gravity, high resistivity anomaly under the Egypt Lot intersection the Lost River Cave stream at a depth of 12 m (40 ft) (Figure 1). A downhole camera was used to investigate the cave, and dye traces were used to confirm that the cave stream was, in fact, the large Lost River. The flooding problem was mitigated by drilling four, 1 22m ( 4 ft) diameter wells directly into the cave stream. Contamina tion by first flush water was mitigated by plugging exjsting drainage wells and the installation of four VortechsR storm water treatment units (Figure 2) These units separate oil and grease and suspended sediment before the storm water flows into the cave stream. This project was the first attempt to remove contaminants from urban storm water runoff previous to its flowing into the karst aquifer beneath the city. Similar systems are now being built at various locations throughout Bowling Green The four VortechsR storm water treatment systems installed at Egypt Parking Lot are the largest built by the Vortechnics Company and are highly efficient in the treatment of storm water (Vortechnics, 2004). Each of these units is designed to remove oil and grease and suspended sediments for about 2.84 m3/s (100.5 cfs). These units not only treat the first flush but also the entire flow of storm water previous to its being dis charged into the Lost River. The treatment system is designed to work at three levels of storm intensity (low, medium, and high) using three unique chambers (grit chamber, floatable baffle wall, and low/high flow control) that are each designed for a specific function. The grit chamber separates the floating and sinking pollutants that first enter the system by a gentle swirling motion. The gravitational separation allows the settleable solids to conically pile on the chamber floor. Over time, as storm intensities vary, the grit chamber increases the swirling action appropriately to maintain a high removal rate of sediments. The floatable baffle wall stops float ing pollutants, such as, debris and hydrocarbons from flowing through the system while allowing the debris-free water to flow beneath the wall and into the final chamber. The final chamber's low/high function is to control the discharge rate at varying storm intensities. During low inten-


Station ID/Distance ~~S; "' n g ;:t: a, "" ~.. "" r (Feet) -975125.800~0-----_u __ u __ u __ u __ u __ e, __,8,"'---_,._,--'e,"'----'"~1 _:!:-~_":!.~-~~-:!:,=, ;, r g A E M.eters -975125.850 !----------------------------( -975125.900 ......... ,.,~-------~L~O~W~-G~RA~v=1r=v~-------------j ANOMALY ~ OVER CAVE -975125.950 ,________ ___ ..-,._,-4___ ~~=~------+-------------1 0 ... ~75126.00 =C!l ~75126.()50 -975126.10!-------------111' f--------------' Calculated Apparent Resistivity LOCATION OF WELL DRILLED"""'I> INTO CAVE HIGH-RESISTIVITY ANOMALY REVEALING CAVE Pseudosection 5 Tterat10n RMS error= Depth 7.3% LOW RESISTIVITY REVEALING REGOUTH ABOVE BEDROCK Meters (Feet) Meters 0.0 (0.0) (Feet) 1 o 1--~-~~~.,-~-~-....,..,,,~~-'---~____J'---~--'----""-"'-"-"~, 1--'-;,__,_ _,_,,.,..,.,_..-,--~~---'----fj-,44q,:,,,-~~__, (3.3) 8.9 (29.2) 7.8 (584) (78.7) c10!\~ Inverse Model Resistivity ------23} 74.8 236 7-+7 Resistivity in ohm.m Unit electrode spacing 6.0 meters Figure 1. Lost River Cave located below Egypt Parking Lot by drilling a well into a low-gravity, high-resistivity anomaly. Figure 1. Lost River Cave located below Egypt Parking Lot by drilling a well into a low-gravity, high-resistivity anomaly. Figure 2. Aerial view of 4 Vortechs, units being installed to treat storm water runoff before it is discharge into the Lost River through four 1.22 m (4i) diameter wells. Photography courtesy of Vortechnics, Inc


sity storms, the low flow control w ill manage the discharge rate, while at medium intens ity storms, the high flow control will begin to operate Finally a high i ntensity stor m completely inund ates the lo w flow control fo r cing the high flow control to opera te at full cap acity. These unique chambers require periodic maintenance and inspections to guarantee their efficiency. In order to prov id e easier access for maintenance, Vortec hni cs h a s des ig ned these chambers to be placed below a manh ole co ver A vacuum truck is used to periodically rem ove the o il and grease and se di ments from the uni ts. Case Study: Kentucky Trimodal Transpark The Ken tucky Trimodal Transpa rk is a new industrial park being built in Bowling G r een above the Graham Sprin gs Grou ndwa ter Basin. The CCKS under a gra nt to Western Ken tucky U niversity from the In ter-M oda l Transp01iation Authority, performed the hydrogeologic investigation of the site (Crawford, 2003). Crawford recomme n ded in the finai report that extraordinary step s be taken to prev ent sink hole flooding and re goli th collapse sinkholes and to protect the water q uality of the G raham Sprin gs karst aquife r A storm water manag e men t system was proposed tha t would treat all storm wate r runoff from the roads, parking lots and buildings at t h e site while also providing emergency containment in th e eve nt of an a c cidental spill or leak of hazardous liquids. Th e recommended sys tem in cluded curbed street s and ark i ng lots w ith storm sewers that would direct ROADWAYS PARKING LOTS ROOF 19RA.INS STORM WATER INL ETS all storm water runoff into a treatment system that would separate oil and grease and settleable soli ds. The treated storm water runoff wou ld then flow into a su rface impoun dme nt capabl e of holding the e ntire volu me of runoff from a three -hour, l 00-y ear storm. It was recom men ded t hat a syn thetic iiner be placed under the surface impoundment to prevent poss ibl e regolith collapse sinkholes The surface impoundment would a lso serve to all ow addi tional suspende d s edimen ts to sett le out, thus providi ng sec ondary treatmen t for the storm water ru noff since m ost contaminants a re attached to su spend ed solids. Crawford a l so recommended that the water from the surface impoundment be spray irrigated eit her onto the green space s requir ed for the industrial park and/o r adjac ent farmland. This would allow the water to infiltrate a nd slowly perc olate do w n through the soil into the karst aq uifer and thereby be tr eate d by soil t rea tment. Soil treatment is the method by which surface water is naturally cleaned as it percolates do wn to the wat er table thro ughout the worl d. The storm wate r treatme nt system wo uld prevent direct recharge into th e ka rst aqui fer through sinkholes, and storm water would be treated by a three-phase system to remove contaminants before it percolated down into t he kar st aquife r. Thi s syst em was des igned by May es, Sud derth and Etheredge, Inc. and the propo sed sto rm w ater treat ment system was incl ude d in the binding e l ements for all impervious areas at the Transpar k locatio n (Figur e 3).This system far exceeds what is requ ire d by govern m ent regulations Hopefully, it will set an example for rigorous protection of groundwater quality for development up on b oth kars t and p orous media aquifers LIN ED S TORA GE BASIN LIN ED IRRIGATION FOR LAWNS AND Figure 3. Required storm wate r run ojf ~ystemfor Transpark. Designed to : I) provide tertimy tr ea t ment o_f sto rm water runoff, 2) contain sp ill s of hazardous c h em i ca l s 3) prevent sinkhole flooding, and 4) pr ev ent storm water induced regol ith collaps e s inkholes. Design by: Mayes, Sudder th, and Etheredge. Inc. ut Soefeuluuy


Hellenic SiJe/eofouical Sociel; References Brewer, J.D. and Crawford, N.C. (2005). "Groundwater basin delinea tion by dye tracing, water table mapping, cave mapping, and geophysical techniques: Bowling Green, Kentucky, U.S.A.", Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology Athens, Greece. Crawford, N.C. (1984). "Sinkhole flooding associated with urban de velopment upon karst terrain: Bowling Green, Kentucky" in Beck (ed.), Sinkholes, Their Geology, Engineering and Environmental Impact Rot terdam, Netherlands, A.A. Balkema Publishers, pp.283-292. Crawford, N.C. (1988). Karst Hydrogeologic Problems of South central Kentucky: Groundwater Contamination, Sinkhole Flooding, and Sinkhole Collapse, Guidebook for Second Conference on Environmental Problems in Karst Terranes and Their Solutions, sponsored by Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers, National Water Well Associa tion, Nashviiie, Tennessee, U.S.A., i 07 p. Crawford, N.C. (2003). "Karst hydrogeologic investigation for pro-0-13 posed Kentucky Trimodal Transpark", in Beck (ed.), Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Technical Publication #122, American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 404-414. Crawford, N.C., Fryer, S.E. and Calkins, C.A. (2000). "Geophysical techniques for locating and mapping caves from the ground surface: mi crograv:ity subsurface investigation of Egypt Parking Lot, Western Ken tucky University", Proceedings of Mammoth Cave National Park's Eighth Science Conference, Mammoth Cave Nat'l Park, pp. 25-36. Crawford, N.C., Lewis, M.A. and Webster, I.A. (1999). "Microgravity techniques for subsurface investigations of sinkhole collapses and for de tection of groundwater flow paths through karst aquifers", in Beck, Pettit and Herring (eds.), Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes and Karst, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 203-218. Vortechnics (2004) "Where the earth meets the sky: storm water treat ment in a karst environment", Project Profile by Vortechnics, Inc., 4 p. Experimental research using Thermography to locate heat signatures from caves Jim Thompson 1 Jim Thompson Way, Blackwell, MO 63626 USA, Portland,, (800) 839-6789 Murray Marv i n 621 S. W Alder Street Suite 200, Portland, Oregon 97205 USA,, (800) 247-5404 Abstract Thermal differences between cave entrances and the surrounding landscape have long been known. Cavers traditionally ridge walked in cave-likely temperate regions in cold mid-winter with a falling barometer in order to visually detect 'fog-plumes' of escaping subterranean air from crevices in order to locate caves. We are experimenting with a high-tech nology solution to this cave detection method by applying infrared ther mography, a useful tool in fire detection, human body location and other building examination remote sensing to the surface of the earth. Early trials during the spring of 2005 with a Therma CAM B20 HSY infrared (IR) camera, even under foliage-filled and warm atmospheric conditions, produced promising results in initial trials in New Mexico, Missouri and West Virginia. Further research is underway at Fisher Cave, Franklin County, Missouri. This research began by documenting temperatures of cave openings and surrounding substrates. Atmospheric, ambient conditions (tempera ture, relative humidity, specific humidity and dew point) were recorded inside the cave, at the entrance and at intervals up to 183 meters. Normal images were contrasted with thermograms that showed full temperature gradients of the openings. At 118 meters, the opening could no longer be seen with the naked eye. The thermograms showed distinct images of cave openings. Trials continued to 388 meters. In excess of 300 meters, thermograms showed the distinct cave opening of Fisher Cave. At 388 meters, the thermograms showed signatures that could be that of a cave entrance. The initial results indicate that individual cave entrances have separate and unique temperature gradients. Thus, individual cave ther mograms are a "fingerprint" or signature of that cave. Thermo grams can be used to isolate and identify caves entrances from surrounding terrain. Once standardized procedures are established, thermograms may become an important tool for cave location and exploration. Introduction Thermography is a type of infrared imaging. Thermographic cameras 2 l 28 twoust 2005 l{afmiws. Hellos detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and produce images of that radiation. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects at ambient temperature, thermography makes it possible to "see" ones environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature.Thermography allows visualization of variations in temperature. With a thermographic camera warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds. Thcrmographic technology has advanced considerably in the last few years. Current uses include building-energy audits, building diagnosis, medical applications, fire detection, military night vision, computer heat scans, industry, surveillance and other utilitarian uses where heat produc tion and dissipation are a factor. We hypothesize this technology can be used under the correct conditions to locate potential caves by taking ther.:. mograms of land masses such as hillsides and valleys while looking for heat signature changes in the images which would reveal cave openings, swallets, seeps and other karst features Overview of Theoretic Thermography.3 There are three methods by which heat flows from one object to another-radiation, convection and conduction. IR viewers are concerned with radiation effects, but the others cannot be neglected. In radiation, electromagnetic energy is actually emitted by an object or gas.2 Heat measurement devices are either contact or non-contact devices. Infrared Imagers observe and measure heat without being in contact with the source and rely largely on radiation. The infrared camera used in this experiment generates a digital false-color image of the view being exam ined using IR sensors in the place of normal visual-range detectors. Ther mography makes use of the infrared spectral band. At short-wavelength end the boundary lies at the limit of visual perception, in the deep red. At the long-wavelength end it merges with the microwave radio wavelengths. The unit relationship between the different wavelength measurements is: 10 000 A = 1 000 nm = 1 = 1 m.


The Infrared Spectrum Every animate or i nanimate body that exists emits infrared energy from its s urface This energy is emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves that travel with the velocity of light through a vacuum air or any other conductive medium Whenever waves fall on another body, which is not transparent to the eye, they are observed and their energy is recon verted into heat. The difference between a cold or hot body is the level at which it both emits and absorbs energy. If the body absorbs more energy than it radiates, it can be considered cold. If the body tends to emit more energy than it absorbs, it is considered hot. The state of being hot or cold is a dynamic s tate. If a body is allowed to equilibrate with its surround ings, the emission and absorption will become equal and the body will be neither hot nor cold. Measurement Principles All materials above absolute zero emit infrared energy. Infrared ra diatio n is part of the electrom agn etic spectrum and occupies frequencies between visible light and radio waves. The i nfrared part of the spec trum spans waveleng th s from 0.7 micrometers to 1000 micrometers (microns) Within this wave band, only frequencies of0.7 microns to 20 microns are used for practical, everyday temp erature measur ement. Though IR radiation is not visible to the human eye, it is helpful to im agine it as being visible when dealing with the principles of measurement and when cons ide ring applications. In many respects, IR and visib l e light are similar. IR energy travels in straight lines from the source and can be reflected and absorbed by material surfaces in i ts path. In the case of most solid objects that are opaque to the human eye, part of the IR energy strik in g the object's surface will be absorbed and part will be reflected. Of the energy absorb ed by the object, a portion will be re-emitted and part will be reflected internally. This also applies to materials that are transparent to the eye such as glass, gases and thin, clear plastics, but some of their IR energy will also pass through the object. These phenomena contribute to what is referre d to as the emissivity ofthe object or material. Materials that do not reflect or transmit any IR energy are know as "blackbodies" and are not known to exist naturally However, for the purpose of theoretical calculation, a true blackbody is given a value of 1.0. The closest approximation to a hlackbody emissivity of 1.0, which can be achieved in real life is an IR opaque, spherical cavity with a small tubular entry. The inner surface of such a sphere will have an emissivity of0.998. Different materials and gases have different emissi vities, and emit IR at different intensities for a given temperature. Theoretical Basis for IR Temperature Measurement Thermography (infrared thermal scans) uses specially designed infra red video or still cameras to mak e images ( called thermo grams ) that show surface heat variations. The formulas upon which infrared temperature measurement is based are old, established and well proven. Theoretic physical laws invoked by thermography include: 1. Planck's Equation: Describes the relationship between spec tral emissivity, temperature and radiant ener gy. 10 _6 [ w au I ] /m2pm (Eq. 1) where: W;..b is the blackbody spectral radiant emittance at waveleng th A, c is the speed oflight, his Planck's constant, k is Bolt zm ann's constant, Hellen i c S//elea!ouica! Societv T is the absolute temperature (K) of a blackbody and A is the wavelength inm 2 Stephan Boltzmann Law: The hotter an object becomes the more infrared energy it emits. (Eq. 2) where the total radiant emittance is integrated from 'A = 0 to 'A=oo. 3. Wien 's Displacement Law: The wavelength at which the maximum amount of energy is emitted becomes shorter as the temperature increases. 2898 ] /~max= --~,m T (Eq. 3) 4. Kirchoff's Law: When an object is at thermal equilibrium, the amoun t of absorption will equal the amount of emission.

Hellenic SiJe/eof auir:al Sociel'/ "The air in most caves is nearly saturated with water vapor -in other words, the relative humidity is close to 100 percent. This is so because seeping water moistens the ceilings, wall, and floor and that the air must pass by as it moves slowly through the cave. The constant temperature of the inner part of the cave permits this high humidity to be maintained indefinitely. Near the entrances to caves, however the humidity may be lower, partly because the outside humidity is usually lower, and partly because the cave temperature differs from the outside temperature. In the summer, warm air entering a cool cave soon becomes saturated without absorbing water from the cave walls. In the winter the air be comes warmer as it enters the cave, and for a short distance its relative humidity falls."4 Research assumptions: 1. Cave entrance substrate temperatures are normally different from other outside substrate temperatures. The air blowing from a cave or into a cave is at a different temperature and humidity level than the outside ambient temperature and hu2 midity. Cave humidity alters moisture on cave entrance substrates compared to other surface substrates. 3. An infrared camera measures and images the emitted infrared radiation from an object. Since radiation is a function of object surface temperature it is possible for the camera to calculate and display this temperature. 4. Cave entrances can have their surface temperatures displayed by thenno imaging infrared camera. Trial Location Fisher Cave is a lantern-toured show cave located in Meramec State Park, Franklin County, Missouri, USA. The cave entrance is approximate ly 3 m high by 11 m wide, gated, and easily accessible. Thi s wide mouthed cave entrance allows ample atmospheric exchange. The cave entrance is at a slightly oblique angle to its containing bluff, making it 'vanish' visually within a short distance, despite proximity to a parking lot. These factors selected it as our experimental site. One set of thermogram/normal photos is included from the mouth of Carlsbad Caverns for comparison. Materials The camera used for this research is the Therma CAWM B20 HSV, which is the most sophisticated of the infrared-thermographic image cameras made by the FLIR Company. A steady tripod was necessary to get accurate signatures. Nikon DlX Camera and lenses. Delmhorst HT 3000 A Thermo Hygrometer & Dickson TH 550 Ther mo Hygrometer to measure temperature, humidity and dew point at cave entrances and distances from the entrance. Data Log Recorders (HOBO brand: timed temp, dew point, reiative and specific humidity at prescribed intervals and distances from the en trance.) Fluke 52 II Thermometer and Thermocoupler to measure temperature readings of the substrates at cave entrances and stream water tempera tures 21 28 Auuust 2005 Kulamos He/las Methods Radiation measured by the IR camera not only depends on the tem pe r ature of the object but is also a function of emissivity. Radiation also originates from the surroundings and is reflected by the object. Radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be altered by atmos pheric adsorption. We consulted C. Warren Campbell on our methods. 1 To measure temperature accurately, one must compensate for the effects of different radiation sources. This is done electronically and automatically by camera. The following parameters must be supplied for the camera: The emissivity of the object The reflected temperature The distance between the object and the camera The relative humidity These parameters were established for the IR camera with the use of handheld thermo hygrometers a t the cave entrances Data loggers were then set up to ensure accurate monitoring during the thermography, and to provide data for the FLIR camera manufacturer, which is in process of establishing standard emissivity tables for limestone based on this research. Results Measurements at the entrances of known caves for temperature rela tive humidity and dew point were taken at different distances from the entrance for the caves and locations. The data were used to calibrate the B20 HSV. A tripod was required for steady images as the B20 HSV does not have a fast "shutter speed. On May 11 2005 with a cloudy sky and recent light rain, Fisher Cave had a entrance temperature of 16.4 C (61.6 F) with Relative Humidity (RH) of 66.8%, Dew Point (DP) 10 C (50.2 F) with a substrate at entrance temperature of 19 2 C(66.5F). Ambient conditions at 15.2 m (50 ft.) from the entrance-were 15. 6C (60.1 F), RH of 62.4% DP C ( 46.2 F). At 182.9 meters from the entrance (600 ft.): Temperature 26.4 C (79.5 F) RH 20 DP (68 F) At 118 meters, the opening could no longer be seen with the naked eye. The thermograms showed distinct images of cave openings. Trials continued to 388 meters. In excess of 300 meters, thermograms showed the distinct cave opening of Fisher Cave. At 388 meters, the thermograms showed signatures that could be that of a cave entrance Thus, individual cave thennograms are a "fingerprint" or signature of that cave. Thennograms can be used to isolate and identify caves en trances from surrounding terrain. We found taking the thennograms was easier if the remote control was removed from the camera and used to ad just the setting and take the shots, as it helped reduced camera shake. The resulting thermograms and corresponding visual images are reproduced in Appendix I. We found we will need to compensate for the following conditions in future trials: a) Shooting thermograms through tree foliage will pick up reflective signatures off the leaves. b) Shadows on hills do not show the same temp gradient as actual cave openings. c) Images without a tripod are susceptible to camera shake thereby altering the image result. Analysis of the Results We believe thermography shows great promise as a cave entrance location method. Thermograms will expedite field work in locating cave sites, especially in temperate climates, where the mean annual tem perature (and therefore the temperature of the cave air) is stable but local surface atmospheric conditions reflect wide seasonal variation. The ability of a thermogram to penetrate vegetative cover ( once we learn to norm for


reflective signatures) may tum ridge walking into a year round activity, not one confined to late fall through early spr i ng Thermographic imag i ng may be useful in r e cording cave entrance m e teorological da t a as it relates to monit o ring trog l oxene and t roglophil e spec ie s Conclusion Thermography can be applied when s e e k i ng unknown ca v es by photo graphing larger land mass areas such as hills i des and aerial perspectives. This paper documen t s fundamenta l field research done to demonstrate this technology is a viable tool to assist sc i en t ists i n finding cav e s and other ka r st features. As th i s technology and its field use improves, so will its effici e nc y As a n ongoing project our fieldwork i s establishing base li ne standards for professiona l use. Acknowledgements Thanks are due to the following people fo r technical a ssistance and adv i ce : Scott Fee, President Nationa l Speleological Society (NSS), Gordon Birkhimer, Executi ve Vice President NSS, Dr. Malcolm Field, US Environmental Protect i on Age nc y ; Dr Barbara a m Ende; Dr. Wanen Campbell, CCKS, West e rn Kentucky Un i versit y ; Azar Lout h; Dan Jarvis; John Frocot and Dav i d Doerhoff, FLIR Systems Inc -USA; Per Fostved t Infrared Sys t ems In c ; Jim Holland, Rest Con Environmenta l ; D ave Bunnell, Editor, NSS News : Gr e g o ry (Tex) Yokum who first taught us t o l o ok for caves "breathing fog plumes in winter. Special thanks go to Jo S ch aper, Associate E di tor, Missouri Speleology, for e d i t in g and formatti ng assist a nce. The fi el d assista n ce o f these people i s gra t efully acknowledged : Dr Barbara am Ende, G o r don Birkhimer, Aa ro n M c Lean, George Ga t es, Zachary Ha rr ison, Bry an McA lli ster, Tony Schmitt, Bill Runyon, Sco t t Watso n Just i n Blankenship, Jane Fisher an d my daughter Christina Ann Thompson. Grateful Appreciation t o t he L. Ron Hubbard Fo u ndation for their sup po r t of this research References 1) Campbell, C W a nen "Application of T h ermography to Karst Hyd ro logy." Journal of Cave and Kars t Stud i es. 58 (3) ; 163-167 2) FUR Sys t ems Handbook for the "Therma CAMTM B 20 HSV Camera". 3) Sierra Pacific Innova t ions. ht t p:// l 2005 4) Sullivan, G. N an d G W. Moore S p ele o logy: The Study of Caves. Cave Books, St. Louis, MO 1978 150 p Appendix I Sample photo/thermogrnm pairs showing cave detection abilities of the technique, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico +/-75 ft +/-22.9 m Fisher Cave Meramec S.P, Missouri 600ft 182.9 m Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico +/-75 ft +/-22.9 m Fisher Cave Meramec S.P, Missouri 600ft 182.9 m


He llenic Sf/eleo/ouir:ol Sur:i e!y Fisher Cave Meramec SP., Missouri 1,000ft 304 8 m 0-14 Fisher Cave M e ram e c SP. Missouri 1 000 ft 304.8 m PRELIMINARY DATA RECORDED BY A MONITORING STATION TO SUDY THE HYPOGEAN CLIMATE IN A ICE CAVE: THE LO LC 1650 ICE CAVE "ABISSO SUL MARGINE DELL' ALTO BREGAI" (GRIGNA SETTENTRIONALE LECCO ITALY) Turri S.1, Citterio M 1, Bini A.I, Maggi V.2, Favaron M.3, Fraternali D.3, Alberici A.3, Borghi S.4, Colombo M.4, Gottardi R.4, Zappala D.4 1 Earth Sciences Dept. "Ardito Desio", University of Milano. Via Mangiagalli 34, 2013 3 Milano. Italy. E-mail: stefano. 2 Environmental and Territorial Sciences Dept., University of Milano Bicocca. P zza d e /la Scie n z a 1, 20121 Milano. Italy. 3 S.T Servizi Teritorio S.r.l. Via Garibaldi, 21, 20092 Cinis e ll o Balsamo. Italy 4 Osservatorio Meteorologico di Milano Duomo, Piazza de! Duomo 21, 20121 Milano Italy Abstract In November 2004, to study the hypogean climatic conditions a monitoring station is installed at the LO LC 1650 ice cav e The ice cave is locate at Moncodeno, Grigna Settentrionale (Lecco ) The climatic study of ice caves is one aspect of a wider multidisciplinary project. The climatic studies are supported by glaciological studies, aimed to under stand the factors controlling the conservation, ablation of ice deposits in caves. The monitoring system is composed of a meteorological station to record epigean data and two hypogean stations. The meteorological sta tion collects solar radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind direction and velocity The two hypogean stations collect air temperature and humidity in many points of the cave, rock temperature at different depths and ice temperature. Hypogean air direction and velocity are measured by an ul trasonic anemometer. Some preliminary data after the first short period of measurement are presented here. Introduction Studies of ice caves is attracting more researchers in the last few years ( e.g., Racovita & Onac, 2000; Perroux 2001; Borreguero & Pahud 2001; Turri et al., 2003; Piasecki et al., 2004 ; Strug et al., 2004; Luetscher & Jeannin, 2004; Borsato et al., 2004; Mavlyudov & Kadebskaya, 2004; Szczucinski & Rachlewicz, 2004). Since 1999 studies of glaciology and climatology are conducted in some ice caves ofMoncodeno (Grigna Set tentrionale, Northern Italy). A preliminary and small data logger network was installed in 2000 both in the hypogean and the epogean environments (Turri et al., 2004). The earlier temperature data collec te d were so inter esting that successive monitoring systems project were setup to measure epigean meteorological parameters and various hypogean parameters. 2 l-28 Auuust 20U5. l{nfnmos. He/fas' Geographic background The Moncodeno site is n ea rly rectangular amphitheatre occupying an area of less than 2 km2 at the northern flank of mount Grigna. This karst forming high mountain zone has developed a high density of caves that appear on the surface as depressions ( dolinas) and shafts. Due to the high altitud e and the high quantity of snow precipitation, during the cold seasons thick deposits of ice are preserved for long time in some of the caves. The studied cave for this task is LO LC 1650 "Abisso sul margine dell' Alto Bregai" where its entrance is located at 2030 m, forming a shaft of 30 m in diamet er (Fig. IA). The shaft is connected with an ice deposit that is recharged directly by meteoric snow. Th e cave meanders down wards (Fig. lB) leading to a wide and 50 metres deep shaft that is also capped by ice, which is the focal point of this study (Fig. 1 C). Therefore, this ice deposit is not directly connected with the meteoric ice, but should have desc e nded following a tunne l that was formed by the circulating hypogean air and the tunnel terminates in a 25 metres deep shaft located at a lower level (Fig ID) Th e lat er shaft is bounded by an ice and detritic deposits (Fig IE) Monitoring system There are clear relations between epigean and hypogean temperatures. In each cave the significant variation s are related to seasonal variations, depending on the snow cover of the entrances. Moreover, the internal parts of a cave c ould show constant o r seasonal variations irrespective of other hypogean environmental conditions where communication is con trolled by the morphological development of the cave and dynamics of the ice and snow deposits. In addition to the effects of the particular con ditions of a cave, temperature data indicate that the circulating air, which


is the principal media of heat exchange between the internal and external parts, is variably influenced by the highly complex structure of the karstic system. In here, we propose a simple schematic model to show the internal external climatic relation by understanding their working sy ste ms 0 y 1850 TC 7 t Nm ~--:,, 16 ~ TC 6 1650_ TH_3 HP !!rm fc Suel e o i ouicul Society Considering the complexity of the study, the unique way to resol ve t h e set of unknown variables is to install various sensors in different stations all along the internal morphology of the hypogean cave. This will allow to collect necessary data to understand and establish the hypogean micro climatic conditions. TC __ 7 __ 15,75m TC 6 33.75m TT:::frH_3 34 m TC_5_53 75 m TC 4. TC 3 91m TT-2. TH-2 92 m Tc-=.2. us-=.,=92m TT_1, TH_1_102m -~ ~ 165 0 R G 1 1850T T'-4 165D=TH :_ 4 Fig.] Map of the LO LC 1650 cave. A) The 30 m deep shaft at the entrance of the cave. B) Meandering tunnel. C) Top of the ice deposit. D) Map of tunnel of the ice deposit E) The 25 m. deep shaft. Locations of the monitoring system sensors that are described in the text are indicated with their relative depth. On the right side the monitoring system plan is sketched. Abbreviation Parameter Instrument Data ran~e Accuracr Resolution Anemometer 0 ... 360 VD Wind direction RM Young mechanical, 30 -05103 Wind 355 electrical Monitor (5 open) Anemometer vv Wind speed RM Young 0 ... 134 mph 0.6 mph -05103 Wind (0 ... 60 m s-1 ) ( 0.3 m s-1 ) Monitor RG Global radiation G Starpyranometer 0 ... 1500 wm-2 -<1 wm-2 Schenk 8101 TT Air temperature Rotronic -40C .. +60C At 23''.JC Hygroclip S3 0.2c -TH Air humidity Rotronic 0 ... 100 %RH At 23C TTygroclip S3 1.5 %RH -Campbell TC 73C 0.365C TC Air, rock, ice JOST -73C ... 50C 20c 0.1c temperature thermocouple -probe 50C 0.25C Hypogean air Metek us direction and ultrasonic wind 0 .. .45 mis -0.01 mis speed sensor US AI Fig.2 Table that shows symbols utilized to identify the monitoring stations with some o_ftheir technical characteristics. l:Jl h lntemafiu n ul Co nmess u f Soeluulouy -


He !/e11 i c Sf]e/eotouica t Su r;i e /y To compare the hypogean with the epogean climatic conditions, a meteorological stations is installed near the entrance of LO LC 1650, at an altitude of 2030 m. Installation of the meteorological station has pennitted to measure; the air temperature and humidity with the Rotronic Hygroclip S3 termohygrometer, global solar radiation with a Schenk 8101 global radiometer, wind direction and velocity with an RM anemometer Meas ured data are collected by a data logger Campbell CRl0X 2M. The monitoring system sensors in the internal part of the cave are sys tematically distributed to establish a network so that a complete data could be collected from the surface to the depth of 121 m. The acquired data are registered by two data loggers Campbell CRl 0 2M, located at the mean dering tunnel, -31 m. and the tunnel deposit at -99 m (Fig. I). Air tempera ture is measured at 7 positions with 4 Campbell TC 1 OST thermocouples and 3 Rotronic Hygroclip S3 thermohygrometres that measures also air humidity Rock temperature is measured by 2 Campbell TC 1 OST thermo couples inserted in to the rock at a depth of 10 cm and 40 cm. Temperature of the ice deposit is measured with one Campbell TC 1 OST thermocouple that is fixed at the surface of the deposit. Wind direction and velocity are measured using the Metek USA-1 ultrasonic anemometer. A general map of the LO LC 1650 cave is shown on Figure 1, with the locations of the installed instruments both in vertical section and planar view. The main aim of the distribution of these instruments is to measure the microclimatic conditions at various parts of the cave and to identify their respective climatic variation with the external climatic changes. Sensors network around the ice deposit is quite dense, hence climatic conditions that preserve the ice deposit could be better monitored. The thermocouple installed in the rock measures the thermal gradients of the rocks near the ice deposit. This permits to evaluate quantitatively the events that are manifested and to identify the major agents that affect the ice deposit The principal role of the thermocouple that is installed on the

g, @_ 2-('"Q 2. :::::: 'c::; J w [ _: i2 ;::,-. l:: ;,l .; '.;::; B' (-:, c:, i 5. ;:: c,q ~ (-:, c:, Ei:: "' c:, ;s I -I 1 ., 2-0 (l} 1-1 () I \) 24110/0 4 21 .00 28l10 i04 21,00 1i11/042 1.0 0 5/11/042 1. 00 9/ 1 1/042 1 00 131 1 11042 1,0 0 1711'11\)421.00 21 /1 1/0421.00 25111/0421.00 29/1110421 00 3/ 1 2 10 4 21.0 0 7i 1 2J042100 1 1i12JD 4 21,0 0 15i 12104 2 1.0 0 1 91 1 210421.00 23 1121'0 42 1 00 271 1 2/0421 00 31112/042 1, 00 4/1/0521.00 8/1/0521 00 12/1/0521.00 16 / 11 0521 00 20/1/052 1. 00 24 1 1/052 1,0 0 28 11/0 52 1. 00 1 i2l052 1 00 512/0521.00 9/2/0521 00 13/2 / 052 1. 00 1712/0521.00 21l2JD521 00 25/2/0521.00 113/0521.00 5 /3/0521 00 9/31052 1. 00 13!310521.00 1713/05 2 1. 00 21 1 3/052 1. 00 25/3,1) 5 2100 29 / 3/052 i.OO 2 / 41052 1. 00 6i4/052 1. 00 10/4/052 1. 00 14/41052 1 .00 1814/0521 .0 0 2214/052 1. 00 2614/052 1. 00 30/4/052 1. 00 415/052 1. 00 815/052 1. 00 1 2/5/052 1. 00 16 15/ 052 1. 00 20/51052 1. 00 2415/0521 0Q 2815/0521.00 3 Epigean air temperature ('C) I\) ..,i."""' l ...+...,\I\} 00100, QCSOvO ggggggggg ~6JWr0N~~bP g~ggg-~g~g lee surface temperature ('C) 2 4/10 /0421. 00 2 8110 /0 42 1.00 1/11/0421 .00 5/ 1 1/0421.00 9/11/04 2100 13111/()421.00 17111/0421.00 21/11/0421.00 25/11/0421.00 29/1110421. 00 3/12/0421.00 7112i0421.00 11I12l0421.00 i 15 I 12JD42 1.00 g 19/12/042 1.00 2-23112/04 21.00 =! l ,l a i1 -I : () I E ;1 f 2. 0 g -I () 27/1210421.00 31/'121 0421.00 4/1 /0521,00 811/0521.00 1211/0521.00 16/1/0521.00 2011/0521.00 2411 /0 521.00 18/4/0521.00 2214/0521.00 2614/0521.00 30/ 4 /0521.00 4/510521.00 8 i5/0521.00 12i5i0 52 1 .00 1615/0521.00 20/5/052t00 24/510521.00 28/5/0521.00 Epigean air temperature {'C) N .:i, .:.i, ,_ rv OQlOOlCOlC\)10 ggggggggg Hypogean rock temperature ( C) 1/11i0421.00 5/11/04 21.00 9111 / 04 21.00 13/11/0421.00 1'7l11/0421.00 2111110421.00 25i11104 21.00 29111/04 2100 3/1210421 .00 7112/0421 00 11 112i 0421.00 15 11 2104 2 1 00 19/121042 1 .00 23/1210421 00 27i12i04 2 1. 00 31/12/04 21.00 4/J/0521.00 81110521.00 12l1i0521.00 615 1 0521 00 12/5/0521.00 16/5/0521.00 20 / 5/0521.00 24/510521.00 28/5/0521.00 Epigean air humidity (% RH) Epigeanairhumldily(o/,RH) Ep i goanairhumidity(RH) Hypogean air humidity(% RH) ::r Hypo9"anairhumidity(%RH} Hypogeansirhumidity[ RH) I 28i1Qf041LOO l il1i0411.00 5i11/0421.00 9i11Rl421.00 13,11IC41100 17,1 1tM2H~ 2M1/C421.v0 25,111042100 zg: 1110411.00 J12i042 1. llll M2i042 1. 00 1 1 i12104 2t 00 15;12,'041 1. 00 19 ;12}04 11 00 211?;1i4 lU ~ 27 ; 121042 1 00 31, !11041 1.0ll -+I 4/11(~21.00 N1/D52100 11/1/0521.00 1~1ili521.00 20 !1,'05 11.00 24/1!0521.00 Ui1,~ 511.C ,O ili'O m OO 5t/ili521.00 912/(61100 1JrLJ~52t.OO 11/2/0511.00 2lf/J0521.i}1 25/2/0521.00 1/3/0511.00 5131(~21.[~ !/J/[~21.00 1 &'.l/l \5 1 1. 00 17 i3,t62 1. 00 2111i1 21. oo 2 5i1'05 21.00 29/3!0521.00 1/4/0521.00 SW0521 0ll 11/410511.00 14/4/052i.OO 1~410521.0 0 2? 14 it.M.OO 2 ~4105 21.0 0 JQ/4/05 21.00 415.1052 1. 00 8/510521.C-O 11 W0521.00 1 ~5105 1 1.00 2W5/052t00 24/5,~21.Gt 28151(~11.00 Epigeanijfrwn~raturel'C) ..i~ I\) V' V"l O Vl O a O gggggggg u~ndi (0 HvPo9eanairtemperature1C) 2 8J1().il)421,<)J 1!11ti421.00 5/ 1 1,~21.00 9i11iu42i.OO 1 3/11104 21.00 23!12il421 .00 2711 2/ 042 1.00 31112;0421.00 Wt,1)521.00 M aM ~M ~u ~M -M MM l8!41052100 2V4il62i. OO 26/4 /05 2 1.00 30/4 105 2100 ,l/5;~52LOO &~i0521.00 12i5i0521.00 16!5/0521.00 20M5 21.00 2415/0521( 0 Ep~ean, ir temperaturel'Ci ~ ~ G~ o c.,t ~~ gggg g g g5 u~~Hn Hypogeanairtemperntll't!l C)


Hellenic Sf]e / eoloai cu/ Socie t y Meanair t empe r a lur e( C) 2(l ,--------~----, 20 -100 -110 -c -v ----0----+--8 -\l -4 -2 0 Mea nair t e m peralure {' C ) -i..o -c -1 20 --+--""'! -11 --0---+ -Mean a ir Humid i ty ( % RH) 1 650 _T H 4 1660J H_2 30 4 0 60 80 Me an a ir h u mid ity (% RH ) 10Q F i g 4 Air t e mp e ratur es and humidi ty trends in ve rtical profil es Ea c h line r e presents av e rage temperature, monthly m e an humidity value with increas e of depth of various stations. Station TC_5 is located at a depth of 53.75 m, within the 50 m deep shaft after the meandering tunnel shown in Figure 1. Trend of the tem perature shows these environmental variations and hence the reference scale is also changed (.Fig. 3c ) .Ep1gean "cold temperatures could be still sensed, although there are some delay. The slightly increasing trend of the hypogean temperature at the end of the cold season is appreciable. Temperature variations registered at the station of TT_ 2, located at a depth of 92 m near the ice deposit, are shown in Figure 3. "Cold" epi gean events can be still observed although the effects are more delayed. Temperature increase during the cold season are less marked as compared to that of TC_ 5 station, this is due the presence a nearby ice deposit. On Figures 3e and 3f plots of TT_ 1 and TC 1 are shown, that are located under the ice deposit at a depth of 102 m and 121 m respectively. On these plots it can be only effects of only the important "cold" epigean events can be observed, and delays of some days are again appreciated in this case. The first thermal profiles are shown in Figure 4, that were measured dur ing the cold season. Plots represent mean monthly temperature in respect to the depth of the cave. The first points of every plot at the depth of 6 m. belong to the mean temperatures of epigean station. Each station shows different thermal characteristics with depth and variable environmental conditions. In fact along the meandering tunnel, as shown on Figure 3, effects of the epigean temperatures are reflected both in their intensity and temporal overlap. The shaft of 50 m depth reacts differently to the epigean events that is, intensity decrease and major delay of "cold" impulses. At the base of the shaf t the ice deposit has created a new environment that is conditioned by the ice itself. Hence below the level of the ice deposit, the monthly mean data show a zone with a different trend. Profile of the month of March is particularly interesting. The mean epigean temperature shows a moderate increase indicating the beginning of the end of the cold season. Where as the mean monthly temperature at the station ofTC l at a depth of 121 m, shows the lowest mean temperature of the season. 2 7 28 lwoust 2005. Knlamos. Hell us Diagrams of Figures 3g, 3h, and 3i show the relative humidity trend registered at the stations ofTH _3, TH_ 2 and TH_ 1 at the depths of 34 m, 92 m, and 102 m, respectively. All the plots are made in comparison to the meteorological station (TH_ 4). Evaluating the 3 diagrams, it can be noted that like during the cold season, the relative hypogean humidity is also affected by the epigean humidity. In fact, during the end of the cold season values increase due to the percolating water into the cave melting from the surface ice. The low relative humidity value registered at the stations of TH _J and TH_ 2 as compared to that of TH_ 3, are indicators of sublimation condition that take place near the ice deposit by either the direct contact of the ice itself or the cave wall near the ice deposit. The above situation could be better observed in Figure 4, where diagrams show the vertical profile trends of the air humidity. Each plot represents the mean monthly air humidity in relation to the depth of vari ous stations. In Figure 31 rock temperatures at depths of 10 and 40 cm are plotted against the epigean temperature variations. As it can be noted from the dia gram, during the "cold" events the rock is affected by the air temperature at least in the first 40 cm. Studies are on progress to evaluate the rates of delay, considering the above mentioned stations and the nearest station TT_ 2. The variation diagram of Figure 3m shows the temperature fluctua tions on the surface of the ice deposit. This trend is compared to the epi gean temperature variations. This station is particularly interesting since it may indicate the periods of ablation of the ice deposit. We have limited data of the cold season, but some indications are obtained. The deposit has suffered from many "cold" events with delayed manifestations (typical of its environment). A mild increase towards the end of the cold season, different from the other heating trends registered during the cold season may indicate a prngrnssive melting of the surface ice and percolation in to the ice cave deposit. The short interruptions of this trend may create favourable condition for the formation of new ice. Acknowledgements We thank IMONT (ex INRM) "Istituto Nazionale della Montagna" and the "Comunita Montana" ofValsassina Valvarrone, Val d'Esino and Riviera that partially financed the research References Borreguero M. & Pahud A., 2001 -Mesures de temperature dans la grotte des Pingouins, (Saviese, VS), premiers resultats. Cavernes, 2-2001, 7-17 Borsato A. Miorandi R. & Onelio F., 2004 -Age and evolution of two cave ice deposits in the Brenta Dolomites (Italian Alps). In: Citterio M & Turri S. ( ed.) Volume of abstracts of the 1st International Workshop on Ice Caves Capu~ Romania 29th February-3rd March 2004 p. 14 Luetscher M. & Jeannin P.-Y., 2004 -What heat flux must be consid/ ered at the base of an ice cave? In: Citterio M. & Turri S. ( ed.) Volume of/ abstracts of the 1s t International Workshop on Ice Caves, Capu~, Romania, 29th February-3r d March 2004 p. 21. Mavlyudov B. R. & Kadebskaya 0 I., 2004 -About degradation of glaciation in Kungur cave and possible ways of its restoration. In: Citterio M. & Turri S. (ed.) Volume of abstracts of the 1st International Workshop on Ice Caves, Capu~ Romania 29t h February 3rd March 2004, p. 23 Perroux A.-S., 2001 -Etude dufonctionnement d'une cavite englacee durant un cycle climatique. Karstologia n -1/2001, 41 46 Piasecki J., Zelinka J., Pflitsch A. & Sawinski T., 2004 -Structure of air flow in th e upper parts of the Dobsinska ice cave In: Bella P. (ed.) Vyskum, vyuzivanie a ochrana jaskyn, 4. vedecka konferencia s medz inarodnou ucast'ou 5-8 okt6bra 2003, Tale, 113-124


Racovita G. & Onac B., 2000 Scari:;;oara Glacier Cave; Monographic study Editura Carpatica, Cluj Napoca, Romania. 1 39 pag. Strug K., Piasecki J., Sawinski T & Zelinka J. 2004 The ice crystals deposit in the Dobsinska ice cave. In : Bella P (ed.) Vyskum, vyuzivanie a ochrana jaskyn, 4 vedecka k o nferencia s medz in arodnou ucast'ou, 5-8 okt6bra 2003, Tile, 125 133. Szczucinski W. & Rachlewicz G., 2004 Seasonal, annual and decadal i ce mass balance changes in Jaskinia Ladowa w Ciemniaku (ice cave in Ciemniak, Tatry, Poland). In: Citterio M. & Turri S. (ed.) Volume of ab stracts of the 1st International Workshop on Ice Caves, Capu:;;, Romania, 0-15 29th February3rd l\'1arch 2004, p 27. Turri S Citterio M Bini A., Magg i V., Udisti R. & Stenn i B 2003 Etude glaciologique et climatologique des cavites glacees du Moncodeno. (Grigna septentrionale, province de Lecea, Lombardie) Karstologia n 2/2003. 3 7-44 Turri S Citterio M Bini A. & Maggi V. 2004 i n press Preliminary analyses of the avaible hypogean and epigean t emperature recordings in Moncode n o (Grigna Settentrionale, Lecco, Italy). Theoretical and Ap plied Karstology (Special Issue on Ice Caves) n 17 THE PROPAGATION OF THE SEASONAL HEAT WAVE INTO CRYSTAL AND FANTASY CAVES (Bermuda) Arrigo A. Cigna, SSI, Fraz. Tuffo 1-14023, COCCONATO (Asti) Italy Abstract Crystal and Fantasy caves were monitored since some years both for air and water temperature. Such temperatures vary along the year due to the influence of the seasonal changes o u tside Here the results of a study on the propagation of the heat wave from the surface sea water to the pools of water inside the caves are reported Keywords : Bermuda, show caves, environment, heat wave Introduction Some boys, who found a hole in the ground, discovered Crystal Cave in March 1905. A couple of year later the owner of the land visited the cave and decided to develop it. On January 8th, 1908 the cave was opened to the public who could walk on a pontoon bridge Four years l ater, a tun nel was excavated in o r der to have an easier access to the cave. In 1907 another cave was discovered in the vicinity of Crystal cave and was opened to the public in 1912 only intennittently, as Wonderland cave until 1931. The cave was reopened on June 3ot11, 2001 as Fantasy cave after its redevelopment involving the replacement of the lighting plant and the improvement of the original staircase and trails t N Fig. I Map of Bermuda showing the location (z) of the Crystal and Fantasy Caves. Temperature Measurements Air and wa t er temp e ratures were measured week l y, in Crystal cave since October 1998 and i n Fant a sy cave since N o vember 2001. Not withstanding the large error affecti n g each measurement because the thermometers have a scale divided in degree Fahrenheit where the values may be estimated with an unce1iainty of about 0 5C, the long series of data allowed the achievement of some interesting results. Bermuda Weather Service kindly supplied air and surface seawater temperatures. According to the actual data, the information was trans formed from the original F into C A sinusoidal best fit was calculated for each series of values with the FitSin Programme (Giorcelli, 1998). The generic equation of a sinusoid being : y=A+B*sin(2n(x+


Obviously the temperature wave, originated outside by the seasonal variation, propagates into the cave through different mechanisms ( water, air) with a delay and attenuation depending on the mechani s ms involved for each station. In Fig 1 and 2 the diagrams of water and air in Crystal cave are reported. Table 1 Delays of the heat wave between outside and the c aves Station Date of Max Date of Max Delay (days from 1/1/1998) (day of the year) Outside, surface seawater 225 August 13th Outside, air 224 August 12th Crystal Cave, water 268 August 13th 43 Crystal Cave, air 244 September 1st 20 Fantasy Cave, water 265 September 22nd 40 Fantasy Cave, air 230 August 18th 5 In Table 1 the delays of the heat wave between outside and the caves are reported. The date of the "summer" peak and the delay with respect to the outside peak are given both as days from January 1 't, 1998 and as days of the year. A first examination of these data shows that the temperatures of the surface seawater and air outside vary synchronously. Water tem peratures in both caves varies with a delay of about 40 days, i.e this is the times required by the heat wave to propagate from the outside sea into the caves through the anchialine environment. For the air temperature, it takes 20 days of delay with respect to out side to have the summer maximum in Crystal Cave while only 5 days are found for Fantasy Cave. This means that air temperature inside the caves depends mainly on the air exchanges along the access to the caves. The air circulation in Crystal Cave is dominated by a two entrances system, consisting in the long tunnel descending into the cave and the original entrance. In fact an air cun-ent is evident in the region immediately below the natural entrance, while the rest of the cave, occupied by a tidal lake remains relatively isolated. For Fantasy Cave, on the other hand, the delay is shorter on account of a minor thickness of the rock layer above the cave and an immediate connection with outside 0-16 The caves of Thrace region ( Northwestern Turkey) K. Tork, Nazik, Abstract The karstic rocks are mounded in the certain areas on the Thrace Region. The karstification is denser on the Y1ld1z (Istranca) Mountains through the Black Sea cost of the Thrace Region. The karstic belt stretches out with in the Paleozoic and Jurassic marbles and in the Eocene lime stone that cover the marbles from the western and southern of the region. The Eocene age of limestone continues through the NW-SE direction and have more caves than the marbles The litostratigraphic tectonic proper ties, the Quaternary rejuvenation and erosion-karstic base level relation are effective on the karstifir,::ition of the ::ire::i The Thr::ir,e r::ivei;: h::ive heen at the base of the paleo polje and uvala (polycyclic) of Pliocene epoch and Conclus i on Notwithstanding the very poor quality of the thennometers used for the measurements into the caves, and therefore a relatively great uncer tainty of each measurement, it was possible to calculate a sinusoidal best fit which allowed the estimation of the delay of the propagation of the heat wave. This delay, which was practically the same for both caves, supports the hypothesis of rather similar connection between the caves and the sea. On the other hand the evaluation of the attenuation of the heat wave was not possible, as it is evident from the distribution of temperature val ues in Fig 1 and 2. In fact there are frequen t ly clusters of such values, in con-espondence of integers of the thermometer scale The attenuation of the heat wave would have supplied another piece of information on the cave climatology as it was obtained, e.g., in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, US ( Cigna, 2001) The new monitoring systems operating in both caves since March 2005 with data loggers, will ensure better records of temperature (and CO2 concentration in Crystal Cave) both from the point of view of continuity as well as the smaller error associate to each measurements. Therefore in the next future more reliable evaluations of the cave environment will be drawn. Acknow l edgements The author is very grateful to the Bermuda Weather Service, which provided the temperature values of air and surface sea water, and to the personnel of the Crystal Caves management who recorder air and water temperatures inside the caves. References Cigna A.A., 2001 -Evaluation of the tourist impact in the Kartchner Caverns (Arizona, USA). Proc. 13th Int. Congr. of Speleology, Brasilia July 15-22, 2001, Speleo Brazil 2001 2: 188-192. Giorcelli F., 1998 -FitSin 2.1. Personal communication. the base and the hillside of the Quaternary epoch. The extension of the most of the caves are horizontal and through the limestone-schist contact on the area. That's why the karstification is limited with the Eocene age of limestone thickness (100-150 m). The Pabrn; and Kazan Rivers have been effective fluvial systems on the karstification of the Eocene age of limestone at the eastern of the basin. The hydrological system in the caves is controlled by these two rivers. The caves have one layer in spite of the polycyclic development processes at the Eocene age oflimestone. But the caves of the older rocks as Jurassic and Triassic marbles have more layers. A nrl the P liorene relief i;:yi;:temi;: ::ire wirlei;:pn~~rl on the e1eplon~rl Ji:; rmrei;; at The Y1ld1z (Istranca) Mountain and close area.


Suef e oluuic11/ Sucie/y 0-17 The effect of the relief systems of the Bey~ehir lake and the Kembos Polje basins on the cave development of the area L. Nazik, K. Tork, K. Tm1cer E. Ozel Abstract The Bey~ehir Lake and the Kembos Pol j e Basins are located at the northern paii of the Central Taurus Region. The area geologically consists of the naps, autochthonous and the metamorphic complexes. The geomorphologic and the hydrological properties of the area formed with the tectonic lines on the N -S and NE SW directions. The each of the basins have no outlet from the surface to the main drainage system. They connect to the Manavgat River Basin with the cave and the conduit systems. The Bey~ehir L ake and Kembos Pol je Basins contain the rel ief systems of Middle Upper Miocene, Pliocene and the Pleistocene Epoch. These relief systems that have been on different altitudes are separated to each other with certain borders. The very dense and the polycyclic karstification developed according to the primary ( origin) and the secondary ( shaping) factors of the area The investigated 80 caves divided to the three zones according to the relief systems. The relief system of the Miocene epoch repre sented with the 1600-1750 m and the 0-18 The geological and morphological origine and distribution Na z i k, K. Tork, K. Tu n c er E. OzeJ Abstract Turkey had been formed with different tecto-genetic units and 1/3 of Turkey covered with the soluble carbonate rocks (limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolomite) and sulfate (gips). The karstic regions and caves were formed according to the parameters which changes at close distance between regions at the above of the rocks which are as certaine belts. The initial parameters ( chemical contents of the rock, stratigraphic position, petrographic and structural properties and climate) and the formative secondary factors (geo morphologi ca l hydrological and hydrogeological properties and vegitation) have been effective for the development of the caves. The caves of Turkey grouped at five karst region according to the theire forming and developing properties and inner cave formation. 1. The caves of Taurus Mountain Belt a. The caves of Wes t ern Taurus karst region b The caves of Central Taurus karst region c The caves of East ern 0-19 Karst and rock Phantoms (fantomes de roche) in the Netherlands upper altitudes (western of Bey~ehir Lake, Anamas-Dedegol Mountains, Seyran Mountain and ipe ler Mountain). Through the tectonic lines the vados vertica l pits and the sinkholes developed at the bottom and the edge of the paleokarstic depressions of the Miocene surface. The most of the caves are on the altitude range between 125 0-1400 meters in the Pliocene relief systems The caves of the Pliocene relief system mostly extend on the semi horizontal-horizontal directions and describe the polycyclic development with the more than one cave layer These caves that totally fossilised on the upper layers are hydro logically sinkhole and spring situated. The Eocene flysch and the faults had been effective on the caves that developed according to the Bey~ehir Lake Basin. The youngest caves of the area located at the range of 1150 1250 meters where the morphological and karst base levels have been closed to each other in the Ple i stocene relief system. The mechanical erosion of the rivers had been effective on the development of the active and semi active caves that are line as one layer (monocyclic development). Taurus karst region 2. The caves of Central Anatolia karst region 3. The caves of Southeastern Anatolia karst region 4. The caves of Western An atolia and Thra ce karst region 5. The caves of Blacksea mountains karst region a. The caves of Western Blacksea karst region b. The caves of Central and Eastern Blacksea karst region The Taurus Mountain Belt has the most continiuty and evidenty karst region betveen these regions. That's why it is the most dense place for the cave developing. The caves in this region have polycycle development properties and have the caves deeper than 1000 m and longer than 10 km. and for these reasons called as holokarst region. The other karst regions which are Western Anatolia and Thrace, Blacksea Mountai ns, Southeastern Anatolia and Central Anatolia called as shallow karst regions because of to have the carbonate rocks deposits as a lens betveen the impermeable rocks. Speleo Nederland Scientific Commission Koolstraat 56, NL 2312 PT Leiden, the Netherlands tel: **31 71 5236580 e-mail: hermand eswart@ca Abstract Although in the Netherlands very little karst and only a few natural caves are present because of the fact that the 98% of the co untry is cov ered with soft Pleistoce ne or Holocene sedimen ts, in the southern part, in the Cretaceous chalk, a great numb er of rock phantoms ( fantomes de roche (Quinif 1998)) can be observed and studied. These phenomena precede the actual formation of karst, and play an important role in cave formation in older rocks too. 98% of the Netherlands consists of Pleistocene and Holocene sedi ments: gravel, sand, clay and bog. A large part of the country is formed by 'polders' or diked land. In two rather small areas we find older rocks (Carboniferous and Cretaceous) and even some karst: subterranean drainage, dolines, lim estone pavements and karren swallow holes and sp ring s and some little caves, the longest 140 metres in length ( de Swart, 1996 and 2001, and references herein). In the province of Limburg, south of the line Maastricht/Heerlen/Aken in the most southern part of the Netherlands and continuing to the west in Belgium, Cretaceous limestone was deposited, a calcarenite, locally inac curately called 'marl'. The Maestrichtian formation (Upper Cretaceous) has here its type locality (Felder & Bosch, 2000). This l imestone is very soft and can thereby be quarried away easily This has been done since the Middle Ages, in large underground and surface quarries. In this area these underground quarries are called 'marl caves'. The limestone is used as blocks for building purposes in the cement industry and as agricul -l Jt li lnternnlionul Cun un::ss of Sm!leuiouv


Hellenic Srm!eo/or;ical Society tural lime. In this way large underground systems were formed. A recent inventory (Orbons, 2005) describes 287 underground quarries, with 556 entrances, with a total surface of 386 hectares, and an estimated length of 600 kilometres! Recent studies (De Swart, 2005, Willems, 2004), following an exten sive underground reconnaissance that is still in progress show that these several hundreds kilometres of underground quarries, as well as several of the open air limestone quarries, contain a relatively large number of so called rock phantoms or Jantomes de roche ', an isovolumic chemical (biochemical or bacteriological?) alteration of the limestone, preceding the formation of caves and other karst phenomena (Quinif, 1999, Quinif & Quinif, 2002). And although the number of caves in the Netherlands, discovered in these artificial 'caves' is very small, due to the fact that the limestone is very soft and consequently caves formed in these rocks qniclcly 'collapse' through rmml--ding of the ceiling ~nrl m~11~, l~rgp number of rock phantoms was discovered. Some were naturally emptied when the quarries were dug (and so form caves), but the majority is still intact and shows the change in chemical composition of the rock and con sequent change in colour of the quarry walls. The 'marl caves' therefore give us an opportunity, on several millions of square meters, to study the first stages of cave formation! References: DE SWART, HERMAN (1996) Karst in the Netherlands In: Karren Land-0-20 Karsts and caves of the Shan Plateau Myanmar (Ex-burma) By Cl au de MOUR E T claude.mouret@wanadoofr La Tamanie F-87380 Magnac -Bourg Resume Le plateau Shan occupe environ 600 x 500 km dans l'est du Myanmar. Situe au-dessus de 1000 metres d'altitude, il est largement constitue de carbonates paleozoYques et mesozoYques, parmi lesquels se trouve une grosse proportion de dolomie secondaire. Dolomie et calcaire donnent lieu a des paysages karstiques tres differents. La dolomie produit des re liefs arrondis en creux et en bosse, draine par un systeme fluvio-karstique. Le calcaire montre les formes classiques de ces regions, avec de nom breuses do lines. L' escarpement du plateau donne lieu a des vallees qui s'approfondissent en gorges, avec parfois de gigantesques chutes d'eau precipitant des travertins. Les cavites sont encore moderement connues malgre plusieurs cam pagnes d'exploration. La plus longue, Mundewa Guh, developpe 1770 m explores. La profondeur maximale atteinte est de 70 m. Abstract The Shan Plateau is approximately 600 x 500 km large. Located at an elevation in excess of 1000 m a.s.l., it is largely made up of Paleozoic and Mesozoic carbonate, including a larger part of secondary dolomite. Dolomite displays round-shaped landscapes in a fluvio-karst setting. The scarps around the Plateau determine high waterfalls -with common travertines-along progressively deepening and narrowing valleys. Caves are moderately known despite several exploration campaigns. The longest explored cave is Mundewa Guh and it is 1770 m long. The deepest cave is -70 m. In 1995, the author and his wife restarted cave exploration in the Union of Myanmar and, until august 1998 (around 25 caves mapped), investiforms, Universitat de les Illes Baleares, Palma (Balears), p. 335-341 DE SWART, HERMAN (2001) Le Karst neerlandais In: Actes des Journees de Speleologie scientifique Han-sur-Lesse 1997 a 2000. Geological Sur vey of Belgium, Professional Paper 2001/3 N. 295, Bruxelles, p. 92-7 DE SWART, HERMAN (2005) Karst en fantomen in Limburg, in press FELDER, W.M. & BosCH P.W. (2000) Krijt van Zuid-Limburg, Geologie van Nederland, deel 5 Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO, Delft/Utrecht ORBONS, JoEP (2005) Inventarisatie van de ingangen van onderaardse kalksteengroeven in Nederland 2002-2004 Uitgave Studiegroep On deraardse Kalksteengroeven van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg (SOK)/ Stichting Instandhouding Kleine Landschapselementen in Limburg (IKL)/Stichting ir. D.C. van Schark, Maastricht QurNIF, YvEs (1999) Fantomisation, cryptoalteration et alteration sur roche nue, le tryptique de la karstification Etudes de Geographie phy sique, Travaux 1999, suppl. XXVIII, CAGEP, Universite de Provence, p. 159-164 QurNIF, YvEs ET GILLES (2002) Methodes et elements de cartographie d'un paleokarst, l'exemple de la Carriere du Clyptot (Hainot, Belgique) Karstologia 39, p. 1-8 WILLEMS, L. (2004) Recherches sur les karsts de la Montagne Saint Pierre, Basse-Meuse liegeoise In: Journees 2004 de Speleologie Scien tifique Han-sur-Lesse, Centre Belge d'Etudes Karstologiques F.N.R.S./ Union Belge de Speleologie (abstract) gated regions as diverse as the Hpa-an and Mawlamyine (Moulmein, NB traditional names are between brackets) areas in northern Thanintharyi (Tenasserim), the southern part of the Rakine (Arakan) Mountains, the Central Plains (man-dug caves in Bagan (Pagan) and near Monywa), the edge of the Shan Plateau from the north of Mandalay to the region of Kyaukse, the Mogok region, and the Shan Plateau. On the Plateau, were explored the areas around the cities of Pyin-Oo-Lwin (Maymyo), Lashio, Muse, Kalaw and Taunggyi, and a number of other, spotty, areas (Fig. 1 ). During the late part of 1998, another exploration campaign was con ducted by Philippe Bence, Florence Guillot and Stephane Maifret, based among others on information provided by the author. In this sense, the two series of work are fully in the continuity of each other. General setting The Shan Plateau is approximately 600 x 500 km large and located in the eastern part of Myanmar. It is mainly made up of Proterozoic to Mesozoic formations with local Late Cenozoic to Quaternary deposits. Its surface morphology evolved at least during Cenozoic to Quaternary times, over tens of million years. This evolution resulted in a likely sig nificant eroded thickness on the Plateau Himalayan movements related to the collision of Greater India with mainland Asia resulted in its uplift and the formation of deep incisions by the rivers. The longest canyon on Earth is on the Shan Plateau, along the Thanlwin (Salween) River. While longest canyons trend North to South in the central part of the Plateau, more radial patterns are present along the Shan scarp to the West and the Northern edge around Mogok. The plateau ranges above 1000 m a.s.l., up to 1500 min average. How ever, it reaches 2641 m near the Chinese border. 6 peaks rise above 2500 m a.s.l. and 39 above 2000 m Besides, the Central Plains are at around


100 to 200 m only So, the Shan Scarp is like a wall at the edge of the plains Rivers commonly show deep falls and gorges behind the scarp and along the incised part of their upstream valleys (as around Pyin-Oo-Lwin for instance). HIMALAYA ,..,.,/ ....... \NOE Mer d' Andaman 100km @[:) CalcalntS C6no:oiques Mlange uictoni.que Calcair Penno-Triasiqu,p Paleozo1q~m:olque c:::J Cak:aires Prwcambriens c::J lndifferenciit ARCHJPE!. Oe.MYEIK CHINE THAU.ANOE : Fig. 1 : Location map of the Shan Plateau in Myanmar (Mouret, 1998; Mouret et Lebreton, 2003) Climate The climate seems to be known at a limited number of measuring sta tions. Accessible data is scarce, though it is sufficient to characterise the Shan Plateau at the edge of the dry belt of the Central Plains. The Plateau has a dry season from November to May, which is cool up to mid-march then hot up to May The rainy season la sts the rest of the year with an intermediate temperature which is due to the lar ge degree of cloudiness. Two stations can be used to illustrate climate characteristics in the studied area, i.e on the western part of the Plateau. At Taunggyi, the aver age yearly rainfall depth is 1518 mm, to be compared on one hand to the 2677mm at Yangon (Rangoon) near the coast close to the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) delta or to the 4759 mm at Mauwlamyine (Moulmein) on the rainy coast line of A ndaman Sea, and on the other hand to the 600-700 mm in the dry belt of the Centra l Plains. Temperature can drop down to a few degrees Ce l sius, even zero, during the night from December to February, though it can reach 25C during the day In Ap ril, it can rise up to 35C but it does not drop below 20C at night. At Kalaw rainfall depth is in average 1323 mm per year (min.= 942 mm; max = 2083 mm; standard -deviatio n = 273 mm). For temperature, equivalent figures are 24.5 15.1,32 9 et 3 0 C. Wind regime is known at Mandalay a city at the foot of the Shan Scarp. Wind comes from the North and Northeast from November to January, South-Southeast and Southeast from February to October (Dobby,1950). Geology SJJe/ eD/U[JiCU! Snr:iefy T he sedimentary formations of the Shan Plateau start with Upper Cambrian strata overlying metamorphic rocks (gneiss with cipolinos and micaschists formed under high pressure conditions). Carbonates are present in the Ordovician and some shaly limestone exists in the Silurian. However, the bulk of the carbonate on the Plateau is made up of pervasive dolomite that cuts through Devonian to Triassic carbonate, with some isolated limestone remnants. Its thickness may be several kilometres thick, according to some authors (Bender 1962); at least it is very thick. In the studied area, the Permo-Triassic alone is more than 1000 m thick. This carbonate is named Shan Dolomite Group, but the dolomite is less abundant in the upper part. Its internal structure is poorly known and non carbonate lateral equivalents may be present at places. Internal uncon formities are reported but poorly documented. Some Jurassic carbonate is reported (Bender, 1984). Undated Cretaceous is present as red beds. Its distinction with terra rossa sensu lato remains to be clarified. Mesozoic formations participate in the folds present in, at least the western part of the Plateau A very long stratigraphic gap lasts up to the Late(st ?) Cenozoic to Quaternary times, during which fluvial and lacustrine sediments were deposited in tectonic lows, e.g. in the Lake Inle area. Tectonics of the Shan Plateau are related to successive microplate collisions in the Paleozoic and the Triassic. In the Late Triassic, occurred the Indosinian collision, after which Asia is made up of one sutured set of plates. The main deformation is related to the India-Asia collision in the Cenozoic, specially in the Neogene and to the associated right-lateral mo tion of India vs. Asia in front of the Shan Plateau. Late right-lateral North-South trending normal faults affect the pla teau, as along the pull-apart basin which contains the world-famous Lake Inle. These faults are possibly responsible for the high CO2 contents in Mundewa Cave which opens along the graben edge. Old chemical analyses (in Cchibber,1934) confirm the abundance of MgCO3 with a content commonly reaching 29 to 45%. However, genuine limestone is proved with MgCO3 values of 1.37% for example. Density measurements have shown values of2.72 to 2.84, which cover most of the range between pure limeston e (d = 2.71 if no porosity) and true dolomites (d = 2.85 ifno porosity). Karst morphology Karst morphology does not cover the whole Shan Plateau because carbonate does not cover it entirely. Except the cipolino areas in Mogok region (Mouret 1998) which exhibit some spectacu lar karst morphology (lapies with pinnacles up to 8 m high crypto-lapies with rundkarr en, large do lines), which is indeed out of the Shan Plateau proper, and some areas in Ordovician carbonate, where karst morphology is probably not well de veloped (by comparison with Northern Tha iland) the nearly entire karst morphology is related to the Shan Dolomite Group Dolomite karst is dominant in the landscape but it cannot be separated from smaller inliers of limestone with a typical polygonal tropical karst, which are commonly protruding in the morphology. These two morpholo gies, qui te different at first sight are indeed fully complementary and make the Shan Plateau an especially int eresting karst area. The morphology is overall a fluvio-bi.rst and limestone areas inte grated in the whole pattern. Along the main rivers and over the whole of the region the valleys progressively deepen downstreamward. Cliffs and gorges develop as in the Gogteik Gorge between Pyin-Oo-Lwin and Lashio. The base lev e l for the plateau is set by the Central Plains at the edge of the famous Shan Scarp, which is around several hundr ed to more than 1000 metres high, and by the Thanlwin (Salween) River gorge, said to be the long est gorge in the world. l:J/11 lntemn!ionui Conm e ss ut S11eleu!o11y


lle l l enic Stwleuluuical So cie t y Dolomite karst Dolomite karst itself determines the fluvio-karst. The morphology is largely characteristic, smooth, rounded hills and rounded valleys. Lo cal scarps are present on the hills. Such a landscape is related to rock properties. Dolomite is made up of dolomite crystals, rhomboedra, which are shedding a significant intergranular porosity. Disintegration of often poorly cemented crystals near the surface is a more powerful phenom enon than dissolution. Dolomitic sand formation is the result, a classical fact. Progression of the disintegration front is irregular, as it depends on lithological heterogeneity, such as crystals size, degree of cementation and cement dissolution or even, at a more local scale, tectonic crushing of the rock formation, proved by slickenslides often observed by geologists. Progression front is clear in quarries, where dolomitic sand is exploited "by hand", as workers leave harder parts untouched, which protrude across the sand. These crypto-pinnacles are commonly squat; they often reach several metres high and are rarely coalescent. However, they cannot resist weathering for long, as we observe many more crypto-pinnacles in quarries than exhumed pinnacles at surface. Such features and especially the sandy nature of weathered dolomite preclude the formation of the usual karst morphology, typical of limestone which do not disintegrate. Karren and pinnacles may be present, but they are usually much less typical in dolomite and restricted to the best ce mented ( or where the cement has selectively been less dissolved) areas. However, cliffs along valleys or on slopes (in this case, they usually have a limited lateral extent) are the main locii for rock exposure. Sand initially on top of the cliff has commonly been washed away so rocks on the lower part of upper slopes directly connect cliff tops. Fluvio-karstic valleys are usually very wide in the upstream part and display the concave, rounded, cross-section already mentioned. Hill tops themselves are shaped as surbased rounded cupolas. Further downstream, valleys get progressively deeper and lateral cliffs start appearing. They progressively get higher as the valley goes, together as the valley section becomes more squared. Underground drainage may exist nevertheless, as observed examples prove it, but it is less developed than in limestone, because dolomitic sand is choking passages, if possibilities of export are limited: in these pas sages, karst permeability is partly or entirely replaced by a pornus type permeability which allows only a lower flow velocity and flow yield. Ero sion rate is severely decreased in this way. Karst passages are better open where dolomitic sand can be exported to the outside, as near springs and in through caves. Most of known caves are related to conditions favour able to sand export out of endokarst. However, large river sinks with large flows may exe1t a stronger dissolution in the upstream parts of massifs, where CO2 of biological origin is abundant. The dolomitic sand blanket at surface is obviously favourable to infil tration and surface vegetation is rather sparse. Infiltration water can dis solve rock but what power of dissolution remains below the sand ? How laterally continuous is the sand ? The existence of large voids is so far not proved, for instance by large collapse areas already known. Probably, dolomitic sands are able to hide the smaller collapses. Vauclusian springs are known to exist, probably in dolomite, but the access to them is currently forbidden. Polygonal karst in limestone. Relations with dolomite karst Limestone areas show polygonal karst, a fact already put in evidence by Dunkley et al (1989). Such karst landforms are often choked at surface by shaly sediments, but they are water absorption zones, with vadose features. The way of restitution of water is still unknown. Some sectors at least, as to the West of Pindaya, correspond with anticlines and are morphologically higher than dolomite lands. Underground drainage is necessarily directed towards the dolomite, either laterally or by vertical to 2 l-28 Auuust 2U05. l(alumos. He/fas oblique infiltration. Either springs exist in the valleys or there is a feeding of the dolomite aquifer. On the edge of the Shan Plateau, because of the higher hydraulic gradient anticline flanks are prone to karst units with a major difference in elevation. In small limestone units surrounded by dolomite, limestone drainage can be only towards the dolomite aquifer, because dolomite porosity is not favourable to karst springs at the contact between the two rocks (stratigraphic ban-ier). Caves Around 20 caves were explored and surveyed on the Shan Plateau. The longest is Mundewa Guh (guh means cave) near Taunggyi, with 1770 m surveyed (Fig. 2) and the second is Leikte Guh near Kalaw, with a 960 m length (Bence et al, 1998), then we find the main cave at Padah Lin with 450 m (Mouret, 1998), Peik Kyin Myaung Guh (in Pyin-Oo-Lwin region) with 447 m (Bence et al, 1998) and Myinmethu Guh with 330 m (Dunkley et al, 1989). So far explored cave depths are not so deep: Leikte Guh is the deepest and it reaches a -70 m depth. Mundewa Guh (near Taunggyi) is a system with a dry passage level which opens in the cliff along the fault bounding to the East the graben of Lake Inle (Mouret, 1998) and an active one with a small stream (Bence et al, 1998). The outlet of the stream is located some 25 m lower than the dry entrance. The whole cave system is high above the lake level. In the upstream part of the stream, there is the very high CO2 content in the air already mentioned ( exploration was stopped because of it). It was ob served just after the end of the rainy season, in November 1998. Leikte Guh (close to Kalaw) is a river sink. There is a main passage around 6 to 10 metres wide and two smaller choked side passages. One of them is a polluted tributary and the other one a passage oriented to wards the upstream. The end of the cave is a sump at -70 m (Bence et al, 1998). Padah Lin main cave is a fossil passage located at a relatively low elevation on the flank of the Shan Plateau, at an elevation around 400 metres 50 km to the SE of the small city ofKyaukse. It is an overall wide passage, but it shows a succession of narrower part, several metres large, and of chambers 20 to 30 m wide and high, with some openings to the sky (Mouret, 1998). Peik Kyin Myaung Guh is a spring cave with a significant flow rate, located at the base of a cliff. The river originates from a boulder choke in a side passage and connects the main passage whereas the main passage itself continues up to a narrow passage. Myinmethu Guh (to the SE of Kalaw, South of Aungban) is a through cave collecting in a vertical sink a small, temporary flowing, surface stream. Passage size is several metres wide. So far explored caves are either fossil caves at high relative elevations (Pindaya Cave, north ofKalaw) or lower on the slopes (Mundewa Cave). Some are sinks (Leikte Cave) or springs (Peik-Kyin-Myaung). Entrance deep shafts have not yet been explored. There are also famous travertine caves in the Gogteik Gorge (Cchibber, 1934). Close to the Shan Scarp, there are also caves, as Dattaw Cave near Kyaukse which is a top side collapse of a large chamber, or the fossil Shwemale Cave in the remnant hill among the foothills to the North of Mandalay. Prehistoric paintings are present in Padah Lin I Cave, one of the Padah Lin Caves. It is the only case so far known in the country. Caves in Mogok are dug out for rubies and sapphires (Mouret, 1998). Caves of the Shan Plateau are widely used, commonly for religious pur poses, but also for tourism, some for guano or nitrate exploitation and occasionally for various purposes. As in all parts of Myanmar, caves are commonly used as Buddhist shrines. The most spectacular is Pindaya Cave with its thousands of Bud dha statues of all shapes and sizes, its gilded or painted pagodas and the


Fig. 2: MUNDEWA GUH Dev. 1770 m Taunggyi, Shan Plateau, Myanmar. Map by Ph. Bence, Fl. Guillot, S. Ma(fret, Shan 1998 abundant use of gold leaf. Very spectacular also is Peik Kyin Myaung Guh with statues displayed over several hundred metres, gilded pagodas and, at the end part of the main passage, so many copies of Lord Buddha's boddhi tree: there is like a forest in the cave. There are also Shwe-Ohn-Min Cave near Kalaw, Schwemale, Dattaw (Mouret et al, 2003), Myinmethu and so many others shedding lot of Buddha statues and shrines of many kinds .. Bibliography BENCE, Ph., GUILLOT, F., MA I FRET, S. 1998. Shan 98. Expedi tion speleo en Birmanie. French Federation of Speleology (DDS), report to CREI, 45 p. BENCE, Ph GUILLOT, F MAIFRET, S. 1999. Myanmar. Shan 98. Spelunca Bull., n, pp 8-10 BENCE, Ph., GUILLOT, F., MAIFRET, S 1999 Les cavites topographiees en Birmanie. Spelunca Bull., n, p. 10 BENDER F. 1984. Geology of Burma. Berlin,-Stuttgart, Gebriider Bomtraeger, 260p. + plates DOBBY, E.H.J 1950. South-East As i a. London CHHIBBBER, H.L. 1934. Geology of Burma. London, MacMillan and Co, 538 p. DUNKLEY, J. R ., SEFTON, M., N I CHTERLIN, D., TAYLOR, J. 1989. Karst and caves of Burma (Myanmar). Cave Science, 16, 3, pp 123-131 siphon MOURET, C. 1994. Wake-related formation of runnels in carbonate and silici-clastic rocks along major Asian rivers: Chindwin in Myanmar (ex-Burma) and Yangze in China. Beijing, Academia Sinica, Proceed. XI Intemat. Congr. Speleology, Beijing August 1993, Supplement, p. 44 MOURET, C. 1997. Speleology in Australasia and Oceania. Spelunca Mem. n, Contributions to Speleology, p 204 MOURET, C 1997 Myanmar Spelunca Mem n 23, Contributions to Speleology, pp 190-191 MOURET, C. 1997. Human use of caves in Myanmar. Switzerland La Chaux-de Fonds, Proc. 12th Intemat. Congr. Speleo., UIS, Vol. 6, pp 61-63 MOURET, C 1998. Les karsts a rubis et saphirs de la region de Mogok, Nord du Plateau Shan, Myanmar (ex-Birmanie). Speleo-Club de Paris publ., Proc. 8th Rencontre d'Octobre, Avignon 1998, pp 58-62 MOURET, C. 2003. Interactions entre les colonies de chauves-souris tropicales des grottes d'Asie et leur environnement naturel et humain Spelunca Mem n, pp 77 91 MOURET, C 2004 Karsts of Southeast Asia. Routledge, Dearborn et Fitzerald, Encyclopedia of Speleology, John Gunn ed. MOURET, C., LEBRETON, B. 2003 Myanmar (ex-Birmanie) Ency clopaedia Biospeologica, Vol. 3, pp 1935-1942 MOURET, C., MOURET, L. 2003 D attaw Cave, Birmanie. Paris, Flammarion, Merveilles du Monde Souterra i n., pp 88-89 ( +versions in Italian and in English).


flellrmic S1wleoiuuir:al Sm:ie/V 0-21 About processes governing speleogenesis in the rocks By Claude MOURET claude.mouret@wanadoofr La Tamanie F-87380 Magnac -Bourg Resume La plupart des roches peuvent receler des grottes, qu'elles soient, sedimentaires, ignees ou metamorphiques. Toutefois, la taille et le devel oppement des grottes varient beaucoup d'un type de roche a l'autre. Nous presentons ici les trois facteurs principaux de creusement speleogene tique, de fa9on generale: dissolution/ corrosion, alteration geochimique et desintegration granulaire/ erosion. Ces trois facteurs de creusement necessitent la presence d'un export des materiaux dont le depart est neces saire pour que le vide se developpe et apparaisse en tant que tel: export en solution, par entrainement de grains ou par effet mecanique gravitaire. Dans la quasi totalite des cas, la presence de i'eau est necessaire a queique degre, soit pour la destruction de la roche, l'export ou les deux. Meme les eff ets gravitaires et ceux du vent sont accentues, sinon largement prepares, par la presence d'eau. De nornhreux facteurs geologiques interviennent,outre ceux tecto niques et hydrogeologiques bien connus, comme les alternances de banes de resistance contrastee, les expositions aeriennes interrompant momen tanement la sedimentation, la diagenese classique, les effets hydrother maux lors des phases d'enfouissement. Abstract ~"1ost of rocks may host caves, vv1hatever they are sedimentary,, igneous or even metamorphic. However, the size and overall length of caves largely differ from a type of rock to an other. We comment here three main factors of rock destruction, which are dissolution/corrosion, geochemical weathering and grain disintegration / erosion. Rock export is necessary and it occurs as mineral solutions, grain transport or gravity effect. In most of cases, water is necessary to some extent. Even gravity and wind effects are accentuated and even largely prepared par water. Any geological factors also play a role, in addition to the well known tectonic and hydrogeological ones, such as alternation of beds, or inter vals, of contrasted resistance, aerial exposures during short interruptions of sedimentation (relative sea level falls), classical diagenesis or deep burial effects. Most of the rocks ( sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic) may have caves, but the related passage developments vary significantly. In a given rock, the number, the size and the location of the caves depend on rock nature and fabric, and on the geological, geomorphologic and climatic settings. Water is nearly always necessary to speleogenesis, even with regard to a number of gravity-driven processes. Even the wind, under arid conditions, cannot fully exert its action if the rock has not previously or sub-contemporaneously been weakened by some weathering-related and capillary phenomena. 1. Rock destruction and rock export Both destruction and export are necessary to cave formation. Rock de struction mainly includes rock dissolution and corrosion, rock geochemi cal weathering and erosion-grain disintegration. Export by water and/ or gravity processes (sliding, solifluction, fall, undermining ... ) may enhance or in some cases slow down rock destruc tion, depending on climate and morphology. Wind plays a role in carry ing arenas or other kinds of particles and small grains away from small caves. 1.1. Rock destruction Rock dissolution/ corrosion by acidic water (whatever acidity origi nates from CO2 dissolution in the soil, organic acids, bacteria action, volcanic gases, oil-related or hydrothermal solutions), is active at a sig nificant scale on a limited number of rocks: carbonates, with significant differences from limestone to dolomite, siderite, etc., metamorphic carbonates, such as marble and cipolino, evaporites, which are highly soluble. largely calcite-cemented sandstones and conglomerates with noncarbonate grains or elements. Nevertheless, corrosion by organic acids also occurs, but at a very limited scale, with siliceous minerals such as quartz and feldspars. Geochemical weathering includes a minor amount of pure dissolution, and mainly a lixiviation/ geochemical transformation of weaker minerals in non carbonate, non evaporitic, rocks which can be sedimentary (sand stone, conglomerate), metamorphic (micaschist, gneiss ... ), igneous either crystallised at depth (granite, diorite, syenite, gabbro, pegmatite, etc.) or volcanic (basalt, andesite, dacite, rhyolite, etc.). As weathering depends on water availability, it depends on climate and seasonal effects and on re gional morphology as well. Rainy paleoclimates are important especially in arid regions, where rock weathering was more developed a few millen nia ago. Weathering is faciiitated when rock drainage is poor, as in flat and low lands, while aprons, plateaus edges or pitons are not so weathered. Usually, feldspars (and certain rock fragments in sandstones and con glomerates) are the weak components of the rocks ( sandstones, igneous rocks, volcanic and metamorphic rocks), but ferro-magnesian minerals are weak as well. Dissolution and weathering may lead to a neoforma tion of clay minerals (variable according to drainage conditions) and mineral destruction starts and accompanies rock weakening. Geochemical weathering action interacts with mechanical weakening. Acidic solutions penetrate the rock better where grain contacts are loosened and where microfracturing occurs. There is always a balance between discontinuities opening and weathering, because water must penetrate the rock but it must also remain a sufficient time for chemical reactions are effective. Salt migration in the rock commonly creates mechanic!}l exfoliation which results in void enlargement, specially near surface. Capillary ef fects needs only a small quantity of water and largely weaken the rock; preparing a ground for rock disintegration and desquamation Bacteria may exert an additional destructive action through corrosion or more complex interactions with the host rock. Rock disintegration concerns crystals or grains. It depends on the na ture of rock, on the size of the crystals ( dacites often have large crystals of biotite or hornblend and in this case disintegrate much more than basalts or rhyolites) and on the pattern they form with other minerals. It facilitates water penetration into the rock and may have a direct impact on weather ing. Too small-grained rocks usually do not show significant grain disin tegration. Thermal action (alternations of cold and hot, frost...) is able to enlarge already existing voids (for instance in some granite caves). Rock overburden leads to generate rock shelters, as in siltstones and shales interbedded below massive sandstones. Erosion is directly linked to grain disintegration and freed crystals or grains can be easily carried away, provided there is available space for that ( connected fenestrae, conduits, open fractures, open stratification surfaces, outside slope, etc.). Erosion probably occurs in karst conduits to a higher extent than it is usually thought. In passages behind river sinks,


Umes1one GYJ)Slllll, S< llt DIS SO LUTIO N l CORROSION \ \ \ EROSION / DISINTEGRATION WEATHERJNGl LIXMATI ON DISS O LUTION / CORROSION Vtllca n o se dinumts I\ /\ EROS ION / DISINTEGRATION Fig. 1: Rock destruction processes in speleogenesis WEATHERING l LIXIVIATION transportation of solid particles by water may erode cave walls and the fine-sized particles generated in this way are subsequently more easily dissolved. Near the outlets, erosion (if conditions for it are encountered) is enhanced by stronger current; eroded particles are easily exported. The water breakthrough and specially the cave breakthrough between sink points and outlets lead t o a well developed passage association able to genera te long cave systems. Rock massifs existing as topographic highs can be affected by gravity deformation leading to deep open cracks within them which form some times long caves. 1.2. Rock export Rock export is made as a mineral solution or by the way of particle transportation. Dissolution is predominant in carbonates and evaporites. Grain disintegrat ion and particle export is domin ant in sandstones Weath ering and ca pillary effects dominate in metamorphic and igneous rocks and liberate particles which can be exported by water and gravity over a commonly short distance (before it is reworked and exported at long distance. Small cave s in grained rocks form more easily along fractures if gravity-r ela t ed export processes are present. At a large scale, geometric setting plays a large role in grain export specially if it is a ssociated with a favourable geological pattern: e.g. strata surfaces in a sandstone gently sloping towards the local hydraulic base level. Rock export occurs downstr ea m at first and progressively moves upstreamward. In the s ub basaltic caves in Western Borneo such an export is the major reason why caves have formed in silici-clastic beds below ba sa ltic and esites. Hel len ic S11e!eu/ouir:u f Sucie ty DISSO LU TIO N t CORROSION Sandstone '-~, Dual layer system EROSION / DISINTEGRATION \ \ WEATHERING / LIXMATION DISSOLUTION / CORR OS ION Igneous rocks EROSION / DISINTEGRATI O N /\ 2. Other factors of cave formation WEATHERING l LIXMATION Many factors play a role with respect with cave formation, which is classically established. However, we would like to review here some fac tors which have been less studied. They are reviewed, for sedimentary rocks from sedimentation to diagenesis and deformation and for other rocks mainly under the aspect of lithological contrasts. Beds succession may enhance speleogenesis, whenever a harder, thicker, more resistant bed ( or interval) overlies a less resistant one For instance roofs of large chambers and even of large passages may be made up of the thicker beds of a thickening up sedimentary sequence in carbonate, or made up of a more cemented carbonate lithology or of a different carbonate (siderite beds interbedded with some limestone series for example). In non carbonate environments, caves often form because there is a stronger bed above easily erodible rocks It is the case in volcanic and volcano-sedimentary environments (basalt above sandstone or above sandstone-shale alternations, welded breccias above sandy volcano-sedi ments ... ) in sedimentary silici-clastic setti ngs (cemented thick sandstone above thinner, finer-grained, less cemented one), in laterite profiles ( caves formed below the iron crust), etc. Speleogenesis also occurs where a formation concentrates water towards peculiar points or area s of weaker strata, as a poorly porous, fractured sandstone above an underlying fractured carbonate. Structural conditions may enhance this. Harder beds also play a role as potential barriers to horizontal flows along their non fissured or faulted parts. Water is forced to follow them until it meets a fracture or a sedimentary or diagenetic wedge which allow J.W1 fnrunmlfonuf Conuress of SJJefeolooy


Hellenic S1wleotuuir:r1/ Sur:! etv it to go deeper in the rock massif, according to the hydraulic gradient. Longer periods of temporary exposure during relative sea level falls (temporarily interrupting sedimentation in higher areas) are more prone to initial cave development, because they allow slow processes to take place in a significant way. Once the secondary voids, including caves, have developed, they are usually sufficiently preserved (if their fill is not too highly cemented during deep burial) to influence subsequent karstifica tion and speleogenesis. Therefore, depositional sequence boundaries are prone to subsequent karst development. Diagenesis of sedimentary rocks is a very important factor: in carbon ates, karstification and speleogenesis are completely different when the degree of rock cementing and the amount of porosity vary. Poorly ce mented, porous, limestones with a low mechanical resistance lead to often smaller caves and to a dual porosity system (matrix+ karst) with complex mutual relations. Hard, tight, highly cemented limestones will bear longer caves, sometimes ver; long, with large passages and chambers; they will also show more contrasted, much steeper, outside morphology. Dissolution and/ or rock alteration under deep burial conditions are probably more common than it is presently thought, not only in carbonates but also in sandstones for instance, though it is much more subtle to spot. 0-22 The Maronia cave in the nummulitic limestone (Thrace, Greece). Geology & Paleontology Cave filling plays an opposite role as it slows down or stops cave enlargement (it may be generated by changes in the conditions of cave evolution). It takes place as a response to local or more regional condi tions and even to relative sea level fluctuations. Many karsts are subsequently onlapped by marine formations and may become more or less completely filled with sediments. Larger parts are likely to collapse progressively with burial, and this will be more devel oped if the rock has no good mechanic resistance. Cave fills may be allochthonous or simply autochthonous ( e.g. exfolia tion sheets in granite caves) and may slow down cave formation because they decrease the possibility of export, in the case of non solution export. Obviously, tectonic <'onrlition-: pla~r n <'b-:-:irnlly known role nnrl thP. hydraulic conditions as well. It is not here our purpose to be exhaustive, but we wish to draw attention on some less known factors which are conditioning speleogenesis. We also wish to highlight, if necessary, the extraordinary variety of rocks and rock formations in which caves can form. S. Pavlides1 E. Tsoukala1 A. Chatzipetros1 A. Chatzopoulou1 V. Melfos1 A. Vasileiadou1 G. Lazarides1 M. Vaxevanopoulos1 1. Department of Geology, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki ( Abstract The Maronia Cave (Thrace, Greece) is a cavern with great geological, palaeontological and archaeological interest. The tectonics, morphology and the speleothems of the cave are being described. In the present study the invertebrate and vertebrate remains are presented. Geological structure of Maronia cave Maronia cave is located at the Koufoplati hill (2 km NW of the Maro nia village) and is developed in a relatively thin layer of eroded Nummu litic limestones of Middle Eocene age (Kouris 1980, Papadopoulos 1982). These Nummulitic limestones have been unconformably deposited on top of the underlying greenschists ofMakri and Drymos-Melia Units (Circum Rhodope geotectonic zone), and are spread over a wide area, covering to day the top of the region hills. Limestones are slightly inclined towards the west and contain several species of fossilized F oraminifera, Algae, corals, sea urchins, bivalves and Bryozoa. A basal elastic series partly defines the contact between limestones and greenschists. It comprises mainly of conglomerate and sandstone. It is considered to be the regression series marking the beginning of limestone deposition. The greenschists of the Makri and Drymos-Melia Units are a complex of Jurassic -Lower Cre taceous metavolcanic rocks (lavas and tuffs) of low metamorphic grade. ThP. MP-'-07oir. metamorphir. ror.h anrl thP. lime"tone'are intmrlerl by Oligocene volcanic rocks, which are represented mainly by altered an desites alternating with bedded and partly unbedded tuffs (Melfos 1995) The cave is formed along two main tectonic lines (faults): the primary one is trending NW SE and forms the main cave chambers, while the secondary one is trending ENE WSW and fonns the secondary cham bers. These lines are in good agreement with surface microtectonic analy sis. Two main sets of joints are observed: the primary one (D 1) is striking S20E to S30E and comprises of long (> 10 m) and quite sparsely ( ca. 0.5 f-28 Ausr 2005. Kulnmos. Hellos m) developed joints, while the secondary one (D2) is striking N60E and comprises of shorter joints. The coincidence in strike between the two main joint systems, the cave chamber orientation and the tectonic lines of the near area, lead to the conclusion that the cave was formed along three main tectonic zones. Surface water circulation has played an important role during the speleogenesis procedure (fig.I). 17 14 13 11 10 Figure 1. Stereographic projection (lower hemisphere) offaults and joints (density diagram) showing the two main directions NW-SE and ENE-WSW


The Maronia Cave presents a total passage length of approximately 2000 metres and expands 10000 sq uare metr es Th ere are two natural e n trances to the c av e, both on the e astern s lope of th e Koufop lati hill. Most of th e floor sur face is covered with calc-crust flowstone The so uthe rn pa rt of the cave comprises large chambers. It has great biological interest due to the presen ce of 11 different species of bats and 31 species of inverte brates 1/3 of th is fauna consists of endemic species (Paragamian 2004) This can be interpreted by the ea rl y cracking of the Eocenic N umm ulitic limestone cov er that resulte d isolated cav e fauna s. The southern par t o f Maronia Cave shows remar kabl e diversity of speleothems. The most spectacular forms are the sh ield s, (e.g. H ill & Forti 1997), such the huge shield ( diameter 2m)(Photo 1 ) which wa s ob serv ed in one of the deepest rooms of the cave. The northern part of the cave is rather small. The two ent rances control the microclimate of this part of the cave Temperature and humi dit y are not stable throughout the year This effects the bat populations regarding moving and hibernating Curtains and enonnous col umn s cre ate m a zy paths. The scarlet hue of the speleothems is dashing (Photo 2). The solu tion process of percolating wate r is intense only in few ar eas. Chambers of the northern part are relat ively dry and the speleothems are under co rro sion The stalactites of the ce iling of some chambe rs have been collapsed ( e.g Klimchouk et al. 2000). Photo I. Shield of diameter 2m. Th e most characteristic form of speleothems of the Maronia Cave. Photo 3. Helictit es The decoration of the cave prese n ts a great variability. Some of the speleothems are rare and i mpre ssiv e. A mon g the m, the r e are s ta lactite s that are shorter th an the stala g mites a lm os t in all cases, columns, draper i es, helictit es (Ph oto 3), c onul ites, flow ston es, gours pool spars, cave pearls and corrals, and shields or discs as well. Mushroom-like (Photo 4) and curved stalagmites and th e discs are the mo st charac teri stic features of th e Maronia ca ve. The stalactites and s talagmit e s follow the te ctonic lines of t he cave In some chambers, mainly in the s outhern part of the cave, che mica l corr os ion caused great damage t o the speleothems. This may be due to the affection of th e CO2 rele ased from the guano of th e bats that cov ers most of the floor of th e cave. In certain places small lakes have been form ed and small pothol es as well. Palaeontological findings The Pa leon tolo gy of the cave prese nt s gr ea t interest. T h ere are inver tebrates in th e limeston e of the cave stm ound ings including sea urchins, giant ostreas, he xac orall s, lamell ibra nchia (mainly Pecten ida e and Card ii da e) a nd forami n ifers (mainly nummulites) (Photo 5) ofEocene age The nummul i tes characteri z e d the Intert idal and Neritic environment. They are also of great stratigraphical importan ce since th ey are index fossils of Eocen e (Dermi t zakis & Ge orgia des -Dike oulia 1986). Photo 2 Sp ecta cular red columns du e to iron oxid e Photo 4. Huge mu s hroom-lik e stalagm it e nf S11n !nnl nov


He/lrmic srwteutuuir:ul sur:iety Next to the entrance of the cave, in a small recess of the bedrock, a co hesive bone breccia (Photo 6) is being preserved. The initial examination gave interesting results (Bartsiokas 2000). Of the vertebrates found in the breccia from the additional material, the fossilized bones and teeth can be attributed to Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Photo 7), Coelodonta antiquitatis, Elephantidae? Bos primigenius, Equus caballus, Dama

0-23 From 2001 to 2004: paleontological exca v ations in the Grntta inferiore dei Covoli di Velo (Veneto -Italy) Robert o Zorzin*, Fabio Bona* "', Massimo Accordhfr'' (* Museo Ci v ico di Storia Naturale di Veron a, **Universita degli S tudi di Milano) The cave bear The cave bear (Fig 1) had its origin from the kind Ursus etruscus mostly spread in Eurasia during the middle-superior Villafranchian. From this progenitor, in fact two phylogenetic lines are evolved: one in Europe have gave origin to U. spelaeus in the middle P l eistocene (around 350 000 years ago), passing through the kind U. deningeri, and the other one in Asia to U. arctos (the actual brown bear) which has spread then also in Europe and in America (Kurten, 1968). This anim al, very diffused during the superior Pleistocene, from a geographical point of view, can be considered a limited kind to the Eu ropean continent. Its area of distribution extended him from the south of England as northern limit, to central Italy as southern limit while to the west it reached the north of Spain and t o the east the Caspian Sea (Kurten 1972). From the point of view of the a1time t ric distribution, the kind Ursus spelaeus has been found up to the quota of 2800 meters altitude really in Italy, in the cave of the Conturines. Figure 1 Pup and adult cave bear skeletons (Kurten, 1972). The cave bears introd uced a notable but variable ransom: th e forms suited for glacial periods, in fact, middly possessed superior dimens ions in comparison to the forms of the interglacials periods; besides, evident was also the difference of ransom among males, which were bigger than females A fundamental character isti c of this animal was the specializa tion of th e teeth for a predominantly vegetarian diet. The forms of cave bear were sprea d in forest environments of lowland during th e glacial periods while in the interglacials, in which the tempe ra ture was milder they could climb to tall quota in hollow of mountain or to more elevated latitudes. In these karst caves they looked for shelter during the winter lethargy, then they went out and wandered freely during the spring with t h e purpose to get themselve s the ne c essary resources to face the cold following winter. T he almost totality of belonging rests to Ursus spelaeus has been recovered really in these hollow, where the bones of the dead bears during the winter period are preserved until today. Interesting seems to be the fact that in some caves the number of t he males could overcome a lots that of the females while in others could happen the con trary. This could be interpreted as test of the existence of hollow mostly frequented primarily by the females with pups and populated hollow by the males According to Kurten, the males for example, preferred ampler caves, while the females small and sheltered caves, which constituted a sure shelter for pups. The cave bear probably extinguished in western Europe before the moment of maximum aridit y of the last glaciation ( aro und between the 20.000 and the 18 000 year s ag o). One of th e hypothe ses on the causes of the disappearan ce of U. spelaeus is that this kind had already reached the last glaciation with few exemplary and that the strong stiffening of the climate and the conseq uent environmental changes made the retrieval of food extremely problematic and hindered the meetings among the indi viduals (Kurten, 1976) Covoli Di Velo Grotta lnferfore The zone where the karst system of the Covoli di Velo finds is one of the most interesting of the center oriental Lessini Veronesi, both from the geologic and paleontological point of view. These hollow are situated in the so-called Valle del Covo lo, tributary of the deep incision of the Valle di Progno di Illasi, amon g the excavations of Velo Veronese and Selva di Progno. The karst s stem of the Covoli di Velo Figure 2 Planimetry of the karst system of the Covoli di Velo with excavation sectors in the terminal room (details G. Rossi and R. Zorzin). cipal hollows ("Grotta superiore", "Grotta inferiore" or "Grotta dell'orso" and "Covolo deil Acqua") and of some smaller hoilows. The caves, that primarily introduce an horizontal course, develop to an altitude which is almost between the 860 and the 890 ms s.l m., inside the calcarenitis oolitiche in benches locally also intensely dolomitizzate, lumach e lle to ostreidi, rolled micriti and micriti with clayey interleavings, belonging to the formation of the "Grey Limestones ofNoriglio" (Jurassic inferior) Overall around 545 meters ofkarst system, of which 364 ms belong to the system of th e Grotta superiore Grotta inferiore, 65 ms to the Covolo dell'Acqua, 40 ms to th e Covolo dell'Atrio and the remainders 75 ms to the smaller hollows, has been explored. The hollows are rich of alluvial sediments and they are all inactive hy drologically, except the Covolo dell' Acqua, characterized by a perennial wat er circulation with strong variations of course. The accessible parts of the complex and the presumable connec tions among hollows are limited from the huge alluvial deposits and that of collapse, that clog the galleries in various and discontinuous way (Rossi and Zorzin 1999). The hollow has a total development of 195 ms, to a large extent com putable to the principal branch, being entirely the secondary ramifications. Few over the en trance besides very narrow, the gallery, in light descent, assumes a very ample rectangular section. In this line the paleontological deposit has been removed reaching an underlying sterile level constituted from materials of collapse -------------~ ~ 1.1111 Jnlemntionni Cu nuress of S 1 wluu/ouv --


lfe!lenic SfJe/eotuuicaf Sur:ie ly Progressively the dimensions of the gallery are reduced until a nar rowing, determined by the contact of the deposit with the vault, overcome only in 60' with a binding work of disobstruction (Benetti and Cristofori 1968). The cave continues widening itself with typical circular sections until an ample room, partly busy and delimited by an imposing landslide to big blocks. The principal gallery is presumably buried under the allu vial deposit, while from the room two secondary ramifications develop. On the vault of the room some speleologists of the C.A.I. have reached with a climb of about ten meters a rolling mill, that shortly tightens, because of the fillings, in impracticable channels of vault. The strong ventilation suggests that this ramification can bring, with an opportune disobstruction, to wide unexplored parts of such karst system. History of the searches on this karst system The karst complex of the Covoli di Velo didn't pass unnoticed : since the end of the XVIII century it's was object of interest for illustrious char acters and naturalists. The first certain news goes up again at the end of 1700 when the abbot Fortis expressed the opinion that the present bones in these caves were rests of "amfibj" similar to the seals. Few years later Serafino Volta denied the Fortis' opinions, showing as these bones, in reality, represented the rests of terrestrial animals (Benetti, 1973). After Volta any other naturalist was interested in these caverns until 1844 when Catullo visited them and published a work, in which Avoni, who accompanied him, dealt with the description of the superior cavern. In this work the presence of a lot of fossil bones is underlined. Figure 3 Massalongo s plate illustratin g so m e bones of Ursus spelaeus found in the Upper Cave (Massa longo, 1851) Abramo Massalongo (1851) studied more carefully both the caverns and the finds picked up by Avoni and others picked up by himself. His description is much more detailed and includes both the caves the supe rior and the inferior ones. Massalongo does in his work a lot of hypoth eses about the genesis of the caves and the bony finds accompanied by tables and valuable illustrations (Fig 3) ; these hypotheses even if are partly wrong, make his essay the first true scientific work on the Covoli di Velo In 1875 an important memory regarding these caves was published by Giorgio Omboni. In this work some paletnological finds are described 21-28 Auuusl 2fl05. f{olnmos" Hellos and illustrated in tables, without however to neglect the paleontological aspects. In the first ones the most important finds studied by Omboni are represented by ceramics, worked flints (knives and scrapers), a point of arrow with fins worked bones ( awls and strikers) and a hammer fact with a piece of horn of buck. Omboni (1875), besides, was the first one who signalled the problem of the lack of searches and excavations performed with a scientific method in these caves, risking, in this wave, to lose all the knowledges on the posi tion and on the history of the finds contained. The same Omboni always signalled the problem of the unauthorized excavations that defaced the paleontological patrimony of these hollow from about ten years. In fact, while these naturalists picked up this important material, the inhabitants of the outskirtses tried to get profits at all costs from what the deposits of the two caves offered. The skulls, the jaws and the canine teeth were picked up to be subsequently sold to the collectors. Also in the writings of Attilio Benetti (1968) it can be read as the in habitants of the place drew profit selling the sediments of the caves as soil and the entire or ground bones as good fertilizers. Therefore the extraction of the finds was prevented by the hollow Despite this fact the unauthor ized excavations continued due to collectors and especially dealers. After all these stories, took place foot among the naturalists the opin ion that the deposits of the Covolis, stunned and made more and more sterile from the excavations and from the removals of these last three centuries could not offer anymore finds worthy to be studied The caves were neglected and left to the mercy of the unauthorized ones In 1970 the discovery of a new room made by the speleologists of the C.R.I.S.V. (Hydrological and Speleological Center Searches in Verona) showed that the excavation of these virgin deposits and the exploration of the gaiieries was still far from the conciusion. Just for this reason, the group of speleologists that year tried to close the Grotta inferiore; how ever it was reopened by the unauthorized burrowers. The new paleontological-stratigraphical excavations in the grotta inferlore Since August 2001, the entrance of the Grotta inferiore of the Covoli di Velo hollow that still contains unmolested portions of the layer, has been closed to the "curious" to safeguard the deposit from the unauthor ized excavations. The closing of the hollow has been realized by the Parco Naturale Regionale della Lessinia on project of the Speleological Com mittee in Verona. Since October 2001 the Section of Geology and Paleontology of the Civic Museum of Natural History in Verona has begun a series of excava tions (2001, 2002, 2003, 2004) inside the Grotta inferiore that have pri marily brought to the recovery of over a thousand of bony finds belonging to the kind Ursus spelaeus. The excavations have been realized in the terminal room of this cave, set to around 150 ms from the entrance, and they have interested two small portions of the ground, one along the west side denominated sector A, and the other one along the east side, denominated sector B (Fig. 4). Stratigraphy of the sector A The sector A, in which it was worked in 2001 and partly in 2002, is represented by an area of 12 ms2 divided in squares; each of them intro duces a surface of 1 m2 and it is initialed with at least a letter followed by a number (AAI AA2 AA3, Al A2, A3, Bl B2 B3, Cl C2, C3) At the end of the excavation has been reached the depth of around 2 80 ms from the zero of the cave. The followings levels have been shown, proceeding from the surface of stamping:


Si1eleutuuicr1! B2 83 L M Liv. Z1 2 Liv. 72. N M L Figure 4 Up on the left, planimetry of sector A; up on the right, vertical section of sector A in relation to squares B2 and B3; down on the left, planimetry of sector B on the roof of level Z2; down on the right, vertical section of sector Bin relation to squar e M (figures by F Bona). Liv. 0 it is the most superficial level, primarily constituted by a big body of landslide, with angular pebbles of various dimen sions, very big too. The matrix among the pebbles is clayey of brown color. This level reaches a maximum depth of 90 ems. Here few bones are been recovered, between them we signal some finds of ibex, important for the paleoenvironmental in terpretations. Liv. 1 it is composed from clayey slime, finely rolled. Alternated to foils of maximum thickness of a millimeter, of yellow color and constituted in bigger slime part, there are others black, probably due to accumu lation of organic substance in a mo ment of stasis depositional in calm waters. Besides, lenses of sand which included pebbles of some mms of diameter are present. The thickness of the level l reaches the 40 ems. This level is entirely sterile from the macropaleontological point of view. Liv. 1 b it is characterized by shreds of clayey slime stratified and mixed between big blocks of landslide of non inferior dimen sions to the 50 ems and pebbles of smaller dimensions. It can be interpreted therefore as the liv. 1, but in which the foils of clayey slime have been deformed by the blocks coming from the overhanging landslipe. Also its thickness is of around 40 ems This level results to be extremely poor of paleontological finds. Liv. 2 it results constituted by angular pebbles of eterometric dimen sio ns. The matrix is clayey of dark brown color. The pebbles are prepa red in an horizontal way, in order to create some separate plains. To the actual state of the searches, three prin cipal "paleo-surfaces of stamping" have been individualized, c haracteri zed, in addition to pebbles, also from the presence of bones, set, they too, in horizontal position and from an increase of the sandy fraction and clayey aggregate. Where these plains are recognizable, the matrix, in addition to be composed of sand and cla yey aggregate, show s a blackish coloration, with a certain probability due to the accumu lation of organic substance coming from the decomposition of the soft parts of the dead animals. Alternated to these surfaces there are slow of clayey slime with foils of maximum thickness of a millimeter. This level is the richest from the paleontological point of view On the three surfaces individualized, in fact numerous long bones have been recovered and also a big fragment of skull belonging to Urs us sp elaeus, further to a metatarsus of wolf (Zorz in and Bona 2002) Stratigraphy of the sector B Instead since 2002 and in the two following paleontological excava tions (2003 and 2004) was dug in the other area, sector B. Here 9 ms2 of earth have been considered, these too sep ara ted as those of the sector A in squares of 1 m2, initi aled with letters and numbers (Ll, L2, L3, Ml, M2, M3, Nl N2 N3), and around 2 70 ms depth has reached The stratigraphical levels envoy in light till now with the excavation are two: Liv. Zl it is an horizon constituted by finely rolled clayey slime. The foils of maximum thickness of a millimeter, of yellow color and constituted from slime, are probably formed for ac cumulation of fine material, transported by a course of water and settled in calm waters. Alternated to these, there are other black foils due to accumulation of organic substance in a mo ment of depositional stasis in calm waters. Besides the pres ence of a thick granulometric lens constitut ed from gravelly J4tll lntF!mnifunul Conuress of S1wfeo!ouy


/le/le11ic Soe eu!o(J /cr1! Sorn :t r Figure 5 Particular of surface.5 with accumulation of bones arranged in horizontal position (photo F Bona). material and sand, has been found. In addition to this, other smaller lenses of sand, which are a few wide ten centimetres, are verifiable in the level Z 1. This level reaches a general thickness of about 90 ems. Here the presence of bony rests scarce. Liv. Z2 as in the level 2 of the sector A, here too more distinguished plans have been found, exactly five, constituted by pebbles of eterometric dimensions with angular borders and bones pre pared in horizontal way (Fig. 5). The matrix is clayey of dark brown color. these plains are verifiable, the matrix, in addition to be composed of sand and clayey aggregate, shows a blackish coloration, probably, due to the accumulation of organic substance coming from the decomposition of the soft parts of the dead animals. Among these paleo-surfaces there are lenses of clayey slime with foils of maximum thickness of a millimeter. This level results very rich from the paleonto logical point of view. In fact, on all the surfaces a lot of bones have been recovered, also of big dimensions, belonging to Ursus spelaeus, and among them some almost complete skulls or however big portions of skull. Besides, in the level Z2 some bones of ibex and a femur of wolf have been recovered (Zor zin Bona & Accordini, in press). The evident stratigraphical similarity of the levels 1 and 2 of the sector A respectively with the levels Zl and Z2 of the sector B makes us to be entirely almost sure of the depositional unifonnity of the levels of the two areas of excavation. However until now they have been encoded with dif ferent names, until the union of the two sectors through a transept to verify their real equality. Instead it is still not clear if the "paleo-surfaces" found in the levels 2 and Z2 have to be considered separated levels or surfaces belonging to the same level. This problem will be surely clarified widen ing and subsequently deepening the excavation. Finds recovered in the grotta inf eriore of the covoli di velo During the four excavations effected in this cave about 1500 finds have been recovered, some suits and in a good state of maintenance, otl)ers in a good state but fragmentary. Obviously we have to exclude from the gen eral number of the classified finds all those whose detennination is made impossible from their fragmentariety; otherwise the total number of the pieces would be notably bigger. Passing to the analysis of the paleontological content of the four ex cavations, from a first and careful morphological study it is evident that almost all the finds can be attributed to the kind Ursus spelaeus. 21-28 lwoust was J

epifisis are not still settled completely to the diafisis. If we consider those of adults, in which the epifisis are usually melted perfectly to the diafisis, in reality, we see how a good part lacks of the extremities Many teeth have emerged from the excavations of the Covoli di Velo, the major part of them is perfectly preserved; only in some cases they miss some root or even more they rarely show a crown and cusps consumed. A thought, must be made particularly on the canine tooth some of which introduce some notable dimensions. Few are, instead, the finds belonging to other kinds (Fig 7). In 2001 a first premolar of cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), a fourth left meta tarsus of wolf ( Canis lupus), two right metatarsus and a right tibia of ibex (Capra ibex) have been recovered; in 2002 an incisive, a molar, a fragment of basin, a left tib i a, a left femur and a left metatarsus of ibex have been discovered; in 2003 a right femur of wolf has been found while in the last excavation only a strong left metacarpus of ibex has been identified. To these rests we have to add different r ests of micro-mammals be longing to some kinds of rodents and bats, now in phase of study and re covered through a job of sifting on samples of earth picked in the sector A and in the sector B during the excavations Particularly, till now, the levels 1 and 2 some area A and the level Z 1 of the B have been investigated Preliminary results on the population of ursus spelaeus of the covoli di velo The morphological characte r istics and the morfometric analysis of the recovered finds (Accordini, 2003-2004) confirm the exclusive presence, among the kinds belonging to the kind Ursus, of the kind Ursus spelaeus Rosenmtiller & He i nroth. For the specific determination and the measure ment of the finds various texts have been used and different authors have been consulted (Hue, 1907; Schmid 1972; Torres, 1988; Von den Driesch, 1976; Perego, 1993). The measures drawn by the finds of the Covoli have been compared at first with the data concerning the Spanish populations of U. spelaeus published by ToITes (1988) From the comparison the re sult is that the dimensions of the bears of the Covoli are inclusive inside the maximum and least values typical of this kind. Particularly, as bony elements for the morfometric study, for the comparison with other popu lations and for the construction of graphs we have used the long bones. Comparing the long bones, we notice how the least values of these ones are much more inferior than the Spanish ones This can be explained by the fact that in the charts of the Covoli di Velo the measures of all the finds of the excavation have been inserted, considering not only the adults but also pups and young cave bears, that lower notably the average, while Torres has entirely used for its data only adults, If only the data of the adults are compared also the least measures, they reenter in the interval of the Spanish values. Besides we have to consider, to one side, the specific variability and, to the other side, the fa c t that Tones has cropped and envoyed together the measures of a lot of Spanish populations of Ursus spelaeus: so, the average and the specific variability result very ampler in comparison to those of a single population Minimum number of individuals Thanks to the femurs, the type of more abundant bone in the excava- tion, we have calculated the least number of individuals that makes us sup pose has populated the ca ve: this results to overcome the 80 individuals, value that, of course refers to the levels till now investigated. The method used to calculate this value is that of Krantz (1968): conside ri ng th e bone found with more frequency, the least number of individuals is given by the sum of the number of pairs of thi s bone recogn i zed as belonging to the same animal adding all those separa t ed l efts and rights. &) 40 30 20 # TD O 5 10 16 20 :26 JO :15 40 50 "s" 10 10 0 tldHlti o giov.rni c11ccioli2' inv. ,) cuccloli'!'' inv, 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 15 50 55 60 IOI lO JO "'""~ :: +----,~~"'-,J~o~-~--,-----,-~TO 15 20 Figure 8 Dispersal diagrams explaining the distribution of the individuals in the four considered age classes (I ,r winter cubes, 2ND winter cubes, youngs, adults) with long bones {femw; tibia, humerus, ulna and radius). The antero-posterior diameter of dia physis is collocated on ordinate axis, the transversal diameter on abscissa axis. Classes of age During the excavation we have recognized bears belonging to different stadiums of development. We have tried to divide the bony elements in groups corresponding to different phases of development (Bona, 2004), recognizable qualitatively for the followings osteological characteristics: dimens i ons porosity and degree of calcification, welding of the epifisis with the diafisis Four classes of age for our subdivision have been con sidered: 1. first winter pups: it coincides with the animal's birth; bones are very small, calc i fication is only sketched, degree of poros ity is very elevated and epifisis are only sketched; 2 second winter pups: the aspect of bones is similar to that of the preceding class but their dimensions are bigger, they introduce a bigger degree of calcification and porosity, epifisis are not settled; 3. youngs : bones can reach the dimensions of the adults but the epifisis are still not completely fused to the diafisis; 4. adults : bones have the epifisis completely settled to the diafi sis The most of the long bones recovered during the excavation are frag mentary, mainly missing some epifisis. This is above all due to the fact that the most of them belongs to pups and young cave bears, in which the epifisis are not settled to the diafisis yet. As consequence, only the trans versal diameter and the antero-back diameter of the diafisis of the most of our finds have been measured Just using these two parameters we were able to build some graphs ( one for every type of considered bone) which show the distribution of the individuals of the Grotta inferiore in the four classes previously described (Fig 8) At th i s point we have calculated the percentages of the individuals belonging to the various classes of age identified in the whole excavation According to the femurs and the humeruses, the most abundant bones in t he excavation, we have reached the followings data: 30,3% pups first winter; 27, 7% second winter pups; 22,9% youngs; 19, 1 % adul t s. As we can see, the major part of the bears is constituted by pups which have not overcome the first winter of life ( from been just born up to few months of age) and so they have never gone out to the outside of the cave, and by pups which have d i e d during the second winter passed in cave (from few


S!iefeolouicul Socie// less to few more than one year). Good is also the percentage of the young individuals while scarcer is that of the adults. So, if we consider overall the pups, we can notice a rate of bigger mortality among these in compari son to the youngs and much more in comparison to the adults: in fact, we note as the general percentage of the pups is higher in comparison to those of the youngs and adults, reaching 58%. In general, however, the percentages point out a mortality distributed in almost similar proportions between the four classes of age in which it was decided to divide the studied individuals. It is done, besides, an attempt to see if mortality had suffered some variation among the surfaces of the Z2, considering that the bones, due to their horizontal position, had not been remixed during the time, but that they belonged indeed to those surfaces. In effects, a certain diminution of the mortality of the adult individuals and an increase of the pups was noticed passing from the surface 5 to the 1. It is difficult, however, to ex plain if this increase of the childish mortality was caused by some climatic changes or something else. 22 3) 35 37 39 41 .13 ,s 47 49 41 35 32 2, 26 21 20 +-"-~,---,~~~~--,--~-r--, 51 4S "' 45 42 39 36 33 30 Z7 .. 24 :: 45 fenunlue 1>, s ess o i1~det. maschi 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 61 54 57 so 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Figure 9 Dispersal diagrams explaining the sexual dimorphism with long bones (femur, tibia, humerus, ulna and radius). The antero-posterior diameter of diaphysis is collocated on ordinate axis, the transversal diameter on abscissa axis. Sexual dimorfism The sexual dimorfism in the cave bear is evident especially in some parts of the skeleton as the skull, the long bones and, concerns to teeth, the canine tooth. The males are bigger than the females of the same age. Still considering the long bones, already used for the division of the individuals in classes of age, it has been possible to get important informa tion on the quantity of males and females, that have frequented the cave. Obviously this quantity is related to the levels investigated till now. The graphs of dispersion built before on the base of the transversal and antero back diameters of the long bones have also been used again in the study of the dimorfism. In such context, however, they have been considered only the adult individuals (Fig. 9). Ifwe observe the diagrams, we 1,.,Q.11 a.lrnv.:it a.lwa.y.:i 11vt~1,.,,;;; Q. d~v~.:i~Vll vf the finds into two principal groups: a group down to the left constituted by a series of values distributed in a more homogeneous way, probably attributable to females, and a group up to the right formed by few finds of bigger dimensions, and separated by the precedents, attributable to males. This separation can be seen well in the graph of the femurs and the humeruses, while it is less clear in the other graphs where few other finds, hardly attributable to a sex, put in the middle of the two groups mentioned, J.lU(Jl!Si 21/05 IW!nmus. can be counted. Even, in the diagram of the tibias and the ulnas it is very difficult to distinguish the female group from the masculine one, because of the homogeneous distribution of the values. From the data that we have available till now, however, we can affirm as the general number offemale individuals is higher than the masculine one. Calculating the percentages of the males and the females according to the femurs (since they seem to be the clearest example) we can get the following data: 81,3% females and 18, 7% males. Conclusive considerations and future perspectives The stratigraphical excavations effected in 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 showed the potentialities from the paleontological point of view of the Covoli di Velo, a karst system that in past, before the razzies made by unauthorized burrowers, had to contain, a big quantity of finds, as testified in the writings of many authors. The four paleontological excavations have interested two sectors of the terminal room of the cave: the sector A, next to the west side of the room and the sector B, along the east side. Through the granulometric analysis, the stratigraphy of the two areas of excavation was established, distinguishing the levels 0, 1, lb and 2, for the sector A and the levels Zl and Z2, for the sector B. The determination of around 1500 skeletal rests has not shown a big variety of the material recovered by the excavations: a morphological and morfometric analysis of the finds, in fact, has pennitted to establish that almost of of all them belongs to the kind U. spelaeus. The fauna of macro-mammals that has been recognized in the Grotta inferiore of the Covoli di Velo is composed, besides the cave bear, also from Canis lupus, Capra ibex and Crocuta crocuta spelaea. These kinds unfortunately are represented by few skeletal elements. If the carnivores are excluded, that are generally little indicative from the point of view paleoenvironmental, the presence of the ibex, instead, could be enough meaningful, pointing out some particular paleoenvirom mental conditions, with a cold and arid climate in the open zones. Particu larly, one sprout of interesting reflection is furnished by the recovery of this animal (liv. 0, lb, Z2 sup.I, Z2 sup.3) to an altitude of 880 ms s.l.m. This results to be very low, knowing that this kind today lives in rocky zones above the limit of the wood, to an altitude between the 1.600 and the 3.000 ms s.l.m., hardly recognizables with the actual environmental conditions of the Covoli di Velo, surrounded by the forest. However, the expressed considerations about the presence of the ibex refer exclusively to the rests found to the roof of the Z2, since the levels O and 1 b of the sec tor A, from first observations on the field, they would seem to be, at least partly, rehandled and so not entirely reliable. It was previously mentioned to the analyses of the micro-mammals, that we know they're very useful to furnish us infonnation for possible paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Just for this rea son in the last excavation for every square and level of the Z2 we picked samples of ground that will be analyzed soon to esteeming if there are micro-mammals, already found in the level Zl with similar analysis on picked samples of earth in 2003. If these analyses had to have positive result, that is, if it had to be confirm the recovery of micro-mammals in good quantity in the investigated levels, after an accurate determination of the present kinds and the percentages related to such kinds in the sector B, we could get perhaps interesting news on the cave. Another interesting initiative that we have decided to undertake is to develop some pollen analyses: three samples of ground have been picked in the sector B to three different depths to sound the presence of pollens in the levels of the area of excavation and eventually to clarify of what type of pollens are. In fact, the granules of pollen, remaining stuck to the fur, were transported in cave by the bears and, when they had died, these pollens could keep in the muddy sediments of the karst hollow. The vari-


ous types of poll en granules could reveal us so m e thing on the vegetation and on the pal e o e nvironment of th e C ovoli b es ide s gi v ing us som e ne w s on the diet of the cave bears Besides the samples of sediment we have preserved bony fragmen ts to make rad i om e t ric datings with th e method of the radio-carbo n, s o that to get mor e pr eci se information on the age o f the animals that have populated the cave and therefore, to date the levels of the two areas of excavation. Not being available radiometric datings that can give us a precise age of the stratigraphical levels investigated till now, currently the only certainty that we have is that the constant presence in the fauna of the Grotta inferiore of the U. spelaeus lets report our levels to a last glacial period In fact this kind reached its maximum development and diffusion during the last big Wurm glaciation probably extinguishing itself approximately around the 20.000 years ago. An important consid eration has to be done on the sector B : during the operations of excavation long the east side, more precisely in the squares M3 and N3, we noticed that the wall to level of the surfaces 4-5 of the Z2 curtains to form a niche. Particularly, in the square N3 an enough deep niche, that seems to become still deeper in the wall, has been dug Just in this niche the three skulls exhumed in the last paleontological excavation together to other bones of notable dimensions have been found (Fig. 10). This makes us hope to be able to recover many other finds of a certain consistence and paleontological importance in that point. Waiting for the results of the analyses in progress (on the micro-mam mals, on the pollens and on the age of the levels and the finds), between the purposes of the next paleontological excavation in the Grotta inferiore that will be effected in 2005, there is that to widen the sector B and to dig inside the niche found in the squares M3 and N3; besides this there is the wish already expressed the preceding year s to connect the two areas of excavation A and B with the purpose to find some stratigraphical cor relations. Figure 10 Particolar of sector B explainin g the shell excavated in surfaces 4-5 (photo F Bona). Bibliography ACCORDINI M (2003-2004) -Studi stratigrafici e faunistici del deposito pleistocenico della Grotta inferiore dei Covoli di Velo. Tesi di laurea. Universita degli Studi di Padova BENETT! A. (1973) La distruzione dei depositi quatemari dei Co voli di Velo" nei Monti Less ini Veronesi N a turaAlpina, 24 (1): 27-37. BENETT! A. & CRISTOFERI W. (1968) -La grotta del "Monte Gaole" e i Covoli di Velo" nei Lessini Veronesi. Studi Trentini di Sci enze Naturali, B, 45: 270-283 BENETT! A. & SAURO F. ( 1999) Storia delle ricerche sul comples so carsico dei Covoli di Velo Atti della Tavola Rotonda "Un importante sistema carsico dei Monti Lessini : i Covoli di Velo Verona-Camposil vano, 16-17 aprile 1999: 5-12 Sne ieu/ ur1ir:ul Sucieiv BONA F. (20 0 4) Preliminary analysis on Ursus spelaeus R osen muller and He inroth 1794 populations from Ca v erna Generosa (Lom bardy -Italy) Cahiers scientifiques Centr e de Conservation et d Etude des collection s ( M useum de Lyon). HUE E. (1907) -Osteomet r ie des Mammiferes. C Reinwald Paris, 50 pp. e 186 tavv KRANTZ G.S. (1968) A new method of counting mammal bones. American Journal A rcheology 72: 285-288 KURTEN B (1968)-Pleistocene mammals ofEurope. Weindfeld and N icolson London 317 pp. KURTEN B. (1972)-L orso delle caveme. Le Scienze, 46: 73-80. KURTEN B. (1976) The cave bear story: Life and Death of a Van ished Animal. Columbia University Press New York, 163 pp. MASSALONGO 0. (1851) Osteologia degli Orsi fossili nel Ve ronese, con un saggio sopra le principali cav e rne del Distretto di Treg nago. Naturwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, 4: 31 86. OMBONI G. (1875) Di alcuni oggetti preistorici delle caveme di Velo Veronese. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 18: 69-82. PEREGO R (1993) -Ursus spelaeus Osteometrie. Presentation des mesures considerees dans l'etude des restes de la Grotte Fontana marella (Campo dei Fiori, Varese, Italy). Borse de Perfectionnement au Musee d'Histoire Naturelle et a l'Universite Claude Bernard -Lyon I. Lyon. SCHMID E. (1972) -Atlas of animal bones. Elsevier Publishing Com pany, Amsterdam 159 pp. TORRES PEREZ H. (1988) -Osos (Mammalia, carnivore Ursi dae) del Pleistocene ibericos (U. deningeri Von Reichenau U spelaeus Rosenmilller-Heinroth, U. arctos Linneo). I Filogenia; Distribucion es tratigrafica y geografica. Estudio anatomico y metrico del craneo. Boletin Geologico y minero, 909: 3-46. II Estudio anatomico y metrico de la man dibula, hioides atlas y axis. Boletin Geologico y minero, 909: 220-249. III Es tudio anatomico y metrico del miembro toracico carpo y metacarpo. Boletin Geologico y minero, 909: 356-412. IV Estudio anatomico y met rico del miembro pelvico, tarso metatarsa y dedos. Boletin Geologico y minero, 909: 516-577 V Denticion decidual, formula dentaria y denticion superior. Boletin Geologico y minero, 909: 660-714. VI Denticion infe rior. Boletin Geologico y minero, 909: 886-940. VON DEN DRIESCH A. (1976) -A guide to the misurement of animal bones from archaeological sites. Peabody Museum Bulletin, 1 Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 136 pp. ZORZIN R. & BONA F. (2002) -Covoli di Velo (VR). Prima cam pagna paleontologica : risultati preliminari Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona Geologia Paleontologia Preistoria, 26: 43-46 ZORZIN R., BONA F. & ACCORDINI M. L'orso delle caveme dei Covoli di Velo. Primi studi sulla popolazione di Ursus spelaeus della Grotta inferiore (VR Italy) Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Natu rale di Verona, Geologia Paleontologia Preistoria. In stampa. ZORZIN R. & ROSSI G. (1999) -II sistema carsico dei Covoli di Velo Atti della Tavola Rotonda "Un importante sistema carsico dei Monti Lessini: i Covoli di Velo ". Verona-Camposilvano 16-17 aprile 1999: 1322. The authors address Roberto ZORZIN Civic Museum of Natural History in Verona Sec tion of Geology and Paleontology, Lungadige Porta Victoria 9 37129 Verona (Italy). Fabio BON A Department of Sciences of the Earth, University of the Studies in Milan 34, Mangiagalli street -20133 Milan (Italy). Massimo ACCORDINI Civic Museum of Natural History in Ve rona, Section of Geology and Paleontology Lungadige Porta Victoria, 9 37129 Verona (Italy). Ht/I ln!emutionul Conumss of StJe!eolouy

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Hell enic StJl!!eolouica/ 0-24 Milk teeth of Quaternary carnivores from Northern Greek Caves P reliminary Repor t by S pyridoula PAPPA 1, Eva n g elia TSOUKALAI, G eo r gim; LAZARIDIS1 & RABEDER2 1. School of Geology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki Macedonia, Greec e 2. Institute of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Althanstrass e 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria Abstract From extensional studies on Quaternary faunas it is concluded that certain caves were habited by animals (carnivores). The habitation is es tablished by the presence of milk teeth and bones with infused epiphyses, the food remains and the coprolites. The most important site of Greece with abundant material of fossilized milk teeth, in spite of their fragil ity, is the Late Pleistocene Loutra Arideas (Pella, Macedonia) Bear-cave. Thousands of isolated deciduous teeth very few in situ have been col lected from the systematic excavations that were carried out in the cave. In Middle Pleistocene Petralona cave, even though there is abundant ursid material the presence of milk teeth i s rather rare. On the other hand, there are hyaenid mandibles with milk teeth belonging to the Middle Pleistocene Crocuta spelaea intermedia and Pliohyaena pimieri as well. These milk teeth are compared with those of the Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea from Agios Georgios cave (atypical hyaenid den in Kilkis, Macedonia). The evolutionary stage of these animals is preliminarily under discussion Introduction Three caves of Macedonia (N. Greece) with milk teeth are refeITed in the present study: The Petralona cave (PEC), 45Km SE, the Agios Georgios Kilkis (SGK), 45Km NNW and the Loutra Arideas Bear-Cave (LAC), 120 Km NW of Thessaloniki (Fig. 1 ). The Petralona material of juveniles comes from the "old excavation" and surface collections by professors of the Thes saloniki University, which was found in association with the famous homi-.... ..,, -..... .. Figure 1. Map of Greece with the three localities (PEC: Petralona Cave, SGK: Agios Georgios-Kilkis Cave, LAC: LoutraArid eas Cave) depicted. 21 -28 Auuust 2005. l(nfrmws-. fle!las nid skull. The milk teeth are very few in contrast to the rest findings that are thousand s of well preserved specim e ns rep r esenting 22 different species of Middle Pleistoc e ne large mammals (TSOUKALA 1989/1991). TheAgios Georgio s -Kilkis cave is the unique up to now exclusively hyaenid den of Greece of Latest Pleistocene a s the most spec ialized scavenger, the real cave hyaena lived in The presence of the milk teeth, the coprolites and the food remains establish the habitation. The juveniles are represented either by milk teeth or by post cranial skeleton (TSOUKALA, 1992a,b). The investigation in the Loutra Arideas area started in 1990 and the first excavation circle in the Bear Cave sta1ied in 1992 The sieving process and the systematic co lle ction of the milk teeth started in 199 3 up to now. Ten systematic excavation circles, under strictly archaeological mles, including micromammalian research took place. All the sediments of the 189 levels (about 5 cm of thickness each) have been washed into a system of double sieve s, one for micromammals CHATZOPOULOU, (this volume) with a mesh of 0 8 mm and the other of 3 mm for large mammalian remains, both with milk teeth. Then the material was dried out, conserved and recorded for further study. Additionally few bigger specimens were num bered and collected in place with their coordinates during the excavation (TSOUKALA 1994 1996, TSOUKALAet al. 1998, 2001 PAPPA 2004). All the material above is stored in the Paleontological Museum of Aristotle University ofThessaioni ki Paleontology a) Petralona Cave, Middle Pleistocene Taxonomy Order: CARNIVORABOWDISH 1821 Sub-order: Canoidea SIMPSON, 1931/ Arctoidea FLOWER, 1969 Family : Ursidae GRAY, 1825 Genus: Ursus LINNAEUS 1758 U. deningeri v. REICHENAU 1906 Material: dC PEC l 028 dP PEC 1040 dex D4 PEC 1020 dex Description: The milk canine is little worn and the root is broken, the third upper milk incisor is slightly worn and most of the root is preserved. The upper milk carnassial is well preserved (D4, fig. 2a) as only little part Figur e 2. D4 occlusal view: a) Left, Petralona c ave, U. deningeri PEC 1020 dex and b) Right, Loutra Arideas Bear cave, U. ingressus LAC 12557 sin.

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of the roots is missing, The external cones are pointed and straight on their labial side, the paracone is well developed and the metacone bears longi tudinal palatinal crest. There is a small parastyle, while there is trace of a cingulum like metastyle. The morphotype seems to be a simple one Sub-order Feloidea SIMPSON, 1931 Family: Hyaenidae GRAY, 1869 1) Genus : Crocuta KAUP, 1828 Crocuta spelaea intennedia M de SERRES, 1828 Material : Mandible fragment with D3 -D4 PEC 15 dex. Description: Of the brachygnath mandible most part is preserved with the D3 and D4 both slightly worn (fig. 4.1) Of the D3 the protoconid is intense, and there are an anterior and two posterior small accessory cus pids. Of the milk camassial, the paraconid and protoconid are pointed, the metaconid is absent and the large talonid is bicuspid as the hypoconid is reduced, but well developed the entoconid and hypoconulid The M1 is unerupted. 2) Genus : Pliohyaena KRETZOI, 1938 Pliohyaena perrieri CROIZET & JOBERT, 1828 Material: Cranium with des sin, D2 -D4 sin+dex, P4 dex, M1 sin PEC 28, 2 mandible fragments with D2 -D4 M1 PEC 14 dex and 13 sin, D3 PEC 35 sin, D4 PEC 44 sin. Description: The skull is almost well preserved and it bears almost all the slightly worn milk teeth and the unerupted left carnassial and the right M1 as well. The I2 dex and the C' sin are under eruption (fig. 3). The milk canine is slender, with an intense posterior and an anteropalatinal crests with a well developed cing u lum on the base of the latter. There are only the alveoli of the single root D1 The D2 is elongated and its longitudinal axis is directed palatinal. There are a small anterior and a well distin guished posterior accessory cuspid and an intense palatinal cingulum The D3 is the largest tooth with well separated parastyle, long metastyle and a very low proto c one in the middle. On the basis of the amphicone there is an intense triangular cuspid The molar like D4 is small, triangular, trans versally developed. Of the hypsognath mand i ble, most part is preserved with the slightly worn D2 D3 and D4 (fig. 4 2,3). Of the long D3 the protoconid is intense and posterior inclined, and there are anterio r and posterior accessory cus pids. Of the milk carnassial D 4 that is clearly distinguished the paraconid and protoconid are less pointed, the metaconid is present and the large talonid is tricuspid as the hypoconid, hypoconulid and entoconid are well developed, with the latter one being the most strong. The M1 is unerupted, with the metaconid well distinguished. It must be noted that in all milk teeth there is an intense labial cingulum. Only two isolated well preserved teeth have been found (fig 5.5,6). The dimensions of the specimens are given in tab. 1. Table 1. Plfohyaena perrieri Crocuta spefaea intermedia PEC Measurements of milk teeth (in mm) Pliohyaena gerrieri Cranium PEC28 PEC 35 LdCs 8.12 LD3 16.99 BdCs 5.90 BD3 7 35 LD1alv. 6 50 PEC44 BD1alv. 6.40 L D4 19 89 LD2 16.00 BD4 8.82 BD2 7.54 LD}rct 15.15 LD3 25.50 LD4tact 4 61 BD3 14 00 HD4crown 10.82 LD4 9.60 Md PEC14, PEC13 n X -min max s V BD4 15.64 LD2-D4 2 50.00 49.50 50.50 LM1 7.40 LD2 2 13.65 13.60 13 70 BM1 14.17 BD2 2 6.25 6.20 6.30 -Ldiastema 2.87 LD3 3 17.20 16.90 17.60 0.35 2.03 LD1alv.-D4 52 00 8D3 3 7.56 7 50 7.70 0.11 1.46 LdCsant.-M1post. 85.00 LD4 ,,., 20.50 19.90 21.00 0.56 2.73 .) LdC-D4 67.49 BD4 ,, 8.47 8.40 8 60 0.12 1.43 _) LD2-D4 42.76 Crocuta spelaea intermedia LD2 16 00 PEC15 BD2 7.83 LD2-D4 43.00 LD3 25.70 LD2 al.9 60 BD3 15 53 BD2 al.5.20 LD4 9 68 LD3 12,90

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Figure 3. Pliohyaena perrieri, Cranium with dC, D2 -D4 M1 PEC 28, Left: a) dorsal, b) basal, c) right lateral, d) anterior and e) posterior (occipital region) view. Right: Detail of the right tooth-row, occlusal view. Figure 4. Crocuta spelaea intermedia: I) mandible fi"agment with D3 -D4 PEC 15 dex, Pliohyaena perrieri, 2) mandible.fragment with D2 -D4 M1 PEC 14 dex and 3) mandiblefi'agments with PEC 13 sin. Figure 5. 3) SGK 96 dex, 4) D4SGK 1104 dex. a,d) labial, b,e) lingual, c) occlusal view b) Agios Georgios (Kilkis) cave 3) Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS, 1832) Material: Mandible fragment with D4 SGK 90 sin, 3 D3 SGK 96, 97 dex, 1067 sin, D4SGK 1104 dex, 2 DJragm. SGK 689,690 dex. Description: Of the mandible only the posterior part with condylus, the processus coronoideus as well as the lower slightly worn milk carnas sial are preserved (fig 6). There are also isolated teeth, D3 and very sin, 6) D4 PEC 44 sin a) labial, b) lingual view. well preserved (fig. 5.1-4) Of the D3 the protoconid is intense, and there are ante ri or and posterior accessory cuspids. Of the milk carnassial, the paraconid and protoconid are less pointed, the metaconid is absent and on the large talonid not well distinguished c uspids were observed The dimensions of the specimens are given in tab 2. Further more, post cranial bones with infused epiphyses were found

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Figure 6 Croc uta crocuta spelae a: SGK 90. a) lingual h) labial, c) D4 occlus al vie w c) Lout ra Ari deas Bear cave Ursu s ingressus RABE DER 2004 Material : Mandible fragment with dCi, D4 M1 unerupted LAC 1389 dex, 12 dI1 105dF, 695 dP, 6 D2,26D3, 240 D4, 52 dI1, 29dI2 180 d[v 7 D2,62 D3 285 D4 1600 d C, Desc r ipt io n : In spite of the abundance of the milk teeth, among of which 3.259 a r e studied and mea s ur ed (t ab. 3) the mandibles are extrnme ly rare, as only on e is al most weU pre served. The dC is slig htly wo rn, as well as the lower mil k ca rnassial ; on the other hand the M1 is germ and unerupted (fig. 7) The ma n dible wit h 13 C, M1 M2 and M3 uneru pt ed LAC 41 1 4 belongs to a si xteen months bear ( after D ittrich in ANDREWS & TURN ER 1992) ( fig 8). Th e dI1 is a small and sle nder too th The re is a palatinal well d evelope d cingulu m an d th e root is elongated sli ghtl y curved an d conical. The dF is much stronger than the first one, and also bears a weli develop ed pa lati nal cingulurn. The cro wn is curved and the root is co nical and ant er i or flatten ed Th e dP is the larg est upp er mi lk inci sor that is sim ilar with the mi lk canin e, except the more convex crown and the int e nse palatina l c in gul u m. This tooth seems to be the mos t abundant among the LAC mat eria l. The D2 is the small est of th e che ek mi lk teeth the les s differe ntiat ed. The root is sma ll and co nical. The D3 is mor e dif-. ferentiated with developed talon and two roots. The upper milk carna ssial D4 i s the mo s t im portant too th becau se it contributes to the study of the evolutionary stage acc o rdin g to it s morp hotyp e (RABE D ER, 1983, 1991, 1 9 99). It is molar like an d has one pal atinal and t wo labi al roots The LdC BdC LD3 BD3 LD4 BD4 Md LD4 BD4 Hmd D4p ost. Table 2. Crocuta crocuta spelaea SG K : mea su rements of milk teeth ( in mm) SGK 906 6.47 4.79 SGK96 SGK97 13. 95 13.30 6 .5 7 6.5 8 SGK 11 04 S GK 689 18.10 7. 92 7.04 SGK9 0 17 .6 2 8 .11 28 78 H md proc.coron. 44.19 H md cond 12.16 SGK 1067 1 4.66 7 09 SGK 690 6.72 Abbreviations: see H=he ight proc co ron.=proc essus coron oid e u s, con d =condylus occlu sa l sh ape is rounded and sometimes there is a palatinal cuspid-like cingulum (fig.9). Th e dl I is very small t o oth wit h small crown and cylindrical root, the end of which is slightly co n vex The dl7 is much stronger than the first one, wit h trian gular crown and elongated root. The dl3 is the largest lower milk in cisor with tria ngular crown and well developed root. There are two lingual accesso ry cuspids, jointed with a small cingulum. Th e D1 is the smallest of the c h ee k milk t ee th and the l ess differen tiat ed It grows incl ined, with no root. The D3 are of e longated crown and have two roots that are well separated or fused in some spec imens RADULESCU & SAMSON (19 59). The lower carnass ials D4 are much more various t han that of t he maxillar one, with crown bea ri ng at least 5 cusps and two roots (fig 9). Th e milk canines are large and abunda nt but difficult to be distin gu i shed in maxillars and mandibulars, thus both are described as long and fl atten ed teeth ( fig. l 0). Figu re 9 Ursus i ngressu s LAC : Repr esent ative material of the milk camassial s show i ng the variability of the morphotype Left: T wo upper the D4 and tw o lower rows th e D4 Right: First upper and second row low er milk teeth Figur e 10. Ursus ingress u s LAC D eciduous canin es. Fig ure 11 Ursus ingressu s LAC. Various categ ories of deciduous ca n ines ( KUR TEN 19 76) a) Ge rm s, b) Full teeth with root s howing resumpt io n s marks c ) Full tee t h, d) Shed cani nes. -------flt} ) l ii i:i/i:''if!i i/Ul C Oii{J!f:SS {)/ S;ie/eufuuv -

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Figure 7. Ursu s in gressus LAC. Mandiblejiagment with dC ;, D4 M, unerupted LAC 1389 dex Figure 8. Ursus ingressus LAC Mandibie w ith 13 C, Mr M2 and M3 unerupted LAC 4114. Figu r e 9. Ursus ingressus LAC: R e presentative material of t he mi l k carnassia l s showing the variability of the morphotype. L e ft : Two upper th e D4 and two lo wer rows the D4 Ri ght: Fi rst upper and second row lo wer milk teeth Ta ble 3. Ursus ingressus LAC : Mea sur em e nts of the milk tee th (in mm) n min -m ax X S,,_ V LdI' 12 1 77-2.95 2.44 0.3 2 13.15 BdI' 12 1 .57 -2. 68 2.21 0.35 15.58 Ld F 103 3.02-4.63 3.85 0.32 9.46 BdF 103 2.72 -4 97 3.35 0.3 2 8.24 LdP 671 4.03-6 62 5.23 0.38 7 .30 BdP 671 4.01-6.77 5.05 0.42 8.31 LdC 1507 5.08-9.58 7.31 0.60 8.23 BdC 1507 3.96 7. 25 5.52 0.45 8 23 LD2 6 2.10-2.76 2.40 0 .25 10.60 BD2 6 1 99-2 65 2.25 0.26 11.75 LD3 26 3.97-7.30 6.21 0 62 9.96 BD3 26 3. 0 7 --4 1 7 3.72 0.26 7.04 LD4 124 9.20-12.85 11.13 0.74 6.69 BD4 124 6.42-11 .60 7.5 6 0.64 8.43 LdI 52 1.45-2.73 2.17 0. 29 13.54 BdI 52 l.21-2 09 1.73 0 2 1 11.87 LdI, 2 7 3.50-4.76 4.02 0.29 7. 25 BdI 27 2.42-3.83 2.94 0.36 12.32 Ldl 173 4.10-6.32 5 2 1 0.47 9.12 Bdl 17 3 3 02 5 .33 4.05 0.37 9.23 LD 6 2.12-2.82 2.43 0.29 11.80 BD 6 2.12-2 .57 2.2 9 0.18 7.97 LD1 59 2.98-6.49 4.98 0.9 4 18.94 BD 59 2.38-4 0 2 3 29 0.38 11.6 9 LD 242 10 .2 1-14 98 12 76 0 .77 5.1 0 BD 242 5.03-9.70 6.31 0.58 9.17 2 l-28 /W[J U S'f ?[1{]5. /{{l/[ftnOS Helf u s

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Sn e!eo!o.ul cr1/ Figure JO. Ursus ingres sus LAC. deciduous canines. Figure 11. Ursus ingressus LAC Various categories of deciduous canines (KURTEN 1976) a) Germs, b) Full teeth with root showing resumptions marks, c) Full teeth. d) shed ca nines. 0 I ,, ... ,,,,,. --..... .... .,,,, .. / I _, [ x1 ] 10mm Figure 13. Ursus ingressu s D4 LAC 12557 sin, occlusal with the morphot ype Nordmann was the first who studied the bear milk teeth in 1858, Schlos ser in 1909, Kormos in 1916, Pohle in 1923, Ehre nberg in 1931, Fri ant & Stehlin in 1933, Mot tl in 1934, 193 9, Zap fe in 19 46, KOBY (1952), ERDB RINK (1953), RADULESCU & SAMSON (195 9), EHRENBERG (1964), KURTEN (1968), TERZEA (1969) TORRES (1988), AN DREWS & TURNER ( 1992), DEBELJIAK, 1996, 1997 etc. The study of the milk teeth and bones s howe d the presenc e even more of unbomed bears On the other hand, completely worn milk teeth were also observed, thus there was difficulty in chewing so the individuals could not survive a long winter, as this last glacial period of Wurm. These animal s died exhau sted a t the end of the winter, even though they could survive mor e (KURTEN 196 8, 1976) The milk camassials D4 and D4 are the most important dec iduou s teeth as the study of the morphotype can give evidence for their evo lut ionary sta ge (RABEDER, 1983). Th e D4 LAC is molar lik e wi t h one palat inal and two labial roots. The occlusal shape is rounded and sometimes there is a palatinal cusp idlike cingulurn. T he Paracone is well developed and the metacone bears longitudinal pa l atinal crest. There is small parastyle while there is a tra ce of cingulum like metastyle. Finall y th er e is hypoco ne crest like. It is similar t o th e Gams sulzenho hle (Austria) morphotype (fig. 13). The l ower carnassia ls D4 LAC are much more variable than those of the upper ones, with crown bearing at least 5 cuspids. Paraconid, metaconid and protoconid are well developed There is a sm all hypo conid a n d endoconid. Apart fro m som e differe nces D4 i s similar to the Gamssulzenhohle as well (fig. 14). Concerning the milk canines, the material can be attributed to catego ries (KURTEN, 1976) (tab 4): (A) by few germs milk canin e s consis ti ng by an enamel cap and a root that has barely started to fonn (fig. 11 a), (B) [ x1 ] 0 10mm F igure 14. Ursus ingressus D4LAC 12560 sin, occlusal, with the morphotype. by few complete teeth with un worn occlusal and fully formed roots (fig. llc) (C) by co mpl ete teeth with root showing resump tions marks (fig. 11 b). This is a preliminary stage to the tooth being shed and as the root is gradually dissolved by the osteoclast (KOBY 1952). There is a very large crop of shed milk ca nines (D ) in which the root has dissolved completely (fig. lld) The (E) category includes the h eavy wear stage of deciduous Finally the (F ) inclu des worn deciduous c a nines with re so rbed root. Table 4. Ursus ingressus LAC: Wear stages of cave-bear deciduous canines Wear Number of Westbury Odes sa ANDREWS stage Description spec im ens &TURNER KURTEN ( dC) LAC 1992 1976 A Une mpted C/) 132 22 13 (1) i::: 0 B Eru pted z 500 10 26 C Unw orn 83 32 D Slig htly wear C/) i30 39 165 bO E Heavy wear -~ 600 80 Worn with F resorbe d root 155 8 Unerupted, when the crown is formed but the root is not; erupting when some root development has tak e n place ; unworn when the root is fully form ed but the crown has no wea r; slight to moderate wear; heavy wear. Ui/1 Jnternnlfunu! Cunuress of snel eo luuy

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Hellenic S1wl eol uuica! Su cie /y From the distinction of the dP, D4 and D 4 in rights and lefts the MNI (minimum number of individuals) can be calculated to 355 individuals based on dP (the left ones) and 400 (not reliable, based on milk canines with the total 1600 rights and lefts plus uppers and lowers divided to 4)(tab. 5). Table 5. Ursus ingressus LAC: Distinction of the dP, D4 and D4 in rights (dex) and lefts (sin) for calculation of the minimum number of individuals (MNI). Category of Teeth Number oflefts (sin) Number of rights (dex) dP 355 340 D4 120 120 D4 139 146 Discussion, Conclusions Three caves of northern Greece present the most important milk teeth material of Pleistocene: the Petralona cave (PEC) with hyaenids and bears, the Agios Georgios, Kilkis cave (SGK) with hyaenids and Loutra Arideas Bear-cave (LAC) with bears. The most important remarks are preliminarily shown in table 6, as the research is in progress In Middle Pleistocene Petralona Cave the material representing the hyaenids comprises well preserved skull with almost all the slightly worn milk teeth and the unerupted left carnassial and the right M1 as well as mandibles with the milk cheek teeth that give evidence, parallel to adults, the two genera crocuta and hyaena to be distin guished. For example the presence (Pliohyaena) or not (Crocuta) of the metaconid in the lower carnassials M1 follows the milk carnassials D4 respectively. For the bears only the upper carnassial can be compared with that of LAC and the main remark is that the morphotype is more complicated in LAC specimens than that from PEC. The Agios Georgios-Kilkis cave is the unique, up to now, exclu sively hyaenid den of Greece, as the most specialized scavenger -Crocuta crocuta spelaea-the real cave hyaena, lived in. The pres ence of the milk teeth, the coprolites and the food remains establish the habitation. In other caves with Quaternary faunas, the presence of the most common cave-bear is notable. A sample of hyaena tooth (upper carnassial) enamel was ESR dated giving an age in the range 12.2,5 Kyr BP. This indicates Greece as a refugee for the hyae nas, when they were largely excluded from northern and central Europe during last glacial. Further more, post cranial bones with infused epiphyses were found. The Late Pleistocene Loutra Arideas bear-cave is very rich in paleontological material of ursid milk teeth. Thus the site can be considered as the unique place of Greece where so abundant and well stratified deciduous teeth from 189 excavated iayers (5cm of thickness each) have been collected. The abundance of the milk teeth, in spite their fragility, is very remark able. The majority of the tooth and bone remains belong to juveniles and sub-adults, while very few belong to very old individuals and few to adults. Among the material there are specimens such as skull and mandibles with deciduous teeth and postcranial bones, especially metapodials with the distal epiphysis infused. Therefore all ages from juvenile to senate individuals are represented. The majority of the tooth and bone remains belong to juveniles and sub-adults, while very few belong to very old individuals and few to adults, indicating thus an extremely high incidence of young and neonate mortality. The study of the milk teeth proved the presence either of unborn bears. There are many bear carcasses as a result of death during hibernation. All this evidence establishes the inhabitation. On the other hand, many milk teeth must have been brought into the cave with the sediments. The morphotype of the milk carnassials from Loutraki is similar to those from Gamssulzenhohle (Austria). Table 6. Some morphological characters on milk teeth of Pleistocene carnivores from Greek caves for comparison \ U. deningeri Crocuta spelaea Pliohyaena penieri Crocuta crocuta spelaea Ursus ingressus intermedia Petralona Agios Georgios, Kilkis Loutra.Arideas Bear-cave Middle Pleistocene Latest Pleistocene Late Pleistocene Mandible brachygnath hypsognath D4occlusal More squarish More rounded paracone-metacone More pointed and Lesser pointed and diverged lesser diverged Morphotype Lesser complicated More complicated D3 protoconid Lesser intense More intense Lesser intense More erect Inclined posterior More erect Anterior and two Anterior and posterior, Anterior and two Accessory cuspid posteriors, posterior small all small clearly more developed clearlv lesser develooed D 4 paraconid and protoconid Pointed Pointed Lesser pointed Open angle Lesser open angle More open angle metaconid absent present absent Bicuspid: talonid hypoconid reduced, but Tri cuspid Not developed entoconid & hypoconulid All well developed well developed labial intense cingulum in all milk teeth Morphotype Lesser complicated More complicated 2 7 -28 twaust WD5 Kalrmws. Hel!ns

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References ANDREWS, P. & TURNER, A., 1992. Life and death of the Westbury bears. -An n Zool. Fennici, 28: 139-149, Helsinki. CHATZOPOULOU (this volume) The small mammal fauna from the Loutra Arideas Bear-Cav e (Pella Macedonia Greece) with emphasis on the third chamber. DEBELJIAK, I., 1996. Ontogenetic development of dentition in the cave bear. Geologija 39: 13-77, Ljubljana. DEBELJIAK, I., 1997 Age composition of the cave bear population from the Divje babe I Cave. -Int. Meeting on Man and Bear, Auberives Pont en Royans (Vercors Isere ) EHRENBERG, K. 1964 Ein Jungenbarenskelett und andere Hohlen barenrest e aus der Barenhohle im Hartlesgraben be i Hiflau (Steiermark) Ann. Naturhistor. Mus. Wien, 67: 189 252. ERDBRING, D. P., 1953. A review of fossil and recent bears of the old world. 1 2. Jan de Lang, Deventer KOBY, F.-Ed., 1952. La dentition lacteale d' Ursus spelaeus. Rev. Suisse Zool., Geneve. 59(27): 511-541. KURTEN B., 1968. Pleistocene Mammals ofEurope. Aldine Publish ing Company, Chicago: 1 317. KURTEN, B., 1976. The cave bear story Life and death of a vanished animal.Columbia University Press, 1-163, New York. PAPPA, S., 2004. Study on the milk teeth of the cave bear from the excavational research in LoutraArideas Cave. Diplomatic work with un published data submitted to the School of Geology, Aristotle University, 1-81, Thessaloniki RABEDER, G., 1983. Neues vom Hohlenbaren. Zur Morphogenetik der Backenzahne. Die Hijhle H 2(34) : 67-85, Wien. RABEDER, G., 1991. Die hohlenbaren der Counturines. Verlagsanstalt Athesia, 1 124, Bozen. RABEDER, G., 1999. Die Evolution des Hohlenbarengebisses.Mitt Korn. Quartarf orch. Ostrerreich. Akad. WISS. 11: 1-102, Wien. RADULESCU, C. & SAMSON, P., 1959. Contribution a la connais sance de la dentition lacteale d'Ursus spelaeus. Eiszetalter und Gegen-Hel l e ni c S!Jeleuiouicn Soc iety wart, 10 : 20 5 -216 Ohringen TERZEA, E. 1969 Nouvelles donnees sur la dentition lacteale de l'U rs us spelaeus. -Ac t. IV. Congr. Int. Speleaol. 4-5 : 383-389. TORRES PEREZ HIDALGO T.J 1988 Osos ( Mammalia C arnivo ra Ursidae) del Pleistoceno de la Peninsula Iberica Boletin Geologico y Minero, Madrid (pub 1. espec. ), 1 4: 1-316. TSOUKALA, E., 1989. Contribution to the study of the Pleistocene fauna of large mammals (CARNIVORA PERISSODACTYLA AR TIODACTYLA) from Petralona Cave (Chalkidiki, N. Greece). Doctorate Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Sci. Ann., School of Geol ogy, 1(8): 1-360, 124 fig., 64 tabl., 62 pl., summary in English. C.R.A.S. Paris 312 (II): 331-336 1991. TSOUKALA, E., 1992a. The Pleistocene large mammals from the Agios Georgios Cave Kilkis (Macedonia, N. Greece) Geobios, 25 (3): 415-433, Lyon. TSOUKALA, E., 1992b. Quaternary faunas of Greece-Courier For sch. Inst. Seckenberg, 153: 79-92, Frankfurt a.M TSOUKALA E 1994. Barenreste aus Loutraki (Mazed Griechen ) "Ursus spelaeus": 2nd Hohlenbaren Sympos. (Corvara, 15-18/9 / 94), Italy. TSOUKALA, E. 1996. Comparative study of ursid remains from the Quaternary of Greece, Turkey & Israel. -Acta Zool. Cracoviensa ., 39(1): 571-5 7 6. TSOUKALA, E., RABEDER, G. & VERGINIS, S., 1998 "Ursus spelaeus and associated faunal rem ains from Loutraki (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) Excavations of 1996 Geological and geomorphological ap proach".4th International Hohlenbaren Symposium, 17-19 / 9 / 98, Vele nje Slovenia. TSOUKALA, E RABEDER, G. & tVERGINIS, S 2001. Ursus spelae us and Late Pleistocene assoc iat ed faunal remains from Loutraki (Pella, Macedo nia, Greece). Excavations of 1999. Cadernos Lab Xeol6xico de Laxe, 26: 441-446, Corufia. l4tfl !nlernu!ionul Conuress of StJelrwfuuy

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Hellenic Stwf eotauical Sur:ie ty 0-25 Paleontological research in Pella cave bears and late pleistocene associated fauna) remains from Loutra Arideas (Macedonia, Greece) preliminary report Spyridoula PAPPA1, Evangelia TSOUKALA1, Gcorgios LAZARIDIS1 & Gcrnot RABEDER2 1. School of Geology, Aristotle University 54124 Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece 2. Institute of Paleontology, University o_f Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria Abstract: From extensional studies on Quaternary faunas it is concluded that certain caves in Greece were habited by animals ( carnivores). The habitation is established by the presence of milk teeth and bones with infused epiphyses, the food remains and the coprolites. The most important site of Greece with abundant material of fossilized milk teeth in spite of their fragility, is the Late Pleistocene Loutra Arideas (Pella, Macedonia) Bear-cave. Thousands of isolated deciduous teeth -very few in situ-which have been collected from the systematic excavations are described and discussed here. The study of the morphotypes may show their evolutionary stage such as those of the fourth premolars. Introduction The investigation in the Loutra Arideas area, that is located 100 km northwest of Thessaloniki (fig.I), started in 1990 and the first excavation circle in the Bear Cave started in 1992. The Bear Cave is part of a block of caves that have been developed in the limestone of the Almopia Speleopark (LAZARIDIS, 2005). The sieving process and the systematic collection of the milk teeth started in 1993 up to now. Eleven systematic excavation circles, under strictly archaeological rules, including micro mammalian research took place. All the sediments of the 204 levels ( about 5 cm of thickness each) have been washed into a system of double sieves, one for micromammals (CHATZOPOULOU, 2005) with a mesh of 0.8 mm and the other of 3 mm for large mammalian remains, both with milk teeth. Then the material was dried out, conserved and recorded for further study. Additionally few bigger specimens were numbered and collected in place with their coordinates during the excavation (TSOUKALA, 1994, 1996, TSOUKALA et al., 1998, 2001, TSOUKALA & RABEDER, 2005, PAPPA et al., 2005). All the material above is stored in the Paleontological Museum of Thessaloniki Aristotle University and Aridea Museum. Paleontology Taxonomy Order: CARNIVORA BOWDISH, 1821 Sub-order: Canoidea SIMPSON, 1931/Arctoidea FLOWER 1969 Family: Ursidae GRAY, 1825 Genus: Ursus LINNAEUS, 1758 Ursus ingressus RABEDER et al., 2004 Figure l. Map of Greece with the most important locality (LAC: Lou t ra Arideas Cave) depicted, where abundant cave bear milk teeth have been found Material: Mandible fragment with dCi, D4 M1 unerupted LAC 1389
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Figure 2. Urs us i n gres sus. Ma ndible :fragment with dCi, D4 M1 unerupted, LAC 1389 dex. Figure Ursus in gres s us Mandible with h, C, M1 M2 and M3 unerupted LAC 4 11 4. Figure 4. Ursus ingressus LAC. Mand ibl es of juveniles. Left: Labial view Right: lingual view. d'l' The first milk incisors are the smaHest teeth o f the milk incis o rs (fig 5) The dI1 is a sma ll an d s lende r tooth. Th ere a palatinal well dev e loped cingul u m and the root is conical, elongated and curv ed The has sh m i c row n and cylindrical root, the end of which slightly curve d Fig ure 5. F irst milk inc is o r s. lfeiie nic S11eleu!omcuf Socie t y r.1111 !nl e rnotiu nn l Cunur e ss of S ne f eolo uv -

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Hellenic Silf!leo!oaical Society Figure 6. Second milk incisors. Figure 8. Second milk premolars. The di2 is much strong e r than the previous one, and also bears a well developed palatinal cingulum. The crown is curved, the root is conical and anterior flattened. The dh is much stronger than the first one, with triangular crown and elongated root (fig. 6). The third milk incisors are the strongest teeth of the milk incisors (fig. 7). T he dI3 is similar with the milk canine except the shorter and more curved crown and the intense palatinal cingulum. This tooth seems to be the most abundant among the LAC milk material. The dI3 has triangular crown and well developed root. There are two lingual accessory cuspids connected with a small cingulum. The upper and lower second milk premolars are both the smallest milk teeth and the less differentiated (fig. 8). Between them, the eruptiqn is different, therefore is easier to be distinguished while they are in situ The upper erupts more straightly than the lower one. They are quite similar with minor differences. The root of D2 is small and conical. The D2 grows inclined more often with no root. When this root exists, it is more curved than the upper's one. The D3 is more differentiated with developed talon and two roots. The crown of D3 is elongated and has two roots that are either separated or fused in some specimens (RADULESCU & SAMSON, 1959) (fig. 9). Figure 7. Third milk incisors. The most important milk carnassials contribute to the study of the evolutionary stage according to their morphotype (RABEDER, 1983, 1991, 1999). The D4 is molar like and has one palatinal and two labial roots. The occlusal shape is rounded and sometimes there is a palatinal cuspid-like cingulum. The lower carnassial D4 are much more variable than the upper one, with crown bearing at least 5 cusps and two roots (fig.IO). The milk canines are abundant, long, flattened and relatively large teeth. It is difficult to be distinguished in upper and lower ones, thus are both described here unitedly (fig. 11 ). 21-28 M1uust 2005. l{nfumas Helfns

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Sm:l eoluuf col Socie/y Table 1 Ursus ingressus LAC: Measurement s of the milk teeth ( in mm) (L=length, B = breadth) n min-max X Sn-I V Ldl1 12 1.77-2.95 2.44 0 32 13.15 Bdl1 12 1. 57-2 .6 8 2.21 0.35 15.58 Ldl 2 103 3.02 -4 .63 3.85 0.32 9.46 Bdl 2 103 2.72-4.9 7 3 35 0.32 8.24 Ldl3 671 4.03 6.62 5.23 0 38 7.30 BdI3 671 4.01 6. 77 5.05 0.42 8.31 LdC 150 7 5.08-9.58 7.31 0.60 8.23 BdC 1507 3.96-7 25 5 52 0.45 8.23 LD 2 6 2.10-2 76 2.40 0.25 10.60 B02 6 1 99-2.65 2.25 0.26 11.75 LD3 26 3.97 7.30 6.21 0.62 9.96 BD3 26 3.07 -4.17 3.72 0.26 7.04 LD 4 124 9.20 -1 2.85 11.13 0.74 6 69 BD 4 124 6.42 1 1. 60 7 56 0 .6 4 8.43 Ldl1 52 1.45 2.73 2.17 0 29 13 54 Bdl1 52 1.21-2 09 1 .7 3 0.21 11.87 Ld12 27 3.50-4 76 4.02 0.29 7.25 Bdl2 27 2.42-3.8 3 2.94 0.36 12.32 LdI3 173 4.106.32 5.21 0.47 9.12 Bdl3 1 73 3.02 5 33 4.05 0.37 9.23 LD2 6 2.12-2 82 2.43 0.29 11.80 BD2 6 2.12-2.5 7 2.29 0.18 7.97 LD3 59 2.98 6.49 4 98 0 .9 4 18.94 BD3 59 2.38 4.02 3.29 0.38 11. 69 LD" 242 10.21 -1 4.98 12.76 0.77 5 10 804 242 5.03 -9.70 6.31 0 58 9.17 LD4trt1 252 5.67-9.85 8.47 0.62 7.36 LD4tr1 252 2 83-5.91 4.60 0.53 11.58 Figure 10. Ursus ingressus LAC: Representative material of the milk camassials showing the variability of the ir morphotype. Left : Two upper rows: D4 occlusals, and two lower rows: D4 lingual a nd labial views Right: occlusals of the upper and lower carnassials 14!/i !nternnliunu! Conuress uf S1wleolnov

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Hellenic S iJe/e alooicul Socie tr Figure 11. Ursus ingressus LAC. Deciduous canines. Discussion Figure 12. Ursus ingressus LAC. Various categories of deciduous canines (KURTEN, 1976). a) Germs, b) Full teeth with root showing resumptions marks, c) Full teeth, d) Shed canines. Nordmann was the first who studied the bear milk teeth in 1858, Schlosser in 1909, Kormos in 1916, Pohle in 1923, Ehrenberg in 1931, Friant & Stehlin in 1933, Mottl in 1934, 1939, Zapfe in 1946, KOBY (1952), ERDBRINK (1953), RADULESCU & SAMSON (1959), EHRENBERG (1964), KURTEN (1968), TERZEA (1969), TORRES (1988), ANl)RFW~ Iv TURNPR (1QCl7) nl, RJ:.:TllAk', (1001\ 1007) Pt0. The study of the milk teeth and bones showed the presence even more of unborn bears. On the other hand, completely worn milk teeth were also observed, thus there was difficulty in chewing so the individuals could not survive a long winter, as this last glacial period of WUm1. These animals died exhausted at the end of the winter, even though they could survive more (KURTEN 1968, 1976). Concerning the milk canines, the material can be attributed to categories (KURTEN, 1976) (tab. 2): (A) by few germs -milk canines consisting by an enamel cap and a root that has barely started to fom1 (fig. 12a), (B) by few complete teeth with unworn occlusal and folly formed roots (fig. 12c), (C) by complete teeth with root showing resumptions marks (fig. 12b). This is a preliminary stage to the tooth being shed and as the root is gradually dissolved by the osteoclast (KOBY 1952). There is a very large crop of shed milk canines (D) in which the root has dissolved completely (fig. 12d). The (E) category includes the heavy wear stage of deciduous. Finally the (F) includes worn deciduous canines with iesorbed root. The milk carnassials D4 and D4 are the most important deciduous teeth as the study of the morphotype can give evidence for their evolutionary stage (RABEDER, 1983). The D4 LAC is molar like with one palatinal and two labial roots. The occlu s al shape is rounded and sometimes there is a pa1atinal cuspid-like cingulum. The paracone is well developed and the metacone bears longitudinal palatinal crest. There is small parastyle while there is a trace of cingulum like metastyle. Finally there is crest like hypocone. 1t is similar to the Gamssulzenhohle (Austria) morphotype (fig. Ba,b). The lower camassials D4 L AC are much more variable than those of the upper ones, with crown bearing at least 5 cuspids. Paraconid, metaconid and protoconid are well developed. There is a small hypoconid and endoconid. Apart from some differences, the morphotype ofD4 is similar to that of Gamssulzenhohle (fig. 14a,b). 27-28 twuust 2005, i(nlnmos. i-le!lns

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[ x1] Figure 13a. Ursus ingressus, Loutra Arideas Bear Cave: D4 LAC 12557 sin, with the occlusal morphology. 10mm Figure 14a. Ursus ingressus, Loutra Arideas Bear Cave: D4 LAC 12560 sin, with the occlusal morphology. Helle nic SiJe/eolouir:uf Sa cfelv V, "( ,,.r.~,~,t 3 Figure 13b. D4 sin with the occlusal morphology from Repolusthohle (1), Conturineshohle (2), Gamssulzenhohle(3) and Nixloch (4). Abb.: Hy: hypocone, lC: lingual cingulum, Me: metacone, Mtst: metastyle, Pa: paracone, Past: parastyle, Pr: protocone (RABEDER, 1983). Figure 14b. D4 sin with the occlusal morphology from Repolusthohle (1 ), Conturineshohle (2), Gams sulzenhohle(3) and Nixloch (4) Abb.: Ed: entoconid, EHd: enthypoconid, Hyd: hypoconid, Med: metaconid, Pad: paraconid, Prd: protoconid (RABEDER, 1983). Table 2. Ursus ingressus LAC: Wear stages of cave-bear deciduous canines Westbury Wear Number of ANDREWS Odessa stage Description specimens & KURTEN (dC) LAC TURNER 1976 1992 A Unerupted 0 (ll 132 22 13 Q) B Erupted z .:::: 500 10 26 C Unworn 83 32 D Slightly wear 130 39 165 (ll E Heavy wear oP 600 80 .:::: Worn with resorbed F Q) 155 8 root >--Unerupted when the crown is formed but the root is not; erupting, when some root development has taken place; unworn when the root is fully formed but the crown has no wear; slight to moderate wear; heavy wear. J.'Jth lnlenwiionu! Conmess of Soe!euhmY

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Hellenic S1le leolo uic11! Socie ty From the distinction of the dl3, D4 and D4 in rights and lefts the MNI (minimum number of individuals) can be calculated to 355 individuals based on dI3 (the left ones) (tab. 3). Table 3. Ursus ingressus LAC: Distinction of the dl3, D4 and D4 in rights (dex) and lefts (sin) for calculation of the minimum number of individuals (MNI). Category of Teeth Number of lefts (sin) Number of rights (dex) dl' 355 340 D'1-120 120 D4 139 146 The following scatter diagrams of length and width of the milk teeth accomplish the distinction between upper and lower jaw (Fig. 15-18) that is better shown on the milk camassials. 3 ++ 5 00 2,5 + + 4,50 I). +++ ii). "' e I). I). ++ 4,00 "' + E 2 I). I).~ e I). I). "'~'~"'ft-t,.1>. al A I). + + E 3,50 "'"'~"' ~"'+ AA al + 3 00 "'1,.11-i."'"'"'li~ -t + 1,5 "' + + I). "'"' ~+ i+ .. / + 2 50 + + + 2,00 1,5 2 2,5 3 2,50 3,00 3,50 4,00 4 50 5,00 L(mm) L(mm) Figure 16. Scatter diagram of L=length and B=breadth of Figure 15. Scatter diagram of L=length a nd B=bread th of the dI2, dI2 which shows less the distinction between the dl1 dI1 which shows the distinction between upper upper (Li) and lower(+) second deciduous incisors. ( + ) and lower (Li) first deciduous incisors. 2 2,5 3 3, 5 4 4,5 5 5, 5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 L(mm) LAC 031 + LAC 013 I Figure 17. Scatter diagram of L=length and B=breadth of the D3 D3 which shows the distinct i on between upper ( ) and lower ( +) third milk premolars. Conclusions 13 1 2 11 10 9 e 8 + + ID 51 :J + 1 0 11 1 2 13 14 1 5 L(mm) Figure 18. Scatter diagram of L=length and B=breadth of the D4, D4 which shows clearly the separation between the upper (Li) and lower( + ) milk camassials. The Late Pleistocene Loutni Arideas bear-cave is very rich in paleontological material of ursid milk teeth Thus ihe siie can be considered as the unique piace of Greece where so abundant and well stratified deciduous teeth from 204 excavated layers (5cm of thickness each) have been collected. The abundance of the milk teeth, in spite their fragility, i s remarkable. Among the material there are many postcranial bones, i ncluding metapodials, with their epiphysis infused. Therefore alJ ages from juvenile to senate individuals are present. 21-28 August 2005. l(alumos. Heffus

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!Je/te m c SJJ c / eo luu ic a/ Su u e/y The majority of the tooth and bone remains belong to juvenil es an d sub-adults, while very few belong to very old individuals and few to adults, indicat in g thus an extremely high incidence of young and neonat e mortality. The study of the milk teeth showed the presence either of unborn bears. There are many bear carcasses as a result of death during hibernation. All this ev idence est abl i shes the in ha bitation On the other hand many milk teeth ware brought into the cave within the sediments. e The morphotype of the milk carnassials from Loutra Arideas Bear Cave is more similar to t hat from Gamssulzenhohle (Austria) than that from Conturineshohle (RABEDER, 1995) Finally only 3 caves of northern Greece present significant carnivore milk teeth ma t erial of Pleistocene: the most important Late Pleistocene Loutra Arideas Bear-cave (LAC) with bears between latest Pleistocene and Middle Pleistocene, the Middle Pleistocene Petralona cave with hyaenids bears and the latest Pleistocene Agios Georgios, Kilkis cave with exclusively hyaenid remains (TSOUKALA 1989, 1992a, b, 1994, 1996 TSOUKALA et al. 1998, 2001, TSOUKALA & RABEDER 2005). References ANDREWS, P. & TURNER, A., 1992. Lite and death of the Westbury bears. -Ann. Zool. Fennici, 28: 139-149, Helsinki. CHA TZOPOULOU, K. 2005 -The small mammal fauna from the Loutra Aridea Bear-cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) with emphasis on the Third Chamber. -Naturhistorische Gesellschaft Niirnberg, 45: 57-64, Nurnberg. DEBELTIAK, I., 1996. On(ogenetic development of dentition in the cave bear. -Geologlja, 39: 13-77 Ljubljana. DEBELJIAK, I., 1997 Age composition of the cave bear population from the Divje babe I Cave. Int. Meeting on Man and Bear, Auberives -Pont en Royans (Vercors Isere ). EHRENBERG, K. 1964. Ein Jungenbarenskelett und andere Hohlenbarenreste aus der Barenhohle im Hartlesgraben bei Hiflau (Steiermark).-Ann. Naturhistor. Mus. Wien, 67: 189-252. ERDBRING, D. P., 1953. A review of fossil and recent bears of the old world. 1-2 Jan de Lang, Deventer KOBY,,F. -Ed., 1952. La dentition lactealed' Ursus spelaeus -Rev. SuisseZool., Geneve 59(27): 511-541. KURTEN, B., 1968. Pleistocene Mammals ofEtrrope. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago: 1 -317. KURTEN, B., 1976. The cave bear stoiy. Life and death ofa vanished animal.-Columbia University Press, 1-163, N. York. LAZARIDIS. G. (2005): Speleological research in th e Loutra Arideas area (Macedonia, Greece) -Naturh istorische GeseJlschaft Niimberg, 45: 155-162, Ntirnberg. PAPPA, S., TSOUKALA, E., LAZARIDIS. G., RABEDER, G. (2005): Milk teeth of Quaternary carnivores from Northern Greek Caves. -Naturhistorische Gesellschaft Nilrnberg, 45: 169-182, Nurnberg RABEDER, G., 1983. Neues vom Hohlenbaren. Zur Morphogenetik der Backenzahne. DieHohle, H. 2(34) : 67-85, Wien. RABEDER, G 1991 Die hohlenbaren der Counturines.-Verlagsanstalt Athesia, 1-124, Bozen. RABEDER, G., 1995. Die Gamssulzehohle im Toten Gebirge.-Mitt. Korn. Quartarforch. Ostrerreich. Akad. Wiss. 9: 1-133, Wien RAB EDER, G., 1999 Die Evolution des Hohlenbarengebisses Mitt. Korn. Quartarforch. Ostrerreich. Akad. Wiss. 11: 1-102, Wien. RABEDER, G., HOFREITER, M., NAGEL, D. & WITHALM G (2004): New taxa of Alpine Cave Bears (ursidac, Camivora).Cahiers Scientifiques, 2:49-67, Dept. Du Rhone, Museum Lyon RABEDER G. & HOFREITER, M., 2004: Der neue Stammbaun1 der alpinen Hohlenbaren.Die Hohle, II. 55(1-4): 58-77 Wien. RADULESCU, C. & SAMSON, P., 1959. Contribution a la connaissance de la dentition lacteale d' Ursus spelaeus. Eiszetalter und Gegenwart, 10: 205-216, Ohringen. TERZEA E., 1969. Nouvelles donnees sur la dentition lacteale de l'Ursus ~p ela eus.-Act. IV. Congr. Int. Speleaol. 4-5: 383-389 TORRES PEREZ-HIDALGO, T.J., 1988. Osos (Mammalia, Camivora, Ursidae) del P leistoceno de la Peninsula Iberica. Boletin Geologico y Minero, Madrid (publ. espec ) 1-4: l-316. TSOUKALA, E. 1989. Contribution to the study of the Pleistocene fauna of large mammals (CARNIVORA, PERISSODACTYLA ARTIODACTYLA) from Petralona Cave (Chalkidiki, N. Greece) Doctorate Thesis, Aristot le University ofThessaloniki, Sci. Ann., School of Geology, 1(8): 1-360, 124 fig., 64 tabl., 62. pl. summary in English. -C.R.A .S Paris 312 (II): 331-336 1991. TSOUKALA, E ., 1992a. The Pleistocene large mammals from the Agios Georgios Cave, Kilkis (Macedonia, N. Greece). Geobios, 25 (3): 415-433, Lyon. TSOUKALA, E ., 1992b. Quaternary faunas of GreeceCourier Forsch. Inst. Seckenberg, 153 : 79-92, Frankfurt a.M. TSOUKALA E. 1994. Barenreste aus Loutraki (Mazed., Griechen.) -"Ursus spelaeus": 2nd HOhlenbaren Sympos (C orvara, 15-18/9/94), Italy. TSOUKALA, E 1996. Comparative study of ursid remains from the Quaternary of Greece Turkey & Israel. Acta Zool. Cracoviensa., 39(1): 571-576. TSOUKALA, E RABEDER G. & VERGINIS, S., 1998. "Ursus ~pelaeus and associated fauna! remains from Loutraki (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) Excavation s of 1996. Geologi cal and geomorphologica l approach ".4t h International Hohlenbaren Symposium, 17-19 / 9/98, Velenje, Slovenia. TSOUKALA, E., RABEDER, G. & tVERGINIS, S., 2001. Ursus spelaeus and Late Pleistocene associated faunal remains from Loutraki (Pella, Macedonia, Greece) E xca v ation s of 1999. Cadernos Lab. Xeol6xico de Laxe, 26: 441-446, Corufia. TSOUKALA E. & RABEDER, G., 2005 Cave bears and Late Pleistocene associated faunal remains from Loutra Arideas (Pella, Macedonia, Greece). 15 years of research. Naturhistorische Ge sell sc ha ft Numberg, 45: 225-236, Niirnberg J,H fl lni e mu/i o nul S1 1e leuf u ov ,_,

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He l lenic S11e/eolooi cal S ociety 0-26 The pursuit of elephants in Grevena (W. Macedonia, Greece) Evangelia T s o ukala School of Geology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece The paleontological research in Grevena (fig. I) started in 1990, when a student discovered elephant remains in an old stream, in a building plot close tu his house. After preliminary visits for reconnaissance, three substantial field seasons, in 199 2, 1994 and 1995 were devoted to systematic excavation of the site. A Fig. 2. Complete view of the excavated area with remains of Elcphas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus in the Ambdia lrn:ality (GRE) Fig. 1. Map of Greece with the Grevena Prefecture and the localities with the proboscidean remains depicted. GRE: Ambelia locality, Grevena town. MIL: Milia area and SGP: Priporos, Agios Georgios These resulted in abundant fossilized elephant remains, apparently all pertaining to a single skeleton. The excavated area, in which the elephant was discovered, is situated on the outskirts of Grevena town, in "Ambelia"(GRE), 585m of altitude above the sea level, which is the metropolitan center of Grevena Prefecture, in western Macedonia, 190 km west of Thessaloniki. A partial skeleton of straight-tusked elephant, Elephas (Pulueuluxudun) antiquus FALCONER & CAUTLEY (1847) was excavated from Pleistocene deposits (TSOUKALA & LISTER 1998). The material was found in unconsolidated sands, close to the surface, so the remains are in a rather poor state of preservation, because of the waters, but mainly of the roots of the plants that penetrated the fossils and resulted in great damage. Very few, mainly the metapodials, were well preserved. Only two other fossils were found in association with the elephant: two teeth-an upper (M1 2 ) and a lower molar M1 2 of a large bovid. This skeleton included substantial portions of the skull, mandible, vertebral column, ribs, the two scapulas, fibula, carpals, tarsals, metapodials and phalanges (fig. 2) represent a large, adult male of about 40 years. Three samples of elephant tooth enamel were ESR-dated (by Dr. Y. Ba.ssiakosNuclear Center for Scientific Research, N.C.S.R. "DEMOKRITOS", Attiki), giving an age in the range 160-170 25 Ky. BP, i.e. Oxygen Isotope Stage 6. This is very important because indicates Greece as a refugee for temperate, woodland-adapted large mammal species at a time when they were largely excluded from northern and central Europe. Fig. 3. Complete view of the excavated area with fossil findings of the mastodont Mammut borsoni in the Milia locality (MIL l) The second excavated area, in which the mastodont Mammut borsoni HAYS, 1834 (Proboscidea) was discovered, i s situated on the outskirts ofMilia village, 15 km northeast of Grevena town. The excavations in the Milia locality (MIL) (fig. l) brought to light proboscidean partial skeleton of the mastodont material (fig. 3), which was found in unconsoli dated sands of the Aliakmon river Pliocene deposits, close to the surface, so the remains are in a rather poor state of preservation. 27-28 1--i uuu s l 2005. f
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Research in th e M ili a ar ea st ar ted i n 1996, vvh e n th e ex cav ating team of Aristotle University of T he ss aloniki trying to evaluate some information given b y loc a l v ill age rs d is cov er ed a co m plet e right h umerus and part of a tusk. One year later syst e matic ex cavatio ns took p lace in the ar ea a nd two complete tusks mo re o f th e humerus, and part of skull with two molars in situ were broug ht to ligh t. T he tra ns portatio n of t he complex of v ery heavy fossil s was very difficu lt a s th e tusks were found in crosswise position. T he restorat i on of t he b rok en tusks-in m an y pieces, because of natural causes (plant roots, e art hq uak e s a nd er os ion ) completed in 1997. In 1998 the exca v ations we r e continu ed wit h addition a l v e ry int e resting findings, such a s the compl ete mandible that g av e evi d ence for the pa leon tological study right tibia and leH uln a, a s well as rib s Fi n ally i n 1999, as the excavations in this area h ave been co m plet ed additional ma terial, such as the right ulna thoracic vertebras, as well as ribs w er e found The skeleton in clu de s s ubs tan ti al portions of the skull maxillary area with le ft an d ri g ht molar se ri es (M2+M3 ); with the longest upper tusks eve r found in Greece, i n Europe (AGUSTI & ANTON 2002) and probably i n th e world ( 4. 39m l ) ; Th e two approximately straight tusks are rather sl end er and asymmetrical as the right one is more curv ed a nd tor si on ed (ab ou t 115) They have ap proximately ci rcular transverse section but more oval at the ti ps. The greates t di am e ter of the tusk MIL l O l at a distance of 10cm fro m the tip, is 88.5m m, the sm all est 65mm, and the circumference is 250mm; at a distance o f 4m fr om the root th e se measurements are: 116, 101 and Fig 5. Co mpl ete view of the excavation of 2004 i n !VlIL 2 locality with ribs occ i pital reg ion of a cranium fragment and a complete femu r of 1 5m of height. 350mm respectively; at a dist a nce of 3m from th e root the se measurements ar e: 149, 144 and 475 mm respectively; at a distance of 2m th e se are : 171 164 and 540mm respectively; at l m 184 .5, 17 4.5 5 70m m, and at the root they are: 1 78, 1 6 3, 580mm respecti ve ly. Th e mo st co m ple te mandible with left and right mola r se ri es (M2+f\!h) and two lower incisor F ig. 6 Dic ero rhi nus etruscus MIL 2. Crani u m with th e man d ible fr agm ent. Bacharidis' finding) tusks (fig. 4a), as well as bones o f the post cranial skeleton (hum e rus, left and right radius tibia vertebras and rib fragments) were found. Concernin g the lower molars, these are lo w and broad with variable enamel th ickn es s The M ? is t y pically tri lop hodon and lit tle wor ~ an d the axis of the ridge-crests are s ub per pe ndicular t o the sagittal axis of the too t h. The M3 is tet ra lop ho don wit h well marked talonid rmd the longitudinal ax is of th e tooth is s ligh tly bend so th at the end of the tooth are somewhat turned to the l ab ial side. T here are t w o, n early complete and w ell distinguished, c ingula ant er io r and pos te rior. It re p resents a very large a dult of about 4 0 years, per h aps o ne of t he l a test representatives of th is species in Greece and in Europe as well a nd i ts geologic a l a ge is considered as M iddl e Pliocene (T SO UKAL A 20 00 ) li! h: 1 nu li iinul C o /iii! es s u t S 1 1 u /e o f o ov --

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He lleni c S!Je/ eo!uuicui S [J/:/eJy Only a tooth of a large bovine was found in association with the proboscidean material. As the excavations are still in progress, many other rhino and mastodon remains were found (2001-2004) in the broader area of Milia. In the new locality MIL 2, close to the hill of the first locality MIL 1, remains of another mastodont, about the same biological and geological age with the first one were found. They are: a humerus ( the robustness index of which may show a female individual, a pelvis fragment, a mandible fragment with left and right molar series (M2+M3 ) (fig. 4b) of the same wear stage with the MIL 1 mandible of the male mastodont. In 2004 a cranium fragment with the occipital region and the condyles, ribs and a femur of 1.50m oflength were brought to light (fig. 5). Fig. 7. Milia Grevena area, the associated with Mammut borsoni remains : Homotherium sp. Upper canine 2. cf Gazella borbonica horn fragm,ents 3. cf Croizetoceros ramosus: Metapodial (Mc 3 + 4), teeth (M1 2 P4 ), antler fragment, 4 Suid: maxilla with teeth (P4, M1 M2 M"), 5. Hipp a rion sp. mandible with teeth (P4 M1 M2 ) Fig. 8 Dicerorhinus etruscus SGP Ma ndible and ulna found in Priporos, Agios Ge orgios village l
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S11e leD iouf en / S ocie!v .. Th e fo ss ils are sto red now in th e Muni c ipal Museum of Gr eve na (the el eph a nt), a n d in th e Pu bl ic B ui ldin g of th e Mili a village (the mastodont) (Fig. 9). Co nclu si ons F i g. 9 Left : Munic i pal Museum of Gr ev ena with the el eph ant rem ain s of 200.000 years. Right: Museum ofN atu rai History of Milia, Herakleoton Mun ici pality wilh m astod on re mai ns of3. 00 0.000 years -Grevena area is ve ry important paleontological site as the proboscidean m ate rial gives evidence for: -El e phas (P ala eolo xo don) an tiq uus FALCONER & CA UTLEY, excavated from Pieistocene deposits of Grevena town (Ambelia lo cal ity), of age 16017 0 Ky. BP, i.e. Oxygen Isotope Stage 6, ind icat ing Gr ee ce a s a re fu gee for tem p erat e, woodland-adapted large mammal species at a time when they were largely excluded from northern and central Europe. -M am mut borsoni HA YS, 1 834 tha t belongs to progressive form o f the Z ygol op hod on -Ma m mut gro up w ith v e1y long (ma y be the longest in the world of this species). straight, or upturned upper incisors wi thou t enamel an d rndimentary/sub function al low er incisors, with ve ry few primitive characteristics ( e.g n o cement in the cynclines of the mola r s). The morphol ogy of the Milia specimen ( ma inly its large siz e that s h ows gigant is m) may have bee n resp o nse t o favorable environment for this brmvsing adapted animal. -The abundance of the rh ino m ater ial giv e evidenc e the "p ursu it" to be continu ed in the Gr eve na are a -The following fauna has preliminarily been determined: Mammut borsoni, Dicerorhinus etruscus, Homotherium sp., r.f Gazella bor bonica, cf. Cr oize toc ero s ramosus cf. Su s arve rn ensi s, Bov i dae, Hipparion sp. Th e age is calculated of Middle Pliocene and further study will give evidence for the completeness of the p al eoec o logy and paleoenvero mnent of the area as the res ear ch and ex cav ation are still in progress. Acknowledg e ment s: Sinceres t th an ks are due to a ii who con trib ute d to thi s re sea rch o ver se ve ra l y ea rs, e spe ciall y the le ad ers of th e Prefect ur e of G r evena, Mr D. Douros and the Mayors of Herakle ot es and Grevena. I am also gratefu l to the members of my team students an d co -lab orators: E. Chatz iel eftheri o u (AUTH), B. M akri dis ( Ki lk is ), E. Ba!takis (Aridea); A C hatzopoulou, Ath. Vasiliadou A. Ouzounis, G. La zar id is, S. Pappa, C. Pe nnos H Garlaouni 0 Kou kous iou ra N B acha ri dis A Digts i s, Th D rosso s and l. loakimid i s. Re f erenc es AGUSTI J. & ANTON, M. 2002.-Mammoths, Sabertooths and hominids, 65 million years of Mammalian Evolution in E uro pe Columbi a U ni ver sity pre ss, N. Yo rk. TSOUKALA E. 2000. Remains of a Pliocene Mammut borsoni (HAYS 1834) from Milia (Gre ve na W. Mac ed oni a Gre ec e). Annales de Pal e onto lo gie .SJi(3): 165-191, Paris TSOUKA LA E. & LISTER A. 1998. Remains of st raight tusk e d elephant E lepha s (Palaeoloxodon ) antiquus FALC. & CAUT. 1847, ESR-dated to oxygen isotope sta ge 6 from Grevena (W. Macedonia, Greece). Bolletino della Societa P al eon tol ogic a It a liana, 11{1) : 1 1 7-139 Mo dena. Con u uss ui Soe/ e ulo r n'

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/-lelienic S1m !eolou ica l Society 0-27 Mineralogy of the h ybrid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave, Kii Peninsula, Central Japan Narnhik o Kas hi ma, E meritus Professor, Ehime Univ er sity, 10-B Do go -Hi mata, Ma tsu yam a, 790-8577 Jap an Kunihiko Hlsatomi, Department of Geology, Faculty of Ec h1c ati on1 Wa kay am a University. 930 Sakaeda ni, Walrnyama, 640 8510 Japan Abstract The hybrid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave is situ at ed i n the K ii P enin sula of Honshu Island about 10km so uthea st of Hashimoto City in Wakayama Prefecture and red isc ov ere d in 20 01. Th e cav e is devel oped into the black sla te and mafic volcanic rocks o f the Upper Cre taceous System, Hidakagawa Group of the S him ant o t erran e It i s the peculiarly hybrid cave system which linke d the closed mine cave and the natural tectonic cav e. Min eral ogica l ide n tificati on was made by X ray powder diffraction method and revealed nine minerals five cl asse s as follows ; Carbonates (aragonite, calcite), Ox ide (goe t hite), Silicates ( clinochlore illite ), Sulfates (brocha nti te, glaucocerinite, gypsum) and Sulfide (pyrite). The closed mine cave wa s we ll mineralized by the le ac hing w h ich derived from the cupriferous iron sulfide ore deposits. And the natural tectonic cav e was decorated with the carbonate m ine rals. Brochant ite, clinochlore, glaucocerinite and pyrite are reported as new findings from the cave environment in Japan. 13 4' I Fig. 1. Location map of the h yb rid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave Ja pan. 2128 Au 1w st 2 0 05. l< ulumo s_ lle f f o s Zusammenfassung Die hybr ide Kiin yug awa -d am m Hoh le wird in der Kii Halbinsel von Honshu Ins el etwa l 0km S tido s t en v on der H ashimoto Stadt in de r Waka y ama P riife ktu r au fge ste llt und die Wiederentdeckt 2001. Diese Hohle wird in der schwarzen Sc hiefer und in die mafisches vu lka nis ch en F els en der Oberen Kreide System Hanazono Formation, Hi dakagawa Gruppe, Shimanto terr ane entwickelt. Es ist das eige na rt ig hyb ride Ho hle nsystem das ge sc hlos sen e Grube Hohle mit der natiirlichen te ktonische Hohle v erband Die Mi nera logische Ke nnzeichnung wurde
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Karbonatmineralien verziert. Brochant i t, Clinochlore Glaucocerinit und Pyrit werden als neue Entdeckungen vom das Hohleklima in Ja pan berichtet. Introduction The hybrid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave is located in the Kii Peninsula of Honshu Island, Central Japan. It lies within the Hiko valley, a south ern tributary of the Kiinyugawa-River, neighboring dam construction site, about 10km southwest of Hashimoto City in Wakayama Prefec ture (Fig 1 ). The cave is first mentioned to a document in 193 5 for the "stalactite cave" by the Research Group of the Historic remains, Scenic beauty spots and Natural monuments in Wakayama Prefecture. However up to this day, the speleological investigation has not been conducted. Systematic reexploration of the cave was conducted by Kiinyugawa dam Investigation Office of the Kinki Regional Department Bureau at 1998-2001 and with the resulted that report for details of the spe leological fields. The authors were carried out an investigation of the geological and mineralogical parts in this project. The hybrid Kiinyu gawa-dam Cave is relatively short, with only 250m passages, but it consists of a complex network of the closed mining passages ( artificial "cave", Hill et al., 1997) and the entranceless natural tectonic cave. The study has resulted in the identification of hybrid cave units and its mineralogical data of heretofore undiscovered in Japan Geological Settings Geologically the hybrid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave region belongs to the Hanazono Formation of the Shimanto terrane, which is composed predominantly of black slate with some intercalation of sandstone, mafic volcanic rocks(greenstones ), chert, red slate, acidic tt1ff and limestone (Kurimoto, 1982). The greenstones are occasionally con taining bedded cupriferous iron sulfide deposits. In Kiinyugawa-River district, the cupriferous iron sulfide deposits were mined from the mid-eighteen century to 1924(?). The Hanazono Formation has the general strike of NE-SW dipping 30 to 70 degrees to north and south and showing complexly folded structure. And the upper Cretaceous (Coniacian~Campanian) radiolarian fossils have been reported from chert beds. Cave description The hybrid Kiinyugawa-dam cave is measured at total length of about 250m and height of 40m, with width ranging from 0.5m to maximum of 6m. The main entrance(No 1 ) about 0 8m wide and 0. 7m high-located at the altitude of about 290m above sea level of the right bank ofHiko valley, and the other entrances(No 2 and No.3-both 1-2m long and Im wide) located at the altitude of about 330m a s.l. on the same slope on the hill. In plan view, the closed mine complex sequence of adits exhibit a hook shaped rectilinear pattern of two main directions. The main mining adits belong to two entrances(No.2 and No.3) stretched the strike direction ore beds(ENE-WSW) about 65m in greenstones and the other adit which dug in the search for ore beds which has shown cross at right angle in black slate(NNE-SSW) about 55m from the entrance No I. The entranceless natural tectonic cave located parallel fle fleni c S ue!u olu uic nl Soci ety to the strike direction of main mining adits and connected with NNE SSW adit at the point of about 30m from the entrance No. I In cross section, the cave consists of three levels The closed mine adits consists of two levels, the lower horizontal adit( at an altitude of 293m-297m a s.l.) and the upper network adits(at an altitude of 318m328m a s.l.) and they are connects with vertical shaft. The entrance less natural tectonic cave(at an altitude of about 30lm-308m a.s.l.) occupies the middle level and the vertical shaft of closed mine directly penetrates its east part of cave passages (Fig. 2). The entranceless natural tectonic cave embedded in the intense ly folded black slate, about 45m long, width Im and 6m~20m deep wedge or lens shaped cross section. Isoclinal fold has axial plain paral leled to bedding plane of black slate. The surface shape of the ceiling and floor of the natural cave passage indicates that the space of pas sage was emplaced by spread out bedding plain of black slate. There is a large possibility that the black slate in this area was subjected to stresses resulting in the creep type landslide and leading the entrance less open space (natural tectonic cave) in black slate bed. Speleothems The lower level adit continued from the entrance Nol, tunneling in black slate, partially covered by flowstone and cave corals of the fine white calcite On the middle level of cave which the entranceless natu ral tectonic cave, various speleothems are recognizable on the walls ; such as flowstone, soda-straw, stalactite, column, curtain, helictite and acicular crystals. MAP VIEW Upper level(closed mining adits) ,~( '~NT.No.3 Om tom I CROSS SECTION ENT.No ] \ N 20m I t \ ,.. ....... d( ... ,..,~.,,....,""'tl / ENT.No.I Lower level(sean:h for ore beds adit) [[ Fig. 2. Map of the Kiinyugawa-dam Cave, Japan. Cun n rus s o t Sno te ulo u y

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H ell eni c Sf]ef eu lou i r:a/ S oc iety Brown and greenish blue colored speleothems; such as flowstone, curtain and microgour are distributed on the walls about 1 Om south from the Entrance No.2. Near by, an ore-rocks were dug out and dumped up to outside of the passage. Inside the closed mine, the point of about 20m west from the en trance No.3, it is still now possible to see outcrop of the bedded cuprif erous iron sulfide deposit at greenstones walls and the brown and blue colored flowstones are found at the walls. Mineralogy Samples were collected from the entranseless natural tectonic cave Table 1. Identified minerals in the hybrid Kiinyugawa-dam Cave. Minerals Chemical composition (Carbonates) Aragonite CaCO Calcite CaCO3 (Oxide) Goethite FeO(OH) (Silicates) Clinochlore (Mg,Fe \Al(Si3Al)O 10(OH)g Illite (K,H2O)(AL,Mg,FeMSi,Al)4O10 ((OHt,H2O)) (Sulfates) Brochantite Cu4SOiOH)6 Glaucocerinite CuAl2SOiOH)12 3Hp and microgour Gypsum CaSO4 2Hp (sulfide) Pyrite FeS2 Conclusive Remarks The hybrid Kiinyuugawa-dam Cave is peculiarly hybrid cave sys tem in Japan which linked with the closed mine cave (artificial cave) and the entraceless natural tectonic ( creep type landslide) cave. The natural tectonic cave contains normal speleogenic carbonate minerals (aragonite and calcite) originate from meteoric water and calcite veins in the black slate. The entranceless closed mine cave ( artificial cave) speleogenesis that oxide (goethite ), silicates ( clinoc hlore and illite ), sulfates (Brochantite, glaucocerinite and gypsum) and sulfide (pyrite) minerals resulted from the action of ore leachate on the walls of greenstones. Acknowledgments We are most grateful to the Kiinyugawa-dam Investigation Office of the Kinki Regional Department Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infra structure and Transport, for support of the geological and mineralogi cal investigations of the hybrid Kiinyugawa-dame Cave, and to the 21 -28 Auqus t 2005. Hu !o mos. ll ellas and the closed mine cave ( artificial cave). Mineral assemblages were established using X-ray powder diffraction method and revealed nine minerals belong five classes. Two different geneses of the unusual minerals of the hybrid Kiiny ugawa-dam Cave are related to the normal-true cave and an artificial cave speleogeneses Minerals derived from black slate (natural-true cave) are contain ing normal speleogenetic Carbonates (aragonite and calcite). Miner als derived from ore-rocks ( artificial cave), Oxide (goethite ), Silicates ( clinochlore, illite ), sulfates (brochantite, glaucocerinite, gypsum) and sufate (pyrite) have been identified. Table 1 lists all the speleominerals identified, chemical composition and occurrences. Occurrence white colored helictite and acicular crystals white colored flowstone, soda-straw, stalactite, column and cave coral brown colored coating and crust bluish green crystal pale brown and brown colored crust and clay greenish blue and brown colored flowstone, curtain and microgour greenish blue and brown colored flowstone, curtain transparent tabular crystal greenish blue and brown colored flowstone staff of Masutomi Chigakukaikan Incorporated Foundation for help of mineralogical identification, and to the staff of Keystone Co., Ltd., for their help in the field survey. References Hill. C. A. and Forti P., 1997, Cave minerals of the World, Second Edition. 463p. National Speleological Society. Hunsvile. Kashima, N. and Hisatomi, K., 2002, Speleominerals in Kiinyu gawa-dam Cave, Wakayama Prefecture. Proceedings of the Nishini hon Branch Geological Society Japan, 121, 13. (In Japanese) Kurimoto, C., 1982, "Chichibu System" in the area southwest of Koyasan, Wakayama Prefecture-Upper Cretaceous Hanazono Forma tion-. Jou. Geol. Soc. Japan, 88, 901-914. Nakazawa, K., Ichikawa K. and Ichihara, M. eds., 1987, Regional Geology of Japan. Part 6. Kinki. Kyoritsu Shuppan Co. Ltd. Tokyo. (In Japanese)

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0-28 Activators of Luminescence of SpeleothemsOrganic versus inorganic. Y.Y.S ho pov 1/elle!!ic S11eieu!ou icu / Socfety Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, James Bourchier 5, Sofia 1164 Bulgaria E-mail: YYShopov@Phys Uni-Sofia.BG Abstract This work summarizes main results of the operation of the Interna tional Program "Luminescence of Cave Minerals" of the commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst of UIS of UNESCO in the field of activators of speleothem luminescence. It discusses Activa tors of Luminescence in Speleothems as a source of major mistakes in the interpretation of luminescent paleoclimatic records. It demonstrates existence of 6 types of luminescence of speleothems and cave minerals in dependence of the type of the luminescence center and its incorporation in the mineral. 24 different activators of photoluminescence of speleothem calcite and 11 of aragonite are studied. This paper demonstrates that it is impossible to produce reliable Paleotemperature or Past Precipitation records from luminescence of speleothem without establishing the or ganic origin of the entire luminescence of the particular sample. Introduction Absorption of excitation energy by a mineral leads to rising of elec trons from ground state to an excited level. Sooner or later these electrons falls down to a lower level while emitting light. If the emission proceeds only during th e excitation than it is called "fluorescence" if it proceeds later (usually seconds or minutes) than it is called "phosphorescence" In the later case falling of electrons from the excited state proceeds through intermediate levels ( thus taking more time), so the energy of the emitted light is less than the energy offluorescence (i.e colour of the emitted light is shifted to the red). Some luminescent centers produce only fluores cence, but other both fluorescence and phosphorescence of minerals. The type of luminescent centers determines the colour of lumines cence. Colour may vary with changes of the excitation sources, because they may excite different luminescent centers existing in the mineral. Every luminescent center has its own excitation spectra Shopov, 1986), temperature dependence and conditions of excitation. One colour of lu minescence sometimes may be produced by a single luminescent center or by a combination of two or several centers. The decay rate of lumines cence (time for visible disappearance of the luminescence afterglow after switching off the excitation source) may va ry from virtual zero for fluo rescence to minutes or hours for phosphorescence. It is also characteristic for every luminescent center. Brilliance (brightness) of luminescence is function of the concentration ofluminescence centers. It is almost linearly proportional to concentration of luminescent centers in transparent or white calcite, but can be substantially decreased by light absorption in colour centers of clay and other coloured inclusions or colour admixture ions in less-pure calcite. Easiest and the most efficient method of excitation is irradiation by UV light sources producing photoluminescence and when luminescence is usually spoken about it is with this kind of excitation in mind Phos phorescence of speleothems in caves can be seen by irradiating of spele othems with a photographic flash with closed eyes, with following rapid opening of the eyes after flashing. This simple technique is useful for the previous diagnost ics of cave mineral and the selection of samples for laboratory analysis. Such "Visual Luminescent Analysis" (VLA) has been widely used in caves (TARCUS, 1981 ), usually with a photographic flash but also with other simple devices such as portable UV lamps with short wave UV (SWUV) and long wave UV (LWUV). However data obtained by the VLA method are subjective and the determination of luminescence activators is not possible. In fact attempts to determine activators of the luminescence with VLA and chemical analysis leads to incorrect results. It is known that almost 50 cave minerals have the capacity for exhibiting luminescence, but only 17 had been actually observed to be lumines cent in speleothems so far (Shopov, 1997). This paper summarizes main results of operation of the operation of the International Program "Luminescence of Cave Minerals" of the commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst of UIS of UNESCO in the field of activators of speleothem luminescence (Shopov 1989a). Origin of luminescence of Speleothems Many speleothems exhibit luminescence when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) or other light sources In dependence of the type of the luminescence center and its incorporation in the mineral we distinguish following types of luminescence of speleothems and cave minerals: 1. Luminescence of electron defects of the crystal lattice: Such type is the luminescence of CO/ ion in speleothem calcite under UV or electron beam excitation (U gumory & Ikey a, 1980). It probably ex ists in any speleothem, but have lower quantum gain than the other types ofluminescence in speleothems, so can be observed only in their absence. In cathodoluminescence petrography it is called "background lumines cence". It is as intensive as older is calcite (Ugumory & Ikeya, 1980), because this center is produced only by ionising radiation from decompo sition of natural radionuclides and have lifetime of millions of years. In ion crystals (such as chloride, fluorite or sulphide minerals) luminescence of this type is produced by admixtures of metal ions substituting the cati ons in the crystal lattice of the minerals. In this case the admixture cation must have different valency than the structural cations (Marfunin, 1979), so it cause compensation of the charge by trapping of free electrons or traps (which are activators of the luminescence of ion crystals). 2. Luminescence of admixture ions substituting structural ions in the crystal lattice or incorporated in cavities of this lattice: Such type is the luminescence of most known luminescent centres in calcite, which are inorganic ions: Mn2+, Fe3+ Pr3+ Tb3+ Er3+ Dy3+, Eu2+, Eu3+, Sm3+ and Ce3+ (Tarashtan, 1978, Marfunin, 1979, Gorobets 1981, Shopov, 1986, Shopov et al., 1988 Richter et al., 2003). This type of luminescence increases its intensity with decreasing of the temperature. This kind of luminescence exhibits strong quenching by Fe2+, Ni and Cu ions substituting structural cations in the crystal lattice, which adsorb the luminescence emission and reemit it in the infrared region of the spectra (Marfunin, 1979). 3. Sensitizes luminescence of admixture ions substituting structural ions in the crystal lattice: Pb2+ have UV luminescence in calcite with no visible emission but it sensitizes the luminescence of Mn2+ which produce short time orange red phosphorescence in hydrothermal calcites (Marfunin, 1979 Shopov, 1997). Such sensitized luminescence of these ions can be observed only if both they substitute a structural cation in the crystal lattice Mn2+ in calcite does not have strong absorption lines in UV, so it does not exhibit luminescence in infiltration calcites Pb2+ have very strong UV-absorp tion lines in calcite and transfer its excitation energy to Mn2+ through the crystal lattice. It produces strong orange-red phosphorescence of Mn2+ in calcite. This type of luminescence decreases its intensity with decreasing of the temperature, due to the reduction of the energy transfer through the temperature vibrations of the crystal lattice. /.-1/!1 lntemutiunnl Cunuress of Sue/eol uu y

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H e lf en i c S1 wl eolu ui c11/ S ucie/ y 4. Luminescence of molecules, ions or radicals adsorbed inside of the lattice: Such luminescence can be produced both by: a. inorganic (like uranil ion-UO /+ ) or b. organic molecules (Tarashtan, 1978 Shopov 1986, Shopov et al., 1988, White and Brennan, 1989, Shopov, 1997, 2002). In some cases they both produce luminescence of the same speleothem (fig.I). This type of luminescence decreases its intensity with decreasing of the temperature because energy transfer through the crystal lattice be came impossible at low temperatures. Usually luminescence of organics in speleothems is attributed to fulvic and humic acids (White and Brennan 1989) but free acids could not exist in the alkaline karst environment. They react with the limestone producing their calcium salts in which form they exist in speleothems The process of their chemical extraction from speleothems in order to study them con verts them in free fulvic and humic acids. Luminescence organics in speleothems can be divided to 4 types : -(1) Calcium salts of Fulvic acids (2) Calcium salts of humic acids, (3) Cal cium salts ofhuminomelanic acids (Shopov, 1997) and (4) Organic esters (Gilson et al., 1954). All these four types are usually present in a single speleothem with hundreds of chemical compounds with similar chemical behavior but of different molecular weights. Concentration distribution of these compounds ( and their luminescence spectra) depends on type of soils and plants over the cave, so the study of luminescent spectra of these organic compounds can gi v e information about paleosoils and plants in the past (White, Brennan, 1989). Changes in visible colour of luminescence of speleothems suggesting major changes of plants society are observed very rare, 5. Luminescence of inclusions of other minerals: Inclusions of other luminescent minerals can produce luminescence inside calcite speleothems. Most frequently these are inclusions of moon milk minerals. Such is also the green-yellow luminescence of magursilite clusters (Tarashtan 1978) in speleothem calcite (Shopov, 1989b ). 6. Luminescence of fluid or gas inclusions-Gas inclusions containing oil and gas products (hydrocarbons) had been observed to produce blue fluorescence and phosphorescence in speleothem calcites from Gaudalupe Mts., USA under SWUV or flash excitation (Shopov, 2001), but orange fluorescence under LWUV excitation. All six types ofluminescence centers are observed to produce lumines cence of speleothem calcites under UV excitation. Different types of excitation may excite different luminescent centers. Some or all of them may luminesce in a single speleothem (Shopov, 1997 2001, Richter et al., 2003). Activators of Luminescence as Source of Mistakes in Interpretation of Luminescent Paleoclimatic Records Recently some researchers attribute all luminescence in calcite spele othems to organics (e.g Baker et al, 1993) without any reason to do so. But 14 (58% of all known) activators of speleothem luminescence are inorganic. Minerals are not pure chemical substances and contain many admixtures. Usually several centres activate luminescence of one sample (table 1) and the measured spectrum is a sum of the spectra of two or more of them (fig.I). Luminescence of minerals formed at normal cave tem peratures (below 40 C) is usually (but far not always) due mainly to mo lecular ions and absorbed organic molecules. Luminescence ofuranil-ion (UO/+) is also very common (fig.I) in such speleothems (Shopov, 2001). Luminescence of other inorganic ions sometimes dominate luminescence spectrum of speleothems. Before 1983 all luminescence in calcite speleothems was attributed to inorganic ions (Kropachev et al. 1971, Mitsaki, 1973 Slacik 1977 21 -2 8 A uu u s i 2o m 1. ff nt u mo s. H e llo s Turnbull, 1977, Ugumory & Ikeya, 1980, Rogers and Williams 1982, Hill and Forti, 1986) All paleoenvironmental luminescence (paleoluminescence) meth ods (Shopov, 2004) use only luminescence of organics in Speleothems. Therefore it is necessary to determine that all luminescence of the sample is due to organics before using a speleothem for any paleoenvironmental work. Detailed spectral measurements of the luminescence are absolutely necessary to determine luminescent compounds in any speleothem. This requires the use of a luminescence spectrometer, plus an Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometer or chromatograph (Shopov, 1989a b). Lasers and Raman spectrometers used for measurements of luminescent spectra allow also determination of the luminescent mineral or inclusion in the speleothem, because the narrow Raman lines appearing in lumines cence spectra at high resolution scanning are characteristic for different minerals. l.98E 02 :J'l + VI C QJ + C ....... 1.07E 02 24000.00 1.20E 03 ::J) +-V) C ClJ +-c -0.A4E 03 21700.00 C-AR 1U,P,365,12!II88 19750.00 Frequency ( cm-1 ) C-RR: IJ,P, 12I I 188,495,c:af!,SMO 19200.00 Frequency ( cm-1 ) 16700 00 Fi g ure 1. Lumine sc enc e of sp e leothem calcit e und e r excitation by 365 nm (up) and 405 nm (down) lines of Hg-lamp. Th e narrow lines of lumines c enc e in both spectra are produ ce d by uranil-ion (UO /+ ) w hile the broadband lumin es c e nc e is due to organics UV excitation of UO ,2+ i s far mor e effi c ient t han this of organics so it predominat e s in th e spe c tra at 365 ni:z e xcitati o n. In many calcite speleothems all or a significant part of the lumines cence is produced by inorganic ions (Shopov, 1986, Shopov et al., 1988). Sometimes they even have annual banding (photo 1) due to variations of acidity of the karst waters causing variations of the solubility of some inorganic luminophores (Shopov 1997). Uranium compounds have such migration behavior. We found some speleothems demonstrating fine fluorescence banding produced by uranium impurities in the speleothem

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(photo 1) under short -w ave UV light (Shopov, 2002) Fine fluorescence banding under long -wave UV light i s produced by rare earth elements in the same sample. This banding can be annual or even sub-annual. Such luminescence banding is usually considered to be annual (if produced by organics) and have a number of paleoclimatic and dating applications (Shopov et al., 1997). Phosphorescence of this s ample (not shown) sug gests that there are no any luminescent organics in the middle (darker) pa rt of the speleothem, but there are some in the outer part of the sample. Statements that Sr causes violet lumi nescence of carbonate spele othems ( e.g Kropac hev et al. 1971 ), Zn greenish-white luminescence of calcite stalactites (Turnbull, 1977) and Cu-causes pale-green and blue luminescence of calcite and aragonite ( e.g. Rogers and Williams 1982) are in error. Sr and Znions do not have electron transitions in the vis ible region of the spectra and therefore cannot activate luminesc ence in ca rbonates but Cu is known to cause quenching (reduction of lumines cence) induced by other cations (Tarashtan 1978). Cu2+ can excite only infrared luminescence of some sulfides. Also, interpretations of the visible luminescence of calcite as Pb-activated (Slacik, 1977) are not correct, because Pb in calcite emits only UV light (Tarashtan 1978, Shopov et al. 1988). Such wrong interpretations had been obtained by correlation of the intensity oflumines cence with the concentration of these elements in spe leothems without proper measurements of spectra of their luminescence. Luminescence of the high-temperature hydrothermal minerals is due mainly to cations because molecular ions and molecules destruct at high temperatures. The orange red luminescence of Mn2+ in calcite (table 1) sensitized by Pb2+ can be observed only in hydrothermal calcite, bec au se Pb2+ has very big ion radius and can substitute Ca2+ in the crystal lattice of calcite only at high temperatures, so it can be used as an indicator of the hydrothennal origin of the cave mineral (S h opov, 1989 a, b ). Therefore, if calcite has only orange-red, short time phosphore s cence i t is sure to have ffel!et1 1 c Siie/e u !oqf cu! S o ciety formed in high-temperature, hydrothermal solutions (>300 C). But if it has long-time phosphorescence in addition to the redorange one, then it is a low-temperature hydrothe rma l calcite (Shopov 1989a,b). Calcites formed by low -te mperature hydrothermal solutions have fluorescence or sh ort-life phosphorescence due to cations and long phosphorescence due to molecular ions (Gorobets, 1981). Minimal temperature of appearance of this orange-red luminescence was estimated to be of about 40C by Dublyansky (in press) by fluid inclusion analysis in hydrothermal cave calcites, but our direct measurements o f luminescence of calcites in hot springs shows that even at 46C such luminescence do not appear (Pe t rusenko et al., 1999). It probably appears at over 60 C Luminescence of hydrothermal calcite formed at lower temperatures looks similar to usu al spel eo the m luminescence (photo 1 ). Such luminescence data visualize the changes of the temperature of mineral forming solutions and are com parable with the stable isotope data used convent ionally for thi s purpose (Bakalowicz et. al., 1987, Ford et aL, 1993) Conclusions Before usin g of any speleothem for paleoenvironmental luminesce n ce measurements it is necessary to determine that all luminescence of the sa mpl e is due to orga ni cs Otherwise int erp retation of the data can be completely wrong and there is no way to prove or disapprove it without further measurements on the same sample to establish the organic nature of all its luminescence. Acknowledgements This research was funded by Bulgarian Science Foundation by re search gra n t 811 / 98 to Y. Shopov Table 1. Activators of Luminescence of Speleothems Luminesc en ce Excitation Emission color After Origin Reference activator glow Calcite: I.Esters H glamp blu e lon g infiltration Gilson et al. (1954) 2 Organics, Nz-Laser blue long infiltration Shopov et al. (1983) 3.Calcium salts of Fulvic & humic Ar-L., Xe yellow-green long infiltration Shopov et al. (1989) acids 4.Fulvic& humic swuv blue-green long infiltration White, Brennan (1989) acids 5.Organics Ar L., Xe lamp blue green long infiltration Shopov (1989b) 6.Organics Nz Laser yellow -g reen long infiltration Shopov (1989b) 7 .Organics LWUV,Hg yellow long infiltration Shopov ( 1989b) 8.Organics SWUV,LWUV yellow orange long infiltration White, Brennan (1989) 9.CO/ N2Laser blue infiltration Ugumory, Ikeya (1980) 10.UO/+ swuv green no infiltration White, Brennan (1989) 11.UO/+ N2-L., Hg lamp green no infiltration Shopov (1989b) 12.UO22 + Nz-L., Hg -lamp green-yellow infiltration Shopov ( 1989b) (magursilite?)* no 13.Organics Hg,Xe-lamp bluish <15s hydrothermal Shopov et al. ( 1996) 14. *Mn2+ Ar-L, N2-L., Xe orange red h t.hydrothermal Mitsaki, 1973; White, 197 4 15 *Hydrocarbons Xe flash lamp violet lon g epithermal Shopov et al ( 1996) J-1!1! l niern nti onn l Conu re ss u t S1wie o lou.v

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Hel len ic StH: le oluui r:al Societ y 16.Fe3+ Ar-Laser dark-red ? hydrothermal Shopov 1988 17.Pb2+ swuv UV hydrothermal Shopov, 1985 18-24*. Rare Earth LWUV,SWUV various ? Shopov, 1985, 1988 Elements 3+ -ions electrons Richter (2002) Aragonite: 25.0rganics Hg-lamp blue long infiltration Shopov (1989b) 26.0rganics Hg-lamp blue-green long infiltration Shopov ( 1989b) 27.0rganics N2-Laser blue-green long infiltration Shopov ( 1989b) 28.0rganics N2-Laser green long infiltration Shopov ( 1989b) 29.0rganics Hg-lamp yellow long infiltration Shopov ( 1989b) 30.0rganics SWUV,LWUV blue-green long infiltration White, Brennan (1989) 31. uoz2 + swuv green no infiltration White, Brennan ( 1989) 32.? Hg(LWUV) orange ? ? White, Brennan (1989) 33.Mn2+ LWUV, e-beam yellow-green short ? Shopov, 1988 34.Sm3+ LWUV e-beam red ? Shopov, 1985 35.Eu2+ LWUV, e-beam blue ? Shopov, 1988 Comments to table 1 : -luminescence of Rare Earth elements in calcite is well described in (Tarashtan, 1978, Shopov, 1986, Shopov et al., 1988, Richter, 2002), so is not included in the table 12-Tarashtan (1978) attributed this spectrum of luminescence to luminescence of clusters of the mineral magursilite adsorbed in calcite; *14-also in (Shopov et al., 1988, White and Brennan 1989) 15-hydrocarbons present only in fluid inclusions in calcite formed I km beiow the surface by waters heated by Earth thermal gradient (epith e rmal s olutions) in a cave in Carlsbad Caverns region. Guadeloupe Mts., New Mexico, US (Shopov e t al., 1996) References BAKALOVICZ M., FORD D.C., MILLER T.E., A.N. PALMER M .. V. PALMER. 1987 Thermal genesis of dissolution cave from Black Hills, South Dakota.-GSA Bulletin, 99: 729-738. BAKER,A.,SMART, P.L., EDWARDS, R.L., RICHARDS, D.A, 1993, Annual Growth banding in a cave stalagmite. Nature, 304: 518520. DUBLYANSKY Y.V. (in press) Luminescence of calcite from Buda Hill caves FORD D.C., BAKALOVICZ M., MILLER T.E., AN.PALMER M .. V. PALMER (1987) Uranium series dating of the draining of an aquifer: an example of Wind cave Black Hills, South Dakota.-GSA Bulletin, v.105, pp 241-250. GILSON, R.J., AND MACARTHNEY, E. 1954 Luminescence of spe leothems from Devon, U.K.: The presence of organic activators: Ashford Speleological Society Journal, 6:8.(abstr.) GOROBETS B.S. 1981 Atlas of Spectra of Luminescence of Minerals VIMS, Moskow. (in Russian) HILL C. FORTI P. 1986 Cave Minerals of the World., I-edition, NSS Huntswille, Alabama, USA, 238p KROPACHEV A.M. GORBUNOVAK.A., TZIKINV.Y. 1971 Meta chromatism and luminescence of the carbonate speleothems from the caves of Bashkiriya form Krasnoyarks region-Peshtery, 10-11 :74-80. In Russian MARFUNIN A. S. 1979 Spectroscopy Luminescence and Radiation Centers in Minerals. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 352 pages. MITSAKI V. 1973 Geochemical study of some spesimens of stalac tites from Tourkovonia cave, Athens. Deltio, v.12, 3: 90-95 PETRUSENKO S., SHOPOV Y., A. KUNOV 1999 Micromorpholog ic Peculiarities and Typomorphic Luminescence of Calcites from Bulgar-21-28 Auaust 2005 l(alamos. Helf as ian Deposits of Various Genesis.-Proceedings of The National Scientific Conference on New Achievements and Actual Problems of Karstology and Speleology in Bulgaria, March 25-28, 1999, Sofia, pp. 75-81. RICHTER D.K., GOETTE TH., NIGGEMANN S., WURTH G. 2003 Cathodoluminescence of Carbonate Speleothems: State of the Art In: Karst and Environment. Carrasco F., Duran J.J Andreo B. (Eds.), 381-387. ROGERS B.W., WILLIAMS K.M. 1982 Mineralogy of Lilburn cave Kings Cannion National Park, California. NSS-Bulletin, v.44, 2: 23-31 SHOPOV Y.Y SPASOV V.A. 1983 Speleological Applications of Physical Methods for analysis of solids -Abstracts of the First National Congress of the Physicists in Bulgaria (Sofia, 28 IX-1 X 1983): 193. SHOPOV Y.Y. 1986 Applications of photoluminescence in Speleol ogy.-Bulgarian Caves, 4: 38-45. SHOPOV Y.Y., IVANOV G.I.,KOSTOV R.I. 1988 Phase Analysis of the Polymorphic modifications of CaCO3 by spectra of its photo-lumi nescence. In: Spectral Methods for solving of Problems of the Solid State Physics, Scientific Commission on "Atomic and Molecular Spectrosco py" of Academy of Sciences of USSR, Acad Sci. Press, 1988, Moskow, pp.191-201 (in Russian). SHOPOV Y.Y. 1989a Bases and Structure of the International Pro gramme "Luminescence of Cave Minerals" of the Commission of Physi cal Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst ofUIS.-Exped. Annual of Sofia University, 3/4:111-127. SHOPOV Y.Y. 1989-b Spectra of Luminescence of Cave Minerals. Expedition Annual of Sofia University, 3/4:80-85. SHOPOVY.Y., L.TSANKOV, M. BUCK, D.C. FORD 1996 Time Re solved Photography of Phosphorescence-A New Technique for Study of Thennal History and Uplift of Thermal Caves.-Extended abstracts of Int. Conference on "Climatic Change-the Karst Record", 1-4 August 1996,

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Bergen, Norway. Karst Waters Institute Special Publication 2 : 154. SHOPOV Y.Y 1997 Luminescence of Cave Minerals: 244-248 In: C.HILL P FORTI (Eds.)-Cave Minerals of the world, second edition, NSS, Huntswille, Alabama USA SHOPOV Y.Y. 2001 Luminescence of Cave Minerals -Bo l etin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia. N 35 pp.27-33. SHOPOV Y. 2002 Influence of the Solar Luminosity on the Gla ciations, Earthquakes and Sea Level Changes.4th In ternational Cave Symposium on "The Sustainable Development of Cave: Academic and Policy Implications", Samcheok, Korea: 65-73 (in English): 195-203 (in Korean) SHOPOV Y. 2004 20 Years of Speleothem Paleoluminescence Records of Environmental Changes: An Overviewin the same volume. SLACIK, J. 1977. Luminescence analysis in speleology. Proc. 7th Int. Cong. Speleol. Sheffield: 31-36. TARASHTAN A.N., 1978, Luminescence of minerals. Naukova Dumka, Kiev (in Russian) TARCUS-CSSR 1981 Bibliography of working groop of the CSS ZO 1 -05 GEOSPELEOS for 1973-1980 Prague CSS, 31 pp. TURNBULL I. C. 1977 Zinc: an activator of fluorescence in cave calcite. Fluorescent. Min. Soc. Jour ., v.6 p. 5860. UGUMORI, T.,IKEYA M. 1980, Luminescence of CaCO3 under N2 -Laser excitation and application to archaeological dating: Japanese I.Appl.Physics, v.19(3): 459-65. WHITE, W.B. 1974. Determination of Speleothem growth mecha nism by luminescence spectrography. Geo2, 3(3): 37. 0-29 lle!ienic S1wteatau cul Sncie!; WHITE W.B, BRENNAN E .S 1989 Luminescence of speleothems due to fulvic acid and other activators Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Speleology 13-20 August 1989 Budapest 1: 212-214 Foto 1. Annual( ? ) banding of luminescence of uranilion and rare earth elements in a calcite flowstone due to variations in pH of the water (Luminescence of a section of a calcite coralloid from a cave near Irkutsk, Russia). Fine fluorescence banding under short-wave UV light (left) is produced by uranium impuriti es (UO/+) in the speleothem. Fine fluorescence banding under long-wave UV light (right) is produced by rare earth elements in the same sample (right and left images are mirror images of th e same sain~ pie). Photo by Yavor Shopov. An introduction to genetic mineralogy and the concept of "ontogeny of cave minerals" CHARLES A SELF 4 Tyne Street, Bri s tol, BS2 9UA, England; CAROL A. HILL 17 El Arco Drive, Albuquerque, NM 87123, USA; carolannhill@aol com Abstract The "ontogeny of minerals" is the study of individual crystals and their aggregates as physical bodies rather than as mineral species. The genetic approach to mineralogy has been developed in Russia over th e last 80 years, but is poorly understood (if at all) in the West. Although ontogeny as a subject had its origins in the Russian mining industry caves prove to be ideal settings for ontogeny studies because, while there are few com mon mineral species in caves (mainly calcite, aragonite, and gypsum) there is a great variety in the speleothem forms that these minerals can take. This paper introduces the basic principles of minerals ontogeny and explains a hierarchy classification scheme whereby mineral bodies can be studied as crystal individuals, aggregates of individuals, association of aggregates ( termed koras by the Russians), and as sequences of koras (ensembles) The importance of minerals ontogeny is that just by looking at the physical organization of a simple minieral body its environment of deposition can often be deduced Introduction The study of the origin and evolution of mineral bodies is termed genetic mineralogy and includes nucleation, initiation ( on a growth surface), development, alteration, and disintegration. Genetic mineralogy was formulated in Russia as a separate field of stu dy within mineralogy during the 1920s (Fersman, 1935) and by the 1950s Grigor 'e v (1961) had divided genetic mineralogy into two separate branches : ontogeny an d phylogeny (these terms are familiar from biology and are used in a broadly similar sense by Russian mineralogists). Ontogeny is the study of individual crystals (mineral individuals) how these crystals combine as aggregates, and their development as physical bodies ("minor mineral bodies"). Phylogeny is the study of mineral species and their paragenesis (i.e., their association with contemporaneous mineral species). Phylogeny closely corresponds to the Western view of genetic mineralogy, whereas ontogeny ( and even the term itself) is unfamiliar to most Western min era logists However, this line of study has become a well-established science in Russia. Ontogeny as a concept is important to mineralogy because the same mineral species can display different physical form s, depending on the specific environment in which growth occurs. In caves, it is possible to study the different forms of speleothems together with their depositional environments. This has resulted in a large number of mainly descriptive mineralogy texts such as Cave Minerals of the World (Hill and Forti 19 97). It is now necessary to study cave mineralogy-from a genetic per spective. Ontogeny explains not only how speleothems grow, but why different speleothem types exist. 14 th ln te rn u !io nu f Co nu re ss u t So e! eu lo .uv

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H ell enic S/J e/ea l aai ca l Socie ty Hierarchy of minor mineral bodies Minor mineral bodies (MMBs) are simple enough to be studied purely by mineralogic techniques. They are classified according to their com plexity of structure and texture. However, the hierarchy scheme of MMBs is not the same as the classification of speleothems into types and subtypes as was done by Hill and Forti (1997). "Speleothem" is a descriptive term and can only be used to indicate the morphology of a MMB. The hierarchy scheme for MMBs is outlined in Table 1. Only the most important of these MMBs are discussed herein; for a more detailed discussion of this topic refer to Self and Hill (2003). In Table l, the term level is used when MMBs of one level are built from MMBs of a previous level or levels. Order is used as a subdivision within a ievel and shows the level of complexity of the MMBs. Second-order MMBs are built from MMBs of the previous level, but in a more complicated manner than first-order MMBs. For example, multiaggregates (level 2, second order) are not built from aggregates (level 2, first order); they are built from individuals (level 1, either first or second order), but in a more complicated manner. (0) ZERO LEVEL: Subindividuals. The fundamental building block for all minor mineral bodies is the mineral individual (level 1 ). Simple (first-order) individuals are single crystals having no structure other than a crystallographic network. More complex (second-order) individuals, on the other hand, are composed of a number of different crystalline units known as subindividuals. Subindividuals also have no structure except for their crystallographic network, but they are at least partly separated by free space or a line of dislocation from neighboring crystal blocks. Inasmuch as subindividuals do not exist independently from each other, they are as cribed to a hypothetical "zero level" in the MMB hierarchy. A zero level is needed because complex (second-order) MMBs of the first level must be formed from MMBs of a previous level, not from first-order MMBs of the same level. Subindividuals (in the sense used here) are termed crystallites by some mineralogists, but in ontogeny the preferred use of this term is for the initial stage of crystallization of mineral individuals. 1.(1) FIRST LEVEL: Mineral Individuals. Individuals are mineral bodies that grow from a single crystal nucleus or embryo (crystallite), during one phase of crystallization, and which have a "through" crys tallographic structure (Godovikov et al., 1989). Crystallites are minute crystal grains that represent the initial stage of crystallization, and which act as seeds for further crystal growth. When crystallites are widely sepa rated from each other, they grow freely into separate first-level mineral individuals. But when they grow close together, there is competition for growth space and a second-level MMB (a mineral aggregate) is formed. It should be emphasized that mineral individuals are not speleothems (except in a few special cases): they are the building blocks from which speleothems are made. (1.1) First-Order Individuals. In the simplest case, mineral individu als are single crystals having no other structure except a standard crys tallographic network, which is determined by the mineral species itself. First-order individuals can be described by their isometric, columnar, acicular, filamentary, or tabular habit, or by their euhedral subhedral, or anhedral form. An example in a cave would be an individual calcite spar (non-druse) crystal. (1.2) Second-Order Individuah;. Second-order individuals are single crystals that subdivide or split into a number of subindividuals, single crystals that have their growth inhibited on some crystal faces or edges, single crystals that incorporate crystallites into their crystal lattice, or sin gle crystals that are twinned (Shafranovskiy, 1961). In some cases second order individuals can look as if there is a co-growth of several crystals, but this is an illusion. Subindividuals of second-order individuals are not separate from each other: they grow from the same nucleus and have a joined crystallographic network (Fig. 1 ). Second-order individuals grow 21-28 Auoust 20Df.i, Hatnmos. Helfus in response to certain environmental conditions, particularly oversatura tion -a common occurrence in caves due both to CO2 loss and evapora tion of thin films. (1.2.1) Split Crystals. When a crystal individual splits apart during growth it forms a number of subindividuals, a sheaf-like structure, or in its final form, a spherulitic structure (Fig. 2). Different minerals have a different "splitting ability" depending on their crystal structure Arago nite has a higher splitting ability than calcite under usual cave conditions, and therefore it is almost always found in caves as split acicular crystals. Splitting may be due to a crystal receiving extra molecules in its layers (mechanical splitting), or to when certain ions ( e.g., Mg as well as Ca) are present in the parent solution ( chemical splitting) ( Grigor' ev, 1961 ). Ac cording to the level of supersaturation or impurity concentration (which can change during growth), splitting will take on different grades, which results in a number of subforms for split crystals. (1.2.lA) Spherulites. Spherulites are second-order individuals having either a radial or curving radial structure due to the splitting of crystals. If growing in free space, they are spherical in form; if nucleated on a substrate, they grow as hemispheres. Spherulites are composed of straight subindividuals, but often the subindividuals themselves continue to split. If part of the growth surface becomes mechanically blocked, the unob structed "rays" will continue their growth in the form of a new spherulite. This composite body is still a mineral individual not an aggregate. Spherulites are widespread in caves as components from which many speleothems are built. (1.2.lB) Spherulite Bunches. Spherulite bunches are composed of sub individuals that grow from a single nucleus to form a stalk ( a well connected bunch) or a splay of crystals (a poorly connected bunch). This shape depends on the growth speed of crystals: slow growth resuits in well connected bunches, fast growth in poorly connected splaying bunches. Examples of speleothems built from spherulite bunches are most kinds of helictites and some kinds of anthodites and frostwork. Spathites and bead ed helictites are sequences of spherulite bunch splays, with new bunches growing from subindividual "rays" of the previous bunch in the manner of a daisy chain. (1.2.lC) Discospherulites. Discospherulites are spherulites that have preferred crystal growth in two, rather than three, dimensions. Some kinds of cave rafts display discospherulitic growth, where the surface of a cave pool confines crystal growth to a plane and supersaturation allows for split growth. (1.2.lD) Spheroidalites. Spheroidalites are spherulites with nonsymmetrical structure (Godovikov et al., 1989). They have elongated and curved subindividuals, whereas spherulites have straight subindividuals. Most coralloids display spheroidalitic growth. (1.2.lE) Spherocrystals. Spherocrystals are chemically split second order individuals, so perfectly split that boundaries between subindividu als are at a molecular level, and physical properties (such as cleavage) become generalized across the whole crystal (Shubnikov, 1935). This results in growth surfaces that are smooth and bright in appearance ( e.g., botryoidal malachite or chalcedony; Fig.3). Although spherocrystals are composed of subindividuals, the separate fibers are not visible even un der microscopic examination. However under crossed nicols (polarizers), spherocrystals display a "Maltese cross" extinction 2.(2) SECOND LEVEL: Mineral Aggregates. Mineral individuals very seldom occur singly; they grow multiply over a substrate surface as mineral aggregates. Aggregates are much more than simply a group of individuals of the same mineral species growing together: interaction between individuals directly affects and limits the growth of each crystal. During such "group" or "common" growth, there is competition between the mineral individuals constituting the aggregate. Most speleothems are mineral aggregates. Most aggregates form where growing individuals compete for space

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by physically contacting one another. In such a situation, contact faces develop between neighboring individuals leaving a group growth front comprised of the crystallographic terminations of many individuals How ever, aggregates do not necessarily have to be in direct physical contact for competition to occur. An example of indirect competition for the sup ply solution is when growth is in a plastic substrate such as porous clay, where interaction between crystals is due to the closure of feeding pores in the clay as a result of crystallization pressure When growth is in a capillary film environment, there is competition for the loss of solvent molecules and interaction is by convection of water vapor and CO2 be tween individuals. The mineral individuals constituting an aggregate have contact faces when they are in direct competition, but display true crystal faces when they are in indirect competition. Competitive growth on a substrate surface nonnally leads to a reduc tion in the number of individuals constituting the aggregate, a situation called selection. The most influential process during the early stages of crystal growth is geometric selection. The crucial elements of geomet ric selection are (Fig 4) : (1) initiation of separate centers of crystallite growth, (2) the beginning of competition of these crystal individuals for growth space, (3) selection and a reduction in the number of competing individuals according to a geometric rule, and (4) continued growth with no further selection. There are several geometric rules for selection, but perpendicularity to the substrate is the most common This rule applies to most mineral veins and to many common varieties of speleothems (e.g., dripstone, flowstone, pool spar) (2.1) First-Order Aggregates. In ontogeny, first-order aggregates are simply termed aggregates, while second-order aggregates are tenned multiaggregates. Aggregates can be defined as intergrowths or co-growths of individuals ( either firstor second-order) of the same mineral species, which develop simultaneously on a common growth surface and which possess a homogeneous texture. Texture is the distinctive pattern of crys tal boundaries that is produced by competitive growth. Aggregates are subdivided according to their texture. (2.1.1) Parallel-Columnar Aggregates. Examples of parallel-co lumnar texture, sometimes known in the West as "palisade fabric" (Folk, 1965), dominate the collections of amateur mineralogists. Mostly these are groups of crystals with well-formed tenninations, taken from vugs in simple mineral veins. If visible to the naked eye, these cr;stal aggregates are called druses, where each crystal is a mineral individual within a com posite aggregate of crystals. These individuals only have crystallographic faces on their end terminations, with their sides being contact surfaces with other individuals (Fig 4). Each druse crystal has had to compete with other individuals and is a survivor of geometric selection at the aggregate druse growth front. (2.L2) Spherulitic Aggregates. Spherulitic texture is a variant of parallel-columnar texture whereby the substrate, instead of being flat or slightly irregular, is sharply convex. Geometric selection produces crystals growing perpendicular to the substrate, but the curvature of this substrate produces a radiating fan of crystals rather than a roughly parallel growth of crystals. Cave pearls are a common type of spherulitic (core) aggregate. (2.1.3) Radial-Fibrous Aggregates. Radial-fibrous aggregates are an important variation on both parallel columnar and spherulitic aggregates where some ( or all) of the individuals have begun to split. They make up the texture of many speleothem types, in cluding flowstone and dripstone. Commonly they are interlayered with parallel-columnar ( or spherulitic) aggregate crystals in these speleothems (Fig. 5). The change to radial fibrous texture is due to a decrease in solu tion supply in a capillary thin-film environment. If the solution supply de creases further, radial-fibrous texture may lead to interruptions in growth and/or contamination of the growth surface. (2.1.4) Branching Aggregates. A great variety of aggregates grow fi e/ie m c S m: leo !uu ir:a l S ac iei y by evaporation in a capillary film environment. These include coral lites crystallictites and many intermediate fonns Branching aggregates are aggregates of crystals displaying a compound branching form The competition in the case of branching aggregates is indirect and includes competition between nearby branches on the same bush. Molecules of solvent (water vapor and CO2) leaving one branch adhere to neighboring branches thus slowing their growth. For this reason competing branches never touch each other and the strongest growth is always out towards the open void of the cave (Fig 6). For a single aggregate, there is competition between individuals but not selection. The situation changes when these aggregates grow together in close proximity Substrate selection very strongly favors growth from protrusions, and aggrega t es situated there develop rapidly 3. Less favorably situated aggregates find it increasingly difficult to lose solvent molecules, and their growth is suppressed or distorted away from nearby large bushes (2.1.4A) Corallites. Corallites are the product of thin capillary water films that have a condensation origin or appear because of the slow spread of water due to very weak trickling. Prime examples of corallites are thin film-generated varieties of coralloids (popcorn and cave coral). (Note that corallite is an ontogeny tenn and should not be confused with the spele othem type "coralloid" of Hill and Forti, 1997.) (2 1.4B) Crystallictites. Crystallictites are branching aggregates built from faced crystals (Serban et al., 1961; Moroshkin 1976). They form in a capillary film environment as an analog of corallites, but without the splitting of individuals that is characteristic of corallites The branching of crystallictites is usually noncrystallographic it is due to branching of the aggregates themselves. A full range of intennediate fo1ms exists between corallites and crystallictites, where different degrees of crystal splitting are displayed. Aragonite frostwork is a prime example of a crystallictite (Fig. 6). (2.1.5) Fibrous Aggregates. Fibrous aggregates are built from fila mentary individuals and grow from a porous substrate that may be solid (such as the cave walls or breakdown blocks within a cave) or plastic (such as cave sediments, particularly clays) Fibrous aggregates are al ways composed of soluble minerals such as gypsum, epsomite, mirabilite, or halite. The reason why no calcite "flowers" and "needles" exist is be cause carbonate solutions simply do not carry enough solute. The growth mechanism of fibrous aggregates is purely by evaporation of the solvent and takes place close to the ends of pores in the substrate. The unique feature of fibrous aggregates is that they grow from the base, with new growth pushing the previous growth out into the cave void. This growth mechanism means that selection between individuals is impossible and there is only competition between pores. For growth from a solid sub strate, the pores feeding the center of an aggregate often have a stronger supply than those feeding the periphery, leading to different growth rates. For well connected aggregates such as gypsum flowers, this causes the aggregate to burst into separate curving "petals". For loosely connected aggregates such as hair, the fibers may become tangled so as to fonn "cot ton" For growth from a plastic substrate such as cave clay, competition between pores leads to a very different situation. The capillary pressure and the crystallization pressure together press the substrate, causing only certain favorable pores to remain open while other surrounding pores col lapse. This is a very specific type of selection for plastic substrates and explains the wide separation between individuals (e g. selenite needles) in this environment compared with growth from a solid substrate (2.2) Multiaggregates. Multiaggregates are an intergrowth or co growth of different types of aggregates that fonn simultaneously and syn genetically in the same crystallization environment. They can be either polymineral or polytextural, as compared to simple aggregates which are always monomineral and texturally homogeneous. A common polymin eral multiaggregate found in many caves is calcite popcorn from which grows aragonite frostwork that is often tipped with a magnesium-rich of

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Hellen i c S{Je/eolo r; ica/ Society mineral such as hydromagnesite All three mineral species form simulta neously from the same capillary solution and in the same crystallization environment. Stalactites are a polytextural multiaggregate comprised of a monocrystalline tube with a crown of skeleton crystals, plus a spherulitic aggregate outer layer. (2.3) Pseudoaggregates. Some speleothems are disordered and have no "through" structure. They cannot be considered as true aggregates and do not fit into the hierarchy ofMMB. However, these anomalous mineral bodies can take part in the formation of higher levels of the MMB hierar chy (koras and ensembles), and so behave as if they were some form of aggregate. Such anomalous mineral bodies are called pseudoaggregates.A consistent feature of pseudoaggregates is that the original place of nuclea tion of any crystal individual is different from its final resting place on a substrate. This produces a chaotic arrangement of crystals, for which no "through" structure can exist. For tufaceous deposits and some types of moonmilk, the crystallization displacement is usually quite small. But in the case of cave cones, where sunken cave rafts accumulate at the bottom of a pool, this distance can be measured in meters. (3) THIRD LEVEL: Assemblages of Aggregates. Above the level of aggregate, there seemed tu be a class of MMB that had the same sense of texture as an aggregate, but lacking the structure of an aggregate. This new and more complicated type of MMB was given the name kora by Russian speleologists. A kora is an assemblage of texturally similar ag gregates, growing together at the same time and in the same crystallization space, and forming under the same environmental conditions. An example is the "stalactite-stalagmite kora" where different forms of stalactites, sta lagmites draperies and flowstones grow together and simultaneously in a dripping water environment. (4) FOURTH LEVEL: Assemblages of Koras. On the fourth hierar chy level is an ensemble. The ensemble concept is fundamentally different from that of other terms used in MMB hierarchy: it involves a cycle of regular changes through time 4.that takes place in the crystallization en vironment as a whole (Stepanov, 1971 ). An ensemble is usually described as a diagnostic sel" of minerals or speleothcms or a3 the "mineralogic landscape" of a cave or cave passage. Each cave or cave system has only a limited number of ensembles Table 1. Hierarchy of Minerals Ontogeny (0) ZERO LEVEL: Subindividuals (1) FIRST LEVEL: Mineral individuals (1.1) First-order individuals (1.2) Second-order individuals (1.2.1) Split crystals (1.2. lA) Spherulites (1.2.lB) Spherulite bunches (1.2.1 C) Discospherulites (1.2. lD) Spheroidalites ( 1.2.1 E) Spherocrystals (1.2.2) Skeleton crystals (1.2.3) Twin crystals (1.2.4) Screw crystals (1.2.5) Block crystals (1.2.6) Complex (2) SECOND LEVEL: Assemblages of individuals (2.1) Aggregates (2.1.1) Parallel-columnar aggregates (2.1.2) Spherulitic aggregates (2. l .2A) Core spherulites 21 28 lwuus t 2()05. K almno s Hellas References: Fersman, A. E., 1935, Achievements of Soviet mineralogy and geochemistry during recent years, 1929-1934: Moscow-Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo A.N. SSSR. In Russian. Folk, R. L., 1965, Some aspects of recrystallization in ancient lime stones, in Pray L. C., & Murray, R. C. (eds.), Dolomitization and lime stone diagenesis: Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spe cial Publ. 13, p. 14-48. Godovikov, A. A., Ripenen, 0. I., & Stepanov, V., I., 1989, Spherolites, spherocrystals and spheroidalites: New data on minerals, "Nauka", Mos cow, v. 36, p. 82-89 In Russian. Grigor'ev, D. P., 1961, Ontogeny of minerals: Lvov, Izdatel'stvo L'vovskogo Univ. In Russian. English translation 1965, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 250 p. Hill C. A., & Forti, P., 1997, Cave minerals of the world (2nd ed.): National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL 463 p. Kantor, B. Z., 1997, Besedi o mineralakh (Discussions about miner als): Nazran, Astrel, 136 p. In Russian. Republished in English 2003, as Crystal growth and development interpreted from a mineral's present form: Mineralog. Almanac, v. 6. Moroshkin, V. V., 1976, On genesis of crystallictite types of aggre gates: Novye Dannye o Mineralakh SSSR, v. 25, "Nauka", Moscow. In Russian. Polyak, V. J., 1992, The mineralogy, petrography, and diagenesis of carbonate speleothems from caves in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico: Unpublished MS thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, 165 p. Self, C. A., and Hill, C. A., 2003, How speleothems grow: An introduc tion to the ontogeny of cave minerals: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 65, no. 2, p. 130-151. Serban, M., Viehmahn, I., & Coman, D., 1961, Caves of Romania. Meridiane Bucharest. Romanian, Russian, French, and German eds. Shafranovskiy, I. I., 1961, Crystals of minerals: curved-faced, skeletal and granular forms: "Gosgeoltekhizdrt", Moscow, 230 p. In Russian. Shubnikov,A V, 1935, How crystals grow: Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR, Moscow-Leningrad. In Russian. Stepanov, V. I., 1971, Crystallization processes periodicity in karst caves: Trudy Mineralogicheskogo Muzeya imini A.E. Fersmana, Moscow, n. 20, p. 198-206. In Russian. English translation, 1999, Cave Geology, v. 2, no. 4, p. 209-220. (2. l .2B) Irregular spherulites (2.1.3) Radial-fibrous aggregates (2.1.4) Branching aggregates (2.l.4A) Corallites (2.1 .4B) Crystallictites (2.1.5) Fibrous aggregates (2.1.6) Interactive aggregates (2.1.7) Other aggregates (2.2) Multiaggregates (2.2.1) Polymineral multiaggregates (2.2.2) Polytextural multiaggregates (2.2.3) Hybrid multiaggregates (2.3) Pseudoaggregates (2.3.1) Tufaceous mineral bodies (2.3.2) Moonmilk (3) THIRD LEVEL: Assemblages of aggregates (3.1) Koras (4) FOURTH LEVEL: Assemblages ofkoras ( 4.1) Ensembles

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Figure I. Thin-section photomicrograph of a split CJystal of aragonite grown fiwn a single nucleus under laboratory conditions. From Polyak (1992). Figure 3. The smooth, bright swface of malachite, which is composed of several sphe roCJystals (not a cave photo). From Kantor (1997). Figure 5. Thin--section photomicmgmph ofpam!!e/columnar texture (spar crvsta!s ot growth surfczce) changing to ,1,1,01-u1,1 rn,r tals overlying spor). 7he tion of the growth \'l!ffa<.:P "coconutmhn,mt1 ,m,.-o/growth a b C Figure 2. Drawing of successive stages ting, b and c simple splitting, cl= (1961). d C Figure 4. Geometric selection on a flat growth surface showing competition between crystals and selection. Numbers corre.spond to those in the text. From Kantor (l 997). Figure 6. Aragonile fi'ostwork gmwing jiwn u stalagmit i c floor uust, Cueva de/ Nucimientu, Spuin. No t e thut the sepamfe hrcznches r'i'" ''rn;n,nr" do nof touch each othe1: Also note 1h01 when co1npe!itio11 is indirect, as in this case due to interuction by conveclion o/'i,'ater vapor and CO2, true oystczljc1ces (hut 110 contacl swfaces) are disp!aved. Photo by C. Self

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Hellenic Sf]e/eolrmicnl Society 0-30 Identification of Cave Minerals by Raman Spectroscopy: New Technology for Non-Destructive Analysis William B. White Materials Research Institute and Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA Introduction The identification of minerals from caves poses some unique prob lems. Some, such as calcite and gypsum, are common, occur as large crystal grains, and can often be identified from visual inspection. Others are fine-grained, nondescript powders that require instrumental analysis. Some cave minerals are not stable when removed from the cave. Their stability demands the cool, damp cave environment and they readily de compose into other compounds when brought into the warm, dry surface environment. For many delicate speleothems, specimens should not be removed from the cave at all, or if samples are removed, they become scientificaliy valuable specimens that should be analyzed in the least de structive way possible so that the specimens can be preserved for possible future study. Beyond visual inspection and examination by binocular microscope, the analytical tool of choice is powder X-ray diffraction. X-ray powder patterns provide unique fingerprints that can be matched against catalogs of standards. X-ray powder diffraction has the drawback that samples must be ground to a fine powder for measurement. Grains, which may consist of different minerals, are mixed together. Possible decomposition in the ambient atmosphere is enhanced. A further limitation of X-ray powder diffraction is that there is no easily interpreted relationship between the diffraction lines and the chemical composition of the sample. The patterns can be calculated from the crystal structure of the mineral but the calcula tion proceeds from the known structure to the diffraction pattern, not the reverse. Other characterization tools such as the scanning electron micro scope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy have important uses but there remains a need for additional tools for cave mineral investigations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the application of Ra man spectroscopy to cave mineral investigations and to point out certain special features that address some of the shortcommgs descnbed above. Anti-stokes scattering Stokes scattering 21,000 -1500 -1000 Rayleigh ine 20,000 19,000 Absolute Wave numbers -500 J 500 1000 Raman Shift {cm-1 ) 18,000 1500 Fig. 1 Schematic Raman spectrum. Note that Raman lines appear at both higher and lower wavenumbers from the exciting (Rayleigh) line. Usually, only the low wavenum ber side is displayed, with the wavenumber of the exciting line set equal to zero. 21 28 August 2005. J(nlnmos. fie/las Principles of Raman Spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy is an inelastic light scattering experiment. If a transparent specimen is illuminated with an intense, monochromatic light source such as a laser, light is scattered from the specimen in all direc tions. For many specimens, the scattering will be due to flaws, inclusions, and other sources of cloudiness. If the sample is truly transparent the in tensity of the light scattered perpendicular to the beam will be extremely weak but not zero. Most of the scattered light, called Rayleigh scattering, will have the same wavelength as the incident laser beam. However, a very small fraction of the scattered light will interact with the specimen, set its molecular structure into vibration, and appear in the scattered light as a weak component with shifted wavelengths. The wavelength shifts are a measure of the vibrational frequencies of the chemical bonds in the specimen. This weak component is the Raman effect. If the scat tered light is passed through a monochromator to display the component wavelengths, the Raman scattered light appears as side bands on the much more intense central peak of the Rayleigh scattering (Fig. 1 ). The usual convention is for Raman spectra to be plotted in units of wavenumbers, cm-I, the inverse of the wavelength in units of centimeters measured from the wavenumber of the exciting laser line taken as zero. In these units, the wavenumbers of the Raman bands are proportional to the frequencies of the vibrations of the molecules or crystals. Although the Raman effect was discovered in 1928 it did not at once produce a new analytical technique. The problem is that the Raman effect is extremely weak; Raman scattered intensities are on the order of 10-10 of the intensity of the excitingsource. The Raman signal is easily lost in stray light and measurement on other than perfectly transparent samples was impossible. Two inventions were made in the 1960's: the laser as an ultra-intense excitation source and double (or triple) monochroma tor optics to extract the desired signal from the stray light. With these improvements, routine spectra could be measured on cloudy crystals, colored crystals, and even opaque crystals, exactly what was needed for the analysis of minerals. A number of further extensions of the technology have been made, two of which are discussed in this paper. C: (]) :;:----~ Ol C 'f (I) > rrn..,...,,...rrrr-r-r...,...,...,=.,,......;=,,.,..,..,,....,..,Polarization Spatial filter Pellin broca rotator X-Y Translation stage~.~-........ I Ar+ Laser H H I L_____J Be~ expander broca Fig. 2. The optical system of a microfocus Raman spectrometer. Only the laser steering optics and the beam-splitting arrangement within the microscope are shown. The dou ble monochromator, the detector (PMI' = photomultiplier tube), and computer system are only roughly indicated.

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The numbe r, wavenumber, and intensity of the Raman band s are deter mined by the symmetry and arrangement of the atoms within the unit cell and by the stre ng th of the bonds that hold them together. Raman spectra therefore, are closely related to infrar ed spectra. The physics of these in teractions is complex but well known (Wilson, D ecius and Cross, 1955 ; Long, 1977) For present discussion, the Raman spectrum can be co n sidered a fingerprint with no need to be concerned with the underlying physics. Microfocus Raman Spectroscop y Because Raman spectra are measured with visible light lasers, it is possible to bring the exciting beam through the optics of an ordinary mi croscope, extract the scattered beam back through the microscope and thus make measurements on individual crystal grains to the resolut ion of the microscope about 2 m (Fig. 2). For spele othems, this means that the mineralogy of multimineralic speleothems can be examined one grain at a time without damage to the specimen itself. Alternatively, one could prepare thin sections of speleothems for examination under the polarizing light microscope and also for grain-by-grain mineral identification by Ra man spectroscopy. Some stalactites in cross-section show alternating bands of calcite and aragonite. The appearance of both minerals in this relationship has impor tant climatic implications but if the banding is on a fine scale, band by band mineral identification is difficult. By placing a section of stalactite on the microscope stage, the laser beam can be focused on the individual layers and the mineral identified. The Raman spectra of calcite and aragonite are shown in Fig. 3. Note that t he high wavenumber features are very similar but the low wavenum ber features are different. The high wavenumber bands are the internal vi brations of the carbonate ion which is an essential part of both calcite and aragonite structure. The low wavenumber bands arise from vibration s of the ionic arrangement within the crystal so these are distinct and allow the identification of calcite, aragonite, or a mixture of both. A full theoretical analysis of the calcite and aragonite spectra is given by White (1974). It should be noted that Raman spectroscopy is not useful for distinguishing calcite from dolomite. These two minerals have, except for the ordering of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in dolomite the same crystal structure and thus essentially identical spectra. Because the samp les to be measured a r e simply placed on a micro scope stage, the microfocus Raman spectrometer allows the possibility of using a water-immersion lens so that crystals can be measured immersed 0 00 N Calcite r/ 1\ i1 ?Ul __ ~-~A---~~ll~J=~~~~ 250 500 750 1000 1250 Wave numbers Fig. 3. Raman spectra of calcite and aragonit e S11e !eo!ur/ica! Sur:ie!.v in an aqueous solution. Mirabilite, Na2SO4.l 0H2O is a commonly occur ring sulfate mineral. It is stable in a saturated solut ion but unstable in the ambient surface atmosphere where it decomposes to anhydrous Na2SO4, the mineral thenardite. With the water immersion lens it was possible to obtained a good quality spectrum of mirabilite immersed in its own saturated solution (Fig. 4) Fiber Optic Raman Spectroscopy and Portable Spectrometers The most recent improvement in technology and the one that inspired the present paper, is the fiber optic Raman spectrometer. The essence of the device (Fig. 5) is a laser source (a solid state laser operating at 785 nm), a set of optics based on an Echelle grating and a charge coup led device (CCD) array as a detector. The result is an instrument that produces a plot of scattered intensity as a function of wavenumber with no moving parts. In stead of a microscope and fixed sample chamber, this spectrometer uses fiber optic cable to con nect the laser, the sample probe, and the spectrograph. The probe contains a highly efficient narrow band-pass filter that eliminates the ne ed for a second monochromator to discriminate the Raman signal from stray light. The spatial resolution of the probe is less than that of the microscope but has the advantage of being flexible so that spectra can be measur ed from any object regardless of its size. Further, because the instrument is small, has no moving parts, requires no cooling water for the laser, has modest power requirements, and has no delicate focusing optics, it can be adapted for field use. It would not be impossible to transport the instrument into a cave for in-situ measurements The quality of signal obtained from the fiber optic probe spectrograph is illustrated with the spectrum of gypsum (Fig. 5). The peaks are sharp and in agreement with single crystal measurements (Berenblut et al., 1971). The intense peak at 1008 cm-1 is the symmetric stretching mode of the SO42tetrahedron. A lthough this peak is similar to the 1084 cm-1 band in calcite, the wavenumber shift is significant and represents the distinction between a tetrahedral molecular unit and a triangular one. The high wav enumber modes are characteristics of the specific molecular anion. One could identify an unknown mineral as a carbonate or a sulfate even in the absence of reference spectra for the identification of the specific mineral. An additional capability of the fiber optic probe is illustrated in Figure 6. Epsomite, MgSO4 7H2O, is stable in closed containers but tends to dehydrate to hexahydrate, MgSO4.6H2O under ambient conditions. The Raman probe has a working distance of 5 mm. It can be focused on a chip of epsomite contained in a glass vial. The broad feature near 1400 cm -1 is Aragonite Wave numbers l4fll lnternnliunut Conm ess of Sneleufoav

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!lel/el!ic S1m!euluuirn! Society 250 500 750 1000 1250 Wave numbers Fig. 4. Raman spectrum of mirabilite crystal in Na2SO4-saturated water. related to the glass as confirmed by focusing the probe on the glass itself. Conclusions The purpose of this paper was to call attention to the cave and karst community of new possibilities for the analysis of cave materials. It has been demonstrated that both the microfocus Raman spectrometer and the new fiber-optic probe Raman spectrometer are useful devices for the determination of speleothem mineralogy. Although the probe device has not yet been taken into a cave, it's weight, compactness, lack of need for cooling water, and low power consumption bring in-cave analyses to the threshold of possibility. The Raman spectrum serves two purposes. First, the pattern of Ra man bands can be used purely as a fingerprint. Minerals can be identified by simply matching the observed spectrum against a catalog of reference spectra. In this sense, Raman spectra are used in the same way as powder X-ray diffraction patterns. However, the bands of a Raman spectrum re late directly to the bond strengths and atomic masses of the sample. Thus, molecular groups such as the carbonate ion, the sulfate ion, the hydroxyl ion, and water of crystallization can be recognized directly even if no reference spectra are available. References Berenblut, B.J., P. Dawson and G.R. Wilkinson (1971) The Raman spectrum of gypsum. Spectrochimica Acta 27 A, 1849-1863. Long, D.A. (1977) Raman Spectroscopy. McGraw-Hill, New York, 276 pp. White, W.B. (1974) The carbonate minerals. Chap. 12 in The Infrared 21 2B Auuust 2005. J(alomos. I/el/us Spectrum out (200~ Laser in--+(90 m) E I Measurement spot 75 Fig. 5. (A) Spectrograph showing internal optical system. (B) Internal optics of the probe. Not shown are the laser and the optical fibers that connect laser, probe, and spectrograph. Spectra of Minerals, V.C. Farmer, Ed., Mineralogical Society of London, pp. 227-284. Wilson, E.B., Jr., J.C. Decius and P.C. Cross (1955) Molecular Vibrations: The TheorJ of Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectra. }v1cGravv-Hill, New York, 388 pp. Gypsum >, .l,.J 'vi C QJ .l,.J C ..... J, I I .__.-..) UJ.___JU\ l ---~-----400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 Raman shift (cm-1 ) Fig. 6. Raman spectrum of gypsum. Note bands near 3400 cm-1 which are due to the waters of hydration.

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Epsomi te 40 0 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 Raman shift (cm1 ) Gl a s s v i a l 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 Raman shift ( cm1 ) Fig. 7 (A) Raman spectrum ofepsomite taken through the glass wall of a shell vial. (B) the spectrum obtained when the probe was focused on the glass. 0-31 Vashegyite from the Gaura cu Musca Cave (Locvei Mountains, Romania): a new and rare phosphate occurrence B P. Onac J ms, L. Zaharia Dept. of Mineralogy, University of Cluj & "E. Racovi/a" Institute of Speleology, Cluj, Romania; Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, U.S.A. Vashegyite ideally All l (PO4) 9 (OH) 6 38H2O or Al6(PO4)5(OH)3H2O, occurs as dull (chalky) white irregularnodules up to 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter within the fresh guano deposit from the Gaura cu Musca Cave (Locvei Mountains, SW Romania). It is friable and usually covered by a millimeter-size sandy clay film. It was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, thermal, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), infrared spectroscopy and by chemical analysis. Under SEM, vashegyite shows m across) flattened on (001) with?euhedral and subhedral crystals ( up to 10 { 010} and { 001 } being the prominent forms. An EDS inspection of the vashegyite crystals surface indicate the presence of the following elements: Al, P, Si, S radiation)?and Fe. Indexing of the X-ray powder pattern (Philips X-pert, CuK gave orthorhombic symmetry with the following calculated parameters are a= 10.75(6), b = 15.029(9), c = 22.444(5) A and V = 3626.433(4) A3; strongest lines are 11.21 (100, 002), 7.52 (77 020) 6.9 (28, 112), 6,25 (72 022), 3 297 (40,312), 2 909 (60, 330) and 2.44 (15 062). Vashegyite IR absorption bands are comparable in position and relative intensity to bands in the spectra of other Al phosphates (variscite, wavellite, etc.). The most important absorption bands (cm-1) are at 3400 and 3200 (H2O OH stretching), 1635 (H2O bend), 1384 3, antisymmetric stretching), 729 (Al-OH2 mode?), 1165, 1115, 1007 (PO4: ?(OH 4, in-plane bending) The Raman?or OH out-of plane band), 603, 525, 482 (PO4: spectrum of vashegyite displays The TGA curve indicates major losses between 40 and 200C corresponding to the removal of water molecules (endothermic peaks at 56, 82 and 128C on the DTA curve) Although the TGA curve do not shows any significant weight loss the DTA curve displays an endothermic effect at 860C sug gests the expulsion of OH groups and recrystallization responsible for for mation of AlPO4. The mineral occurs with some clay minerals, crandallite and ardealite. When the study of vashegyite will be completed, a sample of the type material will be deposited in the Mineralogical Museum of the "Babe~-Bolyai" University in Cluj Romania. 14111 lnlernntionnf Conuress of Soeleulo
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He llenic S1wleoluuical S ucie/V 0-32 CAVE MINERALS OF SOME LIMESTONE CAVES OF SAUDIARABIA1 Paolo FORTI2, Ermanno GALLI\ Antonio ROSSI3, John PINT4, Susana P INT4 1 Research made within the MIUR 2002 Project "Morphological and Mineralogical Study of speleothems to reconstruct peculiar karst environments" Resp. Prof. P.Forti 2 Italian Institute of Speleology, University of Bologna, Italy 3 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy 4 Saudi Geological Survey, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract This is a preliminary study on cave minerals of a few limestone caves in Saudi Arabia. Despite the paucity of analyzed samples, 14 different cave minerals have been detected. Among them Palygorskite seems to be rather common in the desert caves and in one of them (B3 l Cave) there is perhaps the best display of this mineral inside a natural cavity. The same cave also hosts a deposit of sideronatrite, which has been herewith reported for the first time as a cave mineral. Finally Murubbeh cave, a supposed thermal cave hosts large calcite crystals and widespread cave rafts together with two uncommon organic compounds ( wedellite and whewellite). Keywords: Cave minerals, limestone caves, Saudi Arabia Introduction The exploration of natural caves in Saudi Arabia started only some decades ago (Pint, 2003) and it is still in progress. A few karst areas are now rather well known, one of these being the As Sulb Plateau north of Riyadh (Fig. 1 ), which consists of a subhorizontal stony desert with pockets of sand within small depressions. Outcropping rocks consist of limestones of the Um er Raduma formation (Paleocene-lower Eocene) (Schifsma E., 1978). -------~~-500 km Fig I Sch e mati c map of Saudi Arabia with the location of the karst ar e a of th e A s Sulb Plat e au The area is perforated by hundreds of subcircular pits from 20 cm to 2 m in diameter, only a few of which have been explored or even located. Presently the known caves are about 100 but there should be two orders of magnitude more caves. Following an invitation from the Saudi Geological Survey, we had the possibility to make a preliminary study of cave minerals in this area. Karst cavities in the desert of the As Sulb Plateau are rather small and often less than 15 meters deep. Today, most of them have no water inside but it is clear that in the past they were partially flooded by groundwat e r. Dur i ng our visit we had the chance to explore and sample only four caves but we think that they are sufficiently representative of the karst 2128 Aur;u s t WU5 f{atam o s fief/us of that area. The caves of the As Sulb Plateau present noticeable interest from the climatic and minerogenetic point of v iew : climatic aspects ha v e been already discussed (Forti et AL 2005), while the present paper focuses on the mineralogical aspects B31 Cave (Forti 2003) consists of 3 subcircular rooms with an average diameter of 5-7 meters. Its walls are highly friable due to weathering proc esses which allow the deposition of crusts and flowers while other k i nd of speleothems are completely lacking Friendly and Surprise Caves are characterized by subcircular entrance pits at the bottom of which start sub-horizontal galleries with an average diameter of 3-4 m, developed in phreatic conditions and with rather steady water. Almost all the calcite speleothems were dated over 400.000 yr BP (Fleitmann et al, 2005). The most common still growing speleothems consist of gypsum, which develops thin millimetric crusts or even s mall flowers and monocrystal line stalactites in most of Al Sulb Plateau caves. Some large gypsum for mations were found, among which a tray (Fig 2) and a hollow stalagmite from Surprise cave are worthy of mention. Murubbeh cave was the last visited: it consists of a huge chamber (150x80x50 m) with a relatively smaii entrance (10x3 m) at the bottom of a small collapse doline. The bottom of the cave is about 40 meters below the surface, therefore this cave is far deeper than all the others. All its speleothems are epiphreatic or phreatic: no stalactites and stalagmites are present but only boxwork, cave clouds digits and folia (Hill & Forti, 1997) and most of the floor is co v ered by a thick deposit (from 10 to 100 cm) of cave rafts. In the deepest part of the cave there are druses of large calcite crystals, which suggests a thermal origin of the cave. Experimental A detailed analysis of all the samples by the stereoscopic microscope was performed to distinguish and to separate the different mineralogical phases eventually present in each sample Then the single phases were analysed by a powder diffractometer (Philips PW 1050/25), when the ma terial was quantitatively sufficient and homogene ous, or by a Gandolfi cam era (0: 114.6 mm, exposi tion: 24 / 36 hrs ), when the material was scarce or in homogeneous. The experi mental condition s were al ways: 40K v e 20 mA tube, CuKa Ni filtered radiation 0\, = 1.5418 A). The same samples analyzed in the Gandolfi camera were later used to obtain images and chemical qualitative analyses through an elec tron s canning microscope (SEM Philips XL40) with an electronic microprobe Fig 2 Th e gypsum tray of Surpris e c av e

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Fig.3 Sketch and transversal section of the fragment of a stalactite of Murubbeh cave (explanation in text) (EDS -EDAX 9900) at the "Centro Interdipartimen tale Grandi Strumenti" of the Modena and Reggio Emilia University. Investigated samples B31 Cave -the sam ple was taken from the cave roof: it consists of fragments ( from 1 cm to less than a mm in size) from milky white to hazel brown or brick red cal careous speleothems. The identified minerals are: calcite, celestine, glauber ite, gypsum, halite, palygorskite, quartz, sideronatrite and thenardite. The Na sulphates are peculiar of very arid regions, but they were found only in this cave because its internal climate was completely controlled by the external one. Friendly Cave -Heterogeneous earthy alteration material (from 1 cm to less than 1 mm in size) with color ranging from white to pale pink. The largest fragment consists of vitrous hemi-transparent material covered on a side by a thin aggregate of acicular crystals, and the other side by a layer of banded, translucent to transparent, tabular prismatic cristals often cemented to each other. The smaller fragment consists of a thin aggregate of acicular crystals incorporating spherical grains of quartz. The identified minerals are: gypsum, halite, palygorskite and quartz Surprise Cave Alteration material consisting of 3 types, different in size and color: the largest (0 > 5 cm) is milky white, very light and is characterized by euhedral, transparent, calcite crystals, with some brick red earthy powder. The intermediate sized material consists of a pale yel low earthy material mixed with aggregates of semi-transparent rounded grains covered by a thin reddish film. The smallest materials (0 > 1 mm) consist of heterogeneous grains sometimes fairly resinous and dark grey. The identified minerals are: calcite, dolomite, halite, hydroxylapatite, palygorskite and quartz. In this sample there is also a small stalactite (0 maximum 2.4 cm and 5 cm in length, see Fig. 3): this stalactite consists of an inner micritic core 1.7 mm in diameter (A); half of the circumference of the inner core is cov ered by a thin crust of transparent aggregates of calcite crystals (0.7 mm) (C) covered by a film of rounded quartz grains (B); then there is a 3 mm layer of micritic calcite (D), and finally the external 2 mm layer consists of several films (E,F,G,H) made by compenetrated calcite crystals, the maximum dimension of which is 0.5 mm. Murubbeh Cave -Fragment of a speleothem collected under a layer of organic material: the sample is very light, stratified, pale hazel brown to reddish on surface and milky white to pale hazel brown inside; the ex ternal surface is partially covered by a thin layer of white fibrous material. The identified minerals are: gypsum, palygorskite, quartz, weddellite and whewellite. Description of the detected minerals Calcite ( CaC03) Is by far the dominant cave mineral. In Surprise cave are present some euhedral, sometime twinned, vitreous transparent scalenohedral crystals (Fig. 4 A); in B31 cave perfect rombohedral micro metric crystals have been observed. By far the best display of large calcite crystals, probably of thermal origin, is at the bottom of Murubbeh cave. Celestine (SrS04) -It has been detected only inside B31 Cave, where it is present as radial aggregates of thin elongated tabular fibres (Fig 4 B), or as prismatic, euhedral crystals Often this mineral gives rise to small aggregates of rounded elements. Dolomite [CaMg(C03)2] -It has been detected only by means of X Ray diffraction in the detritic material of Surprise cave. Glauberite [Na2Ca(S04)] -This sodium and calcium sulfate (Palache et al., 195 la) has been frequently observed as aggregates of tabular mono clinic prismatic crystals (Fig. 4 C), white grey or pale yellowish in color, or more frequently colorless. Sometimes it is present as subspherical crystals with rounded edges. Gypsum (CaS04H20) Normally associated with calcite and quartz; in most of the samples it consist of grains with rounded edges; in one occurrence it gave rise to a thin crust of elongated vitreous to transpar ent elements randomly oriented. Halite (NaCl) -It has been observed in all the caves and it is strictly associated with calcite (Fig. 4 D), quartz and palygorskite, giving rise to small crusts with rounded elements or aggregates of vitreous semi-trans parent crystals with rounded edges. Hydroxy/apatite [Ca5(P04)3(0H)] -It has been identified only in Surprise Cave where it is present as aggregates of small elongated thin tabular crystals (Fig. 4 E). Palyygorskite (Mg,Al)2Si4010(0H)H20] Beside calcite, it is the most common cave mineral in all the analysed cavities. It is present as light milky white cotton tufts consisting of elongated and banded fibers. Sometimes it is present as acicular milky white crystals on the walls of the small voids within the halite crystals (Fig. 4 F, 5 A). Quartz (Si02) -It is often present as a detritic (residual) component but sometime it also occurs as a true cave mineral. In this case it forms thin colorless crusts and aggregates characterized by a graphic texture (Fig. 5 B): at high magnification it is evident that they consist of a thick maze of tabular fibres cemented each other. Sideronatrite Na2Fe(S04)2(0H)H20] -this is the first cave record of this hydrated basic sulfate of sodium and ferric iron (Palache et al., 1951b): it has been observed, as glauberite and thenardite, only in B31 Cave. It consists of earthy to pulverulent, transparent to grayish-white nodular masses or tabular crusts (Fig 5 C). Thenardite (Na2S04) Among the most frequent phases inside the B31 Cave, this sodium sulphate (Palache et al., 1951 c) is present as micrometric tabular prismatic crystals { 010}, sometimes with rounded edges (Fig.5 D) Weddellite (CaC204H20) and Whewellite (CaC204H20) -Both these minerals have been observed only in Murubbeh Cave and their pres ence was proved only by X ray analyses. It was impossible to define their habit by SEM because they are strictly embedded within the carbonate matrix These minerals are surely strictly related to the guano overlying the sample Discussion and final remarks Despite the scarcity of analysed samples, 13 different cave minerals have been detected (Tab. I): two of which were found in all of the studied caves (calcite and quartz). From the mineralogical point of view the most interesting cave is B31 hosting 9 of the 13 cave minerals detected in that area. Moreover sideronatrite from this cavity has been reported for the first time as a cave mineral.

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Fig. 4 -A) stereo-microscope photo of a transparent calcite scalenohedronfi'om Surprise Cave; SEM images of: B) a tuft of acicular celestite crystals over quartz with a rombic crystal of glauberite in the upper part (B3 l cave); C) tabular aggregate o/glauberite crystals (B3 l cave); D) crust o/ halite crystals over calcite (B31 cave); E) aggregate of thin blades of hydroxy/apatite (Surprise Cave); F) tuft of thinfibers o/palygorskite (Surprise Cave).

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Fig. 5 S E M images of A) tuft of p a z ygorskite w ith ca l cit e over glo bular halit e cry sta l s (BJ] C ave); B ) qu artz a g gregate wit h graphic" t ext u re on th e swface (BJ] Cave); C) s m a ll lenss haped masses ofs ideronatrite (BJ I Cav e) ; D) thenardite tabul ar prism a t i c c ryst als ( B31 Cav e ). Tab I Identified min era ls and th eir dist rib utio n: B B3 1 C ave ; FFriendly Cave; M Mu ru bb eh C av e; S Sur pris e Cav e. C ave M ine ral Fo rm ula Sys te m Occ u rrence B F ; Calcite CaC03 Trigonal Saccaroidal aggregates, vitreous schaleno ed rons, M ,S micrometri c rombohedrons B Celestine SrS04 Orthorhombic Tufts of ac ic ular tabular crystals, small masses o f roun d ed grains s Do lo mite CaMg(CO ),, Trigonal Earthy gra i ns B Gl au berit e Na ,,C a(SO ),, Monocli nic Ag gr egate s of tabular pri mati c crystals B, F, S Gyps um CaS042H20 Monocl in ic Ro unded grai ns or thin vitreous cru sts of tra nsparent, eion ge d crystals B,F, S H alite NaCl Cubic i Crusts or agg regates of rounded cr ystals s H ydro xyl a patite Ca (PO ) ,( OH) Hexagonal Elo ng ed a gg reg ate s of thin, blad ed cry sta ls B ,F, S Palygorskite (Mg,Al),,Si, O ,(OH)'4H 0 Orthorhombic Mon ocl inic Tuft s of thin b and ed, shining whi t e fibers B, F, Qu ar tz Tr igo nal Colorless cru sts or agg reg ate s with a graphic structure M ,S s urfac e B Si de ronat ri te* Na l e(S04 ) 2(0H ) 3H20 Or thor ho mbi c Col orl ess to gra yis h-white n od u la r ma sses o r tab ul ar crusts B Thenardite Na2S 04 Or tho rhombic Micrometric tabular prismatic crystals, so metimes with rounded edges M Weddellit e CaC00 2H,O Tetrago nal E mbedded wit h in calc ar eous matr ix M Whewellite CaC,,O H 0 I M onoclinic Em be dde d within calca r eous matrix re po rted as cav e mine ra l for th e fir st time

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Hellenic Sae/eo / o{Jicaf Sor:ie/y The contemporaneous and restricted presence in this cavity of glauber ite, sideronatrite and thenardite, sulfates normally found in arid regions along the west coast of South America, notably in Chile, of North America and Europe (Palanche et al, 1951) may be easily explained by the peculiar shape of the cave. In fact B3 l cave is characterized by a wide entrance and two large chambers and therefore the climate inside it is completely con trolled by the desert outside, while all the other studied caves have small inlet holes if compared with the underground development and therefore their internal average humidity constantly exceeds the equilibrium value for the development of such minerals. The two organic compounds weddellite and whewellite observed only in Murubbeh cave are surely related to the presence in the cave floor of a high quantity of organic remains ( bones, excrement): it is difficult to say if they are by-products of human activities (people using the cave for a picnic and leaving all the remains inside) or if they were produced by the mineralization processes of guano and remains of wild animals which nor mally utilize the cavity as shelter. It is worthy of mention that palygorskite has been detected in all the studied caves, where it was often associated with halite. This mineral was recently described in detail for the Ghar Al Hibashi lava tube in Saudi Arabia (Forti et al., 2004). Palygorskite is characterized by an open crystal structure (Artioli et al., 1994), which allow ionic exchange (Bridley, 1981). It is present in several different environments, from marine and lacustrine to soils and paleosoils and to carbabonate crusts, but it is rather rare in cavern environments (Hill & Forti 1997). On the contrary Palygoskite is worthy of mention because it appears rather common in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia and in one of them (B31 Cave) there is perhaps the best display of this mineral inside a natu ral cavity. This first and short overview on the cave minerals of limestone caves of Saudi Arabia put in evidence that the desert caves of the As Sulb Pla teau are a really interesting minerogenetic environment: in fact, despite the paucity of analyzed samples, 14 different cave minerals have been detected, some of which are rare for the cavern environment and one (si deronatrite) has been here reported for the first time as a cave mineral. A more detailed study will surely increase the number of cave minerals and perhaps some new cave minerals will be detected: but the problem is that presently it is not sure that these caves will last for en ought time to be studied. In fact it must be stressed that the caves of As Sulb Plateau are really endangered by both natural processes and anthropic actions. Presently the more dangerous are the natural processes: in fact the desert sand is rapidly entering many caves, some of which have been filled up in the last few years. But the vandalism carried out by visitors (actually limited to a few horizontal caves) has undergone a rapid increase in the last few years: for 21 28 Auaust 2005 Ka t mnos. Nel/us this reason the Saudi Geological survey is planning to gate some of the most important caves of the As Sulb Plateau in order to preserve the spele othems and other interesting things therein, for future research and study. Acknowledgments Our thanks to the Saudi Geological Survey and to its president, Dr. Mohammed Tawfiq for continuous support of cave exploration and study in this Country to Mahamud Al Shanti, Abdulrahman Al Jouid, and Rami Akbar for the help given during the sampling inside the caves, Abdulwa hed al Afgani, Hamid Al Sahafi e Awad Al-Harbi for their logistic support in the desert and to Dr. Massimo Tonelli of the C.I.G.S. of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia for the precious help given at the electronic microscope and finally to Dr. Milena Bertacchini of the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra of the same University for drawing fig. 2. References Artioli A., Galli E., Burattini E., Cappuccio G., Simeoni S. (1994) -Palygorskite from Bolca, Italy: a characterization by high-resolution syncrotron radiation powder diffraction and c,:omputer modeling. N. Jb. Miner. Mh., 1994 H.5, 217-229. Brindley G.W. (1981) -Clays, clay minerals in The Encyclopedia of Mineralogy, Keith Frye Ed. (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences, Vol. IV B), Hutchinson Rob Publishing Company, Strousburg, Pennsylvania, 69-80. Fleitmann D., Matter A., Pint J., Al-Shanti M. (2005) The speleothem record of climate change in saudi arabia, SGS Jeddah Forti P. (2003) -Le grotte sotto il deserto: note a margine di una spedizione in Arabia Saudita. Sottoterra 114, 34-43. Forti P., Galli E., Rossi A., Pint J., Pint S. ,(2004) -Ghar Al Hibashi lava tube: the richest site in Saudi Arabia for cave minerals. Acta Carsol., 33/2, 190-205. Forti P., Pint J., Al-Shanti M.A., Al-Juaid A. J., Al-Amoudi S. A., Pint S. 2005 Potenzialita turistiche delle grotte nei deserti dell'Arabia Saudita Convegno di Fabosa Soprana, 2003, in press. Hill C.A., Forti P. (1997) -Cave Minerals of the world. Nat. Spel. Soc., Huntsville, USA, 464 pp. Pint J., (2003) -The Desert Caves of Saudi Arabia. Stacey Interna tional, London, 120 pp. Palache C., Berman H., Frondel C. (1951) -Dana's System of Miner alogy -The System of Mineralogy -VII Edition, Vol II., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, London: a) 431-433; b) 604-605; c) 404-407. Schyfsma E. (1978) -As Sulb Plateau, General geology in Al-Sayari S.S., Zotl J.G. (Eds.) Quaternary period in Saudi Arabia. Spring-Verlag, New York, 164 pp.

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He/le ni r: S/ie!eoio ai rnl Soci et y 0-33 New approach of the karstic evolution of the canyon of the Peruacu river (Januaria Itacarambi Minas Gerais, Brazil) Joel Ro det1 Mar ia J acq uelin e R odet2 D aniel F. Marh mo3 w mem s4 Andr e P oud et5 1 EuRe K arst UMR 6 1 43 CNRS Continental and C oastal Morphod y namic s Laboratory of Ge ology Uni v ers ity of R ou e n 768 2 1 M ont S aint A ig na n Cedex France 2 PhD student in Archaeology, University of Paris-X brazilian CNPq grant holder, France 3 Graduate in Geology UFMG Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 4 EuReKarst, Laboratory of Sedimentology Dpt. Geology Petrology Geochimistry, B20, Unive r sity of Liege, 4000 Liege Belgium 5 EuReKarst ISTO, Earth Sciences Institute, University of Orleans, France Abstract: Tributary of the left side of the Sao Francisco river, the Rio Perua9u Basin is an important site for archaeological and geomorphological stud ies in the Central Brazil. From it s springs in the sandy detritic layers of the Sao Francisco-Cocha border, the Perua9u River flows out to its con fluence with the main river, 100 km farther In its middle watercourse it has dug a very impressive karstic relief with canyon into the limestone layers Resulting in these magestic epikarst and endokarst forms the com plex evolution begins to be understood The morphological observation of this great canyon and of the associated fom1s ( caves, sedimen t deposits, landforms, ... ) has placed in a prominent position various complex ele ments revealing several phases of the karst evolution. From this, appear two great digging phases stored in 50 m and separated by a complex stage of inundations attributed to the roof collapsing of the great gallery which opened the canyon and the Terra Brava polje too. Consequently i) testi monies of a first drainage stage (Janelao I ) are h a nging and detached of the current geomorphological context, and ii) adapted forms to inundation phases (Terra Brava) iii) or/and water level lowering (Janelao II) can be identified. The karst system evolution during the Cenozoic is explained in a conceptual model which can be extended to other karst systems of the Sao Francisco middle stream, showing the regional value of the agents responsible for this evolution Introduction The River Perua9u Basin develops on the left margin of the Rio Sao Francisco (fig.I), north of the Minas Gerais state (Brazil). In its lesser course, the river cross through the Bambui limestones, of Proterozoic age, lying over th e basement of the Sao Francisco craton, opening an impres sive karst landscape with very deep collapse dolinas over a fluvio-karst drainage (fig.2). For over 17 km it develops a large canyon interrupted by great tunnel caves [Pil6 & Kohler, 1991] Always local people was attracted by these features from early aboriginal tribes to archaeologists km 0 200 -======-Fig. 1: Location of.the Perua<;u River Basin in Mina s Ge r ai s state (Brazil). and tourists [Prou s, 1992]. Geomorphological study i s recent with the ear ly research of Pil6 [1997]. At the end of the nineteen nineties we realised a mult i -field approach [Rodet et al., 2002] reaching to a new proposal for the karst evolution of this area [Rod e t & Rodet, 2001]. Most of the C e ntral Brazil develops in the Sao Francisco C raton formed during the Pre-Cambrian [ Almeida & Hasui, 1984]. In Minas Gerais state, it is including the carbonated sequences of the Bambui group formed at least 580 My ago [Dardenne, 1978]. Over these unities the detritic Urucuia Formation (upper Cretaceous) was occasionally deposited after a hiatus of few hundreds millions of years [Projeto RadamBrasil, 1982]. The basement only points to the surface in the middle basin area where the erosion cut off the sandy cretaceous covering layer. The canyon develops into the limestones in the lesser part of the Perua9u Basin between the middle basin with basement rocks and the junction with the main val ley of the Sao Francisco River [Pil6, 1997]. Basin in Minas Gerais state (Brazil). During 17 km, the river has dug into the limestone layers a 200 m deep canyon with vertical walls. Six times the river sinks into galleries resulting in impressive arches or great tunnels developing several kilome tres. The biggest caves are the Lapa do Brejal' and over all the 'Lapa do Janelao' with a 100 m high roof in a gallery of over 50 m wide. Fig. 2: the Perua9u River Basin and the Canyon Compartment. 1. Two main karst opening stages: Janelao I and Janelao II Upstream the river cross first through the Brejal cave for several hun dred metres Near the resurgence, the cross section shows (fig. 3): i) a roof half-tube ii) an hanged residual old rive r deposit a t the b a se of the roof channel iii) a large basal gallery with a small river That demonstrates at least two stages of gallery excavation, the upper one being the most recent [Rodet et al. 2004b]. Downstream the river cross through the Janelao gallery, the largest cave of the Perua9u karst (fig. 4). The present sinkhole is a small gallery of about few metres diameter, dug fifty metres under the upper entrance This fossil entrance is bigger around fifty metres di ameter F ew tens metres after the entrance the two passage s joint into a 14 t h !ntrm m fiunnl C unures s o f Srwle o louv

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Hellenic Stmleofuuic{!f Society Figure 3: cross section of the Brejal cave Fig. 4: cross section of the Jan elao cave, near the current sinkh o l e. large gallery of about one hundred metres high These two entrances illus trate two different stages of the cave evolution, separa ted by fifty metres [Rodet et al., 2004a]. Between these two caves, the Peruas;u river shows several rapids, indicating a present dynamic stage of the river flow. Near the Sao Francisco main valley, the Peruas;u canyon is very strait and linear. Both border cliffs contain relict tunnel cave s, fifty meter over the cmTent river. We suppose that this part of the canyon is modem and is imposed over the ancient topography, cutting the old features, like the residual bench near the Bichos' cave, on its way [Rodet et al., 2003]. 2. One karst infilling complex stage: Terr a Brava Around the great depression called Terra Brava (fig 5), a lot of ele ments demonstrates large phases of inu ndation at various lev els: a grav el -stone terrace near the Janelao upper entrance, a ten metres deep clay terrace lying over a basal peeble conglomerat, w ith superficial drainage channels, relationed with the land scape featu res (flat area s, foot notch in 2 l-28 Auuust 2005. Hnfumus Hellos Fig. 5: The polje of Terra Brava with its two main sedimentary surfaces View from the Falso Janelao cave. the peripheric cliffs near the current Troncos cave, altitudinal similarities in cave drain ages and/or in terrig enous terraces, wall speleothems without their wall support in the Bichos cave (fig. 6), and so on. 3. A five stage karst regional evolution The evolut ion of the karst area can be resumed in five stages [Rodet & Rodet 2001]. The river crossed through the carbonated compartment protected by the impermeable covering fonnations, and joined the Sao Franc isc o dep ression (fig. 7.1 ante-karst stage), until the limestone sub s trate emerged in the upstream part of the compartment (fig. 7 .2 incipient karst stage). Superficial water began to penetrate underground and formed Fig. 6: The massive speleothem in the Bich os cave showing its internal structure: its terrigenous sup port has been removed by the water drainage.

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+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + craton + + (D Ante-karst stage + w + + + + + + + + + + + + + + era ton + + + lncip ient kant stage + + + + + + + covering layers \ \'1.JT + + + + + + + + + + + + + + era.ton + + + Juvenile karst stage + + + + + + + + + Rio Stio F ran.c isco w + + -, + + + + + + + + + + craton + + + l\iature karst stage + + + + + + + + canyon + + \V + + + + + + + + + + + + + + era ton + + + 0 Rejuvenated karst stage + Fig. 7:jive evolution stages of the karst of the Perucu;u Basin.

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Hellenic Sf]e/eulooir:al S ociety a large karst network which joined the alluvial plain, while concentrating on its course, several tributaries. resulting from losses into cover layers. Little by little these layers have been involved into the powerful under ground drainage (fig. 7.3 -juvenile karst stage). A filling of the main drainage between Terra Brava and the Sao Francisco valley is responsible for a complex stage of overflood surface allowing the development of the polje of Terra Brava (fig. 7.4 -mature karst stage). Then an underground capture of this area by a small river allows the re-opening of the drainage network and the return of an effective erosive incision (palaeo terraces of the river Perua9u). The covering layers continue to creep into the endokarst within col lapses which punctuate the larger drains, at the origin of the digging of a great number of gullies or vo9orocas contributing to the dismantling of the cover and carving incisions into the carbonated substrate (fig. 7.5 -rejuve nated karst stage), resulting in a ruiniform evolution of the karst landscape Bre,ial Vento-Andre Cascud,,s Troncos Terra Bral1tt (pitons and towers, hums, ... ). Tectonics is of an high importance in this evolution but the numerous faults are not indicated to not complicate too much the scheme. It results to a fluvio karst drainage favourable to the hu man implantation with very numerous rock shelters in slope and clift, and with a lot oflodgings of mineral resources used for stone tools, illustrating a perfect integration of primitive human groups in a karst region [Rodet et al., 2002]. 4. Theoritical karst evolution model The theoretical model of the karst evolution in the Perua9u Basin [Rodet et al., 2003, 2004a, 2004b] can be presented in three main stages (fig. 8). 1 Janelao I: former water level, identified in the upper part of the Minotau ro Macacos B.ichos Rezar teiling polie (peripheric erosion) .Janelao terrig'!"ous sedimentation residulll bri,lge 3 retrogr,.>ssive ercsion Fig. 8: theoretical evolution model of the Peruac;u River Karst main conduit of the Janelao cave, in connexion with the Minotauro gal lery and the Bichos' cave and the Rezar's cave. It seems that a former Troncos cave was excaved on the right merge of the River Perua9u, later transformed into a canyon. The current Troncos cave has been opened during the third evolution stage (Janelao II). 2 Terra Brava: damming of the drainage by several collapses of the cave roof between the Janelao main gallery and the confluence to the main valley (Sao Francisco), giving the great dolina dos Macacos's shafts, infilling all the caves connected on the river drainage from the Re zar to the Brejal, opening a multiphased polje in the Terra Brava site, and digging a ceiling half-tube in the roof of the Brejal's cave. The elevation of this half-tube is similar to water infill testimonies in the Arco do Andre cave (Pil6, pers. comm.). 3 Janelao II: important subsidence of the water level ( over 50 m), digging out the lower part of the canyon (residual bench), cutting the connexion between Bichos and Rezar. The river retrogressive erosion opens the lower part of the Janelao's gallery, taking away elements of the collapse and infillings, and leaving a residual bridge out. Around the Terra Brava polje, caves as Bonita, Suspiro and Indio are definitely de connected out of the drainage, hanging over the depression with piping effects into their terrigenous infills. Upstream, the Troncos cave has been opened as its lateral canyon fossilised. The Brejal cave is dug down again, hanging a part of its filling over the basal gallery. The river profile is cut by several rapid zones, illustrating that this third stage is always working on today. Auoust 2005. Ha!mnos lie/Ins Conclusion The karst of the Perua9u offers a complex and old evolution, directed by three main stages. The first period, Janelao I, concerns the genesis and the development of the karst network. The second period illustrates the passage from the karst drainage to the fluvio-karst drainage, when caves open and give the impressive canyon. The resulting great collapses are responsible for severalcave damming phases and surface drainage adaptations, like lake with peripheric corrosion (Terra Brava polje) and underground adaptations (Brejal ceiling half-tube). An important region al subsidence influence the water base level and all the karst system in the Sao Francisco valley from Bahia state to Minas Gerais state [Biten court, 1998; Bitencourt & Rodet, 2001]. This neotectonics was attribute to the Cenozoic Period, and is identified as responsible of the rejuvenated karst period, illustrated by the second digging stage of the Perua9u karst (Janelao II). Further studies will been realized to refine the chronology, and to try to date the main events. References: Almeida F. & Hasui Y. -1984. 0 pre-Cambriano do Brasil. Edg. Blucher, Sao Paulo, 378 p. BitencourtA.L. V. -1998. Morphogenese, Quaternaire et archeologie en milieu karstique : le site du Morro Furado, Serra do Ramalho (Bahia) -Bresil. These de l'Universite de Caen, Centre de Geomorphologie du

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Fig. 9: Peebles of a pa/ea-terrace in the Terra Brava polje, near the former Janelao sinkhole. CNRS: 212 p. Bitencourt A.L. V. & Rodet J. -2001. Premiers elements d'evolution karstique sous controle tectonique d'un massif calcaire : .la Serra do Ramalho (Bahia, Bresil). Geologica Belgica, 2001, 4 (3-4): 251-261. Dardenne M.A. 1978. Sfntese sabre a estratigrafia do Grupo Bambui no Brasil Central. 30 Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, Recife, vol. 2: 597-610. Pil6 L.B. -1989. A morfologia carstica do baixo curso do rio Perua9u, Januaria/Itacarambi, MG. Departamento de Geografia do Instituto de Geociencias da UFMG, monografia de gradua9ao/ bacharelado em Geografia Fisica: 97 p Pil6 L.B. -1997. Caracteriza9ifo regional do carste do Vale do Rio Perua9u. O-Carste, 9 (2) : 22-29 Pil6 L.B. & Kohler H.C. -1991. Do Vale do Perua9u ao Sao Francisco : uma viagem ao interior da terra. Anais do III Congresso da Associa9ao Brasileira do Estudo do Quatemario, Belo Horizonte, 2: 57-73. Projeto RadamBrasil -1982. Falha SD.23 : Brasilia. Ministerio das Minas e Energia, Rio de Janeiro, Levantamento de recursos naturais, vol. 29 : 644 p. Prous A. -1992. Arqueologia brasileira. Editora UnB, Brasilia: 613 p. Rodet J. & Rodet M.J. -2001. Evolution karstique et ressources lithiques archeologiques. L' exemple du Rio Perua9u (Januaria -Itacarambi, Minas Gerais, Bresil). Actes du Xleme Congres National de Speleologie, Geneve (Switzerland), 14-16 september 2001: 129-134. Rodet J., Mariano D.F., Rodet M.J., Pouclet A., Pil6 L.B., Willems L. -2003. Evolu9ao carstica do vale do rio Perua9u (Minas Gerais): uma nova abordagem. Xlle Simp6sio de Geologia de Minas Gerais, Ouro Preto (Brazil), 4-8 november 2003, resumo: 97 Rodet J., Rodet M.J., Mariano D F Do Nacimento S.P Huguet Y. -2004a. La grotte du Janelao, element-de I de !'evolution geomorphologique de la vallee karstique du Perua9u (Januaria-Itacarambi, Minas Gerais, Bresil)-the Janelao cave, key-element of the geomorphological evolu tion of the karst of the Perua9u Basin (Januaria-Itacarambi, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Proceedings of the 2003 AFK European Meeting, Rauen (France), 10-12 september 2003: 62-63. Rodet J., Rodet M.J., Mariano D.F., Willems L., Pouclet A., Pil6 L.B. -2004b. Do Brejal ao Janelao, uma historia geomorfologica do Terra Brava Carste-2004, Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 27-31 july 2004, Cademo de Resumos: 23. Rodet M.J., Rodet J., Do Nascimento S.P., Mariano D.F., Huguet Y., Silva J.R. -2002. Metodologia de prospec95es geoarqueol6gicas dentro de uma bacia ( exemplo da bacia do Rio Perua9u, Minas Gerais, Brasil). Revista do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 12: 25-41.

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0-34 Explorations and Geomorphology of the Velebifa-Dva Javora Cave System on North Velebit Mt. in Croatia World's Deepest Subter ranean Shaft Darko Baksicl, Andrej Stroj2 & Mladen Kuhta2 1 Faculty ofForestry, Svetosimunska 25, Hr-10000 Zagreb, Croatia 2 Institute of Geology, Sachsova 2, Hr-10000 Zagreb, Croatia E-mail:;; Abstract The North Velebit massif according to the recent exploration results is speleologicaly the most important Dinaric karst region. Over the last 14 years about 300 caves were discovered and explored. The system Lukina jama -Trojama (-1392 m) and Slovackajama (-1301 m) are the deepest caves in Croatia and rank as 16th and 21st deepest caves in the world. Furthermore, significant depths were reached in the Meduza (-679 m), Patkov gust (-553 m), Ledena jama (-536 m) and Jama Olimp (-531 m) caves. The karstification processes are dominantly controlled by vertical groundwater circulation through the deep unsaturated zone built up of fractured carbonate rocks. As the result about 97 % of explored caves may be classified as pits with long vertical sections as their major morphologi cal characteristic. For instance, the 553 m deep pit Patkov gust practically consists of one vertical shaft, the final part of Meduza represents a 390 m deep vertical shaft. Vertical sections longer than 200 m can be found in almost all deeper caves. s E A I"' \-The intense vertical karstification processes and genesis of extremely deep speleological objects in this area are confirmed by the last explora tions in the Velebita pit. This 580 m deep cave system morphologically has a 513 m subterranean (internal) vertical section, which is the world's deepest known subterranean shaft. Introduction The discovery of the cave Lukina jama in 1992 in the North Velebit Mt. area started off intensive speleological researches. In the period from 1992 to 2004 more than 250 caves were explored in this area. The cave system Lukinajama -Trojama (-1392 m) and cave Slovackajama (-1320 m) are the deepest speleological objects in Croatia and are the 16th and 21st deepest cave in the world. Another 5 caves deeper than 500 m were explored; Meduza (-679 m), Patkov Gust (-553 m), Ledena Jama (-536 m), Olimp (-531 m) and Lubuska Jama (-521 m). During the Croatian-7 0 13 14 15 16 17 18 Fig. 1 Simplified geological map of the North Velebit area. Legend: 1) alluvium deposits; 2) calcareous breccias of Upper Palaeogene; 3) Cretaceous carbonate rocks; 4) Jurassic carbonate rocks; 5) Triassic carbonate and elastic rocks; 6) summary amplitudes of vertical neotectonic movements (in metres); 7) reverse faults, (1) Velebitfault; 8) normal faults, (2) Bakovacfault, (3) Lomska duliba fault; 9) anticline axis; 10) geological boundary; 11) coastal spring; 12) submarine spring (vrulja); 13) sinkhole; 14) deep caves, (I) Lukina Jama, (2) Slovacka Jama, (3)Meduza, (4) Velebita, (5) Patkov gu.ft, (6) Ledena Jama, (7) Glimp, (8) Lubuka, (9) Pai, (10) Markov ponor; I 5) area of Velebit complex barrier; I 6) relative barrier; I 7) general groundwater.flow direction; I 8) groundwater/low direction tested by tracing. Jl/11/US!

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French expedit ion the aim of which was to continue the explorations in cave Meduza, members of the speleo logical department of the mountain ee ring society "Vel ebit" found the entrance into cave Velebita, called after the society and the mountain range where the cave is s itu ated. The cave was explored to the depth of 376 min that same year The explorations c ontinued in August 2004 and went to the depth of -580 m. The second entrance into the cave ( cave "Dva Javora") wa s also found and explored. Geolo gical, hydrogeologk and geomorphologic setting of the terrain North Velebit Mountain is built of rocks dating from the Jurassic period to Palaeogene. The Jurassic period is represented by carbonate sediments in which limestone predominate but there are also dolomites in them. The Cretaceous sediments have been arranged on the border parts of North Velebit Mt. in the direction of the Lika region (hinterland of the massif) and in the coastal part too. They consist of limestone, carbonate breccias and dolomites. In hydrogeologic sense, rocks from the J uras sic and the Cretaceous period are highly permeable. Palaeogene is represented by "Jelar" car bonate breccias widely spread in northern and western parts of Vel.ebit. In the southern part of North Velebit Mt. these sediments cover the entire profile from sea coast on the west to the Lika region on the east side of the mountain. Jelar breccias are very significant due to their singular submissiveness to karstification processes, KUHTA (2001). Areas having the most intensively developed karstic morphology, as well as entrances into all deepest objects on North Ve leb it, are found in the area built of these rocks. It also frequently hap pens that shaft s or en tir e caves stop on the point of the contact of Jelar sediments and Jurassic carbonate rocks; thus the bottom of the big shaft in cave Velebita is rather close to this contact. The data on the thickness of Jelar sediments up to 300 mare men ti oned in Literature, BAHUN (19 74 ), although during explorations of cave Velebita the contact of Jelar breccias and Jurassic rocks was identified on the depth larger than 500 m. Geological structure of North Velebit Mt. also conditions hydrogeo log ic situation inside the massif. Since low permeable rocks which are found on the very surface in the Middle and Southern Velebit, are much deeper here, the sea level becomes the erosion base of karstification. As a consequence of such situation there is present a deep unsaturated zone with dominantly vertical water flows in north Velebit massif. Only two deepest caves L ukina jama and Slovacka jama in their bottom parts reach recent and sub-recent leve ls of saturated zone where systems of horizontal channels occur. When waters which fall on a permeable terrain as precipi tations reach the saturated zone they join the waters form the River Gacka and the River Lika. These two rivers sink underground next to east borders of north Velebit and their waters spr ing on the numerous coastal springs and vrnljas along the western border of a Velebit massif. As a consequence of such situation the most singular feature of spe leological objects in the area of north Velebit is their verticality. Thus cave Patkov Gust is a 553 m deep shaft from its top to the bottom which makes it the second deepest shaft in the world. The 513 m deep shaft "Divke Gro movnice" in the cave system Velebit Dva Javora is the deepest known shaft in the world having no outside entrance. We should also mention 390 m deep shaft "Bojim, bojim" in the cave Meduza. Shafts deeper than 200 m can be found in majority of more significant caves on North Ve lebi t. Precisely these characteristics make area of the North Velebit Mt. unique in the world. Morphology of the Velebita Dva javora cave system The entrance into the ca ve Velebita is located on steep western slopes of the central part of the Nort h Velebit Mt. It is hidden by collapsed rock blocks and it is hardly noticeable. A narrow passage leads into the first llellenfc S1wleo f ur;i cal Snci r!!Y shaft 35 m deep. On its bottom, there is another narrow passage, c alled "Striborov Prolaz", leading into the second 25 m deep shaft. The system becomes ra ther indented in this part. Meanders prevail out of which some e nd in narrowings (Palcicev Meandar), and some in shafts (Malikova Igrarija Perunov Meandar). Besides the sh aft "Divke Gromovnice", these shafts terminate on depths between 110 and 150 m A narrow meander continues from the shaft "Pernnov Odvojak" to the depth of around -1 60 meters and terminate with a narrowing. Perunov Meander provides the entrance into the shaft "Divke Gromovnice" The higher entrance into the shaft "Divke Gromovnice" can be reached from cave Dva Javora. The entrance into cave Dva Javora is located around 65 m north-west and 7 m lower than the entrance into Velebita cave. Cave Dva Javora is also morphologically complicated. Narrow meanders and shafts alternate. On t he depth of -55 m meander "Zrek o va Precka" is separating from the 80 m deep shaft; the higher en trance into the shaft "Divke Gromovnice" is reached by traversing this meander. In the opposite direction, the cave continues with narrow meanders and smaller shafts all the way to a hall on the depth of around -120 m. This hall provides the entrance into the final 98 m deep shaft. The shaft "Divke Gromovnice" in about first hundred meters has an el liptic diameter of an average size 8 m by 3 m. On the depth of -210 m from the entrance into the Velebita cave several smaller shafts join together into a single shaft with approximate size 40m by 15 m. After that part the shaft has a sim ilar form all the way to its bottom on the depth of -580 m. The bottom is slanting and is covered in big stone blocks. Geological and hydrogeological features of the cave system The Velebita Dva javora cave system is almost entirely developed in Palaeogene Jelar carbonate breccias The contact between Jelar breccias and Jurassic limestone is found to be at approximately 530 m of depth The bottom pa rt of the cave is developed in well bedded Jurassic lime stone and the very bottom is covered with Jelar bre cc ias blocks which were transported by gravity from upper parts of the shaft. Jelar breccias have massive structure, and the discontinuities in them are connected exclusi vel y to faults and joints. The dominant stretc hin g orientation of fractures is NNE-SSW and less distinctive E W. Dip angles are mostly between 70 and 90 Discontinuities mostly have relaxation character with compact walls and without fractured zones. Precisely suc h disc ontinuities character enables the cre atio n and the stab i lity of big underground spaces in the cave The mentioned discontinuities are con nected to a younger neotectonic straining phase. During explorations, larger groundwater flows were not noticed in the cave. Water flows are present in the form of dripping water and a thin water film on the walls of shafts. In the hall on the bottom of shaft "Divke Gromovnice" there is a concentrated small capacity groundwater flow which is sinking further among stone blocks. During heavy precipitations lar ger groundwater flows having mostly vertical character probably occur in the cave. Their occmTence and duration are directly connected to out si de precipitations or periods of inte ns ive snow melting. Accord ing to the analogy with Lukina and Slovacka caves, the level of a phreatic zone un der Velebita cave is located on between 50 an d 100 m above sea level. Taking into consideration this presumption, there is a perspective of reaching the depth of around 1500 m in the cave The cave genesis The genesis of the cave system Velebita Dva javora is connected to a vertic al wate r flows in a vadose zon e through karstification prone car bon ate rocks. The bottom of the cave is situated high above phreatic zone. The massive struc ture and a steep to vertical angle of the main discontinuities 14th lnt en wli on nf oi S nel eu f uov

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Helleuic S1u:leo!ogical S or:ie fy 1\ ---,,.,_.., ... .., Velebita cave system North Velebit Mt., Croatia Depth: .. 5ao m Lenghl: 452 m Poligon lenght: 1445 m Exp for e: SO POS Velebi~ SO HPD Dubovac SO HPD Mosor Komisija :za speleologlju Hrvatskog planinarsk og sav eza T opo : Matija Ce pelak D alibor Pa arr Ro nal d ieleznjak, Dark o Baksic Lovro Cepelak T ibaR a Dasovic1 Vesna Hrdl i c k a Measure: Oa.rko Baksi:c Ro na ld Zelezn]ak, Tiha na Daso vic, Matij a Cepelak1 Marinko Mal-en ic a Jana Bedek, Marin Glusevic, Marko Lukit Compile an d digit:ail:zati cm: Darko Baksh:, Lo vro Cepelalr. 21 'Z B Au r wst 2U 05. J( nlnm o s 1/ eJ/ os P 513 Velebita entran c e )L-.1ill o m ,,..,~ ) ',:, 50m meandar 10 0 m 200m 30 0m a Dhtke Gromovnice 400m 500m 600m

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Fi g. 3 S haft Di v k e Gro mo vnice" i n its w i der pa rt. in Jela r breccias are, together wi t h a ve rti ca lly directed w ater pressure grad ie nt, mai n reason s of the non-e xistence of horizontal ch a nnels in t he c a ve The water which falls through preci pitations on th e te rra in s ur face quickly enters into the upper ep ikarsti c zone. The water from this zone is st raine d i n the d irec tio n of t he mo st perm e able di scon t inuitie s in th e rock ma ss a n d it also widens them to the dimensions of meanders and shafts by i ts cor ros ive effect. T h is process o f the widenin g of un de rgro u nd sp ac es is ac t ive until hydrological co nditions are changed or until the enl arg ement o f t he ca vity ca uses i ns tabi lit y and collap s i ng. Gro u nd,.va t er flows con c entrate with depth a nd usually th e ind ent ed n ess of caves de creas es Thus i n the cave system Vele bita Dva javora the l o wer wi de r p a rt of th e big s haft w a s crea t ed by j oinin g of se ve ral sm aller shaf t s into a single one and the cave is the most indented by th e depth of aro un d 1 50 m. In th e initial stage of the genesis of shafts, the w a t er w hich flows as a t hin fi lm on the walls of widened fractures has the rna in role. S i nce fractures become w i der and wide r dripping water gets mo r e an d m ore i mpor tan t role BARON (2002). The water that drops is suddenly enriched w ith CO2 through its falling th roug h the CO2 rich cave atmosp h ere; thus its ag gres s iveness grows while th e water flowing on w alls of fractures gets s at urated with CaCO3 and lose s dissolution cap acity On the p l aces w here water drops fall, the corros i on is the most intense and th e ve rtical growth is th e fa stest. T hanks to th i s mechanism it is possible to ex pl a in the phe no me n o n of a lm ost flat bottom of big shafts in the continuation of which w a ter fu rther fl ows t h rough narrow passages If fractures ar e not ver t ica l bu t le an ed under a certain angle, typical rtiangle shapes of shafts are cre at ed having one wall slanting and th e o ther v ertical (Perunov Odvojak). T he s lan ting wall of the vertical is conn ected to the posi tion of primary fra cture, while th e vertical wall w as cre ated due to a corrosiv e eff e ct of t he dr i pping wate r Channels of step--like shapes can be formed by simul t aneous growth of more shaHs all conn ected to the same fracture. Pas s ages connecting such shafts are fre quen tly na rrow and dev eloped along primary fracture (Striborov Prolaz) Inte rsec tions of several fra ctur es can a lso sp e ed up p roces s es of the creation of shafts. T he c reati o n of na rrovv passa g es an d meanders i s c onn e cted t o wa t er flow in the form of a thin film on walls of vert ical discontinuities. Due to a slo we r di sso luti on dyn a mics, c hanne ls get t heir c harac ter istic m /Pfrt p ~1R1i~~ i\2~~/JJi~ tt~1~\1i.RJiJ1rttlz~tP,!2WcfJYilr~cture. The majority of' und er grou nd spa ce s wa s creat e d by a comb in atio n of wa t er film and dripping wate r actio n and n arrow meanders frequently turn into s h afts and vice-versa (Perunov Meander, Malikova Igrarija, Pe ru nov O d vo j ak). T h e coll a psing proce s ses a lso ha ve an im por tant ro l e in th e sh ap ing of underground spaces, and they result in a decrease or tota l burying of some channels. In th e Vele bit a D v a jav ora ca ve syste m, t h e sa me as i n the m ajo r i ty of other caves in North Ve l ebit area, the corrosion processes are st ill act i ve, with an almost total lack of speleo th em se di men tat ion. Conclusions The g enes is and th e mo rp hol ogy of th e c ave sy s t em V eleb it a Dva javora are a conseq u ence of geo logi ca l h ydrog eo l o gi ca l a nd h y drologi cal features of th e surround in g t er rain. T he object w a s dev e loped in ma s siv e an d karst ifi cati on p ron e Jel a r c a rb ona te br ecci as. T he bottom of t h e deepest shaft in the system i s located close to t he con ta c t of Je la r brecc i as a n d Jura ss ic l i m esto ne T h e m ost i m por tant morph o logic a l c ha rac teris ti c o f the c a ve are the a lt erna ti o ns of s p a cious s hafts with narrow p a s sage s and meanders The cave i s ra th er ind en t e d in its up p er part s, while on th e dept h of aroun d 100 m tu rns i nto a sh aft m ore tha n 5 00 m d eep the de ep es t known undergrou nd s haft in the wor ld. Mor ph ol o g y of t he ca v e i s ar e a consequence of a do mi nantly vert i ca l wat er flow i n a d eep vad os e zon e alo ng ve rtical an d s ubver ti c al fr act ure s Wi th re g ar ds to th e pre sume d groundwater level, there is a perspective t hat th e ma x imu m de pth of t he c a ve co ul d rea ch arou nd 15 00 m. References: BAK S H\ D 20 04: C ave sy ste m V ele bi ta-Dva Javo ra Subt e rran e a croatica, 3, Karlovac: 2-6 KUHTA, M. I BAKSIC, D 20 01 : Ka r s ti fic atio n dy namics and dev e l o p ment o f the d eep c av es o n t he n orth V eleb it M t. -C roati a. P ro ce edi ng s to 13th Speleo l ogica l Cong r ess, B ra z i l. PAVI C IC, A 19 95 : Hy dro ge olog ic al c ond itions for the construct io n of reser v oirs in the Velebi t Mt. hi nt erl and Un publ is he d. P h. D. T hesis, Univers i ty of Zagreb, Croatia, 124 p. PRELOG OV IC, E 19 89 : N e ote cto nic m ovem e nts i n the N orthe rn part of Mt. Ve le bit an d a p ai i of Li ka (SW Cro ati a) G eol osk i vj es nik 4 2, Zag reb: 133 -1 47 BAHUN, S. 19 74 : The te ctog en esis of Mt. V e l e bit an d the for mat io n of Jelar deposits Geoloski vjesnik 27, Zagreb: 35-51. BAHUN, S 1984: The tecton i c and hydrogeolo gi c s ign ific a nce of th e are as com p osed of the Jel ar fo rm atio n. Krs Jugo s lavij e, 11 /1, Z ag reb: l-11. WHITE, W. B. 2000 : Speleoge n esis of ve rt ic al s haf ts i n the e ast ern U nited St ates. S pele og enes i s Nat. S pe l. So c., A lab a ma: 3 78 38 1. BARON, I. 2002: Speleogenesis alo ng s ub-ve r t i ca l jo i nt s: A mod e l of plateau karst s haft d ev elopment: A case s tud y : the Dol ny Vr c h Plat ea u ( Sl ova k Repu b lic). Cave & Karst S cience 29 (1 ) 5 1 2. i11te1 nu liun u l Co nnr ess S/Je fe utom -

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Helle ni c S oele o /ogicnl S oc i ety 0-35 The 'karstic delta' concept, as a morphological expression of climatic variations of the base level in coastal areas -the example of the East ern English Channel region (Normandy, France) Joel Rodet, Benoit Laignel, Nicolas Massei, Matthieu Fournier, Jean-Paul Dupont UMR 6143 CNRS, Laboratoire de Geologie, Universite de Rauen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex France joel rodet @ univ-rouenfr Abstract: Coastal output karst systems offer a very well developed network of galleries with a complex organization resulting of the hydrological base level variations. In the Eastern English Channel, the lower Seine river valley has been successively and cyclically from the middle Pleistocene, bay bottom, estuary and river. Consequently, numerous base level varia tions were recorded by functionnal karst systems, as the Caumont karst network: its exacerbeted gallery development results directly from the underground drainage adaptation to the altitudinal and lateral constraints of these variations. Introduction The 'karst delta' is a concept introduced for the first time, at least in the french karst research, by Rodet [1982], in his study of the chalk karst on the littoral area of Normandy (France), and developed by the same author in 1992. This concept is about dissolutional caves on the sea border, not about true sea caves [Bunnell, 2004]. The Normandy coast offerts nu merous dissolutional sea caves (Rodet, 1992a], ones of them with a very complex network organization [Rodet & Lautridou, 2003]. Normandy is a particular region in which the impressive spatial devel opment of the karstic forms and system organisations formed under the influence of the Quaternary sea-level changes can be seen. The plateaux of the Lower Seine iimit the depth of incision of the great vaiiey be tween the confluence of the River Andelle and the estuary in the English Channel (fig. 1). The Quaternary evolution is complex and recorded in the karst development. The upper part of the valley always was a river (terrestrial environment) when the downstream part, more or less important, was included in the estuary, or even marine during transgression, or a river environment during regression. This was dependent on global sea level fluctuations [Lautridou et al. 1999]. These changes resulted in large modifications of the hydrological base-level and in consequence of the karstic drainage. This study contributes to the chronological reconstruc tion of the Quaternary evolution in the Lower Seine. In this way, the Caumont area 120 km distant from the coastal zone along the River Seine, at an elevation of only 4 m, is under the direct influ ence of the tidal zone (fig. 3). The geomorphological study of quite 8 km of galleries ought to define the function and the chronology of each con duit and to propose a genesis sketch of a complex output karst network. It presents different drain levels and drainage diffluences in a diachronic functioning of a three dimensional delta scheme fixing the 'karst delta' concept. Regressive periods incite to the spring outflow, responsible for regressive downward incision in the substratum Upstream to downstream, forms follow from the filling erosion to the new gallery opening, through drawing-off and ground incisions opening a 'key-hole' section. In relation with the downward velocity, it opens a wide gallery (slow descent) or a strait gallery (quick descent), with morphology of a 'canyon' and direction linked to the structure (tectonics), and vertical slope when the direction changes suddenly. Transgressive periods involve an alluvial infilling with dam effect re sponsible for the spring overflow with submersion of the palaeoconduits and roof equilibrium domes and intrakarst sedimentary stocking [Foumi-Cote dAJbatl'e AJabastet' Coast 10 20 30 40 J.R.'Z!:04 Figure I -Location of the studied area. Caumont is lo c ated near the Orival vall e y, south-west of Rauen. 21 -28 A uu u s t 2005 l { a !o m o s lle!lus

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1lf" E ntra,we with geli(rac h ; --.-..1 ................. --i.-...i m n 25 2~ 3CSI 4 .. eg Figure 2 The deltaic karst network of Fagnet Cape Ihigh level at8 m NGF; 2 medium level at + 6m; 3-base lev el at 3 m; 4lower level at O m. This karst system adapt ed during the eemian transgression, fi'om its base l eve l at + 3 m, to two upper levels ( + 6 and +8 m), before to be deconnected sudden l y by the weichselian regression effect (lower lev el at Om). er, 2004] Diffluences demo nstrate the karst adaptation to the drainage area evolution, more specifically near springs. They can happen as during transgression phases (high base level) than during regressive ones (low base level). The distance from its origin reduces the pertubation on the network functioning and morphology. Upstream bigger phases only appear, whereas downstream morphological adaptations of minor phases are reg istred That places in a prom ine nt position the notion of 'encasing'; a big ger form upstream divided in various smaller forms downstream, valid as for conduit stages than for gallery diffiuences. The large underground netwo rk, known to exceed 7 km, includes a number of different conduits, with several connections, developed in a complex organisation scheme. This results from the adaptation of under ground drainage to the various varia t ions of the hydrological base-level (fig. 4) rather than from the geomorphological variations of its hydrologi cal basin (fig. 5) In fact, the considerable distance of this network from the sea-cliff erosion, protected the Caumont underground system, with its rich evidence of complex Quaternary evolution This explains why the modem coastal zone, subjected to the erosional effect of a rejuvenated shore-line, does not provide such impress i ve karst examples (Cap Fagnet fig. 2) like those at Caumont (fig. 3), which is protected by its upper estuarian loc ation [Rod et, 2004]. A karstic delta' needs of an important and stable flood to hold the connexion between the conduits against the ruptures resulting of the base level varia tio ns. It needs too of a place protected of the sea border erosion to conserve the different phase testimonies. A location in a deep coastal valley like the Lower Seine (Caumont) is a better protection than on the Hei!el!ic Siieleaiouicuf Socir!l;t -shoreline (Cap Fagnet) where the destru c t i on of a n old kar s ti c delta net work can results in the complex morphology of an indented coastal area (Etretat -photo 6). Conclusion In fact, it is possible to distinguish the 'littoral a geomorphological zone where the sea and the continent confront each other, and the litto rallity', a temporal concept of a conflict between marine and continental processes, that migrates in relatively space with the temporal evolution of the relative mean sea-level during the Quaternary. In this way, a continen ta l cave can be seen on the coastline never reto uche d by the sea It can also be seen far away from the modem coast in the side of a deeply incised valley like the Lower Seine, there a karst network wholly subjected to Quaternary fluctuations of the sea-level. This is why it is very im po rtant to distinguish the present coastal zone from that influenced by previous Qua ternary sea-level changes. The 'karstic delta' concept can be extended to all the regions under influence of important sea level v ari ations ( climatic and tectonic origins) like in the Mediterranean Sea during the Cenozoic, and where the present transgression is respon sibl e for the reservoir sub mersion (Fontaine de Vaucluse greek Almyros, etc.). References Bunnell D 2004. Littoral caves Encyclopedia of caves and karst science, J. Dunn ed., Fitzroy Dearborn: 491-492. Fournier M. 2004. Structure et fonctionnement du systeme karstique du Hannetot replace dans le contexte geomorphologique de la basse val lee de Se ine Actes des Joumees Europeennes de l 'AFK 2003, Rouen: 106-116. Lautridou J.-P., Auffret J.-P., Baltzer A., Clet M. Lecolle F., Lefebvre D., Lericolais G., Roblin-Jouve A., Balescu S., Carpentier G J.C. D Ochietti S. & Rousseau D. -D., 1999. Le fleuve Seine, le fleuve Manche. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, 170 (4): 545-558. Rodet J. 1982. Contribution a e tu de du karst de la crate: l exemple normand et quelques comparaisons. PhD thesis, Geographie Physique, Universite de Paris I "Pantheon -Sorbonne": 427 p Rodet J. -1992a. La cra ie et ses kar sts. Ed. CNEK & Grou pe Seine, Centre de Geomorphologie du CNRS, Caen: 560 p. Rodet J. 1992b. Le karst dans l'evolution quatemaire de la Basse Seine (Normandie, France). Karsts et evolutions climatiques, J.-N. Salo mon & R Maire eds Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux: 363-382 Rodet J. 2004 Karst et craie en Normandie : une approche geo graphique -chalk and karst in Normandy : a geographical approach. Actes des Joumees Europeennes de l' AFK 2003, Rouen: 16-31. Rodet J. & Lautridou J.-P 2003. Controle du karst quatemaire sur la genese et !'evolution du trait de cote d'une region crayeuse de la Manche (Pays de Caux, Normandie, France). Quaternaire, 14 (1): 31-42. Rodet J., Massei N Laignel B., Dupont J. P 2003 The karstic delta as a mo rphol ogic al co nse quenc e of base level variations. Example of a chalk karst system in the western Paris Basin (Normandie, France). Climate Changes : the karst record III, Montpellier, 11-14 may 2003, abstract: 139-140. Rodet J., Massei N. Laignel B Dupont J.-P. 2004. The karstic delta as a morphological consequence of ba se level variations Example of a chalk karst system in the western Paris Basin (Normandy France) -le delta karstique expression des variations climatiques du niveau de base. Exemple d'un systeme karst iq ue de la craie de l'Ouest du bassin de Paris (Normandie France) A ctes des Joumee s Europeennes de l'AFK 2003, Rouen : 64-65. f,:.lfh !ni emnli on nl Con ure ss of Sn uleo fouy

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Hellrmic S1 wlealou fr;a / Sur:iefy Photo. 1 original wat e r base level. A pal eo gallery flooded b y the subm ersio n water l eve l. The small riv er opens its way through the filling (terraces on wa ll s), s howing an adaptation morpholo gy. Robots (Caumont). Photo. 2 small rising of the water level. A dual conduit result i ng of the low elevation of the wat er l ev el (Ja cque line cave, Caumont) The former galle1y was totall y infilled by sediments, when abo ve it a n ew gallery opened a way to the drainage. It r esu lt s t wo op posite morphologies on wall: the upper gall e r y (the mo st recent) pre sents small scallo ps resulting of a low wat e r dynami cs ( dynami c siphon), as the low er gallery (t he form er one) offers coalescent deep s c allop s w ith terrigenous infill demonstrating th e very low water dynamic (phr e ati c siphon). Photo. 4 submerged gallery with sediment filling and a fossil evolution evidence. A submerged ga llery, t en metres under the current water lev el The morpholo gy demonstrates a pol yp hased evo lution w ith a ce il ing half-tube and an impr ess ive t er rigenous .fi lling. Th e front of t h e depo sit s hows clay polyedrics ( dry period) e roded by the anthropic pumping of the Water Sup ply (Siphon of Les Var ras, Caumont karst system). Photo. 4 submerged gallery with sediment filling and a fossil evolution evidence. A submerged gallery, t e n metres under the cur rent wat er level. Th e m01pholo gy demon strates a p o l yp hased e v o lution wit h a ceili ng half-tub e a nd an imp ressiv e t e rri;; e nou s filling. Th e front of th e d eposit shows clay pol yedrics (d1y period) eroded by the an thropic pumping of th e Water Supply (Siphon o/Les Varras, Caumont karst sy stem). 21 28 Au uust 20 05 K u!n nws H ellos Photo. 3 phr eatic uplift pass age. De velo ped on te cton i c ceilin g dome w orks like an equ ilibriun1 ch il11ney during t ransgressive perioc!.~ (Ja c queline S c ave, Caianont k arst system) Photo. 5 pala e o conduit c utting the modern water level surfa ce. A d esc endin g galle ry is submerged by t he curr ent water l evel, resul ting of the jlandrian tr ansg ression into !he ria of the Sein e Va ll ey Le Py lon e cave (Caumont karst system) Photo. 5 palaeo condui t cutting the modern water level surface. A descending gallery i s sub me rged by th e current water l eve l resulting of the jlandrian trans gr ession into the ria of the Seine Valley Le Pyl6ne cav e (C aumon t lcars t .1ys tem)

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I + 50111 [g]. 1,0 [El +30 tr' ~ tJ (5) l7 [5'1 +t4 [) ~,1 llel!en ic S11e/eu!uutrnf Saciety -Figure 3 the karstic delta netwo rk of Caumont wit h it s t hree drainag e ax i s (]e arly, 2m e dium, 3 c urrent). Every karst element is loca ted w ith its altitud e class: + 50 m + 40 m, + 30 m, + 23 m, + 17 m, + 14 m, + 9/7 rn, + 3 m. All altit udes are e xplain e d in NGF (Fre nch Genera l L evell ing). Photo. 6 t h e co mpl ex mor pholo gy of an in dented are a: the se a cli ffs o/ Etretat co ntain various ele~ e nts ofan o ld karsti c de lta netw or k [Rod et, 1992a]. JW1 inteuwliu nn l Cunm R ss ot Stwfeolouy

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Hellenic S/J e ie otoui r:a/ Sor:ie l.V ' 1+ 4 ml ' Fig. 4-Vertical organization of a karsticdelta network [after Rodetetal., 2004/.1: original water base level at+ 16 (upstream) / + 14 mNGF (downstream)-photo 1. 2: small rising of the water level up to 18 m with downstream (a) the duplication of the main conduit-photo 2. 3: great rising of the water level up to 24 m, giving development of (b) phreatic ![(ting passages -photo 3 and on the top the development of (c) small gall e ries. Downstr e am the uplift of the basal drainage results in a (d) vauclusian spring. 4: the quick and important fall down of the water table to 14 m (over 38 m deep) is responsible for a new equilibrium profile with a retrogressive erosion dynamic into the karstic drainage, underlined from upstream to downstream by a (j) cutting passage into the gallery sediments, then the (g) filling withdrawing till a (h) water fall. Near the exsurgence, (i) shafts are common. 5 : the ultimate rising to + 4 m due to the flandrian transgression, by effect of a (j) karstic damming, is responsible for the storage of water in a (k) great underground reservoir with alluvial infilling -photo 4. A new (l) spring level floods over the dam, and a new (m) equilibrium profile is realised between the original drainage (]) and th e modern spring level -photo 5. early C aumont karst dr:ainage -14maage: karst diffluences Figure 5 Karst diffluences as an underground drainage adaptation to the geomorphological evolution [after Rodet et al., 2003/. Only three successive stages of s e veral are shown. Ur / Th dating performed at the CERAK (Mons, Belgium) using speleothems mainly calcite flowston e s, allows to consider that karstic delta functioning started in the middle Pleistocene (235 6 ky + inf/-75) until present days (74.5 ky + 19 7 / -16.6; 37 ky + 13.9 / -11.8 ; 16.4 ky + 111 1 / -16.4; 0 ky). 21 -28 lwuust WU5. l(atmnos. He/Ins

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Helle n ic S1wl eu! or1ir:ul Society 0-36 Genesis of a karst system in the Lower Meuse cha lk district (Belgian-Dutch border) L u c Willems1 Joel Rodet2, Matthieu Fournier2, Nic ol as Massei2, Benoit LaigneP, Ludivine Dussart -Baptista 2, Jean-Christophe Schyns3, Michie! Dusar4, David Lagrou5, Ca mm e Ek1 1 EuReKarst, Laboratory ofSedimentology Dept Geology Petrology Geochemistry, B20, University of Liege B-4000 Liege Belgium 2 EuReKarst, UMR 6143 CNRS Continental and Coastal Morphodynamics, Laboratory of Geology, University of Rauen, F-76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France 3 EuReKarst, Laboratory of Geomorphology and Teledetection, Dept. Physical Geography and Quaternary Allee du 6 aout, 2 University of Liege, B -400 0 Liege 1, Belgium, 4 Geological Survey of Belgium, Jennerstraat 13, B-1000 Brussels Belgium. 5 VITO Flemish Institute for Technological Research Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgie A bstract: Different karst phenomena were intersected by underground and open air quarries in Cretaceous chalks of the Belgian-Dutch border zone along the Meuse river. Dolines and more than one thousand solution pipes were observed. Solution pipes can attain a depth of sixty meters. These may in tersect endokarst features: sub-horizontal galleries developed along joints round galleries without visible fissure and sponge networks Occasionally surfaces sculpted by cupolas and arched cavities stopping upwards were observed. At deeper levels, pluridecametric nodes of weathered chalk are developed under the base water level. All these karst features indicate a three stage genesis for the karstic system The first stage occurred in the phreatic zone, independent of the surface climate. Weathered nodes gen erally in relation with fissures, develop and may lead to opening conduits. The second stage is related to valley incision and the emersion of a karst system above the piezometric level. Locally, this 'primokarst' can initiate subhorizontal cave features as axis of drainage. In the same time, a vertical input karst (solution pipes or 'organ pipes') develops and often intersects the caves at deeper levels. Waterflood is affecting these drainage axis, and fine sediments can fill the cave galleries. The third stage is the discon nection of the different forms, raised above the base level. Only input by infiltration waters is controlling the further evolution of these forms. Introduction At the Belgo-Dutch border (Fig. 1) near the city of Maastricht, a series of surface quarries and artificial caves have exploited chalk and calcaren ites of Maastrichtian to Campanian age (Upper Cretaceous). These have intersected typical karst, features like caves, alveoli solution pipes, ceil ing pockets nodes of weathering. Their study enables to reconstruct the genesis of a polyphased karst system. Drains within the chalk prove that Fig. 1 : Localisation of the studied area underground drains hence karst can deve lop in a rock type characterised by a very high porosity 1. Physical environment The studied area in East Belgium and South Netherlands (Dutch Lim burg) is characterised by a rolling plateau on deeply drained Cretaceous chalks under loess cover. Saint Peter's Mountain (Montagne Saint Pierre, Sint Pieters berg) is a separate part of the Hesbaye plateau isolated between the incised valleys of the Geer and Meuse rivers, due south of their conflu ence in the city ofMaastricht. The altitude of the plateau lies between 153 and 100 m above sea level up to 70 m above the alluvial plains The studied forms develop in the Gulpen and Maastricht Formations (Campanian to Maastrichtian age), exposed over 100 m The upper unit (Maastricht Formation) consists of macroporous calcarenites, subdivided by hardgrounds. Flint nodules already appear in the Maastricht Forma tion. The lower unit ( Gulpen Formation) consists of very fine calcarenites grading into chalk with many flint beds in its upper part (Lanaye and Lixhe Members) overlying more pure chalks with and without small flints in its lower part (Vijlen and Zevenwegen Members) The ENCI quarry exposes all these strata Impervious marls of the Vaals Formation separate the chalk from deeply weathered and kaolinised Carboniferous limestones (Felder & Bosch, 1998, 2000). Young Paleocene carbonates and continental deposits are not pre served on Saint Peter's Mountain. The next deposit consists of Oligocene, marine Tongrian sands (St Huibrechts Hem Formation) were deposited on the area On Saint Peter's Mountain they are mainly preserved within dolines. From the Pliocene, the Meuse river drainage system came into existence and progressively incised down to its actual level, as testified by peneplanation levels and gravel terraces. The high terrace of the Meuse river covers the older formations with an alluvial gravel during the Middle Pleistocene. These coarse and loamy river deposits armour the underlying Cretaceous chalk and lead to a local relief inversion. During the Weich selian glaciation about ten meters of loess were deposited, burying the pre-existing landscape. Underground quarries extensively exploited the middle part of the Maastricht Formation (Nekum and Emael Members), where mo st obser vations of endokarsts and roots of solution pipes were made. Our study fo cuses on the three main Belgian quarries (lower Petit-Lanaye, upper Petit La naye, Caster). They are located between the Albert Canal and the Dutch border Additional observations are made in the ENCI quarry, to the north of these caves on Dutch territory. The underground passages are about 6 m wide for 10 m high (Fig. 2). Their form a network exceeding 100 km of galleries. The quarries of lower Petit-Lanaye and Caster are located 10 to 25 m under the plateau surface. In the quarry of upper Petit-Lanaye, part of the ceilings is only some meters below the plateau surface. The ENCI quarry allows observation of the basement of Saint Pe ter's Mountain. The floor of the excavation is 30 m below the Meuse river (5 m above sea level). All these places present a privileged three-dimensional observation of the
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/i e l!e nic Su e !eo / uu ical 2. Exokarst 2.1 Dolines The surface of Saint Peter s Mountain is pitted by tens of depressions which can exceed 20 m in diameter and 10 m in d e pth. Som e of them are identified do lines developed in the top of the Cretaceous formations. Part of their deepening could r e sult from piping in s ide the underground galleries. 2.2 Solution pipes or "organ pipes" In many cases, the b o ttom of th e do lines i s e xtended by tubular solu tion pipes whose lenthg may exceed 60 m (Figs 3 & 4). T hese local name is organ pipes They have a quite regular section and their diameter can vary between a few centimetres to several meters. Mathieu (1813) Fig. 2: Example of gallery inside the upper Petit-Lanaye (Klein-Ternaaien) under ground quany (Willems, 2004) already imputed their formation to infiltration of seepage water The aver-Fig. 3: Cross-section of solution pipes on the left bank of the Albert Canal. The larger solution pipes reach more then 50 m (Willems 2004). age density of these solution pipes is greater than 16/ha. The underground quarries have destabilized some of them : Tong rian sand s and fluvial de posits are swept inside the galleries forming fan-talus (Fig. 5) which can block passages. The walls of the solution pipes are pierced by alveoli Weathering fronts are highlighted by iron oxide staining o f the bed rock surrounding the solution pipes. 21-28 4uuusf 7[105. f
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The widening may res ult from the coalescence of smaller ones. For J uvigne (1 992) th e ir gen esi s could be connected to the irregularity of the terrace deposit s Lo cally these may be more coarse-grained and perme able and could have initi ate d a punctua l water infiltration. 3. Endokarst 3.1 Sponge networks and ceiling pockets Se veral sp onge networ k s (Fig 6) are noted o n the walls of the underground gallerie s. The alveoli centime tr ic to decimetric, are developed in all di rec tions. By coalescence, they coul d form bigger alveoli or small conduits (Figs 7) Generally, th ere appears no di rec t co nn ec tion with fracture s or stratification This i s also the case of ce iling po ck ets, found in a part of the quarry of lower Pet it Lanaye quary where the be d rock is particularly weathered. Figs. 7: Small conduits generated by weathering of oblique fractur e ( C aster, Rodet 2004 Cryp te quarry near Caster, Willems, 2005) 3.2 Caves Natural caves were first reported in th e 19th century (Clere, 1814). Two cave types are observed The first one is developed on fractures. It begins with a lateral weathering of the fracture on the top of an aquife r. Is o-w eath ering takes pla ce and could be transform ed i nto all o -weath er ing by collap se and aeration of the bed rock or by ge nesis of alveoli. At this s tage, preferential water circulation can be g e nerate d. The residual clay found inside the vertical fractures of small conduits cou l d be the pro d uct of the sam e mechanism. So me of th ese conduits co uld be upgraded i nto axis of drainage with mor e i mport an t sediment transport and d eposits Some tim es t hey form true caves like th e CRSOA gallery (Fig. 8) which has le ng t h of 39 m for an av erage width an d he i ght o f 1 m A part of this c a ve is filled by Tongrian sands and clayey sands. C hara cter isti c sedi mentary figures attest a low energy flow. A second type of cav es does not s how any conn ect ion to visible frac ture (Fig. 9). Their shape is character ise d by rounded plurimetric room s Locally, s mall alveo li pit the main walls Fig. 8: View of the sout h s id e of the CRSOA ga lle ry-exam pl e of a natural cave dev elops on subv ertica l fracture low er Petit-Lanaye quarry (L. Will ems, 2004) Fig. 9: R e mants of a natural cave vi1ithout visibl e fh1cture lower Pet it-Lanaye quarry (L. Will e ms, 2004) An other type of caves could exist like those found in 1970 in the right bank of Albert canal and today destroyed. "Dur ing ex cavatio n operations alongside the Canal Alb e1 i near Cas ter in 19 70, a big horizontal karst gallery was found more than 20 m long 11-20 m wide and 4-8 m high. It was partly fill ed with clayey material containing > 30% iron-hydroxide. An impervious silex -l ayer in the c halks probably caused a s emi-hori z on tal groundwat erflow fo r so me distance, resulti ng in solution-phenomena with a horizontal dir e ction" (Feld er, 19 74 ). Others cavities quite similar to those described abo ve are found in the underground quarries close to Maa strich t (Smitshuijsen, 1983 ; Didden, 1996 ; Rade m akers, 1998 )

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Hellc mc s aeleulu uic a/ Sur:iet y 3.3 Nodes of weathered chalk The different excavation faces of the ENCI quarry have exhumed nu merous weathered zones inside the Gulpen chalk. These forms true nodes. Figs. 10: General view of nodes of weathered chalk in the south excavation face of the ENC! quarry. Details of deep nodes of weathered chalks in the east excavation face of the ENC! quarry with water e x surgence (right side of the pictur e ) (Willems, 2004). Their size could be bigger than tens of meters long and several meters wide. Some of these nodes are located more than 20 m below the alluvial plain of the Meuse river. They are associated with fractures but have no visible connection with the regolith. Due to the dewatering of the quarry pit, aquifer or seepage waters preferentially resurge at these weathered chalks. The flow erodes the weathered chalks and opens small conduits. When there are flints, these have a constricting influence on the node shapes 4. Discussion Karst genesis The solution pipes and caves developed on fractures are essentially generated by concentrated solution inside chalks, however porous they may be. Dolines and solution pipes are generated by vadose percolation water from the plateau surface. The opening of fractures results in caves at different maturity stages. Some have even evolved into axis of drain age. The genesis of alveoli in all directions and ceiling pockets without fracture, support a dissolution inside a paleoaquifer Caves without visible fractures could be old nodes of weathered chalk like those found under the Meuse level, in the ENCI quarry. We assume these were already existing before quarrying exhumed them and reactivat-2 728 Auuu si 2005. ffa lumn s. Hul!u s ed flow by lowering of the water table, with possibility of partial removal of the weathering residues further opening the conduits. A comparison can be made with the ghost rocks found inside the Carboniferous limestones of Tournaisian in western Belgium. These "ghost rocks" re sult from isovolumetric weathering of bed rock (e.g.: Vergari, 1992,1998; Quinif et al., 1994). The regular form of the solution pipes irrespective of depth could be due linked to the progressive lowering of the aquifer in parallel with the incision of the Meuse river. Thus a node of corrosion takes place in the mixing point between the percolation water and the aquifer water (Bogli, 1964). The migration of these mixing points with respect to the lowering of the aquifer calibrates the solution pipes. All of these solution pipes do not reach the same depth. It could be explained by the varying permeabil ity of river deposits on the plateau surface or by heterogeneities inside the chalk (presence of flints, hardgrounds, clayey layers, etc). All these observations allow us to propose a hypothesis of a poly phased karst system genesis in four stages : 1 River deposits, loess and Tongrian sands; 2 : Cretaceous chalk with flints; 3 : nodes of weathered chalk and solution pipes; 4: fractures; 5: seepage water; 6: aquifer; 7: quarry galleries. 1. Independent of surface conditions, nodes of weathered chalk are created perhaps to several hundred meters of depth. It represents the initia tion of a primokarst ( first karst phenomena generated) (Rodet, 1992). On the surface, the Meuse river creates its alluvial plain, with a differentiated aggradation related to river dynamics. The river then assumes its vertical erosion. The terrace formed is partially covered with loess and the verti cal drainage concentrates in the coarsest and more permeable terrace de posits. Water infiltrates through the surface deposits (Quaternary gravel, Oligocene cover, regolith).

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2. P rogressively with the lowering of the aquifer the nod e of corro sio n between vadose and phreatic wat er progres se s downwards. The slow and regular descent of the water tabl e causes a calibration of th e solution p ipe s. The local hydraulic gradient de velops. Alveoli, nodes of wea ther ed chalk or caves are further e xpanding . According to their degree of or ganisation they can evolve into drainage systems, able to mobilize the fine elements. 3. The valley continue to incise, followed by the aquife r The weather ing residue emerges above the water table and is not supp01ied any mo r e by hydrostatic pressure It is c ompa cted and ind uce s further subsidence on the surface 4 Anthropogenic e xplo it ation of the ca r bonate ro ck destabilizes some of the most important karst phenomena, causing mining depressions on the surface of the plateau It can be concluded that there exists a high density of karst phenomena in chalk. It influences in a major way the geomorphological evolution of Saint Peter's Mountain. The study of the various forms clearly points to the genesis of karst phenomena within m ic roporous carbo na tes and thus to the development of drains which c ould have negativ e incidence on geological risks and water pollution. Further studies will have to specify the exact conditions of th e initiation and distribution o f drainage sys t ems identified within the Saint-Peter's Mounta in, in particular by comparison with the better documented karst phenomena developed in chalk of Nor mandy (France) (Rodet, 1992) 0-37 A GLOBAL DENUDATION AL MODEL OF CAVE DEVELOPMENT A u gust o S Auler flel len f c S!!e!e u lorri w! Bibliography Bogli, A. (1964). Mischungskorrosion, ein Beitrag z um Verkars t ung sprob l e m. Erdkunde 18, 83-92 Clere, J.F. (1814) Notice geologique sur l'espece et la nature du terra in de s e n viro n s de Mae stri c ht. J. de s Mines (Par is), t. 36 n 214. D idd e n J.M (1996) Tektoniek karst e n spe leothem en in de kalk steen van het Laa t-Maastrich tien va n Z ui d L imburg Natuurhistor isc h Maan dblad 85: 72-82. Ju vigne E (1992). Les formations cenozoYques de l a ca rriere C.B.R. du R omont (Eben,/Bassenge, Belgique) Ann. Soc. Geol. Be lg. 11 5: 159-165. Fe ld er, P .J., 1974. Ho riz on tal e karstverschijnselen in de groeve C a ster van de E N C I. Natuurhistorisch Ma an d blad, 6 : 11 2115 Fe lder W.M. & Bosch, P.W. (1998) Geologie van de St. Piete rs berg bij Maastricht. Grondboor & Hamer, 52: 53-63 F eld er W.M. & Bosch, P.W. (2000). Krijt van Zu idL imburg. Ge ologie van Nederland, deel 5 NITG Delft/Utrecht, 190 p. Rademakers, P.C.M. (1998). Ge ologische or g elpijpen. Grondboor & Hamer, 52: 71-76. Mathieu, M.L. (1813). Notice sur les argues geologiques de la c ol line Saint-Pierre, pres de Maestricht. J. de s Mines (Paris) t. 34, pp. 197-208. Quinif, Y., Vergari, A, Doremus P., Hen n ebert, M., Charlet, J.M. (1994). Phe nomene s karstiques aff ectant le calcaire du Hainaut. Bull. Soc Belg. Geol., 102 : 379 384 .Ro det, J. (1992) La craie et ses kar sts. Ed. CNEK -Grou pe Se ine, Elbeuf, 560 p. Smitshuijsen, E., 1983. Karst i n Limburg S.O K N 2, pp 13 18. Ve rgari, A (1992). Etude de s paleokarsts dan s l'optique de leur incidence dans l'exploitation des roches carbonatees. Travail de Fin d'Etudes, FPMs Vergari A. (1998). Nouveau reg ard s u r la spe leogenese : l e "pseu do-endok ars t" du To urnaisis (Hainaut, B elgique) Karstologia, 31/1 : 1218. Acknowledgments This research has been conducted with the help of t he Belgo-French To urnesol program. We ar e deeply grateful to the members of CRSOA (Club de Recherche Speleologique Outhe-Ambleve) indebted fo r assisting us with the detailed m eas ur ement work. We thank John Jagt (Natuurhis-C PMTC lnstituto d e Geociencias, Universidade Fed e ral de Minas Gerais. Av. A ntonio Carlos, 6627, Belo H oriz o nt e MG 3 127090 1, B razil Peter L. Smart School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bri s tol BS8 1 SS, E ngland Abstract A s ignificant number of c av es in the stable cra tonic area of e astern Brazil display well developed "p rimary paragenetic features (i.e. fea tures generated during cave phreatic dev elopme nt and not during later sedimen tation processes) th at indicate that paragenesis was a dominant process of sp eleog enes is However, a survey of cave ge o morphological st udi es el se wh ere in the w o rld in di cat e that pa ra gen esis is usually con sidered to be a relatively minor speleogenetic pro ce ss, syngenesis being considered as the "normal" type of phreatic cave deve lopment. J:1!/1 lntemnfionuf Conuress ut Stw le oto uy

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!l e tieni r: St wi e o /o{]icu l Sar:i et y Paragenesis in eastern Brazil is favoured by a combination of geomor phic and hydrological conditions such as: (i). high rates of pedogenesis under tropical conditions yield thick soil sequences that commonly mantle the karst. Thus, nearly all karst areas contain abundant soil cover that can be eroded towards phreatic conduits; (ii). low elevation terrain and thus very low hydraulic gradients that prevent fine grained sediment to be re moved from phreatic cave passages during conduit development; (iii) low denudation rates / uplift rates and thus low water table lowering rates. Any evolving conduit will stay for a prolonged time under phreatic conditions before interception ( due to both upward paragenetic ceiling migration and water table lowering) by the water table. Paragenesis may also benefit from deeper initial flow routes. We propose a model in which, given sediment availability, paragenetic development will be the dominant mode of speleogenesis in tectonically stable areas under slow denudation / uplift rates. Central Brazil and areas of Africa, Australia and parts of Europe are prime candidates for parage netic caves. Paragenetic caves will tend to be rare or absent in bare karst terrains in tectonically active areas such as in high mountain karst areas in Europe. 1. Introduction A survey of caves in several Brazilian karst areas, but mostly in the Lagoa Santa, Caatinga and Iraquara areas (Fig. 1 ), has demonstrated that the majority of caves display features previously recognised as due to paragenetic processes such as: 1. Presence of pendants (Bretz, 1942; Renault, 1968). 2. Presence of 1 anastomoses or half tubes (Bretz, 1942; Renault, 1968). 3. Presence of parasitic wall tubes (Lauritzen and Lauritsen, 1995). 4. Presence of wall grooves (Farrant, 1995). 5. Lack of guiding fracture or bedding plane at ceiling level (Pasini, 1967). 6. Lack of a precursor phreatic tube on the ceiling (Lauritzen and Lauritsen, 1995; Farrant, 1995). 7. Downstream propagation of meanders (Ewers, 1985). 8. Phreatic canyon or triangular passage cross section (Fan-ant, 1995). 9. Active paragenetic passages in the phreatic zone (Worthington, 1991). Observations in several karst areas in eastern Brazil have allowed the recognition of the following additional distinctive features of paragen esis: 10. Lack of scallops. The velocity required for scallop length to match passage sinuosity (and thus become indistinguishable) is too slow to allow for sediment removal and should therefore favour paragenesis if there is sediment availability. 11. Meander junctions at ceiling level occur through an ascending me ander. This feature demonstrates that water flow was occurring mostly at ceiling level at time of junction. 12. Anastomotic canyons are the predominant type of cave pattern. In low dip situations this should be the prevalent type of paragenetic cave pattern. Variable passage cross section due to changes in sediment volume can keep several passages simultaneously competitive. 13. General absence of joint fed speleothems. When compared with vadose caves paragenetic caves may exhibit less speleothems due to the general absence of vertical joints at ceiling level. Furthermore, the overall volume of a paragenetic passage spends more time in the phreatic zone and under sediment cover than a typical vadose cave restricting the chance of speleothem precipitation by water percolating through joints. The caves located along the stable cratonic area of east central Brazil have shown similar styles of cave development, despite major differences in lithology, hydrology and present climate. Paragenetic processes are evident in the majority of caves examined. It will be proposed that the mode of conduit development after initiation is controlled by large-scale denudation rates which are dependent on the tectonic setting. 21 78 Aurwst 2005, l(a!mnos, Hellus 2. Controls on paragenetic development 2.1. Sediment availability The first requisite for paragenesis is the availability of sediment for transport into the cave system. In eastern Brazil bare bedrock floors are extremely rare, nearly all caves having their floor covered by sediment de posits usually ofunknown thickness. There has been no worldwide survey on the frequency and extent of soil cover in karst areas, but covered karst predominates in most of the karst areas in the Americas, especially in east ern United States, northern Mexico, Central America and some islands of the Caribbean such as Cuba, and most of South America. Soil cover predominates in many karst areas of Europe, such as in England, parts of France and Italy, and in most of tropical Asia sites. It seems apparent that sediment derived from the soil is commonly available in most karst areas of the world. Possible exceptions to this situation would be very pure limestones in barren karst areas with very limited sediment supply such as in some alpine settings, mixing zone karst areas, or hypogenic settings where deep flow is not surface derived. 2.2. Depth of conduit initiation Deep initial flow routes will enable a given conduit to have the nec essary vertical amplitude for paragenetic upward ceiling migration. The depth at which a cave will originate below the water table has been sub ject to considerable debate in the past on conceptual grounds (see review in White, 1988) but even recently few quantitative advances have been made. Folding and faulting may promote deeper ground water routes (Palmer, 1987). For the sake of simplicity, a homogeneous carbonate aquifer, without significant folding or faulting and without impermeable beds that can cause confined and artesian aquifers will be assumed. This is the common situation in eastern Brazil cratonic carbonate areas. Although there is a number of ways of determining depth of present or past ground water circulation such as water temperature in spring outlets (Worthington and Ford, 1995) or empirical relationships that equate catchment length and dip of the strata (Worthington, 2001) few direct observations have been made. Borehole logging and packer testing frequently show the presence of dissolution openings at depths up to 3000 m (Ford and Williams, 1989), often with capacity for water circulation. Direct observation of flooded passages by cave divers worldwide confirm the common existence of deep flow routes in carbonate systems, to depths well in excess of 100 m below the water table (Farr, 1991). The vertical range of a paragenetic passage provides an alternative method of deter mining minimum flow depth of cave passages. This is represented by the elevation difference between the bedrock floor of the passage and the ceil ing. Considering that some water table lowering must have occurred since the beginning of the paragenetic development, this parameter provides a minimum depth of initiation below the water table. Vertical paragenetic amplitudes up to 50 m have been reported in the literature (Renault, 1968). At Lapa Doce cave in the Iraquara Karst, the vertical paragenetic range is 11 m as measured at several sites with an ultrasonic tape. In the Lagoa Santa Karst, it may exceed 15 min some caves. According to Worthington (2001) depth of ground water flow in unconfined aquifers is related to D = 0,18 (L sin 9>,79 where Dis the mean depth of flow in metres below the water table, 0 is the dip of the carbonate strata and Lis the flow path length in metres. In much of eastern Brazil, low dip (up to 10) and long flow paths (up to 20 km in a straight line) would translate in depths up to 110 m, but commonly below 50 m, a value that is in general accordance with cave diving reports for the area. 2.3. Rates of upward paragenetic evolution After breakthrough has been achieved, provided the water table re mains above the passage during the period of enlargement, there will be two alternatives for further development of a flooded conduit. In a situa tion where there is no supply of sediment or where water velocities are

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too hig h to a ll ow for s edim e nt de po sition a ph re atic tu be w ill dev el op. Such a tube will grow indefinit ely until modifi ed by breakdow n or drained by wate r table lo werin g. Giv e n the e xiste nc e of fl ooded passages at gr eat depths (in excess of 100 m) we should expect the common occurrence of v e ry lar ge phr eati c tu be s. Al tho ugh W hite (1988) a nd Worthington (1 99 1) have acknowledged the existence of phreatic tubes > 40 m in diameter, s u ch ven; large passages ap pear t o b e m or e the e xcep tio n th an the rul e. The second s tyle of development is through paragen e sis Cave div ers have commonly rep ort ed th a t phr eati c c ave s no rm ally h ave a s edim ent ma ntl ed floor (Wo1ihington 19 91 ). It thus ap pears that sediment filled pass ages are at le ast as com mo n than sed im ent -fre e phrea tic tube s Gro und water flow velocities decrease with lower hydraulic grad ient s I n t he s ubd ue d r elief of east e rn B razi l lo w hydraulic gradien ts should be expected, resulting in very low conduit velocities below the threshold for sedimen t t ran spo rt. C o nsider i ng the nearly global availability of sed ime nt in kars t systems, the ubiqu itous existence of input points linking se d i m ent sour ces to undergrou nd pas sag es, an d the slow water fl ow velocities in s ubs ur face conduits, paragenesis should be a common mode of cave evo l utio n in th e p hre atic zo ne. Dur ing paragenesis, the :floor of a phr eatic passage is ar mo ured b y sediment. Diss ol ution, if i t occurs, is u nli kely to be significant at the sediment-bedrock interface be caus e it w ill be limited by rep l acement of reactant an d e va cua tion of products. The sole sections of be dro ck avail able for conduit enlargement are the upper walls and ce iling. The cave will then evo l ve upwards towards the wate r tabl e. Rat es o f upward co nduit m i g ration are an important cor npo nen t in determining the magnitude of verti ca l parageneti c ran ge, the rate of loop elim i nation, and possibly th e development of fla t w a ter ta b le roofs. There has be e n no previous st udy of th is pro ble m However, if a parageneti. c passage is con sidered t o be a ha l f tub e with a sediment floor the relation of Palmer ( 1991) can be app l ied: S = 31.56 Q ( CC0 ) I S is the ra t e of para ge neti c upward migratio n; Q i s of water thro ug h th e passa ge ; C is the so l ute concentration = C at upst r eam end of pas sa ge) ; p is the wetted per imeter; L is th e passage length a n d p1 is the rock den s ity Drey b rodt ( 19 90) has estimated average rates of 100 m/Ma for co nd uit bed rock removal after brea kt hrou gh, but v ariat io ns of a n o rder of mag nitude on either side ar e possible. Taking into consideration discharges mea sure d at the Lago a Santa Karst (, A uler 1994) an d es ti mated d isc harge s fo r springs in th e Iraquara Karst a range between 0.05 2 m3/s appears reas o nable Length of underground flow paths sh ould be in th e ra nge 1 20 km, resulting in Q/L ratios below 20 cm2/s. Following Palmer ( 1991) th es e values w ou ld represen t enlar ge ment rates in the ra nge of 100 0 m/ M a Typical maximum enlargement rates for karst systems averages about 100--1000 m/Ma (Palmer, 1 991). 2.4. Wa te r table low er ing rn tes kars t r egio ns The end of the phreatic regim e in a cave system happens when the wa ter table r each es the top of the pas sa g e, a nd dis sol ution beco me s co nc en trated on the floor. It is thus important to quantify the rates of water table low eri ng, beca u s e th ese wi ll determine th e am ou nt of ti me a v ailable for paragenesi s. Water table lowering will be cons id ered as a relative measure in relat ion to a fixe d poi nt the bedroc k (o r a c ave sy s t e m withi n t he bedrock) This is becaus e tectonic uplift can rapidly ch ange relative water tabl e p osit ions w ithin th e be d rock, w hile wa ter tabl e elevat io n re lat ive to a outside datum ( such as sea level) could remain virtually unchanged. Lon g-t erm re g ion al den udati o n rat es in crato nic or l o w re lief area s are reported in Table 1 while denudation rates based on fluvial incision rates in karst a re given in Ta ble It is a s su me d that surface lo wering rat es are compa tibl e with wate r table lm.vering rates. Furthermore, fluvial down cutti ng rat es, to gether with ot her te chniques of punctual mea s urem ent s, are assumed to provide reasonable approximation of regional scale water tabl e lo w ering rates The dat a d em onst rat e th at den ud ation rates in cra ton ic or lo w relief areas are typically in th e range 1 50 m/Ma, with sev era l areas ( mainly in th e best stud ied site s i n the plains of A ustralia) having value s belo w 10 m/Ma These data demonstrates that denudation rates in sta ble tectonic setting s can be an or der of ma gni tude lower than in mou nta inous or in tectonica ll y active reg ion s. 3. A den uda tio model of cave evolution It has been de mon strat ed t hat c ondui t s com mon ly carry se diment de p osit s. It h as also been shown that ground water velocities, es pecially in low relief areas with low hydraulic gra dien t s, may fall below t he threshold of sedimen t transport. Un de r such conditions, the minim um re quirements fo r the i niti at ion of p a ragenetic development shou l d be pr es ent in many if not mos t kars t setti ng s. Two furt h er va riab les shou ld be ta ken into ac count. Because p ara gen etic pas sa ges evo lv e u pwa rds towards the wat er table there sho uld be enough vertic al amp litu de for a passage to develop, i.e ., the deeper the pa ss age is, the mor e "room" for upward paragenetic development there wi ll be. A re as with st ee ply dipping carbonate s hould in t heory be more fa vou rabl e for paragenetic deve lop me nt. H owever, a ma jor co ntrol affecting this opp ortun ity for upwa rd d eve lopment is the rates o f water tabl e lowerin g. The rate is very s low in eastern Braz il permitting an extended pe riod for paragen esis, de spi te th e shallow dip of the car bon ate which l im its d ept h o f paragenet ic deve lo pme n t. Water tab l e lo weri ng rates in mo un tainous or t ec tonically active areas are an order o f magn itu de hig her than i n stable craton i c sett ing s I n the lat te r re gion s, caves would tend to remain for a much longer time in the phr eatic z one It ha s also been demonstrated tha t upward para gen et ic mi gration rat es s hou ld be at least an order o f magnitude higher than water table lowering rat es i n tectonically stabl e, lo w relief are as, but should match thes e rates in mountainous sett ing s. F ig. 2 illustrates thes e relat i on ships. For any gi ven initi al con d uit d epth th e time av aila ble for upward paragenetic migration wou ld be great l y increased in karst areas with low water table l o wering rate s On the oth er hand in area s with ver y fast wat er table l owe ring rat es, such as mountain range s, the cave passage co uld be intercepted by th e wa ter table before significant paragenetic d ev elop me nt had occurred From th is den udati on a l model of cave development, paragenetic caves should predominate where water tabl e low ering rates are slow, su ch a s in cra tonic settin gs o r in low re lief co ntin en tal i nter iors P rim e ca ndidat es are th e ancient tablelands o f int erior South America Africa a nd Aus tra lia. At the other ex t rem e, ar eas with very high denudation rate s s uch a s mounta in ranges or areas with active tectonics s h ould show pre dominantly vadose p a ssages and littl e parag e netic development. Many karst areas, however fall between th ese extremes, and cou ld di s play both paragenetic an d synge n etic dev e lopme nt styl es, depending on in itia l flow depth sedimen t availab ilit y and local geomorphic factors The ab ove mo de l, d eve loped at a re gion a l scale of cave sy stems, is also applicable to individual passages in caves. It has be en suggeste d by P al mer (1 99 1), Worth in gt on (1 99 1), Dre yb rodt (1990) and oth ers tha t cave passages can play the ro l e of local base l eve l s for tributary co nduits, in t he sa m e wa y t hat maj or rivers d o for larg e ca ve syst em s. It is thus po s si bl e that a tributary can evo l ve paragenet i cally towards a vadose tnmk pass age This is sup port ed by t he o bse rvat io n of pa rag e netic pas sag es w ithi n otherwise predomina ntl y vadose caves, such as in Grut a do Padre, Brazil, Ogo f D ra enen Wale s am on g oth ers 4. References Atkin s on, T.C. ; Ro w e, P .J. 1 992. App licat io ns o f dating to d e nudation chronolo g y and landscape evol ut io n In U ranium Seri es Dise qui libri um. A pp licat i ons to Earth, Mari n e an d Environmen ta l S cien ces (Ivanovich, M ; Harmon, R.S. ed.). Clare nd on Press, p. 669-703. Aule r, A.S 1994. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteriza -Con/Ji ess ut Srw!eulouy

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H e l l enic S 1 wlea l o r ;icul S ociet y tion of the Matozinhos-:Pedro Leopoldo karst. MSc Thesis, Western Ken tucky University. Auler, A.S. 1999. Karst evolution and palaeoclimate in eastern Brazil. PhD Thesis, University of Bristol. Bretz, J.H. 1942. Vadose and phreatic features of limestone cavernas Journal of Geology 50: 675-811. Dreybrodt, W. 1990. The role of dissolution kinetics in the de v elop ment of karst aquifers in limestone: a model simulation of karst evolution. Journal of Geology 98: 639-655. Ewers, R.O. 1985. Patterns of cavern development along the Cumber land Escarpment. In Caves and Karst of Kentucky (P.H. Dougherty ed.). Kentucky Geological Survey Special Publication 12: 63-77. Farr, M. 1991. The darkness beckons. Cave Books. Farrant, A.R. 1995. Long-term Quaternary chronologies from cave deposits. PhD Thesis, University of Bristol. Ford, D.C.; Williams, P.W. 1989. Karst geomorphology and hydrol ogy Unwin Hyman, London. Lauritzen, S.E.; Lauritsen, A. 1995. Differential diagnosis of parage netic and vadose canyons. Cave and Karst Science 21: 55-59. 10 s f ) Palmer, A.N. 1987. Cave levels and their interpretation. National Spe leological Society Bulletin 49: 50-66. Palmer, A.N. 1991. Origin and morphology of limestone caves. Geo logical Society of America Bulletin 103 : 1-21 Pasini, G. 1967. Nota preliminare sul ruolo speleogenetico dell'erosione "antigravitativa". Le Grotte d'Italia 4: 297-322. Renault, P. 1968. Contribution a l'etude des actions mecaniques et sedi mentologiques dans la speleogenese. Annales de Speleologie 23: 529-596. White W.B. 1988. Geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains. Oxford University Press O x ford W01ihington, S.R.H. 1991. Karst hydrology of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. PhD thesis, McMaster University. Worthington, S.R.H. 2001. Depth of conduit flow in unconfined car bonate aquifers. Geology 29: 335-338. Worthington, S.R.H.; Ford, D.C. 1995. High sulfate concentrations in limestone springs: an important factor in conduit initiation? Environmen tal Geology 25: 9-15. 42W I BAHIA STATE '-, ,,.,..., ,,... \., '\ ,._ ,__.-, . ,.. -) MINAS GERAIS STATE I ('' '\, \ \/ '"\,,. ATLANTIC OCEAN : 200 km i N Figure I. Location of study ar e a. LS Lag o a Santa Kar s t; I Jraqu a ra K a rst; C Caatinga Karst. 27--28 August 2DD5. l(alamos. He/fas

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llei!enic Smiealnaicui Tectonically stable Tectonically active low relief areas mountainous areas Rw<<Rp so Hp>Hw so Hp
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Hellenic Stwleolor1ical Society Table 2. Compilation of fluvial downcutting rates in karst terrains. Adapted from Atkinson and Rowe (1992) and Farrant (1995). See references in Auler (1999 p.37). Location Rate (m/Ma) Cueva del Agua, Spain C. 300 Nahanni River, Canada < 800 Green River, Kentucky 70-90 Matchlight Cave, Tasmania < 100-200 Exit Cave, Tasmania <60 Yorkshire Dales, England 120 / > 50 / < 200 Elwy Valley, Wales 120 Creswell Crags, England 65 Perlait River, Malaysia 8 Cheddar Gorge, England 190 / 60 / 200 Crowsnest Pass, Canada 115-130 Bearjaw Cave, Canada 290-510 Castleguard Cave, Canada 50-130 0-38 "Folia Drakou" Cave (Potamoi, Drama, Macedonia, Greece) Geological and Speleological study Preliminary report Location Rate (m/Ma) Arige Valley, France 120-210 Manifold Valley, England 55 Derwent Gorge, England < 190 Mammoth Cave, USA 40 Cheat River, USA 56-63 Buchan Karst, Australia 3-4 East Fork Obey River, USA <20 Wee Jasper, Australia 26 Greenbrier River, USA 46 Santana Cave, Brazil 42 Wyandotte Cave, USA 60 Clearwater Cave, Malaysia 190 Vaxevanopoulos Markos\ Lazaridis Georgios2 Zachariadis Stavros\ Pennos Christos2 & Garlaouni Charikleia2 1 Ephoria of Paleoanthropology & Speleology, N. Greece, Ministry of Culture 2 School of Geology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece 3 School of History & Archaeology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece Abstract The "Folia Drakou" cave is situated in the broader area of the Pota moi village, in the Prefecture of Drama (Macedonia, Greece). The region belongs to the Sidironero geological unit of Rhodope massif. The cave has been formed into marbles, sipolines and gneisses. The speleogenesis of the cave and the anthropological findings are first presented. Char acteristic shapes of karstic tubes, breakdown formations, human bones ( cranium) and ceramics are singularly described. Introduction The "Folia Drakou" cave is located in the Despatis basin, close to the Potamoi village of Drama Prefecture, 100km NE from the city of Drama. In the broader area of Potamoi village a number of karstic caves were developed. The most interesting karstic formation is the "Folia Drakou" cave in which archaeological and anthropological findings have been observed. The cave presents passages with characteristic shapes, which are formed along the tectonic and stratigraphic discontinuities as well as breakdown morphology. The first visit for reconnaissance to the cave took place by the archaeologists in 1982. Since 2004 the cave has been explored and mapped twice by members of the Department of Northern Greece of the Hellenic Speleological Society. Geological Setting The broader area of the "Folia Dragou" cave belongs to the Rhodope Massif, which is distinguished into the Sidironero and Pangeon Unit, both consisting of metamorphic rocks. The Sidironero complex consists of a Paleozoic sequence mainly filled with gneisses and intercalations of or thogneisses, two-mica paragneisses, augen-gneisses, amphibolites, mylo nites and thin embedding layers of marbles, migmatites. Plutonic bodies 21 28 Auuusl 2005. l(a/umos. He/las have intruded in the area. The cave is formed within marbles and gneisses close to the thrust zone, where the upper Sidironero unit thrusts over Pan geon unit, with a 101 strike and a SW dip following the riverbed of Nes tos (Fig. 2, Falalakis, 2004). Gontesevo s..,..~ GREECE Dr-. f 11 km Figure 1. Map of northern Greece with the Drama area, the Potamoi village and the location of the Folia Drakou Cave.

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Sn e!eolu o1r: ui LE END N eogen e D c o nglomer ates, sands, marle s Mio c e n e Sid ironer o u nit gne is s es marbles-:am p hibolites l ower se que nce rnarbl es T e ctonic s ymb ol s ----faults Figure 2. Geological map of the broader area of the Potamoi village (based on Falalakis, 2004). UCAVE POTAMOI, DRAMA, MACEDONIA, GREECE LEGEND ""\\ INCLINATIONS -I! ~~ f BREAKDOWNS ...... ANT HROPOLOGICAL FINDINGS SC A LE 1 : 500 GROUNDPLAN O 5 10 15 m -======-CROSS SECTIONS Figure 3. Ground plan and cross sections of the Folia Drakou Cave (Potamoi, Drama Macedonia, Greece). There are three phases of folding, including isoclinal folds NE-SW, asymmetric conjugated folds trending from NE-NW to ENEW NW and open folds trending NW-SE. The second folding event is associated with the development reverse faults striking NE-SW, which predominate in W. Rhodope (Kilias & Mountrakis, 1990) The stress field i s nowadays char acterized by the maximum tensional axis having a direction from NNW SSE to NNE-SSW, with the last one being dominant. The seismicity of the area is rather sparse. The tension i s characterized as oblique normal with a dextral component of slip (Mountrakis & Papazachos, 2003) Archaeological setting The region of Potamoi has always been a crossroad for different civi lizations. Human activity in this area is evident for a very long period. Archaeological research has brought to light findings that date since the prehistoric age up to the Late Roman era (Peristeri 2002). Excavations were contacted in the area (Koukouli, 1967, 1976, Peris teri, 2002) by the 18th Ephoria of Classical and Prehistoric Antiquities. The excavations concerned mostly tombs that were dated by numismatic evi-Utfl lnturn n iionnf Co11r 1m ss of Stw feo fuay -

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He llenic Stw le olu u ica/ Sucie/ y Figur e 4. The Folia Drakou" cave: the greatest c hamber clos e to the en trance, where the breakdown m01phology has been observed. Figure 5. Th e "Folia Drakou cave: Figure 6. The "Folia Drakou" cave: a passage of a trapezoid shap e a passag e of a triangular shape. dence and ceramics in the I s t century A C. and a tomb of the L ate Copper age positioned at the junction of the forest streets Mikromilias Kourou. In a ddition a settlement of the Late Copper age was spotted and excavated in the same area at the site known as Eski Borovo. Inside the cave ceramics of d i fferent ages were scattered, possibly due to an illegal excavation. No evidence of inhabitance of the cave by human during the antiquity is present and only a systematic excavation can give ev id ence how the ceramics were brought into the cave. For the time being there is no clear connection between the human bones found in the cave and its possible use by humans at any time. Morphology of the cave The "Folia Drakou" cav e is a karstic tube about 200m long, develop ed in intercalations of marbles and gneisses. The entrance of the cave is 4.0m above Despati s River water level. The height of the cave ranges from 0.5 to 5.0m about, and the breadth varies from 0.5 to 12.0m (Fig. 3) The ma x imum dimensions of the cave are close to the entrance, where breakdown morphology is observed (Fig 4). These increasing dimensions are due to successive collapses that resulted in the grea test chamber of the cave to be formed. The almost horizontal foliation contributes to the process of the collapses and the formation of the brea k down morphology Breakdown fa cts occur both early and very late to the speleogenetic process (Whit e & White, 2000), the latter one being noted in this cave as well. The floor of the c ave is fully covered with fine-grained sediments flowstones and col lapsed blocks These deposits are mainly autochthonous, originating from the cave interior while some of them being possibly fluvial. The speleogenesis took place in a phreatic s tage Phreatic karstic tube s ha ve usually a circ ular shape when they ar e developed along the crossing of a joi nt and th e foliation of the rock (Lauritzen & Lundberg, 2000). De spite the fact th a t a similar crossi ng leads the development of the "Folia Drakou" Cave, the passages have different s hapes. The cross s e c tions of the t ub e have eithe r triangula r or trapezoid s hape. The tria ng ular s hape is noticed when the water con-o s ion follows almost vertical joints with the contribution of the foliation being inessential (Fig. 5) The existence of the 2 joints to th e si d ew all s and the foliation of the ceiling give trap ezo id s h a pe to the passages of the cave in cross s ections (Fig. 6). These passages had an original c ircular shape in the beginning that changed to trapezoid due to the collapses. If the collapsed blo cks remain in place the shape seem s rather triangular. Concerning spe l eo the mes the Folia Drako u Cave presents a great variety. There are stalactites stalagmites, flowstones, shi elds, columns g o u rs, mainly of you ng age They are ma in l y marked to the deepest part of the cave Finally, concerning the anthropological findings, th e most important calcite-covered skull has been fo und in the deepest part of the cave, with a 2 l 2B Auuust 2DU5. Kulamos He/Ins round e d hole on the frontal-parietal area. F urth er more post cranial bones such a s a femur a tibia, vertebras, pelvis etc, have been observed in other plac es of the cave (Figs. 3, 7) Conclusions The "Folia Drakou" Cave i s th e mo st in teresting cave of the Potamoi region because of the s pecial geological, speleological, archaeological and anthropo logical interest that presents The cave can be described as a karstic tube is of phreatic origin. Fi gure 7 The "Folia Drakou" cave: The human ca l c it e covered skull, with a rounded hol e on the frontal-pari etal area, found in the deepest part of the cave. The broadening of the cave is associated with successive collapses. e Triangular sh aped pa ssa ges are observed along almost vertical joints wh ereas trapezoi d ones are developed according to the tec tonic features of the rock. T h e presence of ceramic findings adds archaeological intere st to the cave A number of human skeleton remains including a sk ull give an an thropological interest. Acknowledgments We would like deeply to thank our colleagues K Polydoropoulos, V. Makridis, E. Partsio s for their s ubstantial contribution a nd help during the fiel d work. References FALALAKIS G., 2004. K inematic an alyses and de form ation at the boundary of crys talline Serbomacedonian and Rhodope massifs (Moun tains of KerkiniVron tou Makedon ia). Thesis Dissect. Sc hool of Geol ogy, Ar istotle Universi ty, p. 1-153, Thessaloniki. (in Greek)

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KILIAS, A. & MOUNTRAKIS, D., 1990. Kinematics of the crystal line sequences in the western Rhodope massif. Geologica Rhodopica, 2 : 100-115. KOUKOULI, C, 1967. "Archaeo l ogikon Deltion", chronicles, 22: 427 428 (in Greek) KOUKOULI, C., 1976 "Archaeologikon Deltion", chronicles, 31: 304 (in Greek) LAURITZEN, S E. & LUNDBERG, J., 2000. Solutional and Erosiona l Morphology In: "Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aquifers". A. B. Klim chouk, D. C. Ford,A. N. Palmer& W. Deybrodt(eds.)-National Speleologi cal Society: 408-426, Huntsville, Alabama. MOUNTRAKIS, D & PAPAZACHOS, K., 2003. Dete r mination of 0-39 the characteristics and the seismotectonics of the main active faults in North Gree c e with the use of neotectonic and seismic data Unpublished final report submitted to the Earthquake Planning & Protection Organiza tion (EPPO, in Greek) PERISTERI, K., 2002 Excavations of burial tombs at Potamoi of Drama. Archaeological acts in Macedonia and Trace 16 : 137 144. (in Greek) WHITE, E. L. & WHITE, W. B 2000 Breakdown Morphology. In: "Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aquifers". A. B. Klimchou.k, D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer & W. Deybrodt (eds.) National Speleological Society: 427429, Huntsv i lle,Alabama Archaeological Excavations in Hourriyeh Cave (Qadisha valleyLebanon) F. Beyano, C. rvlattar, H. AbdulNour Association Libanaise d'Etudes Speleo!ogiques (ALES), Beirut; Lebanon Abstract The Qadisha Valley located North of Lebanon is listed on UNESCO's world heritage sites for its natural values and the remarkable troglodyte Christian dwellings going back to the Middle Ages. In Marsh 2000 the Lebanese Association for Speleological Studies (ALES), discovered within a cliff in the lower part of the Qadisha Valley, a 22 m sub-horizon tal cave accessed by a 5m deep narrow shaft and containing human bones, snail shells and ceramics The archaeological artifacts and bones that are visible on the surface showed no modern disturbance. A preliminary di agnosis of the ceramic remains showed that it could be dated back to the end of the Early Bronze and beginning of the Middle Bronze Age This unique discovery in a region already famous for its Christian heritage, and thoroughly disturbed by "treasure hunters", triggered three campaigns of joint archaeological excavations by the General Directorate of Antiquities of Lebanon (DGA) and the ALES Caving Organization, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary committee of scientists, and was able to shed the light on human activities going back to the Neolithic and to the Bronze Age. Typolog i cal analysis of the finds and radiocarbon dating revealed three main phases of human use of the cave from the late Neolithic to the Early Middle Bronze period. Occupation layers and two mortuary practices were identified: The earliest goes back to the late Neolithic with occupation layers including a hearth, a trampled surface and pot fragments In the early Bronze Age, the cave was t ransformed to a burial place where inhumation was practiced and skeletons from children and adults were uncovered. At the end of the Early Bronze and the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, a change of mortuary practices was clearly attested with the presence of a great amount of incinerated human bones associated to a large quantity of ceramic vessels. It is important to note that incineration as a mortuary practice going back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, is attested for the first time in Lebanon and rarely mentioned in the neighboring countries; some of the ceramic vessels as sociated to this period were only attested in the coastal site of Byblos located 40 km southwest

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0-40 Cave Explorations on the Islands of Karpathos and Kasos (South Aegean, Greece) Thomas RathgeberStaatliches Museum.fur Naturkunde Stuttgart, Rosenstein Gewann I, D-70191 Stuttgart Germany Herbert Jantschke -Hohlenforschungsgruppe Ostalb-Kirchheim, Romerstrafie 7, D-72127 Kusterdingen, Germany Abstract During two visits in the years 1983 and 1987 to the islands of Karpa thos and Kasos 13 smaller caves were documented. The explorations in cluded surveys of the caves and the examination of Recent, subfossil and fossil bones found in these caves and also at other places of the area. The results are seen as a contribution for the questions on the formation of the Greek islands. A better knowledge of the faunal and floral development on the islands allows the identifiation of old land-bridges. A summary of the work is given, including the illustrated and detailed descriptions of two of the more interesting caves. Introduction In the south of the Aegean Sea the Greek island of Kar-pathos is situ ated at a point of interfering influences from Europe and Asia ( and Africa as well). The island is 49 km long and 15 km wide. It lies halfway between Crete and Rhodes. Together with Kasos (12 km long, 4 km wide) in the southwest, the nearby Saria (6 km long, 4 km wide) in the north and a number of smaller to tiny costal islands Karpathos forms the Karpathos Archipelago. The three larger islands contain widespread mountaineous areas with some higher peaks, culminating on Karpathos in the Kalilimni (1213 m), on Kasos in the Megalo Prionas (601 m), and on Saria in the Megalos (660 m). The islands are built up of Cretaceous limestone on Kasos and in the north of Karpathos and of a series of neritic limestones (Lias-Eocene) and phyllite in the main part of Karpathos. While the lime stones of Kasos are completely autochthonous, the structures of Karpa thos belong to an autochthonous and to four allochthonous series, being displaced from their submarine development area. Due to considerable tectonic movements in the Miocene (20 million years ago), these masses were uplifted, forming a landmass from this time on. According to current know-ledge, there were no land bridges to other larger islands or to the neighbouring continents during the Pleistocene ice ages. This point is sig nificant for a discussion about the younger history of the faunal and floral development on the islands. Fig. 1: Entrances of the Bat Cave (Fledermaushohle right) and Cricket Cleft (Gril lenspalte left) near Aperi on Karpathos (photograph: TH. RATHGEBER, 1 st of Oc tober 1987). Politically Karpathos belongs to the Greek district Do-decanes. The harbour of the capital town Pigadhia con-nects the island to the ferry lines from Crete and Rhodes. A small airport on the island also allows daily flight transfers from Rhodes. The historical development of the islands is quite complex. It is thought that the first settle-ments took place in the Neolithic period about 4600 years b.p. from the northeast. During Bronze Age (about 3500 b.p.) the Minoan culture had greater influences. Around 2500 b.p. four antique prospering villages are known from Karpathos: Poseidon (Pigadhia), Arkeseia (Arkasa), Vrykous (Vrukunta, see cave de scription below) and Nissyros (Ta Palatia on the now uninhabited island Saria). After belonging to the Roman Empire in the years before Christ, Karpathos was governed by Genoa, Veni-ce, Rhodes, Turkey, Italy, Ger many and Britain, and it was not until 1948, when it was united with Greece after 654 years of foreign occupation. In the year 1991 a population of only 5323 inhabitants was living on Karpathos. Signs of a denser settlement in former times are for example man-made terraces almost everywhere and the occurrence of artificial cave structures even in very remote places. 9 older villages are situated on Karpathos with Olimpos in the north and Pigadhia together with Aperi in the south being the greatest. On Kasos, a number of 5 viilages exists, but to-day only the harbour town Fri is of greater significance. A network of good roads was built between all the vil-lages on the main islands and it was only in 1981, when a road reached Olimpos, up to then being the remotest town in Greece, accessible only by trails. Comfortable annual temperatures of 20C (Pigadhia) and low annual precipi-tations of 464 mm give the islands touristic attractivity. Karst forms are abundant on the islands, but in contrast to Crete and Rhodes they are of minor extension and only of regional significance. Typical for this fact is a region near the summit of the Kalilimni, where corrosive surface features like karren and dolines are formed and the open potholes reach down only to a depth of about 10 m. Big-ger caves are found only in costal regions, related to old sea-levels, I1:ainly around 70 m above the present level. Summarising it is clear, that on the islands only an "ini-tial karst" is developed. The reason for this might be the small catchment areas for precipitation and the geological disturbance with a lack of a long time constant karst water table inside the limestone. This result of our work supports the theory of a relatively independent develop-ment with no land bridges in the younger history of the earth, especially none during the Pleistocene. Remarks on the fauna of Karpathos From Neogene sediments near the airport DAAMS & VAN DE WEE RD ( 1980) investigated a fauna of small mammals and placed them in the early Pliocene. The sample con-tained teeth of 5 different species. In a quantity of only 20 teeth this comparatively high number is a sign for a diverse continental influence. Hence, the authors came to the conclusion of a high evidence for massive land bridges from Karpathos over Rhodes to the Asian conti-nent in the early Pliocene. The Pleistocene mammal fauna is completely reigned by remarkably small endemic cervids. First found 1963 in a cave 700 m to the southeast of Pigadhia, these cervids were placed by KUSS (1975) in a new genus and in the two new species Candiacervus cerigensis and C. pigadi-ensis. Type locality is a cave named Kandilia or, used by the German ornitholo gists KINZELBACH & MARTENS (1965), Seglergrotte (see Tab. 1). Living in the Middle and Upper Pleistocene, probably even in the early Holo-cene, these deer species held the ecological niche which now is oc cupied by the domestic goats. Nearly all discoveries of fossil deer bones have taken place in caves or in karst sediments, giving a spotlight on the living circumstances of the animals, seeking for shade and a damp cli-

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mate. Beside the deer only remnants of snails, bi r ds a mouse and a turtle have been found up to date (KUSS 1967, 1973 1975; WEESIE 1984) Predators are lacking in the Pleistocene fauna. Today, only one wild living Mammalian species of predators exists on the island, the Ston e Marten (Martes foina) Cave desc r iptions As examples, two of the more interesting caves of Kar-pathos are Table 1: Caves on the islands of Kasos und Karpathos. No. Name of the cave Longitude Kasos Stilokamara E 26 27" 2 Ellinokamara E 26 40 Karpathos 3 Hohlenkirche Agios Ioannis E 27 22 bei Avl6na 4 Hohlenkirche Agios Ioannis E 27'45" bei Sp6a 5 Kuss-Hohle E 27'32" 6 Ziegenhorst E 27 45 7 Hirschhohle E 27'56" 8 Achatahohle E 27'39" 9 Marderhohle E 27 38" 10 Fledermaushohle E 27'15" 11 Grillenspalte E 27 '14" 12 Pfeilergrotte E 27'28" 13 Seglergrotte E 27'48" Explanations: No. Same number as in fig. 2 Name of the cave For detailed information see JANTSCHKE & RATHGEBER (2005) Longitude According to the Italian topogra phical maps 1: 25000 (1932 1934) these times and that the church has only been occupied and rearranged in Christian times. Even parts of the trail from Avl6na down to the festival ground above the cave are likely to be very old. As a replacement to a usual chapel tower a rock cross was erected directly above the cave and the bells hang in a wooden frame nearby Stairs are leading down to the entrance in the upper third of the steep cliff. A tiny harbour in the neigh bourhood functions as a transfer point in festival times. At the entrance some seating possibilities invite the guests to take a rest. From the small and white painted entrance some more stairs lead down into an impressive dome with hot, sticky air and the ever lasting smell of incense The room hosts a shrine, a part of an antique column and a bap tistry in the form of a cross. This basin is fed, like two similar but simpler ones, with dripping water from the roof. Candle holders and metal votive panels are installed at the walls. In the southeast comer of the room a tiny shaft drops into the dark, protected by stonewalls and sealed with many crosses and candles Concerning the foundation of the church a legend exists, saying that in the times of Byzantine emperors the inhabi-tants ofVrykous decided to bui l d a church, but they did not know where. Three times it happened that an icon of Saint John, bound for the new church, vanished from the town Helle n ic Sm 1feoiouiw i Su c i ely presented one being an old C hristian church and th e other one the longest cave of the island known to us. The cave church Agios Ioannis near Avl6na at the north western part of K arpathos is probably the most visite d undergrou n d structure of the whole ar c hipelago. A cons id erable port i on of the underground volume seems t o be carved out of the rock in former times and it is diffi-cult to determine natural and artificial parts. The cave lies at the tip of Cape Vrukunta near the antique town Vry-kous from which relics of walls and tombs are pre served It is very likely that the artificial parts of the cave wer e formed in Latitude N 35'26" N 35 45" N 35'51" N 35'03 N 35'53" N 35 39 N 35'18" N 35'12" N 35 11" N 35 '44" N 35 '44" N 35'02 N 35'43" Latitude Altitude Total length Altitude Total length 255 19m 1 50 20m 15 32m 90 72m 70 22m 190 23 m 70 14m 70 56m 70 50m 70 102m 70 35m 5 26m 0 98m According to the Italian topogra-phi cal maps 1 : 25000 (1932-1934) Fioor at the entrance (in metres above sea-level) For detailed information see JANTSCHKE & RATHGEBER (2005) and was found inside the cave. Therefore people followed the will of Saint John and the church was build inside the cave. The 28 th of August every year several hundred people from Olimpos and Diafani are celebrating a festival in the honour of Saint John the Bap tist, singing, dancing and staying there for two nights. The great entrance of the Bat Cave (Fledermau s hohle, Hohle Tsour laki Tsoulaki 's Cave Tzoullaki Spilreon) is situated about 2 km southeast of Aperi and 4 km north-west of Pigadhia. It lies in a little valley about 70 m above sea-level. The cave is developed in Cretaceous Dolomites of the Olonos-Pindos Series and shows a total length of 102 m. The dolomitic banks of the rock are tectonically deformed into a saddle structure where the cave follows a serie s of parallel faults to the north. In the s teep north ward dipping strata the nearly black dolomite contains different layers of whiti s h grey flintstone which are now stick i ng out of the walls as an insoluble com-ponent. Directly behind the entrance the main room of the cave is 26 m long, 9 m wide und up to 8 m high On the floor, beneath an only 10 cm thick bed of small stones and earth fine layered clay points to a formation in quiet wa-ter Near the western wall of the main room remnants of a building were observed, partly co v ered with flowstone and therefore of an older age. At the right hand end of the ma i n room, a fissure forms a small, high 14111 ln!emufionu! Conmess at Soelealaov

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ffelle11ic St wleo luair:al Sor:ief v 100 km ARMATHIA oe:,~ AGAIS 0 2 4 6 8 10 km t:9-.. 0 KAsos TOrkei ,Ka,pathos ., Lefk6s SARIA KARPATHOS Kalillmni .. 1213 m 0 n 6 Mert6nas g S n Voladha nn Piles 10 12 7 6thoi 8 11 ~~ri (" n Pigadhia n 13 Fig. 2: The Karpathos-Archipelago with the caves surveyed in 1983 und 1987. The numbers are the same as in Tab 1 (Altitudes of the mountains as given in the Road Map 1:75000 Karpathos/Kasos by Freytag-Berndt u. Artaria, Wi e n Edition 01/99). 21 28 !wuusl 2()05 Kufamns, lie/las

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passage which runs 20 m upward to the north. There is a good resting place for bats. In the far reaches cave crickets ( D is coptila kinzelbachi HARZ, 1971) were found. On the western wall of the ma i n room a low gap gives way to a roomy fissure, orientated towards the hillside. HZ/1 Hohlenkirche Agios loannis Korpothos Greece Longsschni tt Fig 3: Cave Church Agios Joannis near Avl6na on Kar-pathos plan of the cave sur veyed and mapped 11 th of October 1987 by H. JANTSCHKE, A. LEHMKUHL and TH. RATHGEBER (drawn by H. JANTSCHKE). Only few speleothems are found within the cave. In the development of the cave, the highest Pleistocene sea-level during the Tyrrhenic trans gression (KINZELBACH & MARTENS 1965) might have played a role. MELAS (1985) reports the discovery of ancient pottery, which he as signed partly to the Neolithic and mainly to the Middle and Late Bronze Age period. West of the entrance, the neighbouring cave Cricket Cleft (Grillenspalte) follows one of the faults mentioned above The passage goes straight to the north without reaching a connection to the main cave. It forms a narrow fissure and its far end is difficult to access. Fig. 4: Cave Church Agios Ioannis near Avl6na on Kar-pathos view over the baptistry to the stairs which lead down into the cave (photograph: TH. RATHGEBER. 11 th of October 1987). Further information For a detai l ed desc r ipt i on see JANTSCHKE & RA T HGEBER (2005), where also a more complete list of literature is given. Fig. 5: View through the huge portal of the Bat Cave (Fledermaushohle) down to the ground of the valley (photograph: TH. RATHGEBER, I st of October 1987). Acknowledgements The speleological investigations in the South Aegean were initiated by H. PIEPER, Kiel. From 1 4th of Ap r il to 4th of May 1983 he visited Kasos and Karpathos together with the principal author. Also B. HELL WAGE-RATHGE-BER, TH RAUS, Berlin, 0 RUNZE, Kiel, and H. SCHMAL-FUSS, Stuttgart, participated. During this journey, the islands Annathia and Saria were also visited. From 30th of September to 14th of October 1987 a second journey led to Karpathos This time both authors were ac-companied by the speleologist A. LEHMKUHL, Stuttgart. We thank all the named persons for their friendship and for many helps. F i g 7 : Sections of the Bat Cave (Fledermaushohle) and the Cricket Cleft (Gr i l lenspalte) near Aperi on Karpathos (map see fig. 6) Refere11ces DAAMS, REMMERT & WEERD, ANNE VAN DE (1980): Early Pliocene small mammals from the Aegean island of Karpathos (Greece) and their palaeogeographic significance Geolo-gie en Mijnbouw, 59, p 327-331, 3 fig., 1 pl.; Den Haag. JANTSCHKE, HERBERT & RATHGEBER, THOMAS (2005 in press): Hohlenkundliche Beobach-tungen und Untersuchungen auf dem Kar pathos-Archipel (Stid-Agais, Griechenland). Materialhefte zur Karst-und Hohlenkunde (MKH), 19; Heidenheim. KINZELBACH, RAGNAR & MARTENS, JOCHEN

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Helle11ic Sne/euluuical Sur:ie/y !mag (Fl~dermaushOh (Gnllenspalte: 1~;7;983) Fledermaushohle (Bat Cave) 24.126..u.3.6.1983 Originalmallstab1:200 BeatrixHellw O 1 2 4 Grieche I - -:;;,~'-w "" n and Greece 01~87~~rbrtJant1chke Th imlehmkuhl Fig. 6: Map oft ~-near A he Bat Cave IF[ d pen on Karpath \' e ermaushohl) ~f May 1983 by B H os caves su,veyed an e and the Cricket Cle October 1987 b .H. ELLWA GE-RATHGEBE d mapped 24 th and 26 !!' (Gr,1/enspalte) and H. JANrslma(ANTSCHKE and A. L: and TH. RATHGEBE; of April and 3rd sectwns see fig. 7') HMKUHL ( drawn b r' completed 1 st of '.Y 'H. RATHGE-BER (1965): Zur Ke Bonner zoologisch~:i1~r~er Vogel von Karpathos .. KUSS, SIEGFRIE ge, 16, p. 50-91, I fi (Sudhche Agliis ). -ostmediterr D E. (1967) Pl g., Bonn. anen Insel K e1stozane S .. schenden Gesellscha; ythera und Karpathos. auge-tierfunde auf den II, Fre1burg im B zu Fre1burg im Bre1 Benchte der Natur .., K re1sgau. s-gau, 57 p 207 -,orUSS, SIEGFRIED -215, pl. I and ostmediterranen Inse E. (1973): Die pleisto .. forschenden Gesells:~~~hr Alter_ und ihre Herk:;n ~liugetierfaunen der Im Bre1sgau zu Fre1burg im B . enchte der N t reisgau 63 a-urKUSS, SIEGFRIED E , p. 49-71; Freiburg (1975) ff ie ple1stoz anen H1rsche d er ostmedi-1-28 Auuust 200.:. 1 /({J/{J/170) Jfn// ,, lJS Aufriss S-N Fledermaush .. hi -~'-" 0 e (Bat Cave) " ~,,,,rt"~ "'~ Grillenspalte (C ncket Cleft) ,.''~~ Originalmallstab1:200 fig. 7, Sect' ~-aa.'..'.' " ma near Ape wns of the Bat Cave IF[ d antschke Thomas Rathgeber rz on Karpath \' e ermaushohl ) os (map see fig. 6). 3 tab e4 a;d the Cricket Cleft (Gr?! ., p .; Freiburg im B z enspalte) Karpathos Griechenl~nd G reece terranen Jnseln Kr re~gau. B eta, Kasos K enchte der Nature h arpathos und Rh d 2 1orsc ende G o os (G h p. 5-79, 8 fig 3 n esellschaft F nee enland). tab., 4 pl F zu re1burg i B MELAS ., re1burg im B m re1sgau 65 EMMANUEL re1sgau. , and Kaso M. (1985) Th .. s m the Neolithic e Islands of K Goteborg (Paul At .. and Bronze Age -33 arpathos, Saros s roms p I . 7 p 140 ogy, 68) or ag). (=Stud ., fig., 1 t b ,es m Medit a ., WEESIE, PETER erranean Archaeol-from the south Ae D: M. (1984): On some 845-849, 1 fig. L gean island of Karpathos (G Ple1sto-cene bird fossils ., yon. reece). Ge b. O IOS, 17, p.

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0-41 REMARKS ON THE PROBLEMS OF THE PALAEOLITHIC TERMINOLOGY Nickos A. Pmdiarws Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of Palaeoanthropology Speleaology, Ardittou 34b, Athens 11636. Aegean Un., Medit. Studies, Rhodes, Anthropological Association of Greece, 5 Daphnomili, Athens 11471 Abstract Very often Paleolithic manufacts and tools are found in cave deposits, especially in Europe. The related scientific fields are comparatively recent as they are little more than a century old. Thus the terminology associated with this research is not yet fully established and/or standardized and such an effort still requires further studies. In this paper some terms of primor dial importance are discussed For example, the word "culture" is defined as the sum of the bio-social adaptations to the environment. The need of defining different, contemporaneous or not, distant or mixed cultures and their limits is presented, as well as the meaning of the word "tool" Also discussed is the use of other problematic terms such as: industry, retouch, by-product, sub-product, edge, ridge, flat, linear, bulb, natural flake, simple detached flake, premeditated and/or Levalloisian flake, degree of curvature, chopper, hachoir, bladelet etc. The development of the Paleolithic scientific discipline is compara tively recent. Ancient philosophers (p. ex. Anaximandros, 610-550) first tried to give an explanation of human origins, expressing the opinion that they might be common along with fishes and other animals. Lucrecius (97-55) supposed that teeth, nails and hands were initially used as tools, while subsequent implements were made of wood, stones and bones. It is only after almost 2,000 years when similar questions appeared on the scientific horizon. Thus, a significant step was made during 19th century by an amateur named Jacques Boucher de Perth es ( 1788-1868), who un earthed the Achelean Palaeolithic culture in France. Since then however the most important discoveries, offering a possibility of modem interpre tations of Palaeolithic period, concern last few decades. Due to its "young age" Palaeolithic terminology is not yet satisfacto rily determined and the present paper is dedicated to promoting a further investigation. First, a commonly accepted definition of culture is needed, which is perhaps best expressed as a sum of bio-social adaptations to the environment. Therefore each culture reflects such adaptations, although the criteria of passing from one culture to another and/or their stages, periods, phases etc, are not yet established in an absolute (i.e. objective) manner. For example: Did North American Indians participate to a single culture, stage etc or to many? At the present time, a mathematical model is almost impossible to provide. Questions abound: What criteria should be used to distinguish one culture from another? Is it for instance satisfac tory to set a sum of 10% of changes concerning technological, produc tive means and spiritual (linguistic, religious etc) factors, as the absolute standard to the passage from one cultural stage to another? Theoretical multidisciplinary analysis accompanied by examination of data even be yond the available bibliographical elements should lead to the answers. Industry ( e.g. the way of transforming row material), culture, civi lization ( cf. above), tradition ( e.g. continuity and evolution of cultural elements), cultural stage, phase etc (e.g. social and technological level of a culture), cultural complex ( e.g. combination of traditions and cultural stages within a limited geographical area and time span) are also terms of ten used arbitrary and a more precise distinction among them is required. Similar uncertainties are connected to the meaning of the word tool. Many animal classes, as well as humans ( contemporary or previous evo lutionary stages) use implements without any material preparation and/or flaking. Practically they cannot be distinguished and for this reason the term "handy tool" or "pre-tool" is proposed. Concerning the distinction between human manufacts and tools, not all specialists agree for their terminological use. The word tool usually means an object of the environment that is deliberately detached and shaped for the elaboration of other objects ( ofliving origin or not), known or unknown way ofuse (i.e. hunt ing included). Furthermore, such an elaborated object is retouched and must be met in a repeating way and not as an isolated sample in prehistoric sites. Beyond these criteria the words implements or manufacts are used (within which all tools are included). However confusion still remains concerning some tool types, as for example the unretouched choppers and many blades, suggesting that a reconsideration of relative definitions cur rently used appears necessary. The same uncertainty is observed for terms such as chips, by-products ( e.g. tools produced by chance, not deliberately), debris, etc, to which the term "sub-product" ( e.g. a rejuvenation core flake, Kemscheibe) must be probably added. A clarification among natural, simply fabricated, pre meditated (note: prepared is a problematic, often misleading term) and/or Levalloisian flakes (perhaps "pholidota" or "folidota", single "pholido to") is also necessary, since the latter may be due to more or less sophisti cated technologies, but not always clearly to which one. Furthermore tool types and technologies appear inconvenient to be based on geographical names. Besides the aforementioned choppers, hachoirs and bladelets need to be defined more precisely. Bladelets that are less than 10 mm wide and less than 40 mm long are proposed to be called "mini-blades" or "nano blades". There are nonetheless describing terms of tool parts, which according to the author's opinion, should be rearranged in more details. The word bulb must be abandoned because it is confusing and should be replaced by the word conchoid (since this tool part may even be flat, however never presenting the form of a bulb). Also border retouch must be distinguished from the face retouch of a tool. The words border, arise, ridge, lip and edge may be used in a synony mous way. However, for practical reasons it is more suitable to use them exclusively in specific cases, i.e. without overlapping terminologically. Thus the following proposals are made: a) "border" to indicate only the implements' margins, b) "arise" to indicate only the ridges (i.e in between channels) of cores, c) "ridge" to indicate only the flakes' and blades' dor sal edges due to arises, not to retouch, d) "lip" to indicate only the tool's, scars borders, and e) "edges" to indicate only working ones. Many times the words flat and linear are erroneously used, since such features are very rare indeed. It is therefore more appropriate to replace them in most of the cases by terms such as "flattish" and "strait-tending". Finally, the curvature degree portrayed by the scars of a tool (i.e. fulfill by lines, designing) is proposed according to Figure 1. 0 1 Reference: Figure 1. The curvature degree of a tools scars portrayed from 0 to 5+, which correspond to scars' indexes from 1 to 40+ (length x width x depth of scar x 100 divided by tools volume). These indexes practically show the volume percentage that scars occupy on a manufact. Obviously it is possible to use the intermediate curvature degrees arbitrarily, without any further absolute definition Poulianos A. Nickos (2005) Introduction to Palaeolithic technology and typology (in Greek). Ed. Kardamitsa. Athens.

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Sue!eDluuical 0-42 THE ABSOLUTE DATINGS OF PETRALONA CAVE Dr Nkkos A. Poulianos Ministry of Culture, Ephorate of Palaeoanthropology Speleaology, Ardittou 34b, Athens 11636. Aegean Un., Medit. Studies, Rhodes, Anthro pological Association of Greece, 5 Daphnomili, Athens 11471. Greece. E-mail:ww. Abstract A long discussion regarding the chronology of the Petralona cave find ings (human, animal fossils, manufactures, etc) has been ongoing since the skull of a prehistoric man was found 45 years ago. Both relative and absolute datings have been very controversial among various scholars. The relative datings have suggested that the findings date back to the Early Middle Pleistocene. Absolute datings such as U/Th, ESR, TL, ami noacids, palaeomag, etc have led to several measurable results which are not always concordant. A synthesis of up today efforts and an interpreta tion of the contradictory results are given herewith. Stratigraphy and relative datings On September 16th 1960 a human skull of a male individual was found at Petralona cave covered by stalagmitic sinter. Its age, along with the faunal remains, was initially attributed to the Upper Pleistocene (50,00070,000 years ago). During 1968 A. Poulianos (1968, 1971) started exca vating the site and, according mainly to palaeolithic stratigraphic data, the age of the Petralona findings were reassessed at about 0,5-0,9 m.y.a. He also founded in 1971 the Anthropological Association of Greece which has taken the initiative of the site's investigation. Summarizing the present evidence, the following picture is obtained: In the northern cave compartment 34 geological layers have being revealed, while in the southern compartment only those beneath the 11th stratum. On the ground surface of the southern compartment, in a chamber named Mausoleum, the Petralona man was found who therefore lived during the formation of the 11th layer ( or at most the 14th ). Two are the main stalagmitic layers developed in the cave stratigraphy which concern absolute datings: the 1st (upper) and the 10th The faunal evidence, despite several discordances, confirmed the aforementioned chronology given by A. Poulianos. Note: Because of space limitation in the present paper, palaeolithic, statigraphic and faunal data are not further discussed (for more details see A. Poulian os, 1982a and N. Poulianos, 1989, 1995). Absolute datings Specialised laboratories have used different methods in order to achieve the absolute chronology of various. materials coming from the Petralona cave sediments. A summary of the up today results follows. Uranium/ Thorium Sample No. 75022 was the first to be dated with the U-234/Th-230 method, by Prof. H. P Schwarcz (see A. Poulianos 1977). This sample comes from the 1st stalagmitic layer of Section Alfa and its age was calcu lated to be of about 0.3 m.y.a. Surprisingly another sample coming from the 10th layer of the same Section was calculated to be at a younger age (~0.2m.y.). The second sample should indicate an elder age compared to the first one. This contradiction is a good example of the difficulties and the limits of the absolute dating methods used for spelaeothems. Regard ing the surface stalagmitic material of the Mausoleum, the maximum pos sible estimation of the method was made, i.e. 0.35 m.y.a .. More material was subsequently dated to improve the accuracy of the results. Schwarcz et al. (1980) analyzed a number of samples. A sample collected by H. P. Schwarcz himself, from the lower part of a stalagmitic column of Section Alfa, was dated at 277 .000+ 160.000 or 277.000-70.000 years, containing a concentration of0.11 ppm of Uranium. Another sample presented a younger age because the analogy between U234/Th-230 was 0.8 ppm, and a third sample over-passed the equilibrium value indicating an "infinite" age (>350.000 years). A micro-section taken from a higher level of the same stalagmitic column showed to be of a more recent age (69.000 21.000 years), while two other samples, taken from adjacent columns of Section Alfa, presented values extraordinarily high (8.4 and 2.7 ppm). According to Schwarcz et al. (1980), these samples, curiously, did not seem to be chemically disturbed and the uncertainties of the chronological results were attributed to the relatively low Uranium content. The same authors pointed out the large isotopic variation in the samples, despite being only 4 cm apart and coming from the same stalag mitic layer. They concluded that it was impossible to have a precise result for the middle part of the 1st layer, while its lower part indicated an age that reached the limit of the method, i.e. 0.35 m.y.a. Samples from the 10th layer of Section Alfa indicated again an age of about 0.2 m.y.a. Another sample from the same layer, which contained very low Uranium concentration, corresponded only to 0.14 m.y.a. These results are contradictory with previous findings and thus Schwarcz et al. (1980) considered the estimated age of this layer to not be representative of its actual age. An explanation regarding the results of this stratum must probably lie with the fact that it has been influenced by a more recent sinter flowstone. This flowstone probably followed the limestone wall of the cave in Theophrastus hall, penetrating the empty space that was cre ated between its wall and the sediments in post deposition times, during arid periods when the phenomenon of sediments' subsidence occurred. The travertine floor of the Mausoleum that is mainly composed of two surface stalagmitic layers (i.e. the 1st and the 10th ), was found to be of an age between 0.28-0.6 m.y.a. (the later extrapolated), i e. focusing on a medium of0.45 m.y.a. Other results were provided by Henning et al. (1980) for 22 samples, which were mainly dated by the U-234/Th-230 method. The numbering of the samples follows the order in which they were collected. Gener65.000 to more than 350.000 years ago. The latter value also corresponds to the Mausoleum surface Again these estimations are a compromise be tween the more recent stalagmitic formation and the limit of the method The samples 4, 5, 11, 13, and 17 which correspond to the layers 11-16/20, present very similar isotopic analogy indicating their close chronology. This result is in accordance with the biostratigraphical data Liritzis (1980) tried to extend the limit of0.35 m.y.a. by calculating the analogies between Th-230/Th-232 and U-234/U-238. However, extrapo lating the datings he indicated that the standard errors might reach even 1-2 sigma (30-60% ). Liritzis' (1980) results regarding the chronology and the gamma dosimetry are summarised below: a) The 1st layer gave an age between 0.075 and >0.35 m.y.a. b) The intermediate travertine of Section Alfa (10th layer) showed a medium age of about 0.3 m.y.a., presenting an extrapolated maxi mum estimation of0.75 m.y.a. c) The middle-upper portion of the stalagmitic travertine from Mau soleum revealed an age between 154.000 250.000 years and the lower one between 400 650.000 years. The travertine from the adjacent Mediterranean hall in the upper part was estimated at about 159.000 years and the middle-lower from 350.000 to 600.000 years. Here, the remarkable coincidence of the values of chemi cal and chronologicai compositions of both travertine layers of the Mausoleum and the Mediterranean halls must be noted, confirming again the stratigraphical observations.

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Liritzis (1980) a l so noted a vacuum o f th e calcite formation be t ween 0.2 and 0.3 5 m y a which was attributed to this period's climatic changes c orrelated to th e Shackleton & Opd y ke ( 1976) stages 6-10 Furthermore Lirit z is ( 1980) affirm e d that th e sin te r formation o f the 1s t and the 10th layer proc e e de d mainly during 0 07 0.17 0 2 0.35 0.45 and 0 6 m y a This result is a ve r y interestin g observation for Pleistocene palaeocology, palaeoanthropolgy as well as palaeo ntology, because indicating the main world's humid periods during the last half m y.a. In respect to th e a bove datings, it is possible to give a hypothetical ex ample regarding the deposition of remains within the various stalagmitic layer s: A fossil is just penetrating the s urface of a travertine of 0 6 m.y a and it is covered by sinter of0.45-0 2 m.y a. If the age of the fossil is con sidered by dating the stalagmitic mate r ial that surrounds it with a mean of about 0.3 m.y a ., a wrong chrono log y would be given. It would be even more wrong if it was dated at 0.2 m.y.a The correct chronology of the fossil, instead should be the dating of it s deposition at the stratigraphical level i.e that of at least 0 6 m.y.a Thermolumin e scence ( TL) In ideal cases and for materials relatively recent, the standard error of this method is about 10% Beyond an age of 0.3 m.y.a. the s tandard error increases considerably. Accord i ng to I k e ya (1977), the mini m um age obtained by this method for the surface stalagmite of Section Alfa-I is 0.25 m y.a. The same meth od was applied by Liritzis ( 1979 1980) on feldspatic sands embedded in burned out argyle from the 4th layer Th e r esults indicated a maximum age of 0.67-0.7 m.y.a Liritzis (1980, 1986) did not consider these results to be representative of the actual age. Thus, he indicated an age of 0.3-0.35 m.y.a. as more probable because this is the dating usually obtained for the 1s t layer as it is closer to the 4th one The author's opi nion though is that for the first time by the absolute datings wa s r e vealed that the 4th layer tends to have an ag e of 0 7 m.y a Fission track detection Dating the stalagmite of Section Alfa -1 by the fission track method did not provide reliab l e results (Ikeya 1977) This is aga in due to the fact that the U-238 concentration is very l ow (0.12 ppm), a value which is much lower than that o bta ine d by the gamma ray sp e ctroscopy of the Ra -22 6 (0.57 ppm) M. I k e ya hypothesised that this difference may be due to Ra don which i s not d e rived from Uranium Ik e ya ( 1977) thus concluded that the Petralona stalagmites could be dated by this method only if it were to have an age of mor e than 3 m.y.a E.S.R. Electron Sp i n Resonanc e E.S. R ., a dat i ng m e thod discovered by Ikeya (1975, 1978a) at Jamagu c i Univ e r s it y, wa s fir s t applied to dat e pr e hi s toric remains from P e tralona cav e. E S R. requires the samp l e to be exposed to gamma rays The effects of the rays on th e i rradiated point s are re co rded and the spin angles of the out-com i ng e lec trons are measured. It s ad v antages compared to other radiometri c m e thods used in caves are: 1) only a small sample amount is needed (10-20 mg), 2 ) theoretically its m ax imum age limit is much higher compare to other m e thods, and 3) lately it has been perfected and may also be used as a me t hod which does not destroy the samp le s. Initially E.S R was applied on a cross s ection at the base of a stalag mitic column fr o m Section Alfa-1 Th e c entral part of the sample pre sented a wh i te c o lour, while the rest of it towards its periphery presented a brown one Their contact point was cal c ulated to have an age of about 68.000 years and a radial increase of0 2 micromill imet er s/year Assuming that the increasing rhy t hm was stable, a minimum age of 0.25 m.y .a. for the centre of the stalagmite was calculated Similar results were obtained by Ikeya (1977) on stalagmitic samp l es from Akiyoshi cave in Japan lead ing him to conclude that a world-wide simultaneous c hange of climate humidity occurr e d Precise measur e ments regarding the radiation per year ( annua l dose) of the Petralona cav e were needed for bette r estimation s of age. This parameter was initially obtained by introducing sensitive capsules of Phosphorum and CaSO4 (Tm) inside the cave s e diments. They showed an external dose of 50 mr / year, corresponding to a total annual dose of 200 mr/year (Ikeya 1977). Furthermore, Ikeya ( 1978b) dated another sample from the surface of Section Alfa, which gave an age of0.34 m.y.a. on the basis of a total annual dose of 0.2 rad/year and the external dose of 87 ( 20) mr/year. Next Ikeya & A. Poulianos (1979) presented datings of ashes at tached to stalagmitic material coming from the layer 23-24 of the newly excavated Section Gamma (see also A Poulianos 1980a). The stalagmitic material was probably affected by the same fire that produced the ashes. The archaeological dose (before exposing the samples to radiation) was calculated to be of about 210-230 Krad. Considering the annual do s e of 0.2 0.3 rad/y, an absolute dating of0.7-1 m.y.a. was indica ted. However it was observed that the ashes radiated more than the stalagmites. Thus, the value of the (average) annual dose of 0.2 rad/year could be in fact higher by 0.1 rad/year or even half (i .e 0.1 rad/year see Ikeya & A. Poulianos 1979). A larg e variation in the obtained values was again observed within the same sample. This variation according to Ikeya (1980), is probably due to the variation quantity of the radionucelotides contained inside the samples which influence the values of the annual dose. The eventual carbonate impurity of the stalagmitic material, probably due to a re-crystallisation process and to its porous structure, prompted Ikeya to claim the need of further research. As regards the 1 ffh stalagmitic layer of Section Beta, the same author considered an age of0.67 m.y.a. as more probable. More E S.R. res ults were presented by Henning et al. (1981b). They used five samples three of which (b d, e) had been already dated by the U / Th method (Henning et al. 1980, 1981a), an act criticised by Karakosta noglou (1981a, b) on the level of professional ethics, mainly because they did not previously contact and/or notify the director of the excavations. Since Henning et al. (1981b) did not indicate the precise cave location of the samples (b, d, e ) a comp arison of the chemical composition between Henning et al. (1980) and Henning et al. (1981b) suggests that they b e long to the southern abovementioned cave compartment (Mediterraneum Ma usol eum ) The five samples in detail are: a) Calcite covering the human skull, dated at 0.2 m y.a., which ac cording to Henning et al. (1981 b) indicates the minimum possible age of the Petralona man b) Upper level of the stalagmitic floo r (Mediterranean -Mausoleum) again at 0.2 m.y a. c) Bone fragments of the human skull which were removed along with stalagmitic material during cleaning are dated at 127.000 years (between a minimum of 0 .1 m.y.a. and a maximum of 0.16 m .y. a ). It must be however noted that unfortunately the quantity of the removed bone fragments is not indicated. d) A calcite sample taken 3-4 mm below sample (b ), was dated at 0 2 m.y.a., which according to Henning et al. (1981b} should indica t e the maximum age of the hominid ( although no explanation pro vided). On purely stratigraphical reasoning, this dating indicates instead the minimum age, whi l e for the same reasons the maximum age is obtained from sample ( e ). e) Calcite sample taken 30-40 mm below sample (b ), dated at 650 280.000 years. It is evident that 4 out o f 5 datings of Henning et al. ( 1 981b) J.iffi fnternnlionul C unrne s s o f Stwleolouy

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Hellenic Sf]e/eoloaicu l S ociet y show more recent chronologies than those suggested by previous researchers (along with those of Henning et al. 1980, 1981a). Ac cording to Ikeya (1982) this discrepancy is due to different con clusions of the total annual dose of radioactivity received by the samples; thus p. ex. considering the annual external dose as double the absolute age falls down to half. A discussion on the various aspects of these datings was brought up in "Nature": A. Poulianos (1982b) drew the attention to the stratigraphical and cultural position of the Petralona man, which along with the study of the carnivore remains (see Kmten & A. Poulianos, 1977, 1981) indicated an age corresponding to the end of the Lower Pleistocene (~0,7 m.y.a.). Liritzis (1982) noted that he also had discovered more recent ages but only in the upper and external parts of the Mausoleum concretions. Ikeya (1982) stated that his E.S.R. method was further perfected be yond the first datings, discussing also the influence of Radon on the sam ples. The age of0.6-0.7 m.y.a. for the Petralona man (even on the basis of the results obtained for the internal annual dose by Henning et al., 1981b) was indicated as the most representative and very close to that determined for Mauer (see also Ikeya & Miki 1981, Ikeya 1990a, 1990b 1993). Kurten (1982) pointed out that the calcite covering the skull cannot be more ancient than the skull itself, since Henning et al. 's (1981 b) sample-a (200,000 years) is indicated to be of an older age than sample-c (127,000 years). After all it is obvious that a skull may not be "intruded" into elder stalagmitic material in relation to the time the individual was alive. Henning et al. (1982) in a reply which did not disrespect the above A. Poulianos, Liritzis, Ikeya, Kurten statements but which was nevertheless misleading, wrote the following in the same volume of "Nature": 1) Henning ~t al. (1982) claimed to be "the first to date samples of the recent brown calcite's surface". It is enough to recall the comparison done by Ikeya ( 1977) of the brown and white regions of the Petralona stalagmite to those of Akiyoshi cave to realise that Ikeya was the first to identify the brown coloured stalagmitic material of 68,000 years old. 2 ) "The postcranial remains, published by A. Poulianos (1980c), do not belong to a human" ( although Henning et al., 1982, never stud ied them) and they accused A. Poulianos of contradiction, since he "in 1971, stated that the postcranial skeleton was lost for the sci ence". Here, I would like to note that when the 1977 excavation proceeded in the Mausoleum for the identification of its stratigraphy, to the excavators' amazement many abandoned fossils ( although in a bad state and fragmented) were found inside the sediments. These fos sils were either free or attached to stalagmitic concretions, enabling A. Poulianos (1980c) to study them. These same bone fragments were further investigated and verified to be human by the medical jurisprudent Jamarellos (see in A. Poulianos, 1981), who had the opportunity to examine them Among with the damaged fossils, an electric battery of 1960 was also abandoned (belonging to the site's Anthropological Museum collections). This fact verifies the care less way of colleting data during the year of the Petralona man's discovery. According to a statement made in a notary office by the late Christos Sariannidis (i.e. the person who found the skull, also an experienced worker of excavations), several postcranial human bones were initially collected and many were broken in situ dur ing 1960. Therefore it is true that at least for the major part, the postcranial bones are lost for the science while others may appear somehow in the future Efforts today focus on the recollection of the lost information as much as possible. Besides the above, this specific Henning et al. (1982) reply is misleading because it has little to do with the absolute datings discussion, provoking further confusion on the subject. 27--28 lwausi 2005. Kalmnos. Hef!as 3) "The more recent brown coloured (very thin layer of) stalagmitic material (sample a), is in direct contact to the skull, meaning that its age is 0.1-0.16 years". Such a statement could have merit if the entire skull was covered by similar sinter at the time when Henning et al. (1981 b) studied it. Unfortunately after the removal of most of the stalagmitic material (1960-1978), the only part of the skull which remained covered was that of its base. In fact: a) the upper part of the skull was covered by a much thicker sinter formation than at its base Qudging from the first photos), and b) the travertine fragments found inside the disturbed Mausoleum soil are composed by both brown (thin) and white (thick) stalagmitic layers. These findings very likely indicate also that the skull was covered by brown and white sinter. Thus, before the subsidence of the cave sediments, since the skull was laying on the ground, the first (white) stalagmitic layer which concretioned it on the sidewall, could only cover its upper part. After the subsidence, the skull remained hanging and stuck on the wall and its base which was no longer laying on the ground was exposed to the more recent brown sinter. Thus brown sinter could finally cover the skull even at its base (i.e. without any white sta lagmitic crust in this part of the skull). 4) "Sickenberg (1964) attributed the Petralona fauna to the age of Riss/Wurm". In his revision, Sickenberg (1971) corrected his 1964 estimation attributing the Petralona fauna to the Biharian age after the A. Poulianos 1968 excavations. Chosen bibliographical data do not really help anyone understanding the cave's scientific issues. 5) "The dosimetry considered by Ikeya ( 1977) to obtain the age is dif ferent from that ofikeya (1980) ". Prof. M. Ikeya always indicated two possible values for the an nual dose as well as the need for further measurements and perfec tion ofE.S.R. method. The difficulties of the dating results have being also summarised by a number of scholars who nevertheless did not analyze the details and/or in clude all of the available bibliographical data (see Wintle & Jacobs, 1982 Cook et al. 1982 and Grun, 1996). A study published by Shen Guanjun & Yokoyama (1986) contradicted the results of Henning et ai. (1981b). Their main conclusion was that all the cave sediments along with the lower part of the 1st stalagmitic layer have an age not less than 0.35 m.y.a. This study was based on samples taken in 1982 by A. Poulianos, Prof. H. de Lumley and the author. However, in order to obtain a more precise estimation of the annual dose, in 1983, a few months before a violent and illegal interruption of Poulianos excavations at Petralona a geophysical team of Thessaloniki University, guided by Prof. S. Charalambous, collaborated with Anthro pological Association of Greece. Modem dosimeters were introduced in various cave halls. A year later some of the dosimeters were replaced by new ones for further verification and study (i e. regarding not only obser vations of a complete year, but also for even longer periods of time). The Papastefanou et al. (1986) results were quite different from those indi cated by Henning et al. (1981b, 1982) and were closer to those determined by Ikeya (1980) and Ikeya & Miki (1981). Ikeya (1990a, 1990b) noted that the Greek researchers, being polite had not calculated the E.S.R. chronology Thus, based on their study, M. Ikeya observed the following: 1) The annual dose of 0.1 and 0.2 rad/year as previously determined corresponds to an age of 0.68 and 0.34 m.y.a. respectively. There fore, it was just enough to verify the exact dose. 2) The most probable dose seems to be that of 100 rnrd/y, since the Uranium content is very low and the external dose of the gamma rays was calculated to be 50 mrd/y in Ikeya (1977), 87 mrd/y in Ikeya (1978b) and about 40 rnrd/y in Ikeya & Miki (1981). Also,

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the total dose received by the bones is between 10 Krad/year, for bones of the 16th layer covered by a very thin stalagmitic layer, and 86 Krad/y for bones found in the Mausoleum soil not covered by concretions (Ikeya 1978b ). 3) The internal dose of21-43 mrd/year is observed and accepted by all the authors, Henning et al. (1981 b) included, who wrongly estimat ed the annual dose of 170-190 mrd/year, instead of 100 mrd/year 4) Papastefanou et al. (1986) measured the external dose of the gamma rays to be of an average of 35 mrd/year for the entire cave and 68 () mrd/year for the surface of the Mausoleum. The above values are close to the 40-50 mrd/year given by Ikeya (1977) and Ikeya & Miki (1981). Ikeya ( 1990) concluded that the average rhythm of the annual radiation dose received by the samples at Petralona, in most of the cases, is of about 0.1 rad/year. This value is calculated by using the medium dose of 56 mrd/ year, which is obtained by adding 21 mrd/year of the internal dose (from Henning et al., 1981b) to the most probable external dose of 35 mrd/year (from Papastephanou et al., 1986). This gives an age of 745.000 years for the human skull. Since it was however covered by stalagmitic concretions, the dose of 56 mrd/year, absorbed by the skull, needs to be reduced down to 49 mrd/year, resulting in an age of about 590.000 675.000 years (see also Ikeya, 1993). Aminoacid epimerization Another relatively recently developed method measures the aminoacid content inside fossil remains (see Bada 1971, Bada & Schroeder, 1975). This technique is based on the fact that the aminoacids present in the proteins and the bones of the living organisms are exclusively made as enantiomers in the form of L. During fossilisation the racemization proc ess takes place and gradually they are converted to the corresponding enantiomers of the form D. Thus in the fossils, the enantiomers L and D tends towards 50% equilibrium as their age increases. This method during the '70s could date materials of an age no more than 0 1-0.2 m.y.a. For this reason such an attempt proceeded by Bada (referred in A Poulianos, 1980a) on an Ursus mandible fragment was not fruitful. Likewise the related results of Melentis (1980) and Protsch et al. (1982) must also be dismissed. Nonetheless, Protsch (1983, 1986) himself recognized that for its major part the Petralona scientific questions were already solved by A. Poulianos. During the '80s, through the epimeriza tion of isoleucine (see Belluomini & Bada 1985), the dating capabilities of the method were increased to~ 1 m.y.a. with a standard error of ~30% Temperature is the major factor that influences the epimerization process. Consequently, before determining the D/L enantiomeric ratio of a sample, it is very important to verify that it has not been exposed to any heating. Otherwise the samples present a high degree of epimeriza tion and provide inaccurate estimations (i.e. of more recent chronology). Other parameters such as pH and humidity have minimal influence on the velocity of the epimerization reaction. However, it is always best to consider their effects. For the dating of various Petralona layers, the epimerization method was conducted on enamel samples of animal teeth that did not present any signs of heating. The average surrounding temperature out of the cave, of 16,5 C was used for the dating (on the basis of National Meteorological Service, 1987, Thessaloniki airport), which almost coincides with the inner average cave temperature (A. Poulianos, 1980a). The dating calcu lation (table 1) was calibrated by isoleucine epimerization measured on elephant teeth from Isernia (Italy), site that is dated by palaeomagnetism, as well as by K/Ar at about 0.7 m.y.a. (Coltorti et al., 1982). The results from Petralona indicated an age between 0.5 and 0.7 m.y.a., with an average of 0,.6 m.y.a. (Belluomini et al., 1990). However, the calibration of the method still needs some improvement since strata 14-16 appeared slightly younger than the 11th Also, it is probable that the temperature difference calculated between Petralona and Isernia ( ~ 4 C) might be a little less, thus approaching even further the age of the two sites. Such a hypothesis is strengthened by the similar faunal composition of the two sites (see N. Poulianos, 1989, 1995). Table 1: Datings of animal fossil teeth from Petralona and Isernia by the isoleucine epimerization; from Belluomini et al. (1990). Site Sample Layer Petralona 203D120a Section Beta Petralona Ml (Mausoleum) Petralona 809 Section Gamma Isernia Elephas antiquus Palaeomagnetism Earth's change of magnetic polarity is one of the dating methods widely applied in archaeometry. The first two related results arrived by mail in Athens almost at the same time: a) From S. PapamarinoXpoulos in 25-5-1977 (specialised next to Prof. K. Greer in Edinburgh), on samples taken by A. Poulianos, S. Papamarinopoulos and the author from Sections Alfa & Gamma. b) From V. Bucha in 15-5-1978 (Geophysical Institute of Prague), on samples taken by the excavators in Section Beta (see A. Poulianos, 1980d). Negative (i.e. reversed) palaeomagnetic declinations have been ob served mainly in the layers 24/25 of Sections Beta & Gamma. Although not well marked, another appears in the 11th layer of Section Beta. Layer 26 presents again normal polarity. Papamarinopoulos (1978) for the first 16 layers of Section Alfa did 11 11 14-16 Enantiomeric analogy Age (years x 1000) 0,20 530 650 0,22 600 700 0,18 480 600 0,15 730 not observe any negative sample and that, according to A. Poulianos (1980d), is probably due to the fact that its layers were excavated many years before sampling (i.e. at 1968). Alternatively, "fresh" samples from the undisturbed soil of the inner Mausoleum (layers 11-16) presented an unstable palaeomagnetism (A. Latham, personal communication, August 1989). These samples were taken by himself and A. Poulianos, and the results were similar to those observed by Bucha for the 11th layer of Sec tion Beta. Another attempt to measure the palaeomagnetism of the layers 1-16 from Section Alfa, by Papamarinopoulos et al. (1987), gave again the same results to those of Papamarinopoulos (1978). Unfortunately it is unknown whether the Papamarinopoulos et al. (1987) samples are the same with those published by Papamarinopoulos (1978) or they are new ones, since the Anthropological Association of Greece was illegally ex pelled from Petralona cave during the years 1983-1997. It is also unclear why Papamarinopoulos et al. ( 1987) stopped sampling beneath layer 16 or

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Helle nir: Sneleuluuical S ucte /J' did not eventually publish the relative results in case that proceeded any further (i.e. beneath layer 16) The above palaeomagnetic "behaviour may be interpreted as: a) the layers above the 11th belong to the Brunhes epoch and the unstable unit of layers 11-23 is announcing the beginning of the Matuyama epoch, as it was similarly observed in other sites, p.ex. Stranska Skala (see Kukla, 1975); and b) the unstable unit oflayers is only that of 11/16-18. It is very difficult to verify the data coming from the eroded layers 19-23 because of the presence of many sands. If the very humid palaeocological period refleeted in the layers 19-23 (Elaeochorian), represents a universal phenom enon, similar interpretative difficulties must be expected in other sites too. According however to data from micromammals layer 24/25 corresponds to an age of 0,73 m.y.a., fitting well to Brunhes/Matuyama boundary. As far as the normal polarity of the layer 26 is concerned, there is yet one more uncertainty: this evidence indicates either the Jaramillo event (0.9 m.y.a., initially supported by Papamarinopoulos, 1977) or a normal polar ity within Matuyama, which had escaped observations at other sites. Table 2: Summarized dating results of Petralona cave sediments & fossils. LAYER LEVEL/FUSED SECTION AGE (yrs x 1000) METHOD 1 SUP. Alfa 0-70 U/TH, ESR 1 MED. Alfa 250 U / TH, TL, ESR 1 INF. Alfa >3 50 U / TH, E.S.R. 4 Alfa max. 670 TL 10 (+l?) Alfa ? 200 U/TH, E.S.R. 10 Beta >350 U/TH, E.S.R. 10 Beta 670 E.S.R. 10 Beta 350 670 U/TH (EXTRAP.), E.S.R. 10 (+l) MEDITER. >350 U/TH, E.S.R. 10 (+l) MAUSOL. 300 600 U/TH, E.S.R. 11 Beta 530 650 AMINO ACID 11 MAUSOL. 600 675 AMINO ACID, ESR, PALAEOMAG 14-16 Beta 600 700 AMINO ACID 24-25 Beta Gamma 730 PALAEOMAG., E.S.R 26 Beta >7 30 -? PALAEOMAG. 28 -34 Beta ? From the above discussion it is possible to conclude that the absolute datings applied to materials from Petralona cave are between 0.35 n:i.y.a. and 1 m.y.a. mainly focussing on the time interval of 0 6 and 0 7 m.y.a .. The surface stalagmitic travertines are however influenced by the formation of more recent concretions. The Petralona skull also appears to have an age of about 0.7 m.y a. These absolute datings are in concordance with recent palaeoanthopological (mainly palaeolithic), palaeocological and palaeontological studies. More future analyses are greatly anticipated. The help of the Greek Ministry of Culture and the International Scientific Community may be of significant importance. As always, the Anthropological Association of Greece remains welcoming to collaborations with institutions and schol ars all over the world. Bibliography Bada J. L. (1971) Kinetics of the non biological decomposition and racemization of amino acids in Hem, Symposium chairman; R F. Gould, Series Ed.) Advances in Chemistry Series, Voi. 106, pp. 309-331 Ameri can Chemical Society, Washington D.C. Belluomini G.& Bada J.L.(1985) Isoleucine epimerization ages of the dwarf elephants of Sicily. Geology, 13: 451-452. 27-28 Au.oust 2005. i(ufumos. Hui/us Belluomini G., L. Delitala A.N. Poulianos & N.A.Poulianos (1988) Epimerization ages of fossil teeth from Petralona Cave. (Northern Greece). Abstracts of the 2nd Panellenic Congress of Anthropology. May 27-29, Athens 1988. Report published under the title: The Man of Pe tralona an estimated by amino acid racemization dating. Anthropos 12: 59-64. Athens 1990. Coltorti M., Cremaschi M., Delitala M.C., Esu D., Fornaseri M., McPherron A., Nicoletti M., Van Otterloo R., Peretto C., Sala B., Schmidt V. & J. Sevink (1982) Reversed magnetic polarity at an early lower Pal aeolithic site in Central Italy. Nature, 300: 173-176. Cook J., C.B. Stringer, A.R. Currant, H.P. Schwarcz & A.G. Wintle ( 1982) -A review on the Chronology of the European Middle Pleistocene Hominid Record. Yearbook Phys. Anthropology, 25: 19-65 Grun Reiner (1996) A re-analysis of electron spin resonance dating results associated with the Petralona hominid. Journal of Human Evolu tion, 30, 227-241. Hennig G.J., U. Bangert W.Herr &A N. Poulianos (1980)-Uranium Series dating and T L Ages of Spelaeothem from Petralona Cave. Anthro pos 7: 174-214. Athens. Hennig G.J., U. Bangert, W. Herr & A. N. Poulianos (1981a) Errata

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of "Urani u m Se r ies dating and TL Ages of Spelaeothem from Petralona Cave Anthropos, 7: 174-214' Anthropos 8 : 235 Athens. Hennig G. J., W. Herr E. Weber & N. I. Xirotiris (198lb)-ESR dating of the fossil hominid cranium from Petralona Cave. Nature 292: 533536. Hennig G. J. & W. Herr & E. Weber & N. I. Xirotiris (1982) Letter Nature, 299: 281-282. Ikeya M. (1975) Electron Spin Resonance Nature, 255: 68 Ikeya M. (1977) Electron Spin Resonance dating and Fission Track Detection of Petralona stalagmite. Athens. Anthropos, 4 : 152-168 Ikeya M.(1978a) Electron Spin Resonance as a Method of Dating. Archaeomety, 20: 147-158 Ikeya M. ( 1 978b) Natural radiation at Petralona Cave. Athens A n thropos 5: 54-59. Ikeya M (1980) -ESR dating of Carbonates at Petralona Cave. Ath ens. Anthropos 7 : 143-151. Ikeya M. (1982) Letter. Nature, 299: 280-281. Ikeya M. (1990a) E S.R Age of Petralona materials. Proceedings of the 2nd Panellenic Congress of Anthropology. May 27-29 Athens 1988. Published inAnthropos 12: 19-28.Athens 1990. Ikeya M. (1990b) E.S.R. Age of Petralona cranium and carbonates. Proceedings of the 2nd Panellenic Congress of Anthropology. May 27-29, Athens 1988. Published in Anthropos 12: 29-35. Athens 1990. Ikeya M. & T Miki (1981) ESR Archaeological Dose of Petralona and Choukoutien bones. Athens. Anthropos, 8: 95-106. Ikeya M. & A.N. Poulianos (1979) -E.S R age of the trace of fire at Petralona. Athens. Anthropos, 6: 44-47. Karakostanoglou I. (1981a) Archaeologists, dating and their role in Archaeology. Anthropos, 8: 107-120. Athens Karakostanoglou I. (198lb)-Allegation and truth. Anthropos, 8: 121141. Athens. Kukla G.J. (1975) -Loess Stratigraphy of Central Europe. After the Australopithecines. Mouton Puhl.: 99-188. Kurten B. & A. Poulianos (1977) New Stratigraphic and Faunal material from Petralona Cave with special reference to the Camivora. Athens. Anthropos, 4: 47-130. Kurten B. &A. Poulianos (1981)-Fossil Carnivora ofPetralona Cave : Status 1980. Athens. Anthropos, 8: 9-56. Liritzis Y. (1980) U/230 Th/234 dating of Spelaeothems in Pe tralona. Anthropos 7: 215-241. Athens. Liritzis Y. (1982) Letter. Nature 299: 280 -281. Liritzis Y. & Poulianos A. N.(1980) A radiation survey of Petralona Cave. Anthropos 7: 252-259. Athens. Melentis (1980) Newspaper "Thessaloniki", 27 & 28 Febr. Meteorological National Service Dep of Climatology and Statistics (years 1961-1986). Airport of Thessaloniki Greece. Papamarinopoulos St.(1977) The first known European? Bulletin, University of Edinburgh 13 (10): 1-3 April 27. Papamarinopoulos St.(1978) Limnomagnetic studies on Greek sedi ments. Ph.D. thesis University ofEdinburgh. Papamarinopoulos S., Readman P. Maniatis Y & Simopoulos (1987) Paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic studies of sediments from Petralona Cave, Greece. Archaeometry, 29 (1):50-59 Papastefanou C. M. Manolopoulou, E. Savvides & S. Charalambous (1986) Dose rate measurements in Petralona Cave for Archanthropus dating The proceedings of the 3rd European and 1s t Panhellenic Anthro pological Congresses. Anthropos, 11: 41-48. Athina. PoulianosA. N. (1968)-Finds of 500-900 000 years in Petralona cave. Press, Thessaloniki, 18-4 1968, Athens, 19-4-1968. Poulianos A. N. (1971) Petralona: A middle Pleistocene Cave in He llenic S11e! eo luuica/ Sor:ie/y Greece Archa e ol o gy 24: 6-11 PoulianosA. N (1977)-Stratigraphy and age of the Petralonian A r c h anthropus. Anthropos, 4: 37-46 Athens P ouliano s A N. (1 980a) Lower and Middle P leistocene cl i mat i c fluctuations at P etralona Cave. Anthropos 7 : 42-80 Athens. Poulianos A. N. (1980b) The Archanthropus of Petralona is Auto c h thonous. Anthropos, 7 : 7-11. Athens Poulianos A N ( 1980c) The post-cranial skel e ton of the Archanthro pus europaeu s petraloniensis. Anthropo s 7 : 13 33. Athens Poulianos A. N (1980d) -A new fossilised inion-parietal bone in Pe tralona Cave. Anthropos 7: 34-39. Athens. PoulianosA. N ( 1981)-Microhistological and macroscopic investig a tion of post-cranial bones of the PetralonianArchanthropus. Anthropo s, 8: 80-83 Athens Poulianos A. N. (1982a) The Cave of the Petralonian Archanthropi nae Athens-Petralona. Library of AAG pp.80. PoulianosA. N. (1982b)-Letter. Nature, 299: 280. Poulianos A. N (1983) On the Stratigraphy and Dating of the Pe tralonian Man. The proceedings of the 3rd European and 1st Panhellenic Anthropological Congresses. Anthropos, 10: 49-52. Athina. Poulianos N A. (1989) Petralona Cave within Lower-Middle Pleis tocene sites. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 73 : 287 294. Poulianos N. A. (1995) La Grotta e l'Uomo di Petralona. Edited by Professor Brunetto Chiarelli at the Florence Institute of Anthropology. Protsch R., N. Xirotiris, W. Henke, G. Henning & M. Schultz (1982) Petralona. Analysis based on the cleaned splachnocranium and neuro cranium. 1 er Congress Inter. De Paleontologie Humaine Resumes des Communications, 16-21 Oct., Nice Protsch R. (1983) -Two letters to the Anthr. Ass. of Greece. (23-111982), (22-8-1983). The proceedings of the 3rd European and pt Panhel lenic Anthropological Congresses. Athens. Anthropos, 10: 7-11. Protsch R. (1986) -Letter to Anthr. Ass. of Greece (27-8-1985). The proceedings of the 3rd European and 1s t Panhellenic Anthropological Congress Athens Anthropos, 11: 12-13. Schwarcz H.P. Y. Liritzis & A. Dixon (1980) Absolute dating of travertines from the Petralona Cave, Chalkidiki Peninsula Greece An thropos, 7: 152-173. Athens. Shackleton NJ. & N.D. Opdyke (1976) oxygen isotope and palaeo magnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28-239 -Late Pliocene to latest Pleistocene Geol. Soc. Amer Mem 45: 449-464. Shen Guanjun & Yuji Yokoyama (1986) Th230/U 234 dating of Pe tralona spelaeothems. Anthropos 11 : 33-40 Athens. Sickenberg 0 (1964) Die Saugetierfauna der Hohle Petralona bei Thessaloniki (preliminary report). Athen Institute for Geology and Sub surface Research IX(l): 3-16. Sickenberg 0. (1971) Revision der Wirbeltierfauna der Hohle Pe tralona (Griechenland). Annales Geologiques des Pays Helleniques, 23: 230-264 Wintle A.G. & J. A. Jacobs (1982) A Critical Review of the Dating Evidence for Petralona Cave. Journal of Archaeological Science, 9: 3947. 4 11 lnternulionul Co mm:s's of Soeleu!oov

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Helle 11ic Sf]e/eo/o(lica l S or:ie/y 0-43 The Palaeobotany of Caves in the Aegean F. Megaloudi Aeegan University, Departement of Mediterranean Studies, Rhodes Greece Abstract Caves are of great importance in Palaeobotany because they provide excellent conditions for the preservation of organic remains. In such en vironments, macroscopic plant remains may be preserved through desic cation, mineralization, or, more commonly, carbonization, depending on the environment of the cave. In most cases, the an<1erobic c;onditions of cave deposits prevent decay and soft plant remains that are rarely pre served in open-air sites, survive well. These remains provide substantial information about past human use of the sites as well as the surrounding 0-44 Biospeleology of Juxtlahuaca Caves: 20 years later environment. The aim of this presentation is to point out the importance of palaeobotanical research in Caves and Rock shelters This purpose will be illustrated through the example of two case studies: the Palaeobotanical research in Sarakinos Cave (Boiotia) and in Leodari Cave in Attica. The methods, the potential and the limits of Palaeobotany in Cave deposits are presented A review of the data currently known for the macro-botanical remains retrieved from Caves and Rock-shelters throughout the Aegean region will conclude this presentation. Gabriela Castano-Meneses, Jose G. Palacios-Vargas, Elena Torres-Puga & Marcos Mohar-Fresan. Laboratorio de Ecologfa y Sistematica de Microartr6podos, Departamento de Ecologia y Recursos Natura/es, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, D. FE-mail: Abstract The Cave of Juxtlahuaca is one of the most interesting cave systems in Guerrero State, Mexico. Because of the speleological formations, the archeological ruins in this cave have been used as a tourist attraction and they have many visitors each year, and it has been modified to make the access easier for the tourists. A total of99 species (including protozoa, arthropods and mammalian) was recorded from this cave during the studies performed during the 80's. It included 40 new records for the cave and some new species for sci ence. After this period the biospeloelogical studies were stopped, and to make the cave access easier for the tourist to visit, several works were done including stairs, masonry and the installations of electric wires to iiiuminate it. These changes have affected the natural conditions within the cave. Actually the electric installations are not in use any longer, but the wires have been there for the last 15 years. Because of the bioespeleological importance of the cave and the changes it has had in the last 20 years, we decided to carry out new expeditions and to study the fauna and compare it with the information we have from the previous publications. The result is that this time we recorded 83 taxa from the cave, from which at least 55 are new records for the cave. These include one Nematomorpha (Gordioidea), one species of Schizomida (probably a new genus), one Amblypygi, five of Araneae, two Psocoptera, two Homoptera and one N europtera. When we compare the current results with previous work, we can observe a reduction of the springtails and mites species, the total absence of ticks (Antricola sp.). It is to notice that the number of species of Chi roptera which visit this cave has also been reduced. Introduction Subterranean environments, such as caves, caverns and other subter ranean formations have been closely related to the humankind history. This is why they have been of interest for different research projects in different areas such as geology, geochemistry, archaeology, ethnology and biology (Camacho, 1992; Culver et al. 2003; Hapka and Rouvinez 1997.; Jennings 1985; Steel 1997). 21-28 Auuusl 2fJD5. l( al amos. Hellos Due to the peculiar characteristics of these environments, the study of cave fauna is fascinating, and different kinds of studies can be done, such as morphology, physiology and biological adaptations of the ani mals, which enable them to grow and develop in these places. Despite the development of the speleology at recent times, some authorities estimate that about 90% of the caves have never been used for biological studies. Even more, they claim that there should be about 90% of caves to be dis covered as they show no visible entrance or communication to the exterior (Krajick, 2001). Many caves, in different regions of the world have an important tour ist development and they attract thousands of visitors. More than 1,200 subterranean formations have been recorded in Mexico; some of them represent the deepest cave records in the world (Lazcano, 1985; Arias 2001 ). Others are frequently visited by tourists, anthropologist, archae ologist, speleologist and biospeleologist, because of their natural forma tions, humans' remains, ceremonial traditions, and their fauna. Evidences of man occupation in prehispanical times have been found in many caves in Mexico, where rituals were performed and caves were considered as magic places, and there are many human vestiges such as mural paintings, ceramic, buries, etc. (Stone, 1997; Kiinne & Strecker, 2003). The Grutas de Juxtlahuaca, in Guerrero state, are a very good exam ple of this kind of caves, they have many beautiful formations, mural paintings of great archeological imp01tance and a very interesting fauna. Therefore, it is one of the most visited caves by tourists, biologist and geologist, and they are still preserved. The presence of cave paintings, which are from about 900 to 300 years BC, confirm the Olmecs presence in this cave and probably are the most ancient in the New World (Roy, 1974). The first expeditions to this cave were carried out in 1958 by Andres Ortega. Because of the speleological formations, the archeological ruins in this cave have been used as a tourist attraction and they have many visitors each year, therefore, it has been modified to make the access easier for the tourists. During the 80's, Hoffmann et al. have begun the biospeleological work in these caves. These contributions were taken for the publication of the "Manual de Bioespeleologia", which was issued in 1986, and includes in formation about several caves from Morelos and Guerrero states, includ ing Juxtlahuaca. A total of 99 species (including protozoa, arthropods and mammalian) was recorded from this cave (Palacios-Vargas et al. 1985). It

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included 40 new records for the cave and some new species for science After this period, the biospeleological studies were stopped, and to make the cave access easier for the tourist to visit, several works were done including stairs, masonry and the installations of electric wires to illuminate it. These changes have affected the natural conditions within the cave. Actually the electric installation is not in use any longer, but the wires have been there for the last 15 years. Most recent studies about this cave fauna were done in 2000, but including only the microarthropods living on guano (Garcia, 2000). This information was part of the thesis work by Galicia (2004) which was done to study the bats, in order to evaluate the environment alteration. Because of the bioespeleological importance of the cave and the changes it has had in the last 20 years, we decided to carry out new ex peditions and to study the fauna and compare it with the information we have from the previous publications. Study area The Cave of Juxtlahuaca (more than 5 000 m long) is one of the most interesting cave systems in Guerrero State. It is located 59 km SE from Chilpancingo, Guerrero, and 5 km to the NE the village Colotlipa Mu nicipality ofQuechultenango (l 7'N, 99'W)at 960 m asl. The main entrance of the cave is 4 5 m high, and 6 8 m width. About 160 m from the entrance there is a bifurcation that is connected to the Room of the Hell. This room begins with a high of 3 4 m and increases toward the end, up to more than 25 m, the average width is about 15 m In this area there are big bat colonies, whose presence and guano fermentations, and owing to the peculiar topographical conditions of this room, makes the temperature as high as 34C. After 610 m from the entrance the Salon del Toro is located (Room of the Bull), with a very wide ceiling and many spelothems. It has a branch to the South of about 570 m long which ends in a second entrance with a depth of 3 m and 2 m diameter. After the main tunnel there are several rooms, such as the Salon de Baile (Dancing Room) and the Batalla del 5 de Mayo (May 5th Battle); to a distance of 1,210 m from the entrance is the Fuente Encantada (Enchanted Fountain) with a 80 cm deep, a length of 40 50 m and a maximum width of 20 m. At the end of this pond and about 1,500 m from the entrance, there is the Jardin de las Rosas de Cristal (Garden of the Crystal Roses) where there are many beautiful excentric formations of Aragonite. This is the end of the tourist area, after this sec tion there are several cave branches with difficult access (Hoffmann, et al., 1986). Materials and methods During February and July of 2003, May and July of 2004 several ex peditions (during different seasons) to the cave were carried out. The pur pose of these expeditions was to take samples of soil and guano. Manual collecting and pitfall traps were done in order to make a new faunistic list arid to see the changes Collecting was done at the entrance, in the twilight area; at the Hell's room, 200 m from the entrance where most of the samples were taken. This is the place where most bats are concentrated and a lot of guano is deposited. Other samples were taken in the area known as Batalla del 5 de Mayo, about 350m from the entrance and in the Toro Room (630 m from the entrance) which was dynamited several decades ago, in order to open an easy route to the. bottom of the cave. Guano and soil samples were processed by the Berlese funnels. Specimens were isolated to morphospe cies under the dissection microscope for further determinations. Slides with Hoyer's solution were done for mites and springtails. The identifica tions of species were done with the help of keys and confirmations from specialists. f1elle n i c Sf/e/eal uuic a! Sur:1 e1v Results After the study of the specimens from the sample s, we have found a total of 83 taxa in the cave (Table 1 ). Previous work of Palacios-Vargas et al. ( 1985) recorded 93 species of terrestrial animals i ncluding 11 species of ectoparasite mites from the bats Among the arthropods, the best represented group was insect, followed by the mites (Fig IA) an interesting difference of what was found in 1985 when the dominant group was the mites followed by the Collembola. (Fig. lB). In general, the number of species recorded for each group was less in the present study than in previous studies. That was true but for the insects, of which we found 22 more species from what there was recorded before (Fig. 2). Out of the total, 22 species were recorded 20 years ago (Palacios-Var gas et al. 1985) and five species were recorded in further contributions (Marino 1989; Garcia 2000). A 2003-2004 B 1985 17% Myriapoda Arachnida lmAcari Dlnsecta IICollembola i!!lChiroptera iii!Others Fig. 1. Percentage of the species found in A) 2003-2004 and BJ 1985 It is very important to mention that we have observed almost a total change in the mites and springtails populations of the species found. There are less species now and there is a low similarity of the actual species and the previously recorded. For the rest of the arthropods there was a higher similarity of the taxa found 20 years ago and those that actually are in the cave now The total number of species recorded throughout the speleological studies in these caves including those found in this study is 154 among which 56 are new records. A total of 71 species was no longer found, 22 have been recorded since 1985 and also now, and five species were re corded in 1989 and 2000, they were found in the present study again. Discussion It has to been taken in consideration that a high amount of spe cies has been lost in the last 20 years, specially if we consider that most of the species not found in the present study are mites and springtails (31 and 14 species respectively) There is an impor tant difference in the study of 1985, in which bat's ectoparasites were checked ; this time only the soil fauna was checked The total !:Jfh ln te nwtin nn l Con u re ss ut

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Helfeflil : Stw /eolu oica! Society 35 30 I.. 25 a, .0 E 20 :::J s:: "' 15 a, c:; a, 10 0. en 5 0 Myriapoda Arachnida Acari lnsecta Collembola Chiroptera Others 1985 2003-2004 Fig. 2 Species numb e r at this stud y and relation with the previou s records from Juxtlahuaca Cav e Guerrero number of ectoparasites was 11, however, there were 20 free living species, which were not found again. This indicates that there was a high rate of change of the species as sociated to the bat's guano, maybe because of the modifications of the environment of the cave. It is important also to mention that the number of bats recorded in the cave is lower than before, there are only 5 from the 10 species recorded 20 years ago. Nevertheless, our expeditions were done by the main entrance, but there is another entrance no for tourism where other species were collected on 1985 (Galicia 2004). Light, CO2 and relative humidity are factors which affect directly the animals living inside the cave. Probably the work done in 1985 and 1986 for the installation of electric light and the increased number of visitors, have had a direct effect on the guano communities, mainly on the microar thropods from Hell's Room Alterations of the environmental conditions, mainly because of the light and the tourists, have been demonstrated in several tourist caves, where the tourist action produce a proliferation of the aigae and other elements which affect the spelothems. So the conser vation of the paintings and the archaeological evidences and rescue the optimal conditions for the development of troglobites and troglophiles is very important in order to preserve the biodiversity (Baker & Genty, 1988; Hoyos et al., 1998; Pulido-Bosch et al. 1997). The conditions inside the cave have been restored However, there are still some remains of the electric installations since they were never totally removed even the electric light is not used anymore. The Hell Room, has similar conditions of temperature and humidity (T 26-30 C, HR 60100% ) ; as it was 20 years ago (T 27-34, HR up to 97%; Palacios-Vargas et al., 1985), but it has to be noted that the bat species have changed, so there have been some modifications of the guano and the communities that can live in this biotope. There is a remarkable amount of new records of the insects that can be found now, comparing with the nine species that were previously recorded. Among the new records there are one Staphylinid beetle, one homopteran and two species of Psocoptera (never cited before from caves), families of Hymenoptera as Ichneumonidae (1 species), and Formicidae (6 species), and 5 species of Dipterans. There are other new records in other groups, such as Amblypygi, Symphyla several Araneae some mites, 3 isopodan and one Nematomorpha: Gordioidea among others. These results show that Juxtlahuaca is one of the best known caves from the view of bioespeleology and the study of the modifications that have been experienced by the cave communities give important informa tion to understand the popu l ation's dynamics and the energy flows in the caves and the changes in the species, which have undergone. This infor mation can help to plan the adequate use of the cave for a better preserva tion. 2 l28 1lv uu st 200 5. H n lrmws !Je !fu s Acknowledgements We grateful to Andres Ortega Jimenez and family and Cayetano Agui lar for the facilities and help to visit the cave. This investigation was sup ported by Project PAPIIT IN-223803 Field work was made with the help of Saul Aguilar Nancy Chavez Marti Gil Marilyn Mendoza Tania Ze laya and Hector Guzman. Identifica t ion of specimens was made with the help of L. Cutz-Pool, R. Iglesias (Cryptostigmata), B. Mejia-Recamier (Prostigmata), C. Maldonado (Astigmata), A. Garcia-Aldrete (Psocop tera), A. Rojas (Dermaptera and Orthoptera) J. L. Navarrete-Heredia (Co leoptera), I. Vazquez (Araneae), R. Gavifio (Pseudoscorpionida), Y. Gadar (Amblipygi), E. Trajano (Gasteropoda), L. Del Castillo (Metastigmata) and L. De Armas (Schizomida). Luis Parra made valuable grammatical and style corrections for the manuscript. Bibliographic references Arias, R 2001 S6tanos de Mexico. Abismos de luz y sombra: Mexico, Secretaria del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, 139 pp. Baker, A. & D. Genty. 1998 Environmental pressures on conserving cave speleothems: effects of changing surface land use and increased cave tourism. Journal of Environmental Management 53: 165-175. Camacho, A. I. (ed.). 1992 The natural history ofbiospeleology. Mu seo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, 680 pp Culver, D.C., M.C. Christman, W.R. Elliot, H.H. Hobs III & J.R. Red dell. 2003 The North American obligate fauna: Regional patterns. Biodi versity and Conservation, 12:441-468. Galicia Castillo, R. C. 2004. Diversidad y abundancia de murcielagos en tres cuevas de Guerrero con diferentes niveles de actividad humana Professional Thesis Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. 98 pp. Garcia, A. 2000. Estudio preliminar de fauna guanobia de tres cue vas de Guerrero Mexico. In: Stanford, S. G., A. Morales, J. R. Padilla, M. P. Ibarra (eds.) Memorias XXXV Congreso Nacional de Entomologia Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico pp. 719-724. Hapka, R. & F. Rouvinez. 1997. Las Ruinas Cave, Cerro Rabon, Oax aca Mexico: A mazatec postclassic funerary and ritual site. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies. 59 22-25. Hoffmann, A., J.G. Palacios-Varga s & J.B. Morales-Malacara. 1986. Manual de Bioespeleologia (Con nuevas aportaciones de Morelos y Guerre ro Mexico). Direcci6n General de Publicacione s, UNAM Mexico. 274 pp. Hoyos M., V. Soler, J.C. Cafiaveras, S. Sanchez-Moral & E. Sanz-Ru bio. 1998 Microclimatic characterization of a karstic cave: human impact on microenvironmental parameters of a prehistoric rock art cave (Can damo Cave Northern Spain). Environmental Geology 33: 231-242.

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Jennings, K. 1985. Karst geomorphology Basil Blackwell Inc. Krajick, K. 2001. Cave biologists unearth buried treasure Science, 293: 2378 2381. Ktinne M. & J. Strecker (eds ). 2003. Arte Ruprestre de Mexico Ori ental y Centroamerica. Indian Beihfte, 16. Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin, Alemania. 357 pp. Lazcano, C. 1 985 Mexico paraiso de la espeleologia. Gaceta UNAM 41, 21. Marino, E 19 89. Primer registro cavernicola de Periplaneta australa siae (Fab .) para Mexico (Insecta: Dyctioptera). Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional A ut6noma de Mexico, Serie Zoologia, 59: 289 -290 Table 1. Fauna recorded in the Juxtlahuaca Cave during 2004-2005. NEMATOMORPHA GORDIOIDEA MOLUSCA GASTEROPODA Subulinidae Subulina porrecta ARTHROPODA CHELICERATA ARACHNIDA ARANEAE Clubionidae Linyphidae Nesticidae Nesticus sp. Sic ariid ae Loxosceles mixteca Pholcidae Physocyclus bicornis Coriinidae Co rinn a sp. Dictynidae Dictyna sp. Gnaphosidae PSEUDOESCORPIONIDA Tridenchthoniidae Tridenchthonius juxtlahuaca AMBLYPYGI Phrynidae Paraphrynus mexicanus Paraphrynus azteca SCHIZOMIDA Hubbardinae (undeterminated genus) ACARIDA MESOSTIGMATA Ameroseiidae Phytoseiidae ca Iphiseius sp. undeterminated genus Machrochelidae Machrocheles sp G lypt holaspis sp. Laelapidae Geolaelaps sp. Polyaspididae He!!rmic S!lefer;/ouicui Sucfetv Palacios Vargas, J. G., I. Vazquez & J. M. Malacara 1985. Aspectos faunisticos y ecol6gicos de las grutas de Juxtlahuaca, Gro., Mexico Mem. Biospeologie, 12:135-142. Pulido Bosch, A., W. Martin-Rosales, M. Lopez-Chicano, C.M Ro driguez-Navarro & A Vallejos. 199 7. Human impact in a tourist karstic cave (Aracena Spain). Environmenta l Geology 31:142-149 Roy, S, 1974. La s Grutas de Juxtlahuaca. Association for Mexican Cave Studies News, 5: 39-42. Stone, A. 1997. Regional variations in maya cave art. J. Cave & Karst Stud. 59: 33-42 Steel, J. F. 1997 Cave archaeology in North America and Mesoa merica. J. Cave Karst Stud. 59, 4. 74117 l n fcnwii o nn! Conr 1 mss ut Soeleolouy

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Hellenic Sf)e/eolouical Sor:ie/v Table 1. Cont. Dipolyaspis sp. Uropodidae Trichouropod a sp METASTIGMATA ASTIGMATA Argasidae Ornithodoros sp. Guanolichidae Neoguanolichus sp. Glycyphagidae ca. Ctenoglyphus Undetenninated family PROSTIGMATA Cunaxidae Cunaxoides nicobarensis Palaeus ca. minutus Palaeus ca. whartoni CRYPTOSTIGMATA Pthiracaridae Oppiidae Graptoppia sp. Ramusella sp. Malaconothridae Malaconothrus sp. Sphaerochthoniidae Sphaerochthonius sp. Mesoplophoridae Mesoplophora sp. Haplozetidae Rostrozetes sp Scheloribatidae Scheloribates sp. Arceremaeidae Tecteremaeus sp. Galumnidae MANDIBULATA CRUSTACEA MALACOSTRACA ISOPODA 21-28 Auuust 2[}05. l{alamos. Hellos Annadillidae Cubaris sp. Squamiferidae Trichorhina sp.

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Table 1. Cont. MYRIAPODA INSECTA CHILOPODA SCUTIGEROMORPHA Scutigeridae Scutigera linceri DIPLOPODA Pyrgodesmidae Myrmecodesmus colotlipa Spirostreptida Spirostreptidae Orthoporus guerreronus SYMPHYLA Scolopendrellidae Symphyllela sp. DIPLURA Campodeidae Juxtlacampa juxtlahuacensis COLLEMBOLA Entomobryidae Seira bipunctata Pseudosinella sp. Lepidocyrtus sp. Paronellidae Troglolaphysa sp. THYSANURA Nicoletiidae Anelpistina boneti BLATTARIA Blaberidae Blaberus craniifer Blattidae Periplaneta australiasae ORTHOPTERA DERMAPTERA PSOCOPTERA Psoquillidae Psoquilla marginepunctata Lachesillidae Lachesilla picticeps Hellenic S1lefeoluu1cal Society 14th !nlenm!ionnl Cunmess of Soeleolouy

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He!lrmic Soeleolouir:al Sucietv Table 1. Cont. CHORDATA COLEOPTERA Carabidae Elateridae Staphylinidae Thoracophorus brevicristatus Tenebrionidae HOMOPTERA Cicadelloidea Cicadellidae NEUROPTERA HYMENOPTERA Ichneumonidae Formicidae Ponerinae Cryptopone sp. Myrmicinae Aphenogaster rudis picea Pyramica zeteki Cyphomyrmex sp. Solenopsis geminata Formicinae Camponotus sp. DIPTERA Phoridae ( two undeterminated genus) Trichoceridae Cecidomyiidae Streblidae Psychodidae MAMMALIA AIHJUS! CHIROPTERA Mormoopidae Mormoops megalophylla Pteronotus parnelli Phyllostomatidae Glossophaga soricina Leptonycteris curasoae Natalidae Natalus stramineus Kufamos, He/las

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0-45 Why Are Cave Animals Colorless? Tyrosinase-Positive Albinism in Cavefish wmiam R. Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park MD. 20742 U.S. A Abstract Many cave-adapted animals appear to be colorless due to loss of body pigmentation The developmental mechanisms involved in this evolution ary change are unknown. We have studied pigment cell regression in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, a single species consisting of a pigmented epigean form (surface fish) and a de-pigmented hypogean form (cave fish). During vertebrate development pigment cells differentiate from mi gratory neural crest cells, which are derived from surface epithelium at the border of the prospective epidermis and neural plate. As the neural plate becomes the neural tube, neural crest cells leave the epithelium, migrate along specific pathways through the interior of the embryo, and eventu ally differentiate into many different adult derivatives, including the three types of teleost pigment cells: melanophores (black cells), xanthophores (yellow or orange cells), and iridophores (iridescent cells). All three pigment cell types are present in surface fish. In contrast, cavefish have xanthophores and iridophores but lack melanophores. The deficiency in melanophores could be caused by (1) the development of fewer neural crest cells, (2) the failure of neural crest cells to migrate correctly, (3) the failure of neural crest cells to become melanoblasts, the immediate precursors of melanophores, ( 4) the unscheduled death of melanophores or their precursors, or (5) the failure of melanoblasts to differentiate into melanophores. We have used several different experimental approaches to test these hypotheses. First, Dil (1, l '-dioctadecyl-3,3,3 ',3 '-tetramethylin docarbocyanine tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), a lipophilic cell surface marker, was injected into the region where neural crest cells originate and labeled cells were followed during surface fish and cavefish embryonic development. The results showed that cavefish embryos pro duce as many neural crest cells as surface fish embryos and that these cells migrate properly, discounting hypotheses (1) and (2). Second, analysis by TUNEL, a cell death indicator, showed that most cavefish melanophore precursors survive through development, discounting hypothesis ( 4). Third, the presence of melanoblasts in cavefish was determined by detec tion of cells expressing tyrosinase, the enzyme that converts L-DOPA to melanin. The results showed the presence of large numbers of tyrosinase positive melanoblasts in cavefish embryos and adults Thus, cavefish neural crest cells are able to develop into melanoblasts, which does not support hypothesis (3) Finally, we tested the ability of cavefish melano blasts to convert L-tyrosine, the precursor ofL-DOPA, into L-DOPA and melanin, a process that normally occurs during their differentiation into melanophores. The results showed that cavefish melanoblasts are unable to convert L-tyrosine to L-DOPA, indicating a deficiency in L-tyrosine uptake or utilization. Therefore, we conclude that cavefish lose body pigmentation because their melanoblasts fail to differentiate into melano phores (hypothesis 5). Cavefish melanoblasts could be diverted into other neural crest-derived cell types, which may confer an adaptive advantage in the cave environment. Introduction The amazing phenotypes of cave-adapted animals, including the re gression of eyes and pigmentation, have fascinated biologists since the time of Darwin [l]. We study the evolutionary regression of eyes and pig ment cells in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, one of the few cave-adapted vertebrates that exhibit both surface-dwelling ( epigean) and conspecific cave-dwelling (hypogean) forms [2]. The epigean form of Astyanax (sur face fish) has large eyes and pigmentation, whereas the hypogean form ( cavefish) has lost or substantially reduced its eyes and pigmentation (Figure 1 ) Actually, 29 different cavefish populations ha v e been identified in the Sierra de El Abra region of northeastern Mexico [2], and there is evi dence that some of these populations may have evolved cave specific phe notypes independently [3]. Astyanax surface fis h and cavefish diverged from a common ancestor about 10,000 to 100,000 years ago when the progenitors of the hypogean form were trapped in limestone caves [2]. The advantage of the Astyanax system is that the epigean and hypogean forms can be cultivated in the laboratory, where they spawn frequently and are amenable to many types of genetic, developmental, and molecular experiments [4]. Although we are beginning to understand the developmental and evolutionary basis for eye degeneration in cavefish [ 5-7], much less is known about how and why body pigmentation has disappeared. There are three types of pigment cells in teleosts : iridescent iridophores, yellow or orange xanthrophores, and black melanophores. Cavefish have retained iridophores and xanthrophores but melanophores are lacking or present in greatly reduced numbers. Different Asytanax cavefish populations have evolved various degrees of melanophore loss: some populations ( e. g. cavefish from the Pach6n Cave) contain completely depigmented fishes, whereas others ( e. g. cavefish from the Chica, Los Sabinos, Curva, and Tinaja Caves) contain fishes with reduced numbers of melanophores. In contrast to many evolutionary changes in development, which are control led by multiple genes, a recessive mutation in a single gene is responsible for albinism in Pach6n cavefish [8]. Figure 1. Top: Eyed and pigmented Astyanax Bottom: Eyeless and color less Astyanax All pigment cells arise from the neural crest during vertebrate em bryogenesis [9]. Neural crest cells are originally derived from surface epithelium at the border of the prospective ep i dermis and neural plate As the neural plate rolls into the neural tube and the latter and begins to differentiate into the central nervous system, neural crest cells leave the epithelium and migrate along specific pathways through the interior of the embryo, eventually differentiating into many different adult derivatives, including sensory and sympathetic ganglia, the visceral nervous system, glia, cranial cartilage and bone, and parts of the eye, ear, teeth, and endo crine organs. Obviously, the regression of cavefish melanophores cannot

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llelfenic Sneteolauical Sucwtv be attributed to the complete loss of neural crest cells because their ab sence would be lethal. Instead, the loss or reduction in pigmentation could be caused by the absence of a subset of cavefish neural crest cells devoted to melanophore differentiation, by the failure of neural crest cells to mi grate correctly into the epidermis, or by the inability of neural crest cells to complete their differentiation into melanophores. In addition, as exempli fied by cavefish embryonic lens cells [5], it is possible that melanophores or their progenitor ceils are formed in cavefish embryos but subsequently die, resulting in a colorless adult. Here we describe the results of experiments that address the mecha nism of melanophore loss in Astyanax cavefish embryos. We show that cavefish contain abundant neural crest cells, which migrate properly but do not completely differentiate into functional melanophores because they are unable to convert L-tyrosine to L-DOPA, the precursor of black mela nin pigment. Thus, Astyanax cavefish exhibit the same type of albinism that accounts for most human albinisms. Results Migratory Neural Crest Cells in Cavefish To determine whether Pach6n cavefish have migratory neural crest cells, we used cell tracing, immunological, and tissue culture methods [10]. First, the lipophilic cell surface marker Dil (l,1 '-dioctadecyl3,3,3 ',3 '-tetramethylindocarbocyanine tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) was injected into the neural tube, the region where neural crest cells originate, and labeled cells were followed during surface fish and Pach6n cavefish embryonic development. We found that cavefish embryos produce as many Dir-positive neural crest cells as surface fish embryos and that these cells migrate properly into the epidermis, where they would normally form melanophores. Second, cavefish embryos were stained with the monoclonal antibody HNK-1, which detects a cell surface lipoprotein that is restricted to migrating neural crest cells in vertebrate embryos [9]. We observed about the same number of HNK-1 positive cells in surface fish and cavefish embryos. Third, the neural tube was dis sected from Pach6n cavefish embryos and cultured in vitro'. We saw cells migrating away from neural tubes in culture that resemble neural crest derived pigment cells in their morphological and biochemical properties (see below). The results indicate that cavefish embryos produce migratory neural crest cells in similar numbers to their surface fish counterparts. Cavefish Neural Crest Cells Do Not Show Massive Death To determine whether the absence of melanophores in cavefish can be attributed to programmed cell death ( apoptosis ), we assayed cavefish em bryos for apoptosis by TUNEL, which detects fragmented nuclear DNA molecules typical of apoptotic cells [5]. As described previously [5], we saw apoptotic cells specifically in the lens and sporadic episodes of cell death throughout the cavefish embryo. However, we were unable to ob serve more than a few dying neural crest cells in cavefish embryos, which was the same level of programmed cell death as observed in surface fish embryos. These results suggest that melanophores or their progenitor cells do not show massive apoptosis during cavefish embryogenesis. Tyrosinase-Positive Melanoblasts in Cavefish Melanophore differentiation involves the initial formation of colorless melanoblasts, which subsequently synthesize black melanin pigment and become functional melanophores. Melanin pigment is synthesized in the melanosome, a membrane bound organelle that can move from place to place in the cytoplasm and is responsible for physiological changes in the intensity of body coloration. The biochemical steps involved in mela nin synthesis are well known. First, the essential amino acid L-tyrosine is transported from the cytoplasm into the melanosome, where it is convert-Auuus! ed to L-DOPA by the multifunctional enzyme tyrosinase. Next, L-DOPA is converted into melanin within the melanosome by a series of enzymatic reactions, the first of which is also catalyzed by tyrosinase. Most of the subsequent reactions in the pathway are spontaneous. Oculocutaneous albinism 1 (OCAl), one type of human albinism, is caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene [ll]. Therefore, we asked whether cavefish contain functional tyrosinase. Adding exogenous L DOPA to fixed specimens and measuring the deposition of black melanin pigment granules was used to assay tyrosinase activity. The results showed that Pach6n, Chica, Los Sabinos, Tinaja, and Curva cavefish exhibit active tyrosinase in cells resembling the precursors of melanoblasts in their mor phology and location within the embryo (Figure 2). Tyrosinase positive melanoblasts were also observed in adult cavefish. These results indicate that the inability to synthesize melanin is not caused by an inactive or non-functional tyrosinase but must be due to a block in the melanogenic pathway upstream of the tyrosinase dependent steps. Figure 2. A 30 hr old Pach6n cavefish embryo assayed for tyrosinase activity by adding exogenous L-DOPA to form black melanin in tyrosinase-positive cells. Cavefish Are Unable to Convert L-tyrosine into L-DOPA The step in melanin synthesis immediately before the L-DOPA de pendent reactions is the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA, which is also catalyzed by tyrosinase. Cavefish must have L-tyrosine itself because it is required for protein synthesis. However, the ability of L-tyrosine to be converted to L-DOPA could be affected in cavefish. We investigated this possibility by providing exogenous L-tyrosine to fixed specimens and assaying for melanin deposition. If cavefish were able to convert L-tyro sine to L-DOPA we would expect to see black pigment deposition in the melanosomes of the same cells that have active tyrosinase. However, even after incubation with an excess of L-tyrosine, melanin deposition could not be detected in any cavefish population we have studied. The results show that cavefish melanoblasts cannot convert L-tyrosine to melanin, although they contain active tyrosinase, suggesting that melanogenesis is blocked at the step in which cytoplasmic L-tyrosine substrate becomes accessible to the enzyme within the melanosome. Tyrosinase-positive Melanoblasts Are Derived From the Cavefish Neural Crest Are the tyrosinase-positive cells we have discovered derived from the cavefish neural crest? We addressed this question in two different ways [10]. First, we injected the neural tube of Pach6n cavefish embryos with Dil, allowed the Dil labeled cells to migrate into the peripheral regions

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of the embryo, and then fixed the injected embryos and assayed them for tyrosinase activity We observed a subset of the Dil labeled cells that also showed tyrosinase activity. Second, migratory cells that originated from isolated cavefish neural tubes in culture were assayed for tyrosinase activity We discovered that these cells are tyrosinase positive The results support the conclusion that tyrosinase-positive melanoblasts are derived from the cavefish neural crest. Discussion We conclude that cavefish neural crest cells migrate properly into the epidermis but the melanoblasts they produce cannot convert L-tyrosine to L-DOPA by active tyrosinase and thus do not completely differentiate into melanophores. The reason that L-DOPA cannot be produced from L-tyrosine by active tyrosinase is unknown, although it is likely to be related to a deficiency in transport of the amino acid substrate into the melanosome. Whatever the reason for this deficiency, it has evolved in all of the cavefish populations we have examined, including those that have been derived independently from a surface fish ancestor [3], suggesting extreme biochemical convergence in the evolution of albinism among Astyanax cavefish. In lacking the ability to convert L-tyrosine to L-DOPA, albinitic cave fish populations resemble the most common type of albinism in humans: oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2), a form of tyrosinase-positive albinism [12]. OCA2 tyrosinase-positive albinism is caused by mutations in the oca2 gene, the human homologue of the mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) gene, which encodes a 100 kDa integral membrane protein of the melanosome [ 13]. Although its precise function is unclear, the OCA2/P protein has been proposed either to facilitate L-tyrosine transport into the melanosome or to generate a proton flux regulating melanosome pH, which is important in melanin synthesis. As mentioned earlier, tyrosinase-positive albinism is controlled by a recessive mutation in a single cavefish gene [8]. Recently, QTL analysis has indicated that mutations in the oca2 gene are also responsible for tyrosinase-positive albinism in several different Astyanax cavefish popu lations [14]. Thus, these studies have uncovered molecular convergence between a cavefish trait induced by the dark cave environment and a hu man syndrome: OCA2 albinism Cavefish eye degeneration is caused by increased bilateral separation of the eye primordia mediated by Hedgehog signals emanating from the anterior embryonic midline [7]. Interestingly, widely set eyes, similar to the cavefish embryonic eye phenotype, char acterize another human syndrome, hypertelorism. The implication is that mutations leading to these phenotypes occur frequently in animal popula tions, including cavefish and humans. Defects in pigment and eye devel opment that result from these mutations are effectively neutral in the dark cave environment, and thus can be passed from generation to generation without dire consequences. Although we now have increased insight into the genetic and bio chemical basis for cavefish albinism, several important questions remain to be answered that should be a focus for further research on the loss of pigmentation in cave animals. First, do all cave animals show OCA2 tyro sinase-positive albinism or as in humans have different types of albinism, including those equivalent to human OCAI tyrosinase-negative albinism and OCA3 and OCA4 tyrosinase-positive albinism [12], evolved in the cave environment? Second, assuming that OCA2 tyrosinase-positive al binism is widespread in cave animals, why has this particular step in the melanogenic pathway been selected for modification during repeated epi sodes of regressive evolution? One possible explanation is that the oca2 gene is particularly sensitive to mutation [ 15], perhaps because of its large size (345 kb in humans), chromosomal location, or exclusive function in melanogeneis. Another intriguing possibility is that oca2 may be a pleio tropic gene with multiple effects in development. Accordingly, OCA2/P could function at a pivotal fork in the melanophore development pathway i n which a loss of function mutation downregulating pigmentation may reciprocally enhance an unknown adaptive trait(s), which is beneficial to survival in the cave environment. References 1. Culver, D. (1982). Cave Life. Evolution and Ecology. Harvard Press, Cambridge. 2. Mitchell, R. W., Russell,W H., and W.R. Elliot (1977). Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax : Environment, distribu tion, and evolution Spec. PubL Mus. Texas Tech Univ. 12: 1-89. 3. Dowling, T. E., Martasian, D P., and W. R. Jeffery. (2002). Evi dence for multiple genetic lineages with similar eyeless phenotypes in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 446-455 4. Jeffery, W.R (2001) Cavefish as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology. Dev. Biol. 231: 1-12. 5. Yamamoto, Y., and W.R. Jeffery (2000). Central role for the lens in cave fish eye degeneration. Science 289: 631-633. 6. Yamamoto, Y, Stock, D. W., and W.R. Jeffery (2004). Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. Nature 431: 844-847. 7 Jeffery, W.R (2005). Adaptive evolution of eye degeneration in the Mexican blind cavefish. J. Hered. 96: 185-196. 8. Sadoglu, P. (1957). Mendelian inheritance in hybrids between the Mexican blind fish and their overground ancestors. Verh Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 1957: 432-439. 9. Hall, B. K. (1999). The Neural Crest in Development and Evolu tion. Springer, New York. IO.McCauley, D. W., Hixon, E., and W.R. Jeffery. (2004). Evolution of pigment cell regression in the cavefish Astyanax: A late step in melanogenesis. Evol. Dev. 6: 209-218 11. King, R. A., Pietsch, J., Fryer, J. P., Savage, S., Brott, M. J., Rus sell-Eggitt, I., Summers, C. G., and W. S. Oetting (2003). Tyrosi nase gene mutations in oculocutaneous albinism 1 (OCAI): defini tion of the phenotype Hum. Genet. 113: 502-513. 12.Oetting, W. S., and~. A. King (1999). Molecular basis of albinism: mutations and polymorphisms of pigmentation genes associated with albinism. Hum. Mutat. 13, 99-115. 13.Rinchik, E. M., Bultman, S. J., Horsthemke, B., Lee, S. T., Strunk, K. M Spritz, Avidano, K. M., Jong, M. T., and R. D. Nicholls (1993). Nature 361: 72-76. 14.Protas, M., E., Hersey, C., Kochanek, D., Zhou, Y., Wilkens, H., Jeffery, W. R., Zon, L. T., Borowsky, R., and C. J. Tabin (2005). Genetic analysis of cavefish reveals molecular convergence in the evolution of albinism. (in submission) 15.Oetting, W. S., Garrett, S. S., Brott, M., and R A. King (2005). P gene mutations associated with oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2) Human. Mutat. 25: 323.

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Hellenic S1wleoluuical Sur:ie/y 0-46 The Biodiversity in Three Cenotes from Cozumel Island Luis M. Mejfa-Ortiz1 Marilu Lopez-Mejfa', German Yanez2 & R. G. Hartnoll3 1 Universidad de Quintana Roo -Cozumel, Lab. de Bioespeleologia y Carcinologia, DDS, e-mail:, e-mail: 2 Yucatech Expeditions, Cozumel, Quintana Roo, e-mail: 3 Port Erin Marine Laboratory, University of Liverpool, British Isles Abstract The subterranean biodiversity in the Cozumel Island was analyzed in this work in order to know his current status. We review three sinkholes in the western coast from Cozumel Island, and we registered the geographi cal position, the main abiotic parameters ( temperature, salinity, pH, and oxygen dissolved), the animals from each sinkhole and we obtain the survey map. The principal taxa collected were crustaceans founding De capoda, Isopoda & Amphipoda, also we found Pisces, Annelida and Porif era, in this work and we registered for first time the existence of organism from Echinodermata Phylum in anchialine caves and Thermobaceans and Decapods from Genus Barburia (Crustacea), in Cozumel Island. This work showed that the biodiversity in subterranean environment is higher, and the conservation of this systems in necessary, because almost all fauna registered is unique. Introduction The biodiversity in underground is few times valuated, however in different countries several authors has been demonstrated that in general the subterranean environments bearing a high biodiversity. In Mexico the underground environments are well represented by caves with different origin, and we can found dry or humid caves, volcanic or dissolution carbonate caves, freshwater, marine or anchialine caves. This type caves are very cioser to coast and in Mexico are found mainly in the Yucatan Pe ninsula, and has been namely from old times by Mayas people as cenotes or sinkholP-s ( A lv::irP-7 et ::il ?000). In the Yucatan Peninsula has been previously with scientific aims (Back et al., 1978; Alcocer et al., 1998; Sanchez et al., 2002; Alcocer et al. 1999; Schmitter-Soto et al., 2002; Yager, 1987; Illife, 1993 y 1992; Kallmeyer y Carpenter, 1996; Suarez-Morales et al., 1996; Escobar-Bri ones et al., 1997). But only few caves has been explored and described in Cozumel Island, there are some isolated studies from this Island. For this reason, the aims from present work is show the species from macro and micro organisms from three sinkhole ( cenotes) in the Cozumel Island and show the environmental conditions and the form or kind of each cenote. Material and methods Cozumel Island have 482 km2 from extension, and is located at 20 48 '00" & 20 16' 12" of north latitude and between 87 '48" & 86'48" from western longitude. This Island is on the north-eastern area from Yucatan Peninsula in the Mexican Caribbean Sea, and their main sources from water are in the Cenotes and Subterranean water table. The sinkholes ( cenote) that were studied in this work are: El cenote Tres Potrillos, El Aerolito, and Sistema Cocodrilo (Fig. 1 ). The organisms were sampled handled in several surveys to each cenotes. Also were collected using tramps during 24 hours with chicken as bait. The animals were identified to species level and some organisms only to genus or class. During these surveys we measured the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, salinity and pH of each cenote. 1 Auousl 2005. Ka/01110s. Hellos Results a) Cenote Tres Potrillos t.o EIC-=tral \ .. P'urt:ICelllrain This cenote have a maximum depth of 40 m in vertical, and have a small passage at 12 m with a longitude of 40 meters approximately. This conduct has formations such as stalagmites and stalactites. In this cenote we recorded the follow organisms. The temperature was from 23 to 20 C and salinity values from 5 to 27 ppt. i) Procaris sp. ii) Barbmia sp. iii) Mayawekelia sp. b) Cenote Aerolito o Sistema Purificaci6n This system has 6100 m from longitude. Have a connection with Caribbean Sea at 240 m from main entrance. Their conducts were formed mainly by rocks dissolution. Show formations from stalag mite and stalactite, and also have speleothems. The sediments are clay and mud. The water temperature were en average from 25C, and showed a halocline at 7 m of depth, this change were from 6 ppt to 28 ppt. The species collected in this sinkhole were: i) Procaris sp. ii) Yagerocaris cozumel iii) Bahalana sp. iv) Echinoidea v) Asteroidea vi) Ophiurodea c) Cocodrilo System This sinkhole is located on the east side of Island. Have two main entrances with three meters of deep. Posterior have a main passage that have stalagmites and stalactites formations. The water temper ature has been between 20 and 22 C. The salinity values were from 7 to 32 ppt. In this cenote the sulphur content was very significative although we not evaluated. In this cenote we recorded the follow taxas:

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i) T ullumella sp ii) Poecilia sp Discussion Is evident that the species richness and endemism from each sinkhole to cru staceans group is high, and there are species o members of each genus in almost the cenotes surveyed now by us. However, there are aspects in where is necessary to make emphasis, first, the organisms in underground environments are represented by crustaceans mainly although there are another phyla as Pisces, Echinodermata (that is represented by animals from class different), Porifera and Annelida only from Aerolito Cenote the major diversity registered in this environments were from salt area, at 28 ppt, and few fishes on freshwater zone The temperature is lower in comparison with external temperature However, as we can see in the results although in this work only we reported three natural and underwa ter caves from Cozumel Island, and some species has been described and reported from thi s systems, still there are lot work, since from Cozume l is poorly know in general only from some anchialine systems the scientific know the water characteristics (Back et al., 1978; Hall 1936; Alcocer et al., 1998; Sanchez et al., 2002; Alcocer et al. 1999; Schmitter-Soto et al. 2002) whilst that the so much authors has focus efforts on described the sites and the fauna that in this environment s living, making some notes on biology and ecology from these specialised organisms (Yager, 1987; Illife 1993 & 1992; Kallmeyer y Carpenter, 1996; Suarez-Morales et al., 1996; Escobar-Briones et al. 199 7 ; Suarez-Morales & Reid 1998) Also, there are few studies on hypothesis that answer the evolutionary questions from these animals in relation with geological history from this area (Holsinger, 1986; 1989; Wilkens, 1982 & 1986). Acknowledgements This work is support by the University of Quintana Roo Campus Cozumel, and the PROMEP-SEP Program according with a grant give to project: Los crustaceos cavemfcolas de la Isla de Cozumel. Also this collaboration was a lso support by the same program with a grant give to Formaci6n y Fortalecimiento del Cuerpo Academico de Turismo (CAT UQROO-Cozumel). The authors are grateful with G. N. Martin, P. Sabido, J. Villanueva, L. May, A. Antonio & A. Mufi.oz students from undergradu ate program Manejo de Recursos Naturales UQROO-Cozumel, for their assistance during the field work. Literature cited. Alcocer J., A. Lugo, L. E. Marin & E. Escobar. 1998. Hydrochem istry of w aters from five cenotes and evaluation of their suitability for drinking-water supplies Northeastern Yucatan, Mexico Hydrogeology Journal, 6(2): 293-301. Alcocer J., A. Lugo, M. R. Sanchez E. Escobar & M. Sanchez, 1999 Bacterioplankton from cenotes and anchialine caves of Quintana Roo Yucatan Peninsula Mexico Revista de Biologfa Tropical, 47 : 73 80 S111:!ea iauica/ Sur:ie/y Alvarez, F., E. Escobar -Briones y J. Alcocer. 2000. Sistemas anqui alinos en Mexico. Ciencia y Desarrollo, XXVI (155): 36-45. Back, W., B. Hanshaw & T. E. Pyle. 1978 Preliminary results: geo chemical and hydrologic study of Caleta Xe l-H a, Quintana Roo Mexico Field Seminar on water and carbonate rocks of the Yucatan Peninsula Mexico. New Orleans, Geology Society Escobar-Briones, E., M. E. Camacho & J. Alcocer. 1997. Calliasmata nohochi, new species (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from anchialine cave systems in continental Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 17(4): 733-744 Hall, F. G. 1936 Physical and chemical survey of cenotes of Yucatan Carnegie Institute of Washington Publications, 457 : 5 -1 6. Holsinger J. R 198 6 Zoogeographic patterns of North American subterranean amphipod crustaceans Pp. 85 -1 06 En: R. H. Gore, & K. L. Heck (Editors). Crustacean Issues 4: Crustacean Biogeography, Rot terdam : A. A. Balkena. Holsinger, J. R., 1989. Preliminary zoogeographic analysis of five groups of crustaceas from anchialine caves in the West Indian Region Proceedings 10th International Congress of Speleology, 1: 25-26. Holsinger J.R. 1992. Two new species of the subterranean amphipod genus Bahadzia (Hadziidae) from the Yucatan Peninsula region of south ern Mexico, with an analysis of phylogeny and biogeography. Stygologia, 7:85-105. Illife, T. M 1992. An annotated list of the troglobitic anchialine and freshwater fauna de Quintana Roo En: D. Navarro y E. Suarez-Morales (Eds ), Diversidad biol6gica en la Reserva de la Biosfera de SianKa'an, Quintana Roo Mexico. Vol. III, Chetumal CIQRO/Sedesol pp 197-21 7 Illife, T. M 1993. Fauna troglobia acuatica de la Peninsula de Yucatan 673-686. En: Salazar Vallejo S. I. y N E. Gonzalez (Eds.) Biodiversidad marina y costera de Mexico CONABIO y CICRO Mexico. 867 pp. Kallmeyer, D. E., & J. H. Carpenter 1996. Stygiom ysis cokei, new species, a troglobitic mysid from Quintana Roo, Mexico (Mysidacea: Stygiomysidae) Journal Crustacean Biology, 16(2): 418-127. Schmitter-Soto, J. J., E. Escobar, J. Alcocer, E Suarez-Morales M. Elias-Gutierrez, L. E. Marin & B. Steinich. 2002. Hydrobiology of cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula. Hydrobiologia, 467: 215-228. Suarez-Morales, E J. W. Reid, T. M. Iliffe, y F. Fiers. 1996. Catalogo de los Copepodos (Crustace a) Continentales de la Peninsula de Yucatan, Mexico. Ecosur-CONABIO, Chetumal 296 pp. Suarez-Morales E., & J. W. Reid. 1998. An update list of the free living freshwater copepods (Crustacea) of Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 43(2) : 256-265. Wilkens, H. 1982. Regressive evolution and phylogenetic age: The history of colonization of freshwater of Yucatan by fish and crustacea. Association of Mexican Cave Studies Bulletin, 8: 237-243. Wilkens, H. 1986 The tempo of regressive evolutio n: studies of the eye reduction in stygobiont fishes and decapod crustaceans of the Gulf Coast and west Atlantic region. Stygologia, 2(1-2): 130-143 Yager J. 1987 Speleonectes tulumensis n sp. (Crus tacea Reimpedia) from two anchialine cenotes of the Y ucatan Peni n s ula Mexico. Stygo lo gia, 3: 160-166. If !Ii lnternntionn! Conu ress uf Soe!eutouy

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H e llenic Soe len fogica l So ciety 0-47 Biospeleologie, sommeil paradoxal (REM)et Monde souterrain Dr CHAMA A. Unite de medecine du travail Secteur sanitaire d'Es-Senia (Oran,Algerie) Avec la decouverte de l'EEG par Berger en 1924, il etait possible d'explorer le sommeil et d'arriver a des resultats scientifiques sur la phys iologie du cerveau particulierement le fonctionnement de l 'organisme humain de fa9on objective. Les premiers travaux scientifiques Sur le sommeil commencerent par des chercheurs americains Kleit man et son eleve Aserinsky en 1936 aux USAqui rapportent la presence les mouvements oculaires lors du sommeil qu'ils appelerent le Rapid Eye Mouvment (REM) et qui suivirent les travaux de William Dement eh 1953. La nouvelle s' entendit en France et les travaux experimentaux sur le chat par le professeur Michel Jouvet,neurophysiologiste ont permit de con firmer les resultats des chercheurs americains sur le REM et aboutit a une decouverte scientifique du sommeil paradoxal grace a l 'enregistrement par EEG suivi de l'EOG (elelctrooculogramme), l'electromyogramme (EMG) et la frequence cardiaque (ECG),fonction respiratoire, Ces etudes sur le sommeil et son exploration par les methodes d' enregistrement electrique ont ete couronnes de succes et ont vu enfin en 1968 a une standardisation des etats de vigilance et une classification internationale des stades de sommeil par A.Rechstachaffen et A.Kales. Malgre son importance et le role que devra jouer dans la pathologie et le programme d'education ,le sommeil a suscite de l'interet surtout dans les recherches en neurophysiologie et d' autre disciplines qui ont trait a explorer l'homme dans d'autres dimensions. Les etudes sur la physiologie et la chimie du sommeil par Michel Jouvet et aussi les travaux de Parmeggiani sur la regulation des fonctions physiologiques du sommeil chez l'homme. La recherche sur le role des neurotransmetteurs substances ac tives dans le sommeil dans certains de ses stades ont etudiees avec des hypothese sur le role des stades de sommeil et la theorie mono-amin ergique. Le sommeil et plus particulierement le sommeil paradoxal ont ete etudies sous l angle de la phylogenese chez l'homme et les especes hu maines (mammiferes, reptiles ... ) Cela n'a pas manque d'autres disciplines philosophiques et religieuses a etudier le sommeil et l'activite onirique (Upanishades, ecritures saintes) et trouverent un terrain parfois d entente avec les theories scientifiques parfois l ecart comble d'hypotheses et de reflexions. Dernierement la genetique trouva une place de choix dans l' etude du sommeil dans sa profondeur et surtout le sommeil paradoxal grace aux recherches experimentales chez les jumeaux homozygotes et chez les animaux (rats). Le progres scientifique a souligne la place de la chronobiologie ou etudes des rythmes biologiques tel que les etudes du Professeur Alain Re inberg. l'etude du sommeil a ete presente comme !'illustration de choix pour verifier le bien fonde des rythmes biologiques Qui ont mis en cause le principe d' homeostasie et la notion de constances biologiques considerees erronees en medecine par les chronobiologistes. On ne peut evoquer la place de cette jeune discipline en perpetuel croissance tant dans sa demarche et de sa fiabilite en medecine pour expliquer le fonctionnement de l'organisme humain sans souligner le role qu a joue une autre discipline : la speieologie ou science des cav ernes et plus particulierement les experiences hors du temps du celebre speleologue fran9ais Michel Siffre qui demontra qu'en dehors du repere temporel c'est-a-dire en isolement l'organisme humain adopte un rythme biologique circadien non pas de 24 heures mais d'environ 25 heures avec 21-28 Auoust 2005. l(ulnmos He/las un decalage horaire d'une heure environ .Le sejour de Michel Siffre dans le monde souterrain a eu un echo mediatique considerable sur la notion du perte de la notion du temps et aussi le rythme original de l 'homme. La science vient de decouvrir que le rythme biologique de l 'homme est inne ,La recherche de l'horloge biologique a ete serieusement etudiee pour decouvrir le siege de ce quartz et pour un meilleur fonctionnement de l'homme. Plusieurs approches ont elucide Tantot neurophysiologiste, phylogenetique OU introspective .. Ces experiences menees dans le monde souterrain ont non seulement revele leur utilite dans la connaissances des rythmes biologiques mais aus si leurs aspects psychologiques. Dans son journal ,Michel Siffre raconte les reves lors de son sejour souterrain et temoignent de son temperament. Les etudes sur les experiences hors du temps ont merite leur place dans les etudes spatiales menees par la NASA pour evaluer les perform ances psychomotrices et les erreurs de comportement surtout chez les pilotes,cosmonautes et navigateurs dans les vols trans-nieridiens ou le decalage horaire existe comme dans le monde souterrain. Il s' agit d'ameliorer les rythmes du travail a bord des sous "' marins nucleaires et de maintenir la vigilance du personnel navigant en cas de decalage horaire. Cet aspect de rythmes biologiques a permit non seulement d'evaluer l'impact sur la sante de l'homme mais de souligner l'aspect preventif: Hygiene du sommeil pour preserver la sante de l'homme a travers la rela tion etroite de l'homme par rapport a son environnement comme il etait classique de discuter sur la strategie de la prevention mais un autre facteur qui ne manque pas d'interet qui est le facteur temps. A travers cette optique elargie et lucide que nous essayerons de present er notre etude pour cerner les interactions entre l 'homme environnement et temps qui traduit tout l'interet des experiences hors du temps et de la biospeleolgie. En medecine du travail, ou le role a preserver la sante de l'homme dans son aspect physique, mental,social et ergonomique n'a pas manque de souligner !'identification des risques professionnels physiques,chimiqu es,biologiques mais aussi le facteur temps a ete considere comme une nui sance a ne pas negliger. Les etudes sur le travail de nuit poste ou alternes ont montre !'impact de l'horaire de travail sur la sante des travailleurs ( accidents du travail, erreurs du comportement,desordres du sommeil et troubles psychologiques et vegetatifs .. ). Conscient de ce risque en milieu du travail,certains pays developpes ont etablit une legislation du travail .Les aptitudes psychomotrices et sensorielles sont menacees lors du travail de nuit (a citer l'exemple des accidents du Titanic en 1912, Bhopal en Inde en 1984, Tchernobyl en URSS en 1986 et enfin Bale en 1986 .. ). Le role des rythmes biologiques en medecine du travail et la patholo gie de la nuit nous a motive a presenter combien est grande la carence en matiere du role du sommeil chez les preventeurs et dans le programme de prevention. A consulter les carnets de l'enfant ou les dossiers des visites medicaux periodiques des travailleurs pour constater !'absence d'information sur le sommeil et tout particulierement celui qui exerce la nuit ou travail poste. A vrai dire l'hygiene du sommeil est rudimentaire malgre la grande avance de la physiologie du sommeil. Lors de notre participation au 19 e m e Congres national de speleologie a Bologna (Itale) en 2003 nous avons discuter la place des rythmes bi ologiques en medecine et la duree du sommeil en dehors du repere tempo-

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rel dans l e monde s o u te rr a i n qu i e s t d e 24 72 heur es a v ec un coefficient de 3%) que nous baptise le coefficient de c orrection ou de resychronisation par rapport au monde ambiant .A travers notre etude intitulee Histoire de Ashab al-kahf (Les Gens de la caveme) horloge biologique e t vie hors du temps a travers les donnees de la chronobiologie, nous avons souligne la dimen sion de l'homme dans sa composante temp oro-s patiale. Parallelement aux donnees scientifiques puisees de la chronobiologie et de la speleologie et plus particulierement les experiences hors du temps de Michel Siffre, nous n avons pas hesite a elargir l interet que peut porter le s Ecritures Saintes ou philo so phiques tel que les Ecritures indoues ou Upanishades sur les etats de vigilance eveil, sommeil et reve (Lanteri)ou grace a la decouverte du sommeil paradoxal l 'activite onirique et le som meil qui ont prit une dimension dans le debat scientifique. Les Ecritures Saintes ,la Sourate Al-Kahf et plus particulierement l 'Histoire de Ashab a l Kahf du Saint-Coran nous a permit d'arriver a des resultats comparables du decalage horaire a celui de Miehe Siffre avec une nette precision (voir notre etude en reference) mais de discuter la nature du sommeil des Gen s de la Cavem e reste enigmatique jusqu'a ce jour et que c'est grace aux donnees sur le sommeil et la chronobiologie et la spel6ologie que nous essayerons de repondre dans une approche globale et synthetique basee sur la comparaison entre les ecritures saintes et les donnees scientifiques. Notre etude bibliographique sur le som me il et son impact sur la sante de l 'homme et les differentes variations qui en emanent souligne le role du sommeil paradoxal (REM) comme un second etat qui immerge lors du sommeil et qui doit meriter toute !'attention tant sur le plan physiologique de la vie intra-uterine (sommeil agite) du nourrisson,de l'enfant jusqu'a l'adolescent et l'homm e adulte et ses var iation s et meme en medecine du travail OU peu d'etudes se sont interessees malgre son role comme repara teur des fonctions psychiques, memorisation .. Dans les experiences hors du temps il a ete souligne les modifications des parametres biologiques tel que cortisol temperature,melatonine,som meil et vraisemblablement le sommeil paradoxal. . 11 est rapporte aussi que l'enfant in utero et meme les quatre premiers mois apres la naissance,le nouveau-ne vit en decalage horaire avec un rythme biologique circadien de 25 heures environ dans un environnement in dependant ( surtout le metronome lumiere) et le nouveau ne comme nce a s'adapter progressivement au monde ambiant avec une nouv eile organi sat ion du sommei l sur un mode temporel de 24 heures et qui traduit selon certains auteurs la maturation et le deve lo ppement cerebral. A cote de l'interet que nous avons porte sur le sommeil paradoxal dans la science et les ecritures saintes, nous nous som mes pose la ques tion si existe un decalage horaire dans le monde maritime comme l'a fort souligne Michel Siffre dans les conditions suivantes : l Le monde souterrain 2.Le monde spatial 3.Les vols trans-meridiens En medecine du travail les etudes menees sur les caissons e t plongee sous-marine et plus particulierement les etudes du Commandant Jean Yves Cousteau n' ont pas ete d'un grand secours pour discuter la presence ou non d'un eventuel decalage horaire en dehors du repere tempore1. Notre recherche a aboutit a un choix d un milieu sensiblement compa rable au monde sou terrain : le milieu uterin ( liquide amniotique )ou existe l'absence de lumiere, brnit temperature constant e, enfant en apesanteur et une dormance de l enfant qui traduit une veritable independance du milieu La recherche d'un decalage horaire etait l'objectif ainsi que le rythme biologique de 25 heures ? Nous nous sommes interesses a la duree de la grossesse physiologique qui est de 266 jour s (en prenant en consideration le prem i er jour de ovulation qui est uniquement 1 4 jours/mois Heff emc S 11eleolooica i Suci r!IY C est-a-dire en e x cluant la phase folliculiniqu e qui est de 14 jours) La duree extreme de l 'accouchement est de 296 jours ce qui donnera un rap port de 1,03 D'ou 1 03 X 24 heures= 24,72 heures Ce qui revient a dire que la grossesse physiologique
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Hellenic SiJe /eu!o [Jtcul Soci ety 0-48 Progressive lowering of the water table in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, Usa as recorded by cave and mine deposits CAROL A HILL an d VIC TOR J PO LYAK Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, 200 Yale Blvd. Albuquerque, NM 87131 Abstract Speleothem and ore deposits in Grand Canyon (GC) caves and mines record the progressive lowering of the water table over time. The se quence of significant deposits and events in the GC is: ( 1) Ore mineraliza tion (Cu-U) episode. Sulfide ore mineralization, as exposed in the breccia pipes/mines of the GC, formed in the reduced zone, possibly during the Laramide when H2S migrated up deep basement faults and monoclinal structures. Uranium precipitated in the redox zone and calcite spar formed paragenetically with ore mineralization. Time: Paleocene to Eocene? (2) Hematite/goethite episode. The oldest cave deposits are manganese and iron oxides (hematite / goethite) containing minor halite and trace-metals (e.g.,As, Ba, Pb). These deposits fill small solution cavities in the Redwall Limestone exposed by cave passages. These metal~rich deposits formed when ascending warm saline waters mixed with descending oxidized cold waters in the deep phreatic zone. Time: Oligocene? (3) Calcite spar epi sode. Calcite spar crystals are found lining the walls of a number of GC caves. Since they line cave passages, they must be younger than these pas sages. Large calcite spar crystals are known to form from low-temperature hydrothermal solutions under quiet phreatic conditions. Time: Miocene? (4) Mammillary-replacement gypsum episode. Mammillaries, consisting 1of microcrystalline fibrous calcite, are a speleothem type that forms in the shallow-phreatic zone just below the water table. Replacement gypsum rinds form at or just above the water table where degassing H2S reacts with wet limestone. These two cave deposits can be used to determine past water table positions in the Redwall Limestone as well as incision rates for the GC. Time: Middle Miocene-Pliocene in the western GC to Pliocene-Pleistocene in the eastern GC to the present in Marble Canyon. (5) Subaerial speleothem episode. Speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites record when GC caves became air-filled. Many of these speleothems are very old, surpassing the limit of U-series dating. Time: Pliocene-Recent. U-Pb and U-series dating of mine calcite, calcite-spar cave linings, water-table mammillary calcite, and subaerial speleothem calcite should provide an absolute time scale for the history of water table lowering in, and incision of, the Grand Canyon. Introduction The purpose of this study is to understand the evolution of the Grand Canyon with regard to the progressive lowering of the water table over time and with regard to the age of incision of the canyon itself. In order to accomplish this goal a number of caves and mines within the Grand Canyon area were visited (Fig. 1). Caves (artesian type only) visited dur ing the course of this study were: Cave of the Domes, Babylon Crystal Forest, Tse an Bida, Tse'an Kaetan, Bat, Moria, Mother Diamond, Grand Canyon Caverns Cathedral, Indian, Cave Spring, Dusty, Falls, IMAX, Chuar Butte, Muav, and Rampart. Mines visited were: Orphan, Grand view, Grand Gulch Savanic, Ridenour, Riverview, Pigeon, Snyder Hack Canyon, Ryan, Petosky, Mackin Anita (Emerald), Copper Queen, North star and Eaststat. Two main types of caves exist in the Grand Canyon area: (1) unconfined (vadose) caves, and (2) confined (artesian, phreatic) caves (Huntoon, 2000a,b ). Unconfined caves in the Grand Canyon are simple linear drains in the vadose zone where water recharges at the sur face of the Kaibab Plateau and moves under high gradients down along faults (or master joints parallel to faults) to the Redwall-Muav aquifer and where discharge is mainly from the base of the Muav Limestone to the Colorado River This modem vadose circulation system has given rise to the great North Rim caves such as Roaring Springs and Thunder River. 27 28 lwnust WD5. Knlnmos. He/fas However, no vadose caves were visited during this study because they do not contain deposits within them that record the geologic history of the Grand Canyon. They are caves that discharge to the modem Grand Canyon and thus postdate the incision of the canyon. Confined caves in the Grand Canyon come in two varieties: modem and relict. Both of these constitute what is known as the "Red wall artesian aquifer." Modem confined caves are hydrologically active caves that give rise to springs along the Marble Canyon section of the Grand Canyon. They are maze caves that are saturated and inaccessible. Relict confined caves formed like modem confined caves (i.e., under artesian conditions in the phreatic zone), but they have been dissected and dewatered by canyon erosion from west to east over time. Relict Redwall artesian caves are extremely important to understanding the geologic history of the Grand Canyon because they contain remnant deposits that record events that occurred both before and during the incision of the canyon. These cave deposits are (from oldest to youngest): (1) hematite / goethite (2) calcite spar, (3) mam millaries-replacement gypsum, and (4) subaerial speleothems (Hill et al., 2001). A specific cave may have only one of these deposits, two or three of these deposits (Fig. 2), or all four of these deposits, but in all cases the relative sequence of these deposits is consistently the same. Copper-uranium ore mineralization episode Some of the highest-grade uranium ore in North America resides in the breccia pipes of the Grand Canyon (Mathisen, 1987). These pipes were mined in the late 1800s-early 1900s for copper and in the 1950s-1960s for uranium. The breccia pipes have their bases in the Redwall Limestone and they stope up into the Paleozoic section and even into the Mesozoic section where these rocks have not been removed by erosion. The ore deposits of the Grand Canyon not only contain copper and uranium, but also a number of different sulfide minerals and pyrobitumen. Wenrich and Sutphin (1989) suggested a paragenetic sequence for these different ore minerals. The rare-metal sulfides (Ni, Co, As) + pyrite-marcasite formed early in the zone of reduction, and then somewhat later the sulfides of copper lead and zinc also formed in the zone of reduction. Even later the ore-mineral uraninite probably formed in the redox (reduction oxidation) zone, typical of "roll-front" type uranium deposits, and still later minerals were deposited in the zone of oxidation. Thus, this paragenetic sequence of minerals records the progressive lowering of the water table over time through the breccia pipes. The general model proposed by this study for the breccia-pipe ore deposits of the Grand Canyon involves two-fluids, where a shallow meteoric oxidizing fluid carrying copper and uranium (as carbonate complexes) from a recharge area to the south mixed with a deep-sourced saline and reducing fluid containing dissolved H2S, CO2, and metals (Fig. 3). In this model, the proposed source of uranium and copper is stratabound uranium-copper deposits once present in above-ly ing Mesozoic rock (still located in the area east of the Grand Canyon), and the proposed source of reductant is hydrocarbons in the Precambrian Su pergroup basement. Time of mineralization is debatable. Ludwig and Sim mons (1992) performed U-Pb dates on uraninite from a number of mines and found that these ages congregate in the Triassic although a number have greater or lesser age values. On the other hand, Beitler et al. (2003) placed the timing of migration of H2S up along monoclines in Southern Utah in the Laramide (Paleocene-Eocene), where this reductant bleached the Navajo Sandstone along monoclinal and anticlinal structures. There fore it is also possible that Laramide monoclines in the Grand Canyon area were avenues for reductant (H2S) ascending from Precambrian basement faults into breccia pipes.

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Hematite/goethite episode The first event recorded in Grand Canyon caves is the hematite/ goethite episode. These deposits occur in cavities within the Redwall Limestone, exposed by later cave passage dissolution. Sometimes these deposits are composed of the higher-temperature iron-rich mineral hematite, and sometimes by lower-temperature goethite. Usually this material is high in manganese, and also in the trace elements of As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Some deposits contain halite. The mechanism for the precipita tion ofhematite/goethite is shown in Figure 4. Thermal waters rising from depth are often saturated with CO2. Water mixed with gas (H2S, CO2) has a slightly lower density than normal water, so it rises along joints and cools. This cooling caused the dissolution of the Redwall Limestone by the "cooling corrosion" mechanism of Bogli (1980). In addition, the mixture of low TDS, low CO2, shallow meteoric waters with high TDS, high CO2, deep-seated waters creates a solution that dissolves limestone in the mixing zone This process is called "mixing corrosion" (Ford and Williams, 1989). Dissolution of carbonate (limestone) consumes H + and thus raises the pH allowing for the precipitation of hematite/goethite within the cavities created by the mixing-corrosion mechanism In turn, the precipitation of hematite/goethite under oxidizing conditions gener ates acidity according to the following reaction: 2Fe2 + 0.502 + 2Hp = Fe203 + 4H + (1) The acidity produced in this reaction further dissolves cavities in the limestone. Therefore, the creation of space for the hematite/goethite and the chemistry of its precipitation goes on simultaneously. Time of this epi sode is uncertain, but it may date from the Oligocene or Early Miocene. Calcite spar episode After the precipitation of hematite/goethite the water table continued to descend until the Redwall Limestone was within the maximum solubil ity regime of calcite (Fig. 5). As convective water rises and cools, the solubility of calcite gradually increases so that cave passages dissolve in the deep "solutional zone." This usually occurs somewhere between ~250-550 m below the water table (Dublyansky, 1995, 2000). It was in this regime that the artesian-phreatic cave passages formed. As the water table descended further, Grand Canyon caves formed in the "solutional zone" were shifted into the "depositional zone" where the solubility of calcite dropped sharply and solutions changed from aggressive to precipi tative (Fig. 5). Since the loss of CO2 is very slow in the phreatic regime, spar crystals had a chance to grow slowly and large, lining previously formed cave passages (Fig. 6). Spar crystals up to 56 cm long have been found lining Grand Canyon caves. These crystals exhibit carbon-oxygen isotope values, fluid inclusion temperatures, and fluorescence ( orange to non-fluorescent) that indicate a low-temperature hydrothermal regime, probably somewhere between ~90C to 30C. Mammillary-replacement gypsum episode Mamrnillary linings. As the water table dropped to the level of the Redwall Limestone, the deposition of calcite changed from large spar crystal linings to microcrystalline fibrous "mammillary" linings (Fig. 7). Marnmillaries are a type of speleothem that forms within a 100 m or so of the water table, most usually within ~50 m to O m (Hill and Forti, 1997). In the shallow phreatic zone near the water table the loss of CO2 is much faster than in the deep phreatic zone (Fig. 5); therefore, a rapid precipitation of fine-grained fibrous calcite occurs in this regime. The size of crystals in mammillaries typically varies from several millimeters to a few centimeters. Marnmillary coatings are very common in Grand Canyon caves, and some coatings line entire caves or cave passages ( e.g., Mother Cave). Mammillary speleothems are important to the study of the Grand Can yon because they denote the approximate position of the paleo-water table and can thus be used to date canyon incision from one end of the canyon to the other. Three separate pieces of evidence support a near water-table origin for marnmillaries: (1) the fine-grained nature of mammillaries, (2) the common association of mammillaries with calcite rafts and folia -two speleothem types believed to form at the water table (Hill and Forti, 1997), and (3) the occurrence of mamrnillaries forming today near the water table along with folia (e.g., in Devils Hole, Nevada; Kolesar and Riggs, 2004). Far below the water table mammillaries cannot form, and above the water table the growth of mammillaries ceases (Fig. 8). Preliminary dating of mammillaries in Grand Canyon caves indicates that their age is beyond the U-series method (>0.5 Ma). In most instances, the uranium concentration is high enough, and the lead concentration is low enough, for the U-Pb method to be suitable for dating these water table/canyon incision speleothem indicators. Preliminary results for a mammillary sample from Grand Canyon Caverns on the western end of the Grand Canyon indicate that the water table was at the Redwall level there sometime during the Middle Miocene ( ~ 19 Ma) (Polyak et al., 2004). This timing is consistent with the incision record from the dat ing of basalt flows on the western side of the Grand Canyon by Young (2004). Preliminary dating results from a Bida Cave marnmillary sample on the eastern end of the Grand Canyon indicate that the water table was at the level of the Redwall in this part of the canyon sometime during the Pliocene (~2-3 Ma). Replacement Gypsum. While mammillary speleothems form near or just below the water table, replacement gypsum rinds form just above the water table where H2S reacts with wet limestone to form gypsum accord ing to the following equations: H2S+2O2+---+W+HSO4 +---+2H++SO42-(2) sulfuric acid 2H + + SO4 2 -+ CaCO3 +---+Caz++ SO4 +Hp+ CO2 (3) sulfuric acid limestone gypsum In the case of Grand Canyon caves, this episode was minor in contrast to the sulfuric acid origin of caves in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico ( e.g., Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave; Hill, 1990). This episode probably formed in response to Basin and Range-age tectonic ex tension, where H2S from the Precambrian basement ascended to the level of the Redwall Limestone along master joints parallel to faults. Proof that the gypsum rinds in Grand Canyon caves is of replacement, rather than speleothemic, origin is their enrichment in the light isotope of sulfur (a 34 S = -17.9%0 to +5.8%o, avg. -3.7%0 for 9 values), whereas Permian gypsum in the overburden averages about +14-15%0). In some caves replacement gypsum can be seen directly overlying marnmillary speleothems ( e.g., Cave of the Domes, Mother Cave). In these cases this sequence of deposits records the lowering of the water table through the cave itself. The mammillary coating formed just below the water table, while later in time as the water table dropped through the extent of the cave, the gypsum rind formed just above the water table in the subaerial zone from the replacement of limestone (eq 3). Subaerial speleothem episode After Grand Canyon caves became air-filled, they became decorated with subaerial speleothems such as stalactites, stalagmites, and flowstone. U-series dating has shown that many of the speleothems collected in Grand Canyon caves are very old -that is, beyond the U-series dating method. Today the caves of the Grand Canyon are dry and very few speleothems are still actively growing. Periods of substantial growth of speleothems likely represent climatic episodes of increased precipitation. For example, a stalactite collected from Bat Cave was deposited sometime

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Hellenic Spe/eotorricul Sor:iefy between 402 and 448 ka, and likely coincides with Oxygen Isotope Stage 12, a global glacial period that could have included increased precipitation for the Grand Canyon area (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973). Conclusion The overall model for the progressive lowering of the water table in the Grand Canyon is shown in Figure 9. Essentially, when the water table was high in Mesozoic strata (position (1) in Fig. 9), the Redwall Lime stone was in the reduced zone, and this allowed for the precipitation of sulfide minerals in the breccia pipes of the Grand Canyon. The uranium mineralization followed as the Redwall Limestone entered the redox zone. Even later in time in the deep phreatic zone, mixing corrosion caused the dissolution of cavities in the Redwall Limestone and the precipitation of hematite/goethite within these cavities (position (2) in Fig. 9). In the shal lower phreatic zone the limestone was first in the "solutional zone" where cave passages dissolved, followed by a shift into the "depositional zone" where calcite spar lined these cave passages (position (3) in Fig. 9). When the water table reached the level of the Redwall Limestone (position ( 4) in Fig. 9) the mammillaries and replacement gypsum formed, and when it descended below the level of the caves (position (5) in Fig. 9) subaerial speleothems grew within these caves. Future U-Pb and U-series dating of mine calcite, calcite-spar linings, mammillary calcite, and subaerial speleothem calcite should provide an absolute time scale for the history of water table lowering in, and incision of, the Grand Canyon. Acknowledgments Funding for this project was received from the National Park Service, Grand Canyon Association, and National Speleological Society. Prelimi nary laboratory dating analyses were supported by Yemane Asmerom and performed at the University of New Mexico Radiogenic Isotope Labora tory. Cave visitation and sample collection was by permit from Grand Canyon National Park and the Hualapai, Navajo, and Hopi Nations. We thank Bob and Debbie Buecher, Alan Hill, and Paula Provencio for pho tography, notes, and field support on this project. References Beitler, B., Chan, M.A., and Parry, W. T., 2003, Bleaching of Jurassic Navajo sandstone on Colorado Plateau Lararnide highs: evidence of exhumed hydrocarbon supergiants? Geology, v. 31, no. 12, p. 1041-1044. Bogli, A., 1980, Karst hydrology and physical speleology: Berlin, Springer, 284 p. Dublyansky, Y. V., 1995, Speleogenetic history of the Hungarian hy drothermal karst: Environ. Geology, v. 25, p. 24-25. Dublyansky, Y. V., 2000, Hydrothermal speleogenesis its settings and peculiar features; in Klimchouk, A. B. et aL (eds), Speleogenesis: Evolu tion of karst aquifers: Huntsville, AL, National Speleological Society, p. 292-297. Ford, D. C. and Williams, P. W., 1989, Karst geomorphology and hy drology: London, Unwin Hyman, 601 p. Hill, C. A., 1990, Sulfuric acid speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and its relationship to hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 74, p. 1685-1694. Hill, C. A. and Forti, P, 1997, Cave minerals of the world: Huntsville, AL, National Speleological Society, 2 nd ed., 463 p. Hill, C. A., Polyak, V. J., McIntosh, W. C., and Provencio, P. P., 2001, Preliminary evidence from Grand Canyon caves and mines for the evolu tion of the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River system: in Young, R. A., 1-28 Auoust 2005. l(alamos. Helius and Spam er, E. E. (eds.), The Colorado River: origin and evolution: Grand Canyon, AZ, Grand Canyon Ass. Monograph 12, Ch. 22, p. 141-145. Huntoon, P. W., 1990, Phanerozic structural geology of the Grand Can yon; in Beus, S.S., and Morales, M. (eds.), Grand Canyon geology: New York, Oxford University Press, p. 261-332. Huntoon, P. W., 2000a, Karstification associated with groundwater cir culation through the Redwall artesian aquifer, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA; in Klimchouk, A. B. et al. (eds), Speleogenesis: Evolution of karst aquifers: Huntsville, AL: National Speleological Society, p. 287-291. Huntoon, P. W., 2000b, Variability in karstic permeability between un confined and confined aquifers, Grand Canyon region, Arizona: Environ mental and Engineering Geoscience, v. 6, no. 2, p. 155-170. Kolesar, P. T. and Riggs, A. C., 2004, Influence of depositional envi ronment on Devils Hole calcite morphology and petrology, in Sasowsky, I. D. and Mylroie, J. (eds.), Studies of cave sediments -physical and chemical records of paleoclimate, p. 227-241. Ludwig. K. R., and Simmons, K. R., 1992, U-Pb dating of uranium deposits in collapse breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon region: Economic Geology, v. 87, p. 1747-1765. Mathisen, I. W., 1987, Arizona Strip breccia pipe program: explora tion, development and production: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, no. 5, p 590. Shackleton, N. J., and Opdyke, N. D., 1973, Oxygen isotope and pale omagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28238: oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 10 5 year and 10 6 year scale: Quaternary Research, v. 3, p. 39-55. Polyak, V. J., Hill, C. A., andAsmerom, Y., 2004, History ofheadward erosion of the Grand Canyon from a study of speleothems (abs.): Geologi cal Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 549. Wenrich, K. J., and Sutphin, H.B., 1989, Lithotectonic setting neces sary for formation of a uranium-rich solution-collapse breccia-pipe prov ince, Grand Canyon region, Arizona: USGS Open File Report 89-0173, 33 p. Young, R. A., Miocene drainage history of western Grand Canyon, Arizona (abs.): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, V. 35, p. 549. \ Mi.ta cnes! : Peaohe(:)G Springs c::'l!l~nY()ll Figure 1. Map of the Grand Canyon and location of the major caves visited during this study. Figure 2. Three of the four types of cave deposits are displayed on wall of Bida Cave. Photo by Bob Buecher.

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GRANO CANYON REGtON / Breccia Pipes -rich, SHline dee,.seated wate rs coatai aina f f Ma, As Co Pb etc. I ffiSseurte Hydrocarbons in Cb. oar? sne !eoluuica l g shalloif n1etee waten c:on tain ina C u -+ s .. s w U (a s c : 1r ho11!ate co1 t:tpl,!1 e.t), deriv ed from stratabtn:11.ld sandltoae-hosted ore deposits in on ce-pr esen t Meso zoic : roc k Figure 3. A twofluid mixing model for the origin of the Cu U ore deposits in Grand Canyon breccia pipes It is proposed that the copper and uranium deriv ed from strata bound-hosted ore deposits present in overlying Mesozoi c rock before it was eroded away and that the source of reductant was hydrocarbons in the Precambrian ba se ment. The breccia pipes acted as structural traps for the mixing of these two.fluids. Modifi ed from Huntoon (1996) . .W.a!erJab.le.. Redwa n Ls I .. .. . I De scen_d ing, oxid ize d, t mete on c waters I RW Ls 1 Red uced Zone Master joint F lu id coo ls / . as it asc ends Asceudmg, reduc mg sahne along fract ure 1 -d ..., ed w ~te~s c? ntaini ng It l.0 2, H2S 't high ms (Fe, Mn+ trace metals) 2 0 Spar linin g m am millary fonnation very n ear water tabl e at 250-550 m) 1 Depth, km 2 3 Figure 4 Geoc hemistry of the hematite episod e. The mixture of low TDS, low CO2 meteoric waters with high TDS, high CO2 deep-sourced waters creates a solution that dissolves lim es tone in the mixing zone of these two types of waters. This dissolution process is called "mixing corroswn. Fig ure 5. As convec tive wat er rises and cools, the solubility of calcite increa ses so that caves dissolve in the "solutional zone" at -250 -550 m depth. As the water table descends, caves are shifted into the "depo s itional zone" so that calcite s par lines these c ave passages Mammillary formation occurs very near the water table due to rapid CO2 loss there After Dubylansky (1995 2000). Figur e 6 Calcite spar linings cov e ring the ceiling, walls, and.floor ofDiam ond Cave. P hoto by Bob Bu ec h e t : Figure 7. Cross-section ofmammillary coating over bedrock, collected jrom Mother Cave. The mammillaries are composed of mi crocryst alline fibrous calcite, well suited for dating 14tl1 Jntemutionnl Con[Jress of Soeteulouy

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Hell enic Sf}e /eulrm ical So ciety Growth of mam m maries ceases after water table descends belo~ cave Growth mam mma ry coattn gs takes place below and near the water table~ No rnammmary coatings well below the water table , .. i WEST Exaggerated slope of water table mammilla.ry coating E AST Figure 8. Mammillary coatings form near the water table w h ere there is a rapid degassing of CO2 After the water table descends through the cave, the coatings no longer grow but are well-preserved in the cave environment. PALEOZOIC ROCKS (3). Supai Te mple Butte PRECAMBRIAN ROCKS > Evaporite dis solution front Harrisbur g Mbr 1 evap~nite stra1i:fom1' breceia, ;CutUore I PR ECAMB RIAN RO CKS South Figure 9. Idealized diagram of the progressive low e ring of the water table over time in the Grand Canyon with respect to the different kinds of mine and cave d e posits. (See text for explanation). 2 l-28 Auuusl 2005. l(alomas Hellns

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0-49 Karst on Cayman Brae farh uleUps, D .C. Ford McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada Abstract Cayman Brae is a good example of a small oceanic carbonate island that has experienced cycles of submergence and emergence during the Tertiary and Quaternary. It is well karstified at the surface and under ground. During three Tertiary cycles, carbonate rocks were deposited, uplifted and karstified buried as paleokarst with caymanite fillings. The island was then uplifted with a minor tilt and Quaternary limestone de posited on its coastal platform It is girdled by cliffs with a marine notch at +6 m, the Sangamon (125 ka) high sea stand. Phytokarst is well developed on the coastal platform and the interior plateau. Caves occur all over the island. Most prominent are (i) Notch caves developed at or 1-2 m above 0-50 Looking back with Cupolas A. Os borne University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract Since the last conference at Brasilia in 2001, I have been focussing on the morphology and n a tural history of cupolas I have not set out to solve the problem of the origin/s of cupolas, rather my aim has been to find out what cupolas are like, which speleogens are associated with them in what settings (geological, geomorphic and speleomorphic) they occur and when in the history of speleogenesis do they originate. I now recognise five general types of cupolas ( elliptical cupolas, cathedrals, hemispherical cupolas conical cupolas, and spherical niches) and a range of speleo gens and passage types that are frequently associated with cupolas. It is clear that our visual perception of cupolas is quite misleading. Detailed measurements and oriented images are essential to avoid this problem Last year I wrote, "cupolas appear to be common features of uncommon 0-51 He ll enic Sueieo!ouirn l Su ciely the Sangamon notch and (ii) Upper caves, at varying elevations higher in the cliff faces Notch caves and some upper caves accord to the flank margin model of speleogenesis for small islands but speleothem dating indicates that many at the Notch are in fact, >400 ka in age having devel oped at a previous high sea stand. There has been speleothem deposition and di sso lution in all caves Major dissolution and bedrock facetting is attributed to cycles of condensation corrosion, which are modelled from field meteorological and hydrochemical data. "Bellholes", (a rare, very distinctive negative form in caves) are attributed to microbial activity utilising condensation waters in entrance twilight zones. caves". Now I am not so sure. Cupolas are common features of thermal artesian and other per-ascensum type caves and of flank-margin caves The examples I have studied in detail have generally been in caves that are suspected of having non-meteoric origins. However, I continue to see and receive reports of cupolas in many "normal", stream type caves, for example in Postojna Cave in Slovenia and the caves of the Demanovska Valley of Slovakia. These cupolas are not, however whole chambers, but partial features preserved in the cave ceiling. While much research is re quired to test the idea, it seems possible that at least some of the cupolas in the ceilings of stream caves may be relics from earlier periods of non meteoric speleogenesis that have been intersected by more recent stream cave development. If this is the case then cupolas may be skylights to the past and not just dark domes in the cave ceiling. Filling deposits of an ancient alluvial cave system in the alpine karst of Mt. Canin (Julian Alps, NE Italy) PAOLO PARONUZZI 1 -DAVIDE LENAZ 2 3 -RINO SEMERARO 3 1 Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio,Universita degli Studi di Udine, Via Cotonificio 114, 33100 Udine, Italy 2 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Trieste, via E. Weiss 8, 34127 Trieste,Italy 3 Geokarst Engineering S.r.l. -AREA Science Park Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste Italy, Abstract The Canin carbonate mountains (Julian Alps, NE Italy) show clear evidences of karstic systems developed at different depths with total thickness of about 1200-1300 meters. One of the oldest karstic levels is constituted by mainly horizontal galleries present from an altitude of about 1980 2010 m. This study illustrates first results from a combined sedimentology and mineralogy work on filling sand-loam deposits present inside the Grotta a Nord del Monte Ursic (5430/FR 2996 at 2005 m a.s.l.) where nordstran dite [Al(OH)3 ] have been previously found. It's a gallery cave with small transversal sections (about 10-15 m2 ); the main axis is horizontal and it is almost completely filled by thin sand-loam alluvial sediments. Filling deposits are mostly constituted by thin and loam sands yellowish-brown to reddish brown in colour. The deposits are present as thick laminated sequences where thin san dy and sand-loam levels (2-20 mm thick) are interbedded with millimetric calcite laminae including a small clay frac tion. The thickness of these sandy-calcitic laminae is about 3-4 m. Thin sands and loam sands forming the laminae are mainly constituted by calcite grains (35-85 %) while the siliciclastic fraction, even if with random percentages ranges between 20-60%. Even if the cavity devel ops within dolomite rocks, the elastic dolomite fraction is lower than the calcite one (5-20%) and in the lowest levels misses. Within sandy sediments, the main s i liciclastic mineral is represented by quartz (5-30%). Nordstrandite kaolinite chlorite, muscovite/illite and interstratified clays 74117 f 11temutimw! Cmw ws s of Stwl eolo oy

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He! lrmic S1 wleoluu ir:al Sur: iel v (smectite) are present. Nordtrandite is present in all the samples as sub rounded transported grains and ranges between 2 and 10 %. Presence of nordstrandite could be referred to intense pedogenetic processes devel oped on calcareous substrata rather than to speleogenetic processes Staurolite, Cr-spinel, pyrite amphibole, tourmaline and rare garnet in order of abundance are present in the heavy mineral assemblage of sandy fraction. The presence of these minerals suggests that they derived from elastic external supplies involving the erosion of pre-existing sedimentary covers. It is to notice that the Cr-spinel-pyrite-tourmaline-garnet association suggests the dismembering and weathering of the Upper Cretaceous Flysch of Bovee where these minerals are present and their deposit in the cavity could be probably due to a fluvial transport. Presence of amphi bole and staurolite within the heavy mineral assemblage points out to a metamorphic source. As they are not present in the flysch of the area it is supposed that they could be related to a different supply. It is still unclear if this supply refers to completely dismembered Oligo-Miocene molasses, Pliocene deposits or an aeolic supply. 1. Introduction Canin Massif with its mountains reaching an elevation of about 2500 meters is located in the western Julian Alps, between Italy and Slovenia. It is characterised by huge karst phenomena and develops along a 17 km main ridge ENE -WNW directed towards the Carrin Mt and then follow ing an ESE to WNW direction. A 5 km secondary ridge from Canin Mt follows SSE direction The massif suffered glaciation during Pleistocene and a small glacier still exists in its Italian side, below the main peak of CaninMt. One of the larger European alpine karst develops in this carbonate massif, especially in the Calcare del Dachstein Formation. A network of different cavity levels, at least 17 have been recognised and among them there are 5 considered as mega-levels, sometimes connected by pits, produces cave systems reaching depth of more than 1500 meters. Subterranean karst is represented by syngenetic conduits, erosion shafts, meanders and canyons. In some levels there are also large galleries and huge chambers (Semeraro, 2000; Cucchi et al., 2002). Endokarstic filling deposits are scarce, but it is not difficult to find swallowed morains in depth. It is more difficult to find alluvial deposits or speleothems. Recently, Cancian & Kraus (1999) noticed the presence of nordstran dite Al(OH)3 in a filling deposit inside the Grotta a Nord del Monte Ursic, in the Canin massif. The mineralogical analysis carried out on two silty loam samples demonstrated the presence of phyllosilicates, quartz, feld spar, calcite and dolomite. By considering the peculiarity of the finding and its possible implications on the evolution of Canin karst, two field trips have been organised (2001 and 2002) to study the filling deposits both from sedimentological and mineralogical viewpoint. 2. Cave morphology and speleogenesis The Grotta a Nord del Monte Ursic 5430 / FR 2996, found in 1983, is located on the northern slope of the Canin massif (Italian side). There are two entrances, closed each other, at 13 27' 03,0" longitude and 46 22' 18,4" latitude, located at about 1999 and 2002 meters a.s.l.. Its depth is 62 meters and the cave develops for a length of about 89 meters. The cave is located in a gully excavated within the rock slope of Ursic Mt. (2543 m). The cave develops in the "Dolomia Principale" Formation (Norian), here represented by whitish dolostones, fine-grained, massive, with concoidal fracture, Layering is oriented 80 /20 concordant with the faulted N-dipping uniclinal constituting the southern part of the massif. The cave probably originated as a consequence of an ancient standing of the phreatic level. In fact, the cave is related with a paleo-level of cavities present between 2030--,-1980 meters a.s.l., 'Yhere conduits with calcite and 2 28 4uu us t 2005. Knlamos He fins sandy-silty deposits are present (Semeraro, 2000). Geomorphological study allows us to subdivide the cave into three parts. The first one (points 1-2-3 in the map) is represented by an initial gallery about 30 meters long, ending in a chamber slightly larger (3); the morphology is substantially homogeneous: a rock roof zone about 3-4 meters large, 1-3 meters above the bottom constituted by filling deposits. The second ( 4-5-7-8) is a narrow conduit, about 28 meters long, starting from the NW side of the hall and continuing toward a vertical pit, partially filled by collapses. The third (5-6) is constituted by a 48 meters long pit with collapsed rock blocks on the bottom. The map of the cave shows a curvilinear shape almost ringor meander-like -, so that the terminal conduit is closed to the initial gallery, at about the same level. Main gallery (1 2 3) represents the oldest paii of the cave. The whole roof zone shows a phreatic morphology, but the presence of crusts of thin filling deposits cemented on the roof and the walls and the fact that they are not related to the joint system suggests a paragenesis (Lauritzen & Lundberg, 2000). The N-wall shows scallop-like shapes, about 20 cm long, and a notch, while southern wall is wedge-related. The gallery shows an almost constantly overlapping ovoid section and is about 4-6 meters high. Ovoids are unitary macro-shapes, similar to entrenchment ( erosione regressive) typology described by Dematteis (1965). Ovoid sections are caused by their close overlapping along a low-dipping inclined axis. There was an evident filling phase occluding almost entirely the main gallery. The filling phase was caused by thin (up to sandy fraction) mate rial flooding, due to a slow movement of water, alternated with rhythmic growing of calcite beds and laminae. This phase could have set off the paragenesis. Lately the main fracture ( 110 / 60 oriented, and other k3 system frac tures) enlarged, determining the formation of the phreatic conduit at the expenses of the filling deposits. This conduit is clearly over imposed on the main gallery morphology. According to this, a major energy of water circulation, testified by the presence of sand deposits on the bottom, set off. It is possible that, during this phase, a lowering of water table, com bined with massif erosion caused the pit formation on k3 system fracture. The pit, by driving waters to major depth, deactivated cavity, fossilising it. More recently, the slope pulling-back determined the present entrance. Thermocrioclastic phenomena began, provoking collapses that are present within 10 meters from the entrance. Within this area cross-section shows a strong structural control caused by rock br e akdown and fracture expo sures. 3. Sandy-silty filling deposits Inside the initial gallery, at about 20 meters from the entrance, sandy and loam deposits, yellowish-brown to reddish-brown in colour (7.5YR 5 / 6, Munsell Soil Color Chart), are present. Loose sediments are widely present along the gallery between the points 2 and 3 (see map) for about 15 meters. They fill almost completely the cavity, forming both the pave ment cavity and some thin concretions covering the dolomite side walls. The sandy-loam deposits are present till the larger sector of the chamber (3) constituting its bottom and seems to continue towards major depth fol lowing the actually closed NNE gallery development. Successive erosion determined the outcropping of deposits, provoking their partial removal and their presence as relict plates and encrusting on the walls According to the cross-sections of the gallery the maximum thickness of these depos its could have been about 4 6 meters. In correspondence with the relict plates present at the N-NE end of the chamber (3) it is possible to notice a well developed thin layering, where thin sandy and loam sediments are interbedded with silty sandstones and calcite laminae. Sandy-loam layers are mainly 0.5 2 cm thick, while

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gallery cross~section -... c __ n~d> . ........... .... Italy Venezia fiillng deposits traces Austr i a if y lt Q/60 a \ \ Helle nic S111?irm! ou i wl Sur:i ut v rs 1 c profile N p l an~d profile 0 12 ml I 0 6 i::r o ss-sectioo k2 N 1 00 jo ints 0-1, 1-3, 3-5, >5 % Fig. 1 : P rofi le, p l an a nd c ross-se ctio ns of Grotta a N ord d e Mo nte U rsic. Topo gra phic surv ey M Krau s, L. Zd z i s t a w (C. A. T 1983); M A nse l mi M Kraus I. Muggi a, D. Scali a, R. Semera ro (G.S.S. G. 2001); Geom orph o l ogy : M Anse lmi P Pa ronuz zi, R S emer aro ( 2001 200 2 ) 14/ h ln fe mu tio n u t Cum!I u ss uf S 1n 1 !eulu u v

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He lle ni c S 11 et e a l ou i r:al Soc/ e /y calcite laminae are 1-4 cm forming layers with more or less irregular sur faces The thick layering is gently concave and inclined ( 5-15) towards the centre of the gallery. Laminae generally shows regular, smooth and sometimes undulated surfaces. Contact within the deposits and the lamine is sharp. Sometimes within the thicker layer it is possible to recognise a gradation due to some 1-3 mm thick strata formed by a calcite fine sandstone silty sand sequence. Within the thicker sandstone layer (3-4 cm), irregular calcite nucleuses caused by intergranular precipitation are present. The internal structure of the deposit seems to be related to sedimen tary processes instead of secondary intergranular cementation processes. These processes, even if present, are influenced by the original layering of the deposit and increase their importance closed to the cavity wall/de posit contact. In this position calcite figures such as dolls, spherical and ellipsoidal concretions caused by intergranular secondary cementation (Sarigu, 2002) can be found. Due to this fact it is more difficult to find the layered structure of the deposit when observing the wall crusts. In fact, water flows along the walls aids the formation of secondary cementation provoking the modification and cancellation of the original layering. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses of filling deposits have been performed on three sampling sequences: the first one is a wall crust in the terminal chamber (3) (240 cm, Ul-Ul6 samples), the second is a relict of strong layered deposits (B section; about 25 cm, Ul 09-Ul 00 sam ples), the third is represented by surface pavement deposits (C section: U203-U200 samples) in order to compare the different characteristics of filling deposits. Deposits always present thick laminae (ritmites) where thin sand and loam layers (5-40 mm) are interbedded with sandstones and calcite lami nae sometimes with a small clay component. Alternate elastic and calcite cyclic sedimentation can be attributed to a low-energy fluvial environ ment. Episodes of water flow transporting silts and sandy loam into the cave system are present and are alternate with inactivity period causing speleothems formation. This mixed elastic-chemical deposition seems to be quite peculiar and is not comparable with most known Quaternary cave sedimentary sequences The monotonous character of the sequence and its internal structure suggest a constancy in the sedimentary environment responsible of the deposition. The progressive filling of gallery system continued without break tiii the complete closure of the cavity. By con sidering the chara~teristic of the deposits and their thickness it is possible to suggest that deposit formation occurred in a time range spanning from 20000 to 50000 years. Originally sandy loam deposits probably fiiled the gallery, this fact be ing confirmed by the presence of other totally filled cavities found nearby the Grotta a Nord del Monte Ursic. A similar situation is documented by the cavity relict, completely filled, located about 280 m to the WSW of the here studied cave. Here, it is possible to see the cross-section of a small cavity (about: 1.20 x 2.00 m) developed within dolomites with layer thickness of about 1-3 m and 40 /20 oriented. This deposit is quite similar to those found inside the Grotta a N del Monte Ursic, being the sandy loam fraction removed by atmospherics. Even in this cave ritmites are well recognisable, with planar-ellipsoidal low-dipping (60 / 20-25) laminae and thin layers. 4. Mineralogy X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained on powdered sandy samples and on oriented samples for silt and clay fractions using a STOE-D500 X ray diffractometer at room temperature. Cuka radiation was used through a flat graphite crystal monochromator. Sands were obtained by sieving samples and cleaning them in ultrasonic bath. After drying at about 50C grains were observed under a binocular microscope. In the coarser fraction few samples from section B were analysed. Cal-21--28 Auaust 2005. Kalnnws He/Ins cite, quartz and dolomite (in one sample only) were recognised in differ ent amounts. As regards the silt fraction all the samples were analysed. In section A, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and quartz have been recognised. Carbonate minerals represent about 90% of the samples. In section B, the same minerals are present, but carbonate minerals are less evident than in section A. Dolomite is missing in the lower levels. In this section nordstrandite, Al(OH\, occurs. In Fig. 2 the percentages of main phases in silt fraction of samples from section B are represented. In sec tion C, calc i te, interstratified clay minerals, kaolinite, muscovite, chlo rite, quartz and nordstrandite are present. Nordtrandite is present in all the samples as sub-rounded transported grains and ranges between 2 and 10%. As regards the clay fraction all the samples were analysed. It seems that clay fraction is below 10% of pelitic fraction. In section A, the same minerals of the silt fraction are present with higher amounts of clay min erals. Sometimes brushite, CaHPO4-2Hp, is present and it is probably related to bat guano. In section B, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, muscovite chlorite and quartz have been recognised. In section C, calcite, interstrati fied clay minerals, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and sporadic nordstran dite occur 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 109 108 107 106 105 ..... ..... 1111 111 1~'\!l [ ::: 104 103 102 101 100 111111 11 f i! l llll~l '
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flelfenir: SiJeluulaairnl Society Table 1: Number of grains in the heavy mineral (HM) assemblage and total number of heavy minerals in each sample. Sample amphibole staurolite tourmaline 109 6 108 21 79 10 107 20 94 8 106 4 30 105 4 8 104 3 8 103 3 15 102 3 101 3 13 100 13 15 2 Table 2: Percentage of heavy minerals (HM) in each sample. Sample amphibole staurolite tourmaline 109 100 108 17.9 67.5 8.5 107 15 7 74.0 6.3 106 11.8 88.2 105 33.3 66.7 104 27.3 72.7 103 15.8 78.9 102 100 101 18.7 81.3 100 40.6 46.9 6.3 5. Conclusions The sedimentological and mineralogical study of filling deposits of the Grotta a Nord del Monte Ursic constitutes an important knowledge in order to reconstruct the evolution of Canin Mt karst system, and es pecially as far as regards the genesis of the oldest gallery system. The integrated geomorphological sedimentological mineralogical analyses show the existence of a very ancient karstic phase when a fluvial network was active and responsible of the formation of a huge system of gallery cavities. This network, mainly sub-horizontal, is recognisable at an alti tude of about 203071980 as a system of relict passages completely filled that have been exhumed by Late Pleistocene and Holocene erosion. Due to the extreme fragmentation of passages it is quite impossible to define the main direction of the drainage of this ancient system, nevertheless it is evident that in this area all the drainages are directed towards NE. Many aspects suggest that these passages began to develop in ancient times, maybe since the Pliocene time: first of all fossil cavities are not related with present topographic and hydrographic elements and outcrop on rock slopes. The sedimentological and mineralogical features denote a sedimentary environment quite different with respect to the well known Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic cave sequences. The peculiarity of these deposits is also confirmed by the presence of nordstrandite grains in elastic sediments. This fact has not been reported in this alpine sector or nearby. It is possible that nordstrandite derived from the erosion of mature soils (bauxites) formed on calcareous-dolomitic bedrock. Succes sively, nordstrandite grains, removed by an alluvial system have been set tled down within the well developed fluvial karst system of Canin Mt. All these facts suggest that the ancient galleries and their filling deposits are related with a karst system developed during Pliocene, when morphologi cal and climatic context were very different from the present. As far as concern mineralogy, the presence of quartz and muscovite between the main phases points out to a metamorphic source. This seems garnet pyrite Cr-spin el Total HM 6 1 2 4 117 3 2 12 7 34 12 11 1 19 3 16 2 32 garnet pyrite Cr-spinel Total HM 100 0.9 1.7 3.5 100 2.4 1.6 100 100 100 100 5.3 100 100 100 6.3 100 also suggested by the presence of amphibole and staurolite in the sand. They are not present in the flysch of the area (Kuscer et al. 1974; Lenaz et al. 2000), so that a different origin has to be considered. It is still un clear if this supply refers to completely dismembered Oligo-Miocene molasses, Pliocene deposits or an aeolic supply. On the contrary the Cr spinel-pyrite -tourmalin e-gamet association suggests the dismembering and weathering of the Upper Cretaceous Flysch of Bovee where these minerals are present (Kuscer et al., 1974 ; Lenaz et al. 2000) and their deposit in the cavity could be probably due to a fluvial transport. Acknowledgements The Authors thanks the Ente Parco Naturale delle Prealpi Giulie that give us the permission to sample the cave, the Gruppo Speleologico San Giusto in Trieste for their collaboration during the 2001 sampling period and speleologist Mauro Kraus for giving us some data References Cancian, G., Kraus, M., 1999: Prima caratterizzazione della nord strandite Al(OH)3 nel massiccio carsico del Monte Canin (Alpi Giulie ) Atti VIII Conv. Reg. Spel. Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Cave di Selz (Ronchi dei Legionari, Gorizia) 1999, 61-66. Cucchi, F., Casagrande, G., Manca, P., 2002: II contributo della spe leologia alle conoscenze geologiche ed idrogeologiche del massiccio del M. Canin (Alpi Giulie). Mem. Soc. Geol. It. 57, 471-480. Dematteis, G., 1965: L'erosione regressiva nella formazione dei pozzi e delle gallerie carsiche. Atti 9 Congr. Naz Spel., Trieste 1963, Rass. Spel. It. Mem. 7 (2), 153-163. Kuscer, D Grad, K., Nosan, A., Ogorelec, B., 1974: Geoloske 14/fl lnlemnlional Cunmess uf StH:lealoay

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Hellenic S1wlea/uuical Society raziskave soske doline med Bovcem in Kobarid (Geology of the Soca Valley between Bovee and Kobarid). Geologija 17, 425-476. Lauritzen, S.E., Lundberg, J., 2000: Solutional and Erosional Mor phologiy. In: Klimchouk, B., Ford, D.C., Palmer, A.N., Dreybrodt, W. (Eds.), Speleogenesis. Evolution of Karst Aquifers, Nat. Spel. Soc., Jan 2000 Ed.Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. 527 pp. Lenaz, D., Kamenetsky, V.S., Crawford, A.J., Princivalle, F., 2000: Melt inclusions in detrital spinel from the SE Alps (Italy-Slovenia): a new approach to provenance studies of sedimentary basins. Contributions to 0-52 A simple growth model for allogenic pedestals in glaciated karst. Stein-Erik Lauritzen Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen Allegaten 41, N-5007 bergen Norway, Abstract Limestone pedestals (Karrentische) are believed to develop by dif ferential corrosion beneath and around a protecting boulder. Here we develop mathematical models for the size of limestone pedestals as a function of time and the properties of the perched boulder. These proper ties are the shortest horizontal axis of the boulder, its shape factor and the rate of condensation corrosion beneath it. Because the shielding effect will decrease with increasing pedestal height, pedestals will, over time, attain a finite, steady-state height. The time needed to aquire the steady-state height is considerable, and probably longer than the Holocene (10,000 years) for most sites. The present-day height of pedestals in a given site is dependent on up to 3 different parameters that are likely to vary within a pedestal population. Hence, the model also explains the variability ob served in pedestal heights within a site. A method for estimating the total denudation by means of measurable pedestal properties was developed and tested with favorable outcome on pedestal populations at the Svar tisen karst, north Norway and in north-west Spitzbergen. Limestone Pedestals. Limestone pedestals (Karrentische, Bogli 1960) develop underneath boulders. The perched block can either be an allogenic, non-karstic rock type (for instance, a glacial erratic in alpine karst) or it can be an in situ piece of the local limestone ( autogenic ). The formation of a pedestal is due to differential corrosion between the area beneath the boulder and the surrounding area, Figure la. The corrosion rate beneath the boulder is Primary surface -------------------------Mineralogy and Petrology 139, 748-758 Sarigu, S., 2002: Figure da precipitazione intergranulare nella Grotta di Su Mannau (Sardegna sud-occidentale). Atti Conv. "11 carsismo e la ricerca speleologica in Sardegna" Cagliari 23-25 novembre 2001, "An theo" 6, 89-106. Semeraro, R., 2000. A hypothes is of paleogeography in the Western Julian Alps and its role in the karstic development of Mt Canin. Ipogea 3, 117-166. lower than elsewhere because the boulder acts like an umbrella and pro tects the limestone surface below from the action of corrosive precipita tion. Pedestals are mostly found in glaciokarst sett ings, where the growth process was zeroed by glacial erosion when the erratics were laid down. In the karst geomorphological literature, much attention has been given to the height of pedestals, and to their significance as measures of total denudation in bare and alpine karst settings (Ford & Williams 1989, Bogli 1961, Peterson 1982, White 1988). The average or maximum height of pedestals have been taken a s equivalent to the total denudation; this is rarely the case. Here, we d eve lop a simple mathematical model for ped estal growth which aims at determining the total denudation of the area outside the pedestal (Lauritzen 1997). This growth model also explains the variability observed in pedestal heights. Qualitative properties of pedestals The following observations are based on alpine sites in Norway and Spitsbergen. Within the same area, pedestal heights reveal a rough posi tive c01Telation with the size of the perched boulder although there is a considerable spread and linear models do not work ( e.g. Finnesand 2002, 2003). There appears to be a lower threshold for pedestal growth, because pedestals are absent beneath small boulders. The top surface of the pedestal, beneath the boulder is always rugged and pitted indicating that corrosion is going on even under the largest boulders. (The largest boulder observed by the author was mo r e than 4 m across). This corrosion mechanism may be ascribed to condensation X _Y ____ ) X r 1 Figure 1. Left: The height of an allogenic pedestal is a function of differential corrosion benath and around the p erched block. The height of any such pedestal is only a minimum measure of the total denudation at the site. Right : Coordinate system and variables us ed in the growth mod e l. 2 l-28 Auuu si 2005. l{nlnmas. Hellus

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(s, see below). A block resting on the ground will not only shelter against direct rainfall, but is also a locus of long-lasting, low levels of moisture. Therefore, even the highest pedestals are only a minimum measure of the total denudation around them. Supporting evidence for various condensation and evaporation-related processes beneath the boulders is the existence of botryoidal precipitates on minor protrusions and edges, due to seasonal evaporation. This is also a common phenomenon on many other karst surfaces, like the sharp edges of rillenkarren. It must also be kept in mind that there is some difference between the authogenic karrentische ( described by Bogli 1961) and allogenic pedes tals carrying a non-carbonate, glacial erratic. Only allogenic pedestals have uniquely defined initial conditions, i.e. resetting of the process at t=0. The commencement of growth is not well defined for authogenic blocks resting on its actual bedding plane parting, thus the height of the pedestal is not necessarily a precise measure of the post-glacial denuda tion of the site. In this case, the pedestal is the exhumed, or 'Hodoo type' (Lauritzen 2005). The observed evaporational precipitates and the attenuated corrosion deduced for authogenic blocks add complexity to the problem. A growth model which include all these effects will inevitably become extremely complicated and have little but theoretical interest. A simplistic, approxi mate model which in some way summarize these effects is preferable. A growth model should, as a minimum, accommodate the following criteria: 1. There is a minimum, or threshold size, xmin' for a boulder to produce a pedestal. The function describing pedestal height with respect to boulder size must not pass through the origin 2 The function must include the condensation corrosion that occurs beneath all boulders, regardless of their size. 3. In order to be practically applicable, the model should be as simple as possible. The model The observed pedestal height is a result of two independent corro sion rates acting on the karst surface, the rate outside the boulder (r1 ), and the rate underneath the boulder (r2 ). rl' is acting everywhere on the surrounding rock surface, and is identical to the surface denudation rate of the location, Figure 1. It is independent of the properties of the boul der, or even the existence of it. Beneath the erratic boulder, the surface is shielded, depending on various properties of both the boulder itself and of its surroundings. X y Figure 2. Pedestal growth model, eqn(3). Pedestal height as a function of boulder 'size' is represented by a family of functions, sharing the same a and y, but with different /J. (y) and lower (y) boundary is shown. Hellenir: sueteo1001cu1 As a first approximation we assume shielding is caused entirely by a shape effect (B), i.e. shielding increases with the 'size' of the block. This effect is controlled by the boulder's ability to keep the underlying rock surface dry from snow and rain. Hence, the shortest horizontal axis of the boulder should be a better measure of shielding than for instance, the shadow-equivalent area. We have : ~=-br. wi t h fil l x=O xoo (1) -bx with solution : r2 = r1e + e (2) The differential rate, r1 -r2 is integrated with respect to time, and simplified to: { 0 ;x::;;xmin h(x) = -bx a (1-e ) ; X > Xmin (3) where h(x) is the height of a given pedestal beneath a boulder with size x, a is the total denudation far away from the pedestal, B the shielding efficiency, or 'umbrella factor', and finally, y the amount of condensation corrosion acting on all surfaces, also beneath the boulder The smallest boulder that can support a pedestal then becomes: x = _!_h [~] mm b a (4) The scatter of pedestal heights as a function of boulder size ( e.g. short est horizontal axis) can then be explained with a family of functions (eqn 3), all sharing the same a (i.e. total denudation), but having different B and y, Figure 2. Estimating the total denudation ( a). Given a large number of pedestals one may fit curved functions to the data set to accommodate a common a, but with various B and y values. This may be done by trial and error on a spreadsheet or by. designing proper computer algorithms. The model (eqn. 3) may be linearized to: h [(a -g)-h(x)]= -bx+h a (5) Realizing that (a -y) = hmax' i.e. the maximum, asymptotic pedestal height, ln(a) may be determined by they-intercept of straight lines (for h(x) : Ir max ------.-------------------------------------------------X y Figure 3. Pedestal data linearized according to eqn (5). The slope of each line is equal to the umbrella factor O, so that this can be determined for each individual. 14th l11ie1nofionu! ComJu!ss of

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Hellenic Sf/e/eu!ouir:a! Socie/y various~) fitted to a plot ofln[hmax-h(x)] versus ln(x), Figure 3. hmax' and thereby the common y-intercept (ln(a)) for upper and lower boundary functions (Figure 2) may be determined by iteration. This was done for 4 different pedestal populations, 3 at Svartisen ( at The Arctic Circle in North Norway, 67N) and one at Blomstrand, Svalbard (78N). The results are shown in Table 1. Total denudation (a) is 25 -80 % higher than the highest observed pedestal, but still in accord with inde pendent assessment of the total post-glacial denudation for the sites. Such assessments are the. maximum extent of protruding quartz veins, (ex trapolated) micro-erosion meter readings, and hydrochemical denudation estimates, e.g. Lauritzen (1983, 1991) For example, for the Pikhaugene karst at Svartisen, we find that a= 200 mm, 1. 7 times the highest observed pedestal h(x) = 120 mm. However, the highest observed protruding quartz vein at 220 mm in the area is in good accordance with this higher value. We may assume solutional denudation of a quartz vein as neglible in this environment and timeframe. Assuming that post-glacial denudation time is some 10 ka, this corresponds to 0.020 mm/year, in good accordance with the micro-erosion meter rate (during 14 years) of 0.018 mm/year. Hydrochemical denudation (the autogenic component) is 0.033 mm/year (Lauritzen 1991) which incorporate both exo-and endokarst solution. What controls the umbrella effect? In a linearized scatterplot, we may identify families of pedestals shar ing the same value of~So far (august 2004), more than 200 pedestals have not only been measured, but also subjected to accurate photogram metric shape analysis, GPS positioning, and evaluated in micro-and macroscale landscape context. Multivariate analysis of these data is in low~ values high f3 values progress and will hopefully reveal the factors that most effectively deter mine the 'umbrella effect'. This work will be presented later. However, just by evaluating photographs of pedestals that display extreme values, it is very suggestible ( or obvious) that boulders with flat or concave un derside and distinct drip-edges tend to have high values, whist boulders with convex undersides and no drip-edges. have the lowest values of them all, Figure 4. Large pedestals. As the pedestal grow taller, the sides of the pedestal and the underside of the boulder becomes more exposed, and we should expect the shielding effect to decrease with the aquired height of the pedestal. Given sufficient time, the ultimate fate of a pedestal is extinction, as the top surface of the pedestal may get sufficiently rounded to let the block fall off, and even a new cycle may commence. We may also conceive a steady-state condi tion, where r1 = r2 A time-dependent model for pedestal growth is: (6) where x, and E are as before, and the additional parameter o describes the inhibition of growth rate as a function of aquired height. A cartoon of a pedestal's life cycle is depicted in Figure.5. Except for very small boul ders, it is unlikely that any of the pedestals in the four study areas have attained their maximum height, suggesting that a timespan much longer than the postglacial ( > 10 kyr) is needed to see this effect ---------------' Figure 4. Identifying boulders with various /J value in a linearized plot. High /J blocks display pronounced drip edges or flat undersides, low fJ blocks have generally sloping or convex undersides, according to the concept of an 'umbrella effect'. Data set of 185 pedestals at Glomfjell, Svartisen, north Norway l-28 Auousl 2005. Ka/[11110s. lieilas

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Helle nic S m :leo!ouicaf Sucie/y -a b C d e time Figure 5. The life cycle of a pedestal. a) commencement of growth, the block is left on a glacially smmothed surface (t=O). b) Shielding (/3) is optimal and the pedestal grows fast. c) The pedestal becomes so high that the sides are attacked, and it may reach a steady-state constant height. d) most likely, the pedestal will become rounded and the block will fall off before stage c) is reached. e) a new cycle begins while the old pedestal becomes degraded. Table 1 Pedestal parameters for various sites (All lengths in mm.) Location a Hmax Factor1 yl Central Glomfjell 330 260 1.26 70 Fiskvatn 260 160 1.62 90 Pikhaug 200 120 1.66 60 Blomstrand 65 36 1.80 25 I "Factor" is a /hmax Conclusions. A mathematically simple growth model for allogenic pedestals has been developed. The model has three adjustable parameters, the total denudation of the site, outside the pedestal (a), its umbrella factor(~), and the condensation corrosion acting on all surfaces (y). This allows us to determine the total post-glacial denudation of the site from measurable properties of a pedestal population. Estimated total denudation is then some 25-80% higher than the maximum observed pedestal height. References. Bogli, A. (1960) Kalklosung und Karrenbild ung Zeitschrift fur Geo morphologie, Suppl. 2, pp. 4-21; Bogli, A. (1978) Karsthydrographie und physische Spelaologie Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 292. pp. Finnesand, S. (Lauritzen, S.E ) (2002): Analyse av karstformer i Glomfjellomradet ved Svartisen. Cand Scient. Thesis, Department of y2 Pl p2 160 0.0033 0.0009 140 0.0035 0.002 60 0.003 0.00075 45 0.07 0.05 Earth Science, Bergen University, 14 7 pp. Finnesand, S. (2003) Analyse av overflateformer i Glomfjellomradet ved Svartisen. Norsk Grotteblad. (41), pp. 3-32. Ford, D.C. & Williams, P.W. (1989) Karst geomorphology and Hy drology Unwin Hyman, London, 601 pp Lauritzen, S.E. (1991): Autogenic and allogenic denudation in carbon ate karst by the multiple basin method : an example from Svartisen, North Norway. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 15, pp 157-167. Lauritzen, S.E. (1997) A simple growth model for l imestone pedestals: determination of surface karst denudation. Supplementi di Geografia Fi sica e Dinamica Quatemaria, !I! pp. 242-243 Lauritzen, S.E. (2005) A simple growth model for limestone pedestals. Abstract at the 18th Kongsberg Seminar, Norway (may 3-5, 2005). Peterson, I.A. (1982) Limestone pedestals and denudation estimates from Mt. Jaya, Irian Jaya. Australian Geographer, 15, pp. 170-173 White, W.B. (1988) Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains Oxford; University Press, New York, 464 pp. l4 fh lntemutiorwl Co nuress of Sneleolouv

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Hellen i c S11eleo/ogical Soc iety 0-53 The karstic forms and the Greek mythology I.D M a r io1a k o s National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, Division of Applied Tectonic, Applied Geology It is well known that man since he appeared on earth found use for the different karstic formations. He used the karstic springs for water supply, while caves were used either as permanent or periodic settlement or for the storage of goods. In Greece, where carbonate rocks cover more than 30% of its total surface and the majority of them are karstified there is a direct relation between humans and the karstic forms dating back to the Paleolithic age until nowadays. In the Greek Mythology, many actions of the most ancient deities, such as the Titan Rhea, Poseidon, Demeter and Zeus, are directly connected to different caves. Even younger heroes, among them Theseus but mainly Hercules are related to karstic springs, sinkholes and poljes. The most well known are the following: The Titan Rhea, mother of Poseidon and Zeus, is related to the homonymous cave, located on Mount Mainalo in Arcadia. Zeus was brought up in a cave on Pseiloritis mountain, in Crete island. Poseidon is connected to the coastal and submarine springs in the bottom of the Argolic Gulf, near the actual village ofKiveri. This is a karstic spring system composed of more than one spring, known 0-54 Grotte e Leggende Dell' Antica Grecia FRANCO GHERLIZZA (Club Alpinistico Triestino Gruppo Grotte) Riassunto Non ci sono dubbi che il patrimonio mitologico dell'antica Grecia sia il piu famoso e il piu conosciuto al mondo, questo, senza togliere nulla a quello di altri paesi che, comunque, vantano un corposo pantheon di dei, eroi, esseri e animali fantastici. Su tutti spiccano (grazie a una sterminata produzione letteraria, teat rale e cinematografica), i temi cari ad Omero: la guerra di Troia (Iliade) e le conseguenti peripezie di Ulisse (Odissea). La grande popolarita acquistata dalla famosissima saga omerica ha dato, ai personaggi che la animano, una notorieta che per altri testi antichi, e stata sicuramente di minore impatto presso il grande pubblico. Ecco che, limitatamente al "soggetto" grotta, ci si limita al ricordo del la grotta di Polifemo e della maga Circe, per l'Odissea e alla descrizione del Tartaro da parte di Zeus, nell'Iliade. Per tutte le civilta della terra, invece, le grotte erano un elemento indispensabile e sempre presente nei loro mitL Nella maggioranza dei casi erano collegate agli inferi (o, comunque, all'oltretomba), ma non mancano rappresentazioni che le descrivono come luoghi di culto, dimore di dei, rifugi di briganti, tane di mostri o prigioni dove detenere, nascosti al mondo, uomini e animali. Nel presente lavoro vengono presentati quei personaggi, della mito logia classica, le cui storie si svolgono con motivazioni e scopi diversi all'intemo di grotte, caveme o ipogei artificiali dell'antica Grecia. Al folklore ipogeo ellenico sono stati associati, oltre ad alcuni dei piu famosi dei dell'Olimpo (Ade, Zeus, Hermes, Dionisio), anche diversi eroi (Eracle, Teseo, Orfeo, Ulisse ). A questi, seguono delle divinita minori (Erinni, Naiadi, Arpie, Nereidi, Centauri, Ciclopi), affiancati da un inqui etante e fantasmagorico campionario di esseri mostruosi, sia umani che 2 l-28 Auousi 2f105. Hui umos. Hellus since Antiquity as "Dini spring". Dini spring discharges the water that accumulates in the Argo Pedio polje and flows into the Nestani sinkhole, located in the Tripolis plateau. This underground hydrau lic connection was known since the ancient times. Hermes was born in a cave on Kyllene mountain. Kyllene was part of Arcadia at ancient times. Demeter, sister of Zeus and Poseidon, lived in a cave in the same area (Arcadia) for a great period of time. These facts, and many others, describe the relationship between the great Gods during the older prehistoric times. Apart from these, many heroes of younger prehistoric and mainly Mycenaean times are related to caves, such as Ulysses, Theseus and Hercules. Especially Hercules can be considered as the "hydrogeologist hydraulic engineer" of the Mycenaean times, specialized in karstic hy drogeology, since three of his more important mythical labours are related to karst: the myth of the Lemean Hydra, the myth of the Stymphalian birds and the destruction of the drainage and anti-flooding works of the Minyans in the plain of Kopais. Especially in the myth of the Lemean Hydra, all the mythical details coincide with the hydrogeologic conditions of karstic system of Lemi springs. animali (Scilla, Cariddi, Cerbero, Echidna, ecc.). E la "valorizzazione" di un ambiente unico e parallelo a quello epi geo, nel quale si svolgono le vicende terrene di uomini e dei. Valore dato dall'innegabile realta che la grotta (qualora venga citata con cognizione di causa) e un punto fisico, ben determinato e riscontrabile sul terreno con precisione. Con l'identificazione della grotta (ingresso o intemo, non fa dif ferenza), il mito si fissa, senza possibilita di errori, nel luogo esatto che gli antichi avevano scelto per renderlo "vivo". Condizione che non puo essere riferita ai monti, alle colline o alle pianure ( e tanto meno alle regioni) che, pur essendo ben ricortoscibili e identificabili su terreni e mappe, presentano aree talmente estese che non permettono di localizzare, con sicurezza, un determinato punto nel quale ricondurre, in un secondo tempo, l'azione descritta. In attesa di poter riscontrare sul terreno questi luoghi, e consapevole dall'essere hen lungi dall'aver fomito un panorama completo sul binomio leggenda-grotta, mi accontento di pubblicare i dati raccolti sinora. Spero che, questa monografia, possa essere un punto di partenza per coloro che, interessati al tema e alle prospettive di ampliamento della ricerca, vogliano colmare le eventuali lacune e arricchire, con nuovi per sonaggi e nuove storie, il ricco e poliedrico patrimonio delle leggende ipogee deli' anti ca Grecia. Premessa Nell'apprendere i miti dell'antica Grecia, non bisogna attendere molto per trovare delle leggende che includano un passaggio o una scena che si svolga all'intemo di una cavita. Nelle diverse versioni che hanno per sog-

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getto la creazione del mondo ( e della terra) vengono citate grotte, caveme o, comunque, luoghi posti sottoterra. Dal mito omerico, apprendiamo che tutti gli dei e tutte le creature viventi sono generate dal fiume Oceano ( che scorre attorno al mondo) e che Teti fu la madre di tutti esseri Una sua figlia la dea della Notte, venne amata dal Vento (per altri dal Caos) e depose un uovo d'argento nel grembo dell'Oscurita Da quell'uovo nacque Eros, il dio dell'amore fisico il quale, una volta cresciuto, creo la Terra, il Cielo, il Sole e la Luna La dea della Notte e Eros vissero per molto tempo in una caverna Davanti all'ingresso, sedeva l'inesorabile magna mater Rea, che percuotendo con le mani un tamburo di bronzo costringeva gli uomini a prestare attenzione agli oracoli della dea della Notte La versione del mito pelasgico della creazione ci inforrna che, all'inizio del tempo, Eurinome, dea di tutte le cose, creo dal Vento del Nord il grande serpente Ofione. Dal loro rapporto, Eurinome concepi l'Uovo Universale attorno al quale, per volere della dea, Ofione si ar rotolo per sette volte, covandolo amorevolmente. Dall'Uovo uscirono il sole, la luna, le stelle, la terra e, naturalmente, tutte le creature viventi, animali e vegetali. Eurinome e Ofione si stabilirono sul Monte Olimpo e vissero in arrnonia sino al giorno in cui Ofione inizio a vantarsi di essere l'unico creatore dell'Universo. La dea, infuriata, lo colpi alla bocca con un calcio, gli spezzo tutti i denti e lo imprigiono nelle buie caverne sotterranee della Terra. Comunque siano andate le cose, gli antich i greci hanno ritenuto giusto ambientare, alcuni passi relativi alla creazione del mondo, in grotta, e questo, a prescindere se come dimora o come prigione. n Mondo Sotterraneo Deli' oltretomba Nel pantheon dell'antica Grecia, c'erano diversi dei che regnavano sottoterra o che erano associati agli Inferi. I piu famosi erano: Ade, Crono, Plutone, Persefone, Demetra, Dionisio, Ecate ed Hermes. Gli dei inferi venivano celebrati, alla fine di febbraio, dopo la commemorazione dei defunti. Le ombre dei morti venivano definite anche con gli appellativi di Larve, Lari, Lemuri, Geni o Mani. In alcuni testi, molto vecchi, viene riferito che questi spiriti conducevano una triste esistenza confinate nei loro sepolcri oppure in caverne sotterranee Da questi ipogei, potevano ritomare nel mondo dei vivi soltanto sotto l' aspetto di serpenti, topi o pip istrelli; era loro negato di poter reincarnasi nuovamente in esseri umani. Dando credito ai testi classici, per raggiungere l'oltretomba, bisog nava passare attraverso l'ingresso di una grotta e quello maggiormente citato, nell'antichita, e l'ipogeo di Efyra, in Epiro. Si apriva nei pressi di una palude ( compresa tra il fiume Acheronte e il Cocito ), conosciuta con l'inquietante nome d i Nekromanteion ( oracolo dei morti) dove, a poca distanza, si trova un promontorio denominato "Cimmerion" E, molto probabilmente, lo stesso luogo che diversi autori indicano con il nome di Aornon; (termine greco che significa privo di uccelli), termine che, in seguito, venne trasforrnato nel latino Avernum. Omero, nell'Odissea, (Canto X e XI), colloca in questo luogo l'ingresso dell' Ade: e il paese dei Cimmeri, dove Ulisse si reca, per evocare i morti e interrogare l'indovino Tiresia, seguendo le indicazioni della maga Circe: "O Circe, ma chi mi guidera per questa v i a? Nessuno mai giunse all' Ade con una nave nera". ( .. ) h1 alza l'albero, spiega le vele bianche, e rimani seduto : ti portera i l soffio di Borea ( ... ) quivi e la bassa spiaggia, qui sono di Persefone i boschi, negri pioppi giganti, piangenti sterili salici. Qui sui profondi gorghi d'Oceano ferrna la nave e tu stesso sprofonda nell'umida casa d'Averno. Nell'Acheronte qui Piriflegetonte si versa, Cocito qui, ch'e un ramo divelto dall'acqua di Stige: sotto una rupe insieme s'incontrano i fiumi mugghianti ( ... ) Come per Ulisse, anche ad altri famosi eroi greci (Teseo, Orfeo ed Era cl e), venne concesso di scendere nell'oltretomba da vivi e ritomare alla luce, e alla vita, senza conseguenze Di Teseo (accompagnato da Piritoo ), sappiamo che: "discese nel Tartaro, dall'ingresso secondario che si trova nella caverna di Tenaro, in Laconia" per rapire Proserpina Ne usci, grazie all'intervento di Eracle, dall'orrido di Trezene (Tpmsriva) dove, all'estemo, costrui un tempio e lo dedico ad Artemide Salvatrice. In seguito, sullo stesso luogo, vennero eretti alcuni altari in onore degli dei Inferi Orfeo, che discese nell' Ade con la speranza di riportare sulla terra Eu ridice, si servi di un passaggio sotterraneo che si apre ad Aomon. Proba bilmente, come gia detto, si tratta dello stesso ingresso usato da Ulisse. Per catturare liberare Teseo, Eracle penetro nel sottosuolo dalla cav erna di Tenaro (Tmvapo), in Laconia, e ne usci, dall'orrido che si trova presso Trezene. Per catturare Cerbero, invece, il semidio entro dalla penisola Acheru sia (presso Eraclea, sul Mar Nero) e ne usci seguendo un sentiero sotter raneo che conduceva alla grotta di Acona, presso Mariandine, sempre sul Mar Nero. Un'altra versione, narra che ritorno sulla superficie terrestre attraversando nuovamente la caverna di Tenaro. Un'ultima variante, riporta che Eracle usci, da un ipogeo, nel sacro recinto di Zeus Lafistio (lo stesso nel quale Giasone appese il vello d' oro ), sul monte omonimo, nei pressi del paese di Orcomeno (Opxosvos), in Acaia. La caverna di Tenaro, situata in cima ad un promontorio del Pelopon neso, veniva ritenuta l'ingresso secondario del Tartaro. Ancora oggi e possibile vedere (e visitare) il cosiddetto "cancello di Ades", una piccola grotta con l'ingresso seminascosto da un muretto a secco e, nelle vici nanze, i resti del tempio, a forma di grotta, dedicato a Poseidone. Gli Inferi Hermes non era soltanto il messaggero degli dei e il protettore di mer canti e ladri. Tra le sue mansioni c' era anche quello di guida per le anime dei defunti; infatti, uno dei suoi epiteti e quello di Psicopompo (guida delle anime nell'oltretomba). Omero, narrando la discesa di Ulisse negli Inferi (Odissea: XXIV, 3-14), descrive come Hermes svolgeva questo compito: "Tenea la bella in man verga dell' oro, onde i mortali dolcemente assonna, sempre che il vuole, e li dissonna ancora. Con questa conducea l'alme chiamate, che stridendo il seguiano. E come appunto vipistrelli nottivaghi nel cupo fon do talor d'una solenne grotta, se avvien che alcun dal sasso, ove congiunti l 'uno appo l' altro s' atteneano, caschi, tutti stridendo all or volano in folla; cosi movean gli spirti, e per la fosca via precedeali il lansueto Errnete". Le anirne attraversano le acque di Oceano, la Rupe Bianca, le Porte del Sole e il Paese dei Sogni e, giunte nella grande caverna dell' Ade, attraverso alcuni passaggi, arrivano all'Orco dove vengono relegati gli uomini malvagi Molto piu in basso trovano il Tartaro, uno spaventoso luogo di pena riservato esclusivamente ai titani e agli dei. Quando le ombre scendevano al Tartaro, dovevano essere munite di una moneta, che i parenti avevano posto sotto la loro lingua. Con questo denaro, potevano pagare Caronte, l'infernale nocchiero che traghettava, con la sua barca, le anime dei defunti al di la dello Stige (fiume odiato). Le ombre prive di denaro dovevano rimanere, in eterno, sulla sua riva. Lo Stige delimita il Tartaro a occidente e ha come tributari l 'Acheronte (fiume doloroso ), il Flegetonte (fiume ardente ), il Cocito (fiume gemente ), l'Averno (fiume senza uccelli) e il Lete (fiume dell'oblio), nel quale i de funti si abbeverano per dimenticare la loro triste sorte. Qui impera Ecate (figlia di Zeus e di Era), una divinita infemale che tiene per cento anni le ombre di coloro che sono morti e sono rimasti senza sepoltura. Regna anche sulle ombre e sui demoni malvagi, evoca gli spiriti e spaventa gli uomini vagando nella notte annunciata dai latrati dei cani, sensibili alla sua malvagia presenza.

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Hel/enir: Sueleulouicul Society Chi supera lo Stige, invece, giunge nella Prateria degli Asfodeli ( fiori degli inferi), dove i fantasmi degli eroi vagano senza pace e i morti meno illustri svolazzano, dappertutto, come pipistrelli. L'Erebo Superata la Prateria degli Asfodeli le anime dei morti arrivano nell'Erebo, il luogo dove si trova il palazzo di Ade e Persefone. Qui si trovano anche le Erinni (Tisifone, Aletto e Megera), che erano piu vecchie di Zeus e di tutti gli altri dei dell'Olimpo. Le Erinni, compagne di Ecate, sono la personificazione dei rimorsi che tormentano la coscienza. Sono vecchissime e hanno serpenti al posto dei capelli, la testa di cane, il corpo nero, le ali di pipistrello e gli occhi sempre iniettati di sangue. Impugnano pungoli con le punte di bronzo con i quali tormentano le loro vittime. Erebo ( che significa oscuro ), prende il nome dal figlio del Caos e delle Tenebre e, col suo nome, viene designata la parte piu profonda e tenebrosa degli Inferi. I fiumi dell'Erebo erano il Lete e il Flegetonte. Sul lato sinistro, del palazzo di Ade, un cipresso bianco ombreggia la fonte del Lete: qui le anime comuni si raccolgono per bere. Le ombre iniziate, invece, si dissetano alla fonte della Memoria, indicata da un pioppo bianco. A poca distanza, in un punto dove si incrociano tre strade, i defunti vengono giudicati da Radamanto, Eaco e Minosse. Radamanto giudica le anime degli asiatici e degli africani, Eaco quelle degli europei, mentre i casi piu difficili vengono lasciati alla saggezza di Minosse. Dopo il verdetto le anime si avviano lungo una delle tre strade; la prima riporta alla Prateria degli Asfodeli, dov'erano destinati coloro che, in vita, non furono ne virtuosi ne malvagi; la seconda porta al campo di punizione del Tartaro, dove vengono mandati i malvagi; la terza ai Campi Elisi dove giungono soltanto i virtuosi. Un cane con tre teste, chiamato Cerbero, sta a guardia dell 'Erebo, pronto a divorare i viventi che tentano di introdursi laggiu, o le ombre che tentano di fuggire. II Tartaro Esiodo, il poeta che canto l'origine del Cosmo e degli Dei, tenta di descrivere, con un paragone, la vastita del Tartaro: "Un'incudine di rame, cadendo dal cielo, avrebbe impiegato nove giorni e nove notti per giungere sulla terra. Altrettanto impiegherebbe dalla superficie della terra per raggiungere il profondo Tartaro". Cosi, invece Zeus, in un passo dell'Iliade (Canto VIII): "Se vedro uno di voi che, all'insaputa degli altri dei, cerca di aiutare Danai o Teucri, costui, colpito dal fulmine, se ne tornera in Olimpo in malo modo; oppure lo scagliero giu nel Tartaro tenebroso, in fondo all'abisso che sotto la terra sprofonda, la dove sonole porte di ferro, la soglia di bronzo, tanto lontano dall' Ade quanto il cielo lo e dalla terra ( ... ). In questa particolare regione dell'Ade, che prende il nome dal figlio dell'Etere e di Gea, le supreme divinita dell'Olimpo confinano i loro nemici ( come nel caso di Zeus con i Titani o di Crono con i Ciclopi e gli Ecatonchiri), e vengono imprigionati i mortali che si sono macchiati dei piu orrendi delitti (Issione, Sisifo, Tantalo ). In seguito, con l'appellativo di "Tartaro" venne indicato, generica mente, tutto l 'Inferno greco. I Campi Elisi I Campi Elisi, su cui regna Crono, si trovano presso il palazzo di Ade e il loro ingresso e accanto alla fonte della Memoria. Le ombre qui con finate possono rinascere e tornare sulla terra. Poco piu oltre si trovano le Isole Beate, riservate a coloro che sono nati tre volte e che, ogni volta, hanno vissuto virtuosamente. I tre giudici dell' Ade Eaco, figlio di Zeus e della ninfa Egina, fu re di Egina e padre di Peleo. Quando mori, divenne uno dei tre giudici del Tartaro, ma veniva consul tato anche per fare da arbitro nelle contese tra gli dei. Secondo alcuni Eaco aveva in mano le chiavi del Tartaro, imponeva un pedaggio e controllava che le anime, guidate da Hermes, non vi giungessero contro la volonta di Atropo (una delle tre parche che, con le sue forbici, recideva la vita dei mortali). Radamanto era stato re di Creta, figlio di Zeus e di Europa, fratello di Minosse. Regno saggiamente e, ogni nove anni, si recava in una grotta sacra a Zeus per ricevere, dal dio, nuove leggi da insegnare agli uomini. Fra queste: la legge del taglione e quella del giuramento imposto agli ac cusati in mancanza di testimoni. Minosse, figlio di Zeus e di Europa, fu, anche lui, re di Creta. Diede ai cretesi le prime leggi, dettate da Zeus stesso, e divenne, dopo la morte, giudice supremo dei morti. Luoghi di Culto Delfi Nel panorama religioso dell'antica Grecia ci sono diversi Oracoli, o "luoghi di profezia", situati all'interno di grotte naturali o di ipogei artificiali. L'Oracolo piu famoso dell'antico mondo ellenico e, senza dub bio, quello di Delfi (~cAcpot), dove la presenza di Apollo si manifestava attraverso i responsi dati da una sacerdotessa, la Pizia ( o Pitonessa), che veniva scelta tra le vergini delfiche. All'inizio, i responsi venivano dati una sola volta all'anno (il 7 del mese di Bisio, ossia, febbraio-marzo ); poi, per poter soddisfare il gran numero di pellegrini, l'oracolo divenne accessibile per tutto l'anno ad eccezione dell'inverno, quando si diceva che Apollo abbandonava il suo santuario. La Pizia, seduta sopra un tripode situato nell'adyton (cella sotterranea) del tempio, se ne stava avvolta nel fumo di foglie di lauro e di farina d'orzo; al suo fianco sgorgava l'acqua della fonte Castalia e si trovava l'onfalos, pietra conica che simboleggiava il centro del mondo. La sacerdotessa, con una foglia di alloro in bocca e un ramoscello in mano, seduta sul sacro tripode, cadeva in estasi, quindi compiva movi menti ed emetteva suoni che i sacerdoti interpretavano e traducevano in forma comprensibile e mettendoli per iscritto in prosa o versi ( esametri), indicando in tal modo a quale dio dovessero farsi sacrifici affinche un'impresa fosse coronata dal successo, cosa si sarebbe dovuto fare per superare determinati ostacoli, eventuali riti con cui espiare colpe, etc. La Sibilla Sibilla e un titolo generico che i greci ed i romani davano a certe donne invasate di spirito profetico, ispirate dalle divinita (in genere Dioniso o Apollo) e che si esprimevano con parole evasive, di ardua interpretazi one o tendenti a confondere l'interlocutore; da qui l'uso del termine "sibillino". Gli oracoli delle sibille erano quasi sempre raccolti in forma scritta. Le Sibille erano in tutto dieci e venivano consultate in caso di gravi sciagure cittadine o quando si doveva decidere se intraprendere, o meno, una guerra. Le piu famose erano: la Sibilla Marpesiana, o Troiana, che viveva in una grotta sul fianco del Monte Ida (I8mo Opocr), forse identi ficabiie con io Spiieo Kamaron (EnriAmo Kaapcov); la Sibilla d'Eritrea ( detta anche Erofile) e la Sibilla Cumana che predisse il destino ad Enea e viveva, in un antro dalle cento porte, all'interno del tempio di Apollo, a Cuma, in Italia. Trofonio Figlio di Apollo e Epicasta, nella mitologia greca era considerato una

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dio infero il cui oracolo, associato all' oltretomba, si trovava nel bosco sacro di Lebadea (Am~aoc:m), traAtene e Delfi. Lo storico Pausania, nella Periegesi della Grecia (libro IX) riporta l'elaborato rituale associato all'oracolo : "Il supplice deve purificarsi con parecchi giomi d'anticipo e alloggiare in un edificio dedicato alla Buona Fortuna e al Buon Genio. Quando e in condizioni di consultare l'oracolo, il supplice viene condotto al fiume da due fanciulli tredicenni e cola e lavato e unto. Poi beve a una fonte chiamata Acqua del Lete, che lo aiutera a scordare il suo passato, ea un'altra fonte vicina, dell' Acqua della Memoria, che lo .aiutera a rammentare cio che ha visto e udito. Cal zati zoccoli da contadino, indossata una tunica di lino e una rete, come se fosse una vittima sacrificale, egli si avvicina alla voragine dell'oracolo che somiglia a un enorme fomo da pane, profonda sette metri, dove dis cende con l'aiuto di una scala. Giunto sul fondo, trova una stretta apertura in cui insinuera le gambe, reggendo in entrambe la mani un pane d'orzo impastato con miele Dopo un improvviso strattone alle caviglie, gli parra di essere travolto come dal gorgo di un fiume in piena e nell' oscurita sara colpito alla nuca e gli parra di morire, mentre una voce invisibile gli rivela il futuro e molte altre cose segrete. Non appena la voce si tace, il supplice perde i sensi e viene trasportato alla bocca della voragine con i piedi in avanti, privo delle focacce d' orzo. Dopo di che lo si insedia sul Trono della Memoria, dove gli si chiede di ripetere cio che ha udito. Infine, con la mente ancora annebbiata, ritoma alla case del Buon Genio, dove ricupera i sensi e la capacita di sorridere". Orfeo Dopo averlo ucciso e smembrato, le Menadi tentarono di purificarsi le mani dal suo sangue immergendole nel fiume Elicona (EAtKcov). Il dio del fiume, per evitare di essere considerato complice del delitto, si tuffo sottoterra e risali in superficie quattro miglia piu avanti, cambiando anche il nome: fiume Bafira. La testa di Orfeo, venne deposta nella grotta di Antissa (Avncrcm) a Lesbo, in una caverna sacra a Dionisio Comincio immediatamente a profetizzare, giomo e notte, finche Apollo, vedendo che i suoi oracoli di Delfi, Grinio e Claro non venivano piu frequentati dai fedeli, si precipito nella caverna e ordino alla testa: "Cessa di interferire nel mio culto: ti ho sopportato anche abbastanza". Da quel giorno la testa di Orfeo tacque Le Erinni Divinita ctonie, pre olimpiche, della vendetta anche se, in questo spe cifico caso, sarebbe meglio definirle con l'altro nome con il quale sono conosciute, ossia "Eumenidi" ( dee benigne ): un vero e proprio eufemismo visto che il terrore, da loro suscitato negli antichi greci, era tale da indurli a non pronunciarne nemmeno il nome. Atena, propose loro di stabilirsi in una grotta nei pressi di Atene, dove sarebbero state onorate da una folta schiera di devoti. Le Erinni accetta rono l'offerta di Atena e, accompagnate dal popolo in processione, sire carono in una profonda grotta situata sul lato sud orientale dell'Aeropago (forse identificabile con il santuario di Colono, un sobborgo di Atene) Terminati i riti sacrificali, discesero nella grotta che, da allora divenne sia un oracolo che un rifugio sicuro per i supplici. Da quel giorno, le Erinni, vennero indicate con il nome di "Venerande" e la cavita prese, di consegu enza, il nome di "Grotta delle Venerande" Lino Lino era il piu grande musicista, nato tra gli uomini, che venne ucciso da Apollo, invidioso de1la sua abilita. Sul monte Elicona (EAtKcov Opol;), in una grotta che si apriva all'intemo del bosco sacro alle Muse, c'era un suo ritratto, inciso sulla parete. Ogni anno, all'interno della cav ita, venivano celebrati in suo 6nore dei riti sacrificali che, addirittura, precedevano quelli delle stesse Muse. ~~aiadi A Itaca (I0aKYJ), e possibile visitare una caverna, conosciuta con il nome d i Marmarospilia (Avrpov Nt
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Hellenic Sf1e/eofr1uical Society interrompere il suo riposo. In questo caso, lanciava, dal fondo della grotta, un urlo tale da far rizzare i capelli in testa agli incauti disturbatori. Nereo Figlio di Gea e di Ponto, era rappresentato come un vecchio buono e saggio che dimorava, assieme alle figlie (le Nereidi), in una grotta tutta d'oro sul fondo del mare Egeo. Le Nereidi, erano le cinquanta figlie di Nereo e dell'oceanina Doride, bellissime ninfe del mare che proteggevano i naviganti. A loro, i fedeli offrivano latte, miele, dolci e frutta che deposi tavano all'ingresso di grotte situate in prossimita del mare. Anteo La Madre Terra, concepi Anteo in un antro libico. Era un gigante che costringeva gli stranieri a lottare con lui poi, quand' erano esausti, 1i uccideva e prendeva il loro teschio come trofeo per adomare la cavema in cui viveva. Anteo era fortissimo e, ogni volta che toccava il suolo, riceveva dalla Madre Terra nuova forza e vigore; in questo modo non si stancava mai. Per ucciderlo, Eracle dovette strangolarlo tenendolo alto e lontano dal suolo. Arpie Brano le alate figlie di Taumante e della Ninfa Elettra che avevano il compito di catturare i criminali perche venissero, in seguito, puniti dalle Erinni. Alcune fonti le collocano nella Cavema di Ditte (iltKmto Avrpo), sull'isola di Creta. Centauri Tra le tante leggende sui Centauri ce ne sono un paio che li mettono in relazione con le grotte, come nel caso del centauro Chirone che allevo e istrui, nella sua cavema del Monte Pelio (II11Ato Opocr), il mitico Achille. Un' altra storia che c:oinvolge i Centauri ( e le grotte) e quella del matri monio di Piritoo con Ippodamia. Poiche gli invitati alle nozze erano piu di quanti il palazzo potesse conteneme, i Centauri, cugini di Piritoo, vennero fatti accomodare, assieme a Nestore, Ceneo e altri principi tessalici in una vasta cavema. I Centauri bevvero molto vino, senza diluirlo con 1' acqua, e si ubriaca rono in modo tale che, quando la sposa apparve nella cavema per salutare gli ospiti, uno di loro, Eurizione, cerco di rapirla, subito imitato dagli altri Centauri che si gettarono sulle altre donne. Piritoo e Teseo accorseri in aiuto di Ippodamia, amputarono il naso e le orecchie di Eurizione e, con l 'aiuto di altri eroi, riuscirono a gettare i Centauri fuori dalla cavema. Anche il Centauro Reto, era presente alle nozze di Piritoo, ma la grotta che lo vede protagonista none la: stessa nella quale si svolge l'azione prec edente. 11 racconto e, comunque, simile: "invaghitosi di Atalanta, tento, con un altro centauro, lleo, di rapirla. Atalanta pero, dal fondo della sua grotta, li uccise entrambi con le sue frecce". Eracle Oltre a quanto gia narrato in precedenza (la discesa agli Inferi e la cattura di Cerbero ), Eracle viene messo piu volte a contatto con il mondo delle grotte. Nel compiere le leggendarie dodici fatiche sono cinque i casi nei quali il semidio deve entrare nel sottosuolo per continuare o per por tare a termine l'impresa. Nella prima fatica, Eracle si reca sul monte Treto (a due miglia dalla citta di NemeaNcw) dove, in una grotta con ii doppio ingresso, vive il leone Nemeo. Dopo aver bloccato uno degli ingressi della cavema con un masso il semidio entra nella grotta e uccide l'animale. Nella seconda fatica, affronta l'Idra di Lema, un drago che viveva in un antro presso le fonti di Amimone. Segue (terza fatica), la cattura del cinghiale Erimanzio, una ter ribile bestia, che stabilitasi nella zona dei monti Erimanto e Lampia (Epuav0o~ Opo~,. Aancto Opo~), devastava i campi nei dintomi di Psofide (%uqn1J In questo caso, non e il soggetto (Erimanzio) e vivere in una grotta, bensi il Centauro Folo che invita Eracle ad un banchetto. L'eroe gli ram menta che, hen quattro generazioni prima, Dionisio aveva accantonato una giara di vino nella grotta, affinche venisse aperta in quella particolare occasione. 11 forte aroma del vino fa perdere la ragione agli altri Centauri che, dopo essersi armati, si precipitano verso la grotta di Folo. Eracle riesce a respingerli ma, nella foga della battaglia, una freccia vagante (intinta nel veleno dell'Idra) colpisce il suo vecchio amico e maestro, Chirone. 11 Centauro, assalito da un intenso dolore, si rifugia sul fondo della grotta, dove muore. Anche nella decima fatica (le mandrie di Gerione) c'e un brano che, indirettamente, interessa un sito ipogeo: "Piu avanti, nel deserto scitico, gli vennero rubati i cavalli dal suo cocchio. Eracle vago in lungo e in largo alla ricerca delle cavalle finche raggiunse la boscosa regione di Ilea dove uno strano essere, meta donna e meta serpente, gli lancio un richiamo dalla sua grotta. Era disposta a restituire gli animali solo se Eracle fosse diventato il suo amante. Eracle acconsenti e, per un periodo rimase nella grotta con lo strano essere". La dodicesima fatica riguarda la cattura di Cerbero. Cariddi Restando in tema delle dodici fatiche, e doveroso ricordare anche la storia di Cariddi; la figlia di Gea e di Poseidone che, per aver rubato e divorato ad Eracle le mandrie di Gerione venne trasformata da Zeus in un mostro marino. Nascosta in una grotta, nello stretto di Messina (di fronte a Scilla), divorava i naviganti inghiottendo e vomitando tre volte al giomo le onde del mare. Scilla Nell'Odissea, Omero racconta come il dio marino Glauco, innamorato di Scilla, rifiutasse l' am ore della maga Circe Costei, per vendicarsi della rivale, verso erbe malefiche all'acqua della fonte nella quale Scilla andava a bagnarsi. Quando la ninfa tocco l'acqua si trasformo in un orribile mos tro: la tradizione la descrive con busto di donna, sei teste di cane e dodici zampe. Sconvolta dal suo ripugante aspetto, Scilla si getto in mare e si nascose in una cavita, vicino alla grotta di Cariddi, nella zona compresa tra Reggio Calabria e Messina. Al passaggio di una nave, Scilla sporgeva le sue sei teste, azzannava e divorava i terrorizzati marinai. Sybaris Alcioneo, era un bellissimo giovane di Delfi che venne scelto, per ordine di un oracolo, come vittima da offrire in sacrificio a Sybaris ( o La mia), un mostro terrificante che viveva sul Monte Pamaso (IIapvacrcros) in una grotta del Monte Cirfi, nei pressi di Crisa, nella Focide. Mentre lo conducevano sul monte, venne visto dal nobile Euribato che, preso dalla sua bellezza, volle prendere il suo posto. Effettuato lo scambio Euribato trascino fuori dalla grotta il mostro e lo scaglio sulle rocce aguzze. Immediatamente il cadavere scomparve e, al suo posto, scaturi una fonte che, da quel giomo, viene chiamata Sybaris. Ciclopi "All'inizio di tutte le cose, la Madre Terra emerse dal Caos e genera nei sonno suo figiio Drano. I primi figii deiia dea, con aspetto umano, furono i giganti dalle cento braccia (gli Ecatonchiri), seguiti da tre feroci Ciclopi monocoli: Bronte, Sterope e Arge". Questi tre Ciclopi vennero subito associati ai vulcani, tanto che il mito costrinse le loro ombre a vagare in etemo nelle caveme dell'Etna, da quando Apollo li uccise per vendicare la morte di Asclepio. In questo modo si interpretava ( e giustificava), i1 fuoco, il fumo e le fiamme che

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uscivano dal cratere del vulcano 11 termine Ciclope significa dall'occhio rotondo" ed e verosimile che, durante la civilta ellen i ca primitiva, ques t i non fossero altro che i membri di un 'assoc iazi one di fabbr i fe rrai E probabile che venissero d escr itti co me monocoli soltanto perche usavano una b e nda per prote gg ere un o cchio da lle sc intille Polifemo Figlio di Poseidone e della ninfa Too sa. II suo nome sign ific a cele berrimo ed e, se nza ombra di dubb io, il Ciclope piu famoso, grazie all'Odissea: "Uliss e naufrago con i suo i compagni n e ll'isola dei C iclo pi, videro una grotta nelle vicinanze dell' Etna, ri cca di ogni tipo di cibo e rimasero nella grotta curiosi di conoscer e c hi ci viveva ( .. )". In questo caso i Cicl o pi non son o dei fa bbri ma sono desc ritti co me giganti monocoli e antropofagi c he v iv evano, assieme ai loro gr eggi di pecore e capre in caveme che si aprivano nei fianchi de ll e montagne sicule a poca distanza dal mare Encelado Terribile gigante figlio di Urano e Gea, che combatte co i su oi fratelli contro Zeus. Una versione del mito narra che Encelado venne seppellito, da Ze us sotto l 'Etna Q uando si muoveva faceva tr e mare tutta la Sicilia, e quando sbuffava, faceva uscire getti di fuoco dalla cima del vulcano Secondo Virgilio (Libro III), dopo lo scontro con gli dei E n cel ado si nascose in Sicilia, ma venne ritrovato da Zeus che gli scaglio un fulmine. Poi, copri il suo corpo seppellendolo sotto il monte Etna. Quando Ence lado si scuoteva provocava un terremoto e quando si b i lav a e tirava fuori la sua lingua di fuoco, l'Et na eruttava Una terza vers ione narra che Ence la do ve nne ucciso da Aten a La t er ribile dea lo colpi scagliandogli addosso l i n tera Sicilia ed eg li, da allora, e costretto a vivere in una angusta cavema posta so tto l'E tna Co me nei precedenti casi la lava che usciva dal vulcano non era altro che l'alito infuocato del gigante e i terremoti, ch e scuotevano tutta l'isola, eran o provocati dai suoi tentativi di cambiare posizione Echidna Echidna, che in greco, significa vipera ", era per meta una bellissima donna, per meta un serpente dalla pelle maculata V ive va i n una grotta profonda tra gli Arimi ( i n una caverna della Cilicia datale, co me dimora, dagli dei), e si nutriva di uomini crudi Ge ne r a, con s uo marito T ifon e, numerosi mostri del panorama leggendario elleni co. I piu famosi son o: Cerbero, l'Idra di Lema il leone di Nemea, la Chi mera e il drago della Colchide, custode del vello d oro. Tifone Era il mostruoso figlio di Gea e di Tarta ro c he riusci a sconfiggere Zeus e lo imprigiono nella stessa grotta ne l qual e era sta to concepito (Grotta C ori cia), lasciando di guard ia la sore lla Delfine. Hermes e Pan si introdussero nella grotta e, sco nfitta D elfine lib era rono Zeus. Do po una terribile lotta Tifone, c om e n e l mito di Ence lado scappo in Sic ili a, dove Zeus pose fine alla sua fuga schiacciandolo sotto i l mont e E tna che, da quel giomo, erutta fuoco e fiam me. Tifone non a cas o, s i gni fica fum o stupefacente ". Luoghi di Nascita e Alcove Alcune grotte (per lo piu caveme) dell' an tica Grec ia hanno il privilegio di essere state testimon i d e lla nascita di i mpo rtan ti dei o limpici Tra questi, spiccano: Zeus H ermes e D ion isio. Anch e per qu esto motivo le grotte ven ivano considerate importanti luoghi di culto e di inizi az i one religiosa. Zeus A Cro no era stato profetizzato ch e un o dei suo i figli l 'avrebb e detro n i z zato ed e gli per evitare che cio potesse succedere divorava subi t o i suo i figli La moglie Rea quando partori Zeus, gli dette in p ast o una pi etra av v olt a nell e fa sce d icen dogli che si tra ttav a dell 'ult imo figli o par to r it o. Il neonato venne affidato alla Mad re Terra che lo porto a Litto (Creta) e lo nasco se all'int em o dell a g rotta Diktea (i11Kta10 A vop o), sulla colli na E ge a. All' estern o della gro t ta, monta van o la guardia i C ur eti che, ba tten do con le spade contro gli scudi riuscivano a coprire i v ag i ti del neonato Ad un cer to pu nto, pero C rono comi nci o a sospett a re l a verita e si mise alla ricerca di Zeus che, avvisato del pericolo, si rifugio in un'altra caverna ; forse la grotta di Ps ih ro ('Pnpo ). Raggiu nta l' eta mat ura, aff ronto il padre e ia profezia, nat uralm en te, si avvero A r i gu ardo dell a grott a Diktea, un a legg en da n arra che un ce rto Celeo, ladro di Creta, cerc o con alc u ni compagni, d i rubare il m iele d all a sacra cavema di Zeus. Scoperti da l dio vennero trasformati in uccell i soltanto perche all' in temo della grotta s acra, era proibi to uccidere qualsiasi form a vive nt e. La stessa so rt e tocco anche ad Ego lio, un alho ladro cretese c he tento di e ntra re ne lla g rotta per rubare un alve are L'ar matur a di ram e, con la qual e c red eva di prot egg ersi cadde e, assieme ai suo i compagni, venne trasformato in ucce llo Hermes Il messaggero degli dei, prot et tore dei co mm erci anti, dei ladri e dei bari, nacque in una gro tta s ul Mon te Cillene (Opo s KuUriv11), in Arca dia. Ancora fas ce, Herme s ru bo una rnagnifica ma ndria di vacch e ad Apollo il quale promise una ricca taglia a ch i trovava il ladro. Un gruppo di Satiri, att irati dalla ricom pe nsa, si mise s ubit o alla ricerca del colpe vole. Gi rando l 'A rcad ia, venn ero attirati da una mus ica bellissima mai ud i ta prima che u sciva da una grotta. La ninfa Cillene, senz a usc i re da lla cavema, disse loro che la melodi a prov eniva da un ingegnos o strum en to musicale, costrnito c on un guscio di tartaruga e con le int er iora di vacca A qu e l p u nto, i Satir i notarono due pelli di vacca poste a disseccare dav anti alla grotta e p ensa rono di avvisa re Apollo. Il messagg ero degli dei si precipito s ul luogo e, e ntrato n ella grotta trovo Hermes che, per r icom p en sarlo del furto e d ella perdita, gli regalo la sua lira. Dionisio N ella grott a Co rici a, sul M onte Parna so (Ilap v a000/; Opos ) l e Bac canti organizzavano le loro feste o rgia stiche per com memo ra rne la nas ci ta. Dura nte quest e feste, ie caverne venivano add obb ate con fiori e co n i "le tti pe r le ninfe "; so rta di altari ch e s erviv ano ad osp it are le anim e ch e s 'incarnavano. Dionisio, oltre a condivid ere con Zeus ed Henn es la nas cita in cav ern a, ebbe piu v olt e salva la vita proprio gra zie alle grotte. Narr a il mito che i Titani, obbedendo ad Em, rapirono Dionis io e lo ucci se ro, ma l a nonna, Rea, acco rsa in suo a iuto gli ri dono la vita. Per s ottra rlo alla collera de lla moglie Zeus ordino ad Hermes di trasformarlo in un capretto e di con seg narlo alle ninfe Macride, che viv evano i n una grotta su l monte Nisa, in Elico nia. Dio nisio venn e na sco sto nelle profondita de lla grotta e nut rito d i miele rest ando con loro fino alla m a turita. Un'altra leggen da ra cc on ta che Dioni sio v en ne as salito da Licurgo re degli Edoni, che voleva ucciderlo. Si salvo tuffandosi in mare e trovando rifugio ne lla grotta di Tet i Zagreo Zeus l a gen ero, con P erse fone, prim a che veni sse condotta nell'Olt re tomba da Ade. Affido poi ai Cureti cretesi il compito di custo dire la su a cu lla nella Grott a Idea (I8mo Av-rpo ). Come g ia avvenuto pe r f .1111 lnternulfonui CunrHess of S'n eJeufr 1uy -

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Heilenic S/Je/eofogica! Sactefy lui, nella grotta Dikte, questi guardiani danzavano davanti all'ingresso, hattendo le loro armi l'una contro l'altra, anche se, in questo caso, il mo tivo non viene specificato. Tifone La Madre Terra lo genera, col Tartaro, nella grotta di Coricia, in Cilicia (Monte Casio?). Nella stessa grotta Tifone continua a vivere con la sorella e compagna Delfine A Delfi, in un altra grotta Coricia, il compagno di Delfine, viene chiamato Pitone (serpente) e personificava la forza distruttrice del vento del Nord (i venti, all'epoca venivano raffigurati con lunghe code di ser penti). Peleo e Teti Sono il padre e la madre di Achille. Zeus decise che Peleo doveva sposare la Nereide Teti ma sapendo che Teti avrebbe rifiutato di sposare un mortale, manda un messaggero alla grotta di Chirone per ordinare a Peleo di prenderla con la forza. Seguendo le istruzioni di Chirone, Peleo si nascose nelle vicinanze di una grotta, situata sulla spiaggia di un'isoletta della Tessaglia, dove Teti andava a riposare. Non appena Teti si fu ad dormentata, l'uomo le salto addosso e solo dopo una lunga e faticosa lotta riusci a possedere la Ninfa. In seguito, le loro nozze vennero celebrate all'esterno della grotta di Chirone sul Monte Pelio (lll]At0 Opos). Finita la guerra di Troia, Teti vedendolo straziato per la morte del figlio Achille, chiese al marito di recarsi nella grotta, dove si erano uniti per la prima volta, e di attenderla. Peleo si reca alla grotta dove poco dopo, la Ninfa lo raggiunse e lo porta con se negli abissi marini. Toosa Era una ninfa, figlia di Forco e di Cete, amata da Poseidone che la sorprese in una grotta marina. Dalla loro unione nacque Polifemo. Endimione Sul bellissimo figlio di Zeus e della Ninfa Calica il mito ha riservato trc vcrsioni. La prima racconta che Endimione chiese a Zeus di farlo dormire, eter namente, in una grotta del monte Latmos (nell'isola di Pathos) perche era terrorizzato dall'idea di invecchiare. L'altra, invece, che venne condannato da Zeus a dormire per trent'anni (per alcuni, eternamente ), per aver offeso Era. In una terza versione, il giovane fu l'amante di Selene (la luna), che da lui ebbe cinquanta figlie. La dea chiese a Zeus di farlo dormire eter namente per evitarle nuove gravidanze. Quando la fase di luna nuova portava Selene ad essere invisibile, era perche la dea scendeva nella grotta a contemplare il suo Endimione. l{nfomos. Hel!us Europa Colpito dalla sua bellezza, Zeus le si presenta sotto l'aspetto di un giovane toro bianco talmente mansueto, che Europa non ebbe paura di cavalcarlo. Immediatamente l'animale si immerse nel mare e la porta a Creta, dove si unirono nella grotta Diktea. Ione E uno dei figli di Apollo che ama segretamente Creusa figlia di Eretteo e moglie di Suto in una grotta che si apriva sotto i Propilei di Atene. Onfale Era una regina della Lidia che acquista i servigi di Eracle per un anno. I due stavano visitando i vigneti di Tmolo, quando vennero visti da Pan che immediatamente s i innamoro della regina. Mentre Pan tentava di raggiungerli Eracle e Onfale entrarono in una grotta sacra a Dionisio e, per gioco, si scambiarono le vesti. Giunta la sera si coricarono in giacigli separati perche, il giorno seguente, dovevano offrire sacrifici a Dionisio che, in queste particolari occasioni pretendeva dai suoi devoti la castita coniugale. Giunta la mczzanottc Pan si intrufola nella buia grotta e, a tastoni, tro vato quel che gli parve il letto della bella regina, si infilo sotto le coperte. Ma nel letto c'era Eracle che, svegliatosi di soprassalto, colpi, con un calcio l intruso fecendolo volare attraverso tutta la grotta. 11 rumore provocato dalla sua caduta sveglio Onfale che, accese le torce, si trova da vanti la comica scena di Pan steso a terra, tutto ammaccato e dolorante. Conciusioni E un mondo incredibilmente vasto e complesso quello del folklore, in genere. Come s i e potuto vedere, spesso gli stessi personaggi si muovono in luoghi e in situazioni che sono paralleli ad altri soggetti creando, tra chi non e avvezzo a districa r si nelle maglie del mito ellenico non poca con fusione. Anche per i testi riportati in questa monografia ( c he ho rercritn rli rendere di piacevol e lettura) e stato cosi. Selezionando i brani che parlano di grotte e logico che vengono omesse tutte quelle storie, ben piu complesse, nel quale si inquadrano, con maggior dettaglio tempi luoghi e personaggi delle singole leggende. Come gia detto, l'intento di questo elaborato e quello di dare qualora non ci sia gia qualcosa di preesistente uno stimolo per la ricerca, lo studio la raccolta e la divulgazione (relativo al mondo ipogeo ) di quello che, personalmente, ritengo essere "la sorgente del mito": il patrimonio folkloristico dell'antica Grecia. Chiedo scusa agli uomini e agli dei, per la mia presunzione.

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0-55 SEA CAVES AT L AMPED USA (ITALY ) Graz iano (No affiliation) Via Vignati 18, 1 20161, Milano, Italy gwfe r rari @ gwjerrari it Summ ary Lampedusa is the southernmost island in Europe (N 35 30' latitude) From the geo l ogical point of view it i s a pack of nearly ho r izontal lime st on e beds ofTortonian-Messinian age (abou t 10 7 My b p .). No cave s were register ed, an d few re ferenc es were foun d in lite rature Actually, the island is rich in littoral cave s, a nd several subme rge d caves are reported by the local diving centres. Preliminary results of a surv e y campaign are present ed: 86 littoral caves and 15 subm erged caves are positioned Deve lopm ents a r e small, but rich sea ha bita ts ar e present, mainly in Poriphera. Introdu ctio n In the central Mediter ranean Sea between Sic ily and Afric a, the Pela g ie Islands belong to Italy but the y are placed on the N orth rim of the African plateau. The wor d "Pe lagie" com es fro m the an cient Greek, mean ing "high se a islands" Lampedusa is the main island (extension 20.2 km2 coas tal development 33 3 km, maxim um el evation 133 m) It has a roughly triangular shape 10 km long in t he East West direction, with a maximum width of about 4 ki-n in the eastern half. A single town (ab out 5000 people) is also named Lampedusa. To ur is m is the main revenue, followed by fishery. The island is an important scuba diving place. The Rabb its Beach in the middle of the southern coast, is a breeding ground for sea turtles (Caretta caretta); in 1995 a land pro tected area was established in the place. In 2002, most of the sea around Lampedusa was established as a sea protected area. From the geological point of view, Lampedusa is a flat table of Tor tonian Messi nian limestones and grainstones (Grasso & Pedley, 1988). Beds are nearly horizont a l. The n01ih coast is a cliff, 50 to 130 m high while the south -ea stern side slopes g e ntly into the sea. On th e northern and eastern sides, the sea bed quickly reaches a depth of about 60 meters while on the southern s id e the sea i s shallower. Severa l bays mark the S1mlrntuufr:fil Saci ely southern side of the island Just south of t he town lies Maluk C ape, th e southern point of land in Eu rop e (N 35 29' 24") Apparently no caving researches were performed at Lampe dusa in the past. No caves were registered in the Sicily Cave register (Messana & Panzica La Man na, 199 4). Just two r eferenc es were fou nd in caving li teratur e (Frassoni, 1967; Criscuolo & Miragoli, 1988). Both papers are rep011s about short trips in the area. They point out the presence of some inte resting caves. In 2001, during a scuba div ing ho liday at Lampe dusa, the author po sitioned about 50 littoral cav e s. Furthermore, the local diving centres re ported several references to underwater caves At that time, the author was involved in the development of the Cens us ofltalian sea c aves (C icogna et al., 2003). A small research campaig n was design ed Each y ear, the author spends one October week scuba div i ng and positioning sea caves. In the meantime some land caves and several WW II bunkers were reported and positioned. Presently, 151 caves are ident ifie d; 16 of them were surveyed It is a very relaxed cav ing activit y, with little effort and small results Unf01iunately, caves on the northern s ide and on the westernmost half of the southern side are reachea ble only b y boat, so most of them are just positioned and the y are not describ ed in this p aper. Th e next chapt ers re port about known caves at Lampedusa. Ju st cer tainly identifi ed caves are reported. Many other large and small entrances are known and positioned, but they are not yet explored and / or surveye d Caves are divided into two categories: submerged an d lit tora l (semi su bm erged) Caves with completely underwater e ntrances are considered "submerged"; they are identified by a letter "S" and a progressive number. Caves with partly water-filled entrances are littoral; they are identified by a lett er "L". Submerged caves S everal small underwater caves are reported. Most are tun n els, at shal low o r med ium depth Some cav es are report ed at greater depths. Most caves show a phrea ti c origin. Some of them are short tunnel s and S 1 is just a longer one. On the other side, S 14 is more complex: an emerged domed room is connected to a larger semi-submerged one, which in tum is con nected to the sea by a large tunnel (24 x 16 x 7 m). Mos t caves (Sl, S6 S7, Sl0, S11, Sl4) show a WNW-ESE main direc tion, parallel to the main island d irecti on, or an orthogonal one (S3, S13). "Take it easy" sea caving: M Giordani surveys at L 84 (left, 2 002); G Ferrari surv eys at L5 (right, 2002) f 4fli lnien i nlfunnl Cum1rnss u! S/Jef e ulouv

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Hellenic Sueiec!uuical Saciefy Code Name Depth Devel. Sl Ta c cio Vecchi o cav e -20--12 57 S3 Our Lady's cave -15 --5 11 S4 1st Scoglio di Fora cave -17--10 16 S6 Punta Russ eddu cave 5 --0 .5 17 S7 Punta Pesce Spada cave 15 -11.5 16 Sl0 1st cave SE of Eastern Grottacc i a -11 7 11 Sll 2nd Scogli o di Fora cave -1 2 -0 20 Sl2 3rd Scog li o di Fora cave 9 6 Sl3 Pu nta Cappe llone cave -18 --10 16 S14 2nd Taccio Vecchio ca ve (Salvo's ca ve) -1 2 +8 61 Sl6 2nd cave SE of Eastern Grottaccia -15 -11 ~10 S21 2nd Punta Guitgia submerged cave 4 --2 ~10 Littoral cave s Dark ca ve biococn os i s in S IO 86 littoral caves are po sit ioned. T h ey are distributed all along the island coast. In summer, tourist boats offe r sce nic tours of the i s land; Lampedusa: cave positions 2 7--28 11uuusl 20[)5_ Hnlunws. Neff us Survey Notes Yes Tunnel three e ntrance s. Nice and easy
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H e!le mc S11 ele ulou iw So cie ty Code Name Elevation Devel. Survey Notes LI Punta Gu itgia cave 0 ? No Small horizontal cave. Some garbage L5 4th Punta Pagghiareddu cave -3 -+2 14 Yes Small horizontal cave Very nice pool in the entrance. LIO 1st Tabaccara cave -1 10 Yes Large cavern. Not a cave Ll3 Rabbits Beach cave 0 ? No Tight semi-submerged passage. Too small. LI 4 1st Rabbits' Island cave -1 -+2 20 Yes Tunnel. LI7 Cala Pulcino cave -5 +4 32 Yes Tunnel. L37 Solaro caves 0 ? No Wide entrance halffilled with water. Probably connected with L38. L38 A Rutta delli Palunni Selvaggi 0 30 No Large cavern half filled with water. Probably connected with L37 (Wild Pigeons' cave) L42 4th Pun ta Cappellone cave -7 -0 ? No Large half filled cavern. A 16 m long side branch brings fresh water. L56 4th Cala Alaimo cave 0 ? No Large half filled triangular entrance L57 5th Cala Alaimo Cave 0 ? No Large half filled domed entrance. L58 A Rutta dell'Innammorati 0 ? No La!ge half filled cavern. Two entrances. L59 (Lovers cave) L64 Punta Russeddu arch 0 ? No Large tunnel. Two entrances. L65 2nd Mare Morta cave 0 ? No Half filled cavern with a large underwater room L67 1st Cala Pisana cave -6+5 18 Yes Horizontal half filled chamber. L68 2nd Cala Pisana cave -6-+2 24 Yes Horizontal nearly filled tunnel. L69 3rd Cala Pisana cave 0 17 Yes Small cavern. One sea and one land entrance. L70 4th Cala Pisana cave 0 ? No Small ha lf filled tunnel with a second submerged entrance. L73 Sea Monk's cave (1st ) 0 >100? No Large halffilled cavern. A small beach at the end. L 77 Sea Monk s cave (2nd ) 0 ? No Very large half filled tunnel. L78 Punta Sottile tunnel 0 ? No Small half filled tunnel. Two entrances. L79 1st Vacca Aran ciu cave 0 ? No Very large cavern. Not a cave. L80 2nd Vacca Aranciu cave 0-+4 ? No Two entrances, pipe cave Horizontal half filled entrance from the sea; vertical pit in the plateau. L82 Eastern Grottaccia 0 ? No Very large round half filled collapsed dolina. No t a cave. L83 Sima 0-+10 ? No Vertical shaft in the plateau reaches sea level. L84 Cave East of Western Grottaccia -6 -+1 17 Yes Large nearly filled tunnel with short submerged continuation. L85 Western Grottaccia -6 +10 ? No Large open roofed channel with a terminal cavern. 14 th lnf 1H m1fi o nof C on me ss u l S ocf en lo oy ,~

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Hellenic S11eleu/o[)ir:a! Sociefy Littoral caves: Cala Pulcino cave (LI 7, l eft ), Western Grotta c cia (L85, right). Land caves and artificial caves No special research was performed on land caves. However, 24 refer ences were registered. Some of them are small caverns. Postu Maravent anu cave (Tl 0, in local dialect Postu Maraventanu means "place of bad wind") is a set of small orthogonal phreatic tunnels in the northern cliffs Code Name Elevation Devel. Survey T9 Rabbits' Beach pit +65 ? No TIO Postu Maraventanu cave +15 ? No Tl3 Capo Grecale cave 0 ? No T14 1st cave West of Western Grottaccia 2 ? No T15 2nn cave West of Western Grottucciu 2 ? No Lampedusa is also rich in artificial caves. In the past, local people mined several small rooms in the soft grainstone. Furthermore, during the second World War, Lampedusa was a strategic place for the control of African supply lines. The Italian Army built a large number of bunkers mainly on the southern side of the island, as a protection for the harbour. Several bunkers were nearly destroyed by bombing. A special case is a bunker on the eastern side of the harbour entrance: it is placed on the cliff side, just above the entrance of L86, a littoral cave. Biologic notes Usually littoral caves suffer from a heavy hydrodynamism. Their wall population is poor mainly algae. On the other side, in several occasions rich schools of fish were observed, in particular juvenile specimens. In this sense, littoral and submerged caves act as shelters and help in the replenishment of the fish population. Underwater caves, on the other hand, usually show rich habitats, with several species of algae, sponges, hydroids, scleractinians, polychaetes. In some cases, lobsters were observed; fish schools are common in minor caves. A rumour reports that an undetermined hydroid is present in the mixed salt-fresh water submerged side branch ofL42. A notable exception to the rich population of submerged caves is S 1, Taccio Vecchio cave. It is one of the largest known submerged caves, a 128 A uo us t 2005 Hn lr mws. H ell os On the other side, Capo Grecale cave (T13) is a very high tunnel that opens at sea level just under the Capo Grecale lighthouse. Apparently it is not a littoral cave, since the sea water does not reach the cave entrance. However, the internal reaches are not yet explored. Notes Vertical shaft on the cliff just over the Rabbits' Beach. Closed by an iron grating Small orthogonal passages on three levels. Very large cave just under the Capo Grecale lighthouse. Can be reached only by boat. Small passage on a side wall of Western Grottaccia. Small room just outside Wr.str.m Grottaccia. 57 meters long tunnel with three entrances. Its tunnel portion is quite dark and poorly populated. Probably this is due to the heavy frequentation by divers. The cave is one of the most important and frequented diving places in Lampedusa. Conclusions and future developments Clearly, the present work is a low level one, with the simple aim of having a nice time in a nice place at positioning and surveying Lampedusa sea caves. Up to now, just part of the coast was examined in detail. An obvious future development is to carry on cave positioning and survey, in order to gather complete, detailed knowledge of sea caves at Lampedusa. Furthermore, other islands in the Pelagie archipelago have much to show: Lampione is a small uninhabited rock 10 km NW from Lampedusa, with a 300 m side length and a 36 m maximum elevation. It is made by Lutetian Priabonian grainstone. A very quick survey revealed two submerged (S8, S9) and two semi-submerged small caverns (L23, L24). The sea bottom drops quickly to 50 meters. Lampione needs a more detailed underwater survey. Linosa is a volcanic island 57 km NE of Lampedusa, with a 5,43 Km2 extension. From the caving and sea caving point of view, it is yet unex plored. Some diving or tourist reports about lava tubes are present. Since the biologic and economic relevance of both submerged and

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littoral caves at Lampedusa, a de tailed s tudy would be very usefu l in as sessing the biologic and tourist resources and the sustainability of their exploitation Acknowledgements The author expresses thanks to : 0 Simone d'Ippolito and Daniele Barozzi (Pelagos Diving Center, Lampedusa) for the continuous support to the research work; Marco Giordani, Elena Rognoni and Simona Rognoni for the help in the research, positioning and survey work. Bibliographic references Cicogna F., C N. Bianchi, G. Ferrari & P. Forti (eds.), 2003 Legrotte marine: cinquant'anni di ricerca in Italia. Ministero dell' Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio, Roma 1-505. Cr iscuo lo M. C. & M Miragoli, 19 88. Lampedusa e Malta, un po' di carsismo ... Il Grottesco, Bollettino del Gruppo Grotte Milano, 48: 95105 Frassoni F., 1967. Esplorazioni del Gruppo Grotte S. P elleg rino Terme nelle isole mediterranee. Rassegna Speleologica Italiana, 19 (3): 105 -113. Grasso M. & H. M. Pedley, 1988 Carta Geologica dell'Isola di Lampedusa Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione e Regione Sicilia Messana E. & M. Panzica La Manna, 1994 Consistenza attuale del Catasto delle grotte della Sicilia. In: Atti del II Congresso regionale di Speleologia, Catania, 8-11 dicembre 1994, Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, 27 (348): 373-376 N* N* S14 SECTION Surveys 1 (Author: G. Ferrari, 2005) Taccio Vecchio I +8 Tabaccara I SECTION PLAN N* S3 Our Lady's r~ PLAN . ~.&=.~./. ~~.;2''":1# WI/' S1 O 5 10m S2 '

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Hellemc Soeleoluuical Sur:ie/y Q $2 L17 Cala Pulcino S13 Punta Cappellone L68 Cala Pisana II L84 EastofW Grottaccia L14 Rabbits' Island I

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0-56 The deepest and the longest caves in Greece Kostas ADAMOPOUIOS (SELAS Club, Athens, Greece) Preface A large number of caves has been recorded and explored in Greece with a great variety of interest spanning geological, hydrogeological, palaeontologjcal, archaeological and folkloric. The caves in Greece are estimated to number around 10.500 (including underground karst forms of all kinds). These are recorded in lists which are usually categorized with various criteria in several speleological indexes. In the past, the unforgettable Anna Petrochilou had drawn up and published indexes with the country's deep long caves in the Bulletin of the Hellenic Speleological Society (HSS). Enough databases can be found on the internet related to deep and / or long caves at national and worldwide level. One of the oldest and probably most valid cave databases is that of the French speleologist Eric Madelaine which can be found at the following URL: (http:1/ sophia/sis/DB/database.html). This database has been used as a reference for the present work. It should be underlined that the specific database in question does not include caves for which there is no publication. It includes caves or potholes with depth more than 300m and / or length more than or equal to 3 kilometres. For the aims of present study caves with depth more than -400m and / or length more than 6 kilometers have been isolated and studied. The database has been updated with findings of recent explorations (period 2001-2005) in Greece. Big potholes and caves are exceptionally infrequent and simultaneously their exploration is particularly laborious. Greece has an extent of 131.940 square km, that is to say if we suppose that the number of 10.500 caves is right, it corresponds to one (1) cave or pothole for each 12.5 Km 2 Currently in Greece there are only 11 caves with depth more than -400m that is to say hardly one (1) per 12.000 Km2 and hardly one (1) cave with length more than 6000m per 44.000 Km2 That is to say that within 12.000 Km2 there are barely 1000 caves / potholes and only one of these is considered big ( = > 400m depth or > 6000m length). In a lot of cases these caves have important geological or hydro geological importance with result their protection is immediately connected with the protection of underground water. In the statistical analysis that follows, they are mentioned given based on the most topical list that is available today for the bigger caves (length and depth) in Greece. Simultaneously, an effort is made to correlate this with corresponding data from the rest of the world, the growth of explorations over time, the correlation of the number of caves with demographic elements (such us population), geographic distribution and other statistical analyses round these caves. The main indicators that are used are the following: StJeteu10u1cm Societv 111 Number of deep/ long caves (more than -400m depth) o Number of deep/ long caves per 50.000 Km2 Number of deep / long caves per million of residents Most explorations (of big potholes or caves) in our country have been made by mainly French speleologists while secondary explorations have been carried out by Greeks and British Speleologists. The majority have been found to be on Crete (45%) (see Table lb). The deepest and longest Greek caves According to the World cave database, 619 caves deeper than 400m have been explored worldwide ( up to 2001 Annex Table P3). In Greece there have been explored until 2005 eleven (11) potholes with a depth greater than -400 metres (Table la). Table 1a: Greek caves with depth greater than 400m ( at year 2005 in descendin classification de th Gourgouthakas 2 Tafkura 3 Tripa tou Orniou 4 Stoichiomeni 5 Peleta 6 T afkos sta Petradolakia 7 Spilia Sternou 8 Epos 1 9 Epos2 10 Provatina 11 Dip!otafki -1,208 -860 -610 -581 -493 -473 -460 -452 -419 -405 -400 1,000 1997 6,570 1996 30 2003 886 2000 500 2000 1,010 1991 1992 1969 1979 40 1968 1,033 1994 In Greece, only 3 caves with a length greater than 6.000 meters have been explored until 2005 (Table 2 a). Table 2a: Greek caves with length greater than 6.000m, in the ear 2005 in descendin classification len th Diros 2 Maaras 3 Tafkura 15,400 1974 10,340 1985 -860 6,570 1996 Today the only cave in Greece which satisfies both the two criteria above of (length and depth) is the pothole "Tafkura" (860m) in the Anogeia of Mylopotamos, in the Rethymnon Prefecture of Crete (Table 3). Respectively, at world level, there have been hardly 155 caves explored that satisfy both conditions. Table 3: Caves with length greater than 6000m and depth greater than 400 meters. Nr. Cave Name Depth Length Year Tafkura -860 6,570 1996

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fle/lenic S11efeo/a(Jical Suciefy Table lb: Greek caves with depth, more than -400m (at year 2005) per geographic region. Nr. Cave Name Geographic region Gourgouthakas Crete 2 Tafkura Crete 3 Tripa tou Orniou Epirus 4 Stoichiomeni Sterea Ellada 5 Peleta Peloponnesus 6 Tafkos sta Crete Petradolakia 7 Spilia Sternou Crete 8 Epos 1 Epirus 9 Epos 2 Epirus 10 Provatina Epirus 11 Diplotafki Crete Table 2b: Greek caves with length bigger than 6.000m, at year 2003 per geographic region. Nr. Cave Name Geographic region Diros 2 Maaras 3 Tafkura Peloponesus Macedonia Crete In world level it appears that the number of deep caves are roughly equal to the number of long ones (619 and 671 respectively). However, the possibilities to discover a cave which is both deep and long are much less (155 worldwide) that is to say hardly 13.7% of the total Number of big caves, History of explorations in the deepest caves of Greece. The deepest caves You may find below a concise exploration background according to the relative bibliography, chronologically categorized from the oldest to the newer explorations for the deeper caves of the country. "Provatina" (-408 m) Provatina was explored by a British army expedition in 1968. The pothole was located for first time by English cavers in 1965 (Cambridge University caving Club). Jim Eyre (1966) was the first who tried to descend and explore the cave but he stopped at -156m (he used rope ladder). The next year, British soldiers used a mechanically-driven winch and a basket with iron cable in order to descend to the bottom of the cave. Their effort was performed in two phases, first up to the depth of -177m the summer of 1967 and finally down to the bottom of the cave (-408) in 1968. An American expedition in 1973 descended the cave using speleological techniques (ropes) while the first European cavers who repeated their achievement were the French P. Sombardier and F. Poggia 1976. Since thPn :::i Int nf PvpPrlitinnc; h;.\ve gonP rlown to thP hnttnm of this cave both foreign and Greek. The first Greek who descended Prqvatina was Kostas Zoupis, founding member of SPELEO club (Athens) and today Chairman of Hellenic Speleological Federation (HSF). The last known exploration effort was undertaken in 1998 by SELAS club (Athens). Nikos Mitsakis, the leader of this 21 28 1luaust 2DD5 Kutamo s. Helias expedition reported that the team explored three small new chambers after climbing from the bottom of the cave. "Epos 1 and 2" (451m and -419 m) First exploration attempts took place between 1966-6768 but without result. Only in 1969 the first of the two twin caves was explored ("Epos 1") by P. Livesey while shortly later (in 1973) American cavers repeated their achievement. "Epos 2" cave was also explored by British cavers 4 years later, in September of 1979. Since that time many expeditions have been in the cave in order to push the exploration but without any significant progress (zero new passages reported). From the day of its discovery, Epos remained the deepest cave in Greece up to 1991. "Tafkos sta Petradolakia" (-475m) The cave was expiored in 1989 up to the depth of 380m (lake). In 1991 after a cave dive (Ph.Brunet), the cave reached its current depth of -473m and thus remained the deepest in the country (until 1995). The exploration was conducted by the French cavers (GRESPA VI responsible J.Y. Perrier). The first Greek cavers to make the descent were members of HSS (up to -380m). The most recent explorations of new departments 1 were realized by SELAS club (Athens) in 2002 during "Anogia Ntelina 2002" with myself leading the expedition. "Spilia Sternou" or "Sternon" (-460 m) The cave is located in Leuka Ori Mountains (2456m) on Crete at an altitude of 2080m. It was explored for the first time by French cavers (GSO ASEAUPS) in the years 1990, 1991 and 1992. The French team published their report in "Spelunca" (their survey describes the cave up to -400 m depth). The last exploration attempt took place in the summer of 2005 by SELAS club (Athens), during the "Sternes 2005" expedition led by the author. During this expedition the Greeks cavers went down as far as the -460m mark and stopped in a narrow passage with very good perspectives. The Greek cavers realized that the cave had been explored up to this point (but unfortunately there had been no publication of the results). "Djplotafki" (-400m) This cave was initially explored in 1984 by British cavers (SUSS) up to a depth of (-174m) In 1993 the French expedition (GRESPA VI SCSP Ales, led by J.Y.Perrier and Th. Monges) went down to a depth of -330m, while in 1994 the exploration was terminated at a depth of -400m (due to a siphon) -There ; was a limited participation by Greek cavers in both the 1993 and 1994 expeditions. A completely unexplored part, 250m long, was found in 2002 during "Anogia -Ntelina 2002" expedition (led by the author). 1 Long sections at a depth of -130m as well as an alternative route that leads once again to the final sump (-450m) but bypassing the lake at-380m (It is no longer necessary to carry boats into the cave), Mission Report for Anogeia Delina 2002, (under publication)

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"Tafkura" (-860 m, length 6570m) Tafkura was explored for the first t ime in 1978 by R. Maire (FR) up to a depth of -100m. In 1995 the exploration reached a depth o f -485m ( and length of 1000m) under the French association "La Tonche11 with the participation of Greek cavers (Leader T h Monges, member of CREI (committee of FFS). In 1996 a common expedition between t h ree clubs ( la Tonche ASBE Caving Team of the Technical University of Heraklion C r ete) continued the exp l orations up to depth -810m and to a length of 4500m. In 1997 the first purely Greek mission "Tafkura 1997" (SP. OM. TEI and H.S.S. Dep. Crete) led by the author. At that time 500m of length were added to the cave. Finally in 2002 during SELAS expedition "Anogia De li na 2002" the cave ended up with a new length (6570m) and a new depth after a successful -50m dive (by N.Mitsakis) in the siphon at -810m. "Gourgodthakas" (-1208m) As result of a consistent effort for many years, the French team GS Catamaran succeded in 1998 to explore the Gourgouthakas cave up to its current depth (-1208rn). Since that day the cave is by far the deeper know cave in Greece and one of the deepest in the world. The latest exploration in the cave took place under SELAS and SPOK dubs in 2001 (expedition leader A. Christodoulou). "Stoichiomeni" (-581m) The cave is situated in Viotia and was first explored ( up to the depth of 7 0m), in the late S0's by the unforgettable I. Petrocheilos the founder of the HSS. The cave was re-explored by SPELEO club (Athens) in the early 80's up to the depth of -280m (expedition leader K.Zoupis). Later, in 1998 SELAS club organized an expedition which pushed the cave deeper ( up to 463m, led by N.Mitsakis). Finally in the year 2000 a SELAS expedition led by the author (in cooperation with French cavers) reached today's known deepest bottom of Stoichiorneni at the depth of -580m. Unfortunately the cave is a subject of a major environmental catastrophe and at the present time it is not accessible. Greek cavers are undertaking actions for the protection of the cave and the restoration of its entrance. "Peleta" (-493m) This sinkhole was initially explored and surveyed by the unforgettable A n na. Petrocheilou (HSS) up to the depth of -70hl. In year 2000 the SPELEO club Athens continued the exploration ( expedition leader S;Nikolaidis) up to depth -493rn. During that expedition (Peleta 2000) .SPELEO's cave diver V.T r izonis dived in the bottom sump at -488m without achieving a major breakthrou9h (stopped a t narrow underwater passage). "Tripa tou Omiou" (-610m) On of the most recent discoveries in Greece, which. took place in the Autumn of 2003 by a joint French Greek (Youth Committee/FFS and M. Diamant o poulos/SELAS), expedition in Astraka (Epirus). This expedition explored a completely new cave in the Vathylakkos area and descended to the depth of -580m. In the year 2004 the exploration continued until the current known bottom of the cave at a depth of -610m. He!li!!l/r Siii!li?UI/J/JiCO! Biggest in length The longest caves in Greece ( except Tafkura) are also the major show caves in the country. "Diros Cavesrn (15.400m) Diros (Glyphada Dirou or Vlyhada Dirou) cave was disco v ered in 1923 by residents of the region. The first systematic exploration of the cave was done by the u nforgettable I. Petrocheiios and his spouse in 1949. After the death of I. Petrocheilos (in 1960), Anna Petrocheilou and the HSS continued the explorations. Up to 1960, 1.6km of corridors had been explored Since 1961 the cave is open to the public (show cave) after a proposal of A. Petrocheilou and HSS. The HSS explored some 1500m more in the period between 1960 and 1966. In the year 1971 a team of American cave divers contributed with 300m new underwater passages. In 1975 a new artificial entry was created. Up to 1989 after explorations of SPELEO club (Athens) and HSS the length of cave is almost doubled (approx. 5.3km). In 1992 the length of the cave was 6.2km due to exploration efforts of HSS, SPELEO and Hellenic Ministry of Culture. In the year 2000 Speleo Club of Nafplion and the ministry of Culture pushed the cave to 10.606m length. Most recent explorations took place in the year 2003 and 2004 by the Ministry of Culture (V.Giannopoulos) and Swiss Italian Cave divers (J.J. Bolanz, P.Deriaz, L.Cassati). The current length is approx. 15.400m "Maaras!' (10.340m) The underground river "Maaras" is the source of the river Aggitis in Drama district. It is the cave with the longest ground plan development in Greece. The cave has huge passages and it is developed without many branches. The first systematic exploration started in the year 1978 by a French team in which Greek cavers G.Avagiannos and N.Ioannidis participated. The leader of this expedition was Mr. P. Reile. The French caver continued the explorations in 1980,.1981,.1982 and 1983 with the attendance of N. Ioannidis. In 1995 he came back with Xeidakis and continued further. Accordingly to the reports of the French team the cave (up to 2000) had a length of 10.040m. In 2002 an expedition led by T.Theodosiadis (SPELEO club Athens) undertook some diving in the caves which resulted in the exploration of 300m more. Number of deep caves (more than the 400m depth) Among all continents, by far the most deep caves ( 400m or more) are located in Europe (including also new independent states that resulted from the dissolution of Soviet Union). (Diag.1) 14111 lnternnlionnf Conmnss ot

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Hellenic Stwleotooic11/ Society Diagram 1: Number of caves with depth bigger than 400m per continent. NORTH AMERICA EUROPE AND ...... ,,J.._,.-, 0 NORTH AMERICA ASIA AFRICA l% \ 1% \ =.a.SIA NEAR EAST LA TIN AMERICA -AND CARIBBEAN 7% OCEANI.6. 13 LA TIN AMERICA !>.ND CARIBBEAN EUROPE AND NEW INDEPEDENT STATES This it is explained because Speleology ( and especially vertical techniques) is more developed in Europe than other regions. More specifically, 533 deep caves (the 86% of deep caves on the planet) exist in Europe, 43 exist in Latin America (6.7%) while 14 exist in Oceania (2.2%). Speleology in Greece, is developing rapidly in the last 20 years. The number of speleological clubs is increasing continuously (Diagr.4) which combined with the efforts of foreign expeditions and the development of techniques and equipment had contributed to rapid increases in the number of deep caves explored in Greece. (Diagr.2 and 3 and 3a). Diagram 2: Number of known deep caves in Greece per exploration year (classified every five-years). 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -1------~--' '65 '75 11 '90 '95 '00 It should be noted that not only did the number of It can be noticed that there is a very rapid growth over the last ten years. Up to 1995 the number of deep caves was six (6) and in a period of eight (8) years this almost doubled and became 11 (in 2003 -Diagr.2). Today, Greece is ranked 11th in the worldwide classification and 9th in the European classification of countries by number of deep caves (Diagr.5 and Diagr.6) .Number of deep caves per 50.000 square kilometers It is true that deep caves are exceptionally infrequent. In the European continent today we find on average 0.98 deep caves per 50.000 km2 (Diagr.7). In Greece this ratio appears to be much higher (4.3 caves per 50.000 km2 explaining to a certain extent how the country is classified 11th in world and 9th in Europe. Slovenia, now the base of UIS, is ranked first (with 49.3 caves per 50.000 km2 ) followed by Austria (38.2 caves per 50.000 km2 ) and Switzerland (with 29.1 caves per 50.000 km2 ) (Diagr.8). The worldwide (Top 15) classification is almost the same as the European one. (Diagr.9) Diagram 3a: Depth of the deepest cave in Greece by the decades. 1400 1208 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1965-1975 1975-1990 1990-1995 1995-2003 Diagram 4: Number of speleological clubs in Greece per decade. 20 19 12 deep caves increase but so did the absolute depth of 10 6 caves in Greece, which almost tripled compared to previous decades. (Diagr.3a) Diagram 3: Trend of number of deep caves explored in Greece per year of exploration. ~: 1 8 110 111 8 6 !. ~j ~. i. i. i. 1. 1. 1. I, 2 50 3 3 60 70 80 90 00

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Diagram 5: Number of deep caves per country World classificatlon Top 15 countries N ew Guine a Ge rmany NewZeatmul Turkey Greec e Ru ss i a Crnati a Slovenia Georgia S wit z r l and Me x ic o Austria Spain na1Y Franc e 20 40 88 60 80 100 120 Diagram 6: Number of deep caves European countries classificatlon Top 15 countries 3 3 4 5 7 11 11 12 20 23 24 88 24 128 140 124 128 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Diagram 7: Number of deep caves per 50.000 Km2 (per continent). 0.02 0.01 Cl I-Cl <( :t: <( <( <( z~ CJ) z z I-00 0 <( w <( <( <( 0::: 0::: <( Wz w <( w 0W u.. g, w 0::: S2 u z :l: <( <( 0 <( 0::: ::c w ...I 0::: ::, I-z w :a: w <( Diagram 8: Number of long caves per 50 000 Km2 -World classification Top 15 countries. Helle mc S11eleof u uic a! Socie iy Diagram 9 : Number o f deep caves per 50 000 Km2 -Classification of Top 15 countries in Europe. Number of deep caves per million of habitants In examining number of deep caves per million habitants in differetnt countries (or continents) a slight variance between Europe (with 0.7 caves / million inhabitants.), Oceania (0.5 caves/ million inhabitants), Latin America (with 0.1 caves/ million inhabitants) and the rest of the world becomes visible (Diagr. 10). Diagram 10: Number of deep caves per million habitants by Continent 0,67 0,48 I 0,08 0,06 0,03 0,01 0,00 _ -Cl I-<( Cl I-<( <( <( z;:; ffi z z CJ) iE 00 <( <( <( 0::: <( ,G,)"1::, IVG> 1 g m J: z 5 o z At country level (world classification) Slovenia appears to have 10.1 deep caves per million habitants, Austria follows with 7.9 and Georgia with 4.5. Greece, takes the 11th place with 1 deep cave per million inhabitants. (Diagr.11). The picture is same for the J:1!11 lntemalionuf Conmess nt Snefeu/o{Jy

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Hellenic S{]e /eo/a{Jicu! Society top three countries in Europe. Greece is ranked 9th in this classification (Diagr.12). Diagram 12: Number of deep caves per million habitants per country -European classification of Top 15 countries 10,1 7 9 14 5 3,3 2 6 2,2 2,2 2,2 l 11 lllJ + ~ J o_: ~ ~ + ~ t :: .11! CV .11! "O CV C >, Q) Q) CV >, CV C C :s e> C 'cij j (,) (,) 2 Jl! Q) II) CV CV Q. C Q) CV ca II) > :I 0 I e u, f! l!! .c 0 E ::i: 0 < Q) (.) u.-C) < z 0 Q) en C) 0::: .c 'i N u, :::J Number of long caves (more than 6000m length) CV "O ::i: C CV CV > 0 0 0. en The number of long caves i n Greece is very small compared to other countries in Europe and worldwide. In the diagrams that follow (Nrs 14 to 21) Greece is absent. Comparing continents, Europe is in the lea9 with 354 long caves against 185 of North America. The 3rd position is occupied by Latin America with 51 caves of th i s category. (Diagr.13). At the country ievei, the USA is ranked 1st worldwide with 178 long caves (including the longest cave ever found i n the world) followed by France (108 caves) and Italy (40 caves) (Diagr.14). France and Italy are also at the top of the European classification followed by Spain (35 caves) (Diagr.15) Diagram 13: Number of long caves per 50 000 Km2 (by continent). NEAREAST 6 AF R ICA ~ 17 ASIA 1111 28 OCEANIA 30 LA T IN AM!=RICA AND THE 51 CARIBBEAN NORTH AMERICA I 185 EUROPE AND T HE NEW 354 INDEPENDENT STATES ,_ ---~~-~--~ 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Diagram 14: Number of long caves by country -World Situation of 15 lead i ng countries. 21-28 tw{Jusf 2005. Kaf nmos. He!fas Cuba ~ 9 Slovenia ~ 11 Brazil .12 New 12 Australia ~ 12 Russia ~ 16 Switzerland ~ 18 Romania ~ 18 Mexico 21 UK 2 Austria 7 Spain 5 40 Italy France lilliiil1iliiiilillliiimililimilillliliilllimililliiiilillliilil1 08 USA 78 Diagram 15: Number of long caves by country -European classification of 15 l eading countries. Poland =: s~!i!~i! ~ 5 Germany 5 Ukraine 7 Croatia 5 SI~~=~:: = 16 Switzerland ,, 1 1 8 8 Romania AusNi~ ; 22 27 I 35 sft:i,~ I 0 France 20 40 108 60 80 100 120 Ni.Imber of long caves per 50.000 Km2 The European Continent once again appears to have the higher frequency of in the number of iong caves per 50.000 Km2 (0.65 caves per 50.000 Km2 ) -see Diagr.16) wh i le North America has 0.42 and Oceania 0.18. The first country in the worldwide classification is Slovenia (with 27.1 caves), .followed by Switzerland (21.8 caves} and Austria (with 16.1 caves) (Diagr.17) D i agram 16: Number of long caves per K m2 (by continent). a $ 0 I-$ < z 3: z z C/J C/J (.) < < ti:
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Diagram 18: Number of long caves per 50.000 Km2 -European classification by country. Number of long caves per million of habitants Nr of Long caves per million of habitants in countries or in continents gives different perspectives. Oceania is present for the first time in a leading place (1.02 per million habitants) (Diagr.19) At country level (worldwide classification) countries with very small populations appear to be at the top (Belize, Slovenia and New Caledonia) (Diagr.20). At the European level Slovenia is once again first followed by Austria and Switzerland (Diagr.21). Diagram 19: Number of long caves million habitants (by continent). 1.02 0 ro ::J ~Cl) e e > en u E o < 0 O O Cl) cii ffl .ti cii 0:: (!) al en Diagram 21: Number of long caves per million habitants European classification per country. 5.6 2.51.8 13.3 1 1,7 . l 11+1 l -, I;_l ,Jlt ,. IL + + +I+I1 ffl ffl '0 Cl) .!!! ffl C: CG ffl .e -~ ffl '0 >, c 'ii: C: (.) co 'ni c e en ::, :; c C j Cl) in .! C ffl a. ffl c tn ffl > ::J G) e e > en E 0 O> 0 0 < u 0 0 Cl) Cl) "5 m cii .ti cii 0:: (!) E m ': en ::J I-Conclusions Unfortunately there is no world database of all caves regardless of length and depth. Such a database would allow us to make statistical analysis and to answer questions like "which is the country with more caves than any other in the globe?" etc. However with the data that are availiable it is confirmed inductively that Greece is a country with great potential and a very high number of deep caves compared to the rest of Europe or rest of the wolrd. Future developments in the explorations will increase these figures more. The potential of the country both in number of caves and in depth is great. It could be stressed that the unforgettable E.Platakis had recorded in Anogia region (Crete) oniy three (3) caves while in practice today more than 250 have been explored. From the statistical analysis it is obvious that in Europe there are not so many long caves as commpared to the American continent. The opposite is the case with the number of deep caves, which exist in much higher numbers in Europe than in America. At country level, Slovenia the base of UIS, possesses the first place above all the others, almost in every indicator, whereas Greece is usually ranked well (between 8 and 12) in most indicators concerning the deep caves. 14!! 1 lnterrrn tion u! DonLm 1ss of S11 eleuluuy

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l!el/enfc S11efeoiuoirn! Societv Acknowledgements T? the Dr. of Geo logy Mr V. Gi ann o poulos, for his proposals, corrections and the contribution of es sent ial bibliography. Mr K. Z oupis Ch airm an of Hellenic Fed eration of Spe le ology for the information from his files. Bibliography Contribution in the study modem and old environme nts of mos t impor ta nt G re ek caves0 Doctoral Thesis, V. I. GIANNOPOYLOS, ATHENS 2000 11The large st caves o f Greece 3rd Pan -H elleni c Speleological Meeting K ADAMOPOULOS (S.E L.A.S), Glyphada, 2000 "Hel enic-Frenc h expeditio n i n the As tr aka Sept emb er 2003, M.DIAMANTOPOULOS (S.EL.A.S), ( under printing) 11Peleta 2000n Report of expedi ti on, P. NI KOLAIDIS (SP .ELE.O), Athens 2000 "Stoichia 2000n R ep ort of expedition, K. ADAMOPOULOS -T. MONGES (S.EL.A.S G.S.H.L), Athens, 2000 "Anogia-Ntelina 2002" Report of expedition K. ADAMOPOULOS (S .El. A .S), Athens 2002 "Le Karst du Massif du falakro, Resurgence de Maa ra s", P. RIL E (F.F.S ), Franc e 2000 "Expedition Speleo en Grece", P.DUMORTIER A.WALTHAM, Bulletin d'Information et de Liaison Se mes triel No 10 Socie te Spel eo iogiq ue du Plantarel! France Avril 1982 "Sternes 2005" Report of expedit i on K. ADAMOP OULO S (S.EL.A.S), Athens unde r pri nt ing (2005) Sources fro m the internet (Intenu~t:) World Ca ve Da taba se, EMADELAINE bi!Q. JM\'.Y w -soo .in ria. fr/ ago~ f ~-Dem ogr aphic data: U.S. Census Bure au, Po pulation Division Int erna tional Programs Center Washing ton DC 20233-8860, Sep 2003 Exte nt per country: Info r mation t ake n from Internet (se e Annex) AB STR A CT This article is a sta tist ical analysis on the number of deep and long cave s using several indicator s like number of de ep ca ve s, number of deep caves per 50000 sq Km, number of deep caves per million lnhabltants number of lo ng caves, number of long caves per million inh abita nts and number of long caves per 50000 sq Km. Caves deeper or e qual to the depth of -40 0m ar e co nside red a s deep while caves lo nge r or equal to 6000m are considered as long. Greece is the focus but the analysis was made against the rest of the world us ing Eric Man del an e s f World Cave D atabase (.h p:/,ww~ sophistl~ j ~[database.html ) as a source. Populatio n data is sourced from U .S Census Bureau Population Division. land surface information pe~ country has been collected through internet resources. As a gen eral con clusi on caves fou n d in E urope and Asia are deeper than the c aves in a ll other continent s. Caves in America are lon ger than those in the rest of the World The top country accor d ing to most of the ind ic at ors is Sfo\ter1ia. Greece is ranked betvveen 8 th and 11 th place ,N or ldwide or within Europe on the indicators con ce rning de ep caves" Pict.1: Satelite imaqe of Greece with the approximate deep and !onq cave locations 21-28 /111uus! 2UD5. l
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/Jelle nf c S1w/ea/ouir:ai Sucm fy caves per country Elements 2001 World ' , ,~i~W:&, J i/;&lif~\ r1 tt!t. :;* ,~'J!:)i :,,wi ~, :!A" ,; ~ 'IJ r,~"' '')Jj;r w , ;\\171:r' '!~~'; ~&"; .,, R,:'c"';J."'N Nr Total ;f, ,ogrjtRllt,~,;~t:~ [0' , , 'siimil'.,, .. ,ffl;l!l'n k\,f";';:'11' s; ,; Go~ntrv of of NrofCaves ~; : ~ 1 & ~j-~ ~l:!tliGfJ"*~ ~& ~1 ~PYZ~% w~ r. & ~ t ~J~i K -, D~'i,fav~s LOll!~~es ,y.l,q\_' ~~ 8 ,=, '"' AFRICA Algeria 3 1 4 Ethiopia 1 1 Kenya 1 1 1 Madagascar 6 6 Morocco 1 2 3 South Africa 4 4 Tanzan ia 1 1 Zaire 1 1 AFRICA Total 5 17 21 ASIA China 2 4 5 India 1 1 Iran 1 1 Japan 2 1 3 Laos 2 2 Malaysia 2 4 6 Phili ppines 6 6 S. Korea 3 3 Thailand 4 4 Vietnam 3 3 ASIA Total 7 28 34 EUROPE AND THE NEW INDEPENDENT ST A TES Albania 3 3 Austria 64 27 68 Belgium 3 3 Bosnia 1 1 Bulgaria 3 3 Croatia 12 5 17 Czech r ep 1 3 3 France 128 108 196 Georgia 23 4 26 Germany 7 5 12 Greece 11 3 13 Hungary 3 3 Ireland 2 2 Italy 124 40 144 Moldova 1 1 Norway 1 1 2 Pol and 4 6 6 Portugal 2 2 Romania 3 18 19 Russia 11 16 25 Slovakia 1 5 6 Slovenia 20 11 27 Spain 88 35 104 Switzerland 24 18 30 Turkmenistan 3 3 UK 22 22 Ukraine 2 7 9 Uzbekistan 5 2 5 Yuooslavia 1 1 EUROPE AND THE NEW INDEPENDENT STATES Total 533 354 756 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Bahamas 1 1 Belize 2 2 Brazil 1 12 13 Cuba 9 9 Guatemala 1 1 Hondur as 1 1 Mexico 39 21 51 Peru 1 1 Puerto Rico 1 1 R ep Dominicaine 1 1 Venezuela 3 3 LA T I N AM E RICA AND THE C A R IBB EA N To t a l 42 51 84 NEAR EAST Lebanon 2 1 3 Syria 1 1 Turkey 8 4 11 NEAR EAST Total 10 6 1 5 NORTH AME RICA Canad a 3 7 9 USA 5 178 179 NORTH AMERICA Total 8 185 188 OCEANIA Australia 12 12 New Caledon ia 1 1 New Guinea 7 5 10 New Zea l and 7 12 14 OC EANIA Total 14 30 37 Gran d Total 619 671 1135 14th lntemulianul Conmess of Stwleofaoy

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Hellenic SfJe/eotaqical Society Table P 2: Extent per country in square kilometers (km2 ). = .,---' "''" ~ ,,,,,, ,. ,_ Afghanistan 647,500 km2 Dominica 754 km2 Kuwait 17,820 km2 Romania 237,500 km2 17,075,200 Albania 28,748 km2 Dominican Republic 48,730 km2 Kyrgyzstan 198,500 km2 Russia km2 Algeria 2,381,740 km2 EastTimor 15,007 km2 Laos 236,800 km2 Rwanda 26,338 km2 American Samoa 199 km2 Ecuador 283,560 km2 Latvia 64,589 km2 Saint Helena 410 km2 Andorra 468 km2 Egypt 1,001,450 km2 Lebanon 10,400 km2 Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 km2 Angola 1,246,700 km2 El Salvador 21,040 km2 Lesotho 30,355 km2 Saint Lucia 616 km2 Anguilla 102 km2 Equatorial Guinea 28,051 km2 Liberia 111,370 km2 St. Pierre & Miquelon 242 km2 Antarctica 14 mil km2 Eritrea 121,320 km2 Libya 1,759,540 km2 St.Vincent Grenadines 389 km2 Antigua and Barbuda 443 km2 Estonia 45,226 km2 Liechtenstein 160 km2 Samoa 2,944 km2 Arctic Ocean 14.056 mil km2 Ethiopia 1,127,127 km2 Lithuania 65,200 km2 San Marino 61.2 km2 Argentina 2,766,890 km2 Europa Island 28 km2 Luxembourg 2,586 km2 Sao Tome Principe 1,001 km2 Armenia 29,800 km2 Falkland Islands 12,173 km2 Macau 25.4 km2 Saudi Arabia 1,960,582 km2 Aruba 193 km2 Faroe Islands 1,399 km2 Madagascar 587,040 km2 Senegal 196,190 km2 Ashmore and Cartier Islands 5 km2 Fiji 18,270 km2 Malawi 118,480 km2 Serbia/Montenegro 102,350 km2 Atlantic Ocean 76.762 mil km2 Finland 337,030 km2 Malaysia 329,750 km2 Seychelles 455 km2 Australia 7,686,850 km2 France 547,030 km2 Maldives 300 km2 Sierra Leone 71,740 km2 Austria 83,858 km2 F r ench Guiana 91,000 km2 Mali 1.24 mil km2 Singapore 692.7 km2 Azerbaijan 86,600 km2 French Polynesia 4,167 km2 Malta 316 km2 Slovakia 48,845 km2 Bahamas, The 13,940 km2 French Antarctic s 7,829 km2 Man, Isle of 572 km2 Slovenia 20,273 km2 Bahrain 665 km2 FYROM 25,333 km2 Marshall Islands 181.3 km2 Solomon Islands 28,450 km2 Baker Island 1.4km2 Gabon 267,667 km2 Martinique 1,100 km2 Somalia 637,657 km2 Bangladesh 144,000 km2 Gambia, The 11,300 km2 Mauritania 1,030,700 km2 South Africa 1,219,912 km2 Barbados 431 km2 Gaza Strip 360 km2 Mauritius 2,040 km2 S.Georgia-S.Sandwich 3,903 km2 Bassas da India 0.2 km2 Georgia 69,700 km2 Mayotte 374 km2 Southern Ocean 20.327 mil km2 Belarus 207,600 km2 Germany 357,021 km2 Mexico 1,972,550 km2 Spain 504,782 km2 Belgium 30,510 km2 Ghana 239,460 km2 Micronesia 702 km2 Spratly Islands less than 5 km2 Belize 22,966 km2 Gibraltar 6.5 km2 Midway Islands 6.2 km2 Sri Lanka 65,610 km2 Benin 112,620 km2 Glorioso Islands 5 km2 Moldova 33,843 km2 Sudan 2,505,810 km2 Bermuda 53.3 km2 Greece 131,940 km2 Monaco 1.95 km2 Suriname 163,270 km2 Bhutan 47,000 km2 Greenland 2,166,086 km2 Mongolia 1.565 mil km2 Svalbard 62,049 km2 Bolivia 1,098,580 km2 Grenada 344 km2 Montserrat 102 km2 Swaziland 17,363 km2 Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,129 km2 Guadeloupe 1,780 km2 Morocco 446,550 km2 SWeden 449,964 km2 Botswana 600,370 km2 Guam 549 km2 Mozambique 801,590 km2 Switzerland 41,290 km2 Bouvet Island 58.5 km2 Guatemala 108,890 km2 Namibia 825,418 km2 Syria 185,180 km2 Brazil 8,511,965 km2 Guernsey 78 km2 Nauru 21 km2 Taiwan 35,980 km2 British Indian Ocean Ter 60 km2 Guinea 245,857 km2 Navassa Island 5.2 km2 Tajikistan 143,100 km2 British Virgin Islands 153 km2 Guinea-Bissau 36,120 km2 Nepal 140,800 km2 Tanzania 945,087 km2 Brunei 5,770 km2 Guyana 214,970 km2 Netherlands 41,526 km2 Thailand 514,000 km2 Bulgaria 110,910 km2 Haiti 27,750 km2 NL Antilles 960 km2 Tokelau 10 km2 Burkina Faso 274,200 km2 Heard & McDonald Isl. 412 km2 New Caledonia 19,060 km2 Tonga 748 km2 Holy See (Vatican Burma 678,500 km2 City) 0.44 km2 New Zealand 268,680 km2 Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 km2 Burundi 27,830 km2 Honduras 112,090 km2 Nicaragua 129,494 km2 Tromelin Island 1 km2 Cambodia 181,040 km2 Hong Kong 1,092 km2 Niger 1.267 mil km2 Tunisia 163,610 km2 Cc111'1e10011 47'.i,440 km2 I lowland Island 1.6 l
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ffl: Jilm 1c Sueleof ouica l Suciety Table P 3: Elements of population per continent and per country (in thousands habitants) -1998. Region Count Total Region eount Total Region Countr Total AFRICA Algeria 30,481 OCEANIA American Samoa 62 LATIN Anguilla 11 Egypt 66,050 Australia 18,613 AMERICA Antigua and Barbuda 64 Libya 5,691 Fiji 803 AND THE Argentina 36,265 Morocco 29,114 French Polynesia 238 CARIBBEAN Aruba 68 Tunisia 9,380 Guam 148 Bahamas, The 280 Angola 10,865 Marshall Islands 63 Barbados 259 Benin 6,101 New Caledonia 194 Belize 230 Botswana 1,448 New Zealand 3,625 Bolivia 7,826 Burkina Faso 11,266 Northern Mariana 67 Brazil 169,807 Burundi 5,537 Papua New Guinea 4,600 Chile 14,677 Cameroon 15,029 Samoa 225 Colombia 38,581 Cape Verde 400 Solomon Islands 441 Costa Rica 3,605 Central African 3,376 Tuvalu 10 Cuba 11,045 Chad 7,360 Vanuatu 185 Dominica 66 Comoros 546 OCEANIA Total 29 274 Dominican Republic 7,999 Congo (Brazzaville) 2,658 EUROPE AND Albania 3,331 Ecuador 12,337 Congo {Kinshasa) 49,001 THE NEW Bosnia and 3,366 El Salvador 5,752 Cote d'Ivoire 15,446 INDEPENDENT Bulgaria 8,240 French Guiana 163 Djibouti 441 STATES Croatia 4,672 Grenada 96 Equatorial Guinea 454 Czech Republic 10,286 Guadeloupe 416 Eritrea 3,842 Hungary 10,208 Guatemala 12,008 Ethiopia 58,390 FYROM 2,009 Guyana 708 Gabon 1,208 Montenegro 680 Haiti 6,781 Gambia, The 1,292 Poland 38,607 Honduras 5,862 Ghana 18,'497 Romania 22,396 Jamaica 2,635 Guinea 7,477 Serbia 10,526 Martinique 407 Guinea-Bissau 1,206 Slovakia 5,393 Mexico 98,553 Kenya 28,337 Slovenia 1,972 Netherlands Antilles 213 Lesotho 2,090 Armenia 3,422 Nicaragua 4,583 Liberia 2 ,772 Azerbaijan 7,856 Panama 2,736 Madagascar 14,463 Belarus 10,409 Paraguay 5,291 Malawi 9,840 Estonia 1,421 Peru 26,111 Mali 10,109 Georgia 5,109 Puerto Rico 3,857 Mauritania 2,511 Kazakhstan 16,847 Saint Kitts and Nevis 42 Mauritius 1,168 Kyrgyzstan 4,522 Saint Lucia 152 Mayotte 109 Latvia 2,385 Saint Vincent and the 120 Mozambique 18,641 Lithuania 3,600 Suriname 428 Namibia 1,622 Moldova 4,458 Trinidad and Tobago 1,117 Niger 9,672 Russia 146,861 Uruguay 3,285 Nigeria 110,532 Tajikistan 6,020 Venezuela 22,803 Reunion 705 Turkmenistan 4,298 Virqin Islands 118 Rwanda 7,956 Ukraine 50,125 Total 507 357 Saint Helena 7 Uzbekistan 23,784 ASIA Afghanistan 24,792 Sao Tome and 150 Andorra 65 Bangladesh 127,609 Senegal 9,723 Austria 8,134 Bhutan 1,908 Seychelles 79 Belgium 10,175 Brunei 315 Sierra Leone 5,080 Denmark 5,334 Burma 47,305 Somalia 6,842 Faroe Islands 42 cambodia 11,340 South Africa 42,835 Finland 5,149 China 1,236,915 Sudan 33,551 France 58,805 Hong Kong S.A.R. 6,707 Swaziland 966 Germany 82,079 India 983,377 Tanzania 30,609 Gibraltar 29 Indo nesia 212,942 Togo 4,906 G;eece 10,662 Iran 68,960 Uganda 22,167 Guernsey 65 Japan 125,932 Zambia 9,461 Iceland 271 Laos 5,261 Zimbabwe 11 044 Ireland 3,619 Macau 507 AFRICA Total 760 503 Italy 56,783 Malaysia 20,933 NEAR Bahrain 616 Jersey 89 Maldives 290 EAST Cyprus 761 Liechtenstein 32 Mongolia 2,579 Gaza Strip 1,054 Luxembourg 425 Nepal 23,698 Iraq 23,034 Malta 380 North Korea 22,178 Israel 5,644 Man, Isle of 75 Pakistan 135,135 Jordan 4,435 Monaco 32 Philippines 77,726 Kuwait 1,913 Netherlands 15,731 Singapore 3,490 Lebanon 3,506 Norway 4,420 South Korea 46,417 Oman 2,364 Portugal 9,928 Sri Lanka 18,934 Qatar 697 San Marino 25 Taiwan 21,908 Saudi Arabia 20,786 Spain 39,134 Thailand 60,037 Syria 16,673 Sweden 8,887 Vietnam 76,236 Turkey 64,567 Switzerland 7,260 ASIA Total 3,363 431 United Arab Emirates 2,303 United Kingdom 57 721 NORTH Canada 30,675 West Bank 1,557 Total 798154 AMERICA Greenland 59 Yemen 16 388 United States 270 312 Total 166 298 Total 301,046 !4ih lnlemnfiurwl Cun ure ss ot SJJuf eo louv

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Hellenic S11efeo/a[Jir:al Svc! e/y 0-57 The cave of Kapsia at Mantinia and its anthropological findings C. Merdenisianos M.D. P hD University of Athens, Museum of Anthropology, Athens, Greece The cave of Kapsia is located at the foot of Mainalo Mountain at an altitude of 637 meters, on the western part of the karst plain of ancient Mantinia. It is 14 km from the town of Tripoli and only 1.5 km north of the village of Kapsia. It is a pothole belonging to the complex system of potholes of the Mantinia plateau. This underground system of natural drains absorbs a big part of the waters of the plain which in winter is transformed into a lake by the strong rainfalls. From the historical data we have to date, we know that the first person who visited the cave was the French archaeologist G. Fougeres in 1887 because of the excavation works then carried out in the area of ancient Mantinia. The first one, though, who is believed to have systematically explored the cave, is the engineer N. Siderides that led a Greek-French expedition in 1892. He published the results of his research in Spelunca, the French scientific magazine in 1911. From the other expeditions that followeJ., tluee are considered to be the most important ones to-date. The new Greek-French expedition of 1974 led by I. Ioannou (ESE [Greek Spe leology Society] bulletin XIII, issues 6, 7 ,8 197 6), the expedition of 1979 with K. Merdenisianos and A. Bartsioka (Publication by A. Bartsioka, K. Merdenisianos, K. Zafeiratos in ESE bulletin XVIII issues 1-2 1981-82) and the research, specially about the study of paleoanthropological mate rial carried out by Professor Th. Pitsios in 1980. From a geo-morphological point of view, the cave is horizontal and consists of a series of complex corridors of 600 m. length and tot a l area of 6,500 m2 leading to two rooms, the second of which is the biggest. It should be noted that the ground at the entrance of the cave and almost up to the last big room is extremely muddy. This happens because during the period of strong rainfalls, a part of the waters of the Mantinia pla teau is drained mainly through its first corridors, sweeping along sludge and other sediment. It seems that in the past, the cave used to be flooded by rainwater and its first sections were underwater. This is shown by the traces of water level left by the floods on the walls of the cave. Most of the parts of the cave exhibit important stone decoration. How ever, the special aesthetic interest of Kapsia is mainly focused on the last big room which due to the absence of sludge displays a crystalline forma tion of incomparable beauty made of columns stalactite and stalagmite complexes as well as draping formations in rare shades of yellow and red For these reasons, this hall was named "Room of Miracles" by the first explorers. The cave of Kapsia has great scientific interest apart from the tour ist one. More specifically, numerous pieces of human bones from males females and children were found inside the cave. Along with the bones many pieces of ancient pottery and clay oil lamps dating from the 4th and 5th centuries AD were also found. The first explorers mention that they found 45-50 human skulls most of which were gathered in a room almost in the middle of the cave which was named "Room of skulls and bones" The origin of all this anthropological material remains a puzzle for science which has not found a satisfactory solution yet. According to the opinion of A. Bartsioka, K. Merdenisianos and K. 7,,-re;rat"", (1 OQl Q')), thP PV;~tPt'lf'P of o'"tPologif'~l m~tPri~l i.;: <::11ppo<::c>li to originate from the sudden drowning of people who occasionally used the cave (maybe for worshipping reasons) and who were trapped after a big flood. Later research by Th. Pitsios, (1987-88), showed that the pres ence of paleoanthropological findings may not be due to some extra-or dinary event as the one mentioned above, but to the long-term use of the cave as a burial spot and a place of worshipping the dead. 2128 Au ou st 2 [10 5. K a lunw s Hell o s Dimensions Tot al passages Length : about 620 metres. Total area: about 6.700 sq ua re metres Greatest height of ce ilin g : 7 metres Climatological Data 2/9/1979: (e ntrance of cave) temperature 19 C (ha ll of Skulls and Bones) temperature l3C. Relative hu midity 95% 8/1/1994 : (h all of Wonders) temp era ture 13C. Relative humidity 100% Hall of "Wonders" Obs e rve th e o ld level of the w ater from inundation of the cave. The hall of "Skulls and Bones"

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Human sku lis an d bone s cov ered with s t alagm i te rnater ia! Sk ull fr om a child rf age abou t 9 years Com1u :s s or S oe! enlo uy

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Hellenic S11eleo/a[lir:al Socie/y Bibliography ANGEL J. L. 1971: "The People of Lema: Analysis of a Prehistoric Aegean Population". (Princeton and Washington. American Shool of Classical Studies at Athens and Smithsonian Institution Press). BAHN P. 2003: "Written in Bones". fpatvo crm ocrta. (EAAl'J VtKtj ctxi~(fornpia, t6os 322, AnpiAtos 1995. A0tj va). va. tiEPMITZAKm:: M. 1998: Avas11tcovms rnus npoy6vous a9>. A0tjDEROBERT L. 1974: Medecine Legate. ELLIS BRYAN 1976: "Surveying Caves". (Somerset, Great Britain) FORD T., CULLINGFORD C. 1976: "The science of speleology". (New York). HARRIS E. F. WOODS M.A., ROBINSON Q.C. 1993: "Dental health patterns in an urban Midsouth population: sex and age changes". (Quintes -sence International. 24, p. 45-52) HILL C., FORTI P. 2004: "Cave minerals of the world". (Alabama, U.S.A.). HILLSON S. 1996: "Dental Anthropology". (Cambridge University Press. London). JASINSKI M. 1966: "Speleologie". (Geneve). ZAEIPATm:: K. 1980: tam Epyacrt11ptaKCOV acrtjcr)V ucrttjs Av0pronoloyias. (EKOOCTEts Ilavcmcr'tlliou A011vcov). HAIAKm:: K. E. 1976: IatpootKacrttKtj. (EKo6crtS IlaptcrtUVOs A0tjva). IQANNOY I. 1976 : Ilpayatono1110Eicrat SPUVtjcrtS ts 1tPtoX. fiEAt. E r.E. t6. XXII, 1995-2000). MEPtiENinANOr K. 2000:To naAatoav0pronoAoyttjs cr11acri as crntjAato KouKoupt tipuaAOU AaKrovia9>. (fichio E.r.E. t6. XXII 1995-2000). MEPtiENILIANOr K. 2003: To crntjAato Bu0aKas tiupou Mav11~ Kat rn apxatoloytK6 rnu Votacptpov. ( 3 run. Apxatoloyia~ fEroAoyi as Kat IlaAatovrnloyia~ rn11lairov. A0tjva 17-19 0Kt. 2003). MEPtiENILIANOr K. 2004: Ilalatona0oloyttj cAEtll 'tOU crKEAE nKou 1tA110ucrou an6 rn Busavnv6 VEKpomcpcio 'tO)V Apotjprov CT'tll 0pa Kll(fitoaKrnptKtj Otatptptj. 'EKOOCT'l'J Ilavmcr-r11iou A011vcov). MEPtiENirIANOr K., IIIUIOr 0. 1994:ITtOavtj 1tcpi1ttrocr11 tpu-2 7--28 Auuust 2005. l{ulnmas. fief/us navtcrou Kpaviou an6 To Pusavnv6 VEKpomcpdo 'tCOV Apotjprov. (5 fit vE~ ruvtopt.0 Avanrns11s, Estlis11~ Kat IlcpipaUovrns l:n11lairov. fiAt. E.r.E. r6os XXI, 1993-94, O"EA. 181-185. A0tjva). MERDENISIANOS K. ZAFIRI B., PITSIOS TH. 2002: "Two cases of surgical trephina-tion in ancient Greece". ( 130 Inter. Con gr Of E.A.A. Zagrep). MOORE G., SULLIVAN N. 1978: "Speleology. The study of caves". (Alabama, U.S.A.) MIIAPn:mKArA., MEPtiENinANm:: K., ZAEIPATOL K. 1981: Ta av0pronoloytK. (To Bouv6. Twx. 196. Mai:os-Iouvtos 1957). IIETPOIIOYAOr M.r. 1966: To crntjAato Kamp60pa9>. (EAEU0cpos K6cro~ 2-9-1966) IIETPOXEIAOr I. 1958: Ta crntjAata tl'J~ IlcAonowtjcrou. H Kata P60pa Kci\jfta9>. (IlAonow11maKtj IIprornXPOVtuUou 926). TROMBE F. 1973: "La Speleologie". (Paris). ZAFEIRATOS K. 1988 : "Anthropology and Paleopathology Research in Greece". (Newsletter in Paleopathology. Detroit U.S.A., 62: 9-10).

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Hellenic S!ieleuiDOit:ai SDt:iet y 0-58 A new speleothemic carbonate deposit in gra v e Grubbo cave (Southern-Italy): Microbiological and stratigraphyca l aspects P. Ca cc h io, G, Fer r i n i A Lepid i University of L 'Aquila, Coppito, Italy Abstract Calcium carbonate precipitation i n caves is commonly considered t o be an abiogenic process even if the presence of microbes in underground deposits is reported. However, various studies have demonstrated the effects of heterotrophic bacteria and, particularly actinomycetes in formation of specific speleothems such as moon milk and pool fingers. Bacteria and fungi can precipitate calcium carbonate extracellularly through a variety of processes, correlated with 1) metabolic activities involving : i) autotrophic pathways (non-methylotrophic methanogenesis, anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxygenic photosynthesis); ii) the nitrogen cycle (ammonification of amino-acids dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, degradation of urea or uric acid); iii) the sulfur cycle ( dissimilatory reduc tion of sulphate), and 2) cell wall structure of microorganisms through mechanisms that have yet to be clearly elucidated. We investigated a cave biomineral structure of new morphology recognized in Grave Grubbo: a karst system developed for more than 2 km, in a gypsum-arenaceous for -0-59 mation in Southern Italy. T he cav e, hollowed in an alternation of thin bed ded gypsum-arenites and carbonaceous pelitic levels, is entirely scoured by a subterranean stream with a quite uniform discharge; at present the new formation has been recognized only in one site in correspondence of this main water flow and strictly related to it. The deposit, which mantled the pelitic bedrock, shows a decimetric layered structure with, at least, two different stages of formation; petrographic and mineralogical analysis point out a tubular structure, constituted by concentric carbonatic laminae oriented according the water flow. In order to seek evidence of bacterial involvement in its formation, we isolated an abundant cultivable heterotrophic microflora associated with the upper layer of the concretion which precipitated CaC03 in vitro within the colonies. We found that the percentage of calcifying strains near the colony or far away in the medium was related to the growth temperature. The microbial isolates can grow in NaCl up to 10% and about 38% of the isolates at a concentration of 15% NaCL Almost all the isolates were rod-shaped bacteria, one strain displayed pseudomyceliar growth. Stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) as indicators of trophic structure in central Texas (USA) cave ecosystems S.J. Taylor, K. Hackl e y, J.K. K r ejca, S.E. G r eenberg, M.L. Denight Illinois Natural History Survey, Illinois USA Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory, Illinois State Geological Survey, Illinois USA Zara Environmental LLC, Buda, Texas US. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Illinois, USA Abstract Caves in central Texas (USA) harbor numerous rare and endemic inver tebrate species, some of which are listed as federally endangered species. The various cave invertebrates, including species of spiders millipedes, and beetles appear to be threatened by the invasive Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Solenopsis invicta), which forages within the caves. We briefly review the biology of typical cave communities of central Texas, with emphasis on the role of surface foraging Ceuthophilus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) species, then present results of a study of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios ( deltal3C, deltal 5N) s of the cave communities. We studies three caves at Fort Hood, a military installation in Bell and Coryell counties, Texas More than 70 samples, representing 18 cave-inhabiting invertebrate species, were collected from two caves in November 2003, and two caves in May 2004, along with more than 100 samples of a plants growing around the cave entrances. Dried samples were analyzed for nitrogen and carbon isotopes using a mass spectrometer with an attached elemental analyzer. We found some isotopic differences between caves and between sampling seasons. In addition, the differences in deltal 5N between two co occurring Ceuthophilus species provides evidence that they function at differing trophic levels. Our data suggest many of the cave taxa feed at more than one trophic level, and thus source partitioning of isotope fractionation appears to reflect complex trophic relationships. Many of the taxa feed within a single food chain, and thus all are dependent on a single energy source. Protection of rare or feder ally species, then, depends on maintaining the entire cave ecosystem to protect top predators (e.g., Cicurina spiders). Knowledge gained regard ing trophic relations can facilitate development of management plans for central Texas caves, and is applicable to the management of the federally endangered cavernicoles. 14t h l nlem nt io nnl Conu ru ss of Souteulouy

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ffeltenic St w! eo/u Uic ol S ur:i e/y 0-60 Salt Ingestion Caves L un d qui st, C harle s A ., University of Alabama in Huntsville, 214 Jones Valley Drive Huntsvill e AL 35802 USA, lundquc @ V a rnedoe, William W. Gr., Huntsville Grotto of the National Speleological Society, 5000 Ketova Way, Huntsville, AL 35803, U S A, billvar @ ABSTRACT Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, over generations, they have removed and consumed salty r ock. The cavities formed by th is natural anim al process constitute a unique class of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Severa l examples of such caves are described in various publications. An example in Mississippi U S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by t he authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer or bison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over I 00 meters by elephants An ancien t example is La Cuerva del Milodon i n Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinct milodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, the cavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differs in detail from country to country. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristic that human entry is possib l e is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should be significantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form the cave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm other salts for which there is animal hunger are acceptable Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it is secondary in formation of a cave in question BACKGROUND CIRCUMSTANCES From the dawn of civilization, humans have observed that some animals congregate at "salt licks" and that these are auspicious sites to hunt these animals. Starting from such ancient fundamentals, Derek Denton, in his monumental tome Hunger for Salt, An Anthropological. Physiological and Medical Analysis~ reviews all aspects of animal and human need for salt [Denton 19821 In his Introduction he stresses "the role of sodium as the principal cation of the circulating blood and tissue fluids of animals. Sodium predominates over the other constituents of tissue fluids such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride". Denton observes that in large areas of the continents, there is very little sodium, as a result of meteorological processes. Sodium content in plants is acco r dingly very iow. This creates an evident evolutionary advantage that accrues to animals that are able to detect salt in geological circumstances and ingest it. The animals in greatest need are the herbivores because of the low sodium content of plants Carnivores obtain the bulk of their required salt from the flesh of the animals they eat. Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock in a cliff face, can over generations produce sizable voids where they have removed and consumed salty rock. These cavities can have the characteristics of a cave This class of caves, which is the subject of this paper, requires a definition. First, the cavity in rock should meet the size and other specifications in the locally accepted definition of a cave. This requirement can differ in detail from country to country and from state to state. The intent is to accept the local conventions. The characteristic that human entry is possible is a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should be significantly the product of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form the cave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be most common, other salts for which there is animal hunger are acceptable Also some other cave formation process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it is secondary in formation of a cave in question. The authors recognize that these two requirements are somewhat arbitrary, but the scope of discussion needs to be constrained. Many speleological, scientific and popular documents contain descriptions of caves that seem indeed to satisfy the definition above for inclusion in this study. For example, Denton, in his chapter "The natural history of sodium deficiency and salt appetite in wild animals", gives a rather comprehensive global review that includes references to a number of animal produced caves. This paper is based largely on such published documents having many forms and purposes. It is often unclear whether a cited cavity or cave meets the stated conditions to be included in this paper Some judgment must be exercised in placing a candidate either on an accepted list or in a tabulation of potential cases for which data is insufficient to make an informed determination A location illustrating this situation is Cambodia [Wharton 1957]. A typical Cambodian salt lick is described as a stinking quagmire qf mud with thousands of animal tracks, to one side qf which is the freshly exposed stratum with large holes several feet in diameter eaten out of it. An examination in the field might show that some specific examples of these holes deserve to be called caves. Similarly, a review Natural Game Licks in the Rocky Mountain National Parks of Canada, mentions a few sites that have cavities that may qualify as caves [Cowan and Brink 1949]. The Glacier Lake lick in Banff Park has the description "White cliffs overlooking Howse River at its union with Glacier Lake Creek are deeply excavated by goats". A lick in Jasper Park is Afhabaska Falls A large white-earth cliff on the east bank of the Athabaska River, twenty-three miles south of Jasper, serves a population ~f twenty or more goats from nearby Mou n t Kerkealin. Holes eaten into the cliff face are large enough to accommodate adult goats 21-28 Auausl 2005. Knfamas. Helfns

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Heilrm ic S; w l eulouicnl Socielv Althou gh not a subject here, it is worth noting that the animal consumption can be an interesting secondary process in caves of other principal origins Animals may modify wall characteristics locally or perhaps even create a room off a larger cave. A potential example of th i s sort is Deer Cave in Mulu Mountain, Sarawak The cave is so named because deer come into the cave to lick salt-bearing rocks [Tsen 1993]. Since this cave contains one of the largest cave passages known to man~ it is certainly not the result of the deer visits. Still, the deer may have l e ft their mark in localized areas ALT AI MOUNT AIN CAVES ASIA The concept of speleogenesis by salt ingestion by animals is not recent For example, in 1826, Carl Friedrich von Ledebour published a commentary on his travels through the AJtai mountains of central Asia [Ledebour 1826]. His r eport is quoted and discussed in an 1 873 paper by G. Bunge [Bunge 1873]. Ledebour describes an occurrence of shale on the lower elevations of a mountain that bordered one side of the very flat, swampy, and somewhat wide valley of the Kan River. This site was near the confluence of the Kan and Tscharnsch Rivers. He reports that the stone, (shale) that forms the mountain appeared to contain a significant amount of salt, and questioned whether it might be epsom salt. He observed that "all livestock of the Ka/mucks find this rock, which gives the mountain an ash-gray appeara nce, very desirab le and consume it in not small amounts, so that one not infrequently finds grottoes built in thi s w
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He lleni c S 1 1e!eo louic ul Sur:ie fy Given the circumstances for the Mount Elgon eaves~ there is some uncertainty found in the literature as to the predominant process that has formed the caves. Some authors favor an undefined solution and erosion process related to ground water sapping or to the waterfalls at the entrances, perhaps during heavy rain or flooding. A thoughtful examination of this question has been provided by Ian Redmont. He spent much of five months camping in a safe spot in Kiturn Cave observing and photographing principally the elephants [Redmont 1984]. Importantly, he collected elephant droppings outside the cave to confirm that significant quantities of insoluble rock are removed by the elephants. He then offers the following analysis: "The volume of Kitum cave is on the order of 1. 3 million gallons. If. for the sake of conservative argument, we suppose that elephant excavations average just one quart per week, it would have tak.en them only 100,000 years for them to dig Kitum. .. the theory of elephant speleogenesis is entirely plausible. In 2003, Donald Mcfarlane and Joyce Lundberg made an eight-day field study at Mt. Elgon National Park, with the "principal objective to undertake. a detailed, quantitative investigation of the relative contributions of solutio11, collapse, human mining and elephant geophagy to the formation of the larger Mt; Elgon Caves" [Mc Farlane and Lundberg, 2004]. They suggest multi-step mechanisms and a sequence for cave development First, a cliff forms where water falling off a caprock layer erodes away softer underlying material. Second, clay sized material from a layer at the floor of the cave is removed by groundwater sapping. Additional mass is removed by animal excavation. Third1 collapse of overlying beds makes piles of broken material which are removed by action of water and animal geophagy Fourth, the cave enlarges by the continuation of these processes. These authors do not estimate the relative quantities of mass removed by action of water and by animals, but they surely recognize that animal consumption is a significant process. Other valuable insights into the Mt. Elgon caves come from A.J Perkins and Renshaw Mitford-Barberton, who both have lived on Mt Elgon for many years [Perkins 1965]. They "have examined over thirty caves on the East and South Eastern slopes of Mount Elgon at altitudes varying from 6,000 feet to 12,000 feet and have found that with very rare exceptions, they all conform to one type". They conclude that all must have been formed by a similar agency. They obseive that the entrances to the caves are invariably wider than they are high and that water often falls over the lip of the lava caprock above the cave entrance. I some cases, particularly during heave rainfa.IL some of this water flows back into the cave, temporarily flooding it. In normal circumstances, however, the caves only have small pools of water in them and the water is entirely static. Typically, there are no streambeds in the caves. A common feature in most of the larger caves is the quantity of dung deposited by beasts which have come to the caves from time immemorial to lick or otherwise consume the agglomerate walls. Traces of elephants using the caves are most commo~ and their tusk marks are clearly recognizable where they have gouged the rock. In summary, there is ample evidence that animal consumption of material from the cave walls and from breakdown surfaces removes significant quantities of rock. The lack of permanent streams out of the caves precludes removal of mass by that mechanism. That some material is dissolved or washed out during flooding episodes is clear, but the quantity is difficult to estimate. One could perhaps argue that if mass removal during flooding episodes was dominant, then the many tusk marks on exposed surfaces should be removed, and only a few most r ecent marks should remain. A compelling case is elusive for dominance of either water processes or alternatively of animal processes in forming the Mt. Elgon caves. However, the authors tend to agree subjectively with Redmonfs belief that animal consumption of salt bearing rock is the primary process. MILODON CA VE, PATIGONIA, CHILE Milodon Cave is presently a Chilean National Monument: La Cueva del Milodon, near Puerto Natales, Patagonia, Chile. La Cueva del Milodon, was explored in February, 1895 by Herman Eberhard, who had established a ranch near Puerto Consuelo on Last Hope Sound in Patagonia [Chatwin 1977]. The entrance was visible from his establishment. A year later, Dr. Otto Nordenskold, a Swedish explorer, visited the cave and found some large bones. These were eventually identified as bones of an extinct giant ground sloth, the milodon, unique to South America In about 1899~ a Swedish archaeoJogist, Erland Nordenskjold, undertook a dig in the cave. He is reported to have found th