Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Kalamos, Hellas. Volume 2

Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Kalamos, Hellas. Volume 2

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Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Kalamos, Hellas. Volume 2
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14 International Congress of Speleology. Volume 2
International Congress of Speleology. Organizing Committee
Petreas, Christos, editor
Hellenic Speleological Society
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Caves ( lcsh )
Karst ( lcsh )
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P I O C e e (I i ll U S O f t 11 e 14th lnternotionol u_ INTERNATIONAL UNION OF SPELEOLOGY (UIS) Congress of Speleology ;~.-..; > ,. ~~-, . .-,\ . \ :~ ~ .. 21-2 8 August 2005, Athens, Kalamos, Hellas -r YnOYPrEIO noAITIEIIOY I 'I. I HEU.ENICMINISTRYOFCU.l\Rc II I I :.0 :A I I 1 "o lN<


:::i f Kerrville Texas USA .. l 19 -26_ July ~9 f ~ ,l ) \ www ~ , cs20P, : ~ us Organizer: NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Dedicated to the conservation, study, and exploration of caves www.caves org


Proceeclinos of the 14th International Conoress of SJJeleolooY~ 2 J.-28 Auoust 2005~ i(nlamos~ Helios Volume 2 HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 32, Sina str, ATHENS 106 72 GREECE Tel.: +30 210 3617824 FAX: +30 210 3643476 Email: / Athens 2005


Published by: HELLENIC SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Volume 2: ISBN 978-960-98020-0-0 ISBN 978-960-98020-2-4


0-126 Classification of karst features in Mount Lebanon R Nader American University of Beirut I Speleo Club du Li ban, Beirut Lebanon Abstract The Republic of Lebanon is located between latitudes 32'N and 34 'N, along the central-eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Lebanese land surface totals about 10 450km2, with some 7 000km2 (or 67%) of the territory covered with Mesozoic and Cenozoic karstified carbonate rocks. Basicaily, three distinct physiographic units character ize the Lebanese territories. These are: Mount Lebanon ( or the Lebanon sensu stricto), the Anti-Lebanon and the Beqaa valley. The Lebanon and Anti Lebanon are two parallel mountainous ranges, trending north northeast-south-southwest; they are separated by a high-plain called the Bekaa. Mount-Lebanon has average altitudes exceeding 2200m above sea level for a length of 170km, forming an efficient obstacle for the westerly Mediterranean winds About 80% of precipitation falls from November through February, while almost no rain occur from May to October (the dry / recession period). There are 11 perennial streams flowing from the high ranges of Mount Lebanon mainly from typical karstic springs. The karstic features that are present in Mount Lebanon are characterized by a broad diversity, due to the complex combination of various factors ( e.g. 0-127 Sf}e !eo!uuir:al Sor:ie/y climatic, tectonic, geomorphologic, topographic, hydrological) and the relatively small dimensions of carbonate structures ( e.g high altitude pla teaus). Deep kasrtification in fractured carbonate strata at high altitudes allows rapid infiltration contributing to a considerable reserve of ground water, which emerges event ually from karst springs as well as coastal and submarine confined springs Cave networks are inherently associated with their location Accordingly, coastal sea-caves and phreatic caves (the latter forming lateral collectors of reserved groundwater) are discussed separately from the relatively high altitude caves, which mainly fall in two groups according to the c01Tesponding rock formation and lithology deep, vertical caves in the monotonous Jurassic limestone sequences; and labyrinth lateral caves in the marl/volcanics and limestone interlay ered Cretaceous seq uences In addition, those caves that are present in the eastern side of Mount Lebanon (facing the Bekaa) also show distinct speleological and hydrogeological characteristics. The present contribu tion attempts to classify for the first time the various karstic features present in Mount Lebanon. Keywords: Karst types, Speleogenesis, Lithol ogy, Precipitation rates, Labyrinth caves, Sinkholes, Lebanon Cave Ulica and the denudation of the karst surface case study from Kras, SW Slovenia A Mihevc Karst resear ch Institute ZRC SAZU, Postojna, Slovenia Abstract In the Kras plateau, that is slowly rising, the hydrological zone s in karst are mov ing downwards Caves were transformed and reshaped from phreatic to vadose Th e general karst denudation brought caves closer to surface. In many cases denudation already thinned and removed the cover rock above the caves creating unroofed caves that becomes a part of the surface topography. The 120 m long horizontal cave Ulica Pe0ina has 10 m thick ceiling left. It continues to 250 m long unroofed cave Ulica By comparison of the mor phology of the cave and the surface above the cave and along the unroofed part of the Ulica, we can infer 011 the type and int ensity of th e processes 0-128 The underground legend of Carbo n Dioxide heav in ess Giovann i Badino Dip. Fisica Generale, U11ivers ita di Torino Associaz ione La Venta Abstract The interpretation of carbon dioxide trap s as due to the "heaviness" of this gas is discussed, with the fact that in spite of water vapour "lightness" in comparison with air, no water vapour trap exists on the cave ceilings ... In fact the underground atmospheres with special composition are not due to gravity but to the absence of any air movement aro und gas sources. Introduction It is well known that the measure of how muc h common is an idea, does not contain information about its truthfulness. We are going here to discuss a case. in the caves and on the surface. Rough kmen relief, with cli11ts several meters high and small dolines show intensive corrosion and dissection of the surface. The smooth cave ceiling and walls preserved in the cave show 110 signs of corrosion or disintegration by percolating water This can be possible if the cave walls are case hardened by the percolating water that deposits calcite into the karstified rock which surrounds the cave This has also effects on the very small inflow of the water into cave indicating that the cave is to a great extent isolated from the epikarst vadose water circulation K e y words: karst denudation epikarst unroofed cave case hardening Slovenia A very common idea between cavers (and not only) is that heavier" gases tends to accumulate in depression and, especially, in the bottom of caves. It is so widely known that the CO2 accumulates at the bottom of shafts, tha t so far nobody has discuss ed this idea. That is trivially false, an underground legend Gas densities A first indication that those who use this idea are simply repeating it, without any reflection, is that they generally say that "t he heavi er gas ac cumulates ... Obviously 10 kg ofNitrogen are heavier than 2 kg of carbon dioxide, or even 1 kg of Radon ... The carbon dioxide is not heavier than l:.Jtfl lnternulionnf Conme.S's ot Snefeufouy -


Helleni c Sf]e/eo / oqicn l Society 02 or water vapour, it is denser than those gases. Do denser fluids sink in the other? In case ofliquids the answer is complex, it is necessary to take into ac count many effects connected with the molecules interactions The gases behaviour is much simpler than the liquid sedimentation, because the gas molecule do not interact each other, and they behave in some ideal way, as also many solutions do. Each air molecule is free to diffuse in every direction and it is easy to calculate the atmosphere structure at the equi librium. If the sedimentation, in the meaning of the people that declares that "heavier" gases accumulate in depressions, does really exist, then we would live in a carbon dioxide atmosphere in the few metres above the seas, in oxygen up to the top of main mountains, in nitrogen above, to find finally all the water vapour (and rains!) in the stratosphere. Is it true? No, it is not. Neither the legend of carbon dioxide "heaviness". The gravitational sedimentation Let us then discuss the gas sedimentation stratified in the gravitational field (g=9.8 ms-2 ) on a flat surface. The hydrostatic equilibrium impose a pressure (P) variation with altitude z (positive upward) as Gas Nitrogen Oxygen Air Hydrogen Methane Water vapour Carbon dioxide Radon dP p = Mmolg dz RTo Mmnt [10 kg moJ-1] Lz[m] 28 8700 32 7600 28.9 8500 2 120000 10 24000 18 13600 38 6400 222 1100 Atmospheres of pure gases in diffusive equilibrium stratify exponen tially, which means that each altitude increase of L causes a relative re duction to a factor e-'=0.36 ... of pressure. For instan~e, in pure oxygen we have to increase 7 6 km to reduce the pressure of 63%, in pure hydrogen the rise have to be 120 km, in radon 1.1 km and so on. The real atmosphere is a gas mixture, but the gases behave in inde pendent manner, they collaborate to create the final total pressure, but the partial pressure of each one behaves as the others do not exist. So, the atmosphere can be considered not only a different gases mixture, but roughly also a different atmospheres mixture, each .one composed by pure gases. So, they have a tendency to separate each other on a tenths kilome tres scale-altitude, but the strong vertical mixing processes in the lower layers (called "homosphere", up to 80 km) prevents such diffusive separa tion and create a quite uniform chemical composition. Nevertheless it is really true that in its upper layers ("heterosphere") the Earth atmosphere is arranged into four shells, the lower dominated by molecular nitrogen, the second by atomic oxygen, the third by helium and finally by hydrogen atoms [LUTGENS, 1998]. The gases scale lengths are around ten kilometres what means that, also in perfectly calm atmospheres, it is possible to appreciate chemical composition differences only working with large altitude differences. The table says us that 1 km above the seas the different gases have essentially the same pressure, we would not be able to detect the different "weight" measuring the partial pressures, also in absence of vertical mixing. Then some sedimentation does exist, but it works on kilometres ... On 21-28 Auuusl 2005. l(alumus. Heffas Where Mmoi is the gas molar mass and R is the gas constant. It is easy to integrate between the surface {z=0, P=P0 ) and {z, P{z)) to obtain Mmolg z) RY'o It gives an exponential pressure decrease with altitude. This equation can be used to describes the upper parts of Earth atmosphere, from 10 to 80 km, where the temperature is quite constant. It is not correct to use it in the lowest part of atmosphere because also the temperature changes with altitude but the equation describes very well the chemical gas sedimentation in caves where the temperature is quite constant. The term in parenthesis must be dimensionless and then we can intro-Rlo Mmolg duce the scale length of a gas sedimentation in the gravitational field We can now calculate the scale length at T0=288 K. P(1000)/P0 P(lO000)/P 0 0,89 0,32 0,88 0,27 0,89 0,31 0,99 0,92 0,96 0,66 0,93 0,48 0,86 0,21 0,40 0,000113 few metres it is impossible to detect any partial pressure variation between gases due to their different densities, neither radon. So, the water vapour and methane do not concentrate on the ceiling, carbon dioxide and radon do not concentrate on the floor, unless we con sider cave altitudes of many kilometres. The sedimentation idea, repeated thousands times from a caving book to the other, is trivially false. The carbon dioxide traps But there is a problem, because we know that it is true We have worked in Tropics, we met caves filled with carbon dioxide, we have developed techniques to work in these conditions we have studied shaft equipments to descend in holes where was possible to meet deadly atmospheres [AN TONINI 1997]. Did we work for something that does not exist? No, the problem does exist, but its classical interpretation is false, the shafts are not filled by carbon dioxide because it is an "heavy" gas, but because the carbon dioxide is produced at the bottom of the shaft in an absolutely calm atmosphere. Note that the false idea depends on the fact that the gas is potentially deathful. If in the shaft there is a lake the air at the bottom is filled with water vapour. We do not interpret this obvious fact as due to the "heavi ness" of water vapour (that, in any case, is less dense than air), but as merely due to water presence. This is absolutely correct, the water vapour is concentrated just near the water surfaces.


In exactly the same way, the carbon dioxide is concentrated just near the "carbon dioxide sources". And in the same way the gases of upper atmosphere are concentrated near the source, in ionosphere the X and UV solar radiations produce atomic oxygen and hydrogen, and they accumu late there. The carbon dioxide comes essentially from putrefaction of organic substances, that are much denser than the air, and tend to accumulate in the lowest parts, as water does (but often water can flows away and often the dead organic substances cannot). So, the carbon dioxide and water vapour tends to accumulate in the depressions that often are more humid, and sometimes deadly enriched with carbon dioxide. There is something worst, but often neglected because not only the carbon dioxide is dangerous at high concentration, also oxygen-poor at mospheres are deadly, independently by the presence of other gases. Each carbon dioxide molecule comes exactly from the reaction of a carbon atom with an oxygen molecule; then, in general, near the carbon dioxide source we can meet a deadly presence of carbon dioxide and a deadly absence of oxygen. So, the problem is double if we have the or ganic compounds on left, we have to calculate the oxygen flux to the left and the carbon dioxide flux to the right. We have to make also a note about another smaller underground leg end, the idea that is possible to monitor the lethality of an atmosphere looking if the acetylene light works well. We have two independent way to produce a lethal atmosphere, high concentration of carbon dioxide, low concentration of oxygen. The light bum if there is sufficiently oxygen, that is all So, in an atmosphere composed with 28% of oxygen and 25% of carbon dioxide we die quickly with a wonderful light on head. The gas diffusion in gases Let us at first discuss why and how a gas diffuses in some direction. It happens because the gas molecule are quite free to move and then they move. If we consider a surface in the space, the molecules flow through it in the two possible directions. If the number n1 of molecule per volume unit near one surface side is the same as n2 near the other, the net flux is almost the same, and no net gas transfer rate through the surface is observable. But if n1 is higher than n2 then from the 1-side more molecule will flow than from 2-side, and we then say that the gas diffuses through the surface. It is easy to see that the equation that describes the diffusion processes are exactly the thermal transfer equation (Fourier and Laplace) because also those describe a diffusion, the "heat" diffusion. The total flux (molecules per second per square metre) through a dis tance /1z that separates two gas volumes with c2 and c1 gas concentration (kilograms per cubic metre) is given by F=D g The D g is the gas coefficient of diffusion, that depends on the gas vis cosity 'Ilg and density pg as Where f is a factor of order unity From this we easily obtain the D g dependence n the state variable 1 Doc-g p D oc T312 g Helle n i c S/leieolouir:at Socie ty The detail of diffusion processes are quite complex and generally only the self-diffusion ( the molecule diffusivity in a gas of identical molecules) is described: The real case, in which different gases diffuses one inside the other, have to take into account different molecule sizes asymmetries, masses, details of repulsion forces between molecules. A review of these details can be found in the beautiful [JOST, 1952] but are not important to us here We obtain that the diffusion coefficient changes reasonably, but the variability is not so large. The table [JOST, 1952] gives this parameter at TPNC. Gas in gas DJm2s-1 ] O2inO2 l.89xl05 N2inN2 l.98x 10-5 CO2inCO1 l.04x10-5 02 in air l.78xl0-5 CO2 in air lJ8xlQ-5 Hp in air 2.36x 10-5 The diffusion equation are not simple to be solved in practical cases, especially in transient condition that is in the period in which the system tends to stationarity. Nevertheless it is easy to show that in practical cases very small carbon dioxide production in a not-mixing atmosphere can cre ate deathful concentrations near the source. The key role here is played by the thermal uniformity of caves, that hampers air movements, and worst, can create "traps" of cold air, because the "heavy gas sedimentation does not exist, but the thermal sedimentation does. Complex, too ... It is possible to make estimation in this way. We can introduce the maximum gas flux that can evacuated by diffusion along /1z D F =p _g max g& That for carbon dioxide becomes = l.6 l Dg = 2.2x 10-5 F:nax f:...z f:...z If the produced flux is greater than F max the gas concentration around the source will tend to saturation. So, we can obtain a perfectly toxic at mosphere of almost pure carbon dioxide thanks to a very small flux and very calm conditions, at the bottom or at the top of a cave What about the "weight" of carbon dioxide? Nothing, it does not mat ter; exactly the same things can be said for an oxygen or nitrogen ( or methane, in coal mines) source to obtain pure gas atmospheres near it. We can say this also for a water vapour source, but this gas is so far to 14th ln!emolion11f Cumness of Soeteolouv


ffe!leni c SJHJ! eo/ouir:al Society be perfect at TPNC that saturation, condensation, enthalpy releases, ed dies and so on appear (the problem of its diffusion in stable atmospheres is very complex). The double diffusion We are now ready to confront the problem of double diffusion. In gen eral we have not a carbon dioxide source, but some organic storage (veg etables) in contact with oxygen. The oxidation and dismount of long organic molecules causes an En tropy increase, so it must happen: each carbon atom, each Hydrogen atom of this deep storage will surely be bounded with oxygen, to flow away to return to be wood, skin, milk ... The flowing away is generally very quick, helped by a numberless type of creatures that lives of the going away of this died order and distribute it to the surrounding life: they are fungi bac teria, birds, jackal, humans and so on. But when the organic compounds stay in a very stable situation, far from these workers, as in a cave, only the Second Principle can work. And work, slowly. By diffusion, by slow air draughts, by small temperature differences. We have an organic deposit S, with some mass M per square metre. To mass is organic and its chemical composition is very roughly some C0H20 plus details. The putrefaction (oxidation) of these molecules is That in term of masses gives (3.4M)0 +M (3.lM) c v +(l.3Mt In volume this means that the putrefaction of one kilogram of vegeta ble mass needs 12 cubic me~res of air and emits 2 cubic metres of carbon dioxide. But above all it needs the oxygen arrival on it. It is reasonable to assume that the oxidation rate of compound is pro portional to the local oxygen concentration in S. The proportionality de pends on exposed surface, compound type, reactivity, temperature, pres ence or bacteria, total mass of S and so on. We do not want to calculate the K0 that is almost impossible, we only say that a K0 does exist. So, the flux of CO2 from S becomes Where c0 ,0 is the oxygen concentration on the compounds. We can also assume that the free atmosphere that feeds oxygen to S, is also the same that evacuate carbon dioxide (it is not a trivial assumption, but in general it is true) so our free atmosphere is at /j,z from S. At the equilibrium the system parameters do not depends on time (note that this assumption is extremely important) and then we must have that the evacuated CO2 molecules rate exactly equals the incoming oxygen molecules and exactly equals the carbon dioxide production. Here we are 2 7-28 Auaust 2005. l{ulmnos. Hellos going to call c c D o and c0 ,0 the gases concentrations in S and cco i and c0 1 those in the free atmosphere. It is easy, but quite long, to show that the gas concentrations are reduced due to this two-ways diffusion flux. Let us call F0 the oxidation rate of S in free atmosphere then the general formulas are F 1 c =c --=c 0 0 0,1 F;) 0,1 (1 + 1.8 X l 05 Fof::,.z) F~ 1 C c D o = DcD = ( 1.38 x 10 + 2.5 J Po~ The oxidation flux is reduced as compared with free atmosphere, and correspondingly are reduced the concentration of oxygen as compared with free air and also that of carbon dioxide as compared with that calcu lated before. It is interesting to see the behaviour of our results in extreme conditions. We have assumed a very stable atmosphere around S, but does it makes sense? An oxidation always involves enthalpy releases (the reaction of organic substances with oxygen releases 3 x 107 J / kg) and then temperature increases and, finally, convective processes that transfer air much more efficiently than diffusion does. Is this enthalpy it able to mix the surrounding air on the b..z that sepa rate S from the "free" atmosphere? It is not possible to answer without the knowledge of system geometry. If we consider typical temperature differences between the organic de posit and the cave around 0.1-0.5 K, we can estimate in few centimetres per second the typical air flow velocities, in general much more efficient than diffusion to evacuate so small carbon dioxide fluxes. The situation that appear to be the most favourable to use this energy for convective movements is when we have S on a vertical wall: the heated air forms eddies in front of S and at the same time the water flows away from it reducing its cooling role. The worst situation is surely if S is on the roof ( or, more reasonably, in a closed ascending cave branch): the energy released create a thermal sedimentation that traps air in the bubble, only diffusion can evacuate gases from there, also if the entrance is quite large. We may say that it is in general a very small energy release but its effects depends on system shape details: organic deposit orientation, reac tivity and depth, water presence in the deposit. In any case, it appears that extremely low air fluxes are sufficient to prevent the formation of carbon dioxide rich or oxygen poor atmosphere inside caves, and really these conditions are quite difficult to meet. Transient conditions We cannot dis c uss here other detail like "thermal diffusion" or "Soret effect", but we have to spend some words about the volcanic carbon di oxide "rivers" that sometimes have been able to kill many people, and on the general fact that if we have a cup filled with carbon dioxide we can pour it in another cup, gravitationally. How can it be possible? It is simple, are typical transient situations. A gas filled cup it is very similar to a hot stone, which is going to cool, slowly with similar diffu sion law. This means that if we produce, in some way, the filled cup with an external effort, its gas will hold there for some times, like the cold air in supermarket freezer, but the situation is not stable. The freezer situation


is stabilized by a continuous air cooling the carbon dioxide trap can be stabilized by a gas source ( and we return to "stationary" physics) but if these "sources" are absent the system evolutes to a maximum entropy state, one to uniform temperature and the other to complete mixing In this case the gas will then diffuse away to fill the Earth atmosphere, very slowly, but meanwhile can be poured like a liquid or flow along a gallery floor. 0-129 ffellen ic S1wleulou icul Sur:ie!y References Rogers R., A Short Course in Cloud Physics Pergamon Press, 1989 Jost W., Diffusion in Solids, Liquids, Gases, Academic Press, New York, 1952 Lutgens F., Tarbuck E The Atmosphere, Prentice-Hall, 1998 Antonin i G., Badino G. Tecniche Speciali.e di Autosoccorso, Erga, 1998 Kondepudi D ., Prigogine I., Modem Thermodynamics, Wiley, 1999 Calibrated Holocene Paleotemperature Record for North America from Stable Isotopic Analyses of Speleothems and their Fluid Inclu sions P.A. Beddow s, R. Zhan g Ford, H P. Schw arcz S chool of Geography & Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Onta ri o, Canada Abstrac t The secular variation of the oxygen isotope composition of speleothem calcite prov ide s a powerful but qualitative index of climate change In principle, it is possible to calculate the true temperature of calcite depo sition from the partitioning of oxygen isotopes between the speleothem calcite and the formation water The obstacle to completing this calcula tion is the need for samples of the original drip water from which the calcite precipitated. We are now able to extract this drip water from fluid inclusions trapped in the calcite matrix using new techniques partly devel oped by the McMaster working group. The oxygen of the fluid inclusion water may have exchanged with the enclosing calcite after entrapment and therefor e should not be used as a direct measure of the temperature of formation. T he deuterium/hydrogen ratio (dD) of the entrapped water will be unchanged, however, allowing us to use the dD of the fluid inclusion combined with the Craig-Dansgaard meteoric water line (assumed to be valid over the Holocene) to reconstrnct the initial dl 80 ratio of the drip water. Using this with the dl8O of the speleothem calcite we may then determine the actual temperature of calcite deposition, a value which is of great interest as it will be approximately equal the mean annual tempera ture above the cave in most instances. Validation of this method is being provided by analysis of modem speleothem calcite combined with an an-0-130 nual cycle of monthly bulk drip water samples, and instrumental records of drip rate, temperature and total dissolved solids from 18 mon itoring sta tions placed in six caves in 2004. The speleothem climate change records including the calibrated temperature record will allow us to assess impor tant changes in regional climate through the Holocene along a west-east transect that is broadly across the middle of the North American continent and close to the modem mean position of the Polar Front. Towards this end, two eastern and two western field areas have been selected for inten sive study. We will assess the gradient in d 180 of the precipitation across the western cordillera of North America (from Vancouver Island on the Pacific coast to Bow Valley, Alberta) and thereby provide insight to the evolution and shifting of storm tracks as they move east from the Pacific into the rain shadow of the Canadian Rockies. Contemporaneous records from the mid~west (Indiana) and north-east (New York) will be used as continent-wide points of comparison. The Pacific Coast site includes three caves located over a range of altitude from sea level to 750m asi. Here we hope to observe shifts in the boundary between the northern and southern Pacific gyres which would affect the isotopic evolution of precipitation generating recharge to the caves. Results from the cave water monitoring and isotopic analysis of speleothems will be presented from this ambitious continental scale project begun in 2004. Origin of the Climatic Cycles from Orbital to Sub-Annual: Speleothem data Y.Y Shop ov, D. Stoyko va, L.T. Tsankov D.C. Ford, C.J. Yonge University Center for Space Research and Technologies, University of Sofia Bulgaria Abstract We developed a new real-space periodogramme analysis algorithm to calculate, compare and calibrate the real intensity of the cycles in spe leothem luminescence time series. We studied variations of the length of these cycles with time by evolutive power spectral analysis We studied long cycles in luminescent speleothem records from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, US and from Duhlata cave, Bulgaria 10000 km apart, covering 89300-138600 yrs B.P. and the last 250000 yrs respectively These so lar insolation proxy records contain orbital cycles of 41, 23 and 19 kyrs and solar luminosity cycles with duration from several centuries to 11500 years The most powerful nonorbital cycle is 11500 years cycle ( as pow erful as the 23 000 a orbital cycle in our record). It was found previously to be the most intensive cycle in the delta C-14 calibration record and was interpreted to be of geomagnetic origin. Our recent studies suggest, that this is a solar cycle modulating the geomagnetic field. We determined the Solar origin of the cycles with durations of 11500, 4400, 3950, 2770, 2500, 2090, 1960, 1670, 1460 1280, 1195, 1145, 1034, 935,835, 750 and 610 years It was done by their detection both in proxy records of spele othem luminescence, D14C and the intensity of the geomagnetic dipole. It i s well known that the main variations in the last two records are produced by the solar wind. These millennial solar luminosity cycles can produce climatic variations with intensity comparable to that of the orbital varia tions. We used the same digital analysis to calculate the intensity of the cycles of the speleothem luminescence (representing cycles of solar radia tion or air temperature) in speleothems from Cold Water Cave, Iowa and Rats Nest Cave, Alberta. Obtained power spectra demonstrate that many speleothems recorded cycles of the soil temperature in the region with duration of about 11 and 22 years. These are the well-known solar cy cles, which drive temperature changes in some climatic regions. Although this so far cycles produce variations of the solar constant with amplitude 14th Jnternulionnl Com1 russ of Soefeoluuy


H ell en i c S 11efeoloui r:at Sa r:ietv of less than 0.4% cosmic rays influence on the atmospheric transparency provides a mechanism of strong multiplication of solar variations on the solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Cosmic rays have strong modulation by the solar wind, which roles their concentration at the Earth. It is proven that luminescence of speleothems from Rats Nest Cave, Alberta reproduce air temperature, but such records from this cave exhibit a strong cycle of 425 years, which is well known from D 14C to be an important solar cycle. So it should modulate air temperature as well as cosmic rays flux recorded by D 14C variations. The same records contain also the well-known cen-0-131 tury and bi-century solar cycles. In addition to the annual cycle produced by the Earth's rotation we found sub-annual cycles with duration of 27, 23 and 14 days in an extremely high-resolution luminescent record from Cold Water Cave, Iowa. Such cycles can be produced by the period of rotation of the Sun, which produces similar variations in the solar wind modulating cosmic rays flux. This period produces periodical appearance of the active zones on the Sun, which are major emitters of solar wind so produce strong variations of its density. Periodicity in environmental change revealed from New Zealand speleothems P.W. Williams, D.N.T. King, J.X Zhao K.D. Coilerson Auckland University, New Zealand Abstract Spectral analyses of stable isotope values from New Zealand stalag mites show distinct periodicities. A period of about 90 years is particularly 0-132 A census of italian sea caves Graziano Ferrari (No affiliation) Via Vignati 18, 1-20161, Milano, Summary In 2001 CLEM, an independent research center in marine sciences, performed a census of Italian sea caves. The aim was to gather a gen eral view of scientific knowledge about sea caves in Italy. Thanks to the sponsorship of the Italian Ministry of the Environment, the census was published in 2003. A large multi-authored book collects 50 papers on the various aspects of sea caves scientific relevance. A bibliographic refer ence of nearly 1000 entries completes the book. An attached CD-rom con tains the book papers in html format and the actual census. 1048 caves are registered, but many more are to be discovered. Introduction The scientific and environmental importance of sea caves is well known. The European Commission enclosed sea caves in the list of en dangered habitats, that are worth a special protection status (LIFE Direc tive, 92/43/EC, Annex I). However, scientific and environmental knowledge about sea caves in Italy was dispersed among several sources: caving associations, divers, cave-divers, sea biology researchers, geologists, archaeologists sea bound environmentalist associations and so on. In 1997, Fabio Cicogna proposed a data collection of all scientific as pects of sea caves. Sponsorship and funding from the Italian Ministry of the Environment was granted to the project. The result is a large book with an attached CD-Rom, published in 2003. Fabio Cicogna and CLEM Fabio Cicogna (1925-2004) was a philanthropic supporter of marine science research. In 1978 he established CLEM (Centro Lubrense di Es plorazioni Marine -Lubrensic Center on Sea Exploration) in Massalub rense (Naples, Italy). CLEM was a non-profit organization; it sponsored and supported a large number of research works and dissertations, mainly on biology and ecology of marine habitats. From the beginning, the in terest in sea caves was relevant. Such interest stemmed mainly from the parallel interest in red coral (Corallium Rubrum). 21--28 Auuust 2UU5. f{nfomns. Hellos prominent. Speleothems analysed cover an interval of about 25,000 years from the Last Glacial Maximum until the present. Chronological control is provided by more than 40 TIMS dates CLEr-,1 produced two scientific books on red coral (with the sponsor ship of the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery), a media campaign against the edible use of the date-shell (Litophaga litophaga) and the fea sibility study of the "Punta Campanella" protected marine area (Naples Italy). r,,'linistero dell'i,mbiente e della. Tutel,:1del Teai.torio Se1vi2ico Dife:;." del !Lu'" GROTTE l\t1ARINE Cinquant'anni di ricerca in!talia Fabio Cicogn;:1, C\u-k, Nike Bimchi, Chazi.ilLO Fenfili ,f::: P,'J.olo Forti Figure 1 The book cover (photo by R. Pronzato, about 1970)


History of the census on sea caves In 1997 the general interest in sea caves evolved into a more defined project. Fabio Cicogna prop ose d to Prof. Paolo Forti (University of Bolo gna) and to the Italian Speleological Society to cooperate in a nation-wide, multidisciplinary collection of information about Italian sea caves. At the time, the author was the coordinator of the Cave Register Board of the Italian Speleological Society. The National Cave Register Board, struc tured in regional branches, summed up data sheets about nearly 30.000 caves, but sea caves owed no special evidence. Furthermore, exploration of sea caves is ca rried out by several groups (cavers, university researchers, divers, etc.), and some of them do not re port to caving associations. A data collection was needed, with the cooper ation of all the involved groups. Fabio Cicogna and the author cooperated in the definition of a detailed project. The author left the Cave Register Board, but continued to arouse inter est in the project from the Cave Register and several regional and local caving associations. In the meantime, Cicogna aroused interest from geol ogy and biology researchers and from Legambiente, a large environmen tal organization with a strong involvement in marine protection In 1999 the project was submitted to the Italian Ministry of the Envi ronment, Sea Protection Directorate It was approved and funded at the end of 2000. Development of the sea caves' census The project sta rted effectively on 17th February 2001 and it was planned to last for 18 months. Fabio Cicogna acted as project manager with help from the author. Prof. Paolo Forti supervised the geological section and Prof. Carlo Nike Bianchi (presently at the University of Genova) coordi nated the biolo gy / ecology section. The author was also in charge of the actual data collection. These four people composed a project management board and they acted as the book editors. The project result was designed as a multi-authored book collecting a large number of scientific contributions about several aspects of sea cav e sciences. A specific section about technical issues was added (tools, tech niques training, rescue). An attached CD-Rom was designed to contain the papers printed in the book and the actual cave census data sheets, as plain web pages Furthermore, a small collection of representative images and movies was added. The editing work proceeded for about a year, with few problems. On the register side, however, the Italian Speleological Society refused to sign an agreement about cave register data. Sea caves' data collection proceeded anyway It was based on a comprehensive bibliographical re search, performed in large part at the "Fran co Anelli" Speleological Docu mentation Center, at the University of Bologna (thanks to Prof. Paolo Forti and to Michele Sivelli) Further data were collected thanks to researchers, divers, cave divers, diving centers Finally, the Italian Speleological Society agreed to share its data, mainly thanks to the present coordinator of the Cave Register Board, Prof. Paolo Mietto (University of Padova) Th is subsequent agreement togeth er with Fabio Cicogna's health problems, accounted for an overall delay of 6 months in the project completion. 1048 single caves were identified. A survey was available for 548 of them ( 429 directly from the survey authors or from publications, 119 from the Cave Register). Publication of each survey was explicitly permitted by the author, by the original publi cation ownership or by the Cave Register. The book is not for sale. 1000 copies were printed; about 500 were sent free of charge to: regional environmental management agencies marine protected areas, central and local directions of the Harbor Ma s ter' s Of fice ("Capitanerie di Porto"), institutions and researchers involved in sea cave studies, scientific libraries, central and loca l cave registe r offices, national heads of the Cave Rescue Corp, members of the Cave Diving He !!enir: Sueleolor;i r:u! Soc iety Commission of the Cave Rescue Corp, single paper authors and single data contributors The book structure The book is designed as a collect ive work, with 54 authors contributing a total of 50 single papers. All the contributions are in Italian, with a col lective summary in English. It was gathered and edited by C N. Bianchi and C. Morri. The following notes are abridged from the book summary. The book starts with a Presentation by Dr. Aldo Cosentino, Director General of the Sea Protection Directorate of the Ministry of the Environ ment. The Introduction by Fabio Cicogna and the list of authors follow. The book is structured in seven largely independent parts. The first part shortly retraces the history of exploration and scientific research on sea caves Geology The second part, coordinated by Prof. P. Forti with considerable help from Dr. F. Antonioli, is devoted to the geology, geomorph ology and pal aeontology of sea caves. Dealing with cavities of continental origin and their marine evolution, the authors maintain that the short period variations (induced by tides and atmospheric pressure) may be disregarded because they have practically no effects on speleogenesis. But other factors like ice melting due to cli matic variations, tectonic movements elastic movements induced by gla ciostasy and isostasy, and also subsiding movement of the coastal plains must be taken into consideration because they may heavily control the evolution of caves along the seashore. Therefore it is important to know the variation of the sea level zone by zone in detail because the effect of isostasy, the tectonic behaviour and many other factors, may change dramatically even within a few kilometers. The evolution of the sea caves is normally proportional to the period the sea water remained in contact with the hosting rock and therefore the largest of such cavities have been normally observed where the average sea level has been relatively con stant in time. On the basis of the definition given at the beginning, sea caves may de velop in any kind of lithology, but their genesis may be extremely differ ent. Therefore it is useful to split sea caves into two different categories: Marine ingression caves Sea caves (sensu strictu) All the continental caves belong to the first group, their genesis be ing independent from the presence of the sea : they may be tectonic, eo lian, volcanic or karst cavities flooded by the sea when its level rose. The marine ingression caused nothing else than the stop in the speleogenetic evolution of such cavities. A whole chapter is devoted to the caves of the second group, which are said to be far more interesting from the genetic point of view: in fact, their evolution has been directly controll ed by the sea water, in a passive manner (primary caves in a reef barrier), in a mechanical manner (littoral caves made by marine erosion), or in a physico chemical manner (mix ing water caves). The genetic mechanisms for all these caves are shortly discussed A further chapter deals with chemical and physical deposits. Cave environment is extremely conservative; moreover nearly all the cavities, and mainly the marine ones, may be partially or totally filled by physi cal and/or chemical materials. The mechanisms which are resp onsible for sedimentations inside marine caves are briefly reported together with the description of the most peculiar of such sediments. These physical and chemical sediments have a fundamental importance for studying the paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental evolutio n, in particular for the recent Quaternary. l.!Jth lntem ufion nl Cormress o f Soeleolouy


Finally, the most significant case studies, from the genetic and/or sci entific point of view, are reported: minerogenetic environments, under ground estuaries, both in Italy and abroad, ipogenic sea caves, important paleo-climatic and paleonthological findings. Figure 2 Stalagmite section, Grotta Scaletta, Palinuro Sampling depth: -48 m (photo by F Antonioli) Biology The third and largest part of the book serves as an introduction to the biology and ecology of marine caves. The section was supervised by Prof. C. N. Bianchi. It begins with a purposely done Italian translation of "The role of sea cave investigation in marine sciences", a classical paper by R. Riedl originally published in 1978 by the old and prestigious Pubbli cazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli. The Riedl seminal paper is followed by a large number of chapters or ganised in six sections, the first of which updates knowledge on the biota of marine caves and opens with a chapter that provides a general outline of the flora and fauna. Single papers report about present knowledge on sponges, hydroids, scleractinians, molluscs, serpuloidean polychaetes, decapod crustaceans, bryozoans, brachiopods, fish, insects, birds, bats and, finally, the monk seal. The second section of the biological and ecological part explores evo lutionary patterns of marine cave biota, and is composed of three chapters on evolution and speciation, adaptations in marine invertebrates and the anchialine habitats. The third section consists of four chapters that engage in the main bio coenoses living in submarine caves. They are related to spatial zonation, the infaunal communities, the meiofauna and the plankton. The fourth section takes into account environmental factors. It com prises papers about the relationship between light and marine vegetation, the hydrological confinement and the trophic depletion, The fifth section approaches ecosystem studies, which take into ac count community structure and ecosystem functioning These papers in-Figure 3 Monk seal (Monachus monachus) Grotta de! Bue Marino (Sardinia) (photo by E. Altara. 1967) elude community structure, t ro ph i c organisation, the origin and fluxes of matter and energy in submar in e caves and bacterial metabolism. Last but not least the sixth section of the biologi c al and ecological part takes ca r e of me t hodological aspects The currently adopted sampling and measurement techniques and experimental eco l ogy methods are con sidered Figure 4 Petrosia sp. geneticalfy adapted to cave habitat (photo by G. Bavestrello) Archaeology The fourth part of the book is devoted to archa e o l ogy. A chapter de scribes techniques and provides exa m ples of researches performed by scuba diving in It al ian submar i ne caves Social sciences The fifth part of the book considers the so c io economic importance of submarine caves a n d t he nee d o f environmental protection The diving department of the environmentalist assoc i ati o n "L e gambiente" takes care of these issues, providing a chapte r that underlines t he p o sitive and nega tive impacts of recreational scuba diving in sea caves Possible sources on pollution are stressed, both from inland and sea ( oil s p ill). The several forms of lega l area protect io n are discussed. Technical issues Exploring and registering submarine caves is a central topic to all research and management issues about this peculia r environment. It is tackled in the sixth part of the book, compri s ing four chapters. The first underpins the need for proper underwater techniques and safety rules. Cave diving r equires know l e d ge n ot included in trad i tional training. In dependently of s kills, s pecia l eq u ipment i s needed a n d definite rules have


to be followed, because safety must be the primary point. materi als, dangers and techniques are briefly analyzed. In consequence of the growing diving tourism and in order to avoid accidents and.environment damages, it's up to Port Authorities, Diving Centers and Scientific Com munities to establish precautionary measures. What to do to prevent accidents in sea caves and how to operate for Figure 5 Cave Rescue Corp training (photo by G. Spaziani) rescue is the concern of the second chapter. An accident in a confined un derwater environment, as sea caves are, is usually very serious and results often in fatalities. Prevention relies on a high level psyco-physical training and on suitable specific tools. In case of an accident in a sea cave, several organizations can operate in the rescue. The Corpo Nazionale Soccorso Alpino e Speleologico (CNSAS National Mountain and Cave Rescue Corp), through its Cave diving Commission, is able to p~ovide a medical= ized rescue. The third chapter reports about the present status and future projects of the Italian cave register, managed by the Italian Speleological Society (SSI). The fourth chapter describes technical aspects and the training struc ture of the Cave Diving School (SNSS) of the Italian Speleological So ciety (SSI). The seventh and last part of the book presents the sea cave census. In five comprehensive chapters, G. Ferrari in tum introduces entry data forms, describes maps, analyses data quality, assesses criteria for quoting sources and data property, and provides an example of fonn. Tn conclnsinn, Fahio Cic0gn~ repnrt-: ahont the ~mhlems cnnceming a complete and correct multidisciplinary study of a marine cave: profes sional diving instruction, a homogeneous data collection to permit a com parison among different marine caves and that means the necessity of a particular research protocol. The book ends with an impressive list of nearly one thousand biblio graphic references on all aspects of marine cave science. The CD-Rom The attached CD-Rom contains five sections: Figure 6 The CD-Rom front (photo by H. Jantschke) Brief presentation of the sponsoring institution (the Italian Minis try of the Env i ronment), of the project coordination associations (CLEM) and of the two main cooperating associations (Legambi ente and the Italian Speleological Society) The papers printed in the book, converted in plain html format. The reader can easily surf them in sequence or hierarchically The cave census (more on this later) The bibliographic references, ordered alphabetically A selection of photos and videos. The CD-Rom is designed to provide an easy distribution of informa tion. It is independent of the book, so it can reach a wider audience than the limited ed i tion of the book. All authorship rights about papers, photos, video and surveys are prop erly acknowledged. In this way, future researchers can properly reference other people's contribution to sea caving science Figure 7 -Map of sea cave areas The census According to the census rules, a sea cave is a cave containing a water body directly or indirectly connected with the sea. The indirect connection accounts for the so called anchialine caves, which contain salt water bod ies with no apparent connection with the sea. Marine related caves which are presently at a higher elevation than the sea level are not comprised in the present version of the census. Both coastal (semi-submerged) and (fully) submerged caves are present. Of course, data collection is far from complete. Most coastal caves are well known. In some areas, a detailed positioning and surveying work is yet missing or incomplete. On the other hand, few areas can claim that submerged caves have been thoroughly explored and reported. In some areas, the only information is a number of citations from local divers As far as size is concerned, the official UIS rules were applied, where possible: 0 Development longer or equal than 5 meters. e Entrance width and height lesser than development. Of course, most sea caves open in limestone cliffs. However, some caves in sandstone, schist, andesite and tuff are registered. A submerged lava tube is reported in Sardinia.


He/fenic S1mteo/uuicul Sur:iety Each cave is represented by a fact sheet with four main sections: Geographic, metric and position data. A brief description, usually taken from a publication. Surveys and photos, with references to authors and publications. Bibliography. Each fact sheet is designed as a web page, to be displayed on PC with a web browser (Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Explorer, etc.). The overall register has a geographic structure, divided in Regions and in main sea caving areas. The geograpfiic structure allows an easy display of related caves and most searches and selections. Other available searches are: by Municipality, by name ( or part of), by development, by entrance elevation ( or depth), by longitude, by latitude. The collected data were also integrated within the SIDiMar, the geo graphic information system of the Ministry of the Environment Sea Pro tection Directorate. The following table summarizes facts about Italian sea caves, divided by Regions. Separate entries are provided for caves already included in the National Cave Register and for caves not yet included in the Cave Register ( due to failure to transfer data to the Cave Register, or to missing / incomplete positioning or missing survey). Each specific data column is further divided into caves with and without survey. Caves Already registered Not yet registered Region Surveyed Basilicata 17 17 9 Calabria 25 18 15 Campania 238 113 85 Friuli-Venezia Giulia 4 4 4 Lazio 103 38 12 Liguria 53 30 18 Puglia 201 185 132 Sardegna 247 156 155 Sicilia 108 23 12 Toscana 52 27 21 Italy 1048 611 463 Future developments Since the present census is far from complete, the main objective is to further push data collection, with more publications in the geological and biological areas. The diving magazines often report references to unpub lished submerged caves. This means more field information from profes sional divers is needed. The increasing interest in sea caves caused the definition of a law pro posal at the national Parliament. The proposal aims at the protection and the exploitation of sea caves. Care must be taken not to exploit sea caves before the proper scientific studies are performed. The risk is to over-use or abuse little known resources. A better approach would be the definition of a nation-wide plan of local area research campaigns, aimed to collect a complete and detailed knowledge of sea caves, area by area. In this sense, a powerful help would come from the use of the multi beam side-scan sonar. This was the last Fabio Cicogna's idea about sea Unsurveyed Surveyed Unsurveyed 8 0 0 0 3 7 0 7 28 125 43 82 0 () 0 0 26 65 0 65 12 23 7 16 53 16 9 7 1 91 7 84 11 85 12 73 6 25 7 18 148 437 85 352 caves. Entrances as small as 0.5 meters wide can be identified at depths down to 50 meters. The following pictures show the results of a test per formed in Salento (Lecce, Puglia). Bibliographic references Cicogna F., G. Bavestrello & R. Cattaneo-Vietti (eds.), 1999. Red Cor al and other Octocorals. Biology and Protection. Ministero per le Politiche Agricole, Roma. 1-338. Cicogna F., C. N. Bianchi, G. Ferrari & P. Forti (eds.), 2003. Legrotte marine: cinquant'anni di ricerca in Italia. Ministero dell' Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio, Roma. 1-505. CicognaF. & R. Cattaneo-Vietti (eds.), 1993. Red coral in the Mediter ranean Sea: Arts, History and Science. Ministero delle Risorse Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali, Roma. 1-263. Figure 8 Sonar profile and 3D digital terrain model of the Grotta delle Corvine entrance (Lecce, Puglia) 7-28 Auous! 2005. Knlamos Hellos


0-133 A school for cave rescue managers Corrado Camerini, Graziano Ferrari CNSAS-Corpo Nazionale Soccorso Alpino e Speleologico Via Petrella 19, 1-20124, Milano, I Summary In 1999 the Italian Cave Rescue adopted a fonnal technical training model, structured in seven steps, up to National Instructor. A national technical school was established. In addition to the technical training, the need for a fonnal training of cave rescue managers appeared of the utmost importance. In 2004 an ex perimental manager school was established and a three-years comprehen sive training model was outlined. Courses subjects range from high-level management of rescue operations to bureaucracy, funding, relations with mountain rescue organizations and so on. The paper details the rationale of the training model and reports about the first year experience. Introduction Cave rescue in Italy is perfonned by a specialized structure established in 1966. It collects volunteers selected from the caving community The Cave Rescue belongs to the Corpo Nazionale Soccorso Alpino e Speleo logico (CNSAS -National Mountain and Cave Rescue Corp), which in turn is part of the Club Alpino Italiano ( CAI -Italian Mountain Club). CAI is a large non-profit association established in 1863, with about 300,000 members. The Mountain Rescue in turn was established in 1954; the table at left summarizes some facts about CNSAS in 2004 (CNSAS, Annuario 2004). The CNSAS is a national structure, vvith an Assembly of Representatives, a Council Board, a President and two Deputy Presidents. On the mountain rescue training side, a National Technical School was estab lished. In 2004 it relied on 29 National Technical Instructors. Specialized The Cave Rescue in Italy The Cave Rescue is a specialized structure inside the CNSAS, with some autonomy. It collects about 700 members and it is managed by a National Head and a Deputy, together with a Council Board and a Zone Head Board. Each Cave Rescue Zone is usually related to a single Re gion. At national level, several specialized commissions were established: Schoo l s for phys i cians, avalanche search dogs and surface search dogs are also present. On the local side, the CNSAS is structured in Regiona l Serv i ces, Zones and Stations. The Rescue Station is the operative branch. It manages most rescues, under the direction and the responsibility of a Sta tion Head and a Deputy. The Zone is the management structu r e: it collects several Stations under a Zone Head and a Deputy A Regional Service collects several Zones. It manages the general Regional activity, on both the operative and training side. Furthennore, it manages political contacts with the Regional Public Administration. In several Regions, the CNSAS has an agreement in order to provide an highly specialized mountain and cave rescue service, in the framework of the Public Emergency Service (usually identified with the toll-free emergency phone number "ll8") Several National and Regional Laws recognize the CNSAS structure; CNSAS is a component of the Civil Defense at national level. 21 Regional Mountain and Cave Rescue Services 32 Mountain Rescue Zones 255 Mountain Rescue Stations 15 Cave Rescue Zones 32 Cave Rescue Stations 7,151 Rescuers (243 Physicians) 5,188 Rescue Operations 5,595 Rescued People 29,983 Involved Members (Member/operation) 3,485 Helicopters CNSAS I Zone Council Board I medical, technical, cave diving, blastfng techniques, news agents. In Cave Rescue, Station Heads are usually the operational team leader inside the cave, while the overall operation management and responsibility falls on the Zone Head and its Deputy. In addition to cave accidents, the Cave Rescue is involved also in canyoning accidents. This means that a canyoning commission was es-


Hel/enir: sneteurumcBI tablished, too. In many areas, Mountain Rescue Stations can provide an important support in canyoning rescues. Many minor canyoning accidents are quickly resolved by the Mountain Rescue alone. Luckily, cave accidents are infrequent (in 2004: 13 accidents with 24 victims). However, a cave rescue is often considered a big emergency, due to its duration, large number of involved rescuers and impact over the media both at local and national level. On the technical training side, a training plan was adopted. The plan defines five steps: 1. Admission tests and introductory training; 2. Cave Rescue Operator (in-cave basic rescue techniques); 3. Cave Rescue Technician (further technical and medical training, helicopters, eventual snow and avalanche training); 4. Specialized Technician (advanced rescue techniques); 5. Team Leader (in-cave operations management, human resources management, cooperation with the operation head). Steps 2 to 5 are usually defined by three events: an initial prerequisite test, a specific training (with final evaluation) and a periodic maintenance test. Each new entry must reach level 3 within four years. A Cave Rescue Technical School was established in 2001 with the task to provide technical training to all members of the Cave Rescue. The Technical School is structured in a National School (28 National Instruc tors) and in Regional Schools, with Regional Instructors. Steps 1 to 3 are provided by the Regional School, while the national structure provides training to levels 4 and 5 and to Regional and National Instructors. In cooperation with the technical commission, an Operation Manual ("Tec niche di Soccorso in Grotta", at left) was published in 2002. In few years, the Technical School was able to establish an organic training program and to raise the general technical level of the Cave Rescue. The techni cal training model is now reaching maturity. Its definition relied on past work bt the commissions (mainly the technical one) and by the Zone Head Board; a first edition Cave Rescue Handbook was published as several booklets from 1992 to 1996. A National School for Cave Rescue Physicians was also established, in order to update and to share experiences and techniques. The managing heads In Cave Rescue, the Zone Head is usually the general manager of a rescue operation, with help from the Deputy Head. However, the overall management is a very complex and demanding task, with several compo nents to take care of: Coordination of the operation teams; rv1am1gc;1rn:;rn uf c;,uerna1 wdio aud iukrnal vhouc; Cu11111m11i\.,ations; Management of contacts with Local Authorities; Management of human and material resources, logistics and warehouse; Contacts with the Media; Contacts with the Air Force (helicopters); Contacts with other Zones; Contacts with the Regional Service; Contacts with the Cave Rescue National Head and the Commission Heads. Technical, operational, logistic, media and political competences are needed, in the framework of a medical and technical emergency. The Zone Head becomes a "disaster manager" of a very special kind. Of course a single person is not able to sustain such a workload. Usually contacts with Media are deputed to a news agent, logistics and warehouse to a specific responsible. Nevertheless, the operations management needs a small di rection team as the Head of Operations Staff. The normal management of a Cave Rescue Zone is also very demand ing. The main tasks of a Zone Head are listed here: General Zone management: accounting, logistics, warehouse, communications, staff, updating Organization of cave rescue practices Organization of training events Organization of promotional events Participation to regional and national events Funding Contacts with the Public Authorities: Administrative Authorities, Police, Civil Defense, Medical Emergency Service (118), Media and so on. Also in this case the Zone Head needs a small staff of people who take care of the different responsibilities. Some of these tasks come from the fact that a Zone Head should act also as an "image promoter" for his/her structure. Actually, in order to effectively manage all facets of the charge, a Zone Head should be endowed with competences and experience com parable to those of a high level company manager. Furthermore, the legal responsibilities of the Zone management are relevant. However, Cave Rescue members and heads are volunteers; the time devoted to the Zone management is usually stolen from the actual work or from the social and family life. Managing charges are elective. This means very few people have the needed experience, training and free time to be considered optimal candi dates. However, the organization needs to improve as far as possible the training of its managing heads; it needs also to convey the experience of its long-time heads to the newly appointed ones. Furthermore, a common


knowledge background is strategic asset establishing and improving the competence and the efficiency of the organization as a w h ole. As a first step in the Operations Head training, a "Zone Head Hand book" was deve l oped; it was included in the Cave The role playing game at the 1999 Zone Head stage Rescue H andbook as a separate booklet. In this way, each member of the Cave Rescue was able to understand and accept the logics of the rescue management directions. This means a further step toward the im provement of the overall structure effectiveness A sirnulated cave rescue operation was developed. It resulted in a "role playing game": a ''game master" (a kmg time head of operations) proposes several typical situations, from the emergency phone call to the operation development and completion. Each participant reacts to the single situa tion and states its proposed actions for the future operation developmen t. The periodic Zone Head Board meeting often resulted in a brainstorm ing about actual accidents management. ln l 998 a three-days specific Operations Head stage was designed to share experiences and to train on specific topics. It was the first step tmvard a fom1al training plan. The stage was open also to interested Cave Rescue members, with the aim to train in advance people who are willing to share the Zone management load with the actual Zone Head. In this way, Zone Heads to-be were able to gain competence and confidence long before the elections. The Opera tions Head stage \Vas organized annually until 2002. In 2001 a large simulated operation was designed in order to test the Cave Rescue at a national level on a high depth and long duration emer gency From the Operation Heads point ofvie\:i/, it acted as a very detailed and comprehensive field training. The school for cave rescue managers At the end of 2003, the Zone Head Board charged a small team of experts with the task to define the draft of a training plan. After several The Operations Room at the national high-depth practice Matese 2001 meetings, a training plan was defined and approved It is structured over three years, with three training courses and three updating courses. Training courses: T 1 Operations management T2 Basic Zone management (Laws, Insurances, External contacts, Training) T3 Advanced Zone management (Planning, Resource management, Macro emergencies) Updating courses: Ul Basic update: Communications U2 Basic update : Role playing game on operations management U3 Advanced update: Accounting, assessment, technical update, other CNSAS structures, Public Administrations In each year, a T course and a U course are organized. This means the whole plan is as follows: Year 1: Tl Operations management Ul Communications Year 2: T2 Basic Zone management U2 Role playing game Year 3: T3 Advanced Zone management U3 Advanced update Such plan has two main rationales : 1. I n a three year period, all basic and advanced training is provided. SAS offices. This means an newly appointed Zone Head or Deputy can have its training within the office period. On the other side, an interested but not yet appointed member can have a complete train ing in an office period, so as to be a competent candidate in the next period. 2 The most important and urgent training, operations management, is the first one to be provided. It is stressed again in the second year, in the role playing game. The third year is reserved to advanced topics. Furthennore, the School for cave rescue managers has no fixed Instruc tor staff. The expert team manages the course organization and defines a detailed program. Each relation is assigned to a specific topic expert. In this way, actual field experience is gathered together to build a whole training framework. Each T course is planned to last three days, and each U course is planned to last two full days. The following tables show the six courses program in deeper detail. Tl -Operations management Structure of CNSAS Operations l -The call, summoning of teams Operations 2 Operations p l anning Operations 3 Operations execution End of operations How to prepare for an emergency Case studies T2 -Basic Zone management Du t ies and responsibilities of CNSAS offices The operative center, the warehouse, vehicles Practices plann i ng ul SneleolO{IY


H e ll enic Stu:leu!uqical S oc i et y Laws and rules Zone bureaucracy, purchase of goods, assembly summoning Personnel assessment Contacts with local and national CNSAS structures Case studies T3 -Advanced Zone management Purchase rules, bids Accounting assessments and inspections Disciplinary actions Persuasion techniques Operational limits (in-scope and out-of-scope operations) Planning of inter-Zone or national practices Accident to a technician in operation Macro-emergency: definition and operative strategies Case studies Ul -Communications Internal communications: theory of communication models, disaster manager and communication Public communications: the news-agent task, the media system, the press conference, the TV interview Communications tools: cave phones mobile phones radios radio links, mobile phone links Exercises: bulletins, interviews press conferences. U2 Role playing game Full simulation of an operation Management of a Macro-emergency External and internal search in an area with many caves Search of missing people in cave ( management of several search teams in parallel) U3 -Advanced update Quality control and assessment ISO 9000 rules CNSAS techniques Mountain rescue techniques: Canyoning Avalanche search dogs Surface search dogs Public Administrations and Corps: Fire Brigades: organization and operations Financial Police: organization and operations National Forester Corp: organization and operations Civil Defense: organization and operations A note about the Public Corps: in Italy the Financial Police tradition ally patrols the national boundaries. It performs mountain rescue with helicopters ; also the Forester Corp, which patrols public forested areas, performs mountain re s cue. On the other side Fire Brigades raised a struc ture trained in technical rescue (river, mountain and cave). In 2004 the first courses were organized: Tl -Operations manage ment and Ul -Communications. Each of them gathered most Zone Heads and Deputies and many other interested Cave Rescue members. About 40 people attended each course. Among the Tl invited speakers, there were six in-charge or past-National Heads or Deputies and the two CN SAS Deputy Presidents. Relations detailed all aspects of a cave rescue operation and the various management tasks. It was a very comprehensive experience and it provided the participants with a brainstorming about the many peculiarities of a cave rescue operation. Furthermore, the experi ence of the older heads was collected and rationalized to the advantage of the younger ones The communication course was compressed i n just one day and a half, due to external reasons. In this way, it resulted too intensive and it missed most exercises Anyway it provided a complete framework of cave rescue communication, from internal communication between operational teams and the operation heads to media management. Also some Station Heads attended this course. In 2005 a second national long-duration practice is planned to be or ganized in Sardinia in September. This is a large role playing gam e about a cave rescue operation by itself, so the planned U2 course w ill be con verted to a set of actions in parallel with the main practice: internal search of mi ss ing people, s i mulation of a second accident and so on. The Cave Rescue managers training plan arouse interest in the Moun tain Rescue side of the CNSAS Considering the National Heads, the Regional Services Heads, the Zone Heads and Deputies and the Sta tion Heads and Deputies, the CNSAS has more than 600 managers to be trained Most mountain rescue operations are performed by small teams in cooperation with the Medical Emergency Service (118) Howe v er sev eral operations ( canyoning avalanche, surface search big emergencies The cour s e U2 Communications (Bologna 2004) : the attendance (l e ft) c ommunication between the inca ve physician(s) and the Op e rations Management (right). 21-W twuust 20[!5, l(a!amos. He/las


... ) deploy in a way similar to a typical cave rescue operation (long dura tion, many technician involved, several teams in parallel, several helicop ters, interaction with Public Corps, high media profile, . ). In this sense and in the general management of a rescue organization, the experience raised by the School for Cave Rescue Managers may be very useful to the CNSAS as a whole Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank: Luca Calzolari and Paolo Yerico, the other two members of the organizing 'expert team' : common passion and enthusiasm in the project produced hours and hours of intensive brainstorming all to gether; The participants to the 2004 courses, both on the speaker side and on the attendant side: all people were eager to share experience and 0-134 competence. Bibliographic references Camerini C., 2005. La scuola per direttore delle operazioni. Una nuova sfida peril soccorso Notizie del C.N S.A.S., 32: 15--16. C.N S.A.S., 2005. Annuario 2004, Supplement to Notizie del C.N.S.A.S., 31 Ubertino A., 2005 SpeleoSoccorso: riflessioni sul Corso di aggior namento "La comunicazione come tecnica di soccorso". Notizie del C.N.S.A.S., 32: 26-27. Yerico P., 2005. SpeleoSoccorso: Corso Quadri Notizie del C.N.S.A.S., 32 : 25--26. Yerico P., C. Camerini & L Calzolari, 2004. SpeleoSoccorso: Corso Quadri. Notizie del C.N.S.A.S., 31: 17-18. Chemical and stable isotopes profiles along two cores from the snow deposit in the Lo Le 1607 ice cave (Grigna Settentrionale, Italian Alps) Citterio 1\1.1. S.\ Bini A.', Maggi V,2, Stemd & Udisti R.4 1 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra "Ardito Desio", Universita di Milano, via Mangiagalli 34, I--20133 Milano, Italy. 2 DISAT -Dipartimento di Scienze dell 'Ambiente e de! Territorio, Universita di Milano Bicocca, della Scienza 1, I--20126 Milano, Italy. 3 Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Ambientali e Marine, Universita di Trieste, via E. Weiss 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy. 4 Dipartimento di Chimica Analitica, Universita di Firenze, via dell a Lastruccia 3, Polo Scientifico, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy Corresponding author: michele. Abstract Two snow cores from the Lo Le 1607 "Crepaccio superiore in media Val Laghetto" ice cave were analyzed for their chemical and stable iso topes composition. The cave, located at an altitude of 1948 m a.s.l., con tains a snow deposit fed by windblown snow showing a yearly thickness variability of some metres in connection with winter snow availability We compare data from the two snow cores data and discuss the char acteristics and significance of the observed enriched levels. A distinctive pattern characteristic of the ablating top snow surface is described, with particular attention to the behaviour of those ions typical of the carbonatic environment (Ca2+, Mg2+) when compared to the other ions. These results can be useful in developing a method for detection of buried ablation sur faces in cave snow cores. A first simple attempt to derive such a method is proposed Introduction The entrance to thr Lo Le 1607 "Crepaccio superiore in media Val Laghetto" ice and snow cave is located at an altitude of 1948 m. a.s.l. on the northern slope of Grigna Settentrionale (Central Italian Alps), in the Moncodeno high altitude karst area (Fig. l ). Surface morphology of the area is dominated by dolines, bare rock surfaces and karren. Buried karst surface landfonns testify of a time when the very poor present soil cover was more abundant. Field work started in 1999 and developed from a general survey of a selection of the many caves known to host ice deposits to the coring of two snow cores year 2000. Further work on cave ice in the area is summarized in Citterio et al. (in press); since autumn 2004 at a nearby ice cave a large microclimatic system is collecting data both from the epigean and the hypogean environments down to a depth of 100 m. The Lo Le 1607 is a small cave in the infiltration zone of a karstic system decapitated by glacial exaration (Bini & Pellegrini, 1998). The cave has been surveyed in the past decades and the presence of perennial ice and snow deposits is reported since the first surveys (published many years later by Bini & Pellegrini, 1998), which also show a now obstructed down-going passage in the ice The present setting of the cave is shown in Fig. 2: the snow deposit at the bottom of the entrance doline has an un known depth and is directly and abundantly fed by snowfalls. Following to the entrance of the cave and the steep debris slope is another snow de posit where accumulation is due to windblown snow. In summer 1999 the deposit featured a statigraphy composed of more than one hundred layers over a total thickness of about 2.5 metres. These layers were bounded by irregular undulated surfaces produced by refreezing of a usually mil limetric wet snow level. The proximity to the cave entrance allows for the relatively wide temperature oscillation needed for the development of such features. The thickness of this deposit showed a rapid variability: the few metres observed during summer 1999 were found to have reduced to less than one metre when the cores have been drilled in summer 2000. Nevertheless, the two short cores allowed precise sampling and high qual ity samples for chemical and isotopical analyses. At the time of drilling the snow deposit was undergoing a strong ablation phase also promoted by sparse dripping from the cave roof. The interest for ice and sno\Y deposits in caves is mostly connected with the attempt to use them as sources of past environmental data, both for the last years or tens of years (in the case of deposits near to the cave entrance) and for the last centuries or even thousands of years ( at deeper and more stable ice deposits) Dating by various techniques at some ice caves have already confirmed the existence of cave ice deposits reaching these ages (Serban et al., 1967; Achleitner, 1995; Citterio et al., 2005). Nevertheless, for a snow or ice cave deposit to be a viable source of infor mation about the past, it has not only to represent a long time interval with good resolution, but its stratigraphy also has to be clearly defined Most importantly, melting episodes resulting in stratigraphic gaps have to be readily recognizable someway Direct observation of vertical exposures on the sides of the deposits are not always available or even reliable, and the advantages of working on ice and snow cores back in a cold room calls


!Jellenic sveleuiouica! Saciely f!!/ff{~Jfjj{J~~,,~ ( }'~,~~t\~!~1 ~ffr~\~~' Figure 1 Map of the Moncodeno area; the black dot marks the location of the Lo Le 1607 cave, LO LC 1607 "Crepaccio Superiore in Media Val Laghetto" ice cave 10m Figure 2 Plan and vertical cross maps of the Lo Le 1607 cave (simplified and updated from Bini & Pellegrini, 1998), for the development of practical methods for detecting ablation surfaces buried by successive accumulation events. What makes this an even more challenging issue is the present lack of a crystallographic and textural evo lutio model of snow in cave environments. Due to the different thermal regimes of ice caves with respect to epigean snow covers, the well known sequence of recrystallization stages involved in metamorphism of snow into firn can be expected not to be immediately portable to hypogean snow evolution (Per~oiu, pers. comm.). Similarly, snow composition profiles available from the nivological and glaciological literature may not be di rectly compared with findings from cave environment. Matherials and methods Many technical details are involved both in field and laboratory opera tions on ice cores. The Environmental Sciences Department (DISAT) at the University of Milano Bicocca is active in leading ice drilling projects in Antarctica and the Alps; building on this expertise, research assets and resources we cored a total of four cores in the Moncodeno area (Italy), and a fifth one in the Padi~ area (Romania) in cooperation with the Cluj section of the Speleology Institute "E. Racovita" of the Romanian Acad emy of Sciences. For the Lo Le 1607 snow core, the same conventional lightweight corer used in all of the other caves was selected. The drill head is an aluminium ring bearing three hard metal alloy knives of selectable shape and geometry. The stainless steel corer barrel has an internal diam eter of 10 cm, it is 1 m long and it can accept up to 60 or 70 cm of ice in every single run. Its external helicoidal trail drives the ice chips to the upper part where two windows let them enter and collect in a chamber. Rotation is provided by a 220 V, 1.5 kW low rpm electric engine and the operator both supplies the thrust force and contrasts the torque manually; a heavy duty power line was used to connect to a 2.5 kW power unit located near the entrance of the cave. The core was drilled from the top surface of the snow deposit down to the coarse rock debris found at the bottom of the snow deposit. The cold transport from the coring place was a two steps process: first, the cores were immediately closed in plastic bags, hauled to the surface inside sections of rigid PVC pipe to protect them from handling shocks, and placed in insulated boxes cooled by solid CO2 ; at the end of the coring operations the boxes were taken downvalley with the help of two mules and finally to cold storage by car. Once in the cold room of the University of Milano Bicocca the cores were cut with


a band saw and 5 cm thick continuous s amples were cut for chemistry, stable oxygen isotopes, pollen content and insoluble particles analyses. This sampling procedure of the core which produces a virtually continu. ous record of equal, regular, prismatic subsamples under controlled condi tions is impossible to be reliably carried out in the field The chemical analyses have been carried out by ionic chromatography on melted and 0.45 m filtered samples at the Analytical Chemistry Dept., University of Firenze; the oxygen isotopes analyses have been performed at the Geological, Environmental and Marine Sciences Dept., University of Trieste. Na + NH/ ppb ppb 1607-1 core, average 48 17 1607-2 core, average 24 12 snow patch, val Laghetto, June 2001 85 259 Colle del Lys Glacier summer average 49 206 Colle del Lys Glacier, winter average 27 35 Colle del Lys Glacier year average 36 108 H e flenf c Stwle o!ouic uf So c i etv -Results Chemical profiles (Fig. 3) show a pattern consistently present in both the cores and for any of the measured ionic species: the topmost 5 cm high sample i s always more enriched than the sample immediately below it, usually by three to five times The strong e nrichment of the topmost sam ple can be clearly observed in every plot. A strong peak in the Ca2+ content and a lower one for Mg2 1 typical ions of the carbonatic environment can be observed both in the 1650-1 and in the 1650-2 cores at a depth of 35 cm and 20 cm respectively. No significant enrichment in any other ion has been found at these same depths Cave samples show lower values than samples from an old snow patch sampled in the cave area in June, 2001 (Tab. 1) with the exception of Ca2+ and Mg 2+, which are more abundant in the cave samples. K + Mg2 + Ca2+ ci-NO3 -SO/ ppb ppb ppb ppb ppb ppb 35 65 844 72 27 71 12 32 550 57 20 43 30 24 445 258 970 505 31 21 243 111 437 505 19 9 86 68 149 245 24 14 152 86 272 855 Table 1 Major ions average content in the two snow cores (5 cm high continuou s samples) in samples from a nearby e pigean old snow patch and in the Colle del Lys core (this last data set is from Radice, 2000). When considering as a rough reference the averaged data from an Al pine glacier high altitude coring (Colle del Lys Glacier core, representing the 1971 to 1997 snow accumulation) where seasonality has been found to be particularly strong in NH/, NO3 -and SO/ contents (Radice, 2000), it can be seen that these same ionic species show the largest differences between cave and epigean old snow patch data The chemical profiles fol-Na+ NH/ K+ Na+ -0,99 0,99 NH4+ 0,99 -0,99 K+ 0,99 0,99 -Ivlg2+ 0,84 0,84 0,86 Ca2+ 0,15 0,15 0,19 c1-1,00 0 ,99 0,99 NO3 -0 81 0,82 0 80 SO/ 0,99 0,99 0,99 Table 2 Correlation coefficients matrix for the 1607-1 core data. Mg2 + 0,84 0,84 0,86 -0,64 0,86 0 ,77 0,88 low similar trends in the two cores (Fig. 3) but, despite having been cored in two very near locations (less than one metre apart from each other) the 1607-1 core has a higher ionic content. The correlation coefficient matrixes for both cores are similar and Tab 2 shows the correlation coef ficient matrix for the 1607-1 core. Ca2+ c1N03 -SO/ 0,15 1,00 0,81 0,99 0 15 0,99 0,82 0,99 0,19 0,99 0,80 0,99 0,64 0,86 0,77 0,88 -0,18 0,30 0 ,22 0,18 -0,81 1,00 0,30 0,81 -0, 85 0,22 1,00 0,85 -!4til nt ernufio n nf Con u r e ss of Su eleolo rrv


i'..J l::,. c:: .:::i I'-..) :-'' :;::,;: 2. 2 c::; :.c:: V') 1607-1-01 ""'v / / /" 1607-1-02 / ..... I/ ( / (~ 1607-1-03 ) ) ) ) 1607-1-04 I I I I j \ (J) I 1607-1-05 j \ 1607-1-06 J ) \ 1607-1-07 J J 1607-1-08 I 1607-1-09 I I /./ / / /,.-( ) ) I // '\, ,) (/ I / (/ ) V J I I / V 10 15 20 Cl. 25 ,g 5' 30 35 40 45 o 50 100 150 200 2500 10 20 30 40 50 0 25 50 75 100 0 40 80 120 160 0 4008001200160020000 75 150 225 300 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 50 100 150 200 250 1607-2-01 1607-2-02 ig 1607 -203 (D "' 1607-2-04 1607-2-05 1607-2-06 Sodium (ppb) Ammonium (ppb) Potassium (ppb) Magnesium (ppb) Calcium (ppb) Clorides (ppb) Nitrates (ppb) Sulphates (ppb) .// /i,., _, ,.,,,,. v / / ,),/ (V ,......... ..... \ .... v I ,,./ (,/ 10 I \ ) I j ,_ / I I i/ 15 20 25 I I I V I 30 O 20 40 60 80 100 0 4 8 12 16 20 0 8 16 24 32 40 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 200 400 600 800 10000 50 100 1~0 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 Sodium (ppb) Ammonium (ppb) Potassium (ppb) Magnesium (ppb) Calcium (ppb) Clorides (ppb) Nitrates (ppb) Sulphates (ppb) Cl. (1) "O ::r Figure 3 -Major ions content profiles along the two snow cores (5 cm high continuous samples). The strong enrichment of the topmost sample can be clearly observed in every plot. Very strong peaks in the contents of ca2 + and Mg2+, typical of the carbonatic environment, can be observed at a certain depth in both the cores, while the other ions consistently feature a fairly constant content, without showing any enrichment at that same depth (see the text for a discussion of this patterns). Concentrations in ppb, depths in cm. I i v:, <:::, c-,


l!l 1607/1/5 II -7,0 --6,5 --6,0 -5 ,5 5,0 -7, 0 -6,5 -6,0 -5,5 -5,0 WJ 1607J2J4 I Figure 4 6180 profiies expressed in %0 units.for the 1650-1 (to the right) and the 1650-2 (tv the left) cures. As can be seen from Tab. 2, while in general the correlation coeffi cients are quite high, the correlatio n coefficients of Ca+ is very low with any other ionic species except Mg2+ 8180 values are remarkably constant along the core length(fig 4), with average values of -6 .0 and -6 .1 %0 in the two cores. The chemical and oxygen stable isotopes plots with depth show no correlation, being the constant 8180 values does not reflecting neither the generalized ionic en richment at the top of the core, nor the deeper Ca2+ peak described above. Discussion and conclusion The main focus of our discussion will deal with the different nature of the two levels of comparativeiy higher ionic content which have been found in the two snow cores from the LO LC 1607 ice cave. Further dis cussion may deal with the lower content in most ionic species (notably in the industry-related species such as SO t) with respect to the Colle del Lys core, despite the fact that the latter is from a: site located at much higher an altitude, but this falls beyond the main purpose of this paper, which is to investigate the feasibility of detecting stratigraphic discontinuities in the snow deposit. The fundamental difference between the two enriched levels, which are found one at the very top of the core and the other at the depths of 35 and 20 cm in the 1607-1 and 1607-2 cores respectively, is the enrichment in all ionic species opposed to the enrichment in Ca2+ (and to a lesser extent, ofMg2+) only The common feature of both levels is the complete absence of any corresponding signal in the oxygen stable isotopes ratio data. In order to interpret the evidences found, it is nec essary to take into account the setting of the investigated snow deposit, and its consequences on the accumulation, possible contamination and ablation of the deposit. The coring location is a few metres inside the cave and is not reachable neither by free falling snow nor by avalanching snow because of the peculiar internal topography of the selected cave. Accumulation is thus represented by windblown snow only, the strong winds being also responsible for the presence in the cave of leaves from the broadleaf forest a few hundred metres of altitude lower. This accumu lation process can also be expected to mix to some extent the snow before it enters the cave, thus smoothing the chemical and isotopical differences of the various snowfalls. Dusts are also likely to be blown into the cave by the strong winds. The deep Ca2+ and Mg2+ enriched levels are clearly related to contributions from the carbonatic environment, either under the form of aerosols due to water dripping and enriched in these ionic species typical of the carbonatic environment or to the presence of light wind blown layers of carbonatic dust of local origin or finally to othe r means of contamination of the snow deposit by rock derived content. It is also likely that this process is acting slowly in nature, so that the Ca2+ peak will only develop during a temporary accumulation stop. The different depths at which this level is found in the two cores is an effect of the different He! lenic Sueleotuuir:u! Society thickness of the snow deposit in the two coring sites and it is interesting t o observe that, when measured with reference to the bottom of the core, they it is found at 10 -15 cm in both of the cores. This last note actually supports the described genetic model of the deep enriched layer, since it is more likely that a roughly regular surface was produced by w in dblown snow accumulation instead than by ablation In facts the ablation surface at the time of coring was quite undulated and irregular. As for the enriched surface level, we must exclude any process leading both to isotopic fractionation or allowing for the preferential accumula tion of certain ions at the top of the deposit. Warm season ablation in the cave can be considered as dominated by melting, being the humid, cold and solar radiation shielded cave environment not favourable to signifi cant evaporation and sublimation processes During the ablation season, as was the case at the time of coring, the snow deposit is melting and the surface of the snow gets enriched in ionic content without undergo ing any significant isotopic fractionation; this may be accompanied by some amount of percolation through the first millimetres and centimetres of snow by the slightly ~nriched meltwaters. During the frequent cloudy weather some small and isotopically undetectable amount of condensation on the snow surface may also take place from the humid air entering the cave, but the dominant phenomenon seems to be acting concentrating in the top surface the ionic content already present in the melting snow, since the ratio between different ions remains roughly constant. Unfortunately the short length of the two cores prevented from fully investigating the occurrence and characteristics of a series of many high concentration layers, but it is obvious that a new accumulation event would have buried the surface level here described and a new surface level would have started getting enriched during the following ablation phase. These observations makes for the main conclusions of this work: it seems possible to detect from chemical and isotopical profiles the occur rence of missing gaps (marked by peaks in the content of every ion and constant 8180 values) or even of stopped accumulation (marked by Ca2+ and Mg2+ peaks only and constant 8180 values). Further work on this and other similar cave deposits is needed in order to confirm the reliability and convenience of this method and to refine the suggested models for the development of the enriched levels. Acknowledgments We wish to thank Marco Filipazzi for the assistance with operations in the field and in the cold lab. References Achleitner A., 1995 -Zum Alter des Holeneises in der Eisgrubenc.Ei shohle im Sarstein (Oberosterreich). Die Hohle, 46 (1), 1-5. Bini A. & Pellegrini A. (1998) -Il carsismo del Moncodeno Geologia Insubrica, 3 (2), 296 pp. Citterio M., Turri S., Bini A. Maggi V., Per~oiu A. & Rajka G. (2005) Cave ice coring in the Getarul Focul Viu (Romania): techniques, pre liminary observations on core stratigraphy and radiocarbon ag es setting a new record for this cave. 9th Alpine Glaciological Meeting, Milano, 24 -25 February 2005 Citterio M., Turri S., Bini A., Maggi V., Pelfini M., Pini R., Ravazzi C., Santilli M., Stenni B & Udisti R. (2004, in press) -Multidisciplinary approach to the study of the Lo Le 1650 "Abisso sul Margine dell' Alto Bregai" ice cave (Lecco, Italy). Theoretical and Applied Karstology (Spe cial Issue on Ice Caves) 17 Kem Z., F6rizs I., Kazmer M., Nagy B. Szanto Zs. Gal A. (2004) Late Holocene environmental changes at Getarul de la Focul Viu (Bihor Mts. Romania) studied by various methods. In: Citk:iiu M. & Tuui S. 14th lnrernn!ionuf Conuress of Soefeolouy


fl e / emc S 1w! e o t uui r:o l S ur: wtv (eds.) 2004 Volume of Abstracts of the 1st International Workshop on Ice Caves (IWIC-I), Capu~ Romania, 1st-3rd March 2004, p. 20 Radice P. (2000) Misure glaciochimiche sulla carota del Colle del Lys (Monte Rosa) e loro significato ambientale. Tesi di Laurea in Scienze 0-135 The speleologist' s psychology and fears George Themistoklis Katsiavos Member of the Speleological Helienic Exploration Club (Mechanical Engineer, Tackl e master of SP.EL.E. 0. Club, Cave rescue team) Abstract Key words: Fear of the unknown, confronting panic cave phobia, in ner self I have a fear of falling! What about you? I was always afraid of falling! I understood then that the fall will not kill you! The fall is a journey downwards .. What kills you is ... the sudden stop at the END! The evolution of the human species depends on the type of information that they seceive from the environment. All creatures need to feel secure and this applies mainly to the human creatures Without a sense of security, our nerves would be shredded. On the other hand, when our lives become easy and without problems we tend to become inac tive and relaxed. Maybe we would even commit suicide, if we cross the border to the unreasonable. Many people want to do something but do not know how. So they start searching the mysteries. The feelings produced by mysteries are fear, anxiety and surprise. However, it is surprising how little we know about fear itself. Basically, it is primitive animal feeling that exists in order to protect the integrity or security of the person. It is a defense mechanism or a mechanism for maintaining the safety limits. However, the message we try to send out is which way can we con vert the unknown and unfriendly environment into familiar through direct contact with it. First of all, it should be noted that very often nowadays the term "phobia" is used in a wrong way Opposed to "fear", a "phobia" has no direct and real object. Therefore, the "threats we receive are im aginary and originate in our minds. The fear of heights as well as claustro phobia can be overcome. Having these phobias, before each descend the descender must con vince himself on the reason of his descend inside the cave, since very often he is not sure of what he is about to do. The answer could be easy : simple curiosity! The secret of success in life is to dare take risks. We need to defy fear and go on in life, even if we are terrified. In this way we will eventually coguer our fear. We must confront fear and win a very powerful and merciless enemy: our negative feelings We confront our other self our inner self. The need for a personal dia logue with ourselves is created. The other self that we obstinately kept in dark, breaks free and comes searching for us. And maybe because most of the times that other self is the true self while we are the false, the victory belongs to him and in a way to us as well, since we are the other half Panic does not allow the mind to think, to combine to devise and to invent. It is a matter of faith. Panic brings up on the surface all our hid den fears, makes us feel that suddenly we are the center of the word and that even worse things will come in a few moments. The modem cave 2 l--2 8 lw uu st 20 05. l( u fn mo s. He llo s Ambientali, Universita di Milano Bicocca. Serban M., Blaga L., Chifu A. and Ciobotaru T. (1967) Contributii la stratigrafia depozitelor de gheata din Ghetarul de la Scari~oara, Luer. Inst. Speol. E. Racovita, 6, 107-140. explorer may never meet the various mythology creatures, but he is sure to confront them all at once, inside his own self Ifhe manages to master this other self, then he will have achieved the much desired self-knowledge. The fear of death is the biggest and most important fear of people. Due to the fact that we do not know exactly what death is, what awaits us after death, in essence the fear of death is nothing more that the fear of the unknown. And w~at is exactly that renowned self-knowledge? The person turns to himself, time stops and you realize that the world is different worlds inside other worlds! When you detect the evil standing in front of you, in essence you detect the evil inside you. When you detect the good in anything, it' s because you are good inside. Curriculum Vitae George Katsiavos Nationality: Greek Foreign language speaking: English. Born in Athens Hellas in 1969. George Katsiavos J 987-1989 Mechanical engineer studies, working as maintenance supervisor. 1989-1996 Sport skier on Pamassos Mountain. 1996 member ofSP.EL.E.O club 1998-2004 Trainer on vertical caves and speleology at SP EL.E.O club. 2000-2001 Assistant tacklemaster of SP.EL.E.O club. 2002-2003 Tacklemaster of SP.EL.E.O. club. 2003-2004 Member of Hellenic Cave Rescue team. 2004-2005 Organizer of Pamassos caving ex~edition programme for the 14th International Congress of speleology. Home address: New Psychico 115-25 ATHENS-HELLAS TEL. 210 6729389 Mobile. 6934 227368 E-mail g. Katsiavos @ speleo. gr


0-136 The formation "scientific team-member" of the French Federation of Speleology S Jamet, n C aiHwl M. M eyssorm ie r Commission scientffique Lyon Franc e Abstract: ffe!/rn ic Sue le atou ir:a l Su cfe ty The formation "scientific team-member" of the French Federation of Speleology The French Federation of Speleology set up, since 1998, a new formula of scientific training course. The training course lasts 5 days and constitutes a module of the formation of the monitors of speleology. The formation is open to all autonomous speleologists and the trainees carry t hem out even observati ons in hydrology, geomorphology, biospeology or archaeology. At the end of the formation, a report and articles are published. Key-words : Scientific formation, French Federation of Speleology Resume: La Federation Frarn;aise de Spelfologie a mis en place, depuis 1998, une nouvelle formule de stage scientifique. Le stage dure 5 jours et constitue un module de la formation des moniteurs de speleologie. I1 reste cependant ouvert a tous speleologues autonomes. Durant le stage, les stagiaires realisent eux meme des observations dans le domaine de l'hydrologie, de la geomorphologie, de la biospeologie ou de l' archeologie. A l' issu du stage, un rapport et des articles sont publies. Mots des : Stage scientifique, formation, Federation Fram;aise de Speleologie L'enseignement scientifique a la Federation Fran~aise de Speleologie Il a toujours ete present. Depuis la construction des premiers stages de speleologie et en particulier de formation de cadres, ceci, avant meme l' existence de la Federation Frarn;aise de Speleologie, le souci d'un contenu scientifique accompagnant la technique a ete present. Parmi les artisans de cette epoque citons Pierre Chevalier ou Philippe Renault. Plus tard dans les annees 70, Font d'Urle (Sud Vercors) sera le theatre d'une serie de stages techniques et scientifiques marquants. Vers la fin des annees 80, autour de Philippe Valet et Pierre Mouriaux, une serie de stages scientifiques se met en place avec une implication forte des commissions enseignement et scientifique de la Federation Fram;aise de Speleologie. Ces formations ciblees pour les cadres de l'Ecole Fran~aise de Speleologie sont d'une tres bonne qualite mais ne font pas toujours le plein de stagiaires. Dans les annees 90, Jacques Bauer organise autour de la Pierre Saint Martin une serie de stages orientes sur la connaissance de ce magnifique massif. Le succes est grand. En fin a partir de 1998, avec l' aide de Remy Limagne puis celle de Joel Possich, nous mettons dans le cadre de la reforme des stages de formation de I 'Ecole Fran~aise de Speleologie, une nouvelle grille pour les stage s scientifiques (fig. 1 ). J..1/ fl fnfemnli mwl Conure ss u f S oeteoluu y


H e! lrmic Sf]e/ e olu uir:a l Sor:ie /V ~1 Unite de I UV technique 11 Mllmoire ~v_a_le_u_r~ I Org initiateur 11 Enc. moniteur I I Module I Tests techniques Stage pedagogique Encadrement du stage Equipier scientifique : -4 ou 5 instructeurs et moniteurs de la FFS -6 a 8 intervenants specialistes Speleologues locaux Nombre de stagioires par stage : 12 a 16 Figure 1 : Organigramme des stages de l 'Ecole Franfaise de Speleologie et place des formations scientifiques. Le stage Equipier scientifique D' une dun~e de cinq jours, le stage national equipier scientifique de la commission scientifique est aussi le module 2 du cursus moniteur. Quand en 1998, l'idee a germe de refondre la formation des moniteurs de speleologie, il devenait aussi necessaire de relancer l' activite enseignement au sein de la commission scientifique. De 1998 a 2004, sept stages ont eu lieu autour de cette formule: la grotte du Chateau de la Roche (Doubs), la grotte de Foissac (A veyron), le systeme de Foussoubie (Ardeche ), la Cabome de Menouille (Jura), le reseau de Pont de Ratz (Herault), la Pierre Saint Martin (Pyrenees-Atlantiques) et la Cocaliere (Ardeche). En 1998 a lieu a la grotte du Chateau de la Roche, dans le Doubs, le premier stage equipier scienti fique Ce fut un stage tres sympathique ou tout le monde a pu travailler sur cette cavite passionnante (realisation d'un trac;age et d'observations geomorphologiques). Cependant l'heterogeneite du niveau des stagiaires ne facilita pas le deroulement du stage (un stagiaire quasi debutant en speleo, un autre deja instructeur. .. ). II devenait necessaire de definir un referentiel precis et de fixer un niveau d'entree au stage. La reforme de la formation moniteur allait le permettre. Des lors, le stage se structure autour d'une duree et d'un canevas. II repond a uncertain esprit, celui de former des speleologues deja autonomes a des techniques de releves et d'observations 21-28 Auuust 2005. l

en grotte. II devient necessaire que les stagiaires arrivent avec uncertain niveau minimum de pratique de speleologie. Ceux qui sont deja initiateur ont une pratique de speleologue satisfaisante. Il est demande aux autres stagiaires d'etre totalement autonomes en progression souterraine avec un sac pour une dun~e de 6 a 8 heures. lls doivent, en outre. conna1tre les techniques de topographie soutenaine (leve et report avec la methode graphique au moins). Avec un groupe de stagiaires plus homogene en niveau, mais qui reste heureusement divers en origine, il devient plus riche d' attaquer directement les techniques d~ observations face a un public de toute fa~on a l' aise sous terre. Car l'objectif n'est pas de faire en cinq jours des scientifiques du karst, mais bien de former des speleologues aux techniques scientifiques du karst. On entre en science non pas par des cours et des exposes, mais directement en manipulant sur (et sous) le terrain des instruments, des appareils qui sont ceux de la science. Ce n'est qu'apres, pris par le gofit de !'acquisition des donnees ( et de la restitution) que les stagiaires se plongeront dans les bouquins, rejoindront les col loques et autres rencontres et finalement animeront la vie scientifique de leur region. L' esprit du stage, ce n' est done pas : << venez 1n' ecouter, je vais vous parler de mon karst >> (meme si ce type d'approche est dans le stage quand meme), c'est plut6t de dire: faites le vous meme, ce n' est pas si difficile, vous y prendrez gout L'organisation du stage<< Equipier scientifique La cavite etudiee, ou portion de cavite, est choisie en fonction d'un objectif avant tout pedagogique : richesse et diversite des problematiques, potentiels attractifs du site, difficultes techniques limitees et surtout temps d' acces au site d' observation reduit au minimum. L'equipe d'animation est pensee autour de deux poles, celui des encadrants et celui des intervenants. Les encadrants sont des instructeurs (necessaires pour val ider le module 2 du curs us moniteur), des moniteurs en cycle instructeur ou non et enfin un ou deux speleos du coin qui connaissent parfaitement le massif, assurent le relais avec les speleologues locaux. Les intervenants sont des specialistes regionaux en geologie, geomorphologie ou hydrologie et des specialistes de leur discipline. Ils ne participent pas a 1 'organisation du stage mais interviennent ponctuellement avec leur specialite. La duree de leur intervention varie d' un court expose en salle a plusieurs jours de presence sur le ten-ain. Ils font veritablement la richesse du stage. Tant6t universitaires, tant6t personneis des administrations de l'etat (service archeologie de la Direction Regionale des Affaires Culturelles par exemple), tantot specialistes reconnus, ils sont geologues, geomorphologues, hydrogeologues, archeologues, biospeleologues, historiens etc ... Figure 2 : Jacques Bauer explique la geologie de la Pierre Saint Martin. Stage juillet 2003. {Jt


Hellenic Stwleoluuicul Sur:iefv Quel que soit le lieu queue que soit la cavite, le dero u lement du stage est calque sur un canevas qui sans etre rigide structure les cinq journee s du stage en deux periodes respectivement de deux et trois jours (fig. 3). Figure 3 : Organisation du stage sur un canevas de cinq jours. Le lundi commence par une prise de contact avec l' ensemble du groupe. La journee est ensuite consacree a la visite de la region. Sur la journee, il doit etre possible de << faire le tour du massif>>, c' est a dire d' en perce voir sa dimension generale, de comprendre et voir les zones d'alimentation le ou les exutoires .. Un phenomene geologique particulier peut etre reconnu, une grotte touristique visitee, une petite cavite aux remplissages interessants est parcourue. Le jour suivant (mardi) est consacre a la cavite proprement dite, que l'on parcours si possible sur une large portion en prenant le temps de se poser et de discuter frequemment C' est a ce moment la que I' equipe (stagiaires et encadre ment) se retrouve face aux sites qui seront les enjeux des etudes de la suite du stage. On se pose des questions, on realise quelques premi eres observations et on oriente les themes des etudes a faire Le soir, le groupe est divise en equipe generalement de trois stagiaires. Chaque equipe prend en charge un theme. L' une va par exemple relever les concretions erodees dans cette portion de galeries et en faire un report cartographique pour determiner une surface de pointe de crue. U ne autre va realiser une petite operation de tra<;age pour apprecier la variabi1i te des vitesses de de placement d' un nuage colore en fonction de la morphologie des conduits. Une troisiem e va relever des anciennes traces d' exploitation de minerai pour positionner correctement un balisage de protection. Une demiere va conduire un preinventaire des especes souterraines pour apprecier leur evolution dans l' espace de la cavite. Figure 4 : Lever topograpliique dans la salle Chevali er. Stage juillet 2003. 21-28 A uuust Wl15. l

flelie nf c So eleutouicu l Societ y Ces differents travaux les stagiaires vont les mener en aut onomie quasi-complete au cours des joumees du mercredi et du jeudi. C est a dire que sur le terrain, accompagnes d' une ou deux personnes ressources, ils vo nt conduire eux meme s leurs experiences de terrain, noter seuls le fruit de leurs observations, gerer integralement leur equipe, le materiel necessaire etc ... De retour en salle, ils vont mettre au prop re ces donnees, completer eventuellement les observations (analyse du tra~age au spectrocolorimetre, identification des especes recoltees ... ). Jusqu' au vendredi midi, ils devront produire un texte et des figures. Ces demieres doivent refleter au mieux le frui t de leurs ob serva tions (topos, co upes, graphes, schema .. ). Le texte doit comporter au minimum : le nom des participants, la problematique, les outils employes, les observations realisees et eventuellement une interpretation de ces observations. A l' issue du stage, les equi pes produisent generalement 3 a 6 figures e t un te xte de 2 a 8 pages. L'asp ect << interpretations des result ats n'es t pas patticulierement pousse dans le stage, non que cela ne soit pas interessant ou que les stagiaires n'en soient pas capables, mais pour bien montrer le caractere fond amental des obse rvations brutes correctement mises au propre et bien presentees. Le vendredi apres midi enfin est le moment des echanges. Chaque equipe presente (avec des transparents ou grace a un videoprojecteur) les observations qu'elle a menees et mises au propre au cours de ces deux jours et demi de fin de stage. C' est ace moment que l' on prend la veritable mesure de la moissen de donnees que peut apporter une equipe meme reduite sur un espace bien limite dans un temps tre s cou rt. Figure 5 : Identification a la loupe binoculaire des especes recoltees dans le systeme de la Cocaliere. Stage avril 2004. 14th lnfernnfionnl Canmess of Soeleo lo1 Jv


!Je/lenic Snetea/u[!ica! Sur:ie/y Les resultats de cette formation IIs sont a la fois nombreux et pourront apparaitre disparates et peu aboutis. A chaque stage, un rapport est realise. II comprend outre les. informations generales sur le deroulement du stage, la totalite des observations menees par les differentes equipes sur chacun des themes. C' est le corps du rapport. II est suivi de complements bibliographiques, et d'un ensemble de photos mustrant la semaine passee ensemble. Au dela de cette production papier, tiree a une centaine d'exemplaire et diffusee le plus largement possible, des articles ont ete realises dans les actes de la rencontre d' octobre ( de 1998 a 2004 _sans interruption). Cette valorisation du travail du stage etait au depart reaJisee par l'equipe d'encadrement Mais de plus en plus, on voit les stagiaires prendre en charge eux-memes cette partie et presenter les resultats de leurs travaux. En outre, d'anciens stagiaires realisent des observations dans leur region, d'autres participent a l'encadrement du stage equipier scientifique d'autres structurent la vie scientifique de leur Comite Speleologique Regionaux ou de leur Comite Departementaux de Speleologie. Tout ceci constitue un premier pas qui devrait a terme relancer les observations menees en grotte et motiver la publication, speleologique regionale ou nationale. BIBLIOGRAPHIE BAUER J. (2000) Le stage national de karstologie physique a la Pierre-Saint-Martin. Une invitation a la pratique de Ia speleologie integree. Ibid., p. 153-155, l photo. BIOT V. (2003) Etude geographique d'une forme ancienne de durabilite: l'exemple du tourisme soutenain en France. These Geographie, universite de Savoie. Chambery. CLEMENT N. ; JAILLET S. ; RUIZ L. (2004) La formation de moniteur de speleologie. Spelunca, Federation Fran~aise de Speleologie, n 95, 3eme trimestre 2004, p. 17-22, 7 photos, 4 fig. GAUCHON C. (1997) Des cavemes et des hommes, Geographie souterraines des montagnes fran~aises. These Geographie Grenoble, Karstologia-memoires n, 248 p. JAILLET S. (1997) 4 annees de stages scientifiques.-Info-E.F.S., Bulletin d'information de l'Ecole fran~aise de speleologie, n 31, ler semestre 1997, p. 32-35. JOVIGNOT F. (1997) Les caracteristiques socio-demographiques des speleologues fran~ais. Karstologia n 30, Federation Fran~aise de Speleologie et Association Fran~aise de Speleologie, pp. 1-14. RENAULT P. et coll. (MEYSSONNIER M. ; MELON F.) (2000) Histoire de l'enseignement de la speleologie scientifique en France dermis 1960.Spelunca--Memoires, n, Actes du symposium "Enseignement de la spele0logi.e en Europe", 21 eme congres national Orthez, Pyrenes Atlantiques, 21-23 mai 1994, p. 157-162 Aurwst


V ALLET P. ( 1989) Reflexions sur les stages scientifique federaux ( 1986-1988).-Memoire realise dans le cadre du cursus d'instructeur federal, Ecole fran9aise de speleologie, Commission scientifique de la Federation franc;aise de speleologie, 31 p. 0-137 Qattine Azar Cave in Lebanon: From Speleology to Socio Economic Development. Le gouffre de Qattine Azar Liban De la speleologie vers un d.eveloppement sodo-economique Antoine Comaty & Jad Saadeh Association Libanaise d'Etudes Speleologiques -ALES Discovered in summer 1996 and explored by members of Association Libanaise d'Etudes Speleologiques (ALES), Qattine Azar is the second deepest sinkhole in Lebanon (-515m). Its total known development reach es 4365m and exploration is still on going. At its bottom and through the "Galerie de la jonction" the sinkhole links to an underground river of 1800m length with a flow of 8000 cubic meters per day. The importance of such a river in a mountainous area where potable water is an urgent need, has pushed the Government of Lebanon to undertake a complete study of the network in order to tap the water, raise it to the surface and distribute it to 22 villages in the nearby area, A professional topographical survey effected by the French topogra phe speleologist Mr. Paul Coubon with the support of Lebanese speleolo gists allowed locating on the surface the Qattine Azar's terminal lake. A further electromagnetic positioning confirmed the accuracy location of the terminal lake position. By late 2003 the first borehole of 285 meters depth pierce the ceiling of the terminal lake. ALES speleologists will report his exact point of emergence compared to the room dimensions, thus allowing further three boreholes to be drilled successfully by end of year 2004. Furthermore, in an attempt to find the origin of water, ALES speleonautes dived the upper sump searching for the origin of the water Due to narrow passages they were unable to cross it. Actually exploration is focused on a lateral gallery by use of artificial climbing. Liban, pays petit par sa superficie (10450 km) mais le plus riche au Moyen-Orient avec la Turquie par la diversite de son monde souterrain, que les speleologues libanais ont inventorie depuis plus de soixante ans. Plus de cinq cent cavites ace jour ont ete recensees dont 293 ont un devel oppement OU un denivele superieur a 20 metres. Le Liban occupe la limite ouest de l'Orient arabe. Il est constitue par une cote bordee par la mer Mediterranee et par deux chaines montagneuses dont le point culminant est a 3083m. Ces deux chaines sont separees par la riche plaine agricole de la Beqaa. Le relief karstique represente 65% de sa superficie. Avec une pluviometrie annuelle moyenne de 900mm et un enneigement hivemal de ses haut plateaux, de nombreuses sources jaillissent du flanc de ses montagnes et a travers d'impetueux torrents printaniers encaisses dans des gorges profondes, elles vont se jeter dans la Medherranee En 1996 les speleologues de l' ALES decouvrent a 1415 metres d'altitude un nouveau gouffre Qattine Azar ou ils atteignent a -437 metres une belle riviere souterraine qui se termine a -515m dans un vaste siphon en forme de lac de 34m x 18m (voir plan et coupe). Une coloration a la fluoresceine permet de connaitre la resurgence de l'eau qui emerge apres 14 jours non loin de la mer, a +60m, dans la tres belle grotte d' Antelias soit un parcours de 15 km a vol d' oiseau et un denivele d'environ 900 metres a partir du siphon terminal. La decouverte d'une richesse hydraulique aussi importante pousse le Gouvemement .Libanais a entreprendre une etude exhaustive du re seau souterrain en vue d'une exploitation de ces eaux pour permettre l'alimentation en eau de 22 villages de la region du Metn Nord En effet ces regions intensivement habitees en periode estivale souffrent precise ment d'un rationnement d'eau important durant les mois d'ete L'eau a venir facilitera ainsi un developpement socio-economique puisque ce projet de captage sera suivi par la construction d'un lac collinaire qui col lectera les eaux de pluies pour des besoins d'irrigation. Ainsi, le cumul des eaux de ces deux projets sera suffisant pour avoir un bilan hydraulique positif couvrant les besoins jusqu'a l'an 2035. Ceci favorisera le develop pement tant de l'activite estivale touristique que celle de !'agriculture. Pour les speleologues, la tache requise est ardue. En premier lieu, il s'agit de delimiter exactement en surface l'emplacement du lac terminal pour y effectuer des forages permettant ainsi de pomper l' eau sur une hau teur de 280 metres pour la distribuer a travers canalisations et reservoirs a t oute la region avoisinante. Pour y parvenir, les speleologues vont collaborer activement avec le B.T.D.,( Bureau Technique pour le Developpement), bureau d'ingenieur conseil specialise en hydraulique, dans le but d'etablir un releve topo graphique precis du reseau depuis l' en tree du gouffre jusqu' au lac terminal et cela a travers une succession de puits dont l'un d'entre eux est le plus profond au Moyen-Orient (180 metres), pour atteindre la base du gouffre. A partir de ce point, il faut parcourir 450 metres de galeries sinueuses pour rejoindre le cours de la riviere, puis suivre l'eau sur 1800 metres en vue d'arriver au lac terminal. Deux campagnes topographiques seront lancees durant les etes de 1997 et 1998 sous la direction du topographe fran9ais Paul Courbon. Un camp de base est installe a la base des puits a -412 m car la topographie de la section aval jusqu'au lac terminal prendra trois jours de suite. Apres la projection en surface de la riviere souterraine, !'emplacement du lac souterrain se trouve delimite sur une des gorges du Nahr Beyrouth Pour y parvenir, il faut percer une route de 1200 metres de long a partir du village de Aintoura. Des mesures de debit de la riviere souterraine montrent un debit d'etiage de 8000 m3/jour dont 6000 m3/j sont exploitables et qui peu vent etre augmente jusqu'a 9000 m3/jour durant la periode hivemale et printaniere. De plus un positionnement de l' emplacement du lac terminal par l a methode electromagnetique sous la direction de Joan Erra est effec tue en 1999. Elle viendra confirmer les resultats de la topographie et Jc/th fn!ernnlionul Co11mess of


Hellenic SfJefeuluaical Society ainsi la marge d'erreur n'est plus que de l'ordre de 2 metres ce qui est pleinement satisfaisant car une erreur d'emplacement du lac terminal en trainant des co fits de forages elev es aurait pu entrainer l' arret des travaux et l'annulation de la suite du projet (voir article de Mr. Paul Courbon: Modes de positionnement topographique et electromagnetique d'un si phon. Kastologia no. 40 Pl9-26 du 2/2002). La mission des speleologues de l' ALES va reprendre a partir de l'automne 2003 au moment ou le premier forage debute. 11 s'agit en effet de situer exactement l'emplacement de l'emergence du forage dans le lac terminal par rapport aux parois en vue de delimiter l'endroit du forage suivant. Les speleologues de l' ALES sont au rendez-vous et les informa tions retransmises par cable telephonique a la surface permettent de fixer le point exact du second forage. 11 est prevu d'implanter trois forages sur une distance n'excedant pas 15 metres de long et 7 metres de large pour qu'ils atteignent la partie profonde du lac. Pius de 20 missions vont se succeder durant l'annee 2004 entrainant de longs sejours souterrains ex cedant a chaque fois les 30 heures avec des arrets au le camp de base. En lwoust i forage comirmant / la topographie / -",~ 7-galerie de la jonction J(alarno.s. Coupe 156m. -434m. definitif 3 forages d'exploitation de 44 cm de diametre ont atteint le lac terminal. 11s ont ete tubes et sont prets a recevoir 3 pompes submersibles qui refouleront l'eau vers la surface 285 metres plus haut. De par sa conception, c'est un projet unique au Moyen-Orient et peu repandu mondialement car i1 est tres rare qu'une etude speleologique de taillee entraine un captage reussi a une aussi grande profondeur. Le Gou vemement libanais deceme aux speleologues de 1 'ALES la medaille en Argent du Merite Libanais avec Palmes le 25 Novembre 2004 en recon naissance des services rendus dans la reussite de. ce projet tant dans sa partie de decouverte que dans l'execution des travaux demandes. Les explorations du reseau ne sont pas encore terminees. Les speleo nautes de l'ALES ont effectues des plongees dans le siphon amont d'ou emerge la riviere souterraine sans reussir a le franchir et des galeries par alleles sont actuellement sous exploration. Le developpement total du re seau atteint 4365 m faisant de Qattine Azar le gouffre le plus developpe duLiban. 68m. ALT. 14:18 m. ENTREE D.DD m.


Photo 1: La riviere souterraine se deversant dans l e la c terminal. SJJe ieoluuical Sur:ie/y m ~mont Photo 2 : Premierforage reussi. Le trepan de la Jo reuse perce le plafond pres de la paroi droite du lac terminal. 14!/i intemniinnnl Conuress of S1wteuloay


lfe/l e11ir: Stwl eo/o (fical Soci e/y Photo 3: Dans la partie profonde du lac, trois cables d'acier des ce ndus de la surface et marques par des turbans rouges indiquent 'emplacement des forages. Photo 4 : Puits de 43m la remontee de deux speleologues sur !es co rdes. 0-138 The role of chemical weathering in the erosional speleogenesis of some caves in igneous rocks L .D. Hose National Cave and Karst Research Institute, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 USA Abstract Long mislabeled as "talus" caves, several of the most notable caves in crystalline rocks in the western United States have little or no associa tion with talus. The thirteen caves of the Lost Creek System in Colorado Hurricane Cave on Pikes Peak, Colorado, and the Greenhorn and Miller ton Lake Caves in California have formed through a three-to four-step process in which talus building processes play only a minor or no role The Colorado caves formed in the potassium feldspar and biotite-rich Proterozoic Pikes Peak granite. The California caves formed in a Creta ceous quartz monzonite (tonalite). All these sites lie within major moun tain ranges that have been subject to intense tectonism, which caused rectilinear fracturing. These joints provided pathways for groundwater flow through the otherwise mostly impermeable rocks The groundwater concentrated in situ chemical weathering (i.e hydration and hydrolysis) along the joints, converting biotite to hydrobiotite and vermiculite and feldspars to clays. The phyllosilicate product crystals take up notably larger volume than their parent minerals and, hence, further fractured the crystalline rock along the pathways. Rocks lining the t ec tonic fracture s were converted to grus. Stream cutting formed narrow steep-walled can yons ~r subterranean suffusion formed bedrock-enclosed conduits and mechanically removed the grus as the third common step in the process of 21-28 lwuust 2[)05, Kutumus Hellos developing these caves. Although short segments of some of these caves were completely formed at this point, most of the passages experienced a fourth, roof-forn1ing step. The roof of the Millerton Lake Caves mostly fom1ed by the catastrophic collapse of immediately overlying rock that had been undermined by the enlargement of sub-horizontal joints in step three The dominant roof-forming (step four) process in the Lost Creek Syst em involved th e settling and wedging of very well-rounded, overlying or nearby corestones that had fonned in steps two and three. The expan sion of talus accumulations helped roof over some cave passages, particu larly above Hurricane Cave However the Lost Creek and Millerton Lake Cave Systems have no nearby cliff or true talus landforms that could ha';e contributed roof material in their development. Erosional caves in other poorly soluble rocks probably formed through similar three-to four-step processes Vadose, dendritic conduit passages in an unusual ~750 m long c ave in Jalisco Mexico, are almost completely enclosed in a Quaternary ash fall breccia bedrock. Instead of chemical weathering focusing along a tectonic fracture a paleosol between flow units provided a thin, imperme abl e layer focusing intermittent water flow along its surface. Chemical weat hering alters the mafic minerals to clays which are readily removed by suffusion. In th is example, only steps two and three appear critical to the p rocess.


0-139 Decoupled and depth stratified circulation in a coastal carbonate aquifer: Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico P,A, Beddows, P.L. Smart, S.L. Smith, F.F. Whitaker School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK Abstract The conventional model for saline groundwater circulation in coastal carbonate aquifers is that a shallow zone of saline outflow is entrained coastward by the discharge of the overlying fresh water lens, with a com pensatory inflow of sea water at depth. However, this model is supported by only a limited number of field observations as in situ monitoring of groundwater circulation remains logistically challenging. Here we present an alternative model based on instrumental records (velocity, salinity, temperature) and dye tracing of groundwater circulation in extensive flooded cave systems on the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The conduits are the focus of this study as they account for >99% of the aquifer flux. The saline flow to ~5 m below the fresh-saline mix ing zone is modulated by the semi-diurnal tides, while lower frequency alternating cycles of net inflow and outflow correspond to the annual pe riods of high and low Caribbean sea levels. The shallow saline ground water temperatures are comparable to that of the Caribbean seawater at the coast but decline by 1.8oC at 9 km inland indicating that the saline inflow penetrates far into the aquifer. The semidiumal tides impound the fresh water on top of the mixing zone during high tides, however all data indicate a persistent net discharge of fresh water regardless of mean sea level. The coastward freshwater discharge is decoupled from the revers-0-140 Improving karst subsurface cartography using geophysics ing shallow saline groundwater circulation. As a result, the mixing zone within the conduits is characterised by very steep density gradients and strongly sheared flows. In contrast to the reversing shallow saline circula tion, velocity measurements of deeper saline water in three conduits to depths of 45 m below the mixing zone indicate continuous inland flow irrespective of mean Caribbean sea-level. Whilst this is consistent with the conventional circulation model, it may also indicate a unidirectional cross-platform circulation channelling water from the Caribbean Sea into the Gulf of Mexico, the drive for which may be a head difference across the platform. A limited number of deeper profiles reveal a second but smaller density interface a few metres below the mixing zone suggesting shear and decoupling between the shallow and deep saline flow regimes. The pathways for the cross-platform saline flows may in part be via a deeper tier ofkarstification formed during previous low sea levels. These results challenge the conventional circulation model specifically by pro viding direct observation of decoupling of fresh and saline groundwater flows across the mixing zone, although we recognise that further research is required to confirm the proposed deeper cross platform saline circu lation. Our findings present new insight into speleogenetic processes in density stratified carbonate aquifers, as well as indicate the difficulty of predicting the fate of effluent pumped into the saline water JCremy A. TaUent'~, Josh Brewer, Patricia Kambesis, Leigh Ann Croft, Nicholas C. Crawford Center for Cave and Karst Studies, Applied Research and Technology Program of Distinction, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA Abstract All cave survey data inherently have errors due to factors including, but not limited to: inaccurate cave survey data due to conditions inside the cave, inaccuracies associated with compass and tape measurement tech niques, survey instrument calibration errors, and errors related to magnet ic fields. In locales where urban planning and construction are conducted upon karst landscapes, it becomes important to know the exact location of caves, cave roof collapses, regolith voids, bedrock crevices and other potential sites for sinkhole collapses. Therefore, subsurface survey errors must be detected and corrected before the subsurface data can be cor related with the surface cartography. This paper will demonstrate how geophysical data including microgravity and electrical resistivity data, cave radio-location technology, geo-referenced geologic and topographic quads, and cave survey data can be correlated using GIS software to pro duce a highly accurate subsurface-to-surface cartographic representation of an area. Introduction A few decades ago, the ethics behind caving began to change, the number of cavers increased, virgin passage became scarce, and more people began to think about cave preservation, cultural resources, and the consequences of building upon karst landscapes. In these times cave cartography became an encouraged activity among caver groups, thus producing tangible data about the caves they explored. Now in the most recent years, cave cartography has experienced a paradigm shift just as it did decades ago, due to GIS and other technological advances. Multiple forms of data including geophysical data can now be combined using GIS ( Geographical Information Systems) technologies to produce levels of ac curacy in representations of subsurface cartography that are greater than ever before. This is done by collecting various forms of geophysical data that are directly related (geo-referenced) to a cave map or other subsurface cartographic representation. This geophysical data along with the cave cartography and geologic and topographic data are combined into a GIS for this high level of accuracy. To further demonstrate this, the paper will examine two case studies conducted by the authors and other staff at the Center for Cave and Karst Studies (CCKS), Western Kentucky University, where these techniques were used. Geophysics, geophysical equipment, and software utilized Before the research is examined, some background information needs to be discussed. The following sections review topics that are inclusive to this research. These topics are reviewed in the following headings: I. Geophysical Equipment and Data: A. Microgravity -This geophysical technique is conducted us ing a microgravity meter, specifically in this case, a Scintrex Autograv CG-3M Automated Microgravity Meter. This gravity meter detects changes in subsurface density, measured in micro Gals. It allows non-evasive detection of voids due to the low-l-lt!I intnmuliunnl Comm:ss ot Srwleofouv


gravity signature they exhibit, relative to the surrounding area. A properly located void or cave will have the look of an inverted bell curve on the X-axis of the data, if a perpendicular traverse is placed directly over the ent i re cave passage. B. Electrical Resistivity -Electrical resistivity is another non evasive geophysical technique that can indicate a void or cave presence. The particular electrical resistivity meter used in this study is an AGI Sting and Swift Rl. This method also uses per pendicular traverses, just as microgravity does. Subsurface fea tures like air-filled voids, etc, will typically show up as an area of high resistivity, surrounded by areas of low resistivity C. Cave Radio -Unlike the previously discussed geophysical techniques, Cave radiolocation techniques require access to the cave to perform. The cave radio used by the CCKS was created by Brian Pease, and uses very low frequency 1-3 kHz electro magnetic waves to operate The principle behind cave radiolo cation is simple. A cave radiolocation transmitter located within a cave is leveled (for proper broadcasting) and its position noted relative to the nearest survey station within the cave (Figure 1 ). The transmitter is activated, causing an emission of very low frequency waves in an arching manner out from the transmitter. These waves are dispersed in 360 degrees, but as shown in Fig ure 2, the only location on the surface where a null zone occurs (location where the waves do not reach) is directly above the transmitter. The term ground zero is used to describe the exact surface location above the transmission site. By using a receiv-Figure 1: Cave Radio Transmitter. -~Ortnm..-J: \ Zno j Figure 2: Electromagnetic; waves emitted by the cave radio transmitter from within the cave. Gibson, (2002) 1lunusi 7fW5. /(11/nmus. Heflus ing antenna, the null zone is determined through triangulation on the surface, thus creating a point on the surface that can be documented and have it s GPS coord i na t es r ecorded. Given that the null zone on the surface is directly above the subsurface transmission point, th i s provides a surface to subsurface correla tion point. H. Software Used: A. ESRI ArcGIS 9 .0 ArcGIS is computer software that allows the input of multiple forn1s of data into a geo-referenced database for analysis and comparison There are other v e rsions ofGIS software available, but this version is most widely used. Data can be entered in as a point, line, or polygon. The data ~re entered into the sys tem while maintaining its contextual data, and GPS coordinates, B. Adobe mustrator l O and Cave Illustrator -Illustrator is a digital drawing/drafting program that is used to compose (electronically draw) cave maps Cave Illustrator i s a spe cial plug-in for Adobe Illustrator created by Jim Olsen and is freely available for download online Cave Illustrator works in tandem with Compass Cave plot and creates the ability to import a cave's lineplot and station data into Adobe Illustrator. C. Compass Cave Plot and CaveX These programs are used to create a digital version of the lineplot created by the sketch artist. This digital lineplot is then used to compare with the data recorded in the cave and errors are looked for The lineplot cre ated can now be exported into multiple forms, including shape files This new shapefile addition is available through CaveX (a lineplot viewer) also freely available via the internet. Cave survey and survey error Cave cartography is the science of creating paper or digital representa tions of a subsurface void or cave This is conducted via a set of processes. First, a l ineplot of the cave is created A lineplot is a two dimensional line that demonstrates the azumuthal change in a cave passage This is called the plan view (bird's eye view). This lineplot is created by setting up a series of points that extend from within the cave, to its entrance. Each of these points are linked to the other points by recording the horizonta l and vertical change of each point relative to the next and previous s tations These horizontal and vertical changes are measured using a compass, cli nometer, and fibergla s s tape measure (Figure 3). Each station has a direct Figure 3. Cave surveying in Coldwater Cave (2005).


Figure 4: Map showing Case Study 1 and Case Study 2. line of sight to the previous station. As has been discussed before, these plots, and measurement s are never perfect due to human error and other factors. These errors can be detected and elim inated through the use of the techniques demonstrated in the following case studies. Case Stud ies Case study locale information: Both study locales are with in close proximity of each other, and are related to the same industrial area specifically the Kentucky Trimodal Transpark (Figure 4). Both case studies were also conducted by the CCKS The following geologic and topographic information can be attributed to both case studies. Both caves are located in the Horse Cave Member of the Mississippian (Lower Car boniferous) Ste. Genevieve Limestone below an extremely fossiliferous silicified reeflimestone bed called the Lost River Chert and directly above the Corydon Chert Member of the Mississippian St. Louis Limestone. T he topography of the area can be d escrib ed as a low-relief sinkhole plain the Bristow Plain Case Study One S elec tion of a monitoring well location for the K entucky Trimodal Transpark. A monitoring well is to be placed downstream of the Ken tuck y Tri modal Transpark to monitor water quality from this new industrial park. After rev i ewing the karst hydrology of the area, a cave (Grant-Palmore Cave) was foun d that is downstream of the Transpark. Giv en these facts, this cave w a s selected as one which could be used for a monitoring well location. Description of Study area A general description of Grant-Palmore Cav e is as follows: The entrance to the cave is marked by a 200 meter wide collapse sinkhole, with the entranc e to the cave at the bottom right (Figure 5) The passage continues to curve to the r i ght around the perimeter of the sinkhole for about 150 meters. In this first portio n, many lay ers of ve ry large break down are present. The breakdown has a vertical extent of 15-20 meters at some points. At th e bottom of the breakdown is a chert layer where a stream flows during most times. This stream is a tributary to the trunk cave stream that flows thro ugh the Graham Springs Groundwater Drain age Basin to discharge at Graham Spr ing s. Con tinu ing further in th e cave the passage moves beyond the boundaries of the massive sinkhole and Figure 5: Lineplot of cave in Case Study One, note the perpendicular microgra v ity traverse (A-A'). the cave structure changes. In this structurally different portion of the cave, no breakdown is present and the floor has v ery large si nuous mud dunes The fore-mentioned water flows out of disco ntin uous chert layers on the wall and flows downstream until it reaches eit her a deep pool at the termination of the cave or flows downward through small openings in the lower con tinuous che1i layer th at serves as a basement rock for the cave. The water level of the deep hole fluctuates but it is typically never lower than 15 meters in water depth. Excellent examples of c hert are numerou s throughout the lower portions of the cave. Dye traces by the CCKS have re vealed that the deep pool is connected to the large trunk cave stream that flows to Graham Spri ng s The cave has a current length of 320 meters. Method used in determining subsurface cartographic accuracy A monitoring well is to be drilled into the deep pool for systematic water samp le collection and testing. T her efore, an accurate correlation of the location of the pool on the subsurface map with that of a surface topo graphic map was necessary. This required a highly accurate subsurface map so that it can be used to drill into the pool chamber. This goal was achieved using the following processes: 1. Survey teams drafted a map of the cave. This was conducted in the fashion described in the previous paragraph about cave surv ey ( + 2 degrees accuracy using Suunto instruments). 2. The cave map was then digitized ( drawn digitally using the program Ado be Illustrator) and its survey data was entered into Compass cave plotting software. Comp ass created a lineplot that corre sponded exactly with the survey measurements taken in the cave. This Compass generated lineplot was then used as reference when comparing other data such as survey data or geophysics. 3. Cav e survey data the Co mpas s gen erat ed lineplot data, and digital topographic quads were next geo-referenced into ArcGIS. Compass cave editor and CaveX viewer have the ability to export objects and lineplots as shapefiles, loadable into ESRI's Arc GIS 9.0. 4 Geophysics was used to test the accuracy of the cave map, in this case, a microgravity ana lysis A microgravity traverse was per formed on the surface. This was done by locating the area on the surface directly above the large chamber which contains the mud dunes. This area was locate d by referring to the GIS map. The GIS allows the comparison of the cave map in respect to the topography of the area, and provided the exact GPS coordinates of the subsurface features, in this case the mud dune chamber. A perpendicular trav ers e was setup to intersect the center of this chamber ( Figure 5). 5 Mic rog ravit y analysis was performed. The microgravity readings indicate that the perpendicular traverse may have be en terminated


. He ll e n ic S1 1e teo l a uicaf Soci et y while still above this large chamber. This data indicates that the survey may be in error. An error of3.5-5 meters was anticipated. 6. Cave radio was used next. With these conflicting reports, cave ra dio broadcasts were conducted near the edge of the pool chamber and in the dune chamber. These subsurface broadcast points were documented in survey notes and their positions relative to other survey stations were noted. As described before, these subsurface broadcast points can be interpolated on the surface using a triangu lating antenna. The cave radio, not only provided the latitude and longitude for the broadcast site, but also the depth. Three different broadcasts were conducted on different days and their locations marked on the surface. 7. Highly accurate OPS technology was used to record the exact OPS coordinates of the different broadcasts points. 8. This lat-fong data taken from the OPS was then entered into the ors. This was done through the usage of the input X/Y data com mand in ArcorS. 9. The data was analyzed in the ors. Results of case study one The original cave map was slightly in error causing a 3 meter discrep ancy. The cave radio broadcasts and the microgravity data both indicate this discrepancy. Later, resurvey was conducted and found one of the sta tions readings to be in error, possibly causing this discrepancy The cave radio locations were used to make minor adjustments to the cave map so that it accurately indicates its true position relative to the ground surface Case study two Protection of prehistoric and historic cultural resources and archaeo logical sites near a proposed building location at the Kentucky Trimodal Transpark. A cave was discovered during the excavation for a part of the storm water runoff treatment system near the proposed location for the Ken tucky Technological College building presently being constructed at the Transpark. The cave was surveyed by the CCKS to determine its extent and proximity to the proposed building location. Until the recent discov ery of this cave, its existence had not been known, and it is thought that its entrance collapsed or was filled in around 100 years ago. Description of Study Area The cave was accessible (now resealed to preserve the Native Ameri can burial sites, and petroglyphs inside) via an artificial entrance that was created during the construction of a storm sewer for the job site. This entrance consisted of a five meter drop from the surface into the cave. The cave continues in both directions, approximately north and south, and has multiple leads, all of which terminate in breakdown. The research indicates that these breakdown termination points sometimes correspond with sinkholes on the surface. The cave is shallow, and typically is 0.5-2 meters in height, though in some areas standing is possible. In some ar eas the ceiling reaches 4 meters in height. The cave never plunges below 10-12 meters in depth because all passages are above a continuous chert layer lo~ated around 10-12 meters below the surface. This is the Corydon Member of the St. Louis Limestone. The cave has a total length of around three-forths of a kilometer. The cave seems to be very inactive hydrologi cally. Even during rain events, very little water enters the cave. It appears that during the hydrologically active period of this cave, water drained to the center portion, which is the deepest, where it then descended toward the water table ( over 30-40 meters below) though a small opening in the 2128 A U(JU S! 2[] []5, !( o f tlflW S. H elf a s chert layer Unfortunately, this opening through the confining chert layer is much too small for human entry During the course of surveying the cave by the CCKS, multiple cul tural artifacts and archaeological resources were found. These included, but where not limited to, multiple petroglyphs (Figure 6), cane charcoal fragments, wood charcoal fragments, cultural artifacts from circa 1890, candle writings, and two intentional human burial sites. The Kentucky State Archaeologist, and the director of Anthropology and Archaeology at the University of Kentucky were contacted by the client, the Intermodal Transportation Authority (ITA) and hired to conduct an investigation of these archaeological findings Preliminary findings show that humans entered the cave at two distinct times in the past: most recently around the late 1800's when the wood charcoal and candle writings were produced and around 2000-3000 BCE when the cane charcoal, geometric petroglyphs, and the human burials were placed in the cave. At the time of the writing of this research, carbon dating results were not yet completed, and these ages of the archaeological sites are estimated by the preliminary results of the archaeological inves tigation. Method used in determining subsurface cartographic accuracy The techniques used for this study area do not vary much from those used in the previous example (Case Study One) except for a couple of exceptions Electrical resistivity data was analyzed and inserted into the ors instead of microgravity, and more cave radio points were collected This is due to a few factors: 1. The cave length is greater in Study Area Two 2. Study Area Two has multiple objects of interest that must be accu rately located in relation to the rest of the cave survey, namely the archaeological sites. 3. This cave is not as deep as the cave in Study Area One. These differences resulted in a greater reliance on cave radio data in this study than that in Study Area One. Cave radio points (surface to sub surface correlation points) were placed in areas where they would provide the best accuracy for both archaeological and cultural artifact location data, and provide accurate data for the entire cave. In other words, by placing the cave radio in areas near the extremities of the cave as opposed to the center of the cave, one can better gauge the accuracy of the entire cave map because a greater percentage of the cave is in close proximity to a cave radiolocation transmission site. Results of case study two The cave discussed in this study is approx i mately three-forths of a kil ometer long much longer than Grant-Palmore Cave the cave previously discussed in Case Study One Therefore multiple cave radiolocations (and other surface to subsurface correlation points [i.e. entry site OPS data]) were used in testing the accuracy of the cave survey. Also, the proximity of the archaeo l ogical resources and sites was taken into account. Logically, the closer in proximity to a radio-location broadcast point, the greater the accuracy of the sketch for that area The broadcast points were selected to provide adequate coverage of the extremities of the cave, while also still being in close proximity to the petroglyphs and burial sites Initially before corrective measurements were made, the survey had an error of 3-4 meters. After ors techniques were used this error was reduced by more than two hundred percent. These results were then transferred into a computer file format that the site engineers could utilize and import into CAD for better planning. This allowed for better protection of the cave archaeological sites and cultural artifacts. Conclusion


Figure 6: Petroglyphsfrom Case Study Two. Circa 2500 BCE The techniques discussed in this paper increase the accuracy of sub surface cartography to level s that were not possible before. This level of accuracy is helping to improve and increase the usefulness of the GIS data as well. No longer are cave maps only the interest of the cave en thusia sts Now, since GIS data is easily searchable, and transferable, multiple disci plines of scientific research are able to use cave cartography. Contextual data describing attribute s of objects and features found in the caves can now be included in the GIS. These sciences include, but are certainly not limited to; paleontology, archaeology, geology, hydrology, and engineer ing, just to name a few. As technology continues to advance it is hoped that more disciplines will continue to utilize GIS and subsurface cartog raphy. References 0-141 H ell enic Sll eleoloui r:u l Suci e fy Figure 7 : Ado be Illustrator showing the drafting of Grant-Palmore Cave. Crawford, N.C. (2003). Site Evaluation and Design Assistance for the Proposed Kentucky Trimodal Transpark, Final Report, Center for Cave and Karst Studies, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Ken tucky 42101, USA Gibson, D (2002) Radiolocation for_ Cave Surveying. http://www. uk/radio/radioloc _for_ cave.html Author Unknown (2005) The Coldwater Cave Project. ttp:/ /www. caves. org/proj ect/ coldwater/ Author Unknown (2005). Cavers Digest http: / /www.c aversd igest. com/new _page_ I .html Pease, B. (2005). Thru-the-Earth Radio Location and other Stuff.http:/ / Recent karst and cave studies of the Aladaglar Massif, Central Taurus, Turkey, and their significance to paleogeographic reconstructions L. Nazi k, S. Bayari, A K limch ouk N. K. Tork Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, Turkey Hydrogeological Engineering Section of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine Abstract Aladaglar is an outstanding karst massif located in the Central Taurus Range within Adana-Kayseri-Nigde provinces of Turkey, between the regional Ecemis Fault on the west and the deeply incised valley of Za manti River on the east. It is composed mainly by Tri assic Jurassi c and Cretaceous limestones and has the local relief extending between 400m and 3750m elevations. During 2001-2004 extensive karst and cave stud ies have been carried out in Aladaglar under the joint Turkish-Ukrainian project, result ing in new data and insights into regional karst evol ution, hydrogeology and geomorphology. The aquifer associated with Aladaglar covers about 1900 km2 Most of discharge occurs at elevations ranging between 400 and 750m on the eastern flanks of the massif, where it to tals in about 32 m3/sec. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest the presence of "shallow" and "deep" circulation systems and rather small groundwater residence time in both Sixty per cent of discharge comprises recharges of the last 3 -4 years. Along with high concentration of the dis charge, this points to the presence of well-developed and highly integrated conduit systems in depth of the ma ssif. Geomorphologically three types ofkarst are recognized in Aladaglar: (1) Covered (contact) karst along the margins of the retreat i ng cover of the ophiolite melange and Miocene con glomerates at the altitudes betwe en 1200 -1900; (2) Polygonal karst of the utmost density ofkarstic landforms at the altitudes between l 700-2400m ; (3) High mountain karst at the altitudes above 2600m. These types repre sent the evolut iona ry succession of the karst development in Aladagl ar in the Plio-Quatemary Besides, there are signs of paleokarst o f presu mably Late Miocene age and of paleokarst associated with hydrothermalism During recent years over 150 caves have been explored mainly vertical, of the total depth of 6640m. Of them 32 caves are deeper than 50m deep and 12 caves are in excess of 100m. Fifty-seven caves are located above the 3000m altitude, the highest explored cave being at 341 Om. The most remarkable is Kuzgun Cave currently 1400m deep and 3187m long with its outstanding variety of mineral formations and sediments. Cavities of at least five generations are preliminarily identified: (1) ancient (Late Mi ocene?) with massive speleothems (2) hydrothermal, (3) pre-glacial and modem vadose invasion ( commonly decapitated by the last glaciation in the high sector) and (4) spring outlets. General potential of the Aladaglar Massif for deep caves is estimated to be up to 2500m, although the hy drologic system circulation depth can be up to 2700m. Major karst and cave development in Aladaglar started since Late Miocene, being guided by differential uplifts, uncovering of the carbonate rocks, hydrothermal ism, formation (re-organization) and incision of the erosional network. The overall morphology and karst development were severely impacted by Quaternary glaciations, particularly by the last one that occurred be tween 9 500 and 7 ,500 years BP according to cosmogenic 36Cl dating of morainic boulders. The Aladaglar Massif, with its intense neotectonic development, diversity of karst and cave types, various kinds of paleoen vironmental records and deep cave systems appears to establish as an outstanding natural laboratory for studying complex karst evolution. The ongoing combined speleological, geomorphological and hydrogeologi cal researches are aimed to reveal this evolution in more details. 14117 fnturnnfiunut Conu r ess of Soel e uf ouy


f!e!lrmic S11e leo/u uir:o/ Sur:ie/ y 0-142 Results of the Field Work in Kapovaya Cave (Shulgantash) by a Team from the A. Karpinsky All-Russia Research Geological Institute of the Russian Geographic Society in 2001-2005. Yu. Lyakhnitsky, A. Solodeinikov, A Yushko Theses: I. Ancient Drawings Need Protection 2. Digital Photography Revealed Details Invisible to the Naked Eye 3 Speleologists Found the Most Ancient Artists Palette In 2001, the Ministry of Culture of Bashkortostan initiated a revival of comprehensive field work in Kapovaya Cave (Shulgantash). The cave is located in the South Urals near the river of Belaya in the Shulgantash National Preserve. This is a mildly branching three-level speleosystem with a running length of3 kilometers and vertical amplitude of260 meters (including underwater syphon cavities) with large halls, galleries, under water lakes, and a river. In 1959, A. Ryumin, an employee of the preserve, found Paleolithic drawings in the cave. Later the cave was studied by archeologists 0. Bad er and V. Shchelinsky. Shchelinsky opened a cultural layer of the upper Paleolithic Age in the Signs Hall. Thus, the study of this monument proves the existence of a developed Paleolithic civilization in the Urals. Our studies aim at preserving the cave with its unique Paleolithic drawings. We propose to organize a museum-preserve within the cave and to carry out scheduled improvement of the area surrounding the entrance to the cave. This is necessary for preserving the internal areas of the cave with their ancient drawings. In order to track the changes in the condition of the cave and the cave drawings, as well as to develop measures for preserving the drawings, monitoring of dynamic parameters of the speleosystem is taking place. The following factors are being studied: geological, geomorphological, hydraulic, hydrochemical, microclimatic, microbiological, and geoeco logical parameters. The set of monitored phenomena has been signifi cantly extended through using new kinds and methods of research, such as radon contents and air ionization. A great deal of attention is being paid to monitoring the condition of Paleolithic drawings and its archiving. As a result of the field work carried out by our team, a large number of new drawings have been discovered and a previously undetected structure of old drawings has recently been revealed. New, previously unknown extensions of the cave have been discovered. Field work of speleologists from Moscow has shown that phreatic zones of the deep circulation of the cave run 78 meters down from the surface-much deeper than the level of the Byelaya River. The unexplored underwater cavities run 3 kilometers under the valley and the Shulgan Canyon up to the Ozhiganovskaya Cave, a sinkhole of Shulgan stream, which feeds the karst system. One of the main goals was detailed archiving of the drawings, some of which might be lost in the near future. Topological surveying and photography of the drawings is taking place. In order to accurately copy or trace the interiors of the cavities and posi tion of drawings, topological referencing of the halls with drawings is tak ing place. The drawings have been photographed by A. Solodeinikov and Yu. Lyakhnitsky using color and size standards and taking into account horizontal orientation of objects An original method of digital image processing has been devised It allows for revealing drawings that are difficult to see or invisible to the 21-28 Auaust 2005 Ka!mnos !-leltus naked eye. This has led to the discovery of dozens of new drawings and around a hundred unclassified spots-remains of drawings damaged by the elements. Studying the drawings has shown that in addition to realistic depic tions of animals, numerous drawings depict geometric marks. The most abundant are variants of the trapezoid, which is characteristic of the Ka povaya Cave. Complexity, systematism and variety of these marks al lows us to suppose that they bear certain significance, i e. are virtually hieroglyphs. We have observed several cases of, seemingly, ritual apply ing new drawings on top of old one in order to distort or destroy the original drawings. The accumulated materials allow us to publish a Catalog of Drawings and Marks Found in the Kapovaya Cave, which will include around 200 depictions of five types: red ocher, polychrome black-charcoal ciay and cave (partially modeled) bas-reliefs. Limonite, found near the cave (getite, hydrogetite, and other minerals) was used for most drawings. It was kilned and mixed with various dyes for e x ample clay and carbonate ocher from eroded b a rk, and, probably, "animal glue made from fat and blood. No certain results on organic compounds of the dyes have been obtained so far The group has not carried out archeological excavations ; however, in teresting chance discoveries have been made during research. An ancient "palette" has been found in the rocks. This was a flat rock with a layer of prepared red ocher. It was removed by archeologists and can now be observed in a museum in Ufa. Several natural cavities have been discovered between large chunks of rock, some of which almost certainly wer e artificially extended or iso lated. They are located along the perimeter of the Hall o f Chaos and may have been used for rituals. In conjunction with the State Hennitage (E. Melnikova), we have developed a method of coating the drawings with a protective layer of hydrophobic formula, which was tested on models but the final decision for its use has not yet been made. Measures for modeling hydraulic and micro-climatic conditions in the cave are also in development. This is nec essary for preserving the Paleolithic drawings Thus, our speleologic team carries out detailed and comprehensive exploration of the speleosystem monitors its dynamic parameters, and archives ancient drawings. The results allow us to develop methods for improving the extremely unfavorable hydrological conditions of the cave necessary for preserving the unique Paleolithic drawings and outline the prospects for organizing a contemporary historico-archeological and land scape-speleological preserve.


0-14 3 Main 2001 to ea rly 2005 result s on the karst of khammm.ume, cen tra l laos : long caves, sloping caves, hollow stalagmites and o thers lau de mouret@wanadoofr, La Tama nie F-873 80 MAG NA C-BO UR G Abstract The 20 012005 ex plorati ons in t he kar st of Khammouane h ave led to the mapping of an add ition al 55 kilometres, bri nging the total surv eye d length to 130 kilometres ( s ince 1 991 ). The longest cave exceeds 24 km and the h ighe st on e re aches + 465 m etre s of r ela tive eievati on Slo ping caves have been dis cove red, one longer than 12 kilometres (Tham Ph is eua) It has a phreatic origin and may have formed during the La te M ioce ne to/ o r the Lo wer Pliocen e. Unu sual mine ral forma tion s a re pre sent, incl uding iro n crusts, abundant mondmilch gypsum cru s ts and around 200 hollow st a lagmites. Hollo w stalagmites and rims are en coun tered in two other ca ve s, t og eth er w ith mondmilch and gyps um i n on e of them Besides, prehistoric representations have been discovered in several cave s, da ting p ossi bly from 250 0 to 3500 BP. A cav e with 229 B uddha im age s, discovered in 2004 by a villag er, was s tud ied b y us in detail, tog ether with th e tens o f cave shie lds it co ntains. Ad ditio nal activ it y concerned among oth ers e thnospe leo logy and cav e biology T his pape r pr esents some of the main res ults Resu me L es explorations 20 01-2 005 sur le ka rst d u K ham mouan e ont permis de topographier 55 kilometres qui participent a u x 130 kilometres !eves depui s 1991. Le grot te la plus l on gue depas se 24 k ilometres et la pl us grande denivelee est de + 465 metres Des grottes pentues sur de longu es distances ont ete ex p loree s, dont une de plus de l 2 kilom et res (Tham Phiseua). Son orig ine est phreati qu e elle a pu se forme r a u Mioc ene superieur et/ ou au Pliocene in ferieur. Des formations m inera les inhab ituelle s y sont pres entes, comme de s cro fltes ferrugineuscs sur lc s p aroi s, du mondmilch en grand e quantite des croute s de gypse et env iro n 200 st al agm ites creuses. De telles stalagmites e t des r ims existent dans deux autres gro ttes, ass ocies a du mon dmi lch et du gyps e da ns l 'u ne d'elles Des figurat io ns prehi stor iqu es ont ete decrites dan s pl usie urs autres grottes et attr ibuees a un age po ssible de 500 a 1500 av J.C. Une grotte avec 229 stat ues de Bo ud dha, decou vert e en 2004 par un vill ageois ( et que nous avons expertisee ) contient aussi de nombreux disques de cal cite D'aut res res ulta ts pro vi ennent, notamm ent, de reche rch es ethno speleo log iques et biosp eolo giqu es. Cet art icle pre sente plusieurs resultats marquant s. The ka rst of Kh amm ouan e is 290 x 40 km large and mad e up of around 1100 metre-thick Permo-carboniferous carbonate. It has a t wo-season dry and wet tropical climate. All the flo ws go to th e Mekong River. cav es All together, we organised 14 exploration campaigns and three recon n aiss ance trips in K ha mmou a ne le ading, amo ng many r esu lts, to the map ping of 130 kilometres of passa ge s Foll owing o ur 19 9 1-2000 rese arc h, further cave explora t i o n has led to the mapping of an additional 55 km of cave s p assag es, bringing the lon gest single ca ve de velo pme nt to mo re than 24 km in the Nam Non Cave and th e highest one to+ 465 m in Tham Phiseu a. Now, we have explo red l ca ve lo nger than 20 km, 3 ca ves be twe en 10 and 15 km, 5 between 5 and 10 km an d many shorter ones A large part of these c aves is still u nder expl orati on. One cave entra nc e is aro un d 215 m wide an d a 9 km l ong riv er cave (Xe Ban g F ai) has on e of t he la rge st average flows in the world (Mouret, 2001). Many large cham bers h ave be e n disco vere d as wel l. Hydrog e ological karst feat ures Our explorations have greatiy helped in clarifying hydrogeological rel ati ons. T he best exa mple is t he N am BoutNa m Pa River s sys t em (nam = r iver), that topographic maps were indicating as two rivers flowing ou t of the karst, in opposite dir e ctions (the first towards the Mek ong the second to ward s the oppo si te karsf edge) This wa s theoretically poss ibl e wi thi n the regional setting, though not so likely The exp loration of the re mote Nam Bout vall ey (on th e upstream s ide of the k arst) has p roved t hat t he Nam B out and its main tributaries ori ginate from all ocht on ous forma tions The Nam Bout follows th e karst edge without s inking then it enters a narro w 1 2 kilome tres l on g blind valley and Tham Boumlou at the end (tham = cave). The water flows throu ghou t the karst massif down to the polje of Ban Boumlou, wher e it takes the name of Nam Pakan. It crosses t he pol je and sinks agai n to re-ap pea r :in the Mekon g valley. This set tin g is m ore simple and in good agr eeme nt with the regional hydrogeological organisation: the main direction of flow towar ds th e Mekong is paralle l to th e maximum hydrogeological gradient. The lack of sinking o f the N am Bout along the karst is surprising, but it is not the only river to do so alon g the upstr ea m edg e of the kars t in Kham mouan e. One of its temporary flowing tributaries, th e Houay Nad an en ters the border polje ofBan Mouang Louang without si nking significantly. According to t he villagers the water of the polje when i t i s flooded, es c apes into th e Nam Bout. At th e dry season, we have observed ponors which sho w no morphology of sinkho l e and temporary karst springs on the edge of th e pol je (a larg e part of the poije is lik e a blind valley perpen d icu lar to the karst edg e ) The ia c k of si nking must be due to a too we ak a bsorption (low per meabilit y ) at the beg innin g of the rainy seaso n and/or probably to water e mission from the kar st itse lf. Flow inversion may exist between some ponors wh en the water level is ris in g in th e karst The aquifer g ets qu ickl y full ( at b e st, it absorbs little water) and this creat es a fast flooding of the polje (a few me tre s of water depth ov er several squ are kilometres), la rgely fed by t he Houay Nadan water in c ome and karst spring flows. In this way all oc htonous waters a re force d to escape along the ka rst edge Th is setting is, in t he detail, ra ther complex and more work on it is planned. O bliq ue cave netwo r ks along dipping strata For lon g, only su bhori zon ta l caves were known in Kha m mou ane Most of t hem are lo cated clo se to the prese nt day elevat ion of poljes and kar st plains. A few short ones were kno w n 10 to 15 m below polje s urface and a few fos sil on es were known up to + 140 m, relative e lev ation (RE), with cave o pe nings up to 26 0 m RE abo ve poljes an d kar st pla i ns. Besides, a few oblique ca ves were known : the short Tham Nam Thieng, which opens at 260 m RE (Mouret, 200 l) and a few sunk ca ves explored by divers: spring of Nam K ongleng : 47 m (Benoit 1998) ; sp ring of Nam Kham: 48 m (Mo ri eux, 2000). In 2000, we reached+ 96 m in Th am Phise ua a cave lo cated 15 km to the North-East ofThakhek (Moure t et al 2001), then + 315 min 2002, + 379 min 2004 and + 4 65 min Feb ruary 2005 In 200 5 we also reached nearly+ 20 0 min Tham Ho uay Sai Koun D on. The two cave systems, uf


Helle ni c SJ][ !if!O/U {fiC (I/ Sur:ie /y both longer than 1 O km each, are located in the same part of the karst and perhaps connect each other ( a possibility that we will further investigate very soon). Tham Phiseua General organisation of the cave Tham Phiseua is comprised of two parts: a nearly rectilinear, subhori zontal, passage (Gregory, 1996a & b), controlled by fractures, flowing at the rainy season (Fig. 1 ), and a complex system of fossil passages, which are nearly all following stratification surfaces (Fig. 2). These fossil pas sages are locally rejuvenated by present day flows at the rainy sea~o~, which result from infiltration in different upper parts of the cave. This 1s due to the fact that the cave develops in a karst hill which has a limited extension though at the base it connects larger karst areas. The fossil pas sages are oblique and dip around 18 degrees broadly towards the lower spring entrance. The main entrance is a side passage besides the spring and it is located to the West of the hill. The fossil passages rise toward the Northeast and pierce the northern flank of the hill in no less than four openings between around + 250 m and + 465 m RE. The highest one is close to the top of the hill This setting is extremely interesting, as the cave has ( at least in the explored part) a nearly constant overall slope (Fig. 2) related to an almost regular structural dip: the cave gently rises between the active lower pas sage and the upper openings and it shows no vertical part, except a few younger pitches that have cut through fossil passages. The slope of th e passages varies according to their direction along the bedding surfaces: it is equal to the dip value where the cave follows the dip direction and to a few degrees w her e it follows t he st r ik e These two directions make up a framework which controls the cave pattern and generate a complex setting. Main passages (around 15 x 10 m or 20 x 6-8 m) are commonly con nected by extremely dense mazes of smaller galleries (around 4 x 3 m). There are also lesser dense mazes with larger passages and very large, low, passages along strata surfaces which are tens of metres wide and 1 to 3 metres high: some of the latter connect other passages through false, bottomless, evorsion hollows which are subcylindrical holes between the end of an upper passage and the roof of the lower, large and low, pas sage. Uppel' 100m -North ( magn. ) f -Fi g. I: Tham Phiseua ; mapping status aft e r 2004 exploration (n o w +465 m). 27--2 8 t 2l W5. l

Cave mineralogical deposits Cave mineralogy, under investigation, is extremely interesting A number of passages are covered with a crust of iron oxide and/ or hydrox ide, mainly a l ong the walls but also at the roof and even inside cupolas The crusts are plastered" on cave walls and covered with some porous calcite(?) deposits (under analysis), themselves unconformably sealed by onlapping gypsum crusts on the cave floor This gypsum also covers thick powdery mondmilch I ron crusts are one to several millimetres thick. Wall calcite is commonly 10 to 20 cm thick. Gypsum is a few centimetres and mondmilch can reach more than 50 cm Iron crusts are well developed in the upper part of the cave, but not only They are encountered also in steep passages in the mid-elevation part of the cave, where they preferentially "plaster" the lower half of the walls. In other passages at lower elevation, they are still found at the roof of some passages. Clearly, there seems to be more iron oxide/ hydroxide in the upper part of the cave, as seen also, for instance, on the cave floor where dark blood-red sediments are well present. The lower parts of the cave seem to show much less of these iron oxides/ hydroxides. At around + 230 m, in a spacious low slope passage, there was in February 2004, just after several days of heavy rains during the dry season, a strong smell much alike the smell of sulphide mine deposits stored outside. This sug gests the presence of sulphides in the cave floor sediments of this black ish-coloured passage. Hollow stalagmites, very unusual in caves are many ( and we have discovered more of them in two other caves) and encountered above+ 250 m RE. There are around 200 of them, which are mainly located on flat and marginally sloping grounds. They are commonly around 80 cm high and can reach up to 1. 7 5 m. In another cave, Tham Lo, they are associated with gypsum crusts and mondmilch powdery sediments, as in Tham Phiseua. Tham Lo shows severa l large rims. In the third cave, Tham Houay Sai Koun Don, they are associated with vents and rims in specific lo cations Phiseua stalagmites have a central channel over the whole length, which even enters the floor. Because of this characteristic and the lack of stalactite in at least 95 % of the cases, because the axial hole may be covered at the top by stalagmite minerals, and because this axial hole is sometimes largely deviated from the vertical ( and in these cases it cannot be due to dropping water), it was initially thought that such stalagmites are fed from ascending fluids from below the floor. However, several sta lagmites were found on large size boulders and there is no hole below the boulder. However, things are probably not so simple:. some stalagmites show morphologies that would exist if they were flowing at the top (Fig. 3, d). T :; / a b C d e h i k I f 1<,; \fl/ 111' m n Fig. 3: Hollow stalagmites from Tham Phiseua a to f externa l shape, regular (a), bigger near or at the top (b c), open and shaped like a pourer-spout (d), composite (e), open, like cracked (f); g: the internal channel goes down into the ground; h to k: internal shape, almost closed on top (h), narrow hole on top (i), top hole smaller t han the channel 0), same with internal radial crystals (k); l : elliptic channel and top open ing; m: top enlargement of the channel; n: view of the compos ite internal channels of stalagmite (e) showing both the vertical and oblique channels. SJJe leu louicul Society -Are there several ways of formation ? The rarity of stalactites (Fig 4) suggests rather unusual conditions of formation. Stalagmites are not uncommonly aligned below crests separating broadly featured cupolas : gravity-related phenomenon only ? Stalagmite s mineralogy often shows a ca s e of oxidised iron minerals between other minerals ( and iron is more abundant in the upper part of the cave). The central channel, not always cylindrical, looks like corroded in many stalagmit e s, so there a clear effect of corrosion in the formation of the hollow stalagmites, but the unusual mineralogy (under study) and the lack of stalactites must play a role. We are dealing with an unusual setting. In the same area as the stalagmites but not in stalagmite fields" there are large mass es of stalactites (up to lm la r ge) with flat stalagmites be low. Fig. 4: Some hollow stalagmites (height is around 0.8 m) in the upper part of Tham Phiseua. Note the absenc e of stalactite. Photo by H elene Frume. Hypotheses on cave origin The age of the cave, the unusual mineral associations, the existence of hollow stalagmites rich in iron, the smell of sulphides and associated black colours in the passage, the existence of cupolas, the fine grain size of sediments and the phreatic nature of the cave suggest but it remains to be confirmed the possibility of a hydrothermal, H2S driven, speleo genesis. Ongoing analyses will help in solving the problem. In the present status of the knowledge such a speleogenesis is compatible with the re gional geological setting. Tham Houay Say-Koun Don This cave has three entrances on the downstream, southern, side (Mouret, 1998), which are located near the end of an elongated karst plain. One is the spring of the large Nam Don (a river which has highly con trasted flow rates) the sump of which was dived in 1998 over around 240 m (end at -12 m) with a low point at -23 m along the way (Espinasse, 1999). Another one (Tham Houay Sai) is a cave with a temporary flow The last one is nearly fossil, though it is partly invaded by dormant (?) water in the rainy season The two latter entrances are located on different sides of the Nam Don and they are connected by a more than 4 kilometres long loop. Our team discovered and started exploring the cave in 1997. We went again in 2000, 2003 and February 2005 The cave shows two areas with respect to the slope of passages: first a downstream area behind the three outlets; it is around one kilometre large and the slope is small, a few degrees as is the structural dip. The area behind the above mentioned loop has a steeper, around 20 degrees, slope (though this varies a bit) and a dense network of passages along dip and 14117 ln!mnnfionnl Cunuress nf S;wleo!uuy


Helleni c SJH leo/U(fiCIII Suc i !:IV strike. The relative elevation reached in 2005 is close to + 200 m and an exit in a topographic valley-like, low opposite to the entrances has been discovered. To the West, the cave massif is bounded by a valley which is higher than the karst p la in of Nam Don and an additional set of three openings to the outside was found in fossil galleries. The part of the cave which is lining the eastern cliff of the valley shows hollow stalagmites and small rims The cave floor shows common calcite cover through which the sta lagmites are set. Some hollow stalagmites are associated with rims up to 15 cm in diameter Some thin-walled speleothems intermediat e between rims and hollow stalagmites are present as well. One area shows a hollow speleothem diverging upward from the vertical then curving down and a nearly horizontal one. No mondmilch is observed in this part of the cave. Tham Lo This fossil cave surveyed over more than five kilometre s is located around 100 m above the surrounding polje of Ban Vieng. It shows a major main passage which reaches up to a 70 metres width and a 60 metres height, and side galleries Besides the main gallery which is subhorizon tal, many of the side galleries are significantly sloping along the structural dip, with differences in elevation up to 85 metres recorded. Tham Lo shows several large rims which are located no further than 50 metres from the main entrance (twin openings in the passage wall), though they are distant of nearly one kilometre from the end of the pas sage, cut through by a karst valley. The bottom of a side shaft is also covered with mondmilch and gypsum crusts. More rims are found on sloping flowstones and in the boulders of a large chamber around 250 m from the main entrance ( each of them displays a cemented sealed on the side, chimney). Further away, mondmilch covered with a gypsum crust is encountered near a major sloping passage. At s ome distance again, there are rimstone dams made up of a soft mineral assemblage under study. Then hollow stalagmites are found further inside the cave, on th e side of the large passage. Archaeological discoveries, biology, ethnospeleology Prehistoric cave art was discovered in 2000, 2002 (Ostennann & Mouret, 2004) and 2004, in rock shelters and cave entrance areas in the Xe Bang Fai Valley (a route between Vietnam and the Mekong River val ley) and to the South of it. One set of is isolated in the polje ofBan Vieng, beyond a high limestone ridge. Drawings and paintings represent human beings alone, human beings pulling animals ( domesticated animals and one dead animal), animals such as elephants ( one with a load on the back), geometric patterns and -figuration s difficult to interpret because of their alteration. The colour is red or black. A part of the figurations is estimated to be 500 to 1500 BC, but there is more than one generat ion of cave art. A major archaeological discovery was made by a villager in April 2004 in Tham Pafa, a cave located several kilometres to the NE of Thakhek, the provincial capital. The previously unknown fossil passage was found 15 metres above ground level above a large entrance sheltering a permanent lake. There down a narrow opening, an enlargement revealed 229 Buddha statues, pottery and old writings in two large trunks, dating probably back to the 18th Century. These treasures were likely hidden during the Thai invasions at the end of the 18th or the beginning of the 19th Century, then their knowledge was lost until 2004 We made an expertise of the cave for the authorities and we advised them on its conservation and its geological stability. Indeed, the place where worshippers place themselves to pray is largely located on a less than one metre thick calcite deposit (which may bear some silt or clay horizons) and this part of the cave is above the lake. It has a thin wall with the cliff (locally less than one metre) and fractures exist. Tens of cave shields are also present in the cave. Cave biology has been largely carried out by our team, including the 2 -28 !wousJ 20D S l{ofu n ws He!!ns study of micro fauna and macro fauna giant spiders specially Finally, a lot of image acquisition was made including movies. Acknowledgements To our Laotian friends, especially MM Vannivong Soumpholphakdy, Souksane, Kham Nyang, Khamsone Khamlasy, Ky, our policeman friend our drivers, cooks, guides and the villagers. Nothing would have been possible without them and without my Eu ropean colleagues: Ph. Bence, 0. Bonnet, J. Chambard, Y. Dreibrogt, H. de Heltdorf H. Frume, B. Giai-Checa, C. Ghommhid, L. et M. Grilleres, E. Guichard F. Guillot, P. Jaeger, N. Le Teurtre, J. Lordon, X Nogues, C. Noiriel, H. de Picon Heltdorf, J. Rolin, J.M. Ostermann, P Sans, H. Steine r and J.F. Vacquie. Many thanks also to our friend Jan Burrows for his helpfulness and to the Laotian authorities w h o kindly provided us with the necessary authori zations and who nicely welcomed u s in K hammouane References BENOIT P. 1998 Rapport de !'expedition plongee speleo Khamm ouane 97 Laos, prov ince de Khammouane, 10 fevrier-1 er mar s 1997, 34 p. ESPINASSE A. 1999. Synthese d es explorations realisees lors de l'exp edition FFESSM-Laos 98. Le Fil, Bull. de liaison de la commission nationale Plongee souterraine, Fed. Fr. d 'Etudes et de Sports Sous-Marins (FFESSM), n, pp5-10. GREGORY A. 1996a. Laos. In "The Caving Scene", International Caver, n 18 p. 38 GREGORY A. 1 996b. LPDR caves project. 71 p. MORIEUX G. 2000. Laos 2000 Fed. Fr. d'Etudes et de Sports Sous Marins (FFESSM). Report of the Expedition FFESSM 2000, 57 p. MOURET C 1994. Geologic a l evolution of Northeastern Thailand since the Carboniferous. Relations with Indochina and Carboniferous to Cenozoic evolution model. Bangkok, 15-20 Nov. 1994, Proc. Intern. Symp. Congr. IGCP 306, Stratigr. Correl. of SE Asia, pp 132-158 MOURET C. 1998 Laos. Sixieme campagne d'exploration au Kham mouane, 7 au 23 Fevrier 1998 : pres de 59 km topographies de 1992 a 1998 Spelunca Bull., n 71, pp 7-12 MOURET C. 2001. Le karst du Khammouane au Laos central. Dix ans de recherches speleologiques. Spelunca Bull., n, pp 7-32 MOURET C. 2005. Les speleothem es en forme de disque de Tha m Pa Fa (Khammouane, Laos) et leur signification. Proc. 14th Ren c ontre d'Octobre Florac, Oct. 2004, under print in g MOURET C., 2002 Explorations 2002 sur !es karst s du Khammouane et de Laksao Laos central. Spelunc a Bull. MOURET C GHOMMHID C. 2005. Decouverte d'une grotte ex ceptionnelle au Laos : Tham Pafa (Khammou ane). 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0-144 Specific cmu::iuctivity in karst waters ~ what can vve learn from it ? W.E. Krawczyk. D.C. Ford University ofSilesia, ,Sosnowiec, Poland,-McMaster Universi(v, Hamilton, Canada Abstract Under field conditions modem digital conductivity meters give stand ardized, rapid and reproducible measurements. Here we investigate the accuracy of their estimates of the composition of karst waters, as total hardness (TH, as mg/L CaCO3) for limestone and dolomite and as meq/ L for gypsum. PHREEQC theoretical curves for the dissolution of pure cakite/aragonite and dolomite in water at 25C are compared with water analyses from karst studies worldwide. Other principal ions encountered are sulphates, nitrates and chlorides (the "SNC" group). From carbonate karsts, 2309 spring, well and stream samples were divided into uncon taminated (SNC