Review of the millipede genus EutrichodesmusSilvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)


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Review of the millipede genus EutrichodesmusSilvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)

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Review of the millipede genus EutrichodesmusSilvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)
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Zookeys
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Golovatch, Sergei I.
Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques
Mauries, Jean-Paul
Van Den Spiegel, Didier
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Diplopoda ( local )
Haplodesmidae ( local )
Eutrichodesmus ( local )
Taxonomy ( local )
New Species ( local )
Cave ( local )
China ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )

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The Eutrichodesmus fauna of mainland China, by far the largest genus in the Indo-Australian family Haplodesmidae, is reviewed and shown to encompass 23 species (of a total of 45), all keyed. The following nine new species, all presumed troglobites, are described: E. triangularis sp. n., from Sichuan, E. lipsae sp. n., from Guangxi, E. tenuis sp. n., E. trontelji sp. n., E. latellai sp. n., E. obliteratus sp. n. and E. troglobius sp. n., all from Guizhou, E. sketi sp. n., from Hunan, and E. apicalis sp. n., from Hubei.
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Zookeys, Vol. 505 (2015).

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1 Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae) Sergei I. Golovatch 1 , Jean-Jacques Georoy 2 , Jean-Paul Mauris 3 , Didier VandenSpiegel 4 1 Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia 2 Musum national d’Histoire naturelle, Dpartement Ecologie & Gestion de la Biodiversit, UMR 7204 CESCO CNRSMNHN-UPMC, Brunoy, France 3 Musum national d’Histoire naturelle, Dpartement Systmatique et Evo lution, Section Arthropodes, Paris, France 4 Muse Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgium Corresponding author: Sergei I. Golovatch ( sgolovatch@yandex.ru ) Academic editor: R. Mesibov |Received 23 April 2015|Accepted 11 May 2015|Published 21 May 2015 http://zoobank.org/7F1C641D-3899-40BD-8E9B-1F812D4509D1 Citation: Golovatch SI, Georoy J-J, Mauris J-P, VandenSpiegel D (2015) Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, in China, with descriptions of new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae). ZooKeys 505: 1–34. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.505.9862 Abstract e Eutrichodesmus fauna of mainland China, by far the largest genus in the Indo-Australian family Hap lodesmidae, is reviewed and shown to encompass 23 species (of a total of 45), all keyed. e following nine new species, all presumed troglobites, are described: E. triangularis sp. n. , from Sichuan, E. lipsae sp.n. , from Guangxi, E. tenuis sp. n. , E. trontelji sp. n. , E. latellai sp. n. , E. obliteratus sp. n. and E. troglo bius sp. n. , all from Guizhou, E. sketi sp. n. , from Hunan, and E. apicalis sp. n. , from Hubei. Keywords Diplopoda, Haplodesmidae, Eutrichodesmus , taxonomy, new species, cave, China ZooKeys 505: 1 (2015) doi: 10.3897/zookeys.505.9862 http://zookeys.pensoft.net Copyright Sergei I. Golovatch et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. RESEARCH ARTICLE Launched to accelerate biodiversity research A peer-reviewed open-access journal

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2 Introduction e millipede family Haplodesmidae Cook, 1895, which has only seven component genera basically occurring (except for a few pantropical introductions) in South, East and Southeast Asia, as well as the southwestern Pacic region and Australia, has recently been reviewed (Golovatch et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010, Golovatch and VandenSpiegel 2014). e most speciose genus is Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910, which contains 36 described species and ranges from southern Japan in the north, through Taiwan, southern China and Indochina, to Vanuatu, Melanesia in the south. Mainland China alone supports the following 14 species, mostly from caves (Zhang and Wang 1993, Zhang 1995a, 1995b, Golovatch et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010; Makhan 2010, Liu and Tian 2013): E. anisodentus (Zhang, 1995), from Mt. Wuyi, Fujian Prov. (Zhang 1995b, Golovatch et al. 2010); E. arcicollaris Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993, from Cave Huayu Dong, Hekou County, Yunnan Prov. (Zhang and Wang 1993, Golovatch et al. 2009a, 2009b); E. digitatus Liu & Tian, 2013, from Cave Mi Dong, Jintan Town, Qingyuan City, Guangdong Prov. (Liu and Tian 2013); E. distinctus Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, 2009, from Cave 4, Bapen, Fushui County, Guangxi Prov. (Golovatch et al. 2009b); E. dorsiangulatus (Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993), from Cave Baoniujiao Dong, Mengla County, Yunnan Prov. (Zhang and Wang 1993, Golovatch et al. 2009a, 2009b); E. incisus Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, 2009, from caves near Hong Lin, Qianxi County, Guizhou Prov. (Golovatch et al. 2009a); E. latus Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, 2009, from caves in Yachang Nature Reserve, Guangxi Prov. (Golovatch et al. 2009a); E. monodentus (Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993), from Cave Caiyun Dong, Mengla County, Yunnan Prov. (Zhang and Wang 1993, Golovatch et al. 2009a, 2009b); E. pectinatidentis (Zhang, 1995), from Mt Tianmu, Lin’an County, Zhejiang Prov. (Zhang 1995a, Golovatch et al. 2010); E. planatus Liu & Tian, 2013, from Cave Zhenzhuyan Dong, Liujia Town, Hechi City, Guangxi Prov. (Liu and Tian 2013); E. similis Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, 2009, from several caves in Mulun Nature Reserve, Huanjiang County, Guangxi Prov. (Golovatch et al. 2009a, Liu and Tian 2013); E. simplex Liu & Tian, 2013, from Cave Taoyuan Dong, Fenyi County, Jiangxi Prov. (Liu and Tian 2013); E. soesilae Makhan, 2010, from Mt. Jinyun, Beibei, Chongqing Municipality (Makhan 2010, Golovatch et al. 2010); E. spinatus Liu & Tian, 2013, from Sidu Caves, Sidu Town, Hunan Prov. (Liu and Tian 2013).

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3 e present paper puts on record another nine new species of Eutrichodesmus from Chinese caves, being concluded by a key to all 23 species of the genus currently known to occur in mainland China. Abbreviations used MNHN Musum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France SEM Scanning electron microscopy Material and methods e material serving as the basis for the present contribution derives from subterranean collections made in China by Josiane Lips (Villeurbanne, France), Leonardo Latella and Daniele Avesani (both from the Museo Civico di Storia naturale, Verona, Italy), as well as Boris Sket, Peter Trontelj and their collaborators (all from the University of Lju bljana, Slovenia). All material, including the holotypes, has been deposited in MNHN. e term “doratodesmoid” is used hereafter only in its vernacular meaning, in order to concisely characterize a body shape, i.e. capable or nearly capable of volvation. SEM micrographs were taken using a JEOL JSM-6480LV scanning electron mi croscope. After examination, SEM material was removed from stubs and returned to alco hol, all such samples being kept at MNHN. Systematics Eutrichodesmus triangularis Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/642BEA4E-D3AA-49FE-B829-8DEA0478E2B4 Figs 1, 2 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 367), China, Sichuan Prov., Beichuan Coun ty, Cave Yuan Dong, 18.VIII.2004, leg. J. Lips (No. 1583). Name. To emphasize the prominent, triangular, distofemoral process ( dp ) of the gonopod; adjective. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the prominent, triangular, distofemoral process of the gonopod (see also Key below). Description. Length ca 7.0 mm, width 0.9 and 1.5 mm on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Coloration uniformly very light brown with pallid antennae, clypeolabral region, prozonae, venter, legs and metatergal tuberculations (Fig. 1).

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4 Figure 1. Eutrichodesmus triangularis sp. n., holotype; A, B habitus, sublateral and lateral views, re spectively. Pictures by A. Kirejtshuk, not taken to scale.

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5 Figure 2. Eutrichodesmus triangularis sp. n., holotype; A, B left gonopod, mesal and lateral views, respectively. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text. Body with 19 segments ( ) (Fig. 1), conglobation pattern typical of “dora todesmoids”, volvation apparently being complete because of strongly declivous and relatively narrow paraterga. Tegument dull, metaand paraterga with a cerategu ment layer. Antennae short and clavate. Head with a paramedian pair of small, but distinct, rounded tubercles above antennal sockets. Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin slightly elevated, with 4-5 transverse rows of at tubercula tions, rst two and caudalmost rows being regular (Fig. 1). Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic (= not regularly longitudinal) rows of similarly at, rounded, obviously setigerous tuberculations extending onto para terga, usually about 11-12+11-12 per row (Fig. 1); limbus microcrenulate. Paraterga with evident shoulders anteriorly, strongly declivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 45 to subvertical sides above paraterga, broad, tips about level with venter, dis -

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6 tinctly trilobate laterally, without anterolaterals, but with 2-3 rounded caudolaterals (Fig. 1). Paraterga 2 rather strongly enlarged, directed ventrolaterad, lateral margin especially deeply trilobate, caudal margin with a row of lobules extending across dorsum, both schism and hyposchism small; paraterga 3 and 4 slightly shorter than others. Pore formula normal, ozopores indistinct, located dorsally between middle and caudolateral lobulations. Pleurotergal carinae wanting. Epiproct fully exposed in dorsal view, rather strongly attened, dorsally also tuberculate, with several incisions at lateral edge, directed ventrocaudad, with the usual four cones just below tip (Fig. 1). Hypoproct subtrapeziform. Sterna usually with a deep and narrow depression between coxae. Legs short, cras sate except for slender tarsi, about as long as body height. Gonopods (Fig. 2) simple. Coxae subquadrate, large, microtuberculate and abun dantly setose ventrolaterally, with a conspicuous round lobe caudolaterally. Telopo dite considerably longer than coxite, but not too slender, subfalcate, distinctly curved ventrad, setose not only in its basal half, including mesal face at base of a prominent, triangular, acuminate, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about midway along telopodite, more distally with a lobe-shaped, rounded, distad slightly enlarged acropodite showing a short, distoventral, subapical spine ( s ); seminal groove terminat ing subapically, devoid of a hairpad. Remarks. e presence of only 19 body segments is rare in Eutrichodesmus , but generally quite common in Haplodesmidae (Golovatch et al. 2009a). Among conge ners, the above new species seems to share this feature only with E. asteroides Golo vatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, 2009, from a cave in Vietnam (Golovatch et al. 2009b). More information on the location of the cave can be found at http://www.groupespeleo-vulcain.com/explorations/expeditions-a-letranger/ Eutrichodesmus lipsae Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/36DDFFFF-ACC7-40D2-A056-C1A904393C38 Figs 3, 4 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 368), China, Guangxi Prov., Guilin County, Grotte des Squelettes, 22.VII.1992, leg. J. Lips (No. B1-2). Paratypes: 1 (SEM), 1 juv. (MNHN JC 368), same data, together with holotype. Name. In honour of Josiane Lips, the collector. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by clearly elevated mid-dorsal regions of most metaterga, coupled with a slender, suberect gonopod telopodite which shows a rather narrowly gapped apical pincer (see also Key below). Description. Length of adults ca 7.0 mm, width 1.0 and 1.95 mm on midbody proand metazonae, respectively ( ). Coloration entirely pallid. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows.

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7 Figure 3. Eutrichodesmus lipsae sp. n., paratype; A habitus, lateral view B, E, I anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, J midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively D, G, K posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively H cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view L poriferous midbody paratergite, lateral view M tergal seta, subdorsal view N both gonopods in situ, ventral view O, P right gonopod, mesal and ventromesal views, respec tively Q tip of right gonopod, subventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( A, E–G, I ), 0.2 mm ( B–D, H, J, K ), 0.1 mm ( N–P ), 0.05 mm ( L ), 0.02 mm ( Q ), 0.002 mm ( M ). Body with 20 segments ( ) (Fig. 3A), conglobation pattern typical of “dora todesmoids”, volvation apparently being complete because of strongly declivous and relatively narrow paraterga. Antennae short and clavate (Fig. 3I). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate, with 4-5 transverse rows of very at tuberculations/bosses. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic rows of similarly at, rounded, often obliterate, obviously setigerous bosses extending onto paraterga, usually about 9-10+9-10 per row (Fig. 3A–G); starting with

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8 Figure 4. Eutrichodesmus lipsae sp. n., holotype; A, B right gonopod, mesal and lateral views, respec tively. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. segment 3, middle and caudal rows clearly enlarged and elevated mid-dorsad, increas ingly clearly so towards segment 15 or 16 as well (Fig. 3A–G); caudomarginal lobula tions evident across dorsum; limbus microcrenulate. Paraterga with evident shoulders anteriorly, strongly declivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 45 to only slightly less strongly declined sides above paraterga, broad, tips lying clearly below level of ven ter, usually vaguely bilobate laterally, without anterolaterals, but with well-developed rounded caudolaterals at and above base (Fig. 3A–D, L). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 3A, B, I), lateral margin broadly rounded, with numerous, very small lobulations, caudal margin with a row of lobules extending across dorsum, both schism and hyposchism small. Tergal setae very short, 2-segmented, apical part phyl loid (Fig. 3M). Pore formula normal, ozopores indistinct, located dorsally at about anterior 1/3 of paratergite and well removed from lateral margin (Fig. 3L). Hypoproct subtrapeziform (Fig. 3K).

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9 Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 3I, J). Legs long and slender, about 1.1-1.2 times as long as body height. Gonopods (Figs 3N-Q, 4) simple. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapillate, but not setose, with only a small round lobe caudolaterally. Telopodite considerably longer than coxite, slender, suberect, setose over its basal 2/3 until base of a prominent, ngershaped, poorly papillate, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated in distal 1/4 of telopodite, more distally with a rather narrow, twisted, subacuminate, slightly longer acropodite forming a rather narrowly gapped pincer together with dp and showing a short, distoventral, subapical spine ( s ) and a small, distodorsal, subapical tooth ( t ); seminal groove terminating at base of s , devoid of a hairpad. Remark. More information on the location of the cave can be found at http:// www.groupe-speleo-vulcain.com/explorations/expeditions-a-letranger/ Eutrichodesmus tenuis Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/B7247170-99F8-4A4F-AED5-440344A4E881 Figs 5, 6 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 369), China, Guizhou Prov., Guanling County, Yong Ning Town, Cave Yun Dong (Cloud Cave), 01.VIII.2005, leg. L. La tella & D. Avesani. Paratypes: 1 , 2 subadult (MNHN JC 369), 1 subadult (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Name. To emphasize the relatively slender body due to subvertical paraterga; adjective. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the large body size, clearly elevated middorsal regions of most metaterga, coupled with narrow, strongly declivous, subvertical paraterga and a simple, falcate gonopod telopodite carrying a long, spiniform, dist ofemoral process (see also Key below). Description. Length of adults ca 14 mm, width 1.8 and 2.5 mm ( holotype) or 1.6 and 2.1 mm ( paratype) on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Col oration entirely pallid, sometimes ( paratype) with traces of reddish earth material on metaterga. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows. Body with 20 segments ( , ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being complete because of particularly strongly declivous and short paraterga. Antennae short and clavate (Fig. 5H, K). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with 4-5 transverse rows of small, but evident tuberculations, only frontaland caudalmost rows being regular. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic rows of similarly evident, rounded, setigerous tuberculations extending onto paraterga, usually about 10-11+10-11 per row (Fig. 5A–G); starting with midbody segments, middle rows clearly enlarged and elevated mid-dorsad, increasingly clearly so towards segment 18 as well (Fig. 5A–D); a few caudomarginal lobulations evident only on paraterga

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10 Figure 5. Eutrichodesmus tenuis sp. n., subadult paratype; A habitus, lateral view B, E, H anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, I midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively D, G, J posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively K head, ventral view L cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view M poriferous midbody parater gite, lateral view N limbus, lateral view O, P, Q tergal setae, various views R midbody leg. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( A–I, L ), 0.2 mm ( J, K ), 0.1 mm ( M, O, R ), 0.02 mm ( N, P ). 0.01 mm ( Q ).

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11 Figure 6. Eutrichodesmus tenuis sp. n., holotype; A leg 9, lateral view B left gonopod, mesal view. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designation in text. (Fig. 5A–D); limbus microcrenulate (Fig. 5N). Paraterga with evident shoulders anteri orly, very strongly declivous, subvertical, directed ventrolaterad at about 75 to even more strongly declined sides above paraterga (Fig. 5L), broad, tips lying clearly below level of venter, usually rather vaguely trior quadrilobate laterally, without anterolater als (Fig. 5A–D, M). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 5A, B, E, I), lateral margin broadly rounded, with numerous, very small lobulations, caudal margin with a few lobes located near schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Fig. 5B). Tergal setae very short, 2-segmented, apical part usually phylloid (Fig. 5P, Q). Pore formula normal, ozopores distinct, located dorsally on small porosteles in poste rior 1/3 of paratergite and well removed from lateral margin (Fig. 5A–D, M). Epiproct nger-shaped, densely tuberculate (Fig. 5D, G, J). Hypoproct subtrapeziform (Fig. 5J). Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 5I). Legs short and crassate, about half as long as body height (Fig. 5L), all podomeres except tarsi nely micropapillate (Figs 5R, 6A).

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12 Gonopods (Fig. 6B) very simple. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapillate and rather densely setose on lateral face, with only a small round lobe caudolaterally. Telo podite considerably longer than coxite, suberect, setose over its basal half until base of a prominent, spiniform, simple, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about halfway along telopodite, acropodite strongly falcate, twisted, subacuminate, simple, devoid of outgrowths; seminal groove terminating subapically at base of a hairpad. Remark. More information on this cave and its fauna can be found in Latella and Hu (2008) and in Latella and Zorzin (2008). Eutrichodesmus trontelji Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/7016E520-525A-4D21-A47D-83A850193D51 Figs 7 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 370), China, Guizhou Prov., Libo County, Libo, Cave Feng Dong, 07.III.1995, leg. P. Trontelj. Paratypes: 1 , 1 juv. (MNHN JC 370), 1 (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Non-types: 1 , 2 , 11 subadult or juv. (MNHN JC 370), 1 (SEM), China, Guizhou Prov., Libo County, Shuipa, Cave Shui Jiang Dong – Cave Shuipu Da Dong, 28.II.1995, leg. P. Trontelj; 1 (MNHN JC 370), 1 (SEM), Guizhou Prov., Libo County, Jia Ban, Cave La Tai Dong, 06.III.1995, leg. P. Trontelj. Name. In honour of Peter Trontelj, the collector. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the particularly broad and moderately de clivous paraterga which are set at about 45 to the vertical axis and continue the outline of the sides above paraterga, coupled with mostly 4-5 irregular rows of at setigerous tubercles/bosses per metatergum, the calyx-shaped tergal setae, and the fairly complex gonopod (see also Key below). Description. Length of adults ca 8-9 mm, width 1.2 and 2.2 mm ( paratype and one non-type from Shui Jiang Dong) to 1.5 and 2.5 mm ( holotype and other non-types) on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Coloration entirely pallid, except some traces of reddish earth material on paraterga. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows. Body with 20 segments ( , ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being incomplete because of particularly broad and only moder ately declivous paraterga. Antennae rather long and poorly clavate (Figs 7I, 9H, 11I). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with abundant at tubercles/bosses arranged in regular rows only at anterior and posterior margins. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregu lar, mixostictic rows of similarly evident, rounded, setigerous tuberculations extending onto paraterga, usually about 10-11+10-11 per row (Figs 7A–G, 9A–F, 11A–G); middorsal regions of metaterga not elevated; caudomarginal lobulations numerous, usually evident across the dorsum (Figs 7A–D, 9A–C, 11A–D); limbus microcrenulate (Figs

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13 Figure 7. Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., paratype; A habitus, lateral view B, E, I anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F midbody segments, lateral and dorsal views, respec tively D, G, J posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively H cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view K limbus, prozonite texture and tergal setae, dorsal view L, M tergal seta, dorsolateral and subdorsal views, respectively N both gonopods in situ, ventral view O, P right gonopod, lateral and mesal views, respectively. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( A, I, J ), 0.2 mm ( B–H ), 0.1 mm ( N–P ), 0.05 mm ( K ), 0.005 mm ( L, M ). 7K, 9N, 11K). Paraterga with evident shoulders anteriorly, very broad, moderately de clivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 45 to similarly declined sides above paraterga (Figs 7H, 9K, 11H), tips lying very clearly below level of venter, usually rather vaguely

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14 Figure 8. Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., paratype; A leg 9, lateral view B, C right gonopod, mesal view. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text. unito quadrilobate laterally, gradually increasing in number towards paraterga 19; anterolaterals usually wanting, but evident on segment 2 (Figs 7A-D, 9A-C, 11A-D). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Figs 7A, B, E, I, 9A, D, H, 11A, B, E, I), lateral margin broadly rounded, with few, but evident lobulations; a full row of caudolaterals located above schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Figs 7B, 9A, 11B). Tergal setae short, 2-segmented, calyx-shaped, apical part setoid (Figs 7L, M, 9L–O, 11L). Pore formula normal, ozopores indistinct, located at about halfway of paratergite and well removed from lateral margin. Epiproct strongly attened dors oventrally, densely tuberculate (Figs 7A, D, G, J, 9C, F, J, 11A, D, G, J). Hypoproct subtrapeziform (Figs 7J, 9J, 11J). Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Figs 7I, J, 9I, 11I, J). Legs long and slender, about 1.1.2 times as long as body height (Figs 7H, J, 9I, K, 11H–J), only coxae and basal parts of prefemora nely micropapillate (Fig. 8A).

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15 Figure 9. Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., non-type from Shui Jiang Dong; A, D, H anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively; B, E, I, midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, G, J posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal, caudal and ventral views, respectively K cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view L-P limbus, prozonite texture and tergal setae, dorsal views Q both gonopods in situ, ventral view R right gonopod, mesal view S distal half of right gonopod, mesal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( E, I ), 0.2 mm ( A–D, F, H, K ), 0.1 mm ( G, J, Q, R ), 0.05 mm ( P, S ), 0.02 mm ( L–N ), 0.005 mm ( O ).

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16 Figure 10. Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., non-type from Shui Jiang Dong, left gonopod, mesal view. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text. Gonopods (Figs 7N–P, 8B, C, 9Q–S, 10, 11M–O) complex. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapillate and densely setose on lateral face, with only a small round lobule caudolaterally. Telopodite considerably longer than coxite, moderately curved ventrad, setose over its basal 1/3 until base of a prominent, subspiniform, microtuberculate, sometimes clearly curved, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about half way of telopodite, acropodite twisted, with a longitudinal mesal fold ( fd ) only some times extended into an apical tooth ( j ) (non-types), and with (holoand paratype) or without (non-types) a small ventral tooth ( k ) at about midway; tip acuminate and axeshaped; seminal groove terminating subapically on an indistinct hairpad.

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17 Remarks. e conspecicity of the non-type samples with E. trontelji sp. n. is documented in Figs 9. It is also corroborated by provenance from the same karst in Libo County, Guizhou Province. Small variations seem to only concern gonopod structure, i.e. the presence in the gonopods of the types of a small tooth k and the absence of a tooth j . Figure 11. Eutrichodesmus trontelji sp. n., non-type from La Tai Dong; A habitus, lateral view B, E, I an terior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F midbody segments, lateral and dorsal views, respectively D, G, J posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively H cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view K limbus, prozonite texture and tergal setae, dorsal view L tergal seta, subdorsal view M both gonopods in situ, ventral view N left gonopod, lateral view O right gonopod, mesal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( A, E–J ), 0.2 mm ( B–D ), 0.1 mm ( M–O ), 0.05 mm ( K ), 0.01 mm ( L ).

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18 Interestingly, calyx-shaped tergal setae among Eutrichodesmus are also observed only in two cavernicolous species from Guangxi: E. latus and E. similis (see Golovatch et al. 2009a). Eutrichodesmus latellai Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/301C4BE2-3354-44DD-95CA-E58E7C830236 Figs 12 , 13 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 371), China, Guizhou Prov., Zhen Feng County, Bei Pan Jiang Town, Cave Shui Chi Dong (Water Pool Cave), ca. 1060 m a.s.l., 31.VII.2005, leg. L. Latella & D. Avesani. Paratypes: 1 , 2 (MNHN JC 371), 1 (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Name. In honour of Leonardo Latella, one of the main collectors. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the broad and moderately declivous para terga which are set at about 45 to the vertical axis and almost continue the outline of the sides above paraterga, coupled with three irregular rows of at setigerous bosses per metatergum, and the especially simple gonopod (see also Key below). Description. Length of adults ca 12 mm, width 1.1.2 and 2.8.0 mm on midbody proand metazonae, respectively ( , ). Holotype ca 12 mm long, 1.2 and 3.0 mm wide on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Coloration entirely pallid, except some traces of reddish earth material on terga. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows. Body with 20 segments ( , ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being incomplete because of particularly broad and only moder ately declivous paraterga. Antennae rather long and poorly clavate (Fig. 12H). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with abundant at bosses arranged in regular rows only at anterior and posterior mar gins. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic rows of similarly at, often obliterate and longitudinally oblong, setigerous bosses extending onto paraterga, usually about 15-16+15-16 per row (Fig. 12A–F); mid-dorsal regions of metaterga not elevated; caudomarginal lobulations numerous, usually evident across the dorsum (Fig. 12A–F, H, I); limbus microcrenulate (Fig. 12L). Paraterga with evi dent shoulders anteriorly, very broad, moderately declivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 45 to similarly declined sides above paraterga (Fig. 12A–G), tips lying clearly below level of venter, usually rather distinctly trito quadrilobate laterally, gradually increasing in number towards paraterga 19; anterolaterals usually wanting, but very ev ident on segment 2 (Fig. 12A, D). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 12A, D, H), lateral margin broadly rounded, with few, but very evident lobulations; a full row of caudolaterals located above schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Fig. 12A). Tergal setae short, 2-segmented, apical part setoid (Fig. 12K). Pore

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19 Figure 12. Eutrichodesmus latellai sp. n., paratype; A, D, H anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively B, E, I midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, J posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively G cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view K tergal seta, subdorsal view L limbus, prozonite texture and tergal setae, dorsal views M head, ventral view N midbody leg, lateral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( A–J ), 0.2 mm ( M ), 0.1 mm ( L, N ), 0.01 mm ( K ). formula normal, ozopores indistinct, located on top of small knobs at about middle of paratergite and well removed from lateral margin (Fig. 12A–C). Epiproct strongly attened dorsoventrally (Fig. 12C, F, J). Hypoproct subtrapeziform (Fig. 12J).

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20 Figure 13. Eutrichodesmus latellai sp. n., paratype; A leg 9, lateral view B right gonopod, lateral view. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designation in text. Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 12I, J). Legs long and slender, about as long as body height (Fig. 12G–J), only coxae and most surface of of prefemora nely micropapillate (Figs 12N, 13A). Gonopods (Fig. 13B) simple. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapillate and densely setose on lateral face, with only a small round lobule caudolaterally. Telopodite consider ably longer than coxite, moderately curved ventrad, setose over its basal 1/3 until base of a prominent, subspiniform, microtuberculate, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situ ated at about basal 1/3 of telopodite, acropodite twisted, devoid of any outgrowths; tip acuminate and beak-shaped; seminal groove terminating subapically; a hairpad wanting. Remark. More information on this cave and its fauna can be found in Latella and Hu (2008) and in Latella and Zorzin (2008). Eutrichodesmus obliteratus Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/41C92D05-2DF5-4365-8F2D-170EA2D3EB5D Figs 14, 15 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 372), China, Guizhou Prov., Guanling County, Huajiang Town, Cave Huashiban Dong (Slippery Cave), 26.VII.2005, leg. L. Latella & D. Avesani.

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21 Paratypes: 1 (MNHN JC 372), 1 (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Name. To emphasize the mostly obliterate metatergal tuberculation; adjective. Figure 14. Eutrichodesmus obliteratus sp. n., paratype; A, D, G anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively B, E, H midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, I posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively J cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view K paratergite with ozopore, lateral view L tergal seta, subdorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5mm ( E–H ), 0.2 mm ( A–D, I, J ), 0.1 mm ( K ), 0.005 mm ( L ).

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22 Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the largely obliterate metatergal tubercula tion (even those at the fore margin of metetergum 2), the rather broad and strongly declivous paraterga which are set at about 30 to the vertical axis and continue the outline of the sides above paraterga, coupled with three irregular rows of very at setigerous bosses per metatergum, and the fairly complex gonopod telopodite (see also Key below). Description. Length of adults ca 10 mm, width 1.0.1 and 2.1.2 mm on mid body proand metazonae, respectively ( , ). Holotype ca 1.1 and 2.2 mm wide on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Coloration entirely pallid. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows. Body with 20 segments ( , ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being incomplete because of broad and only rather strongly de clivous paraterga. Antennae rather long and poorly clavate (Fig. 14G). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with abundant, at, mostly obliterate bosses arranged in a regular row of lobulations only at anterior margin (Fig. 14A, D, G). Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic rows of similarly at, largely obliterate, longitudinally ob long, setigerous bosses extending onto paraterga, usually about 13-14+13-14 per row (Fig. 14A–F); mid-dorsal regions of metaterga not elevated; caudomarginal lobula tions numerous, usually evident across the dorsum (Fig. 14A–F); limbus microcrenu Figure 15. Eutrichodesmus obliteratus sp. n., paratype; A leg 9, lateral view B right gonopod, mesal view C mirrored distal half of right gonopod, lateral view. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text.

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23 late. Paraterga with evident shoulders anteriorly, very broad, rather strongly declivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 70 to similarly declined sides above paraterga (Fig. 14J), tips lying clearly below level of venter, usually rather distinctly trito quadri lobate laterally, gradually increasing in number towards paraterga 19; anterolaterals usually wanting, even on segment 2 rather vague (Fig. 14A, G). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 14A, D, H), lateral margin broadly rounded, with few, rather vague lobulations; a full row of caudolaterals located above schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Fig. 14A). Tergal setae short, 2-segmented, apical part setoid (Fig. 14L). Pore formula normal, ozopores indistinct, open ush on surface and located at about caudal 1/3 of paratergite and well removed from lateral margin (Fig. 14K). Epiproct strongly attened dorsoventrally (Fig. 14C, F, I). Hypoproct subtra peziform (Fig. 14I). Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 14G–I). Legs long and slender, about as long as body height (Figs 14G–J, 15A), only coxae and most surface of prefemora nely micropapillate (Fig. 15A). Gonopods (Fig. 15B, C) rather complex. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapil late and densely setose on lateral face, with only a small round lobe caudolaterally. Telopodite considerably longer than coxite, moderately curved ventrad, setose over its basal 1/3 until base of a prominent, subspiniform, abundantly microtuberculate, dist ofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about basal 1/3 of telopodite, acropodite twisted, in basal 1/3 with two small, at, subtriangular teeth, one, larger, mesal ( x ), the other, smaller, lateral ( y ); tip acuminate and axe-shaped; seminal groove terminating subapically on another low, subtriangular tooth ( z ); a hairpad wanting. Remark. More information on this cave and its fauna can be found in Latella and Hu (2008) and in Latella and Zorzin (2008). Eutrichodesmus sketi Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/2CA87D80-05A2-4BF9-A70E-1DAB4C79E1A7 Figs 16, 17 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 373), China, Hunan Prov., Longshan Coun ty, Huaoyan, Cave Feihu Dong (33a), 13.IV.1997, leg. B. Sket, Cao & R. Verovnik. Paratype: 1 subadult (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Name. In honour of Boris Sket, one of the main collectors. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the relatively narrow and strongly declivous paraterga which are set low on the body at about 30 to the vertical axis and nearly con tinue the outline of the sides above paraterga, the low, but distinct, rounded, metater gal bosses arranged in three transverse irregular rows, and the rather simple gonopod (see also Key below). Description. Length of holotype ca 7 mm, width 1.0 and 1.7 mm on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Coloration entirely pallid. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows.

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24 Figure 16. Eutrichodesmus sketi sp. n., subadult paratype; A habitus, lateral view B, E anterior part of body, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F midbody segments, dorsal and ventral views, respec tively D, G posterior part of body, dorsal and ventral views, respectively H cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view I schism and hyposchism region, lateral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( A ), 0.2 mm ( B–H ), 0.1 mm ( I ). Body with 20 segments ( ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being complete because of narrow and strongly declivous para terga. Antennae rather short and clavate (Fig. 16E). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with abundant, at, mostly obliterate bosses arranged in a regular row of lobulations only at anterior margin. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostic tic rows of similarly at, but rather distinct, rounded, setigerous bosses extending onto paraterga, usually about 9-10+9-10 per row (Fig. 16A); mid-dorsal regions of metaterga not elevated; caudomarginal lobulations numerous, usually evident across the dorsum (Fig. 16A–D); limbus microcrenulate. Paraterga with evident shoulders

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25 Figure 17. Eutrichodesmus sketi sp. n., holotype; A leg 9, lateral view B right gonopod, mesal view. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text. anteriorly, rather narrow, strongly declivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 70 to even more strongly declined sides above paraterga (Fig. 16E, H), tips lying clearly below level of venter, usually distinctly trilobate laterally; anterolaterals evident only in segment 2 (Fig. 16A). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 16A, E), lateral margin broadly rounded, with few, rather distinct lobulations; a full row of caudolaterals located above schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Fig. 16A, I). Tergal setae short, 2-segmented, apical part setoid (Fig. 16I). Pore formula normal, ozopores indistinct, open ush on surface and located at about caudal 1/3 of paratergite above caudal lobulation and well removed from lateral margin (Fig. 16A, I). Epiproct strongly attened dorsoventrally (Fig. 16D, G). Hypoproct sub trapeziform (Fig. 16G). Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 16G–I). Legs long and slender, about as long as body height (Fig. 16F, G), only coxae and most surface of prefemora nely micropapillate (Fig. 17A). Gonopods (Fig. 17B) rather simple. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapillate and densely setose mostly on lateral face, with only a small round lobe caudolaterally. Telopo dite considerably longer than coxite, moderately curved ventrad, setose over its basal 1/3 until base of a prominent, subspiniform, stout, abundantly microtuberculate, distofemo ral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about basal 1/3 of telopodite, acropodite twisted, distal 1/3 with a small mesal fold ( fd ) and a strong, recurved, ventral tooth ( d ); tip acumi nate and axe-shaped; seminal groove terminating subapically; a hairpad wanting.

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26 Eutrichodesmus apicalis Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/3A82B084-C569-477F-AF3A-C305E8C37745 Figs 18, 19 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 374), China, Hubei Prov., Yishang Yichang County, Grotte des Araignes, 15.VIII.1992, leg. J. Lips (K1-2). Paratype: 1 (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Name. To emphasize the apical termination of the seminal groove; adjective. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the relatively narrow and strongly declivous paraterga which are set low on the body at about 40 to the vertical axis and distinctly discontinue the subvertical outline of the sides above paraterga, coupled with narrow paraterga which only slightly overreach the level of the venter, the low, but distinct, rounded, metatergal tuberculations arranged in three transverse irregular rows, and the rather complex gonopod (see also Key below). Description. Length of holotype ca 7 mm, width 0.6 and 1.0 mm on midbody proand metazonae, respectively. Coloration entirely pallid. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows. Body with 20 segments ( ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being complete because of narrow and strongly declivous para terga. Antennae rather short and clavate (Fig. 18G, J). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with abundant, mostly distinct bosses or tuberculations arranged in regular rows of lobulations only at anterior and posterior margins. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic rows of similarly distinct, rounded, setigerous tubercula tions extending onto paraterga, usually about 6-7+6-7 per row (Fig. 18A–F); middorsal regions of metaterga not elevated; caudomarginal lobulations few, usually evi dent only near bases of paraterga (Fig. 18A–C); limbus microcrenulate (Fig. 18M). Paraterga with evident shoulders anteriorly, rather narrow, strongly declivous, di rected ventrolaterad at about 40 to even more strongly declined, subvertical sides above paraterga (Fig. 18K), tips lying only slightly below level of venter, usually distinctly trilobate laterally; anterolaterals evident only in segment 2 (Fig. 18A, D). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 18A, D, G), lateral margin broadly rounded, with few, rather distinct lobulations; a full row of caudolaterals located above schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Fig. 18A). Tergal setae short, apparently 2-segmented. Pore formula apparently normal, ozopores in distinct. Epiproct strongly attened dorsoventrally (Fig. 18C, I). Hypoproct subtra peziform (Fig. 18I). Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 18H). Legs rather short, but slender, nearly as long as body height (Fig. 18H, K), only coxae and most surface of prefemora nely micropapillate. Gonopods (Figs 18N, O, 19) rather complex. Coxae subquadrate, large, micro papillate and setose on lateral face, with a small, truncate, setigerous tooth caudolater -

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27 Figure 18. Eutrichodesmus apicalis sp. n., paratype; A, D, G anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively B, E, H midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, I posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively J head, ventral view K crosssection of a midbody segment, caudal view L midbody paratergite, lateral view M limbus and prozonite texture, dorsal view N both gonopods in situ, ventral view O right gonopod, mesal view. Scale bars: 0.2mm ( A–F, H ), 0.1 mm ( G, I–K, N, O ), 0.05 mm ( L ), 0.02 mm ( M ). ally. Telopodite considerably longer than coxite, moderately curved ventrad, setose nearly over its basal half until base of a prominent, subspiniform, microtuberculate, subapically micropilose, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about basal 1/3 of telopodite, acropodite twisted, with a small, midway, dorsomesal ( x ) and a stronger, subapical, ventral tooth ( d ), the latter located opposite a rounded lobe ( z ); tip subtruncate; seminal groove terminating apically; a hairpad wanting. Remark. More information on the location of the cave can be found at http:// www.groupe-speleo-vulcain.com/explorations/expeditions-a-letranger/

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28 Figure 19. Eutrichodesmus apicalis sp. n., holotype; A, B left gonopod, mesal and lateral views, respec tively. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text. Eutrichodesmus troglobius Golovatch, Georoy, Mauris & VandenSpiegel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/BA529FEC-19CB-46E2-867D-B3621667978E Figs 20, 21 Type material. Holotype (MNHN JC 375), China, Guizhou Prov., Kaiyang, Cave Xianyan Dong, 19.II.2004, leg. S. Prevornik & B. Sket. Paratypes: 1 , 2 , 2 subadult (MNHN JC 375), 1 (SEM), same data, together with holotype. Name. To emphasize cavernicoly; adjective. Diagnosis. Diers from congeners by the relatively broad and modestly declivous paraterga which are set low on the body at about 45 to the vertical axis and distinctly discontinue the more strongly declined outline of the sides above paraterga, coupled with low, but distinct, mostly longitudinally oblong, metatergal tuberculations ar ranged in three transverse irregular rows, and the rather simple gonopod acropodite which only shows a small distodorsal tooth (see also Key below).

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29 Figure 20. Eutrichodesmus troglobius sp. n., paratype; A, D, H anterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively B, E, I midbody segments, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively C, F, J posterior part of body, lateral, dorsal and ventral views, respectively G tergal seta, subdorsal view K midbody paratergite, lateral view L head, ventral view M limbus and prozonite texture, dorsal view N cross-section of a midbody segment, caudal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm ( I, J ), 0.2 mm ( A–F, H, N ), 0.1mm ( L ), 0.02 mm ( M ). Description. Length of adults ca 8 mm, width 1.0 and 1.9.0 mm on mid body proand metazonae, respectively. Holotype ca 9 mm long, 1.0 and 2.0 mm wide on proand metazonae, respectiverly. Coloration entirely pallid. All characters as in E. triangularis sp. n., except as follows. Body with 20 segments ( , ), conglobation pattern typical of “doratodesmoids”, volvation apparently being incomplete because of broad and modestly declivous para terga. Antennae rather long and poorly clavate (Fig. 20H, L). Collum not covering the head from above, fore margin clearly lobulate and slightly elevated, with abundant dis tinct tuberculations arranged in regular rows, but lobulations observed only at anterior margin. Metaterga behind collum with three transverse, rather irregular, mixostictic

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30 Figure 21. Eutrichodesmus troglobius sp. n., paratype; A leg 9, lateral view B, C left gonopod, mesal and lateral views, respectively. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. Designations in text. rows of similarly distinct, longitudinally oblong, setigerous tuberculations extending onto paraterga, usually about 8-10+8-10 per row (Fig. 20A–F); mid-dorsal regions of metaterga not elevated; caudomarginal lobulations numerous, 2-3 more evident ones only on paraterga (Fig. 20A–F); limbus microcrenulate (Fig. 20M). Paraterga with evi dent shoulders anteriorly, broad, modestly declivous, directed ventrolaterad at about 45 to even more strongly declined sides above paraterga (Fig. 20N), tips lying clearly below level of venter, usually distinctly trilobate laterally; anterolaterals evident only in segment 2 (Fig. 20A, D). Paraterga 2 strongly enlarged, directed ventrad (Fig. 20A, D, H), lateral margin broadly rounded, with few, but very distinct lobulations; a full row of similarly large caudolaterals located above schism, both schism and hyposchism being small (Fig. 20A). Tergal setae short, 2-segmented, apical part setoid (Fig. 20G). Pore formula apparently normal, ozopores indistinct. Epiproct strongly attened dorsoven trally and tuberculate dorsally (Fig. 20C, F, J). Hypoproct subtrapeziform (Fig. 20J). Sterna usually with a rather deep, narrow depression between coxae (Fig. 20I, J). Legs long and slender, 1.1-1.2 times as long as body height (Fig. 20I, J, N), only coxae and most surface of prefemora nely micropapillate (Fig. 21A). Gonopods (Fig. 21B, C) rather simple. Coxae subquadrate, large, micropapillate and setose mostly on lateral face, with a small, subtriangular, setigerous tooth caudola -

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31 terally. Telopodite considerably longer than coxite, moderately and regularly curved ventrad, setose nearly over its basal half until base of a prominent, curved, subspini form, abundantly microtuberculate, distofemoral process ( dp ), the latter situated at about basal 1/3 of telopodite, acropodite twisted, with a small, subapical, ventral tooth ( d ); seminal groove terminating subapically; a hairpad wanting. Conclusion e nine new species described here are presumed to be troglobites, as all were col lected in caves and all are troglomorphic in unpigmented teguments. eir discovery supports the ideas that Eutrichodesmus is one of the most speciose millipede genera in China, that the true cavernicoles among Eutrichodesmus species are mainly conned to southern China’s karsts, and that many more Chinese Eutrichodesmus species are yet to be collected and described. Key to Eutrichodesmus species currently known to occur in mainland China 1 Each postcollum metatergum with only two transverse rows of tuberculations or bosses .................................................................. the peculiaris -group, 2 – Each postcollum metatergum with at least three transverse rows of tubercula tions or bosses ............................................................................................. 4 2 1+1 mid-dorsal tubercles only slightly higher than others and located only in 2 nd row on segments 4-6(7). Zhejiang Province ............... E. pectinatidentis – Mid-dorsal tubercles much higher than others and located in both rows at least on segments 4-16(17) ......................................................................... 3 3 Most of tuberculations on collum obliterated, retained only near lateral edge. Mid-dorsal tubercles on penultimate segment low, but evident, like a small crest. Chongqing Municipality ..................................................... E. soesilae – Almost entire collum covered with tuberculations. Mid-dorsal tubercles on penultimate segment nearly wanting, at, not crest-shaped. Fujian Province .. ................................................................................................ E. anisodentus 4 Adult body with 19 segments (Fig. 1). Distofemoral process ( dp ) of gonopod triangular and acuminate (Fig. 2) ................................ E. triangularis sp. n. – Adult body with 20 segments. Distofemoral process of gonopod not triangu lar and acuminate ....................................................................................... 5 5 At least some metaterga increasingly strongly elevated mid-dorsally towards segment 17 or 18, with 1-2 outgrowths, projections or a ridge (e.g. Figs 3A–H, 5A–G). ree transverse rows of tuberculations or bosses per metatergum .... 6 – No metaterga elevated mid-dorsally over others. ree or more transverse rows of tuberculations or bosses per metatergum ...................................... 10

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32 6 Mid-dorsal regions of metaterga increasingly strongly elevated towards segment 17 due to enlarged tubercles of middle row, thereafter smaller (Fig.3A–H). Gonopod distofemoral process ( dp ) held subparallel to acropodite (Figs 3N–Q, 4) ................................................... E. lipsae sp. n. – Mid-dorsal regions of metaterga increasingly strongly elevated towards seg ment 18. Gonopod distofemoral process held subrectangular to acropodite, gap between dp and acropodite being considerably wider ........................... 7 7 Metaterga 7-18 each with an increasingly evident mid-dorsal outgrowth/ crest, bimodal due to clearly enlarged 1 st and 2 nd rows of tuberculations. Dist ofemoral process of gonopod microtuberculate ......................... E. distinctus – Mid-dorsal crests on metaterga unimodal, subtriangular due to only 2 nd row of tuberculations being clearly enlarged. Distofemoral process of gonopod a simple long spine ........................................................................................ 8 8 Paraterga narrow, subvertical (Fig. 5L). Gonopod acropodite strongly fal cate, seminal groove terminating on a small, but evident hairpad (Fig. 6B). Guizhou ............................................................................... E. tenuis sp. n. – Paraterga considerably broader, directed ventrolaterad. Gonopod acropodite only slightly curved ventrad, devoid of a hairpad. Yunnan .......................... 9 9 Metatergal tuberculations very small knobs. Gonopod acropodite clearly enlarged relative to distofemoral process, devoid of a distodorsal tooth ..... E. dorsiangulatus – Metatergal tuberculations mostly distinct. Gonopod acropodite slender, with a distodorsal tooth ................................................................ E. monodentus 10 At least some metaterga with tuberculations/bosses arranged in 4-5 transverse irregular rows ............................................................................................ 11 – All metaterga with only three transverse rows of tuberculations or bosses ... 13 11 Metaterga 2-13 each with four, following ones with ve, rows of tubercula tions or bosses,. Guangdong ...................................................... E. digitatus – Metaterga with 3-5 rows of tuberculations or bosses, pattern of increase dif ferent ........................................................................................................ 12 12 Each postcollum metatergum with 4-5 irregular rows of bosses (Figs 7A–G, 9A–F, 11A–G). Gonopod distofemoral process ( dp ) long and microtubercu late, acropodite with a mesal fold ( fd ), the latter sometimes extended into an apical tooth ( j ) (Figs 8B, C, 10) ........................................ E. trontelji sp. n. – Metaterga with 3-4 rows of tuberculations or bosses. Gonopod distofemoral process ( dp ) short and simple, but acropodite enlarged, bipartite and more elaborate .................................................................................... E. planatus 13 Paraterga narrow, set low on body, rather strongly declined ventrolaterad and more or less clearly discontinuing the outline of sides above paraterga ........... 14 – Paraterga broad to very broad, set higher on body to (almost) continue the outline of sides above paraterga ................................................................. 17 14 Distofemoral process of gonopod a simple, strong, ventrobasally setose hook directed dorsad. Yunnan ......................................................... E. arcicollaris – Distofemoral process of gonopod more elaborate ...................................... 15

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33 15 Seminal groove terminating apically, distofemoral process ( dp ) of gonopod micropilose apically (Fig. 19). Hubei ................................. E. apicalis sp. n. – Seminal groove terminating subapically, distofemoral process of gonopod de void of micropilosity ................................................................................. 16 16 Distofemoral process of gonopod bipartite, long and complex. Guizhou ...... ...................................................................................................... E. incisus – Distofemoral process ( dp ) of gonopod unipartite, short and microtuberculate (Fig. 17B). Hunan .................................................................. E. sketi sp. n. 17 Paraterga very broad, each about as wide as prozonite. Guangxi ................ 18 – Paraterga considerably narrower than prozonite width .............................. 19 18 Collum devoid of a row of lobulations at fore margin ....................... E. latus – Collum with a row of distinct lobulations at fore margin ............... E. similis 19 Gonopod simple, but unusually strongly falcate. Hunan ............ E. spinatus – Gonopod only slightly to moderately curved ............................................ 20 20 Distofemoral process of gonopod strongly appressed to a simple acropodite. Jiangxi ......................................................................................... E. simplex – Distofemoral process of gonopod not appressed to often a more elaborate acropodite, gap between both parts being considerable. Guizhou ............. 21 21 Gonopod acropodite complex, with a number of teeth ( x , y , z ), but without distodorsal tooth d (Fig. 15B, C) .................................. E. obliteratus sp. n. – Gonopod acropodite simple, at most with a small tooth d ........................ 22 22 Gonopod acropodite with a small tooth d (Fig. 21B, C) .... E. troglobius sp. n. – Gonopod acropodite devoid of considerable outgrowths (Fig. 13B) .............. ........................................................................................... E. latellai sp. n. Acknowledgements is work only became possible through the support provided to the rst author by the MNHN. We are most grateful to all collectors who entrusted us their material for study and allowed to deposit it in MNHN. Alexandr Kirejtshuk (St. Petersburg, Russia) skillfully took pictures in Fig. 1, using Helicon stacker software. Robert Mesi bov (Penguin, Tasmania, Australia) most kindly provided a thorough review of an advanced draft. References Golovatch SI, VandenSpiegel D (2014) Koponenius gen. nov., a new genus of the millipede family Haplodesmidae from the Himalayas of India and Nepal (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Zootaxa 3894(1): 141. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3894.1.11 Golovatch SI, Georoy J-J, Mauris J-P, VandenSpiegel D (2009a) Review of the millipede family Haplodesmidae, with descriptions of some new or poorly-known species (Diplop -

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34 oda, Polydesmida). In: Golovatch SI, Mesibov R (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Diplopoda I. ZooKeys 7: 1. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.7.117 Golovatch SI, Georoy J-J, Mauris J-P, VandenSpiegel D (2009b) Review of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae), with de scriptions of new species. In: Golovatch SI, Mesibov R (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Diplopoda II. ZooKeys 12: 1. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.12.167 Golovatch SI, Mikhaljova EV, Korss Z, Chang Hw (2010) e millipede family Haplodesmi dae recorded in Taiwan for the rst time, with the description of a new species. Tropical Natural History 10(1): 27. Latella L, Hu C (2008) Biological investigation of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale of Verona in South China caves. Research in South China Karst. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, serie 2, Monograe Naturalistiche 3: 65. Latella L, Zorzin R (2008) Caves explored during the scientic expeditions to China of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale of Verona. Research in South China Karst. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, serie 2, Monograe Naturalistiche 3: 25. Liu Wx, Tian My (2013) Four new cavernicolous species of the millipede genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 from southern China (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Haplodesmidae). Zootaxa 3734(2): 281. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3734.2.11 Makhan D (2010) Eutrichodesmus soesilae sp. nov., a new millipede from Mt. Jinyun, Beibei, Chongqing, China (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae). Calodema 110: 1. Zhang Cz (1995a) Small Myriapoda in soil from China II. A new genus and species of the fam ily Doratodesmidae from Zhejiang Province (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Acta Zootaxo nomica Sinica 20: 411. [In Chinese with English summary] Zhang Cz (1995b) Small Myriapoda in soil from China III. A new species of the milliped genus Nanocondylodesmus Zhang (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Doratodesmidae). Acta Zootaxo nomica Sinica 20: 416. [In Chinese with English summary] Zhang Cz, Wang Dq (1993) Diplopoda in caves of Yunnan – 1. A study of new genera and species of the millipede family Doratodesmidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). In: Linhua S, Huaiyuan T (Eds) Karst Landscape and Cave Tourism. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, 205.


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