Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats


Material Information

Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats
Series Title:
Journal of Virology
Corman, Victor Max
Baldwin, Heather J.
Tateno, Adriana Fumie
Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim
Annan, Augustina
Owusu, Michael
Nkrumah, Evans Ewald
Maganga, Gael Darren
Oppong, Samuel
Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw
Vallo, Peter
Ferreira da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro
Leroy, Eric M.
Thiel, Volker
van der Hoek, Lia
Poon, Leo L. M.
Tschapka, Marco
Drosten, Christian
Drexler, Jan Felix
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Ancestral Association ( local )
Human Coronavirus ( local )
229E ( local )
Bats ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3′ end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E.
Original Version:
Journal of Virology, Vol. 89, no. 23 (2015).

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