Pedro Menédez de Avilés, adelantado, governor and captain-general fo Florida


previous item | next item

Citation
Pedro Menédez de Avilés, adelantado, governor and captain-general fo Florida

Material Information

Title:
Pedro Menédez de Avilés, adelantado, governor and captain-general fo Florida memorial by Gonzalo Solís de Merás;
Abbreviated Title:
first published in La Florida, su conquista y colonización por Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, by Eugenio Ruidiaz y Caravia; translated from the Spanish with notes, by Jeannette Thurber Connor.
Creator:
Ruidíaz y Caravia, Eugenio
Connor, Jeannette Thurber
Publisher:
Florida State Historical Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Explorers -- Discovery and exploration -- Biography -- Spain -- Florida ( lcsh )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
022981825 ( ALEPH )
01443259 ( OCLC )
F68-00001 ( USFLDC DOI )
f68.1 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
University of South Florida
Florida Studies

Postcard Information

Format:
Book

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

PUBLICATIONS OF THE TE HISTORI ,CAL ,,• " . ' DELAND : FLORIDA . , , PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES BY JEANNETTE THU1'BER CONNOR

PAGE 2

--' , • ):/) :c ./-,,l) ,y . TONY PIZZO 451 UCERNE AVE . TAMPA, FLA. 33606 I • •

PAGE 3

• • • • • • F'zzo Coll U.S.F • •

PAGE 4

• • • • • •

PAGE 5

• •• tONY PIZZO .ll51 LUCERNE AVE. TAMPA, FLA. 33606 •

PAGE 6

.)

PAGE 7

• PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY •• NUMBER THREE • • • DELAND, FLORIDA PRINTED FOR THE SUSTAINING .MBERS OF THE SOCIETY MCMXXIII •

PAGE 9

• • • TONY PIZZO 451 LUCERNE AVE. TAMPA, FLA. 33606 • • •

PAGE 10

11 u? J 1 ,•.1;l11 ,/ ', (, !11-/111.;/1.J r ,/, /.1 .' /;{. 1'11/t, •.1.11/..1;1./. 1):1// ft . ,-, •11/ril , j . ' • ;;,,..,;, rr1 .. '/,,/hr.', A."/...77. / a-"/.17 . ,: t./ J J

PAGE 11

• PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA ST ATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY PEDRO DE MENENDEZ A VILES ADELANTADO GOVERNOR AND CAPTAIN-GENERAL OF FLORIDA / MEMOR,IAL , BY GONZALO SOLIS DE MERAS • FIRST PUBLISHED IN LA FLORIDA SU CONQUISTA Y COLONIZACION POR PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES " BY EUGENIO RUIDIAZ Y CARAVIA TRANSLATED FROM THE SPANISH WITH NOTES BY JEANNETTE THURBER CONNOR THE FLORIDA ST ATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY MCMXXIII •

PAGE 12

Printed in the United States of America.

PAGE 13

THIS TRANSLATION OF THE MERAS MEMORIAL OF THE ADELANTADO PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO HIS DISTINGUISHED DESCENDANT DON ALVARO ARMADA Y DE LOS RIOS FERNANDEZ DE CORDOBA Y MIRANDA CONDE DE REVILLA-GIGEDO Y DE GVEMES MARQUES DE SAN ESTEBAN DEL MAR EIGHTEENTH ADELANTADO OF FLORIDA

PAGE 14

• ()

PAGE 15

, , PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES FOREWORD In presenting to its members, as its third publication, an English translation of the "Memorial" of Pedro Menendez de Aviles by Gon zalo Solis de Meras, the Florida State Historical Society takes the first step toward rendering accessible what may be called the epics in prose of Florida history. Nearly all writers on Florida refer to her exceptional wealth in old chronicles, but it seems scarcely fair that they should be familiar with their contents while the general public is deprived of the pleasure of reading, ipsissimis verbis, accounts of events long past, written by those who played a part in them. There is ing to be said here regarding the importance of the "Memo , for the translator has pointed that out. in the introduc- • tory e says of the book. Although it had been intended that this narra tive should appear some tine ago, its publication was delayed to make way for other work of greater interest to scholars (the interest greater only because the matter is still unknown: we allude to Florida's official Spanish documents). When the Society, however, learned of the August celebration-mentioned in the Preface-in honor of Pedro Menendez at his birthplace, Aviles, Spain, it was felt that no more fitting testimony could be given of America's admiration for the famous founder of St. Augustine than by sending forth this volume at the present time, ahead of the Colonial Record s . It is thus truly a "memorial." JOHN B. STETSON, JR., Chairman, JEANNETTE THURBER CONNOR, GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, J. FRANKLIN JAMESON, Committee on Publications.

PAGE 16

./ /

PAGE 17

, , PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES PREFACE There is nowadays a growing feeling of gratitude toward those hardy Europeans who were the first to blaze the trail in the development of this country. Foremost among them stands Pedro Menendez de Aviles, one of the greatest of Spanish pioneers. Juan Ponce de Leon discovered Florida; others, in the years that intervened between his achievement and the advent of Menendez, made extensive explora tions in the vast region then known by that name; but Pedro Menenhis count ll!ev,_not only conquered and explored but began in to settle organfze .. !t, arid -with a skill, an: executive t • , which would have given Spain a much firmer hold on • her col during the following two centuries, had his successors been half as efficient as he was. Representatives of the city of St. Augustine, which Menendez founded, have been invited to be present, in August, 1923, when his native town of Aviles has his remains removed to a new and more imposing resting place. It is hoped that both Spain and Florida may join in the ceremonies, thus bestowing tardy recognition on the debt they owe to the memory of Pedro Menendez. The Florida State Historical Society can add its tribute to the occa sion in no more practical way than by making available in English that delightfully quaint narrative, the "Memorial" of Menendez, written probably in 1567, by his brother-in-law, Gonzalo Solis de Meras; but not published in full 1893, when it appeared in Ruidiaz's La Florida.1 It is the Ruidiaz transcript of the "Memorial" which I have used for the translation. • This period of Florida histor covered in Lowery's Spanish 1 Ruidiaz y Caravia, Eugenio. La Flori su conquista y colonizaci6n por Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Madrid, 1893. 2 vols. Vol. I: Memorial; Vol. II: Appendix, letters and documents. Some papers concerning Menendez are still lying unpublished in the Archivo General de lndias, at Seville.

PAGE 18

10 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Settlements, 2 which it is wise to read. He makes frequent use of the documents in La Florida, by Ruidfaz y Caravia, and reviews at length the French and Spanish chronicles of the time, quoting from them and weighing impartially-for Lowery was both lawyer and scholar-the differing statements and points of view. He assembled his own collec tion of Spanish transcripts with the intention of continuing his history of Florida. The appendices to the Spanish Settlements are unique in thoroughness and painstaking accuracy, and their author's premature death was a loss to Hispanic-American historical res earch. The heirs of Woodbury Lowery have kindly consented to the repro duction in this volume of the map of Florida, 1562-1574, compiled by Lowery, which appears in the Spanish Settlements. Doctor Gonzalo Solis de Meras, the author of the "Memorial," is believed by Barq,ia8 and Ruidfaz to have been the official c . ..,Q.icler of the Spanish expedition to Florida in 156 5, commanded by the delan tado Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Meras wa the brother of Menendez's wife-that little Ana Maria de Solis to whom Pedro's relatives had betrothed him when they were both children, hoping thereby to keep him from running away to sea. As Ruidfaz observes, they did not effect their purpose, for Pedro, far from staying at home, lured many of his relatives away with him to a life of travel and adventure. 2 Lowery, Woodbury. The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the United States, 1562-1574, New York, 1905. Other accounts are: Jared Sparks, Life of Ribaut, in The Library of Ameri can Biography, Boston, 1845, vol. XVII. John Gilmary Shea, "Ancient Florida," in Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of the United States, vol. II, chapter IV. Francis Parkman, Pioneers of France in the New World. Paul Gaffarel, Histoire de la Floride Franfaise, Paris, 187 5. The student-should also consult: John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Boston and New York, 1892, vol. II, . 511-522. Edward Gaylord Bourne, Spain in America, in The Ameri ation: a History, edited by Albert Bush nell Hart, New York, 1904, vo. III, chapter XII. Herbert E. Bolton, The Spanish Borderlands, in Chronicles of America, edited by Allen Johnson, New Haven, 1921, vol. XXIII, pp. 140-161. 8 Cf. p. 12, note 8.

PAGE 19

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE .AVILES 11 Among these was his brother-in-law, who was also his nephew, having married the niece of Menendez, Dona Francisca de Quiros. Little is known of Solis de Meras, except that he belonged to one of the noble families of the Asturias and was a man of letters, although he is nowhere mentioned as having had a literary career. His title of Doctor, then less common in Spain than it now is, might prove his claim to literary ability, even if it were not apparent from portions of the "Memorial." Ruidiaz waxes enthusiastic over it. "It is the true work," he says, "of a chronicler: moderate, simple and above all, sincere. Solis de Meras is not the artist who is charmed while contem plating the beauties of a landscape, and seems to amuse himself by lingering on the incidents which most appeal to him; he is the pho tographer w produces whatever the landscape offers, whether it be pretty o g y, most beautifol or least sublime. That is the mission of the chronicler. Solis relates events loyally and frankly, without love, passion, or hatreds outwa ly manifested, but with a serenity of soul never disturbed; he does not judge or belittle or exalt them : he reveals them .... One feels that his diary is written on the spot, close to the facts; there is life and color and movement in it. . . . [He] must have jotted down nearly all the events during the very night of the day in which they occurred, and afterwards he gave us his work. Be cause of this, one notices some repetitions, which he would certainly have cut out had he corrected his text; but those very repetitions, that carelessness which is not affected but natural and logical, give to his work a tone of sincerity which is the most commendable quality in chroniclers and historians."4 There are four known biographers of Pedro Menendez, three of whom were contemporaries: Solis de Meras ;5 Barri en to a professor of Latin in the University of Salc:l . .,, ca, who finished his record of the 4 La Florida, tomo I, pp. ccxli, ccxlii. 5 "Memorial que hizo el Doctor Gonzalo Solis de Meras de todas las jornadas y sucesos del Adelantado Pedro Menendez de Aviles, su cuiiado, y de la Con quista de la Florida y Justicia que hizo en Juan Ribao y otros franceses." •

PAGE 20

12 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES life of Menendez in December, i568;6 and Mendoza Grajales, _ his _ chaplain,7 whose account of the Adelantado's fam0us fii'-Stvoyage to Florida, he founded St. Augustine and mercilessly destroyed the French, is very short but unusually interesting and amusing. The fourth biographer is Cardenas z Cano (Barcia),8 who wrote no sepa rate life of Menendez, but speaks of him at length and quotes part of the "Memorial" by Meras, a copy of which he owned. Mendoza and Meras accompanied Menendez on his expedition to Florida in i 56 5; Mendoza was with him at the first massacre of the French and Meras at the second. Meras was one of the two men who killed Ribaut. We learn this fact from Barrientos; Meras does not mention it. Lowery gives his rea s ons for thinking that there ust hav e exi s ted an original document, now lost-probably the Adelanta , 's own nar-A. R. G., 2-2.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, 1.-Barcia, Ensa y o Cro n o logico, pp. 85-93 ( extract).-Benjamin F. French, Historical C o ll ections of Louis i ana and Florida, Second Series, 1875, pp. 216-222, note (extract translated from Barcia). 6 "Vida y Hechos de Pero Menendez de Auiles, Cauallero de la Hordem de Sanctiago, Adelantado de la Florida: Do largamente se tratan las Conquistas y Poblaciones de la Prouincia de la Florida, y como fueron libradas de los Lutera nos que dellas se auian apoderado. Conpuesta por el mae s tro barrientos, Catreda tico de salamanca." This work is one of the two narratives in Dos Antiguas Relaciones de la Florida publicalas par primera vez Genaro Garcia, Mexico, 1902. 7 "Memoria del buen suc;esso y buen Viaje que dios nfo senor foe servido de dar a la armada que salio de la c;iudad de caliz para la prouinc;ia y costa de la florida de la qual foe por general el Illustre senor pero menendez de auiles comendador de la orden de satiago," por Franc;isco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales. 1565. A. G. de I., 1-1-1/19.-R. A. ., Col. Munoz, tomo 87 (from Simancas).D. H., Col. Navarrete, t. 14, no. 37.-N. Y. Public Library, 2 copies.-Smith, vol. for 1561-1593, pp. 233-279 (from R.A.H.).-Col. Doc. Amer., Ill, pp. 441-Florida, II, pp. 431-465.-Ternaux-Compans, Poyages, XX, pp. 165-232 (in French).-Benj. F. Fr" t h, Hist. Coll. La. and Fla., Second Series, 1875, pp. 191-234 (tran . k ' from Ternaux-Compans).-Shipp, De Soto and Florida, pp. 544-561 ( tract, translation).-Old South Leaflets, no. 89, pp. 1 (from Benj. F. French translation). 8 Ensayo Cronologico para la Historia General de la Flor i da, par Don Gabriel de Cardenas z Cano (anagram for Don Andreas Gonzales Barcia) . Madrid, 1723.

PAGE 21

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES rative of his successes in Florida-from which both Meras and Barrientos took many of the incidents in their chronicles. He says also, •'it appears probable that Barcia and Ruidfaz had access to two different copies of the Meras 'Memorial.' "9 JEANNETTE THURBER CONNOR. New York, June, i923. 9 Spanish Settlements, 1562-1574, page ix. • •

PAGE 22

• • • • • •

PAGE 23

, , PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES • TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword PAGE 7 Preface PAGE 9 Introduction PAGE 23 CONTENTS AS GIVEN BY RUIDIAZ Chapter I PAGE 39 Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Ancestors. Manor house in Santa Paya de Pravia. Numerous family. Vocation from childhood for the naval war service. Becomes an orphan. Flees to Valladolid. Is married to Dona Ana Marfa de Solis. War between Spain and France. Pedro Menendez de Aviles in the marine patrol. His first fights against the enemies of Spain. Lucky warfare on the coast. PAGE 43 Pedr :Cenendez de Aviles named Captain by Maximilian, to go m pursuit of corsairs. Is afterwards named Captain-General of the Fleet of the Indies by Philip II. Accom panies that monarch to England. Brings to Spain tidings and dispatches about the royal wedding. Fights with c airs on that voyage. Chapter III PAGE 44 Asturian Houses of the ancestors of Pedro Menendez de Aviles. First voyage to the Indies (1555). Returns to Spain in September, 1556. Chapter IV PAGE 45 Menendez entrusted with the pursuit of corsairs on the coasts of Spain (1557). Re ceives the charge of carrying succor to Flanders. Commission in Antwerp. Return to Spain and new voyage to Flanders at the head of another armada. Sails jointly with that of England. The skilful and energetic proceedings of Menendez de Aviles. In England they pay him the deserved tribute of eulogies for his eminent gifts as a soldier and sailor. Receives and escorts the Prince of Eboli. Difficult voyage. Expert ness and valor Menendez de Aviles showed therein. Victorious over the corsairs, he reaches Laredo. Chapter V PAGE Pedro Menendez receives a commission to accompany and protect Quien Mary on her voyage to Flanders. Death of Queen Mary. He returns to Flanders with another com mission (1559). Philip II names him eneral of the armada which was to accom pany him on his return from Flanders to Menendez, previous to this, goes to Spain on a special errand. Comes back to Ram and the King embarks (1559). Diffi culties of the voyage and advice he gives the King. Suggests landing in Asturias, but because of a storm the landing takes place at Laredo. The skill of Menendez as a navigator recognized by all. Royal promises to recompense his important services are not fulfilled. Illness of Menendez de Aviles. Notwithstanding, he receives an order to sail to the Indies. Quick return to Spain.

PAGE 24

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Chapter VI PAGE New voyage of Menendez to the Indies in 1561. Prosperous result of that expedition. Is persecuted by his rivals. Unjust lawsuit begun by the Casa de Contrataci6n of Seville. Difficulties stirred up to prevent his being freed from charges. Is thrown into prison. Obtains his liberty on bail, the proceedings in the case being sent to the Council of the Indies. Menendez de Aviles sets out for Madrid. Is imprisoned again and con demned to pay 1,000 ducats. The King remits half the fine. Appoints him General of the Armada of the Indies, being convinced that he had been falsely accused. Pedro Menendez de Aviles receives notice of the death of his only son while the latter was serving in the Armada of the Indies. Plans to assemble a fleet by means of loans and donations, being compelled to this by poverty and the abandonment of his property for the royal service . Philip II feels sorry for the unfortunate condition of his servant, and promises to help him in the conquest and colonization of Florida. Menendez decides on that enterprise for the good of religion and of the King. Voyage to the Asturias and to Biscay to prepare the armada. Chapter VII PAGE 70 Noble impulses which inspire Menendez de Aviles in the expedition to Florida. Great trouble in equipping and supplying the fleet at his expense, "" very scanty help from the King. So arranges the ships that some are to sail froin C!l, . ,'l!, others from Asturias and Debts he contracts. Assistance from Francisco Reim,. Francisco de Eraso, Pedro dcl Castillo and others. Chapter VIII PAGE 72 Plans and arrangements of Menendez de Aviles so as to go to Florida, and prevent the heretics established there from receiving assistance (1565). The King's proposals to him. Offers of forces and help in the Indies. Plan of campaign. People of the armada. Chapter IX PAGE 74 Menendez de Aviles appoints Juan de San Vicente as a captain in the expedition. Francisco Duarte, without an order from the King, passes in review the people who arc going in the armada. Energetic protest from the Adclantado. Enumeration of vessels and forces in the undertaking. Menendez sails from Cadiz, but returns to port because of a storm. Fresh start. Arrival at Canaries. Estebano de las Alas and Pedro Menendez Marques recruit men and charter ships in Asturias for the conquest of Florida. Forces united in Santander and Biscay. Great sacrifices of the Adelantado for the enterprise. Pay given troops. Menendez does not receive the aid offered in the Indies. Dispersion of fleet in stonus. Arrival at the islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Menendez knows that an expedition under the corsair Juan Ribaultl has gone ahead of him bound for Florida. Prepares to set out for that country without loss of time. Council of captains. Diversity of opinions. That of the Adclantado prevails. Chapter X PAGE 80 Soldiers' exercises during rida sighted on August 28th, 1565. Menendez sails four days along coast. Lan s forces to seek information from Indians. Learns 1 Jean Ribaut. A corsair in ancient times was the captain of an armed ship who had a patent from his King or his government, and whose duty it was to pursue, fight and capture pirates or any enemies of his country. Later the word became synonymous with pirate. /

PAGE 25

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES that the French Calvinists have established themselves 20 leagues to the north. Clever behavior of Menendez toward natives. Sails on, and discovers a good harbor 8 leagues further. Calls it St. Augustine. Meets the French armada 12 leagues north " of there, at the mouth of the St. Johns River. Decides to attack it against opinion of those who suggest waiting for arrival of delayed forces. Night battle. French ships flee, pursued by Spanish. Latter are united at St. Augustine. Menendez lands and founds city of that name. Succor asked from Hispaniola. The Adelantado runs risk of being made prisoner by French. Holds a council with his captains. Wants to go by land to conquer Frenchmen's fort. His opinion and plans approved of, but not without opposition. Divides forces for attack. Some captains are against him. His energetic an swer. The expedition starts. Great hardships on way. The Adelantado's spirit and con stancy. Arrives at Fort Caroline. Spaniards' assault without any losses. Enemy's panic and defeat. Attack on French fleet. One of their ships is sunk. Others flee. Spaniards rest. Divide booty. Return to St. Augustine. Menendez appoints Gonzalo de Villarrocl as Governor of Fort Caroline, which he renames Fort San Mateo. Arrangements made for governing it and for founding a church. Pursuit and death of fugitive Frenchmen. Chapter XI PAGE 107 New sufferings and difficulties on way back to St. Augustine. Triumphal reception. March in sear the French. They offer to surrender and begin negotiations. Give Execution of the French. Return to St. Augustine . • PAGE 115 Menendez again sets out from e Fort of St. Augustine, to go against Jean Ribaut and his soldiers. Troops of both commanders behold each other at a distance. Confer ence with Jean Ribaut. His negotiations and numerous offers to obtain the French men's liberty. They surrender their arms and flags. Execution of those pirates. Chapter XIII PAGE 123 Pedro Menendez de Aviles returns to St. Augustine. His conduct variously construed. Burning and loss of Fort of San Mateo owing to negligence and rivalries in garrison. The Adelantado sets forth from St. Augustine to pursue last remnants of French forces. Organization and powers which he leaves in his absence. Takes several Frenchmen by surprise; they surrender. Destroys their works of defence (1565). Explores the country, and begins friendly relations with the Indians. Scarcity of supplies. Menendez de Aviles everywhere gives examples of courage and energy. Friendly intercourse with caciques. Leaves garrison in Ays, and sails for Cuba in search of succor and reinforce ments. Fast voyage to that island. Conversion of the French he was bringing in his company. Arrival at Havana. Cool reception givell Menendez by the Governor, Garcia Osorio. Refuses assistance for Florida, in spite of the Adelantado's arguments and definite orders of Philip II. Menendez receives tidings of Armada of the Asturias. Asturian soldiers arrive. Holds a council with captains, and sets out in pursuit of corsairs. New conferences with Governor of Havana. Meets Portugues.a vessels which bring him orders from the King and notice of reinforcements for defending West Indies. Receives news likewise of prepara J 'l being made in France to come to attack him in Florida. Returns to Havana to forcements, makes arrangements to continue his undertaking, and writes to hat has occurred up to Chapter XIV PAGE Menendez de Aviles returns to Florida with the forces from the Asturias, and others. Leaves the fleet to ransom Christian prisoners of Cacique Carlos. Obtains their liberty.

PAGE 26

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Establishes relations with various caciques. Cacique Carlos makes proposals before rendering obedience. Offers his sister Antonia as a wife for the Adelantado. Menendez shows no interest in plan. With his soldiers, visits palace and country of Carlos. Reception given him. Presents he gives in return. Conversion of Indians. Takes wia'i him the Indian woman Antonia. Founds the port of San Anton. Sends to Havana the Indian woman Antonia and others, in order that they may be taught the Catholic faith. Reconnoitres coast and returns to St. Augustine. Chapter XV PAGE Disturbances and lack of discipline in Santa Lucia and country of Ays, during absence of Menendez de Aviles. Similar events and mutinies in St. Augustine. Punishments. Succor arrives. Chapter XVI PAGE 155 Conspiracies and disturbances continue in St. Augustine. Discontent in that garrison. The Adelantado succors it and tries to pacify the people. Previous desertion [of some, fleeing] on a ship. Indians of Cacique Saturiba kill 35 Spaniards whom deserters set at liberty. The Adelantado's new arrangements. Rebellion of Captain Juan de San Vicente and others, who wish to leave Florida. Opposition 1\/[enendez to their departure. Illegal protection afforded deserters by authorities of ''lispaniola. The Adelantado complains to the Audiencia. False information given agaifu.. •he Adclan tado by deserters and discontented persons. Secret opposition to his plans. ifficulties placed in his way in Spain and West Indies. Chapter XVII PAGE New distribution of forces which remained in the Forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo. Useless report on Captain Recalde (1566). The Adelantado sets out for Guale. Interview with a Frenchman, a prisoner of the Indians. Serves Menendez as interpreter for understanding that land and conversion of the cacique and his subjects. Intervention of Menendez in dissensions of caciques. His influence increases because of this. He starts for Santa Elena, and joins Estebano de las Alas. Arrival at the pueblo of Santa Elena. Submission of the caciques of that district. Arrangements for their conversion to Catholicism. Founding of Fort of San Felipe. Chapter XVIII PAGE Estebano de las Alas appointed Governor of Fort of San Felipe. Succor asked from Santo Domingo. Work of converting Indians of those regions. Return to Guale. Nego tiations and interviews with cac ques. Chapter XIX PAGE 180 Measures ...aken by the Adclantado to increase his influence and insure peace between the caciques of Guale and Orista. De3•h of the French interpreter, convicted of treason. Chapter XX PAGE 182 The Adclantado's arrival at Fort of San Mateo. Bad news from St. Augustine and troubles of garrison. Craftiness of Indians. Expedition to succor St. Augustine. Re moval of fort. The Adelantado's departure for Havana in search of supplies. On way meets and saves vessel which was bringing them. Arrives in Havana. Asks for help

PAGE 27

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 19 and forces for Florida from Licentiate Valderrama, and complains of Governor Osorio. Refers to the hardships, dangers and needs which he had suffered for the sake of the conquest. Valderrama's excuses and refusals. Aid and generosity of Juan de Ynistrosa. Incident concerning the sister of Cacique Carlos, the Indian woman Antonia who was enamored of the Adelantado. When he "returns to Florida takes her back to her family. New expedition to Havana in search of provisions. Disillusions. In Florida once more. Arrival at San Mateo. Succor from Spain. Chapter XXI PAGE 195 Disorders in garrison of San Mateo. News of sad occurrences in St. Augustine. Insubordination and lack of discipline of forces recently arrived at that fort. The Adelantado's return. Meets the priests, women and soldiers. Organizes everything. Chapter XXII PAGE 201 Distribution of forces in St. Augustine. Measures taken by the Adelantado for pursuing corsairs and helping West Indies. Starts for San Mateo. Ascends river for more than 50 leagues. Visits lands of Cacique Hotina. Continues explorations. Relations with Caciques Macoya, Calabay and others. Meets Hotina. Goes to Santa Elena. Writes to the . Sends soldiers and friars to Bay of Santa Maria. They persuade the pilot to . KC them to Spain. Rivalry at Santa Elena between de las Alas and Ju ardo. Fresh desertions. The Adelantado acts. Names gstebano de las Alas as his lieutenant. Gives Pardo a commission to explore interior of Florida. Proceeds on voyage. Chapter XXIII PAGE 212 Arrival of Menendez at Guale. Death of Alonso Menendez Marques. Submission of some caciques. The Adelantado starts for St. Augustine. Insubordination there. Menen dez sets out at head of fleet to chase corsairs in West Indies. Chapter XXIV PAGE 213 Formation of armada. Captains under orders of Menendez de Aviles. Receives tidings of French corsairs. Steps taken by the Adelantado. Presents his instructions and royal orders to Audiencia of Santo Domingo. Measures taken by the Tribunal, acting with Menendez, to fortify Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico and Havana. The Adelantado goes to those islands, prepares their defence and instils confidence everywhere (1567). Orders succor for Florida. Returns there; proceeds with his conquest and explorations, ordering the camp master to continue to travel u river of San Mateo. Energy, activity and great administrative ability of Menendez ae Aviles. Chapter XXV PAGE 219 The Adelantado sends soldiers to Francisco Reinoso, to reconnoitre advance in lands of Cacique Carlos. The cacique's friendly reception. His sister Antonia and other persons sent to Havana as hostages, l' " reater safety of Reinoso's expedition. Dangers faced by him and his soldiers. Mene e Aviles returns to Carlos's coun-try, accompanied by Father Rogel and Father ncisco de Villarreal. Goes to see Tocobaga, a good Indian. Intervenes in the differences between Carlos and Tocobaga. Reconciles them. Progress in the missions. Twenty-nine caciques render allegiance. Peace and relations with them. Disloyalty of Carlos. Trouble with him. Arrival of vessel with news of Captain de Rodaban's rebellion in Havana. Details of conflict. Wicked proceedings of Governor Garcia Osorio, a rival of the Adelantado. Menendez

PAGE 28

20 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES arrives in Havana and punishes the captain. Goes back to Florida and organizes dis trict of Tequesta. Goes on to San Mateo. Unsuccessful meeting with Cacique Saturiba. Chapter XXVI PAGE 235 The Adelantado at Fort of St. Augustine. Proceedings against Captain Enriquez. His removal. Estebano de las Alas to be Lieutenant-Governor during the Adelantado's absence in Spain. War on Saturiba. The Adelantado's arrival at Santa Elena. Brilliant result of Captain Pardo's expedition. Building of blockhouse at Joada and others. Chapter XXVII . PAGE 237 The Adelantado prepares to go to Spain, to render the King an account of state of things in Florida and West Indies. Chapter XXVIII Sets out for Spain. Reaches Azores. Arrives at Corunna, deceiving corsairs. Delivers as prisoners the captains he has brought. Starts for Aviles after writing to the King. Puts in at the Concha de Artedo, in Asturias. Incident at that haven. Chapter XXIX . PAGE 241 -' The Adelantado continues his voyage. Arrives at Aviles . Reward for g • , news. Starts for court. Is received by the King. Reports on conquest and colonization of Florida. Discoveries and progress of enterprise. Complains of the conduct of Governor of Havana and other officials. False statements of eserters. The Adelantado's services belittled by his enemies. E x tracts from Ens a yo Cronologico para la Histor ia Ge neral de l a Florid a , by Don G a bri e l d e C a rd e n a s z C ano (Barcia) PAGE 246 Virtues of Sassafras Plant. Large Sums due the Adelantado. The Great Armada against Flanders. Menendez its Commander. His Death.

PAGE 29

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 21 APPENDICES Concerning Do'fia Catalina, Elder Daughter of the Adelantado . PAGE 253 B. 'the Site of the Massacres at Matanzas Inlet PAGE 254 C. Last Letter of Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Addressed to His Nephew, Pedro Menendez Marques PAGE 255 D. Capitulacion y Asiento. 'the King's Agreement and Contract with Pedro Menendez de Aviles for the Conquest and Settlement of Florida PAGE 259 Index PAGE 271 ILLUSTRATIONS , , .. -Pedro enendez de Aviles, from Retratos de los Espafioles !lustres con n Epitome de sus Vidas, Madrid, 1 791 Lowery's Map of Florida, 1562-1574 . Frontispiece PAGE 80 Sand Dunes at Matanzas Inlet, Florida . PAGE 114 Dupont's Drawing and Part of His Letter Relating to the Massacres at Matanzas Inlet in 1565 . PAGE 122 Facsimile of Portion of Last Letter of Pedro Menendez de Aviles PAGE 254

PAGE 30

A.G. de I. A.R.G. Col. Doc. Amer. D.H. L. C. Lowery. R. A.H. Ruidfaz, La Florida. Simancas. Smith. ABBREVIATIONS Archivo General de Indias, Seville. Archivo de Revilla-Gigedo. Colecci6n de Documentos Ineditos relativos al Descubrimiento, Conquista, y Colonizaci6n de las Posesiones Espafiolas en America y Oceania. Madrid, 1864-1884. 42 vols. Dep6sito Hidrografico, Madrid. Library of Congress Collection of Spanish Transcripts. Woodbury Lowery Collection of Spanish Transcripts on Florida, in the Library of Con gress. Real Academia de la Histori0-..::1.drid. Ruidfaz y Caravia, Eugenio. La ),),,;.rida, su conquista y colonizacion por Pedro Menendez de Aviles. Madrid, 1893. Archivo General de Simancas, Simancas. Buckingham Smith Collection of Spanish Transcripts on North America, in the New York Historical Society. Numbers of estantes, cajones and legajos-i.e., the references of location of documents-are given between dashes . ..

PAGE 31

, , PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES INTRODUCTION 0 n June 29th, 156 5, a fleet set sail from the Bay of Cadiz to drive the French out of Florida. To command it, Philip II of Spain had selected Pedro Menendez de Aviles, an able Spanish seaman, and the most discussed figure in Florida's colonial history; a man with a ca rs 1 ;r theattention respect of the most prejudiced. Pedro Menendez was born in the sea-port of Aviles in the Asturias, February i5th, i519. Reared in the Asturian mountains, in sight of the ocean, the love of the sea was in him, and the story of his early life, durin years when he so of ten fought corsairs off the Spanish and Fr : . ..;n coasts, is one of the most graphic sourc s from which to . r form an idea of the picturesque lawlessness of those freebooters of the sea. The historians of enendez, Meras and Barrientos, give strik ing incidents of these battles of his youth. Later they give detailed of the many voyages he made to America as Captain-General and of his masterly . -in Flanders between Spain and France. When Menen dez was named Captain-General of the Armada of the Indies in the year 15 54, his predecessors in the post had shown little capacity and the appointment was made by the King himself, against the wishes of the Casa de la Contrataci6n at Seville, a powerful organization which was the governing board of the American trade. They had another nominee for the position, and itl'.iiad always been their preroga tive to choose the Captains-General of the Armadas of the Carrera of the Indies.1 Menendez thus incurred the relentless enmity of the Casa for the rest of his life. As the head of the fleet, he had reat opportunity for displaying his many talents and rare qualities. Tri., are of the fleet and frequent inspections of the merchant vessels during the voyages were among his 1 These armadas escorted and protected the fleets bound for the Indies. Cf. p. 138, note 3.

PAGE 32

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES duties. His resourcefulness was never found wanting in perils and encounters at sea. He was most successful in bringing back treasure, most faithful in performing every detail of his service and it was his._ very integrity which made him unpopular with the merchants, from whom he steadily refused to receive bribes in return for allowing any infraction of rules. In this connection there is a good story about him: "Being in the said port of San Juan de Luz, getting the said fleet in readiness to sail for the kingdom of Castile, Tolomeo Espindola, a merchant, and others, asked him to delay the sailing for three or four days, promising to g ive him for each day of delay one thousand crowns or one thousand pesos de minas, for this witness does not remember which; and further they promised him that if he remained longer than three days in the said port, they would give him for the rest two thou sand ducats a day; and the said Pedro Menendez said t " . i , t was good money, ordered l.o sea the chaplain of his fleet, and commax. d him to say mass, which he did; and it being said, the aforesaid Pedro Menendez boarded the flagship, dischar d a cannon and set sail, saying publicly that no one could know what it was to lose one hour's time while serving God and his King."2 This haughty dislike to any thing like graft, and his unbending way helped to keep his relations with the Casa strained to the breaking point. Until the close of 1559, Menendez was actiye in Spain and Eng land, France and Flanders, on land and on sea. His list of achieve ments as told in this "Memorial" of Meras, is fairly bewildering. 2 "Y estando en el dicho puerto de San Juan de Luz aprestando la dicha flota para los reynos de Castilla, Tolomeo Espindola, mercader, y otros, le persua dieron a que se detuviese tres 6 dias y le prometieron le darian por cada un dia que se detuviese mill escudos 6 mill pesos de minas, que este testigo no se acuerda lo que foe, y mas se lo prometieron, que si mas estuviese en el dicho puerto de los dias, le darian por los demas por cada dia dos mill ducados; y el dicho Pedro Menendez dixo que era vuen dinero, y mando a la mar el Capellan de su flota, y le mando d . '\e misa, el qual la dixo, y dicha, el dicho Pedro Menendez se entro en la .. -6capitana, y tiro una pieza, y se hizo a la vela, diziendo publicamente que no sauia nadie lo que era perder vna hora de tiempo y seruir a Dios y a SU Rey." Cf. "lnformacion de algunos servicios prestados por el Adelantado Pedro Menendez de Aviles." Mexico, 3 de Abril de 1595, A.G. de I., 1-2-1/18.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 621.

PAGE 33

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES During his voyage to the Indies in 1561-1563, the Casa de Contrata.; ci6n, which had as usual been annoying him, was lying low and pre paring a telling stroke. It refused to pay him an increase of salary granted by the King, accusing him of not adhering to his instructions. Every time Menendez used his own judgment in his expeditions, it had been to the advantage of the King's pocket. Philip therefore inter vened and commanded that thenceforth Menendez should serve directly under the order s of the Council of the Indies, to which alone he would be responsible. Nevertheless, on his return from the West Indies, he and his brother Bartolome, who had been Admiral of the Fleet on that voyage, were seized by the officials of the Casa and thrown into prison, where he was kept twenty months, and Bartolome, twenty-five. It will probably never be known exactly what were the charges ag • ., them; Barrientos says that the enemies of Menendez :>' tried t".> .;now that he had allowed large sums to be s1nuggled, besides exceeding orders and breaking rules. Menendez wrote to the King that they also revived old ace sations, such as his taking a bribe of five hundred ducats, and that they questioned whether he had provided sufficient rations for the soldiers.8 Menendez had faults, but his indif ference to the temptation of money was apparently far above that of many of his contemporaries. The judges delayed the sentence as long as they could. They did not succeed in finding anything against him and he and Bartolome were finally released, but not until the King had forced the Casa to free them by his issuing two peremptory cedulas that sentence should be passed. Pedro was condemned to pay one thou sand ducats, and Bartolome two hundred. The King reduced the fines to half the amount. All biographers {Jf Menendez say that he was accused unjustly. The jealousy and antagonism of the Casa also showed itself on one occasion when its officers were inspecting the ships of a :neet of which Menendez was Captain-General. HI;' noticed that their boat standard was of crimson damask, bearing the r al arms, an honor accorded only to the King when at war, or the Captain-General by special 8 Menendez to Philip II, July 27th, i563, A. G. de 1.-D. H.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 36. )

PAGE 34

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES privilege. Menendez, instead of arguing, hauled it down and kept it in his possession. "And from this," he writes to the King, "they have conceived such anger against me, that publicly, since they have seized me, they have said that as I have wished to deprive them of the authority which they had in naming the Generals, and have taken from them the royal standard, it is not too much that they should try to deprive me of honor, and even life ."' Again in the same letter, Menen dez says: "If I deserve punishment, let me be chastised in conformity with justice, without any act of mine being forgiven me; and if the judges deserve it for doing what they should not do, let not their punishment be a secret reprimand, but in conformity with what they deserve; for I do not wish to retain my honor, unless the charges made against me be removed by justice, and I be cleared. so that Your Majesty and the Council may understand the shameless boldness of these men.m In i565, Philip's differences with France in connection with Florida had reached the point where he sent over n armada to settle to his satisfaction France's position in that region, and he chose Menendez to command it. Although homesick for his wife, and for his daughters, whom he had not seen for twelve years, since they were little girls,6 Menendez accepted the enormous task with enthusiasm. His only son, Don Juan, had been shipwrecked with many friends and relatives while returning in i563 from New Spain with a fleet, of which his father had put him in charge, when he himself was about to return to Spain from Havana. Menendez had not ceased to grieve over the catastrophe, and on his release from prison, his principal thought was to go in search of his lost son': He also, in his loyalty to Philip and • Menendez to Philip II, September 15th, 1563, A. G. de 1.-D. H.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II p. 44 6 A.G. de 1.-D. H.-Ruidlaz, La Florida, II, p. 47. 6 "Doce afios que no he estado casa, ni visto a mi muger y hijas, que dexe tres chiquitas, que son ya Menendez to Philip, January 8th, 1564, A.G. de 1 .-D. H.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 59. 1 There is a difference of opinion as to where Don Juan was wrecked. In "N oticias de la poblaci6n que habian hecho los Franceses a la Florida," 1564 (Rojomonte's Deposition, Patronato, 1-1-1/19, pp. 3 and 4, note), there is a

PAGE 35

• PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 27 Spain, felt deeply concerned over the attempts of France to found settlements on Spanish soil in America, and his feeling against all heretics added fuel to the fire. He.hated them as the Inquisition hated them. On March 20th, 1565, the King granted to him the patent, or Capitulacion y Asiento,8 for the conquest and settlement of Florida. In it were stipulated all the conditions under which the enterprise was to be carried out, and among the privileges and rewards to be bestowed on Menendez was the title of Adelantado of Florida. This old Spanish dignity was conferred on explorers of distant lands and Governors of frontier provinces.9 On June 29th, 1565, Menendez and part of his fleet sailed from Cadiz, but h ad to return on account of a storm, and made a fresh "" start a ft:...,1" ays later. In September he captured Fort Caroline, the • settleilrent of the French Huguenots on the River 'of May (the St. Johns River), Florida, and killed Jean Ribaut and his followers at Matanzas Inlet. The events of the next two years are told in detail by Meras and Barrientos, whose biographies of Menendez end with his arrival in Spain in 1567, whereas the Adelantado did not die until 1574. This intervening period is confused because of his many trips to and from Spain and his varied interests; but dominating it and shining through it all is his absorbing passion for Florida. reference to the loss by Don Juan Menendez of three ships on the coast of Florida, near Cape Canaveral. Fontaneda, in his "Memoria," agrees with this statement. Meras, however, says that Don Juan was wrecked off the coast of Bermuda; and in "Informacion de (A. G. de I., 1-2-1/18; Ruidfaz, II, p. 6o8), the following appears: "[This witness, Captain Agustin Espinola, followed Menendez] as Captain of the galleon called Madalena; and likewise, in the year 1563, he was with Don Juan Menendez, son of the said Pedro Menendez, when he went as General of the fleet of this f'l ew Spain; and off Bermuda, in 33 degrees, they ran into such a tempest and hurricane that the flagship, on board whereof was the said Du." uan Menendez, has not reappeared to this day, and it is held for very certain that he was drowned, for he had no harbor he could reach." 8 Appendix D. 9 The term is derived from the word adelantar, to advance, to take the lead. The title of Adelantado is now an honorary one . •

PAGE 36

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES The colonies in that country underwent great hardships during his absences. In the spring of i 568, while the Adelantado was in Spain, • Dominique de Gourgues, a French gentleman from Gascony, sailed for Florida with three small ships and achieved amazing success in avenging the deaths of Ribaut and his fellow countrymen. The fact, brought to light in i911,10 that de Gourgues was a Roman Catholic, not a Protes tant, whose patriotism was above the frenzied religious hatreds of the times, and the extraordinary incidents of his private expedition to Florida, deserve to become better known.11 In letters to the King from Seville and Cadiz, in December, i 569, and January, i 570, Menendez restless I y urges the need of reinforce ments and supplies for the colonies and for his own return theretrying to stir in his sovereign the fear of French and enemies. • "By way of Portugal," he writes, "I have heard corsairs are going about he Indies, and they [the Portuguese] con m the news that :Mastreaquines,12 an English corsair, has passed with a large armada; and if it be so, he will do mucn damage in Havana and Florida, and he could possess himself of those places, and the fleets are running a great risk, especially if misfortune should overtake the dispatch caravels that have gone; and thus, every hour that I am detained here, I am more anxious; and as the delay depends on the time it will take to provide and provision this armada, when I go out the corsair will have carried out his purposes, and all the other cor sairs who are going there will join him. May it please God to confound them and give me grace to serve Your Majesty to the extent of my desire; for at no time more than the present have I wished to distin guish myself in your service, ecause this corsair is so powerful and harmful in those parts.ms A few weeks later he says: "I doubt whether 1 Cf. an arf le by Charles Samaran on Dominique de Gourgues, in Revue Historique, CVIII, November-December, i911, pp. 276-293. 11 The Florida State Historical S(\,, ty plans a volume on de Gourgues for the near future, containing the mo ately discovered French and Spanish docu ments relating to him. 12 Master Hawkins, i.e., Sir John Hawkins. 18 Menendez to the King, December 4th, i569, A. G. de I ., i43-3-12.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. i95, 196.

PAGE 37

l PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 29 one hundred and fifty soldiers only will want to remain in Florida, divided among so many forts and such good harbors; for it is needful that Your Majesty should guard and hold them for your own until the Indians give obedience to Your Majesty, because they are numerous and very warlike, and have rendered allegiance to the French Luther ans, for whom they have great friendship; and the hundred and fifty men are not sufficient to def end themselves against these Indians, being s o divided; and so many of the men who are in Florida will not want to remain, [that] it will be necessary that Your Majesty name persons here who will make up the one hundred and fifty and take charge of the forts, for the farmers and settlers of that country have to live inland, where they have found the soil is very good, and no one will nt to live in the harbors and sea-shore forts, because of the great_. they run from the Indians and because the soil has • proved" unprofitable for them."14 And again he four days after wards: "The soldiers that Your Majesty has in Florida are very unprovided for, and I hatre been sustaining them for days at the cost of my estate, and they are consuming the supplies I put there for the farmers, and I fear that for lack of supplies the soldiers will dismantle the forts, and the farmers run the risk of perishing.ms The resigned endurance of the colonies turned to despair, and the Casa de Contrataci6n and other enemies and obstacles stood in the way of such help from Spain as the Adelantado urged. Two months before, Menendez wrote to Philip from Seville that a caravel, which arrived at St. Augustine to bring away the Accountant of the fleet with the papers and naval accounts, "anchorea. outside the harbor because she was warned by Estebano de las Alas to do so, in order that the people of the port should not take the caravel by force and embark therein and go off."16 ._ 14 Menendez to the King, December 3 t, 1569, A. G. de I., 143-3-12.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 199 15 Menendez to the King, January 4th, 1570, A.G. de I., 143-3-12.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 201. 16 Menendez to the King, November 24th, 1569, A. G. de I., 143-3-12.Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 190. }" I •

PAGE 38

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES In the summer of I 569, Bartolome Menendez went to Spain to beg for succor in soldiers and provisions, and the following year Las Alas, losing all patience, abandoned his post and also sailed for Spain. He does not appear to have been punished for this act. Possibly Menen dez, as Adelantado, interceded for him; possibly also, the description11 given of the state of affairs in Florida, when Philip II commanded an inquiry as to why he had returned, may have inclined the King to leniency. As Menendez himself said, one of the difficulties of his career was that he could not be in several places at once. The King needed him in Spain; the Florida colonies were suffering during his absence; yet in I 568, as if he had not already enough to do, his enemy, Garda Osorio,:1_8 having been dismissed from office, the A elantado was named Governor of Cuba. Furthermore, the neighbor provinces showed a keen to come under his jurisdiction. The year pl'evious, the Bishop of Yucatan had written to Philip II, urging that Florida "be all one government," with the Adelanta8o at its head. From I 568 to I 572, while Menendez was away, the post of Lieu tenant-Governor of Cuba was filled successively by Dr. Francisco de Zayas, Diego de Rivera y Cepero, Pedro Menendez Marques (the Adelantado's nephew, who was also Lieutenant-Governor of Florida), Juan Alonso de Navia and Sancho Pardo Osorio. In Havana the Castle was erected, the Seminary for Florida Indian boys, of which Father Rogel wa_ the first Rector, was founded, and the military hospital was built. In addition to these activities, corsairs were ex pelled from the neighboring seas, and Pedro Menendez Marques recon noitred the eastern coast, from the Florida Keys to the Chesapeake, and wrote the first report and description of it in 1573.19 But through it all, the rev lts of dissatisfied soldiers continued. 17 "Diligencias hechas en Sevilla c motivo de la venida de Esteban de las Alas, de la Florida, con 110 solda s, para averiguar la orden con que vinieron y el estado en que quedaban aquellas fortificaciones." A. G. de I., Patronato, 2-1-1/27.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 569-573. 18 Cf. Chapters XIII, XX, XXV. 19 Cardenas z Cano (Barcia), Ensayo Cronologico, p. i46.

PAGE 39

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 31 In 1570, on his return from a voyage to Havana, Pedro Menendez Marques went to Fort San Mateo, which had been rebuilt after the de • Gourgues expedition. There he heard of a mutiny at St. Augustine, which took on such proportions that in order to prevent the men from making off in a vessel anchored in the harbor, Marques was compelled to write20 and promise them that if they were not succored by March, he would come and take them to Havana, with the artillery of the fort, and allow them to go thence to Spain to claim their pay. He went so far as to say they might leave on any ship they could find, if he should be unable to arrive on time, and offered to lend them money with which to send to Havana for supplies. His sympathies were with the mutineers. What must have been the state of mind of the Adelan tado, far awalJn Spain, between anxiety as to the fate of the colonies, and all rnflicting desires to be of service to the King at home and to explore farther the new world beyond the seas! He.thought he could reach the Pacific and China by way of Chesapeake Bay and he was consumed with eagerness 1:0 obtain a license to settle the country in the northern part of Panuco. In spite of the long opposition of the Audiencia of Mexico, he did obtain a cedula from the King, four years later (February 23d, 1573), extending his dominion "eighty leagues" to the west as far as the Rio Panuco, in Mexico. Thus we see that from 1568 to 1571 it is quite a task to attempt to follow the Adelantado from point to point. Returning to Spain from the Indies in the autumn of 1569, he found a letter of eulogy21 from Pius V. One can imagine how it must have been treasured. In the year 1570 much time was taken up by his as Governor of Cuba, and more was spent at sea, protecting the returning treasure fleets against the ever present pirates. In 1571, he went to Florida for the last time, sailing on May 17th from San Lucar, with seven gall•ons and two 20 A. G. de I., 54-5-9, 8. 21 A. R. G.-Barcia, Ensayo Cronologico, . 139.-Vigil, Noticias, p. 169.Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, pp. 299, 300.-Translated in: George R. Fairbanks, History of Florida, pp. 131, 132; Thos. G. Shea, The Catholic Church in Colo nial Days, p. 145; Benjamin F. French, Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida, pp. 222-223, note; 0 ld South Leaflets, nos. 89, 22, 23. " •

PAGE 40

32 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES hundred and fifty sailors and soldiers. Estebano de las Alas stayed behind in Spain, to assist Diego Florez in his preparations to follow as soon as possible with two more galleons. It was in Havana that Menendez learned of the end of the Second Jesuit Mission to Florida, through the tragic death of Father Segura and his fell ow workers at Axacan, 2 2 owing to the treachery of Don LuisdeVelasco, the Powhatan Indian, and his relatives.2 8 He promptly set forth, accompanied by Father Rogel and two Brothers, to chasti s e the murderers, 2 4 stopping at San Felipe on the way to reinforce the garrison. In his letter of July 22d to King Philip, he write s , explaining why he did not head a European expedition of the fleet: "I refrained from going with it because of the great necessity there is of my person in these provinces of Florida, for the rest of the people who were there have gone, and those that there are [remain] with g +; discontent, and the Indianstmy friends have a great desire to see me: they are those who have given obedience to Your Majesty; and the Indians my enemies, friends of the French, make gr ' at war on them on account of the friendship they hold for me; and if I should not hasten there, all would be lost, and the Lutherans having news of this, would hasten here with ease, and Your Majesty would lo s e what has been gained, and they would make themselves masters of the land. Because those Indians, in general, are more friends of the French, who let them live with freedom, than they are mine or those of the Teatinos,25 who restrict their mode of living; and for this rea s on the French can accom plish more in one day, than I in one year, although with the help of Our Lord I hope it will become the contrary."2 0 The Adelantado, on his way south again, did not reach St. Augus-22 The Indian province of Axacan, near and including Chesapeake Bay, which was called the Bay of Santa Marfa of Axacan. The word is spelled in various ways. Cf. Lowery, Spanish Settlements, i562-1574, p. 459. 28 Father Pedro Martinez, the head of the First Jesuit Mission, had been likewise killed by Indians a few year y Pfeviously, September 28th, i566. 24 Page 245, note 2. 25 Friars of the order of that name. 26 Menendez to the King, July 22d, i571, A. G. de I., i43-3-13.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, pp. 229, 230. /

PAGE 41

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 33 tine until December, and stayed there just long enough to succor the miserable garrison and infuse new life into it. With Father Rogel, the other Jesuits and a little boy named Alonso (the sofeSillv!vor -of the martyrs of Axac:in, who had been trained by the missionaries to serve at mass and who described their end), Menendez sailed for Havana. He was overtaken by one of the characteristic storms of the Florida East Coast, wrecked in the neighborhood of the present New Smyrna, 27 and given up for dead, according to a letter written from Havana by Sancho Pardo Osorio; but he marched back to St. Augustine and arrived there in safety. Always predominating were the two constant and unswerving aims: to conquer and colonize new lands for Spain and the King, at the same time keeping o • r nations out of them; and to convert the Indians to the Rom:ut Catholic faith. Any Lutheran who in his way he exterminated, both as a Frenchman and a heretic. In one of his Me morials, he compares the of the Indians to that of the Luther ans. "It is fitting," he says, "that Your Majesty should try to master that land very shortly; even for the reason that it is a country so large, and of such good altitude, that if some other nations go to settle it, forming a friendship, as they will, w _ith the Indians of the land, it will be afterward most difficult to conquer and rule it, especially if the French or English should settle it, as they are Lutheran peoples; and because they and the Indians are nearly of one faith, as I have said, they will very easily make friends with one another."28 ' The amusing naivete of the Adelantado's ignorance gives one the measure of the narrowness of that age. it is all the more interesting when one remembers that he was a man of exceptional ability. One is struck by his skill as a strategist, so well exemplified when he was a • 27 Menendez was wrecked thirty-one leagues south of St. Augustine. Cf. Sancho Pardo Osorio's letter, A. G. de I., 2-_ 12, Doc. 3, 15.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 488. 28 "Memorial of Pedro Menendez de Aviles, respecting the measures it would be proper to take to insure the safe possession of Florida, and prevent the French and English from being able to cause trouble in those dominions." A. G. de I., 1-1-1/19.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 324.

PAGE 42

34 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES mere boy, in his fight with French corsairs near the Galician coast, to rescue a young bride ;29 also by his sense, of what we must call divina tion, before deciding on a course of action, as when he convinced his captains that it was the right thing to attack30 Ribaut's fleet at the entrance of the River St. Johns and about ten days later, to go and surprise Fort Caroline, because his reasoning told him the French must have sent off their best men in the ships with Ribaut. Ruidfaz remarks that the expedition seems "the invention of a poet." We recognize his remarkable tact in always consulting his captains, and always bringing them to his way of thinking; his kindness and cleverness in deaiing with the Indians; his patience with Gare.fa Osorio, the Governor of Cuba, and in all circumstances when patience was needed; his quick ness and judgment, courage and restraint, which h -0 placed him in the rarer class [>f men who, to borrow an old, homely have "as much balance wheel as main spring." Besides his talents as a soldier and a seaman, his versatility manifested itself in his love of music, and in the invention of an instrument for measuring longitude. By a cedula of February 17th, 1573, the King granted him a ten years' patent for making and selling his invention.3 1 The Adelantado's plans for settling and cultivating Florida were on a large scale for the times. Besides the colonists who came over with him on his first voyage, Philip authorized him on three different occa sions to bring others to the untold difficulties that awaited them. By royal cedula of March 5th, 1571, he was allowed to carry over one hundred farmers; and by two more of January 26th, and February 23d, 1573, one hundred fro t n the Azores and fifty from Seville. That was the year the King granted permission to Menendez to extend his conquest as far as the Rio Panuco. In the last letter he wrote, he men tions the number of farmers and tradesmen he expects will soon sail for Florida. 32 But he oomed to die a few days after writing 29 Pages 40, 41. 30 Pages 78, 79 81 A. G. de I., 13g--1-12.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, 366-368. 82 Pages 2 56, 2 57.

PAGE 43

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 35 it, when about to sail at the head of the great fleet which, it was said, Philip II had assembled to clear the Spanish and Flemish coasts of pirates. Ruidfaz believes, however, that "the thought of invading the British Isles might already have been seething in the brain of Philip II.ma He gives a hint that the cause of the death of Menendez may have been neither acute indigestion nor a "pestilential fever"-as the Adelantado's doctors diagnosed it-but poison. "In no chronicler," he writes, " have we found any insinuation, even the slightest, that would lead one to suspect that the unexpected death of the Adelantado, when he was getting ready to undertake what might perhaps have been one of his loftiest enterprises, was prepared and accomplished by his enemies. We have no right consequently to express suspicions, which today would h e no more foundation than the very weak one of a coincidence which, if in truth somewhat strange, is neither impossible nor even improbable; but in that case we have to that chance served admirably the enemies of the Adelantado."34 The three doctors maintained that the disease was "that which goes about in that Armada commonly and continuously, whereof many have died.m5 In the portrait of Menendez,3 6 the strain of his many responsibilities shows plainly, and yet there is such power and strength, such energy and stern decision in those features, that they inspire unbounded faith in his ability to carry any enterprise to success. He wears on his left breast the insignia of the Holy Cross of Zarza, a crimson cross of the sh a pe of an ancient sword,-having been appointed to the Com mandery of that Order in January, 1568.r Orders and titles, and the lost Titian portrait of Menendez, hung on the walls of the King's palace, seem to have been the chief benefits 83 Ruidiaz, La Florida, I, p. ccix. 84 Ruidiaz, I, p. ccxxiii. • 85 The opinion of the doctors (Licentiates C zeda, Santa Cruz and Olalde). Simancas. Secretar!a de Est. Leg 156, fo. 93.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 515. 86 Frontispiece. 87 For details concerning the portraits of Pedro Menendez, see Lowery's Span ish Settlements, 1562-1574, p. 418.

PAGE 44

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES the Adelantado derived from his long career of public service, to which he had sacrificed everything. In 1605, his daughter, Dofia Catalina, was in such straits that her property and personal effects were seized and attached. She died in 1611, leaving only enough for the founding of two chaplaincies in the church of Saint Nicholas of Aviles.3 8 From the "Informaci6n de algunos servicios prestados por el Adelantado Pedro Menendez de Aviles" (the legal investigation into his circum stances made in the city of Mexico),89 one realizes vividly the indif ference of the Crown toward the family of the Adelantado. The condi tions of his will were not carried out for his second daughter, Dofia Maria, any more than they were for Dofia Catalina. Dofia Maria's husband, Don Diego Fernandez de Velasco, was Governor and Cap tain-General of New Biscay about 1580. She died and in 1595 he sought to obtain advantages for his sons. Through file investigation it was learned : among other things, from the various witnesses: "that while the said Don Diego de Velasco was in the service of his Majesty as the referred to Governor of New Biscay, Dofia Maria Menendez, his wife, daughter of the Adelantado Pedro Menendez, died and passed away from this present life; and at her death and end, six sons and daughters remained, and the two . boys are called Don Pedro Fernandez de Velasco and Don Diego de Velasco; ... that the said Don Diego de Velasco and his children aforesaid are very poor, and that the . said Don Diego de Velasco has not the wherewithal to be able to give them a profession; and ... that there are and have remained no other male successors of the Adelantado Pedro Menendez, save the said Don Pedro Fernandez de Velasco and Don Diego de Velasco, his grandsons and the sons of t e said Don Diego de Velasco and Dofia Maria Menendez, his wife, daughter of the said Adelantado Pedro Menendez , "4 0 "Sad it is to say it," concludes Ruidiaz, "but just and perhaps fitting to record it: Spain has been ungrateful to this man, one of those who most fame and glory for her in the 88 Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 629. 3 9 A. G. de I., 1-2-1/18.-Ruidiaz, La Flo rida, II, pp. 590-624. 40 "lnformaci6n de algunos servicios," A. G. de I., 1-1-1/18.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 606.

PAGE 45

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 37 course of the centuries; to this man, 'to whom she owes a monument, history, a book, and the muses a pqem.' "41 It is always curious to see what salvage turns up out of a great wreck. The honorary title, at least, of Adelantado of Florida is alive to this day, and belongs to a descendant of Don Alvaro Sanchez de Aviles, brother of Pedro Menendez. It was the courtesy of the seven teenth Adelantado, the Count de Revilla-Gigedo, Marquis de San Esteban del Mar, which placed at the disposal of Ruidiaz, in 1893, the unpublished manuscript, the "Memorial" of Dr. Solis de Meras. It was his father, the sixteenth Adelantado, who had the reputation of bein g a splendidly hospitable Spani s h grandee, of whom Buckingham Smith speaks in a letter to _ Columbu s Drew, the publi s her, of Jackson ville, Florida: " called on him," he says, "at his country seat in Dania, and, de aining me to spend the day with him, he gave orders to have his family pictures and palace shown to me at.Gij6n, and his papers at a residence in Oviedo. Among the documents is a valuable one for writing the life of N1enendez. It is a draft for a letter in his own hand, directed to his nephew, Governor [sic] of Florida, in which he expresses his wish to be with him and away from business. He speaks of the 'invincible armada142 which he had been appointed to command, and gives the number of his ships. This probably was the last thing he ever wrote, dated ten days before he died, as it is known that he died on the ninth day of his sickness. Of course I have a copy to show you."43 It is a graceful continuation of his family ' s traditional courtesy that has cau s ed the pre s ent Count de Revilla-Gigedo to send me this year a photo g raph of the last letter of Pedro Menendez, ad dres s ed to his nephew, Pedro Menendez Marques. Although unsigned, it is written entirely by him, and voices very simply and touchingly his deep love for Florida. 44 Up to the time of the publications by Ruidfaz and by Lowery, the 41 Ruidiaz, La Flor ida, I, p. ccxxviii. 42 Menendez says: "Una gruesa"-a huge-armada. 43 Fairbanks, George R., The Spaniards in Flo rida. Jacksonville, i868, p. 39. 44 A facsimile of part of this letter appears opposite p. 2 54, and a translation of the whole of it, on pp. 755-258.

PAGE 46

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES fame of the Adelantado had rested mainly on the capture of Fort Caro line and the massacres at Matanzas Inlet. Whether the aversion for him thus created in history has been just or unjust, it must be left to the individual reader to decide, now that all the facts are known. Religious wars have ever been the most sanguinary, and the monstrous crime of the St. Bartholomew massacre took place in France only seven years after the events at Matanzas Inlet in Florida. Menendez lived cruel age; he was a man of that age; and although nothing can efface trie eternafsta!nof at Matanzas, so revolting in their cold-bloodedness, it is impossible not to consider his side of the deed, and impossible to determine how far his conviction that it was a sacred duty to exterminate heretics was responsible for the massacres. A mistaken idea of duty might explain hie: esorting to such foul means in order to rid himself of the poor Frenchmen. ls he to be judged by those acts, or by the record of a lifetime of faithful and brilliant service to his King, his country and his The best course '"" to pursue is to tell all and palliate nothing: when that is done, Pedro Menendez de Aviles stands out as a religious fanatic, but the greateSt genius has bee. n linked that of --JEANNETTE THURBER CONNOR. New York, June, i923.

PAGE 47

• MEMORIAL WRITTEN BY DOCTOR GONZALO SOLIS DE MER.AS OF ALL THE VOYAGES AND DEEDS OF THE ADELANT ADO PEDRO MENENDEZ DE A VILES HIS BROTHER-IN-LAW AND OF THE CONQUEST OF FLORIDA AND THE JUSTICE HE WORKED ON JUAN RIBAO AND OTHER FRENCHMEN CHAPTER I. The Family and Youth of Pedro Menendez.1 The Adelantado Pedro Menendez is a nobleman sprung from illus trious ancestors, descended from the ancient houses of Oviedo in the Asturias, whence he derive•his origin and that of his descendants: he owns one of the oldest manor houses there are in that country, which is the house of Dofia Paya, where in days of yore the Kings of that time had their abode, after the death of the King Don Rodrigo and the coronation of Pelayo; and so the place where it is situated is called Monte de Rey, and a league from there is the town of Pravia, where many of those Kings were buried; and two leagues from there is the town of Aviles, where likewise several Kings were ' buried; whence to the westward he has his house, his wife and children; and the inherit ance he received from his father s was that same house of Dofia Paya and its district, and becau s e he had tw nty brothers and sisters, the estate was divided in such wise that they were all left poor: he applied himself to being a soldier, with other brothers of his; to such an extent did he incline toward the military profession on land af\d sea, that forgetting his comfort, his estate, his origin and his relatives, he fol lowed and follows it, in the service of hi fajesty, as is notorious. He set out from his home as an orphan under the control of his foster parents, who were rearing him because his father was dead and his 1 Abbreviated headings. Given in full in Contents.

PAGE 48

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES mother had married a second time; they sent after him and brought him from Valladolid within six months, and in order to hold fast to him and to insure his not departing from the country, they affianced him to Ana Marfa de Solis, who was ten years of age; they were related in the fourth degree; which event did not suffice to keep him at home.2 In that time there were wars with France: an armada was equipped against corsairs; he enlisted therein and served two years, and as soon as he returned to his home, he sold part of his patrimony, built a patache3 and went with his friends in quest of adventures, wherein he achieved and performed very daring and notable things, which would be very lengthy to relate. In particular when two pataches of the armada and his own happened to be assembled off the kingdom of Galicia, all well equipped for war, as they were going against corsairs, • • • 4 for this was in war-time, at the entrance of a harbor; three large boats passed by . . . [going from one] port to another; they carried a maiden on board ... to be taken to her husband, with her relatives, men and women, more than sixty persons in all; and a French ship and three zabral came forth to encounter them, and because there was no 2 Barrientos says that when Menendez was very young he ran away to sea in a boat with a crew of eighteen men only, and encountered a French pirate's ship fully armed. The pirate's guns wrought havoc to the small Spanish vessel and the crew were on the point of surrendering, but Menendez inspired them with his own enthusiastic daring, and the French were cowed and allowed them to get away. Cf. Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos de Pero Menendez de Auiles," in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones de la Florida, p. 9. His brother-in-law, Meras, does not say how old he was when he was brought back from Valladolid. Barrientos writes that at the period of his betrothal he was only eight and his fiancee was ten. It will be noticed that the lines in the Meras "Memorial," p. 2, following the mention of the event, show that he was older than eit,,ht, for at that age he could not have served two years in a fleet. 8 Pataje, or patax (the oldest form of the word). This craft in ancient times was a small war vessel, used by fleets as an advice-boat and coast patrol. It carrie9. men, stores or orders fro . .i one ship to another ; guarded the entrance of harbors; was a police-galley or a custom-house tender. Nowadays it is only used in the Spanish merchant marine. 4 The dots indicate that the manuscript is torn or illegible. 5 Small frigates or sailing vessels used in the Bay of Biscay.

PAGE 49

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 41 wind, the French zabras [advancing] by oars as well as by sails, seized the bride with all the people on board. Pedro6 Menendez, who knew that this prize the corsairs had captured was that maiden with many other women, prayed the men of the two pataches to go to her rescue and take that prize away from them because it was women, or die in the attempt: this to them appeared temerity and they would not; thus he alone with fifty men he had with him, relying on his strength, his s hrewdness and the lightness of his patache, went against those cor sairs, a daring thing; and as the three French z abras which had seized the bride who was being taken that morning to her husband, with the three boats which carried all the people, had shifted a league from their French ship, Pedro Menendez, plying his oars and with sails unfurled, wen _ gainst them with his patache alone, sounding his fife and beating his drum and displaying his pennants. Taey awaited him with the prize, and when he came near them he told them they should give up the prize they werevearing away; if not, he would hang them all : the Frenchmen said that he should come and take her, that they would give her to him: he did not dare do this, because each zabra was as large as his patache and to all appearances held as many men; and as he made a feint of wanting to run, two of the zabras went to attack him: he fled: one of them was faster than the other, and he more so than either. Having one of them near him, a good half league ahead of her companion, he set upon her and took her: he divided his men between both and took the other: he went against the third zabra, which was guarding the bride, and her crew deserted the prize and fled : • he was not able to overtake them.7 The following year, peace having been made with France, some [French] corsairs took eighteen Biscayan ships off the of Finis terre,8 laden with ironware and many other kinds of merchandise of 6 Menendez is often called Pero, instead of edro. 7 The manceuvres of Menendez in this fight suggest that he might have read the story of the Horatii and Curatii. 8 On the coast of Galicia. •

PAGE 50

42 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES much value. As it appeared to the Emperor Maximilian,0 who then governed these kingdoms, that these corsairs deserved to be punished and could not have reached France with the prize, he sent to order Pedro Menendez to try to set out in pursuit of them, which he did with much speed, without being given one real for it; and as it seemed to hiqi they might have reached France, he went straight to the coast of Brittany, and between Belle-Isle and La Rochelle he captured five prizes from them and seized the French captain who had taken those prizes; he anchored near the chain of [the harbor of] La Rochelle, whence owing to the contrary wind and tide he could not get out; the authorities sent to order Pedro Menendez to land, which he did; he showed the commission he carried from his King to go after that cor sair and take the prize from him: the authorities commanded him to give it up, with all the goods he held and prizes which recovered from [the capt a in] on that coast, because [they said that] it would all be deposited to be delivered to its owners, and that the corsair would be punished. As Pedro Menendez that he could not do other wise, he permitted it to be so done, and took affidavits thereof: he sent one copy to Flanders to his Majesty, and brought the other with him to-Spain. This French captain was a famous corsair whom the French called Juan Alfonso the Portuguese, and the Spaniards Juan Alfonso the Frenchman :10 he came out wounded [from the encounter with Pedro Menendez], and died of his wound: he had a very warlike son whom they called Antonio Alfonso, who sent to challenge Pedro Menendez, [saying] that within two months he would depart from France, hav ing taken a vow never to re urn there without avenging the seizure and death of his father and the prizes which had been wrested from him, and that in whatever place he knew Pedro Menendez to be, even though he have double his forces, he must seek him and fight and battle with him; and the two months he set out with 9 Meras means Maximilian, Regent of Spain, during the time Charles V was in Flanders. 10 Jean Alphonse was from the old French province of Saintonge, and had been to Canada as Roberval's pilot, in 1542-1543.

PAGE 51

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 43 three armed ships. He had tidings that Pedro Menendez was going to !he Indies: he went to await him at the Canary Islands; and off the island of Teneriffe, in the harbor of Santa Cruz, he went to capture two vessels which were being laden there for the Indies: they fired on him from the shore with certain pieces of artillery, while he with his vessels lay alongside the two he had already taken; and with a ball they fired upon him they shattered Antonio Alfonso to bits, and his ship was swept away; afterward Pedro Menendez took from him the two [ships]. CHAPTER II. Menendez and the Corsairs. Because o ... he information the Emperor, 1 of glorious memory, had concerning Pedro Menendez, and that which Maximiw , an had concern ing his notable deeds at such a tender age; and because he knew that French corsairs would pursv , e Menendez; he wanted to grant him right and authority that he might go after corsairs in times of peace, and the treasure he might take from them should be his property and that of his heirs, for there were many [corsairs] about; and so that he could seize the prohibited goods he might find on the sea and in the harbors of [the Emperor's] kingdom, in order that they might be divided according to the law of the kingdom. He had many good chances thereby, wherefore his Majesty the King Don Felipe2 named him as Captain-General of the Fleet of the Indies and as his Councillor, so that he could go to serve him from Corunna to England when the King went to marry the : Most Christian Mary of England, and thus did he serve him very well. The day after his Majesty was married in England he dispatched him with the news of his arrival and his wedding, to the Prince and Princess who were then goveifling [in his absence] ; and he ordered him to go afterward to embark at Seville, to serve him as Captain-General [of fleets] in the Carrera of the Indies, s as he had already decreed. 1 Charles V. 2 Philip II of Spain. 8 Spain's trade with the West Indies and South America. •

PAGE 52

44 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES [Pedro Menendez] embarked in two zabras laden with merchandise which came from Flanders; they were of Laredo going back that way [by England] ; he had a prosperous wind. Four leagues from the port of Laredo, two corsairs set upon him; they came near, to board him; he defended himself although the men for defence were very few; the sailors with great cunning abandoned the helm to surrender: he was forced to take it, and without fear of the artillery he made a bulwark of some mattresses: near him he had six soldiers, arquebusiers, whom he was taking with him: they made very good shots and hits because the enemy, holding them to be of little worth, exposed themselves without being afraid. This was at nightfall, and owing to the darkness and the fear of the arquebusiers [the corsairs] finally dared not come aboard, and so they were saved. In Valladolid he the Princess the dispatches he brought, and went to Seville to fulh'l his office as [Captain-] General. The things which have happened to him since then shall be written with all the brevity possible. CHAPTER III. Menendez Appointed Captain-General of the Fleets of the Indies. His First Voyage There (1555).1 The ancient houses most closely related to the Adelantado, where from he is descended (besides that of Dofia Paya, which is his own and he possesses [the mansion] ) , are those of the Cascos y A vileses, Valdeses y Menendez Arango [and] Bustio y Vegil, and so he has as a motto in his coat-of-arms: "The Menendez are Valdeses, the ancient lineage of the Cascos; their surname is Aviles, the Councillors of Pelayo." All these houses recognize that of Dofia Paya as the principal one because they are descended therefrom, and they make it the fore most in their coats-of-arms; those and these are all one, for the 1 "Memorial de Pero Menendez de Aviles, enumerando los grandes meritos," etc., A. R. G.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 328.-Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos," etc., in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones, p. 14.

PAGE 53

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 45 above reasons, although on account of being related to other illustrious houses, they all consider themselves as renowned as that of Dofia It happened on that first occasion wherein his Majesty named him as Captain-General of the Carrera of the Indies, that he had a prosper ous voyage, going and returning within a short time, a thing whereat all people marvelled; because having understood the great need wherein his Majesty was left, owing to the wars with the Pope and with France, and the little money he had remaining to sustain them; and having been ordered by the instructions given him to winter in the Indies; he decided to disregard the instructions; gave them to Alvaro Sanchez de Aviles, his brother, who was his lieutenant, and sent him to N ombre de ios as General of the fleet and armada which was going there; a id he went to New Spain: they returned to Seville the • following September with more than seven millions, • and he was not expected until April of the following year, fifty seven, for they were securing ships and men to a!semble an armada in the spring, which was to go to seek them at the islands of the Azores in order to convoy them as far as Seville.* These expenditures and those which his armada would have had to make, wintering in Havana, ceased with his coming. CHAPTER IV. How Pedro J Ylenendez Released the Chain of Dartmouth Harbor. 0 n February 26th, i 5 57, he was again appointed General of the fleet, but as the damage wrought by the torsairs on the coasts of Spain was increasing, for lack of anybody who could remedy this, the King on March 22d, ordered him to go in pursuit of them, which he effected in the month of April with such swiftness and good fortune that he freed the coasts from the infamies the were committing. While he was resting in Laredo in May, the Kinb on June 2d named him as * From this asterisk to the one following, the gap in the original manuscript is supplied by the relation in the Ensayo Cronologico of Don Gabriel de Car denas z Cano (Barcia).

PAGE 54

, PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Captain-General to go to Flanders with the armada under his charge, escorting 24 ships with cargoes of wool, to carry a succor of i,soo soldiers and 1,200,000 ducats. And although, when the dispatch delivered to him, which was on the 8th of June, 4 of the ves sels of the 8 which composed the armada, were in Galicia for supplies, by order of the purveyor general, Don Diego de Mendoza, with their Admiral, Alvaro Sanchez, hi s brother; as he knew that DonLuis de Carvajal was detained in Corunna with much money on board his armada [and] no wind to get under way, and that the King was in England, unsuccessful; he decided to set sail on the 9th day of June with the 4 ships he had there, taking thereon the infantry and funds referred to; and while he was escorting the vessels with the wool cargoes he encountered the squadron of Pie de Palo,1 a famous corsair, consi" .. ;ng of 8 corsair ships, which he . caused to flee by using notable stratagems, except one, which he sent to the bottom. He continued his voyage, arrived at Dover in fifteen days, landed the money and infantry in Calais, the wool vessels going to Zealand; to this successful venture of Pedro Menendez can be attributed the victory of Saint Quentin. In the year 1558 he went forth from Valladolid, and with two zabras, which are very small boats, he reached Antwerp in fifteen days, counted from the one on which he sailed from Valladolid, navigating those seas in winter, when even in summer this would be held as temerity [because of] such small boats, of so little solidity, for they were the first that he found in Laredo, taking them from some fisher men of Castro. The King again sent him Spain in order to bring succor, and the Council ordered him to go with 6 zabr a s and 4 vessels under his charge as a protection: when he arrived in Laredo he found that the pur veyors, Do Lope de Valenzuela and Juan Martinez de Recalde, had sent two of the zabras without his order, to San Sebastian for supplies, whereof the other 4 of his were short; but observing that the wind was favorable for the voyage, and contrary for the corsairs of 1 Jacques le Clerc, called Pie de Palo by the Spaniards because of his wooden leg.

PAGE 55

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 47 San Juan de Luz and other Frenchmen, he set sail from Laredo with the 4 zabras only, and within nine days he was in Antwerp, having the corsairs, who soon after put out to sea, thinking that he had not departed, to lie in wait for the succor, having special informa tion of all that he was carrying. Once more the King ordered him to come to Spain in the first fine weather, with the 4 zabras and the 2 armed ships of Don Luis de Carvajal, and to bring to Flanders on board thereof, the Archbishop of Toledo, Count de Sarria, Regent Figueroa, Don Diego de Mendoza and other gentlemen. He went to Zealand, where he had tidings that a large French armada was waiting for him on the way, for fear of which the merchant ships of the King's vassals did not dare go forth, either from those ports or from those of England: he assembled them all, for there were 27, although the order had been give that he should not bring more than 6, which were in Zealand; and he set out with them from the harbor; !nd although he could have made his voyage with great speed with the 4 zabras and the 2 galleons, he waited !or the merchant ships; and between the island of Ushant and the Scilly Islands the Admiral of Normandy came out to meet him with 12 very large galleons and one patache; he [Menendez] secured against the risk all those who went with him, and used so many stratagems and so much military cunning against the French, now attacking, now retreating, that they did not dare attack him and left the way open to him; and although he could have arrived in Laredo in three days, he turned back to stop in England so as not to forsake the merchant vessels, and he entered into Laredo with them all, without the loss of a pin. Some of these things he carried out against the instructions given him, as ii:-appeared to him that it was to the King's greatest interest that he should violate them, and con fident in his experience and good fortune, he exposed his head to the risk of losing it if they were to fail him.* • And because the said General Pedro Menendez had very good men, his Majesty ordered him to go in comp y with the armada of Eng land, the General thereof being the Admiral of that kingdom, in order to form an escort to a certain number of cavalry, infantry and sappers *From here the manuscript continues.

PAGE 56

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES who were crossing from Dover to Calais in the service of his Majesty, to go thence to Saint Quentin which was being besieged; and having served two months in this, his .Majesty commanded him to go and await, between Ushant and the Scilly Islands, a large armada from Spain, wherein the Prince de Evoli2 was coming: likewise his .Majesty ordered Don Luis de Carvajal to station himself with his fleet in that channel between Ushant and the Scilly Islands, through which of necessity the Prince de Evoli had to come with that succor in order to pass on to Flanders: he also gave this order to the Admiral of England, with his fleet, for there was news that in France large armadas were being made ready to await the Prince in that channel, which is near France, through which he would of necessity have to go to enter Flanders; and the three armadas aforesaid, the English one, that of Don Luis de Carvajal and that of the said Pedro being in the same channel a guard to the Prince, a great storm came upon them, wherefore Don Luis de Carvajal with his fleet put into an English port, and the English armada did th' e sa1.1e. Pedro .Menendez, seeing that if the Prince de Evoli had set out from Laredo, he must, with that wind, be driven within three or four days to enter that channel between the island of Ushant and the Scilly Islands, watched the tempest with his fleet, which the English greatly regretted, and they prayed him to put into an English port with them; he answered them that it did not suit him to do this, because the armada had to come sailing from Spain in that weather, and if the enemy should set upon it, what his King had commanded him would not be fulfilled. The English prayed him to order a vessel of his, whichever he chose, to put into port, so that they could the Queen of England, their mistress, that because of a storm they had been compelled to seek refuge, and she would believe this from the captain of Pedro Menendez, on seeing that a ship irom his fleet had put into port; for she greatly liked Pedro Menendez; wherefore there had been very good relations with the English armada, as four Months previous [the two fleets] sailing jointly between Dover and Calais, off Boulogne, had wrought damage to the French, keeping the aforesaid armada bottled up in their har-2 Evoli or Eboli. Barrientos calls him Eboli.

PAGE 57

-PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 49 hors so that from fear they dared not come forth, and the Spaniards and English going together, a thing which it had been thought was not possible; and the time that he went there he formed an escort with his fleet for the cavalry, infantry and English sappers who crossed from Dover to Calais, and many gentlemen from England crossed over: he did all this with such liberality, love and good-will, entertaining them all, that he gave great satisfaction to that nation: especially did Queen Mary, his Majesty's Catholic wife that was, . hold herself to be well served by him. And when that tempest ceased, and the said Adelantado remained alone, with his armada, between Ushant and the Scillies, with eight sail, among them being the flagship and the Ad miral's, two choice galleons, solid and swift, of 500 tone!es3 each; all the others being very fast vessels and very well armed; and when eight days had assed while he navigated thereabout, he discovered a • sail one morning about five leagues from France, Ushant. He ordered Captain Diego de Isla, who was a very exceptional sailor and good corsair, a native of near Laredo, to go and reconnoitre her, as he had a fast ship; which he did; and within two hours the said Pedro Menendez, from the top-sails of his galleon, where he went, sighted many vessels; ordering them to be counted, they said there were more than 80 sail: he held it for certain that this was not the Prince de Evoli because it appeared to him that he could not bring so many ships, nor did he think he would bring above 30 at most; he believed that they were French vessels coming from Newfoundland, whereat they rejoiced greatly; and assembling his fleet, he gave them the order in what manner they were to come up to capture them, for it seemed to them that few or none could9 escape them; and going to attack them they still believed them to be French, until a swift patache came forth from the 80 sail and came alongside the flagship, which went ahead, on board whereof was the said Pedro Menende!; and then he recognized them, for the patache belonged to his armada which, when he departed for Flanders, had re ined in Laredo with the 4 armed ships left under the charge of his brother, Alvaro Sanchez de 8 A tone! is an ancient measure of ships, a little larger than a ton. Ten toneles make twelve toneladas, a tonelada being a ton.

PAGE 58

• PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Aviles, wherewith he was convoying the supplies being collected in Laredo for that armada; and Diego Florez de Valdes was the captain of that patache, which the Adelantado knew when it came up to him; whereat he showed regret, for it appeared to him he was losing a great prize, as he had thought those vessels were French; and when the patache arrived it joined the Adelantado's fleet and flagship. Diego Florez having recognized her, saluted her, and told Pedro Menendez how that armada was the armada of Spain, on board of which came the Prince de Evoli, and Don Diego de Mendoza came as Captain General thereof, who had been Ambassador in Rome; and as Admiral, came Alvaro Sanchez de Aviles, brother of the said Pedro Menendez and Admiral of the armada under his charge: presently Pedro Menen dez reached them with his fleet and went to speak to his brother, and having saluted each other [his brother] told him how he was transport ing 400 soldiers on his vessel, and that Don Diego de Acevedo went on board thereof as the Colonel of 6,ooo soldiers that this fleet was carry ing to land them in Flanders, and many other leading knights who went with him; and they all spoke to the said Pedro Menendez with great joy, gladness and merriment, for he was very much beloved by all and they desired extreme! y to meet him, as they had already had notice, before departing from Laredo, that his Majesty had com manded him to await them in that channel. Pedro Menendez took leave of that ship, which sailed in the rear-guard, to overtake the flagship a league ahead, on board of which was the Prince; wherein the swift ness of his vessel appeared, for it was seen and experienced then, that she could outsail any of the 80 ships; and having reached the flagship, Pedro Menendez lowered hi:> flag bdore her, saluted her with his artil lery, jumped into a boat with a dozen gentlemen and went therein to the flagship of Don Diego, where he was very well received by him and by the Prrnce de Evoli and many knights and gentlemen who came with him. The following day they saw the coast of England: they arrived in the evening off l-iartamua, 4 a port of that island, the wind remaining fair. Dartmouth in Devonshire. The name Artamua appears on Do mingo Olives's map, year i568 (in Nordenskiold's Periplus, Plate XXIX), in

PAGE 59

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES The Prince told Pedro Menendez to take him to land in one of the t}Vo zabras he brought, which were very swift, and that he should send the other zabra from him to all the vessels which came with him, so that the knights and gentlemen who might wish to disembark in that harbor of Hartamua could do so in that zabra, giving them notice how he was going on board the other; and so he landed with Pedro Menen dez from his zabra, and some knights and gentlemen with him, and he went to Hartamua where he arrived at nightfall: the other zabra did the same with many knights and gentlemen which it landed. Pedro Menendez could not return that night to the armada with his zabras, as the wind and tide were against him: in the morning the Prince departed for London by land, to kiss the hands of Queen Mary, and go thence to F L ders where his Majesty was, in order that he might be advised within a short time of the succor [the Prine<'] was bringing. The Adelantado having taken leave of him, went with his zabras to the armada, which he was•keeping anchored one league from that harbor of Hartamua, in a rather perilous place because of the outlook there was for a storm: he went straight to the flagship of Don Diego de Mendoza: he told him that it was expedient to set sail with the fleet so as to get into the harbor, or to go out to sea at a distance from land, on account of the indications of a coming tempest and side wind, and that if this were not done at once, the whole armada ran the risk of being lost: the pilots whom Don Diego carried on his flagship were neither as expert nor as good seamen as were Pedro Menendez and his pilots: to them it appeared that it would be well to wait there until the day following. Pedro Menendez replied them how ill founded was their reasoning, and he said such things to them that their conclu sion to Don Diego was that it was good advice to set sail at once and go out to sea, in order if the wind were favorable to arrive Flanders in a short space; which was what he much desired, for at the time he departed from Laredo it was said that hi Majesty had sore need of that succor going to him in the armada, the men and the funds; fUld he the same location as that of Dartmouth on other old maps of the time. The Spanish name is spelled both Artamua and Hartamua. •

PAGE 60

52 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES told Pedro Menendez to go and make his fleet hoist anchor and set sail, for he was ordering his to do the same; which they began to do wit]i great speed, setting the sails and winding the cables on the capstans. Pedro Menendez, being an expert mariner, managed so well that within half an hour he was on his way out to sea with [his fleet], and when Don Diego set sail with his, Pedro Menendez was about two leagues from land, and the wind was blowing landward with increas ing force: the sea was very rough, and it was past four o'clock in the afternoon: Pedro Menendez realized that as Don Diego de Mendoza with his fleet was so close to land, night was coming and the weather was stormy, the course the wind was forcing him to take would put him into the harbor of Portland Island, which is near there, on a very perilous and difficult coast; that it would be a chu.ce if he could escape, tempest arise during the night; and that because he [Menendez] was at a distance from the coast he was out of that danger. In order to get Don Diego and rjs armada out of it, he came up to the poop of Don Diego's flagship and told him that before night fall they must hoist sail and go and put into the harbor of Hartamua, about 3 or 4 leagues from there: Don Diego did so at once: Pedro Menendez with his fleet could well have entered half an hour before, for his ships were very fast; but to observe respect for Don Diego he let him go ahead with all his armada, he himself remaining in the rear-guard thereof; and when Don Diego was about to put into the harbor, he found that a large chain which is usually stretched across the entrance, was in place, in such wise that he could not enter: he lowered the sails and anchored, and as the tide was running in and a side wind was already blowing very hard, the vessels which came behind Don Diego did the same as he, and they [all] assembled in that narrow passage, so that the masts and bowsprits and lateen yards broke and were tom to pieces one against the other; and night was coming, for it was afready time for the Ave Maria, and the weather was very dark and stormy and the wind very strong, to such an extent that they found no means to save themselves, for although by order of Don Diego boats hastened to the fortress so that they

PAGE 61

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AViLES 53 should loosen the chain, at no time would the alcaide5 consent to slacken it or open the door. Pedro Menendez had anchored with his armada at a distance from Don Diego's vessels, where they could receive no injury the one from the other; and as he knew that if they did not enter the harbor while it was still day, it would be a miracle if by night either a man or a ship escaped, with great diligence he boarded two boats equipped with about 50 soldiers, arquebusiers, and went to the fortress and made what efforts he could so that they should open to him; and as they would not, he took a heavy beam, with the soldiers and sailors he had with him, and gave strong blows at the door to break it, keeping 10 arquebusiers with their weapons pointed, ready for whoever might show himself ove to prevent this: he broke down the door: he entered: he found no men: [the place] was a tower some very strong doors of iron, and within it was a capstan, by the device whereof the chain was and shortened: Pedro Menendez arranged that the 50 soldiers should remain with him, and he sent one of them with the boats and the sailors, and ordered that they tell the pilot of his flagship, and then the pilot of the Admiral's (as they were large galleons of 500 toneles each), to cut the cables and give all the sail the wind would allow them, because it was already very strong; and to rush against the chain, for there was no way left for those arma das to save themselves except to venture in that manner; and meantime he tried to break down the iron doors with an iron bar, and at the time his flagship was coming against the chain as he had ordered, the door was finally broken down and Pedro entering within the tower, pulled out a steel cutlass he carried in his belt, cut a large hemp hawser and released the chain, in such wise that his flagship which was going against it, received no damage or injury and so the whole armada entered within the harbor in safety, although in spite of the harbor's being a very good e, the fleet would all have been lost that night, for the tempest was very great; but the great efforts that Don Diego Mendoza made on his part, and Pedro Menen-5 The governor or warden of a castle.

PAGE 62

54 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES dez on his, for they had very good pilots and sailors, were the reason that they were saved. 8 ships were lost, however, within the port dur ing that night: 6 English vessels that were there and 2 from armada of Don Diego; and 2 other large ships remained outside the chain, anchored about half a league out of their course, not knowing that the chain was lifted; and at dawn they sank, with much treasure they carried, and more than 400 persons were drowned, and Pedro Menendez saved . . . with his men and the ships of his fleet . . . 6 It was a miraculous thing that within 10 or 12 hours, Our Lord saved that armada from four perils, for because of any one of them, all would have been lost, had they not been remedied by the efforts which God enlightened Pedro Menendez to make: the first, that had not the fleet set sail from where it was anchored that af temoon, those that were therein would have perished: another, t:hit if it had not turned back to reach Hartamua, it would have been lost likewise at Portland Island: another, that if the chain had not been broken, it would then also have been lost; and the same would have happened if that night Pedro Menendez with the boats and sailors of his armada had not gone about fastening and succoring [the ships] ; for if the fleet had been lost this would have been a great loss to all Spain, for much of the flower of her chivalry went to Flanders on board thereof, and it was the principal succor of money and infantry for his Majesty, to enable him to obtain good results in the great wars he was carrying on against France. The following day, when they saw themselves out of that danger, all the persons of the armad
PAGE 63

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 55 dez, and rendering thanks for Our Lord's having freed them from so many perils through his good wits. Don Diego gave orders so that the lleet in a short time should again prepare and make ready to depart for Flanders in the first good weather, and within four days Don Luis de Carvajal arrived with his armada, and Don Diego de Mendoza delivered his to him, as he held orders from his Majesty therefor; and he departed for London by land, and thence to Flanders; and Pedro Menendez departed for Laredo with his armada as he had orders to that effect from his Majesty; where he learned that when he was between Ushant and the Scilly Islands and sent Captain Diego de Isla with his armed ship to reconnoitre the sail he had seen, [it proved to be] a French corsair; and fighting him, Captain Diego de Isla captured two prizes from the French corsair, the one laden with sugar, the other with wines; a11 because the wind was against his returning to seek Pedro Menendez at Ushant, he arrived at Laredo; two leagues from the port he encountered three galleons from San Juan de Luz which attacked him and fbught with him, until they boarded him several times, slew Captain Diego de Isla and most of his soldiers he was bringing with him, and took all the prizes from him and his ship of the armada; wherefore Pedro Menendez grieved at this greatly, because up to then he had received no damage from the French arma das or corsairs; rather had he and his brother, Alvaro Sanchez, who was ... , had many and good strokes of luck against the enemy, tak ing many ships from them and sending many others to the bottom, in such manner . . . French and English of all kinds . . . greatly feared him. Particulars of successful ventures will not be set down in this chron ... he had with corsairs ... to sea, for they were many and . . . which it is understood a chronicler wants to . . . reasons; and soon, within a . . . of his arriving at Laredo, as has been said ... his Majesty to return with the armada to the St!tes of . to bring money . . .

PAGE 64

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER V. How Pedro Menendez Accomplished the Landing of King Philip at Laredo (1559). "Wthin eight days, her Most Serene Highness the Princess of Portugal, who was then the Governor of Spain, commanded him to come by post from Laredo to Valladolid, where when he arrived she ordered him to make ready with great speed, besides the armada under his charge, ten other large ships and two thousand seamen and soldiers, to take Queen Mary to Flanders with the greatest safety, because at that time his Majesty wished to leave her in those States as their Governor, while he came to Spain; which [Pedro Menendez] went to do with great diligence; within a month he did it; -:-I when he was ready and had advised that the Queen might go to embark whenever she wished, the Queen died; and having understood that his Majesty was treating of peace with France, all the armada under his charge was disbanded, and her Most Serene Highness the Princess ordered him to go to Flanders with two zabras, with dispatches to his Majesty, taking on board Doctor Velasco, a member of his Majesty's Councils and of his Camara. At that time they appointed his brother Alvaro Sanchez de Aviles, who was the Admiral of his fleet, as Captain-General of the Carrera of the Indies; and when the said Pedro Menendez had arrived in Flanders, his Majesty named him as General of the armada wherein his royal person was to go from Flanders to Spain. He dispatched him from Brussels at the end of April in the year 1559, and he came dis guised through the whole of France, travelling by post without being recognized, with two gentlemen; one was his son Don Menendez, and the other, a gentleman, his relative, whom they called Sebastian a de Estrada; he made such speed on the way that he arrived at Fuenterrabia in seven days, whence he sent to her Most Serene Highness the Princess the dispatch he I was bringing, and busied himself in going all along the sea-coast, through all the ports, gathering and enlisting soldiers and sailors and seeing the ships there were on the coast for the coming of his Majesty; and as a suitable galliass was being built t

PAGE 65

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 57 in Bilbao, he gave orders that she be finished quickly. He assembled the vessels with wool cargoes there were on the coast, and on the 10th of July he was back in Flanders with 50 ships, in the harbor of Ramua: he took a zabra, sent on board of her 12 regular captains who came with him, so as to serve his Majesty as counsellors on his coming to Spain: through them he wrote to him of his arrival: His Majesty was in Ghent: on the 12th of July this letter and the captains came before his Majesty, who received the greatest satisfaction on seeing that he had done so much in such a short time, for what was done therein was a thing to marvel at, and he could not believe that he [Menendez] could arrive in time; for this rea s on his Majesty had caused many hookers to be commandeered in order to go to Spain on board thereof, d he had had one of the best prepared for his royal person. Those captain s told his Majesty how the galliass that Pedro Menendez had built in Bilbao was the strongest and swiftest and best ship for war of all those they had seen, and that they were bringing her as the flag s hip of the a1'nada: His Majesty sent Mr. Dobaque, a Flemish gentleman, the lieutenant of the Admiral of Flanders and General of those hookers, so that he might see the galliass and the strength and fitness thereof, which he did, and although his principal hooker, on which his Majesty was to go, was his own and very good, • he told his . Majesty of the fitness of the galliass. His Majesty sent to command the Adelantado to come to Ghent, where he was well received by him, and he gave him directions to have the whole armada ready for the 15th of August, in order if the weather were fine, to set sail from those States for Spain; and he gave him a sketch of the rooms he was to have macfe on his galliass, because he [the King] wished to go on board thereof, and he enjoined on him the care and duty of the management of the said armada, so that as its General he might have it ready [and] might direct and it, and that all might respect and obey him and fulfil his orders. His Majesty embarked with all his C rt at Ramua, one night at midnight, on the eve of [San Jose de Calasanz], which comes the 26th of August: on the 27th in the morning, all the Spanish and Flemish pilots hastened to his Majesty, telling him that the wind was contrary /

PAGE 66

.. 58 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and that he ought not to sail [but] that his Majesty should land again. Pedro Menendez gave arguments which made his Majesty con clude that for those eight or ten days the sun showed [signs of] good and fair weather, and that at io o'clock in the morning his Majesty would have good weather and a good tide, and so it happened, and his Majesty gave the order to set sail; and because the galliass of Pedro Menendez, on board whereof came his Majesty, was very swift, • also 6 ships of his armada and 6 zabras, which sailed much faster than the hookers and the other ships, the gentlemen and servants his Majesty brought with him, advised him to outdistance [the rest], because they could soon arrive in Spain, and on this [advice] he called Pedro Menendez and told it to him. Pedro Menendez contradicted it, [saying] that in no manner was it fitting that his Majesty should do this, becaus until they came out of the Channel between the island of Ushant and the Scilly Islands, they had to sail between France and England for one hundred leagues, by the one country and the other; and that if a contrary wind should arise he would have to put into the harbors of those kingdoms, which all had fortresses, and he could not come out of them without license from the alcaides: espe cially was it said very positively that the Queen of England1 was very much offended with his Majesty, because he had not wanted to marry her and did marry the Queen our Mistress; and as she was a warlike woman she might in her kingdom give him some vexation, and the fleet and men he was taking were not sufficient to prevent this, nor to be able to get out of the harbors of England in spite of the fortresses: these arguments convinced bs : Majesty, and he decided to sail with the armada of more than 80 sails, assembled and together; all very good galleons, ships and hookers very well armed; and 8 very swift zabras, un 1. er oar and sail, which Pedro Menendez was taking along, well adapted (if the wind were calm, near the coast of Spain) for landing his Majesty and h" servants in the first harbor they reached there. They had moderate winds those ten days, contrary winds most of them: Pedro Menendez steered so skilfully in them that he benefited 1 Elizabeth .

PAGE 67

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 59 much by the tacking of the fleet, discerning the direction whence the wind would come; and while they were sailing out of the channel between Ushant and the Scilly Islands, with the whole armada, it appeared to Pedro Menendez that the sun was showing [signs of] very stormy and violent winds, although he knew not whence they were coming: he said to his Majesty that since they were clear of the coasts of France and England, they could now do what he wished to do the day they departed from Flanders, [that is,] go ahead with those few, as they were swift. His Majesty commanded him to do in everything what appeared [best] to him, since the voyage was under his charge. Some persons of those on board held Pedro Menendez to be at fault because he did not outdistance [the fleet] on the first day, [saying] that if he had one so they would be near Spain; and that now it was not well to outdistance it, but that his Majesty should arrive in Spain with his whole armada, with the authority t1'at was fitting; whereto Pedro Menendez responded that in the first case he had acted as was proper, and was dd!.ng the same in this; that his Majesty's arrival in Spain carried as much authority with one ship as with a thousand, but that when he sent some servant to govern any country, it was well that he should go with [a display of] autho;ity. And because there was no wind and he knew not whence the wind would come, Pedro Menendez entered into council with the counsellors, having previously informed his Majesty, as to which point in Spain it would be convenient to go first; they could not agree; some said, to Corunna; others, to Laredo; others, to Bilbao; others, to San Sebastian: His Majesty's desire always inclined toward Santander. His Majesty wished to hear these opinions, !nd on what each one based his, and he found that none of the reasons they gave proved anything beyond [the fact] that each one desired to take him to his home land, to honor the place of his birth: His Majesty asked Pedro to say where it appeared best to him to go first: Pedro Menendez answered him that every one of those counsellors i1 wanting to take him to his native place, spoke in his own particular interest, for it seemed to them that where his Majesty landed he would bestow favors, exemptions and liberties; and that it appeared to him that his Majesty should go •

PAGE 68

60 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES directly to his [Menendez's] birthplace, which was the Asturias, where he had his wife and his house, straight toward a point which they call Las Penas de Gijon, 2 where there is a good anchoring place which they call Torres. The King and those who were with him laughed at this, for it seemed to them that Pedro Menendez said it without any [per sonal] interest, and [his Majesty] asked him to give his opinion. Pedro Menendez replied to him that it certainly appeared to him that what he had said should be done, and nothing else, and he based it [on the fact] that from that point whereof he spoke, which they call Las Penas de Gijon, which projects much into the sea, it is 40 leagues to Corunna and another 40 to Laredo, and if the wind should come from the northeast his Majesty would go to Corunna, and if it came strong from the sea, he would go to Santander or La.redo; and if in sight of land the weather were fair, his Majesty an his servants in the zabras, wo ld disembark at Aviles or Gijon, and he would go by land to Oviedo and Leon, for his Majesty would see that country which he had never seen, and those churdi.es, which are very fine. The opinion of Pedro Menendez seemed very good to the pilots and coun sellors, and as such, they approved thereof; whereat his Majesty and the gentlemen and servants who came with him showed that they felt great satisfaction, and thus did the voyage take place. On the third day they sighted land and it was the very land of Pedro Menendez, toward which he was coming directly; the wind veered very strongly, coming from the sea: they could not reach land: His Majesty on the second day arrived at Laredo: the hookers which had remained behind, which were going straight to Laredo, were not able in that wind to reach the land of Spain: th y arrived in France, and in Spain at the end of 40 days, and his Majesty would have done the same had he made straight for Laredo, Bilbao or San Sebastian. And wlkn his Majesty was three leagues from Laredo, with no wind, Pedro Menendez saw that [the weather] was about to turn into a sudden storm, and he fe ed it: he told his Majesty and entreated him to embark with him in the boat of the galliass which they carried on the poop deck, and go to land in the harbor of Laredo, [saying] 2 The Rocks of Gij6n.

PAGE 69

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 61 that the ships would go when they should get wind. His Majesty did so. The boat was so good that it took in with him his servants whom he was bringing there, as many as 20, and al though the wind and sea were against them at the bow, the sailors put themselves under the shelter of a high cliff there is there, which they call Santofia, and going along its base they arrived at Laredo on the day of Our Lady of September, at nine o'clock in the morning, where his Majesty was received with much rejoicing by the town and those that were waiting therein; and being received under a canopy by the regidores3 of the town, he went to hear mass at the I g l e s i a mayor, and Pedro Menendez went with him; and having heard it, he went out to sea again in the boat, to try to get the hips into port, and so he did; and as it seemed to him that the tempest would not be long in coming, he caused 7 anchors and cables to be put out from his galliass, so that sh should be very well secured when the storm should come; and when it was already night he caused 5 or 6 to be brought from land to his galliass, because his Majesty was bringing therein 150 coffers and all his hou s ehold furniture: he wished to unload it all on land before the storm broke, for that was a very bad harbor for such large vessels, and he worked all night with the sailors in unloading. The following day at eight in the morning, his Majesty sent to summon him to come to land at once: he [Menendez] sent to tell him that he would do so presently: he delayed one hour: he [his Majesty] sent for him a second time: he detained the messenger on board the ship a good half hour, and went to land with all the coffers and his Majesty's house hold furniture: he had it all unloaded ith great speed on the quay of Laredo, and delivered to those who were to receive it: he hastened to his Majesty, who was disgusted on account of his tardiness: he asked what had delayed him: he told him that it was g1 ing orders to unload his furniture because he feared the storm, as that was a bad harbor. His Majesty inquired in how ml:L y days he could unload it: he told him that it was already unloaded and delivered to his servants: His Majesty took much pleasure in this: he asked him what he thought 3 The aldermen or councilmen.

PAGE 70

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES of the weather and what the hookers could have done: he told him that they must have been forced to put in to France, and that it appeared to him the tempest would not delay 6 hours: His Majesty sat down to dine, and Pedro Menendez went to do so with Don Diego Mendoza; and having finished dining, Don Diego and Pedro Menendez stood by the window and Don Diego said, against [the opinion of] Pedro Menendez and other gentlemen who were there, who had been dining with him, that it appeared to him that within 24 hours a storm would be upon them. Pedro Menendez told him that it would be within 4 hours; and thus discoursing, two hours had not gone by when there started up such a sudden wind and [heavy] sea, that the ships which were in that harbor broke loose from their moorings and drifted against the galliass of Pedro Menendez; and as he bad her well an chored, she held several of them; in the meantime, cables and anchors of the that were in that harbor did not hold, and 4 ships were lost; and one galliass of Martin de Ot:iiiez, a new one, which came with his Majesty and was on her voyage, wherein the Count de Chinch6n was bringing his household furniture, likewise was lost; [and] the imperial ship was lost, a vessel of 700 toneles, on board whereof his Majesty had come from Flanders to the port of Laredo 3 years previous. If the galliass had not been so well anchored, her cables would have broken because of the ships that drifted against her, and she would have drifted against the other vessels that were there, and not one would have escaped of all those which were in the harbor, -because she would have taken them all with her. His Majesty [was] amazed at that very sudden tempest, [but] Pedro Menendez two days before knew that it had to and expected it; and after it was over, [his Majesty] being in Colindres, half a league from Laredo, in the house of his secretary, Pedro de Hoyos, Pedro Menendez went to kiss his hands /nd ask him what course [of action] he must pursue, as the following day his Majesty was to depart thence to Valladolid: His Majesty said to Pedro Men hdez that God Our Lord had granted him a great mercy in having landed him before that storm, and [asked him] what he thought thereof. Pedro Menendez answered him that for many months all Spain had been saying orisons for his Majesty, supplicat-

PAGE 71

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ing Our Lord to bring him to his kingdoms in safety, and during that time the devils had not been able to do any harm; but as his Majesty had disembarked, the orisons had ceased, and thereupon they found the chance to do whatever evil they could.i His Majesty commanded Pedro Menendez to remain there to disband the ships, gather the artil lery, await the hookers and give them orders to go to Santander, and this being done, to go to Toledo where his Majesty was to hold the Court, and [he said] that he would give him a reward for his services; and his Majesty departed without giving him any, or bestowing on him any aid in the expenses, and Pedro Menendez remained doing what he had been ordered. He felt so deeply his being left poor, with many of his brothers and kindred dead, that the following day he fell ill of a very great quartan fever, which lasted him 20 months, and was very severe: he wen to Toledo: His Majesty liked him very much and desired to give him a reward: it was said that Gut1erre Lopez de Padilla and others of his Majesty's ministers had informed him that if he did so, he [Menendez] would retire, because they had heard this from his relatives and friends. A great convoy and armada was then going to the Indies, New Spain and Tierra Firme, 6 and the Count de Nieva therein as Viceroy of Peru, and Licentiate Mufiatones and other commissioners: Pedro Sanchez de Benesa, a resident of Fuenterrabia, was going as General of that armada which they had given him be cause of the death of Alvaro Sanchez de Aviles, brother of Pedro Me nendez, and of the absence of Pedro Menendez; [but] if [Menendez] came to Spain with his Majesty in time, he was to go as General thereof, and Pedro Sanchez as Admiral; and as soon as Pedro Menen dez arrived in Toledo, [the members] <'1" the Royal Council of the Indies had recourse to his Majesty there, beseeching him to order Pedro lVIenendez to go as General of that fleet and armada. His Majesty did 4 "Pero Menendez le respondi6 que habia muchos meses que en toda Espana . hacian oracion por s. M., suplicando a Nuestro Seiior le trajese a SUS Reinos a salvamento, en el cual tiempo los demonios no h bian tenido parte de hacer mal, y que como S. M. desembarcara, habfa cesado la oraci6n, y con esto tuvieron lugar de hacer el mal que podian." Meras "Memorial" in Ruidiaz, La Florida, I, P 37 6 The provinces of Northern South America.

PAGE 72

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES so, and although Pedro Menendez represented to him that he was ill, and that it was many years since he had seen his wife or been in his house; and that his Majesty should grant him the favor to give him permission to go there until he recovered his health, because when he had, he would go to serve him at the point where his Majesty should command him; his Majesty told him that a quartan fever was not a dangerous complaint, and that on his return from that voyage he would give him a reward for his services, which had been . notable, for never up to then had any been given him, nor any aid in expenses; and so he made that journey to the Indies and he was ordered ... and he was back in Spain on the I Ith of July, 1560.* CHAPTER VI. ' How Pedro arid His Brother Bartolome Were Imprisoned Unjustly by the Casa de la Contratacz"on. 'the King Commissions Him to Reconnoitre the Coast of Florida (1_565) . 0 ther events and exploits, as singular as they appear incredible, proved Pedro Menendez to be the foremost man of his time; but applause, as general as it was sincere, was not sufficient to free him from thrusts of envy; since having been ordered in the year 1561, to return to the Indies with the fleet, he arrived in Spain laden with riches and rivals, who gave cause for the imprisonment which will now be treated of; having accomplished more on this occasion than on the others.* The said Pedro Menendez went to present himself before the Casa de Contrataci6n of the city of Seville, before the judges thereof, who commanded them1 to give bail [to appear] at the trial and sentence, and although they knew ... guaranteed, they would not take it ... two persons among the most wealthy ... and when they finished * The following paragraph is supplied from the Ensay o Cronologico of Car denas z Cano (Barcia). * The manuscript follows. 1 Pedro Menendez and his brother, Bartolome.

PAGE 73

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES taking the ... imprisoned in Las Atarazanas2 and that city, with two alguaciles8 ••• each one and each alguacil earned ... every day; and the day following they impeached them . . . there were five inf ormaciones4 against Pedro Menendez . . . most of them, whence resulted ... the whole accusation, made by Licentiate Bane gas, the Fiscal of that Casa de la Contrataci6n, without holding any commission from the judges therefor, and he made ... concealment and made the charges and . . . followed and accused the said Pedro Menendez and his brother, Bartolome Menendez, and [when this was] seen by the lawyers of . . . Pedro Menendez, who was Licenti ate Martin Alonso, a great ... friend, and he had been many years a censor for the Casa de la Contrataci6n, and drew a salary from his Majesty therefor, and was in the habit of remaining in the place of some of them as a judge of that Casa de la Contrataci6n, when they absented themselves; and he could not plead in any lawsuit of that Casa without the permission . of the judges, and if he did so, he lost the salary and office he held tfierein: he asked permission of the judges to plead in [that trial] : they would not give it to him, as he and Pedro Menendez were great friends; and as it was understood that he was ... he chose to lose the salary he received ... de la Contrataci6n, and defend him ... lawyer and that of Bartolome Menendez, his brother, and so ... them with the accusation, he put in an answer in the suit . . . and that of Pedro Menendez: he said he gave . . . amended the testimonies in . the five summary inf ormaciones which had been made against Pedro Menendez . . . and he demanded the sen tence: as it appeared to the officials that bj this means they [Menen dez and his brother] would be getting out of the ... with their case, the Fiscal asked for a termino ultramarino5 in order to prove the things of which he held him accused: this was granted him: it was equested on behalf of Pedro Menendez that in the meantime he be released on 2 The Royal Arsenals. 8 Constables, policemen. 4 Reports of charges against him. 5 Literally a beyond-the-sea period; a length of time sufficient to obtain evi dence from the other side of the ocean.

PAGE 74

66 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES bail: they would not do this, and so he remained a captive in that prison 20 months, and Bartolome Menendez, his brother, 2 5; [and] although on behalf of both, all possible efforts were made with the Contrataci6n to have them tried, they could not get the time shortened, on account of the delay there was in their case so as to lengthen their prison term, until [the coming of] the lSt and 2d cedulas from his Majesty [to the effect] that they should be sentenced. Since their cases had been :finished many days previous, and the charges reported to his Majesty could not be proved against them, they sent their cases and persons to his Majesty and the Sefiores of his Royal Council of the Indies, and [decided] that they [Pedro and Bartolome] should give six thousand ducats [and] should go to present themselves before that Court with an alguacil and two guardsmen t?r security: they complied with the sentence: they gave the bail: tliey asked for the proceedings: fu.ey would not give them the originals: they ordered that copies be made: two months went by during this, without [the copies] being given to them: when they had been given them, and they asked that the alguacil and the two guardsmen be appointed to take them to Court, they set new guards over them, saying that the Fiscal in the service of the Indies had appealed from that sentence, and likewise he of the Casa de la Contrataci6n. There was much wonder and murmuring at this among lawyers and persons of importance, on seeing that at the end of so many prison [terms] and annoyances and accusations as had been imposed on Pedro Menendez and his brother, and the many inf ormaciones that had been taken against them in the kingdom and out of it (for in the suit against Pedro MenenEiez alone, there were three inf ormaciones against him, taken in the kingdom and out of it) ; that when he had been such a famous Captain-General for so many years, in positions of such trust; and that no particular person at any time, nor then, had asked or demanded anything of him and his brother, save only Licenti ate Banegas, the Fiscal ot that Contrataci6n of Seville; that at the end of so many prosperous occurrences and voyages which Our Lord had granted him in the service of his Majesty, and when he was expecting that his Majesty would bestow on him a notable reward, I

PAGE 75

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES they should behold him a prisoner, accused by his Fiscal, and [ serv ing] such a long prison term; see him come out with such a trifling s t ntence and such a small guard for him and his brother; and see that because the judges at Seville cannot try a case in a higher court of claims (for it must of necessity come before the Council [of the Indies] in whatever form it may be, either by appeal or by a trial which they provide), the Fiscal of the Royal Council of the Indies had likewise appealed from that sentence: [therefore] the Adelantado was advised by persons learned in the law that it was proper for him to break prison, leaving therein his brother, Bartolome Menendez, and travel by post and go to his Majesty with great secrecy, which he did; and entering the palace, [his Majesty] saw him coming through a hall, at nine o'clock in the morning, and he sent him a page of. the bedchamber to fe 1 him to come up speak to him; and because the • said General had been warned that, as he had not beelf cleared of the accusations which there were against him, he would transgress the law if he spoke to the King befo t e speaking to the members of the Royal Council of the Indies, he sent to tell his Majesty that owing to this, he dare not kiss his hands, nor go up at his summons, for fear the Sen.ores of the Council of the Indies would order him to be punished: he spoke with the Sen.ores of the Council: they commanded him to be put into prison, and time went by and his case was heard: he was tried in the primary and secondary court of claims, without any other proceedings being instituted in the case against him, or in that against his brother, than those which had been taken in Seville, by the same judges who had competence in jurisdiction; and they and the Fiscal were prosecuting them and conducting th case and they were to sentence them; and they had written to his Majesty that [Pedro and Bartolome Menendez] had transgressed the law in many serious and shocking things, and they [the judges] must be willing to9find them guilty so that everything might be made true; and the said Pedro Menendez was condemned to pay one thoubnd ducats and his brother Bartolome Menendez, 200, because of the guilt resulting from the lawsuit aforesaid, without knowing on what charges; his Majesty, on account of them, having spent from his Royal Exchequer more than

PAGE 76

68 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 2,000 ducats, in sending to have informaciones taken in the kingdom and out of it, in order to find evidence against them, because his Fiscal wanted to find them guilty. His Majesty regretted that sentence, since he sent to summon him; and as he was a servant of his, he granted him the mercy of reducing that penalty by one half, and he commanded him to return to serve as General in that Carrera [of the Indies], together with his brothers ancl kinsmen, as of yore, saying he would thereby hold himself to be well served; would reward him for having previously served him well, and would vindicate him openly for the insult which had been offered him, for it was well understood throughout his whole kingdom that he had been accused falsely. Pedro Menendez replied to him with all humility, kissing his hands for the grace and favor did him in tell ing him that he was satisfied with his services and him so good a captain, and for the conviction [his Majesty] had that he had been accused falsely and that the judges had been prejudiced against him. He aspired to no further favor f.1.Jom his Majes _ty than this, which was as much as he could desire: the satisfaction that his services were acceptable to his Majesty, and that he served him with all love and fidelity; [but] he was in great affliction, because having but one only son, who was a gentleman of his Majesty's household, he had disappeared while coming as the General of a fleet and armada from New in a storm which came upon him off an island near Florida they call Bermuda; it was in the natural order of things either that the ship had sunk with all on board, or that they had escaped to that island or to Florida; and on account of his imprisonment he had been unable to go in search of Yi.em, in order if they were there, to save them and restore them to life; because there came on that ship besides his son, many of his kinsmen, friends, followers and soldiers, all of whom had been serving his Majesty under him for a long time; all of whom he had left with [his son] in New Spain, and loved like chil dren; he intended from contributions he obtained from relatives and friends, to equip two pataches at once and go to that island and the coast of Florida, sailing close to the shore, and landing at some points, in order to ask the Indians by signs if there were bearded men

PAGE 77

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 69 in that country, or in any island near by, since none of the Indians 1!lave beards; and until he could start on that undertaking, it seemed to him that he was not satisfying his conscience, nor the love he had for that only son, because he had no other; or for the kinsmen and friends who were with him; [he said] that when he had made that voyage he would go to his home, wife and children, whatever the result might be, for in eighteen years he had only been there . . . times, because he had been occupied in his Majesty's service; during which period he had attended, as he was in duty bound, to serving him; and that even though it were in great poverty, he wanted to end his days at home in the service of God. His Majesty had pity and compassion on him; he told him that he would help h " , n the one and the other [purpose], and to come to speak to him the following day, and the said Pedro Menendez did so. His Majesty told him that he was sorry for his hardships and troubles; that he wished to aid him in the voyage he wanted to make in search of his son, provided that after he had finished his search, he would navigate along the whole coast of Florida, in order to discover the inlets, harbors and shoals that were so as to record them with exactness and set them down on marine charts; because, on account of this not having been done, many ships had been lost which went to and from the Indies, with much treasure and many people on board; and many armadas the Emperor, his father, of glorious memory, and his Majesty [himself] had equipped for the conquest and settlement of that land of Florida. Pedro Menendez answered that would to God his Majesty under stood that which he was saying as fully as was fitting for the service of God and his own, since that was one of the necessary things which he must provide and remedy in his kingdom, especially at a time when so many Lutheran heretics were springing up in Flanders, Germany, France, England and Scotland, all of them lands near to Florida, 0 which is such a large country with such a good altitude and climate for all kinds of products that it must perforce contain many good things; 6 The text says this distinctly: "Todas tierras cercanas a la Florida." Meras "Memorial," in Ruidiaz, La Florida, I, p. 49.

PAGE 78

70 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and [since] it was entirely peopled by savages, without faith and law, unenlightened by the law of Our Lord Jesus Christ, his Majesty was in duty bound by the powers which the Holy Pontiffs of Rome had given long ago to the Kings of Castile for the conquest and settlement of that land, to try to implant the Holy Gospel therein; and he [Menendez] would take that enterprise under his charge with greater zeal than any for the many armadas, or any office which his Majesty might entrust to him in his kingdoms. His Majesty answered him that he would take much pleasure in committing that undertaking to his care, and in making a contract with him in order that he might do it, [granting] everything within reason; and so his Majesty made a contract with the said Pedro Menendez, leaving in his charge the con quest and settlement of that land, with [everything i::rtaining to] the journey; and ::i,f ter having collected his cedulas and decrees, [ Menen dez] departed for Asturias and Biscay, to assemble his fleet. CHAPTER VII. Preparations for the Voyage. Pedro Menendez feared that his Majesty might have thought ill of him because of what his ministers had said of him, as they believed the tale-bearers who had spoken ill of the Adelantado; and he [be lieed] that he had fallen in his [Majesty's] disfavor, who might not have as good an opinion of him as was just; he desired to regain his reputation, which he had obtained through such hardships and dangers, at the cost of his property, and the loss and death of his son, brothers, kinsmen and friends; and when he saw the captains and men of noble birth wh had followed him and served his Majesty in his company, poor and in need, without being able to help them, because he was so likewise, nothing he might undertake appeared difficult, especially that [conquest] of which was so much for the service of God Our Lora and of his Majesty, and for the general welfare of his kingdoms; wherefore he had thought that if the King's reward should fail him, that of God Our Lord could not, nor His aid, which was what

PAGE 79

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 71 he needed, and was the particular interest he was trying for therein; and he dispatched from there three messengers to different parts, writ ng to his friends and to Francisco de Reinoso, a military man of his Majesty, so that they might bring him as many men as they could; and he told Francisco de Eraso that his Majesty would be very ill served by the delay in his going to Florida; that it did not appear fitting to him to be detained for those ships, supplies and men because he did not know where he could find the ships; that he had a galleon of one thousand tons, the best thing there was on the sea, very fast and well armed, ready for war; that the merchants of Seville were giving him twenty-five thousand ducats' worth of freight so that she might go laden to N ombre de Dios, and that he was already loading her; that he was willing to lose that interest and would collect as many men as he could; that noi:ce should be sent to the officials of Seville to take and prepare her to carry on board as many people as she ould hold, and that any dispatch his Majesty was to give him in Valladolid, could be sent to him in Seville: this appeared very good to Francisco de Eraso, who enjoined him so to do, and to make his voyage with speed. The Adelantado managed so well by way of Cadiz and Biscay, that on St. Peter's Day he set out from Cadiz with that galleon San Pelayo and ten other sail; and five from Asturias and Biscay, and 2,150 sol diers and sailors on board thereof, as has been said; and of all these his Majesty paid for 300 soldiers and one ship; all the rest was at the expense of the Adelantado, who sought all the aid he could from kins men and friends, who helped him very much, knowing that that enter prise was greatly for the service of God Our Lord and his Majesty; and Pedro del Castillo, a citizen and regj dor of Cadiz, a great friend of the Adelantado, distinguished himself in this more than all [of them] , in helping him from his own means and those of his friends, for he alone lent him twenty thousand ducats; the Adelar.tado realiz ing the great service he was doing his Majesty in this, in order to go straight to Florida, as he did, to destroy he enemy before they could fortify themselves and gain the good -w ill of the caciques and Indians of that land, as has been said. . .

PAGE 80

72 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER VIII.
PAGE 81

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 73 if they had been, he would land in another harbor, the nearest to theirs he could find; he could do this, as the ships he took drew but little water; and there he would fortify himself, trying to do the enemy all the harm he could, and to gain the good-will of the caciques; and in the spring, with the horses that should come to him from the Indies, he would get control of the country and the [Frenchmen's] harbor, because they had their fort two leagues inland up the river; so that they could not be succored nor the Indians treat with them; and that in this manner war could be made on them in all good order and activity, and they could soon be driven out of the land of Florida, in order that they should not implant therein their evil Lutheran sect. Because his Majesty had been advised that the powerful Turk was marching on Mplta, that the galleys he had to oppose him were few, and that therefore he could not give them, although the reason the Adelantado gave seemed a very good one to him; and all the other Sefiores aforesaid with whom he communicated, said likewise; his Majesty on the following diay in La Mejorada provided through his Council of State and War, that they should give the Adelantado 500 men, paid and equipped, with 4 armed ships, all at the expense of his Majesty; so that with the 500 men and Io shallops and zabras the Adelantado was taking at his expense, in accordance with the asiento he had made with his Majesty concerning the conquest and settlement of Florida, he should go to the islands of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba, to assemble the horses, infantry and ships. *The Adelantado named very important persons as officials of the Royal Exchequer, and among them Hernando de Miranda as Factor; whereof he gave an account to the King, approved the selection; for one cannot go to conquer and settle new lands without taking them [the officials], and their appointment belongs to the General. On the 5th of May Menendez wrote, by order of the King, that Francisco de Eraso must raise more people, and the same day the proper order was given by the officials of he Casa de la Contrataci6n, whereby the Royal Atarazanas were opened and Pedro Menendez was given artillery, munitions of war and food supplies, and although his *Supplied from the Ensayo Cronologico.

PAGE 82

74 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Majesty ordered that 500 men be given him, this was not carried out; for the King's account there were given only 299 soldiers, who received the pay apportioned to 200 men; 95 sailors with the chief pilot, and everything else that he held necessary; as the same order had allowed him to dispose of a larger equipment than that [called for] by his obligation. CHAPTER IX. Description of the Fleet. Men e ndez Sails for Florida June 29th, 1565. J uan de San Vicente arrived in Seville from Ital with a comrade of his, called Francisco Perez; they were both natives of Medina del Campo: they bfought letters from Luis de Quintanilla, a great friend of the Adelantado, wherein he assured him that San Vicente was a very good soldier [and] asked that he honortand favor him in whatever way he could, for he [San Vicente] had a brother in Italy who was a captain serving with great credit; and as this was the first thing his friend begged of him, and he believed that the bravery of the protege would be equal to that of his brother, of whom the Adelantado had heard much, he made him a captain, and his comrade an ensign. He carried to that conquest 2,646 persons in 34 vessels, among them being 4 very large ones, provided with much more than had been stipulated. Before sailing out of the Bay of Cadiz he wished to take the muster-roll of the people who had embarked there; but Francisco Duarte, the Factor ( witho\A: an order from the King, because he did not show any to the Adelantado, although he asked him for it), wanted to interfere with this, saying it was his right, and he insisted so much that [the l\.delantado,] in order not to waste in quarrels on land, the auspicious weather at sea for his navigation, consented to the Factor's demands, although he hac:Fno jurisdiction; [but] he represented to the King that in accordance with the patent and instructions he car ried, the officials of the Casa de la Contrataci6n of Seville could not interfere in anything without a special royal cedula; and that when he

PAGE 83

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 75 was in San Lucar with the armada of protection for the Indies, about t&> set sail, wishing to take the muster-roll of the soldiers and sailors, and aid them before the royal officials in compliance with his instruc tions, Francisco Duarte, the Factor, had requested him to join with him and the other officials, but when he asked him for the order he could not produce it; and that as the wind was favorable and in order that the royal service should not suffer, [the Adelantado,] holding it for certain that his Majesty would reprimand that infraction and would command it to be remedied for the future, had joined him at his house, where the roll was taken; and he supplicated his Majesty to order the officials referred to, not to intrude themselves in anything concerning that fleet, nor in the visitation thereof, without a special royal cedula, siv, e he would permit [the visitation] when it should be for the royal service: "because," he added, "the people of the said armada would show the greatest discontent if the offi!ials of the Casa de la Contrataci6n were to be their judges; and for this same reason I fear that the armada may Oisband if the men should know that they have any other judges than the Council of the Indies." The muster-roll was called, and the fleet was composed of one gal leon, chartered for his Majesty's account, of 996 tons; and lo ships wherein were going 995 sailors and soldiers, 4 secular priests with licenses to receive confession, and 117 tradesmen: locksmiths, millers, silversmiths, tanners, sheepshearers and others, with all the artillery necessary for building forts and defending oneself. All the people were going at the expense of the Adelantado, except 299 soldiers and 95 sailors, with the chief pilot. [There was] the galleon San Pelayo, was the flagship, with the Adelantado on board and 31 7 soldiers, 299 thereof for the King's account; [and] 4 cannon, with the rest of the artillery and provisions bought by Pedro del Castillo, a citizen and regidor of Ca3iz; [also] the shallop Magdalena, of 75 tons; the shallops San Miguel and San Andres, of loo tons, Gonzalo Bayon, shipmaster; and La Concepcion, of 70 tons, carrying 96 men; the galley called Victoria, with 17 benches; the brigantine La Esperanza, with 11 benches; the caravel San Antonio, of 150 tons, carrying 114 soldiers; the caravel La Con-

PAGE 84

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES cepcion, laden with supplies, which only went as far as the Canaries; the caravel of shipmaster Juan Ginete; the caravel N ues tra Sen or a de las Virtudes, Hernando Rodriguez, s hipmaster, a citizen of Cadiz; the vessel Espiritu Santo, of 55 ton s , Alonso Menendez Marques, ship master; the vessel N uestra Senora del Rosario, Pedro Suarez Carvayo, shipmaster; and 5 others, the names whereof have been lost, making in all 19, for the others were being equipped in Asturias and Bi scay . And [the fleet] having set sail from the Bay of Cadiz on the 29th of June, as the warnings and notices against the Huguenots had deferred the departure, such a severe storm arose that it was driven back to land, to the great grief of the Adelantado at the delay: he gathered more people in Cadiz, and the weather growing clear, he set out another time and arrived safely at the Canaries, ere he resumed taking the roll of the men he carried, a thing he had been unable to do in Cadiz because Francisco Duarte, the Factor, absented himself ;1 and he found he had 1,504 persons, not beggars and of the rabble, to beat whom, says Jacobo Le Moine, 2 50 were sufficient; but among them were some of the principal gentlemen of Asturias, Galicia and Biscay, whom a thousand Frenchmen would not dare to face. Two days after he had departed, Captain Luna with 90 men arrived in the Bay of Cadiz, and requested Francisco Duarte, the Factor, to give him a ship wherewith to go over to Florida: Francisco Duarte declined, and sent him to Pedro del Castillo, who freighted a caravel for him, with supplies and everything needful, and 67 persons em barked, not counting the sailors. At the same time that the Adelantado was preparing in Andalusia all that he thought proper for the service of his Majesty and the renown of so great a general [as himself], Estebano de las Alas, his lieutenant, embarked in the port of Aviles, 257 per s ons, sailors and soldiers, in three ships laden with arms and munitions for the same 1 This must mean taking the muster-roll of the men who joined him when he had to go back to Cadiz. 2 Jacques Le Moyne . Cf. his Bre vis N arratio, Part II of Theodor de Bry's Collectiones Peregrinationum in Indiam Orienta/em et lndiam Occidentalem, Francoforti ad Moenum, i591, p. 27. Translated by Fred B. Perkins as Narra tive of Le Moyne, Boston, i875.

PAGE 85

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 77 conquest; and there set sail from the harbor of Gi j 6n, on the 25th of May, in charge of Pedro Menendez Marques, a nephew of the Adelantado and the Admiral of that fleet (who was also Accountant for his Majesty in Florida), two vessels with supplies, munitions, arms and accoutrements, with 78 persons. Among the people who embarked in Asturias were 11 friars of San Francisco, ordained priests, and one lay brother; one friar of Mercy, one priest and 8 [members] of the Society of Jesus, and most of them did not arrive because of the tempests. From Santander and other parts of Biscay many ships set out in the same enterprise, laden with supplies and munitions; in such wise that on this voyage, the zeal of the Adelantado exceeding his obligation, he carried so many persons that he had no need of the 500 negroes, nor did he take out the royal license therefor; besides, the rumor of the [contemplated r destruction of the heretics who had settled in the lands of the King induced the people to embark, so thllt if he had had the inclination he could have taken over as many as he wished. He conducted 2,646 persons, among them 26 married citizens with their families, the Adelantado spending in 14 months nearly one million ducats, as the whole armada was at his expense, except one vessel and 299 soldiers for the King's account: a thing surely incredible, if the expense were not authenticated by valid documents, and more so be cause the salaries were then so low, for to the highest officials were given 6 ducats a month; to the sailors, 4; to the ship-boys, l,ooo mara vedis; to the cabin-boys, 2 ducats; to the pilot, 24; to the artillerymen, 5; to the other shipmasters, 9; to the captains, 40; to the ensigns, 1.5; to the sergeants, 8; to the corporals, fifers and drummers, 6; to the quartermasters and pikemen, 3; to the arftuebusiers and halberdiers, 4 ducats a month; to the corporals' aids, 4 ducats, and to the soldiers, 2. He carried with him royal cedulas to the effect that in the Indies he should be given what he asked for, but they were not carriel! out. Having set sail from the Canaries, within a short time a fierce tempest arose, and the flagship with a pal:ache broke away from the armada, without being seen any more; and the next day a shallop turned back to land, for she was leaking badly and could not be suc cored. The course of the other ships that went in charge of Estebano de •

PAGE 86

• PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES las Alas was not known; only five vessels sailed together; and on the 20th of July so great a hurricane came upon them that it was necessary to lighten them and throw overboard the best part of the cargo. Lut s de Cabrera says that they arrived at the island of Hispaniola, and on the 9th of August at San Juan de Puerto Rico, where were already waiting the flagship and patache which had been separated from them in the storm: there the Adelantado took on 43 men who had been enrolled in advance, as he had taken on at Hispaniola the provisions he needed: and knowing that Juan Ribao was ahead, and had cap tured a dispatch boat on her way to the islands, he determined to follow him, although the Adelantado had with him less than one third of his men and his fleet, not knowing whether the others had been lost in the storm, and whether the ships from Asturias and Biscay would arrive. Seeing that the people who were with him persons of much reliance !.nd bravery, despite [the fact] that many of the sol diers were not trained, he summoned all the captains to a council, and told them that he had not taken that upedition under his charge through vanity or [personal] interest, but for the honor of God, Who already appeared to be manifesting His mercies, since to show His hand visibly, He had permitted that the powerful fleet which sailed from Teneri:ffe should arrive near Florida so impaired in order that the success of whatever famous action could be achieved should be attrib uted to Him. [He said] that trusting in the Divine Will, he held it to be very proper that they should set sail thence for Florida, without waiting for or seeking further aid; for if they succeeded in finding the place where the Lutherans were settled he considered victory to be beyond a doubt, as the Frenah would be taken unawares, and the more so if succor had not reached them; whereas if they should wait for the whole armada at the Windward Islands, there would follow the diffi culty of their arrival being made known, and of the enemy having the opportunity so to fortify themselves as to become invincible; which fears would vanish by goin@: in search of them promptly. In case they should find them fortified and with ample aid, and should not be able to land near by because of recognizing some great danger, they would turn back their prows toward Hispaniola and Cuba, where they could

PAGE 87

• PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 79 discuss what had to be done, while being reinforced by the men, supand munitions that would be arriving; although he held it for certain that such valiant and honorable gentlemen as had assembled there, were equal to attempting more arduous feats; and in this under taking they could lose nothing, for if they had to return to the said ports, they would have gained much honor, and learned the way to attack the enemy with the other [troops]. He begged them to give their opinions, for he would follow the most suitable and reasonable. The camp master, Don Pedro de Valdes, his son-in-law,8 said that what the Adelantado proposed appeared good to him, and that the more the voyage was delayed, the more this would weaken resolution. Others followed him; but Captain Juan de San Vicente and some who had the of remaining in Hispaniola to go to Peru or New Spain, and desert that undertaking, replied that it would be best to wait and know the fate of the armada and the strengt:h of the enemy, in order to proportion thereto the preparations which had to be made to obtain the greatest in an enterprise of such importance; whereupon they began to quarrel one with another, but came to an agreement that the opinion of the Adelantado should be followed; who [was] very joyful at this decision, because he had al ways be lieved that the successful outcome of that expedition depended on swiftness; he thanked them and had the vessels overhauled with great care. 3 At that time the Adelantado was planning that his elder daughter should marry Pedro Menendez Valdes. Cf. the letter of Menendez to King Philip, Sep tember I 1th, i565, A. G. de I., 54-5-16.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 82. •

PAGE 88

80 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER X.* The Adelantado Pedro Menendez Sights FloridaAugust 28th, off Caf.l Canaveral. Obtains Information from Coast Indians Four Days Later. Discovers a Good Harbor Which He Calls St. Augustine. Night Battle between the French and Spanish Fleets at the Mouth of the River of May (the St. Johns). Landing at St. Augustine September 8th. Capture of Fort Caroline September 2oth.1 Renamed the Fort of San Mateo. That day in the afternoon, the Adelantado commanded that all the ships' arms should be delivered to the captains, so that they should distribute them among their soldiers, who were to keen them clean and ' ready, and that each soldier should shoot three rounds every day until they reached FYorida, in order to lose fear of the arquebuses and be trained, as they were raw recruits for the most part. They were to shoot one round with bullets in a space ahanged within the said gal leon, prizes being awarded to the soldiers in the companies who shot best, and to their captains so that they should take great care to make them skilful; and with that exercise, which was done each day, they daily repeated the Christian doctrine and the litanies, saying prayers and making supplications to God Our Lord, and beseeching Him to grant them victory in everything. They sailed until August 28th, St. Augustine's Day, on which they sighted the land of Florida ;2 all of * The manuscript follows from here. 1 Menendez to the King, 15th, 1565, A. G. de I., 54-5-16.-Ruidfaz, La Florida, II, p. 86. 2 Francisco de Mendoza Grajales, the chaplain of Pedro Menendez, also gives August 28th as the day that the Spanish fleet sighted Florida (cf. his "Memoria" or "Relaci6i;;" Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 445-446). Barrientos says August 28th (cf. "Vida y Hechos de Pero Menendez de Auiles," p. 39, in Genaro Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones de la Florida). Menendez himself, however, says that the event occurred on 'August 25th (perhaps a scribe's mistake). "On the XXV of August, Sunday at noon, we discovered this land off Cape Canaveral, which is the latitude of XXVIII degrees, at the entrance of the Bahama Channel, and we sailed along the coast, seeking that harbor [of the French], as far as XXIX degrees, for such was the report I had, that the ,

PAGE 89

FLORIDA 1562-1574 Compiled by Woodbury Lowery Cape S.blc . • ' • Lake Wor1/l lr1le'

PAGE 90

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES them kneeling, saying the Te Deum Laudamus, they praised Our Lord, ali the people repeating their prayers, entreating Our Lord to give them victory in all things. And because they knew not in what part the Lutherans had fortified themselves, they sailed for four days along the coast, very much dis tressed, and in great suspense, not knowing whether the French were north or south of where the said Adelantado was going with his armada, sailing by day and anchoring at night; and one morning he saw Indians on the coast :3 he sent his camp master to land with 20 arquebusiers: he did not wish to land more men so that the Indians might not be frightened and flee. When the camp master disembarked among the Indians with the 20 soldiers, they came with their bows and arrows, and as ou. men went toward them, they retreated toward the woods: the Christians fearing that if they followed there might be an ambuscade of many men, and they would run a risk; and that if they did not seek from them to learn in what part the Lutherans were, it would be a bad state of things; for as the Frenchmen were between the XX VIII and XXIX degrees. Not finding them, we went on as far as XXIX and a half degrees; and having seen fires on the shore on the second of September, I ordered a captain ashore with twenty soldiers, to try to get an interpreter among the Indians, that they might give us knowledge of that harbor; and so the captain who went ashore joined them and talked to them, and they told him, by signs, that the harbor was further on, in a higher latitude towards the north." Menendez to the King, September 11th, i565, A.G. de I., 54-5-16. Copies in D. H., Colecci6n Navarrete, tomo i4, No. 40.-L. C., Papeles relativos a la Florida, pp. 31-79.-Lowery, IL-Smith, vol. for i561-1593, pp. 292-309, from D. Historical Society1l-Published in Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 84-105; and in translation, in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, VIII, PP 42 5-439. 3 These Indians belonged to the large and important tribe of the Timucua, who controlled most of the northern part of the region known today :s Florida. Many affiliated smaller tribes were included under that designation. The word has different forms: Timuqua, Timoqua, etc. The name of the River Tomoka, which empties into the Halifax above Ormond, on the Florida East Coast, is an English form of Timucua. For information on the Timucua, cf. Frederick W. Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., Part II, pp. 7 p-7 54.Lowery, Spanish Settlements, i562-1574, Appendix H, p. 407. • •

PAGE 91

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES coast and sand-banks were not known either to the said Adelantado or to his pilot s , if some storm should come up they were in danger of los ing themselves with the fleet; to remedy thi s , the camp m as ter ordered a soldier who had committed a crime, to lay down his arms and g o to the Indians with certain little thin gs a s pre s ent s , and the soldier did so: the Indians awaited him, received him well and were reassured: then the camp master arrived and spoke with them, and through signs they told him that the French were about 20 leagues from there, to the north. 4 The Indians a s ked whether the Generat of the armada was on board the ships, or among them: they were told that he was on the ships: they answered that they desired greatly to see him and know him: [the Spaniards] wanted to take them to the ships, but they would not go: they said that the were afraid and would await him there on land. And so the camp master returned to the flag s hip with his 20 soldiers, where was the said Adelantado, and he related to him everything that had taken place with the Indians and that they were awaiting him on shore; and because of the desire he had to see them, and to satisfy him self [of the truth] of what the Indians said by signs, that the French were 20 leagues from there toward the north; he went to land with 2 boats and 50 arquebusiers, and as soon as the Indians saw him land, leaving their bows and arrows, they came to the said Adelantado, [and] began to sing and to make gestures with their hands raised toward heaven, in manner of adoration, so that it was a wonderful thing to see. The Adelantado gave them many things and sweets to eat, which he had in one of the 4 Jean Ribaut, commandin5 an expedition of Huguenots or French Protestants (whom the Spaniards called the Lutherans), had attempted in i 562 to make a settlement to whi c h he gave the name of Charlesfort, near Port Royal, in South Carolina. The expedition was sent by Admiral de Coligny, the great leader of the Huguenots, who had obtained a commission from the French King, Charles IX, but the colony was afterward abandoned. In i564, Rene de Laudonniere, at the head of a French Protestant force sent to help the fir s t, built Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River, which had been called by Ribaut the River of May because he had discovered it on the first day of May, i562. In August and September, i565, Menendez was seeking Laudonniere's colony, hoping to attack and destroy it before it could be succored by the arrival of another fleet under Jean Ribaut.

PAGE 92

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES boats: they reiterated what they had said, that the French were 20 from there; the Adelantado left them very happy and em barked on his ships and went sailing along the coast with his armada, and discovered 8 leagues from there a good harbor, with a good beach, to which he gave the name of St. Augustine, because that was the first land he discovered in Florida, and he did so on the very day of St. Augustine.5 On the following day, three hours after noontime, as he was proceeding along the coast, he discovered four large galleons at anchor.0 As it appeared to him that that was the harbor where the 5 "Un puerto bueno, con una buena ribera, a que puso nombre Sant Agustin, por ser alli la primera tierra que descubri6 de la Florida y ser el mismo dfa de Sant Agustin cuando la descubri6." Meras, "Memorial," in Ruidfaz, La Florida, I, P 72. This is a misleading sentence. Meras, through the vague wo. ds, "por ser alH la primera tierra," intends to say that that whole region, from Cape Canaveral up, was the first land which Menendez discovered in Florida, after he had sighted it at the Cape on St. Day, several days previous (cf. p. 80, note 2) ; instead of which the impression is conveyed that the site or neighbor hood of the present city of St. Augustine is the land that Menendez first dis covered. The sentence which comes next is equally ambiguous. When Meras writes: "On the following day," he probably means September 4th, the day after the Adelantado found "a good harbor, with a good beach"-he is not thinking of the day following August 28th, St. Augustine's Day. Barrientos, at this point, is just as misleading; but the letter of Menendez of September 11th, and the "Memoria" of Mendoza Grajales, make the dates fairly clear. From the careless wording of these passages Lowery was led to believe that Menendez gave the good harbor the name of St. Augustine because he had dis covered it on the festival of the saint (Spanish s , ttlements, 1562-1574, p. 154), whereas the name of St. Augustine was given to it because it was on St. Augus tine's Day, August 28th, that Menendez had sighted Florida off Cape Canaveral. Meras makes this plain on p. 80. 6 A week elapsed before the fleet of Menendez reached the mouth
PAGE 93

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES French were, that succor had come to them and that those galleons belonged to their armada, he entered into council with his captains and told them that a s he held it for certain that the Frenc h armada had come and that their fort could not be taken, nor their armed harbor, [the captains] should say to him what it seemed to them ought to be done . Different opinions were given, but most of the captains decided that the said Adelantado should return to Santo Domingo with the five ships he had, and that there he s hould gather most of the ships of his fleet which had become separated in the storm, and 6 others he expected from Biscay and Asturias, for he had left orders at the Canaries that they should go to Puerto Rico. He would likewise col lect two armed ships and the hor ses, infantry and supplie s that his had ordered to be given him in that island f Santo Domingo and that of Cuba; and so with everything being gathered together, he could go to Havana, and in the coming month of March he would return to Florida with large forces to accomplish whatever good result he could; [but] the said Adelantado was afraid that if he acted on that opinion he would run the risk of defeat, becau s e his presence with his 5 ships was already revealed to the French fleet . There was no wind and the sun gave promise of fair weather, but on account of the storm they had had 4 of the ships had remained without foremasts and lacked others which had been broken, so that the French armada could purs ue his, especially a s he had notice that they had vessel s with oar s ; and he answered the captains that the Frenchmen could not reasonably expect him so soon on that coast; they would have their infantry on land and be unloading the supplies, as tho s e vessel s , being large, could not enter the harbor laden; and it seemed to him that they [the Span iards] should go to fight with them, for if they captured them, the French would not have an armada sufficient to go out in search of him on the seas; and that they could return to the port of St. Augus tine, which was twelve leagues from there, and disembark in that harbor and fortify thems ' elves, and send the ships to Hispaniola to give tidings to the armada he was in need of; and that the infantry, August 28th, the day that Menendez reached Florida in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral.

PAGE 94

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 85 horses and supplies his Majesty had ordered to be given him, should all come together in March to that port of St. Augustine, and once had arrived there, they could go against the enemy by land and sea, capturing their harbor, because they had their fort . . . leagues inland, on the river bank. In this way succor could not come to them from France; [the Spaniards] with the horses would be masters of the country, so that they [the French] could not have dealings or inter course with the Indians, and they [the Spaniards] could wage war on the French within a brief time, without danger to the said Adelan tado's fleet, nor to himself, nor to his men: this was to be done when they had reconnoitred the fort of the French, and [felt] that they were so strong that they could run the danger of giving them the assault and conq1itfring the fort with their arms. Owing to these reasons which the said Adelantado gave, all the captains approved this opinion and advice, and before coming to a decision they to Our Lord, beseeching Him to favor them in everything and grant them victory over their enemies; and wher the prayer was ended, the said Adelantado told them that he had determined to attack the French armada, which they all approved. Then he ordered the captains to go to their ships and gave them instructions as to what they had to do, and he gave orders to the Admiral of the fleet7 as to what point he was to support and what position he was to take, with two vessels he indi cated to him and the one whereon he was, which made three in all; the other ship, a patache, the Adelantado commanded not to leave the side of his fla g ship. And so, sailing along with fair weather, they were about 3 leagues from the French armada, which was anchored off its harbor and consisted of 4 large galleons, \rhen the wind died down, and there was much thunder and lightning and a heavy shower, which lasted until 9 o'clock at night, and then the sky became very serene and clear, and the wind shifted toward land. As it to the Adelantado that it would be almost midnight when he arrived near the enemy, and that it would not be safe9to grapple with the ships because of the danger from the incendiary missiles which the enemy is wont to carry; that they could better avail themselves thereof by night 7 The Admiral of a fleet was under the orders of the Captain-General. • •

PAGE 95

86 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES than by day; and if the vessels of both fleets should burn, the enemy could escape in the boats and skiffs they had at the poop; a thing they could easily do, as the land was theirs; and they would come off vic torious and the sald Adelantado would be defeated; he decided to anchor in front of their bows, in such manner that when the cables were let loose after the anchors had caught, the sterns of the ships of the said Adelantado would overlap the prows of the enemy's ships, and at dawn the next morning, by loosening the cables they could board the enemy, who could not be aided by their vessels which were ":'ithin the harbor; as the bar was a long one, those ships could not come out by night, and at dawn it would be low tide, so that they would have to wait until it was high, and that would be at midday. And so [the Adelantado] commanded his captains to come on board his flagship, and told them his decision, which they all approved as being very gooo; and when they arrived near the French armada at about half past 11 at night, [the French] began to fire artillery pieces therefrom, and the balls passed through the masts and rigging of the said Adelantado's vessels without harming anything whatever; he did not permit that any artillery should be fired from his ships; on the con trary, he ordered that on all the ships and on his own all the soldiers should clear the decks so that they should not be injured, for since they were to anchor and not to board the enemy, it was not safe that they should remain on deck with the artillery; and with great courage and coolness, unmindful of the guns [the enemy] were firing, he passed by the French flagship, for the four ships were all together; and he paid no attention to them. They had flags and pennants, and on the mainmast of the flagship were hoisted a flag and a royal standard: and on the Admiral's galleon, at the top of the foremast, was the Admiral's flag. When the said Adelantado had anchored with his 5 vessels turned with their prows toward the shore, he had the cables loosened, and the poop of his flagship was between the prows of the enemy's flagship and Admiral's galley, and their prows reached his vessels like long pikes ;8 and then he had the trumpets sounded hailing 8 "Y como hubo surgido el dicho Adelantado, con SUS 5 navios, por la proa a tierra dellos e hizo largar los cables, y la popa de SU capitana quedo en el medio

PAGE 96

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES the enemy, and they answered him, hailing him with theirs; and presently when these salutes were ended, the said Adelantado spoke t them with much courtesy, saying: "Sefi.ores, whence comes that armada'?" One only replied that it came from France. He asked them again: "What is it doing here'?" They said to him: "We are bringing infantry, artillery and supplies for a fort whicli the King of France has in this country, and for others which he is to build." Said the Adelantado to them: "Are you Catholics or Lutherans, and who is your General'?" They answered that they were all Lutherans of the new religion, and that their General was Juan Ribao; and [they wanted to know] who they were, who was he who asked this, and whose armada that was; why it had come to that country and who was the General thereof. The Adelanta o replied to them: "He who asks this of you is called Pedro Menendez, this armada belongs to the King of pain and I am the General thereof; and I come to hang and behead all the Lutherans I may find on this sea and i his land; and thus do I bring instructions from my King, which I shall fulfil at dawn when I shall board your ships; and if I should find any Catholic, I will give him good treat ment." Many together answered many shameless and insulting words against the King our Master, calling him by his ' name, and against the said Adelantado, saying: "Let that be for the King, Don Felipe, and this for Pedro Menendez, and if thou beest a brave man, as they say, come and wait not until tomorrow." The Adelantado, on hearing such unseemly words to the detriment of his King, ordered the cables to be loosened to board the enemy, and a the sailors did this unwill ingly, he leaped down from the bridge to hasten them. The cable was wound round the capstan; it could not be loosened so quickly: when the enemy saw this, and heard sounded the Adelantado's • command, they feared him, cut the cables, unfurled the sails and fled. The said Adelantado did the same with is ships, and pursued them de las proas de la nao capitana y almiranta de los enemigos, que como una pica larga se llegaban las proas a SUS navfos . . . " Meras, "Memorial," in Ruidiaz, La Florida, I, p. 76. •

PAGE 97

88 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES in such manner that when he was in the midst of them, he followed [in the flagship] with a patache, the two [galleons] which took the direction of the north, and his Admiral pursued, with the three ship , the other two which turned to the south. By the patache the said Adelantado sent a message to his Admiral that by dawn he was to return off the harbor, and that he would do likewise, to see if they could capture it; and that if not, they would go to land at the port of St. Augustine, as had been agreed; for in ca s e no ship of the said Frenchmen should be taken (because theirs outsailed those of the said Adelantado, which lacked some of the masts owing to the storm they had had), 3 or 4 days would pass before the enemy could come together again, wherein the said Adelantado would either capture their harbor, or disembark in the port of St. Augustine; as1the other French vessels in the harbor would not dare to come out with the four [gal leons] not appearing; and if they should come out, there was no reason to fear them. And thus it happened that the said Adelantado chased the two French galleons northward for about 5 or 6 leagues, until dawn, and his Admiral went as many after the other two which sailed to the south; and the said Adelantado, with his 5 ships, lay off the harbor of the French at 10 o'clock the next morning, and trying to enter it, he saw two infantry flags at the end of the bar, artillery began to fire and there were 5 vessels anchored within. As it seemed to the said Adelantado that he ran the risk of failure if he tried to capture the harbor from them, and that meantime the 4 ships which had fled might unite with the 5 which were within, and that [then] he could escape neither by land nor y sea; he decided, without losing time, to put his flagship under full sail and order the others to do likewise, and he went to the harbor of St. Augustine, where he arrived on the eve of Our L 1y of September; and as soon as he reached there he landed about three hundred soldiers, and sent 2 captain s with them, who were to reconnoitre at daybrea . the next morning the lay of the land and the places which seemed to them strongest [for defence], in order that they might dig a trench quickly while it was being seen where they could build a fort, so that the next day when the said Adelantado

PAGE 98

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 89 should land, they could show him what they had observed, and decide what would be most proper to do about it. • And on the following day, the day of Our Lady of September, the said Adelantado landed near noon, when he found many Indians awaiting him there, as they had had tidings of him from the other Indians with whom he had spoken four days before: he had a solemn mass said in honor of Our Lady, and when that was ended, he took possession of the country in the name of his Majesty; he received the solemn oath of the officials of his Majesty's Royal Exchequer, the camp master and the captains, that they would all serve his Majesty with entire loyalty and fidelity, and this being done, the said Adelan tado had the Indians fed and dined himself. On finishing, he went immediately to .ee the locations which appeared to the captains he had sent, suitable for the trench; and leaving the site marked out,9 he returned to the ships, having first held a council decided that within three days everything possible should be unloaded from the vessels, and that then, two t f them should be sent to Hispaniola, for as they were large they could not enter the harbor, and if the French armada came, it would capture them. The diligence the Adelantado showed in unloading those ships to send them away, so that the enemy should not take them from him, as it seemed to him that on the fourth day the French armada would come upon him-was such that all who were there were astounded; for although the ships were anchored more than a league and a half away from the landing place, in two days and a half he took ashore the people, the artillery, the munitions and a large part of the supplies; arid without Wdliting for the third day, one 9 The site of St. Augustine was changed several times. The first was on Anastasia Island. "Fundole, primero en el cabo de una isla de media legua de anc o y cinco de largo, y pasose el aiio de 72 a la parte de Tierrafirme," etc. Juan Lopez de Velasco, Geografa y Descripci6n Universal de las lndias, 1571-1574, Madrid, 1894, p. 160. Cf. pp. 125, 184, 185, 200, of t volume.-Mendoza Grajales, "Memoria," called "Relacion" by Ruidiaz, in La Florida, II, pp. 449-45'1Menendez to the King, September 11th, 156 5, ibid., II, p. 8 i.-"lnformacion de algunos servicios," ibid., II, p. 615.-Barrientos in Garcia, pp. 114, 141.Lowery, Spanish Settlements, 1562-1574, pp. 159, 252-253, and notes. •

PAGE 99

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES night at midnight, fearing that the French fleet would be upon him at dawn, he made them set sail for Hispaniola without trying to un load more of the provisions . He placed about 150 soldiers he had wit him on board a shallop of about 100 tonel es, and he him self got into a large boat which he carried with him astern of his flagship when he chased the French fleet; and in order the better to flee, he cut it loose, and went to anchor off the bar with that boat and the shallop, in two fathoms of water. At dawn the French armada was near there, a quarter of a league away, where the said Adelantado had been at mid night [and] whence he had sent the vessels to Hispaniola, and a ship and three shallops of the enemy came on, and because of the extreme low tide and the sea's not being very calm, it was dangerous to cross the bar. When the said Adelantado saw the enemy UP,On them so that they could not escape, they all prayed to God Our Lord and his pre cious Mother save them from that danger; and as the Lutherans were already beside him, he cut the cable with which his boat and the shallop were anchored, and entered over the sand-bars at g reat risk, and Our Lord was pleased to bring him safely within the bar. The enemy feared the entrance and waited until the tid e s hould b e hi gh. At that time the ships which the said Adelantado had sent to Hispaniola must have been about five or six leagues from them, and so they saved themselves from that peril without being discovered; and about two hours from the time the enemy were waiting for the tide to be high, God Our Lord performed a miracle; for the weather being fair and clear, suddenly the sea rose very high, and a strong and contrary north wind came up, which made the return to their fort and harbor difficult for the Fren h. This became known to the Adelantado, who was already on land with his people, having a mass said to the Holy Ghost which he wished everyone to hear, supplicating him to enlighten 1 im and set him on the right path in a decision he wanted to make; and when the mass was over, he entered into council with his captains, the first council h had held in the land of Florida, and none of them knew why they were summoned; and being assembled, he said to them : "Gentlemen and Brothers: We are shouldering a very hard task,

PAGE 100

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 91 very full of trials and dangers, and if this were only for the King our Master, I should not be surprised if some of us should become tired and make some show of the weakness of cowards, in not being able to undergo so many hardships as confront us; but since this burden we are carrying is the enterprise of God Our Lord and of our King, that agent among us who should show weakness and not encourage the officers and soldiers in their duty, should hold himself as accursed, for this is of much importance to us; and so, Gentlemen, I beg of you as a mercy, as earnestly as I can, [to consider] that since in this matter we serve God and our King, the guerdon of heaven cannot fail us ; and let us not be dismayed by the scarcity of the supplies we have, or by our being left isolated in this land: I beg of you as a favor that we may all take courage a . make efforts to bear our sufferings with patience." They all answered very well, each and all together offering to do their uttermost. Then the Adelantado said to them, having thanked them for their favorable reply: "Gentlemen, I feel impelled to tell you of a very good opportunity which presents itself to my soul and reason, for we must not lose it, and it behooves us to take advantage of it and not allow it to pass by, and it is that I consider (and this is common sense), that as the French armada fled from me four days ago and now comes in search of me, they must have strengthened themselves with part of the men they had as a garrison in their fort, and these must be from among the best [men] and captains: the wind is too contrary for them to return to their harbor and fort, and to all appearance it will last so for many days; and since these are Lutherans, an this we knew before depart ing from Spain through the proclamations which Juan Ribao, their General, issued in France when on the point of sailing; [to the effect] that under penalty of death no one should embark who was not of the new religion, and under the same penalty, no one should take books along which were not of that faith; and srnce likewise they themselves certified this to us, when our fleet lay at anchor with theirs outside their harbor, for they said there was no Catholic among them, and when I wished to punish them, they set sail and fled; for this reason •

PAGE 101

92 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES the war we have with them, and theirs with us, cannot be carried on save with fire and blood, as they, who are Lutherans, seek us, who are Catholics, to prevent our implanting the Holy Gospel in the s e prov inces; and we seek them becau s e they are Lutherans, in order that they shall not implant their evil and detestable sect in this land, nor teach their belief to the Indians; [and] it seems to me that we must take 500 men, two thirds of them arquebusiers, the other third pikemen, and rations for 8 days in our knapsacks, without any porters, carrying our arms on our backs; and that you ten captains, each with your banner and officers, with the number of 50 men to each captain, should go [with me] to reconnoitre the country and the fort where the Lutherans are, and the way to them; for although we know not the way, with our compass I shall know how to guide you, within leagues right or left of the right direction; and wherever we find woods, we shall open a path wi h the hatchets so as to pass and know how to return; for I am taking a Frenchman with me who has been more than a year in that fort;10 he says he is acquainted wit ' the country for two leagues around and can take us to the fort; and if we see that we are not dis covered, it may be that a quarter of an hour before dawn, we can capture their fort by setting up twenty ladders which we shall make when we are near there, and risking the loss of 50 soldiers; and if we should find that we are discovered, since we are certain that the woods are less than a quarter of a league away, by planting our ten banners along the edge of the woods as if on [our] quarters, it will appear to them that we have a number of more than two thou s and men; and we can send them a trumpeter telling them that they must give up the fort to us and depart from t at land, and that they will be given ships and supplies wherewith they may go to France; but that if they will not, we shall put them to the sword, every one; and if they do not [surrender ' , we shall have gained much in reconnoitring the country and the fort, and they will be afraid of us in such manner that it will be a reason why they will t eave us here in security, this winter until 10 Jean Franc;ois. He was one of Laudonniere's mutineers from Fort Caroline whom Menendez took with him to Florida, after they had been captured in the West Indies and sent to Spain by the Cuban government officials.

PAGE 102

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 93 next March, when we shall have forces enough to go and seek them, by sea as well as by land." • There was much discussion on this speech which the Adelantado made, as it appeared to s ome that the journey should not be made, and to others that it ought to be: it was decided that it should be made: the Adelantado ordered there and then that by the third day at dawn they should all hear mass, and when that was done they should start immediately; he commanded the camp master, who was called Don Pedro Menendez de Valdes and was betrothed to his elder daughter, and Gonzalo de Villarroel, captain and sergeant major, to arrange at once for the selection of the men who were to go, and [said] that they should be given a sufficient amount of powder, wicks and lead so that they might mak() small shot and bullets; and he provided that Captain Bartolome Menendez, brother of the said Adelantado, should be in charge of the soldiers who were to remain there, wit lf artillery, arms, ammunition and supplies; and that Diego Florez de Valdes, who was Admiral of the armada, sh uld remain as captain of the artillery and General of the three ships which were left there from the fleet, having them under hi s charge, [and keeping] them and the sailors thereof, in readiness; and when they had come out of his junta with this agreed upon, it became public news at once throughout the camp, and [the men] began to make and provide those things which the Adelantado had ordered, whereat the whole camp showed great contentment. On the morning of the following day, the Adelantado was informed that some captains were complaining at the decision he had taken to go in search of the Frenchmen's fort, and they said this so publicly and justifie d it in such a manner, that it was clearly seen that the soldiers were becoming faint-hearted who, the day before, showed great satisfaction over the agreement. Some of the captains decided among themselves, especially Juan de San Vicente, rancisco de Recalde and Diego de Maya, that when the Adelantado had finished dining, they would tell him as friends of 1is, on behalf of most of the captains and people who were there, that he must change his mind so that in no wise would he go to the fort of the Frenchmen: the Adelan tado was notified thereof, and he commanded a very good meal to be • •

PAGE 103

94 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES prepared and told them to tell the captains to come and dine with him, likewise other gentlemen among the soldiers of the expedition, and most of the ensigns; and when they had finished dining, he said to them: "Gentlemen and Brothers: After we had landed, we captains came together in council, which was done with great s ecrecy, and we only who were there and no others, knew the words which pas sed between us there: and as I now understand that all the soldiers and women who are here know them, and are having stubborn arguments among themselves as to which of us spoke rightly or wrongly, in such wise that there is murmuring against our plan and it would be temerity to carry out what has been agreed upon; it appears to me a very bad thing, worthy of great rebuke and chasti s ement; [ ut] although I know who are the most to blame for this, and they are here, I do not wish to punish anyone, nor to do more than a s k you, Gentlemen, as a favor, that hereafter each of you shall remedy this by obs erving great secrecy in the matters that may be treared of in our council s , s ince in wars where there is no secrecy nor diligence, success is seldom attained, and he who shall commit a sin against this, even a slight one, will be punished as though it were a mortal sin; for it can be well understood that if a captain is faint-hearted and fears this expedition for his soldiers, the 50 soldiers who have to go with him will fear for him and his ensign, and not for themselves; but if the soldiers go about cheerfully, polishing their arms and preparing their knapsacks for their rations, it is clear that because they are hopeful, and desirous of undertakin g the journey, their captain s and officer s e n c oura g e them. " [The Adelantado added] at if it still appeared to them that he ought to change his mind, they should tell him so; [but that] he would puni s h the captain who, once out of the council, should speak against wh t had been decided, by taking his company away from him and not admitting him to councils. All replied that what said was very good, but to some it appeared that he ought to change his mind; to others it appeared the contrary, that the agreement and decision that had been reached in this, s hould be carried out: and so the Adelantado told the captains

PAGE 104

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 95 that each of them was to send the knapsacks to the keeper of supplies, and a person to receive the rations, so that by dawn of the following day they could hear mass and set out as had been agreed; and he ordered that each should go and attend to what he had to do, and so they went away. The next day at daybreak they sounded reveille with trumpets, fifes and drums; the bells chimed and all thronged to mass; and hav ing heard it, they departed hopefully, all setting out marching in order. The Adelantado took 20 soldiers, all Biscayans and Asturians, with their hatchets; a Biscayan captain with them who was called Martin Ochoa, and 2 Indians who had come there, brothers, who seemed to be an g els that G was sending; these told them by signs that they had been in the fort of the French 6 days before; and he went ahead, marching as far in front as he could, marking the path, blazing the trees with the hatchets, so that the men should not lose it and should know it on their return, [and] leaving the camp master and sergeant major to follow in good order; and whenever it seemed best to the Adelantado to call a halt in a suitable place where there was water, he did so; he waited until they were all assembled and gave them orders to rest, and would then depart at once, opening the way and marking it, as has been said, and he would again call a halt in the place that seemed best to him to pass the night. [Marching] in this order, on the fourth day at sunset he went to reconnoitre the land around the fort, half a league therefrom, where he s topped; and as it wa s a wet and stormy night, and in order not to be discovered it seemed to him expedient to draw nearer into a pine grove, he approached to less than a quarter of a league from the fort, where he decided to spend that night in a very bad and swampy place; and on account of the bad night he turned back to look for the rear-guard so that they should succeed in finding the way. It was after IO when they finished arriving, and as during those 4 days there had been much rain, they had croosed many marshes, and had carried their arms and knapsacks with food, on their back s , the soldier s arrived very tired and weak; and because the shower s that night were so heavy, there was no way to keep the powder /

PAGE 105

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and wicks from being all wet, and the little biscuit they had in their knapsacks, and no one wore anything on his body that was not soaked with water: at this point the Adelantado feared greatly to take counsel with the captains, either as to going back or going forward to the fort of the Frenchmen, because some were beginning to be insolent, and his officers were saying abusive words against him so audibly that he heard many of them, especially those of an ensign of Captain San Vicente, who placed himself near the Adelantado and said loudly, so that he might hear him: "[See] how we have been sold by that Asturian corito,11 who knows no more about land warfare than an ass! If my advice had been fol lowed on the first day we set forth from St. Augustine to make this journey, he would have been given the reward he now take." Then the Adelantado feared the more and pretended he did not hear him. Captain San Vicente, whose ensign this man was, said at the time of departure from St. Augustine that his leg and stomach pained him, so he remained there; and there was much grumbling at his stay ing behind, and at the insulting words of his ensign, because it came out that when some of those who remained, reproved Captain San Vicente for not having gone with the Adelantado, he replied: "I swear to God that I am expecting the news that all our soldiers have been killed, so that we who remain here may embark on these three ships and go to the Indies, for it is not reasonable that we should all die like beasts." The Adelantado, about two hours before daylight, sent four soldiers who were near him, servants of his, to go running among the men and call to the camp master, the sergeant major and the captains to come and join him, and they did so; and when they were all assembled, he said to thein : "Gentlemen: Although I am a great sinner, I have all this night entreated Our Lord and his precious Mother to show us favor and put us on the right path in what we must do, and I believe, Gentlemen, 11 A man who treads grapes in the wine-press; usually considered timid, and much scorned.

PAGE 106

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 97 that you have done the same. Let us discuss what is best for us to do co!1sidering the straits we are in, without food or ammunition, and with the soldiers very tired, bewildered and disheartened." Some answered him [asking] what was the use of discussing any other arrangement than that they should retreat as soon as day dawned, and return to St. Augustine, eating palmettos [on the way], and [saying] that it seemed foolhardiness to treat of anything else. The Adelantado approved of this and said to them: "Gentlemen, for the love of God hear this my plan, and be not displeased because I tell it to you, as I am not doing so to make you act on what I say. You shall do what you wish and what appears best to you, for up to now you have always followed my advice and counsel, and now that I see myself in great danger, I wish to follow yours." They answered that his lordship should speak, for they were desirous of hearing him and giving their opinion. ,... Then he said to them: "Gentlemen, are you confident that the forest is very near the fort r ' They replied that they were. He said to them: "Then it appears to me that we ought to go and try our fortune, as has been agreed; for even if we cannot capture the fort, we must not fear the thought that if we should send them the trumpeter they will sally out to look for us at the edge of the woods, where we shall have halted in our quarters and set up our flags; and for this we shall have little need of powder or fuses, because even if we are discovered retreating in the morning, the enemy will not take courage, and will hold us as cowards and men of little worth, and this will mean as much to them as victory." Some captains replied, especially the camp master and sergeant major, that the argument appeared to them good, and that the deci sion agreed upon for the undertaking should be carried out t ; the end, and after a discussion with those who thought differently, all agreed that so it should be done. Then the Adelantado ordered that all should kneel and say their prayers to Our Lord, entreating him to give them victory against their enemies in that enterprise they were attempting and the danger they •

PAGE 107

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES were to encounter; and they made this prayer at once, with as much fervor as if their enemies were before them, wishing to give battle. When it was ended, after indicating the captains who were to go in the vanguard and the rear-guard, and the points and manner in which each was to attack the fort; and charging each of them for the love of God to encourage his soldiers; he gave the order to march, he himself going ahead, taking with him the Frenchman whom they had as guide, with his hands bound behind him by a rope, the end whereof was held by the Adelantado himself. It was about an hour before daybreak, and they lost the way before a quarter of it had passed, on account of the great darkness and the great tempest of wind and rain, and the path's being very narrow, in such wise that some thought they were going forward when they were going back. As the Adelau.tado realized this and it seemed to him that the rear-guard might march away from the vanguard, he sent an order along the line that they should halt, and that until daylight none of them should stir from where they were, for fear they should become separated from one another; as many of them did, in a swamp where the water reached above the knees, and the Adelantado was one of them. When daylight had come the French man recognized the path along which to guide them, and the Adelan tado set out on the march and sent orders with all speed from mouth to mouth that all must follow him, under penalty of death, for it appeared to him that that was no time to take counsel as to what he had to do, as the captains were quite a distance apart; and when they had arrived at a little rise in the ground, the Frenchman told him that behind there, below, was the fort; that the water from the river washed against it, and that it was about 3 arquebuse shots from there. The Adelantado gave the Frenchman over to Francisco de Cas taneda, the captain of his guard, who never left his side; and bending forward very quickly he went to the top of the hill, discovered the river and saw some houses, but he could not see the fort, although it was near them. Returning where he had left the captain of the guard, with the Frenchman beside him, he found the camp master, who had arrived, and Captain Martin Ochoa, and he said to them: "Brothers, I want to go down to that plain with 5 or 6 soldiers,

PAGE 108

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 99 to the point where there are some houses, to see if I can find the senso that they can give us information concerning the fortress of those [people] and the [number of] men they have; because as it is already daylight and the sun has risen, we cannot attack without powder unless we reconnoitre the fort." Then the camp master told his lordship to remain [where he was] ; that that business was his; and he took with him only Captain Martin Ochoa, not wishing to take any other person, so as not to be discovered; and on arriving near the houses they saw the fort, and as they were returning with the news, they found two paths. They did not take the one whereby they had come, and after walking a little along [the other] they met with a fallen tree: then the camp master said that they were lost, and as Captain Martin Ochoa was behind at the time they had turned back, he was [now] ahead; it seems that they were seen by sentinel, who thought that they were Frenchmen: he came to see who they were, and met them, and as he did not know them, he stopped, saying: "Who goes there'?" Martin Ochoa answered: "A Frenchman." And as it appeared to the sentinel that they were French, he came nearer, and Martfn Ochoa did likewise; and when the Frenchman [found that he] did not know him, he stopped, and Captain Martin Ochoa closed with him, and with his sword in its scabbard gave him a slash across the face, although he did not wound him very much, as the Frenchman warded it off with his sword. They grasped their swords, and the camp master arrived, who already had his unsheathed, with a buckler in his hand; and as he made a lunge at him, the French man fell backwards to avoid it, and at this he began to shout. The camp master placed the point of his sword on his breast, telling him to be silent, otherwise he would kill him, and the Frenchman became so. They raised him and took him bound to the Adelantado, asking about the fort and the people who were there. At the shouts that Frenchman gave, it seemed to the Adelantado that they were kill ing the camp master and Captain Martfn Ochoa; and his men and several captains with their flags, being already assembled near him, •

PAGE 109

100 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES especially the sergeant major, Francisco de Recalde, Diego de Maya and Andres Lopez Patino, the Adelantado cried in a loud voice: "Santiago! At them! God is helping! Victory! The French a re killed! The camp ma s ter i s in s ide the fort and has captured it!" And then all began to run forward in disorder along the path, but the Adelantado remained motionle ss, always repeating this, without ceasing. The soldiers held it for certain that many had gone with the camp master and that the fort was won: they felt great joy and satis faction, in such wise that he who could run faste s t was considered the most valiant, and there were no cripple s , nor maim e d, nor c owards; and as they presently reached the place where the camp master and Martin Ochoa were coming along with the Frenchman, Martfn Ochoa ran ahead without orders to a s k the reward from 12 for telling him that they were bringing the sentinel as a prisoner. The camp master, fearing that they might be discovered, ran the Frenchman through with his sword, who passed away; and leaving him dead, he took the lead [of the Spaniards], saying: "Brothers, do as I do, for God is with us"; and then he encountered two Frenchmen in their shirts and slew one of them: Captain Andres Lopez Patino, who came back of him, slew the other: they passed on running, and when they arrived near the fort, the postem of the principal gate was opened at the shouts raised by the people outside the fort, when they saw them [the two Frenchmen] killed; the camp master clo s ed in on the postern, slew the man who opened it and stole in, and after him those who could enter the soonest: some of the Frenchmen in the houses came out in their shirts and others who were clothed, to find out what was . happening: these were killed at once, and others took to flight and threw themselves down from the walls of the fort. 2 flags were pres ently brought in: one belonged to the sergeant major, which was raised on a c a b a ller o1 8 by his en s ign, who was called Rodri g o Troche, of Tordesillas; th<:: other belonged to Diego de Maya, and it was set up on l.J 12 "A pedir las albricias al Adelantado." Meras, "Memorial," in Ruidfaz, La Florida, I, p. 96. A reward for bringing good news was customary. 1 3 An interior defence which was erected on a platform on the parade ground, and served to protect a part of the fort.

PAGE 110

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 101 another caballero by his ensign, Cristobal de Herrera, a mountaineer: there was some quarrelling between these 2 ensigns as to who had been • first: this could not be ascertained. The trumpeters entered at the same time as those two flags and they placed themselves on those caballeros near the flags, sounding victory; whereat all the French became terri fied; and all our men came running through the gate, which was opened wide to them, and went through the quarters of the French without leaving one alive. The Adelantado, where he stood when half of the soldiers had gone by him, told Francisco de Castaneda, the captain of his guard, to whom he had delivered the Frenchman with his hands bound behind him, to remain where he was, crying out victory, until the rear-guard s hould arrive; beeau s e it behooved him [the Adelantado] to overtake those ahead and be in the midst of that danger; and he so, running with the utmost speed. He arrived at the fort where our soldiers were killing the Frenchmen: then he said in a loud voice, running from one point to another: "Under pe '1alty of death, let no one wound or kill any woman, or boys under 15 years." And so this was done, for 70 of those persons escaped: the rest all died, except about 50 or 60, who threw themselves down from the walls of the fort and took refuge in the woods. The Adelantado then went out of the fort to some houses which were near the ramparts, where Captain Castaneda arrived with the Frenchman, who pointed out a large house to the Adelantado, and said they called it the grange; and it was full of articles for barter, cloths, linens and munitions. The Adelantado left there 6 men as a guard, so that no one should enter; [he did this] so that everything therein should belong to the camp in general, in order to use and distribute it among most in need. He went to the river bank, where there were 3 ships, very well armed, with their prows moored to the fort; and calling a trumpeter, he made him sound a peace call, using a cloth as a flag [of truce], and saying that they should land in their boats: the Frenchmen replied that they would not, but the Adelantado assured them on his word that they could come: [still] they would not: he hastened to the fort and •

PAGE 111

102 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES had 4 pieces of bronze artillery set up to send the ships to the bottom, and went about looking for powder. He found 2 barrels half full, which held about a hundredweight of powder, and about 20 balls, in a gunner's house which a Frenchwoman showed him, wherewith they loaded the pieces; but before firing, again he asked them to land in their boats. They answered, from the ship to which the Adelantado was speaking, that they would send the boat so that someone could go back therein to speak with them, and tell what we wanted: the Ade lantado ordered that it should come, and in order that they might believe what he should say to them, he took the Frenchman he kept bound and released him, and told him to go to those ships and tell the principal commander thereof to select from all three the vessel they wanted; [take] the women and children who harl been saved and the supplies that might be necessary, and go to France with the aid of God, without carrying any artillery or munitions, for he would give them a passport and safe-conduct so that they should not receive ill treatment at whatever place they might arrive, and should be allowed to go to France in safety; but if they did not do this, he would send them to the bottom and order that all of them should be killed and hanged, without leaving one alive. The boat came to shore, and the Frenchman went therein with that message, and by then the Adelantado had ordered the sergeant major to distribute among the soldiers a barrel of very good powder for arquebuses, which was in the house of that gunner, with the cannon powder. The Frenchman returned to the Adelantado with the reply, and said that the principal commander of those ships was Jaques Ribao,u eldest son of Juan Ribao, who, he said, was Viceroy and Captain-General of that country for the King of France; and that he had come by his King's order, in company with his father, to bring people, artillery and supplies to that fort with those vessels, wherein he had committed no crime; rather had he, as a loyal vassal, done what he was bound to do; and that if the Adelantado meant to wage war, he would wage war against the Adelantado. 14 Jacques Ribaut.

PAGE 112

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 103 Then the Adelantado commanded aim to be taken with the best piece of bronze artillery, against one of the best ships, which appeared him to be on her first voyage, and was anchored where she could conveniently be hit, for the other two were not. Captain Diego de Maya did this, and fired the cannon, as it appeared to the Adelantado that he would take aim better than any other. He hit the ship at the water line in such a manner that they were sinking, and they could not resort to the pumps because they would have had to stay in the open above deck, and could have been killed by the artillery. When the Frenchmen who were on the vessel saw that they were lost, they lowered themselves into the boat on one side thereof, and the 2 boats from the other two ships came to that vessel, and carried all the people from her to the wo ships: she sank, and then the other two cut the cables, and they went down stream with the strong current there was, and anchored at a place where the artillery could not . do them much harm, especially as the Adelantado did not dare to waste the powder, since up to then they had ncfl: been able to find more in the fort. And during all that time, the wind and rain from heaven were such as to be a thing of wonder; and as the soldiers were joyful over the victory and the booty, they did not retire and rest themselves after the hardships and the bad night they had had. The Adelantado, for the good of all, had them quartered in the many houses there were outside the fort, 20 men in each, and a whole outfit of shirts and clothes given to them, as there was a quantity thereof in the grange; likewise good rations of bread, wine, lard and bacon, whereof there was [also] a quantity; and at about midday he undressed and went to bed, where they gave him food, and he ordered all the captains to ctme to him by 4 o'clock in the afternoon, as he wished to enter into council with them, and they did so; whereupon the Adelantado, having risen and dressed, said to all of them assembled, while his eyes filled with tears: • "Gentlemen and Brothers: God does these things miraculously, in behalf of His cause: let us know how to • praise and serve Him for such a great mercy as He has done us; and now, more than ever, is the time for us to commend ourselves to Him in prayer, and provide all things so that we can def end this place against the French armada •

PAGE 113

104 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES when it returns to it. Let us likewise insure the safety of our people, artillery, arms, munitions and supplies we left at St. Augustine; and for this purpose let a muster-roll of the people who are here be callea immediately, for it appears to me that many are missing from the 500 men who set out from St. Augustine, as we must see which are to remain here and which are to return; for it behooves me to return the day after tomorrow with those who must go back, because it is needful that St. Augustine be well protected; so that while we shall be defend ing this [fort] against the French if they come with their armada, they cannot set foot in this country [by] going to disembark in St. Augus tine, which has a better harbor." And he made Captain Gonzalo de Villarroel, who was the sergeant major, alcaide of that fort and governor of that clJstrict; who had worked very hard and with much system and care, and who appeared to him a very good and trustworthy soldier for the office; and it was delivered to him and he took the accustomed oath, and [the Adelan tado] gave the fort the name of San Mt.tee because the day he cap tured it was St. Matthew's Day.15 He commanded that from that day forward he [the sergeant major] should hold and defend it in the name of his Majesty with 300 soldiers whom he would leave him for the guarding thereof; and he ordered the camp master to go at once and make the list of all the people there; of those who were to remain and those who were to return with the Adelantado; he did so, taking the sergeant major with him. In that council the Adelantado had first appointed Rodrigo Montes as the keeper of supplies in that fort, and [directed] that all the provisions there were should be delivered to him; likewise that on the ' following day they should bring him a memorandum of what had been delivered, so that he might leave instructions as to the manner in which rations were to be given out. The Adelantado decreed in that council that the two coats-of-arms which were over the principal gate of that fort, [those] of the King of France and the Admin .. l,16 should be immediately taken off; but when they went to remove them, a soldier had already pulled them 15 T,he River of May became the River of San Mateo. 16 Gaspard de Chitillon, Admiral de Coligny.

PAGE 114

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 105 down and demolished them; and he ordered that an escutcheon be made at once with the royal arms of Spain, [those] of the King Don elipe our Master, with a cross of the angels above the crown; which was painted very well by some Flemings who were soldiers there, and placed where the others had been. On the morning of the following day, the Adelantado, having heard mass, had 2 crosses raised in the places that seemed best to him; he marked out the site for a church, a wooden chapel was to be erected immediately, so that mass might be said every day; for the French had there a large quantity of sawed lumber for a galley they were building; and giving Gonzalo de Villarroel, _ the alcaide and gov ernor of that fort and district, a memorandum of the supplies which had been found the Adelantado instructed him as to how he was to use them and give out the rations. They brought him the list: of the persons there: there were found to be less than 400, Because some of the others who completed the 500 had given out on the journey from exhaustion; and the rest, o ing to cowardice and the danger ahead which was described to them, returned to St. Augustine saying they had lost their way; as was found out later. The Adelantado ordered that 300 soldiers should remain, and 100 go with him, with Captains Andres Lopez Patifio, Juan Velez de Medrano and . . . de Alvarado; these captains and soldiers said that they were in no condition to walk, especially as it had rained very hard, so that it was impossible to cross the marshes, rivers and brooks there were on the way; and although the Adelantado made great efforts to have them go, he saw it was not possible because of the many reasons they had against it, their lack of desire to set out, and their being very from the journey's hard ships. Then he went through the soldiers' quarters, and among those least tired, and best known to him, he found 35 who were willing to follow him, with the captain of his guard, and he notified them that they were to start on the next morning. The Adelantado ordered that the camp master should set out at once (it9was about 9 o'clock in the morning), with 50 soldiers, for a place one league from d1ere in a straight line, where the French ships were anchored; as they had weighed anchor that morning and gone down [the river], and it •

PAGE 115

106 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES seemed likely to the Adelantado that the 50 or 60 Frenchmen who had thrown themselves down from the ramparts when their fort was captured, would hasten through the woods to the right of the ships, to call the ships' boats to take them on board. The camp master scat tered the soldiers through the wood: they met about 20 Frenchmen, who fled, and not being able to overtake them, they :fired upon them with the arquebuses, and killed them; of the others, about 30 had embarked, among them Captain Ludunice,11 the alcaide of the fort, who had escaped by throwing himself from the ramparts with the rest: the other ten had sought refuge with the caciques; the Adelantado ransomed them later and sent them to France, and they told how Ludunice, with the 30, had embarked on those ships. And when the camp master, Captain Martin Ochoa, and Diego de Maya, with the men they had taken [with them], had returned by nightfall of that day, the Adelantado commanded all the captains to be called to a council, and told them that his departure for St. Augustine was set for the following morning, whence he would immediately send 2 vessels of the 3 he had left there, well armed and with good artillery, in order that they should capture those 2 French ships before they went out of the harbor, as they had but few soldiers on board, according to what the Spaniards had understood from the French who were at the fort; and if the French vessels should have sailed away, they would set in the fort, in the places where it would be the most necessary, the artil lery which their own two ships would bring, so as to be more strongly fortified when the French should come; for the Adelantado always feared that when the French armada returned, with the Indians friendly to them, they wou Cl want to capture that place and avenge themselves. [He told them also] that one of his vessels would take those Frenchwomen and children to the island of Santo Domingo, and that he w tuld write to the Audiencia so that they should send them to Seville, and thence they should go to France; and he would give instructions to the masters & those 2 ships to take on supplies from the galleon San Pelayo, which the Adelantado had sent to that island of Santo Domingo. And on the morning of the following day, the Adelan-17 Laudonniere.

PAGE 116

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 107 tado, having heard mass, departed with Francisco de Castaneda, the captain of his guard, and the 35 soldiers he had picked out; and he commanded that the camp master and the other captains should remain in that fort until he should order them to do something else, and that the 3 captains, Alvarado, Medrano and Patino, with the remainder of the one hundred men, should start for St. Augustine as soon as they were fit to march, without losing time; and they did so within 8 days. CHAPTER XI. The First JJ1as sacre of the French by the Spaniards at Mata nzas Inlet, Septemb e r 29th.1 The sufferings and dangers which the Adelantado and those who returned with him from San Mateo, encountered on t:Irat day he left, and on the second and third day, until they arrived at St. Augustine, were so great as to be beyor d belief, except to those who saw them; because on that day he set out from San Mateo, when they had gone about 2 leagues [and] it was about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, they entered a wood through which they had previously passed, and having gone therein half a league, they found much water; and thinking they would get out of it quickly, they proceeded over half a league farther, finding more and more water, in such manner that they could not go forward; and when they went back the streams were more swollen, and there was more water in the woods. They lost their way in such wise that they knew not whether they were going forward or back: [the Adelantado] wished to search for a place • where they could halt and build a fire by which to rest during that night: none could he find: he wanted to climb the trees: they were so high and straight that it was • not possible: there he felt himself entirely lost, and his companions were discouraged, not knowing what remedy could meet the situation. He made a soldier, the most agile he cou9id find, climb a very high 1 Menendez to the King, October 15th, 1565, A. G. de I., 54-5 -16.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 87-88.-Mendoza Grajales, "Memoria," A. G. de I., l-l-1/19.-Ruidiaz, La Flo rida, II, p. 465.

PAGE 117

• 108 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES tree to discover any dry or level spot; this soldier said, when he had reached the top, that all he could see was water, and that there was no dry or level land: the Adelantado ordered him to look and see if there were any indication as to which way the sun was moving: he said there was none: he ordered him to remain there until later: God willed that the weather cleared a little, and the soldier saw where the sun was setting, and pointed out the place. The Adelantado recognized the direction in which he had to emerge from the woods, as there was no undergrowth and the trees were far apart. By cutting down some pines for the places where there was a great depth of water, he came out by a deep and narrow river, which he had c;ossed with the men when he went from St. Augustine to San Mateo, although not at that point. He had the tr s whi c h were at the river's edge cut down at the foot with 5 hatchets the soldiers car ried, in such a way that they fell across to the other side of the river; and they passed over with much peril, and in so doing, two soldiers miraculously escaped drowning. He order d the man who had climbed the tree, to go up another one, and he discovered dry land in a place by which they had passed before; and they reached the path and went to take up their quarters in a spot where they made great fires and dried their clothing, for it was all soaked with water; and toward daybreak it began to rain very hard, and as it was already light, they set out. It took them 3 days to arrive in St. Augustine, for owing to the victory Our Lord had given them, they did not feel the journey, nor the hardships thereof, in the desire they had to give this good news to their comrades: one league before reaching St. Augustine, that soldier [who had climbed the tree] beggd:l the Adelantado as a favor to allow him to go ahead to announce the welcome tidings; the Adelantado granted this to him. The people who had remained there held them for lost, because of the bad weather they had had and the news given them by those who had returned, as they knew that they had no kind of food, powder nor wicks; but whffi the good news came, 4 priests who were there immediately set out, holding the cross aloft, and followed _ by all the sea and land forces, the women and children, in a procession, sing ing the 'l'e Deum Laudamus; they received the Adelantado with great

PAGE 118

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 109 pleasure and rejoicing, everyo ne laughing and weeping for joy, prais ing God for so great a victory; and so they escorted the Adelantado in triumph to the intrenchment and settlement of St. Augustine, where he related to them in detail the very great mercy which Our Lord had shown them through his victory. He presently ordered the two armed ships to be made ready; and within 2 days, being about to depart with them for San Mateo, there came tidings that the 2 French ships had already left the bar; so he sent one of his vessels with artillery, powder and ammunition in order that they should be in the fort, and everything be in a good state of defence ;2 and he occupied himself in forti fying [St. Augustine] as well as he could, to await the French armada if it should come there. The following day some Indians arrived, who told them by si ns that 4 leagues away there were many Christians who could not pass an arm of the sea, even though it was narrow, which is a river inside a bar, that they were compelle
PAGE 119

• • 110 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES armada, and the women and children whose lives he had spared when he captured the fort, had told him so; and he had found within the fort 6 coffers full of books bound and gilt-edged, all concerning e new religion; [he knew] also that they did not say mass, and that their Lutheran faith was preached to them every afternoon; he had ordered those books to be burned, not leaving one. The Adelantado asked him why he had come. He said that their captain had sent him to see what people they were. The Adelantado asked him if he wished to return. He replied that he did, but that he wanted to know who they were. This man spoke very clearly, for he was a Gascon, from San Juan de Luz. Then the Adelantado told him that he should his captain that he [the Adelantado] was the Viceroy and Captain-General of that land for the ng, Don Felipe; that he was called Pedro Menendez; that he was there with some soldiers to find out who they were, as they [the Spaniards] had had news the day btiore that they were there and were arriving at that hour. The Frenchman went with that message, and returned presently, begging that safe-conduct be given to his captain and to 4 other gen tlemen who wished to come to see [the Adelantado], and that a boat be loaned him which the Adelantado kept there, which had then come down the river with supplies. He told the Frenchman to say to his captain that he could come over in safety, under the pledge of his word; and he sent for them at once with the boat, and they came immediately. The Adelantado, with IO persons, received him very well, and he commanded the others to keep back a little among some bushes, in order that they mi ght all be seen, in such wise that the French might that there were more men. One of the s e Frenchmen said that he was the captain of those peo ple, and that they had wrecked in a storm, with 4 galleons and several shallops belonging to the King of France, which had foundered within 20 leagues of one another; that they were the men belonging to one of those ships, and they desired that the Adelantado should •

PAGE 120

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 111 favor them by lending them the boat with which to cross that arm of the sea, and another 4 leagues from there, which was that of St. ugustine, as they wished to go to a fort they had 20 leagues from there: this was the fort that the Adelantado had taken from them. The Adelantado asked them if they were Catholics or Lutherans. The captain said that they were all of the new religion. Then the Adelantado said to them: "Gentlemen, your fort has been captured, and the people therein killed, except the women and the boys under 15 years; and in order that you may know for certain that this is so, there are many things [from there] among some of the soldiers who are here; there are also 2 Frenchmen whom I brought with me because they said they were Catholics: be s ted here and dine and I will send you the 2 French men and the things that those soldiers have taken from the fort, that you may satisfy yourselves. • The Adelantado did this, ordering food to be given them, and he sent them the 2 Frenchm . and many things that the soldiers had taken in the fort, so that they might see them; and he withdrew to eat with his men; and an hour from then, seeing that the Frenchmen had dined, he went over to them and asked them if they believed what he had told them. They said they did, and begged him as a mercy to give them ships and supplies wherewith they could go to France. The Adelantado replied that he would willingly do so, if they were Catholics and if he had the ships therefor, but that he did not have as he had sent two to San Mateo with the artillery; and that they were to take the Frenchwomen andtt:hildren to Santo Domingo, and seek supplies; the other was to go to Spain with dispatches to his Majesty concerning what had happened to them in those parts. The French captain answered that he might grant th
PAGE 121

L 112 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES aid Catholics and friends, understanding that he served both Kings thereby; but that as they belonged to the new religion he held them to be enemies, and would wage against them a war of :fire and blood, an'a carry it on with all possible cruelty against those he should find in that land and on that sea, where he was Viceroy and Captain-General for his King; and that he came to implant the Holy Gospel in that land, in order that the Indians might be enlightened and come to the knowl edge of the holy Catholic faith of Jesus Christ, Our Lord, as it is preached i the Roman church; that if they wanted to give up their flags and arms to him and place themselves at his mercy, they could do so, in order that he might do with them what God should direct him; or that they could do what they wished, for any other truce or friend ship they must not form with him; and although thr French captain replied, nothing else could be obtained from the Adelantado. And so the French captain went to his men in the boat wherein he had come, Cl los favoreceria, entendiendo que sirvia a entrambos Reyes en ello, mas que por ser ellos de la nueva religion, los tenia por e tenia con ellos guerra a sangre y fuego, e que esta la haria con toda crueldad a los que Cl hallase en aquella mar e tierra, donde era Virey e Capitan General por SU Rey, e que iba a plantar el Santo Evangelio en aquella tierra, para que fuesen alumbrados los indios e viniesen a conoscimiento de la Santa fee cat6lica de J esucristo, nuestro Senor, como lo dice e canta la Iglesia romana; que si ellos querian entregarle las banderas e las armas, e ponerse a SU misericordia, lo podian hacer, para que fl hiciera dellos lo que Dios le diese de gracia, 6 que hiciesen lo que quisieren, que otras treguas ni amistades no habian de hacer con Cl; y aunque el Capitan frances replic6, no se pudo acabar otra cosa con el Adelantado; e ansi se parti6 para su gente, en el batel en que habia venido, diciendo que les iba a decir lo que pasaba e acordar lo que debian hacer, e que dentro de 2 horas volveria con la respuesta. El Adelantado le dixo que hiciesen lo que mejor les pareciese, y que Cl aguardaria. Pasadas 2 horas, volvi6 este mesmo Capitan frances, con los mesmos que primero, e dixo al Adelantado que alll estaba mucha gente noble, que le darian 50 mill duocdos de talla, porque otorgase a todos la vida. El Adelantado le respondi6 que aunque Cl era pobre soldado, que no queria hacer aquella flaqueza, porque no le notasen de codicioso; que cuando hubiese de ser liberal e misericordioso, haDia de ser sin interes. Volvi6 a porfiar en esto el Capitan frances: desengaiiole el Adelantado, que si la tierra se juntaba con el cielo, no habia de hacer otra cosa mas de lo que le tenia dicho; e ansi volvi6 el Capitan frances a donde estaba SU gente, e dixo al Adelantado que con lo que acordasen volveria luego, e ansi volvi6 dentro de

PAGE 122

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 113 saying that he was going to tell them what was occurring, and to decide what they must do, and that within 2 hours he would return with the answer. The Adelantado told him that they should do what appeared best to them, and that he would wait. When 2 hours had gone by, that same French captain returned with the same gentlemen, and told the Adelantado that there were many noblemen over yonder, who would give him 50 thousand ducats as ransom in exchange for his granting them all their lives. The Adelantado replied to him that although he was a poor soldier, he did not wish to give such a sign of weakness as to appear covetous to tltem; that when it was his duty to be liberal and merciful, it must be without any i .terested motive. The French captain persisted in this: the Adelanta o undeceived media hora e meti6 en el batel las banderas e hasta 60 arcabuces, e 20 pistoletes, e cantidad de espadas e rodelas , algunas celadas e petos, e vinose a donde el Adelantado estaba, e dixo que todos aquellos franceses se rendian a SU miseri cordia, y entreg6le las banderas e las armas: entonces mand6 el Adelantado entrar 20 soldados en el batel e que truxesen los franceses de diez en diez: el rio era estrecho e Heil de pasar; e mando a Diego Florez de Valdes, Almirante de la armada, recibiese las banderas e armas, e anduviese en el batel hacer pasar los franceses, que no les hiciesen mal tratamiento los soldados, e apart6se el Adelantado de la marina, como dos tiros de arcabuz, detras de un medano de arena, entre unas matas, donde la gente que en el batel venia, que pasaban los franceses, no lo podian ver: entonces dixo al Capitan frances e a otros 8 franceses que con fl estaban: Seiiores, yo tengo poca gente e no muy conoscida, e vosotros sois muchos, e andando sueltos, ficil cosa os seria satisfaceros de nosotros, por la gente que os degollamos cuando ganamos el fuerte, e ans! es menester que con las manos atr:is amarradas, marcheis de aqui 4 leguas, donde yo tengo mi real. Respondieron los franceses que se hiciese ans!; y con los cordones de las mechas de los soldados les amarraba las manos muy bien atras, y los diez que venian en el batel no veian a estos que les amarraban las manos, ha a dar con ellos, por que convino hacerse ans!, a causa que los franceses que no habian pasado el rio no lo entendiesen y se e ans! ataron 208 franceses, a los cuales pregunt6 el Adelantado si habia entre ellos algunos cat6licos que se quisiesen confesar : ocho dellos dixeron que lo eran : sac6los de all! y meti6los en el batel para que los llevasen por el rio a Sant Agustin; los otros respondieron que ellos eran de la nueva religion, e se tenian por muy buenos cristianos, y que esta era SU ley e no Otta.

PAGE 123

114 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES him, [saying] that if the earth were to join with the sky, he should do no more than what he had told him; and so the French captain re turned to where his men were, telling the Adelantado that he would return at once with what.had been agreed upon; and he came back within half an hour, bringing the flags in the boat, and about 60 arquebuses, 20 pistols, a quantity of swords and bucklers, and some helmets and breastplates; and he came to where the Adelantado was and said that all those Frenchmen gave themselves up to his mercy, and he surrendered the flags and arms. Then the Adelantado ordered 20 soldiers to enter the boat to bring the Frenchmen over, ten at a time: the river was narrow and easy to cross; and he instructed Diego Florez de Valdes, the Admiral of the fleet, to receive the flags and arms, and go in the boat to bring the Frenchmen across; [he ordered] that the soldiers should not give them ill treatment; and the Adelantado with drew from the shore a distance of about two arquebuse shots, behind a sand dune, among some bushes, where the men in the approaching boat, who were bringing the French, could not see him: then he said to the French captain and the other 8 Frenchmen who were with him: "Gentlemen, I have but few soldiers, and they are not very experi enced; and you are many, and if you are not bound, it would be an easy thing for you to avenge yourselves on us for the death of your people whom we killed when we took the fort; and so it is necessary that you march with your hands tied behind you, to a place 4 leagues from here where I have my camp." The Frenchmen replied that so it should be done; and with the ropes from the soldiers' fuses they fastened their hands behind them very securely; and the teh who came over [each time] in the boat El Adelantado mand6 marchar con ellos, habiendoles primero dado de comer e beber, cuando llegaban los diez, antes que los amarrasen, lo cual se hacia antes que los ot\los diez viniesen; e dixo a un Capitan de los suyos, que se dice . . . que marchase con ellos en la vanguarda, e que a un tiro de ballesta de alli hallaria una raya que el haria con una gineta que llevaba en la mano, que era en un arenal, por donde habian de 0caminar al fuerte de Sant Agustin; que los dego llasen a todos, e mand6 al que iba en la retaguarda hiciese lo mesmo, e ansi se hizo, dexandolos alli todos muertos; e se volvi6 aquella noche al amanecer al fuerte de Sant Agustin, porque era ya puesto el sol cuando estos murieron. Meras, "Memorial," in Ruidfaz, La Florida, I, pp. 113-117. l.

PAGE 124

• • • • 8f!i'de---2 ,Mv/.56.5. •

PAGE 125

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES us could not see those whose hands were being tied behind them, until they met them, because it was expedient so to do in order that the frenchmen who had not crossed the river, might not understand what was happening and be warned; and thus 208 Frenchmen were bound, of whom the Adelantado a s ked if there were any Catholics among them who might wish to confess: eight of them said that they were Catholic s : these he took away from there and placed them in the boat to be s ent up the river to St. Au g u s tine: the others replied that they were of the new religion, and held themselves to be very good Chris tians; that that was their faith, and no other. The Adelantado commanded that they should march, after having firs t given them food and drink when they arrived in tens, before they were bound; this p was done before the next ten came; and he told one of his captains, who is called ... that he was to march with them in 4 . the vanguard, and that at a cross-bow shot's distance from there he would find a line which he [the Adelantado] would draw with a j i n e t a5 he carried in his hand; [that place] was a sandy stretch over whi c h they had to march to the Fort of St. Augu s tine; that there he wa s to kill them all, and he ordered the captain who came with the rear-guard to do likewise; and so was it done, and they were all left there dead; and that night he returned to St. Augustine toward dawn, because the sun had already set when those men died. CHAPTER XII. The Second M assacre , Oct o b e r i2th.1 The Murder of Jean R i b a ut. " 0 n the day following that on which the Adelantado had arrived in St. Augustine, the same Indians came as before, and s aid that many more Christians were on the other side of the river t'ilan there were previously. The Adelantado realized that this must be the party 5 A short lance with a gilded point, and a as an ornament, which in ancient times was the insignia of Spanish captains of infantry. 1 Menendez to the King, October i5th, 1565, A. G. de I., 54-5-16.-Ruidiaz, L a Florid a , II, pp. 101-103. Menendez makes it plain that thirteen day s elapsed between the massacres.

PAGE 126

116 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES of Juan Ribao, General of the Lutherans on land and sea, whom they called the Viceroy of that country for the King of France, and he set forth at once with i50 soldiers, [marching] well in order, and at mid night he arrived and quartered himself where he had been the first time. At dawn he came near the river, and scattered his men, and as the daylight grew stronger he saw many people on the other side of the river, two arquebu s e shots away, and a raft made to take them across to the point where the Adelantado was. Presently the Frenchmen, when they saw the Adelantado and his men, sounded an alarm and unfurled a royal standard and two field banners, playing their fifes and beating their drums in very good order; and they offered battle to the Adelantado, who had commanded his men to sit down to break fast, and make no demonstration of anger what ver. He himself walked along the shore with his Admiral and two other captains, pay ing no attention to the anger and battle stir of the Frenchmen, in such manner that they stopped running, and in battle array as they were, they halted, stopped playing the fifes nd drums, and, sounding a bugle, they raised a white cloth in token of peace. The Adelantado called at once to another bugler he had with him, a very good one, and drew from his pocket a small cloth, and began to wave it as a signal of peace. A Frenchman got on the raft, and asked in a loud voice that we should go across to them. A reply was sent to them by order of the Adelantado, that if they wished anything they should come to where he was, since they had the raft and they called to him: he who was on the raft answered that it was a poor one whereon to cross, because of the strong current; [he asked] that they send him a canoe which was there, belonging to some Indians. The told him that he should swim across for it, under the pledge of his word: then a French sailor came over, but the Ade lantado would not conse rf t that he should speak: he ordered him to take the canoe and go to tell his captain that if he wanted anything of the Adelantado, he should send to tell him, since it was the French captain who had called to the Adelantado. That sailor returned pres-

PAGE 127

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 117 ently with a gentleman who said he was the sergeant major of Juan Ribao, Viceroy and Captain General of that country for the King of ranee, and that Juan Ribao sent him to say that he had been ship wrecked with a fleet in a storm at sea, and that he had with him there about 350 Frenchmen; that it was his purpose to go to a fort he had 20 leagues from there; that he wished the Adelantado to do him the favor of lending him boats wherein to cross that river, and another there was 4 leagues from there, and that he desired to know if they were Spaniards and who their captain was. The Adelantado replied that they were Spaniards, and that captain was he with whom the sergeant was speaking, who was called Pedro Menendez; that he should tell his General that the Adelantado had taken the f•rt which Juan Ribao said he had 20 leagues from there, and had slain the Frenchmen therein, and others who had come from the shipwrecked fleet, because they had ill conducted themselves; and they walked to the place where the French lay dead, and he showed them to him, [ him to inform his General] that he had no reason left for wishing to cross the river to his fort. The sergeant, with great composure, without showing any sign of grief at what the Adelantado said to him, asked him if he would do him the kindness to send one of his gentlemen to tell that to his Gen eral, so that they might negotiate regarding their safe conduct because his General was very tired, and he wished that the Adelantado would go to see him in a boat he had there; and the Adelantado answered him thus: "Brother, go with God's blessing and give the reply which has been given you; and if your General should to come to speak with me, I give him my word that he can come and return safely, with about S or 6 companions whom he may bring with him from those of his council, so that he may follow the advice which suits him best." And so that gentleman left with that message. Within half an hour he returned to accept the safe-conduct that the Adelantado had given, and to ask for the boat, which the Adelantado would not give him, sending him to say that they might take it from him; that Juan Ribao could come across in the canoe, which was safe, •

PAGE 128

• 118 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES since the river was narrow; and thus that gentleman again went back, and presently2 came Juan Ribao, whom the Adelantado received very well, with 8 other gentlemen who came with him, all of very fine address and appearance, holding positions of authority, and he had a 2 E luego vino el Juan Ribao, a quien el Adelantado recibi6 muy bien, con otros 8 gentiles hombres que con el vinieron, todos muy bien tratados, de muy buenas personas e autoridades, e les hizo dar de cierto barril de conserva, e de beber, e que les darian de comer, si lo quisiesen. El Juan Ribao respondi6 con mucha humildad, agradeciendo el buen recibi miento que se le hizo, e dixo que para alegrar los espiritus, que estaban tristes por las nuevas que le habian dado de la muerte de sus compaiieros, querian desayu narse con la conserva e vino, e que por entonces no querian otra comida, e ansi lo hicieron. El Juan Ribao dixo que aquellos compaiieros suyos que alli es ta ban muertos, e los vi6 que estaban cerca, pudieran ser engaiiados, e que el no lo queria ser: entonces mand6 a los soldados que alli estaban, se llegase cada uno con lo que tenia del fuerte, e fueron tantas las cosas que vido, que tuvo por cierto era verdad, aunque ya el sabia aquellas nuevas, e no las podia creer, porque entre ellos estaba un frances barbero, de los que el A elantado habia mandado degollar con los demas, que habia quedado por muerto entre los otros, que de la primera cuchillada que le dieron, se dex6 caer, haciendose muerto, e cuando el alli llegara, se pasara a nado para el, y que el barbero tenia por cierto los habia engaiiado el Adelantado, diciendo que el fuerte era ganado, no lo siendo, e ansi lo tenia el hasta entonces por cierto. El Adelantado dixo que para que lo creyesen mexor e se satisficiesen, hablase aparte con dos franceses que alli estaban, para satisfacerse mexor, e ansi lo hizo, e luego se vino el Juan Ribao para el Adelantado, e le dixo que el estaba cierto que todo lo que le habia dicho ser verdad, e que lo que del acontecia, pudiera acon tecer del Adelantado; que pues SUS Reyes eran hermanos e tan grandes amigos, hiciese el Adelantado con el como tal amigo, dandole navios e bastimentos con que se fuese a Francia. El Adelantado le respondi6 ti o que a los primeros franceses de que hizo hacer justicia, e dando e tomando con el, no pudo acabar otra cosa el Juan Ribao con el Adelantado: entonces el Juan Ribao le dixo que queria dar cuenta a su gente, porque habia entre ella muchos nobles, e le volveria 6 inviaria respuesta de lo que acord fse de hacer: dentro de 3 horas volvi6 el Juan Ribao en la canoa, e dixo que habfa diferentes pareceres entre SU gente, que unos Se querfan poner a SU misericordfa, e Otros no. • El Adelantado le respondi6 que no se le daba ninguna cosa que viniesen todos, 6 parte, 6 ninguno dellos; que hiciesen lo que mexor les estuviese, pues tenian libertad para ello. El Juan Ribao dixo al Adelantado que la mi tad dellos se querian poner a SU misericordia e pagarian de talla mas de cien mill ducados, y la otra mitad podian

PAGE 129

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES collation served to them from a certain barrel of preserves, and gave them some drink; and he said that he would give them food if they wished it. Juan Ribao answered with much humility, rendering thanks for the pagar mas, porque habia entre ellos personas ricas e de mucha renta, que pretendian hacer estado en aquella tierra. Respondiole el Adelantado :-Mucho me pesa si perdiese tan buena talla e presa, que harta necesitad tengo dese Socorro, para ayuda de la conquista e poblacion desta tierra: en nombre de mi Rey, es a mi cargo plantar en ella el Santo Evangelio. El Juan Ribao uso aquf de buen ardid, si le valiera, porque le parecio que el Adelantado, con la codicia del dinero que estos le darfan, no le mataria a et, ni a los que a el se viniesen a SU misericordia, parecifodole que con no los matar, los unos e los otros, por concierto que el Juan Ribao harfa con et, valdria al Adelantado mas de mill ducados; y dixo al Adelantado que et se vol via con la respuesta a SU gente, que porque era tarde le pedia por merced Se detuviese allJ hasta el dia siguiente, que volverfa con la resoluci6n que acor'1ase. El Adelantado dixo que si aguardaria, e fuese a SU gente, que ya era a puesta del sol; y a la manana volvio en la canoa y entrego al Adelantado dos estan dartes reales, uno del Rey de Francia, otro del Almirante, e dos banderas de campaiia y una espada e daga e celada dorada, muy buena, e una rodela e un pistolete e un sello que traia, que el Almirante de Francia le habia dado para sellar las provisiones e ti tulos que diese : dixo al Adelantado que has ta 150 per sonas de las 350 que habfa, Se querfan venir a SU misericordia, e que las demas se habfan retirado aquella noche, y que fuese el batel por los que se querfan venir e por SUS armas. El Adelantado proveyo luego al Capitan Diego Florez de Valdes, Almirante de SU armada, que los hiciese traer, COnlO a los demas, de diez en diez, e llevando el Adelantado a Juan Ribao detras del medano de la arena, entre las matas, donde los dem:is, les hizo amarrar las manos atr:is :i el e :i todos, como los de antes, dicifodoles que habian de caminar 4 leguas por tierra e de noche, que no se sufrfa ir sueltos; y estando amarrados todos, leS'dixo si eran catolicos o luteranos, e si habia alguno que se quisiese confesar. El Juan Ribao respondio que et e todos cuantos allf estaban eran de la nueva religion, y empez6 a decir el salmo de Domine memento mei, y aca1lJtdo, dixo que de tierra era y que en tierra se habian de volver, que veinte aiios mas o menos, todo era una cuenta, que hiciese el Adelantado lo que quisiese dellos; e mandando el Adelantado marchasen, como a los demas, co la mesma orden y en la mesma raya, mando que se hiciese de todos lo que de los otros : solo sac6 a los pifanos, atambores e trompetas e otros 4 que dixeron ser catolicos, que eran en todos 16 personas: todos los demas fueron degollados. Meras, "Memorial," in Ruidfaz, La Florida, I, pp. 122-126. •

PAGE 130

120 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES kind reception given him; and said that in order to cheer their spirits, which were sad because of the news of their comrades' death, they wished to breakfast with the preserves and wine, and that for tht. time being they wanted no other food; and thus they did. Juan Ribao said that those comrades of his who lay dead there, and he saw them near by, might have been deceived [concerning the cap ture of the fort], and that he did not wish to be: then [the Adelan tado] commanded that each one of the soldiers who were there should come with whatever he had from the fort, and the things Juan Ribao saw were so many that he held it for certain that was the truth; although he had already heard that news, and could not believe it, because among the French was a barber whom the Adelantado had ordered killed with the rest, who had remained for dead among the others, for at the first knife-thrust given him he let himself fall, pre tending he was dead; and when Juan Ribao had arrived there the barber had swum over to him, and he [the barber] held it for certain that the Adelantado had deceived them tn saying that the fort was captured when it was not, and so had Juan Ribao up to that time. The Adelantado said that in order that they should believe it fully and satisfy themselves thereof, Juan Ribao should speak apart with two Frenchmen who were there, and he did so; and then he came toward the Adelantado, and told him that he was certain that all he had told him was the truth, and that what was happening to him might happen to the Adelantado; that since their Kings were brothers3 and such great friends, the Adelantado should treat him like a friend, giving him ships and supplies wherewith he could go to France. The Adelantado replied .::o him as he had to the first Frenchmen upon whom he had worked justice, and Juan Ribao in discussion with him was unable to obtain anything else: then Juan Ribao said to him that he wi,:;hed to report to his men, for there were many noblemen among them, and he would return or send an answer as to what he should decide to do: within J hours Juan Ribao came back in the canoe and said that there were different opinions among his men, as some 3 Philip II of Spain married Elizabeth of Valois, the sister of Charles IX of France.

PAGE 131

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 121 wished to place themselves at the Adelantado's mercy, and others did not. The Adelantado replied that he cared nothing whether they all came, or came in part, or did not come, any of them; they should do what seemed best to them, since they were free to do so. Juan Ribao told the Adelantado that half of them were willing to place themselves at his mercy, and would pay as ransom more than one hundred thousand ducats; and the other half could pay more, as there were among them wealthy persons of large income who intended to settle in that land. The Adelantado answered: "It would grieve me deeply to lose such a good ransom and booty, for I have dire need of that help to aid me in the conqueStJtnd colonizing of this country; it is my duty, in the name of my King, to spread therein the Holy Gospel." Juan Ribao used much cunning here, to see if it might be of use to him, because it seemed to him that the Adelantado, on account of greed for the money that could give him, would not kill Juan Ribao or those who entrusted themselves to his clemency; it appeared to him that the Adelantado's not killing them, through an agreement that Juan Ribao would make with him, would be worth more to him than 200 thousand ducats; and he told the Adelantado that he would return to his people with the answer; that because it was late he begged him to have the kindness to remain there until the day following, when he would come with the decision that might be agreed upon. The Adelantado replied that he would wait, and told him to rejoin his men as the sun was already setting; and in the morning Juan Ribao returned in the canoe and delivered to the Adelantado two royal standards, one of the King of France, the other of the Admiral; two field banners; a gilt sword and dagger, a very fine gilt helmet, a buckler, a pistol, a seal he had with him, which the AdmiraP of France had given him to stamp all the edicts he should issue and titles he might give. He said to the Adelantado th t about 150 persons of the 350 with him, were willing to come and place themselves at the Ade lantado's mercy; that the others had departed that night, and that the boat should go over for those who wished to come, and for their arms.

PAGE 132

,, 122 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES The Adelantado immediately directed that Captain Diego Florez de Valdes, the Admiral of his armada, should have them brought over as he had the others, ten at a time; and taking Juan Ribao behind the sand dune, between the bushes, where he had taken the others, he had his hands and those of all the rest, tied behind their backs, as was done to the previous ones, telling them that they had to march 4 leagues on land, and by night, so that he could not allow them to go unbound; and when they were all tied, he asked them if they were Catholics or Lutherans, and if there were any who wi s hed to confess. Juan Ribao answered that he and all tho s e who were there were of the new religion, and he began to sing the psalm, Domin e m e m ento mei;4 and when it was finished he said that from earth they came, and unto earth must they return ;5 that twenty years mor 2 or less were of little account; that the Adelantado was to do with them as he wi s hed. And the Adelantado, giving the order that they should march, as he had to the others, in the same order and to the same line in the sand, I commanded that the same be done to all of them as to the other s : he only spared the fifers, drummers, trumpeters, and 4 more who said that they were Catholics, in all 16 persons: all the others were put to the knife.6 4 As there is no psalm beginning with these words, Meras must be in error. 5 Probably suggested by Genesis, III, 19. 6 In the letter of the Adelantado to Philip II three days afterward, he says: "I had Juan Ribao, with all the rest, put to the knife, understanding this to be expedient for the service of God Our Lord and of Your Majesty; and I hold it very great good fortune that he should be dead; for the King of France could do more with him with fifty ducats, than with others with five hundred thousand ; and he could do more in one year than another in ten, for he was the most experienced seaman and corsair known, and very skilful in this navigation of the Indies and the coast of Florida." Menendez to the King, October 15th, 1565.-A. C. de I., 54 -5-16.-D. H., Col. Navarrete, tomo 14, No. 40.-L. C., Papeles relativos a la Florida, pp. 31-79.-Lowery, IL-Smith, vol. for 15611593, pp. 292 309, from D. H.-Mass. Hist. Soc.-Published in Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 84-105.-Mass! Hist. Soc., Pro ceedings, 2d series, VIII, pp. 425439 (translation). King Philip replied to this letter, and wrote among other things: "From the good success you have had in the expedition we have had great satisfaction, and we shall remember, in order to best9w favor upon you, the loyalty, love and

PAGE 133

1 . . • i \ r""'/'4" I J . '7 ' :;,, . / , 1:' ,,,, ... (. ' I I'• " ' ' \ ' . " "-.CJY,t:...u..s a r wp11?,tt,,;1 O?d; ,t-;{',,, .h/t:u-.ar';f2d/J'Yl.aJdar MJ '

PAGE 134

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 123 CHAPTER XIII. 'f'he Adelantado Destroys the Wooden Fort of the French near Cape Canaveral. Leaves a Garrison at Ays. Voyage to Cuba. Difficulties with Governor Garcia Osorio. That night the Adelantado went to St. Augustine, where some persons considered him cruel, and others, that he had acted as a very good captain should. It was thought that even if they had been Catho lics, and he had not worked justice upon them, both Spaniards and Frenchmen would have died of hunger on account of the Adelantado's scarcity of provisions; and the French, because they were more numer ous, would have killed us, as Fort San Mateo, which the Adelantado had captured from them, burned down with much property and many ' supplies within eight days after it was taken. The ftre started in a house wherein lived Captain Francisco de Recalde, for a servant had set it on fire by sticking a candle on a post, and the candle had fallen; suspicion was aroused thereby because there was much discord between Captain Villarroel, the sergeant major, and Francisco de Recalde; and some soldiers were beginning to say that since there were no supplies and the fort had been captured, they ought to demolish it . . . [and go] to the Indies in the 2 ships which the Adelantado had sent them from St. Augustine with the artillery. Some of the captains did not dare to declare themselves, because the camp master and Villa rroel, the most important persons among the soldiers, were the Adelan tado's friends, and they had some kinsmen and servants there. At that time it was not known at San Mateo the Adelantado had won diligence wherewith you have served us, and the hardships and dangers wherein you placed yourself: and you will so carry forward the enterprise, as we trust in your person and virtue: and as for the judgment you worked on t '1 e Lutheran corsairs who wanted to occupy that land and fortify themselves therein, to sow in it their evil sect, and thence continue the robberies and injuries they have committed and were committing, wholly again:t God's service and mine, we believe that you have done this with entire justification and prudence, and hold Ourselves greatly served thereby." Philip II to Menendez, Madrid, May 12th, i566.-A. R. G., leg. 2, num. 3, Apendice 4, nums. 3 y 4.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, P 363.

PAGE 135

124 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES victories over Juan Ribao and his men, and had killed them; and it was found out from the Frenchwomen and youths who were spared • when the fort was taken, that Juan Ribao and his captains, at the time they embarked with the fleet, had consumed two barrels of wine, some of them giving mocking toasts to the Spaniards, saying: "I drink to the head of Pedro Menendez and the men who are with him " ; and other insults, such as: "Spanish Marranos,1 we shall punish them by hanging them from the yard-arms of their own ships and ours, so that they shall not come another time to look for us in this our land." [This was done] in such a manner that it appeared to many people of noble birth who were with Juan Ribao, that those words and insults uttered against the Spaniards were in very bad taste. And within 20 days after the French were put to ilie knife, Indians came to the and told him by signs that at 8 days' marching from there, toward the south, within the Bahama Channel, there were many men who were brethren of thos whom the Adelantado had ordered killed, who were building a fort and a ship. The Adelantado suspected at once that the Frenchmen who withdrew might be fortify ing themselves and building a vessel with the timber, artillery, sup plies and munitions from the French armada which was wrecked, in order to send to France to ask for succor; and he immediately dis patched ten soldiers from St. Augustine to San Mateo, giving notice of everything and of how he wished to go [after the French], so that enough men should come to him from those who were there, to make up i 50, counting the 35 he had brought from there when he captured the fort and returned to t. Augustine; and the camp master sent them at once, with Captains Juan Velez de Medrano and Andres Lopez Patino, and they arrived at St. Augustine on the 23d of Octo ber. The delantado having heard mass on the morning of the 26th, set out with 300 men and 3 boats which carried the arms and supplies 1 "Marranos espafioles." The original meaning of the word Marrano is pig, hog . It has several meanings. It was also applied in Spain in the XVI century to all Jews, who, while professing Christianity, still followed their own faith in secret.

PAGE 136

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 125 by sea; and the boats went no faster than the men marched on land, for wherever they passed the night the boats anchored, as the whole coast was sandy and clear. Before the Adelantado's departure from St. Augustine, he ap pointed a junta2 and government in the name of his Majesty, and the junta and captains together fonned a c a bildo.8 It was set down in the books of the c a b i ldo that the proper daily rations should be given from the supplies that remained, and the same with the supplies which should come: he left the fort traced out and the work of erecting it equally divided among squads of men, and they were to work at the fortifications each day 3 hours in the morning and 3 in the afternoon. He left as a l cai d e and governor, Captain Bartolome Menendez , his brother, who hadtalways filled those offices, and still does: he provided that all criminal sentences should be imposed by the c a bildo, because • the captains themselves were the regidores; that all appeals should be heard before the camp master, on whom he conferred sufficient author ity to be his as his Majesty had given him power in due form to appoint to that dignity whomsoever he wished, when ever he should be ab s ent. He sent the same orders and instructions to Gonzalo de Villarroel at San Mateo, so that he should observe the aforesaid; and before departing from St. Augustine, he dispatched Diego Florez de Valdes, the Admiral of the armada, to his Majesty by the ship which was there, giving him an account of what had taken place up to that time. All the government officials of St. Augustine, and the men and women who were there, begged the Adelantado as a favor that he should not return to that port with the soldiers unless he brought food, as the fewer who remamed there, the longer the supplies they had would last. The Adelantado took with him in the 3 boats, provisions to last the 300 men for 40 days, and the ration of one day lasted for and he promised the people that he would try to do in everything what was for the general good, even though he might undergo dangers and hard ships. [He told them] that he trusted that the kindness and mercy of 2 A council. 8 A town corporation. ) l •

PAGE 137

126 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES God would help him in all ways, so that he might succeed in so good and holy an undertaking; and thus he bade them farewell, while many of them wept, because he was much beloved, feared and respected b • y all. And by making good marches, he arrived on All Saints' Day, at dawn, at the fort the Frenchmen were building, for some Indians were guiding him, as he marched by land with the soldiers, while the 3 boats went by sea under the charge of Captain Diego de Maya; and as they were seen from the fort, the Frenchmen within it fled to the woods, not one remaining, and the Adelantado sent them a trumpeter assuring them that their lives would be safe [and telling them] that they should return and he would give them the same treatment he gave the Spaniards: about 150 came to the Adelantado,. but the captain thereof, with 20 others, sent him word that he would rather be eaten by the Indians • than surrenaer to Spaniards. The Adelantado received these people very well and gave them very good treatment : he set fire to the fore, which was of wood, and destroyed it; and he burned the ship which was being built, and buried the artillery, as the boats could not carry it because they were small. Later in the afternoon of that day, he marched southward along the beach, and the 3 boats cruised in search of a harbor and river which were 15 leagues from there, where were some pueblos of Indians,4 for the Adelantado wanted to see if he could leave his men quartered there with some cacique, and if he could go by the Bahama Channel to the island of Cuba in search of supplies; and on the third day, the 4th of November of the said year '65, they arrived at that port which is called Ays, because the 9cacique who lived there was thus named. He was a very good Indian, who received the Adelantado very well; neither he nor his people left their homes; rather did he await the Adelantac!o with all the people of the pueblo, which was a demon stration of confidence which gave much pleasure to the Adelantado, for up to then the inhabit
PAGE 138

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 127 The Adelantado did not allow any damage to be done in their homes, or to the furniture therein; rather did he leave, in return for hospitality received in the houses of the caciques, some gifts of mirrors, knives, scissors and bells, things which they prize greatly. He remained there 4 days, during which he went down a river to see some places the cacique told him were good to settle; and without going out to sea, he reached a small harbor which was about 15 leagues from there, inside the Bahama Channel. As the land did not satisfy him, he returned; and as he had but little food, and the Indians of that land had none either, unless it were :fish, cocoa -plum s and palmettos,5 it was agreed and requested by all the people who were there-who saw the danger of their all dying of hunger-that his lordship the Adelantado should leave with two f the boats for the island of Cuba, although it was the middle of November, a dangerous time to sail in the B ahama • Channel, which is very stormy, and although the boats were very small; in order to send supplies to them and to the people at St. Augustine and San Mateo. • The Adelantado did so, taking with him 50 persons, counting sailors and soldiers, and 20 of the Frenchmen from Canaveral, for he had taken them all with him; and this was the reason that the provisions for 40 days which he had brought from St. Augustine, gave out sooner, for the same rations were given to the French as to the Span iards, and in the distribution of the rations no preference was shown even to the Adelantado. They consisted of half a pound of biscuit each day for each soldier-though they should have been a pound and a half-without wine, or any kind of food sa.ve the palmettos and cocoa plums they gathered in the :fields: there in Ays there was a soldier who sold 4 pounds of biscuit at 25 reals each, and who ate so many palmetto berries6 and other kinds of fruit which had a taste, that one day at nightfall he was well, and at midnight he died. The fact that the Adelantado made this on foot was some -5 They probably ate the heart of the palmetto, which tastes like raw cabbage but has a more delicate flavor. 6 Uvas de palma. 7 From St. Augustine to Ays. • •

PAGE 139

128 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES thing that everybody admired; for he had no horse; and on the third day there were 50 soldiers whom he had left in the rear-guard, who did not arrive, owing to the many so exhausted they could not walk. Two of the strongest who came there, each of them between 2 S and 30 years of age, who had been among the first to enter the Fort of San Mateo when it was captured from the French, and marched in the vanguard with the Adelantado, felt ashamed at seeing how he was marching; and in order not to leave him they forced themselves beyond reason, and as they walked along, one of them said to the other: "Com rade, I want to sit down a little while, for I am very tired." Without the Adelantado's noticing it these two remained where they were, and in a quarter of an hour, without rising from where he was, the one who had spoken gave up his soul to God. The other forced himself to keep up with the Adelantado, but one night he disappeared and they never saw him more. All the men marched along the sea-shore from 2 o'clock after midnight until sunrise, and then they halted, and the soldiers scattered in the savannas to eatpalmettos and cocoa-plums, some of which they gathered to take with them: they remained there for two hours and marched [again] until 1 o or 12 o'clock of the day: then they rested until 2 hours after midday, and marched once more until the sun went down; there was no day during which they did not march from 8 leagues upward, a thing which everyone marvelled at because of the difficulty of advancing over those sandy stretches and because of the lack of food. Cacique Ays was much grieved at the Adelantado's departing from there, and he and his children wept, for during those days that the Adelantado remained there he made him many presents and gave him many things for barter, and did likewise to his principal Indian men and women; and the Adelantado, fearing that the soldiers and the Indians would break out in war against one another, wherein his men ran the danger of being slain because they lacked food and did not know the country and were so thin and feeble, arranged before his starting for Havana to leave them in a place 3 leagues from there, which the Indians said was very good, as there were palmettos, cocoapl ums and fish, for it was on the river; and in two days he conveyed

PAGE 140

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 129 the men there in the boats. He greatly feared his departure, one reason being that it appeared to him that the soldiers were becoming emaciatM and discouraged; another, because no ship had ever been seen to reach the island of Cuba through the Bahama Channel, although many had attempted it, as the current always runs very strongly toward the north, while the Adelantado had to sail southward to the island of Cuba, and he had the current against him, which struck the ships' prows; and if it had not been for the relief of these people and those left behind in St. Augustine and San he would have preferred to send someone else in the two boats, and remain with the other and with his men, rather than to subject himself to that risk, which was great. The soldiers desired his departure " because of the hope they had of obtaining if he went in person, and so he decided to depart from that port of Ays on ... of November, with 50 soldiers and sailors and 20 Frenchmen, leaving Captain Juan Velez cTe Medrano in charge of those people, to whom and to all those who remained with him, the Adelantado made a sf>eech, strengthening and consoling them and asking them to pray for him every day, as he was exposing himself for them to one of the greatest dangers ever encountered by man; and to supplicate God Our Lord and his precious Mother to give him a safe voyage; and while all were kneeling, singing the litanies and praying, the Adelantado set out. He had such a favorable wind that although there were one hundred leagues from there to Havana, and contrary currents, he made the journey in 2 days, a thing to marvel at, because all the pilots who sail in the Indies were of opinion that with galleys provided with oars, it was not possible to go against that cur rent. He sailed along the whole coast and' country of Florida, and upon crossing to the island of Cuba, he met with choppy seas and a great storm from the north, and high seas ran from poop to prow: through one whole night that this gale lasted he steered, no trusting the helm to any of his sailors: there were among the 20 Frenchmen he had with him, the chief pilot of Juan Ribae and another who seemed to him a very efficient mariner. The Adelantado asked him if he were a good helmsman: he replied that he was: the Adelantado gave him the helm toward morning, and that Frenchman steered very well; and • •

PAGE 141

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES thus, until they arrived at Havana, the Adelantado and the French man steered. The boat in which the Adelantado wa s , carried no compass, because on departing from Ays he had it taken from its place, and they found it broken. Captain Diego de Maya said that the boat wherein he was, outsailed the Adelantado's and carried a compass, and as the Adelantado's was broken, he should trim his s ails and not go far from land, and be care ful not to become separated from him [Diego de Maya] ; and on the second night, when the storm was almo s t over and day was approach ing, the Adelantado lost sight of the other boat and passed beyond the harbor of Havana, thinking he had not yet arrived there. At about Io in the morning, he recognized the pert of Bahiahonda, which is 15 leagues farther than Havana, and saw a small vessel enter it: he went aher her and reached her: in her were some Indians from Havana who were going hunting. They gave the Adelantado much meat and cassava, which is the bread of that land, and palmettos; and the Indians told him that Pedro Menendez Marque s , his nephew, had reached Havana with part of the fleet from Biscay and the Asturias, which during a storm had become s eparated from General E s tebano de las Alas; and that all the people were very sad, as they did not know what had happened to the Adelantado, who, they feared, had perished at sea in a tempest, or had been destroyed by the enemy; as they could not suspect or believe that he would dare to go to Florida with so few ships, nor did the thought cross their minds that he was there. The Adelantado landed with his men in that harbor of Bahiahonda, and all of them kneeling, gave many thanks to Our Lord for the kind nesses he had done them in carrying them through to safety. He called the Frenchmen and told them to behold the power and goodness of God, anJ that if they were Lutherans, they should repent and become Catholics; that he would give them good treatment, no matter what their faith was, and give them liberty to go in the first ships to Spain, and thence to France; that he said that to them because he desired to save them. There were some of them who, weeping, began to strike their

PAGE 142

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES breasts; and praising Our Lord and begging him for mercy, they said that they had been wicked Christians and Lutherans, and now they repented; and that henceforth they wished to renounce their evil sect and become Catholics, making confession and receiving the Com munion, and to cherish and observe that which is required by the Holy Mother Church. The Adelantado regaled and strengthened them, telling them that they should rejoice and not be grieved at their sufferings; that he would take care of them as though they were his brothers; and this he did for those men, as he did for all the others whose lives he spared, each one according to his rank: he invited the nobleman to sit at table with him, supplying him with clothing; and the sailors sat with his pilots and and the soldiers, with his captains and soldiers. That night the Adelantado departed from that port of Bahiahonda to return to Havana, but as the wind was contrary and'very strongfor it drove him out to sea, farther than he wished, in the direction of Florida-he did not arrive in Havana until the following night, at midnight. Diego de Maya had arrived two days before; he feared that the Adelantado was lost, and everyone held this for certain, for as the storm had been so great and he had no compass, they thought that in the hurricane the boat had been ripped open and had sunk; and accord ing to report, great was the sorrow felt for him by the people of Havana and by his armada. On the day after he arrived there, when he entered the harbor rowing, as the wind was blowing from land, the sentinel on watch to guard the harbor called out and asked who came on board the boat that was entering: they replied, the Adelan tado Pedro Menendez: the sentinel saying: " Ble s sed be Our Lord, that the Senor Pedro Menendez is alive"; and (he asked] that they wait a little, while he went to tell Governor Garcia Osorio, so that they should not be fired upon from the fortress. The Adelantado himself said to the sentinel, who was very near: "My brother, go with God, and I will w
PAGE 143

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ships therein began to discharge the pieces of artillery, for there was anchored the armada from Biscay and the Asturias, under the charge _of his nephew, Pedro Menendez Marques; and they began to gi v e many indications of pleasure and to fire many rounds in sign of rejoicing. The Adelantado saw these demonstrations, and that there were illuminations, with a flag, and that they beat a drum and sounded a fife, with great acclamation s ; and as it appeared to him that they were awaiting him, in order to land he went directly to the quay, without going on any of his ships or being detained on board of them. The Governor was there, but when he saw the Adelantado arrive he went away, with the greater part of the people he had with him: only Juan de Y nistrosa remained, with a few r e g i dores of the Reblo; he was the Treasurer of his Majesty on that island, and he took the Adelantado to his house d entertained him very well, likewise all those who came with him. The Governor sent to call on the AJelaniado: this act, the little satisfaction and the lack of pleasure shown by the Governor at the Adelantado's arrival in safety, and at the artillery ' s being fired, sur prised everyone; for whenever the Adelantado had seen his soldiers discontented, his refrain to console them had been: "Make an effort, my brothers, for Garcia O s orio, the Governor of the Island of Cuba, will s end us a sufficient supply of food for all of us who are in Florida; for so was I promised in Seville, and his Majesty has charged and commanded him to do this." And the next day in the morning the Adelantado heard mass, and as he was going out [of chtrrch] the Governor entered; they spoke to each other, and all noticed the great abruptness with which the Gover nor spoke to the Adelantado, for it was as though he had never known him; anCr'so they took leave of each other. After the Adelantado had dined, he went to see the Governor and told him the great neces.6ity in which the people of Florida found themselves. He showed him the decrees whereby he was commanded to give one armed ship, 40 soldiers and 20 horses, with pay for 4 months, and all the help and favor that he might ask or need of him

PAGE 144

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 133 for the conquest and settlement of Florida; and he showed him how men were in Florida for his Majesty's account, who were without supplies and would all perish of hunger if they were not succored; [he said] that he did not want the armed ship, nor the horses nor soldiers, for all of it would cost more than twenty thousand ducats; that with three or four thousand he might give him, he could relieve until spring those soldiers who were in Florida for his Majesty's account. The Governor replied that he did not want to give them. The Adelantado asked that they might be loaned him, and [said] that he would guarantee them and give a bondsman for them. The Governor replied that he did not have them. The Adelantado said that [the Governor could help him] from the ten or twelve thoftsand ducats he held from a Portuguese caravel which Captain Juan de la Parra had taken [while the flagship of the Fleet of New Spain, which vessel and soldiers and sailors were under orders to the Adelantado, and that money belonged to the Adelantado and to the ship ' s peopi.e, as being the persons who had captured the caravel with what she contained, because she went about trading in the Indies, against the statutes and decrees of his Majesty and without being registered. The Governor answered that he would not give those to him either, because he said that they did not belong to him. The Adelantado begged that he lend him on endorsed security the four thousand ducats from those [ten or twelve thousand; and] that if his Majesty commanded him to return them, he would. The Governor did not want to do this. Ile held prisoner Juan de la Parra, the captain of that flagship :8 the Adelantado told him to deliver him to him, with the record of his offence. The Governor said that al though he was his [the Adeljntado' s] soldier, it was he, as Governor of the country, who should punish him, 8 La Parra had been in prison three months. See.the Adelantado's indignation, and his story of Governor Osorio's treatment of La Parra in his letter to King Philip, December 5th, i565 (A. G. de 1.-D. H.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 113-118). Osorio had seized La Parra's prize on the arrival of the caravel, crippling the pilot. La Parra made no resistance, but he did make comments on the Governor's action, and his remarks caused him to be thrown into prison. • • •

PAGE 145

134 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and the other soldiers of the Adelantado who might do unlawful things in his district. The Adelantado replied to him: "Sir, may this reception that your Honor gives me in your district be for the love of God: I am determined to arm myself with patience to go through all these things your Honor makes me endure, for I believe that in doing this God gives me a greater victory than that I won over Juan Ribao and the other Lutherans who were in Florida, and that I am rendering his Majesty a great service"; and he doffed his hat to him and went out through the door, without awaiting the Governor's reply. And the Adelantado immediately ordered a procla mation to be issued that all the soldiers and sailors who were there from Biscay and the Asturias, and those of the flagslhp of the Fleet of New Spain, assemble on the ships during the whole of that day; that he wanted to take the muster-roll of the men he had, in order to employ them in the service of his Majes1J. And the next day in the morning, they heard mass at break of day and went on board the vessels, and the Adelantado made a list of 550 men, and he summoned the captains and pilots to the flagship; lie went into council with them, and when they were together, he said to them: "Gentlemen and Brothers: We find news here that there are many French and English corsairs going about, robbing the subjects of his Majesty. As we are at peace, they deserve to be punished; and it is held for certain, and several of you, Gentlemen, who arrive from there, say that among these corsairs there are two English and three French vessels, which carry on beard more than half a million of plunder, and purchase money for negroes and merchandise; and that they are wintering off that island of Santo Domingo, at the northern end, so as to go to ranee in the spring. Since I have here four very good sailing vessels and this flagship, all well armed, with a large quantity of good munitions; and there are 50 soldiers and sailors on board, all very good men; it appears to me that within ten days we shall be able to collect our stores of water, wood and meat (for we have most of the supplies on board, as the ships brought them from the Asturias and Biscay) ; grease the vessels and make them ready, and then go out to

PAGE 146

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 135 sea at the first opportunity and go in search of those corsairs, wherein we shall be rendering great service to God Our Lord and his Majesty it! punishing those Lutheran corsairs and this will be for the general good of all the Indies, and we shall be able to profit very much thereby; and to send to our comrades in Florida, as soon as we reach [the corsairs], 2 or 3 ships of supplies. In the spring we shall take our ves sels to Florida, laden with food and cattle, in order to make explorations and discoveries inland: and we shall have freed ourselves from the danger which it seems to me some of us are running, of being ruined by this Governor, and of lo s ing patience, as I tell you for my part, Gentlemen, that although it be in December and navigation throu g h the Bahama Channel i s d a n g erous, I would rather s ail through there and on thee>cean than remain in this town; because even though I may know how to conduct myself with the Governor, I fear that some of you may not, and the blame for whatever migh t happen would be placed on me, for seeing the danger and not forestalling it: I beg of you as a favor, Gentleme1', to advise me as to whether I must take this decision." They all approved and held it to be good, and showed great satis faction thereat. And the Adelantado at once ordered the captains and pilots there to prepare to be able to set sail within twelve days; and he caused to be summoned the masters and boatswains, officers and stewards of all the ships, and told them his decision, and he ordered and charged them all to have a care to place their vessels in readiness, and they offered to do so, showing great pleasure and satisfaction at the voyage, and the sailors, ship boys and cabin boys of the did likewise; and the Adelantado, in the presence of all, named as Admiral thereof his nephew, Pedro Menendez Marques. And at the time appointed, which was within twelve days, the ships were ready to set sail. The Adelantado went on board and sent a requi sition to the Governor, to deliver to him
PAGE 147

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES During those 15 days there were many dangerous matters of dis cussion between the Adelantado and the Governor: many observed the patience of the Adelantado, who sailed on his voyage in the ning of Decernber,1 and on the third day after setting out from the port of Havana, he sighted a sail: he chased her, thinking she was a corsair, until she reached Matanzas, a harbor of the island of Cuba, where he found on corning up to her that there was no one on board, because the crew had gone to the woods. He ordered Pedro Menendez Marques, his nephew, the Admiral of that armada, to go on board, so that with a few sailors he might guard well all that she carried, and bring her to anchor near the flagship whereon was the Adelantado, for he wished to cast anchor in that harbor, as he did: and they heard I.) voices in the woods, for the armada had anchored near there; the Adelantado sent a boat to land, to see what was the matter: some Portuguese ran there, and when they understood that the armada was Spanish and that the Adelantado was tb.e General thereof, they re joiced greatly and called their comrades. They got into the boat and were brought to the flagship, before the Adelantado, and they told him with great pleasure that they had come from Spain on that cara vel, by command of his Majesty, with dispatches for him, which they gave him, whereby his Majesty advised him how in France a large armada was being prepared to come over to attack him in Florida; and in order that the Adelantado might defend Florida and succor the places and islands of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba, his Majesty was sending him one thousand, five hundred soldiers, with a large quantity of supplies and 17 ships; and telling him to take the measures which might appear necessary to him, on sea as well as on land, to injure that armada if it should attack him or his territories. t-he shouted like a madman in his prison, and the darkness wherein he was, and it is feared that he may lose his reason." Menendez to King Philip, December 5th, 1565, A.G. de 1.-D. H.-RJidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 117. 10 In the same letter of December 5th (Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 109), Menendez says: "And on the day I left Havana with that armada, which, as I have said, was on the last of November, I discovered a sail ... " The dates do not agree.

PAGE 148

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 137 Then the Adelantado summoned his captains to a council, and having shown them the letter, he said: • Gentlemen and Brothers: It seems to me that in all things, and especially in war, new events bring new ideas ;11 and it is my feeling that I must not remove myself from Havana, because they write to me that these reinforcements will arrive here during March. Let us return there, and I shall send one or two of these ships to Campeche, to be laden with maize for Florida; another I shall send to Puerto de Plata, so that she may be laden with meat and cassava; and another I shall hav e laden in Havana, as soon as I can, and although I have no money I will sell or pawn some of the artillery, or these munitions I carry, even if the pri c e be below their value; and the gold chains and jewels there ma1 be among us; and we shall amuse ourselves _ the best way we can, trying not to have a break with the no matter what may happen; because now that I have been given this dispatch, I should deserve to be punished by his Majesty for any misfortune that might occur if I were to go -rith this armada to make war on corsairs, and the reinforcements should come to Havana from another direc tion, and the French fleet should go to Florida." They all approved the Adelantado ' s decision, and held it to be wise and of good counsel; and so they departed for Havana the following day, with all the armada; and when they had arrived the Adelantado sent the ships as he had agreed; and sent his nephew, Pedro Menendez Marques, to Spain in a patache, to inform his Majesty of what had occurred up to then.12 11 "A nuevos sucesos, nuevos consejos." ?11er35, "Memorial," in Ruidiaz, La Florida, I, p. i47. 6 12 On the return of Menendez to Havana, Governor Osorio continued to make matters difficult for him. He did nothing to stop the desertion of forty of the Adelantado's soldiers, while the Adelantado lay ill for ten days at house of his friend, Y nistrosa. "While I was ill," writes Menendez to Philip, "he wanted Juan de Ynistrosa to drive me out of his house and tell me to go to Matanzas, all with the wicked intent that the anger I should feel while I was very ill, would bring about my death."-Letter of December 25th, i565, A.G. de I., 54-5-16.Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. i36. Before going in quest of corsairs, Menendez had sent his brother-in-law, Solis de Meras, on a mission of which Meras himself does not speak, but which Bar-• •

PAGE 149

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER XIV. Menendez, Cacique Carlos of the Florida West Coast, and Carlos's Sister, Dofia Antonia (February, i566). A nd at the beginning of the following year, '66, Estebano de las Alas arrived; he was the General of the Armada of Biscay and the Asturias, and a storm had separated him from Pedro Menendez Mar ques, the Admiral thereof, and he had been in Yaguana.1 Great was the joy and satisfaction which the Adelantado felt at his arrival, for he brought 2 vessels and 200 men; and the Adelantado immediately ordered that during that month those 2 ships should be equipped, like wise the 2 he had brought from Florida, a new brigantine which Diego de Maya brought from Florida when he had gone the'fe with supplies, a French patac h e which the Adelantado bought in Havana, and a new shallop; and he had all those 7 ships calked, greased and placed in readiness, and on the ioth of February, 500 soldiers and sailors on board, he sailed for Florida to discover if there were deep water and good navigation between [the islands of] Las Tortugas and Los Martires, 2 because it was very nece s sary to know this for the Fleets of New Spain and Tierra Finne, 8 and other vessels which might sail in rientos mentions as follows : "Before his departure he dispatched Gonzalo de Solis de Meras with a vessel to the Audiencia of New Spain, so that when he landed in Campeche, he should send her back to him laden with maize, chickens, shoes and other supplies for Florida; and should then proceed from there to New Spain and having delivered the dispatches and instructions for the Royal Audiencia, try to bring the funds he went to seek, loaned by the Royal Excheq uer, or by friends of the Adelaraado, in order to succor the infantry his Majesty kept in Florida; he should try likewise to bring some Franciscan and Dominican fathers for the conversion of the Indians, and to get back certain soldiers and one ensign, who had deserted the Adelantado in Havana, taking the flag and other token of his Majesty." Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos,'' in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones, p. 83. 1 In Hispaniola . 2 The Tortugas Islands ancf the Martyr Islands or Florida Keys. 8 Twice a year, in January and August, the two Spanish treasure fleets sailed from the river of Seville to the Indies: the Fleet of New Spain bound for the Antilles and the Gulf of Mexico, and the Fleet of Tierra Firme, for Cartagena. They crossed the ocean together and separated at the island of Dominica. The ....

PAGE 150

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 139 those parts. Finding the navigation very good, he went forward along t1'e coast of Florida/ in search of some men and women who, it was said, had been captives for twenty years, in the power of a cacique they call Carlos; and each year he killed some of those people, making a sacrifice of them to the devil; and they all went about naked, having become savages like the very Indians; and the Adelantado, pitying those slaves, wished to undertake that expedition, and go from there to the provinces of Santa Elena,5 50 leagues to the north of the Fort of San Mateo which was won from the Lutherans, because the Indians had told the soldiers in that fort that in the harbor of Guale0 there were some Frenchmen newly arrived. And having had many masses said to San Anton, that he might intercede with Obr Lord so that he could find the harbor where those Christians were, and the Christians themselves; he them within 8 days of his departure from Havana. It was in this manner: he left his flagship to Estebano de las Alas, making him his lieutenant and • General of those vessels, and embarked with 30 men, soldiers and sailors, in a brigantine which did not draw more than half a fathom of water; and he ordered Captain Diego de Maya, who went as the Admiral of the ships, to go with him on board another brigantine drawing very 'little water, on which he was with 30 persons, the two brigantines sailing together along the coast, while most of the vessels proceeded out at sea, for the coast was low. On the 3d day, owing to dark and cloudy weather, the Adelantado with the two brigantines became separated from his 5 ships; and on the 4th day, as they sailed along near shore, a canoe put out to Diego de Maya's brigan tine, half a league ahead, and one man came therein, and when he arrived near her, he spoke, saying: "Spaniards, Brothers, Christians, be welcome! We havi been ex pecting you for 8 days, for God and Holy Mary told us that you were Captain-General was in command of one, the Adntiral of the other. The Captain General commanded both when they proceeded together. The west coast. 5 In the southeastern part of South Carolina. Cf. p. 173, note 9. 6 The name Guale was given to the eastern part of the present state of Georgia, and also to Amelia Island. Cf. p. 181, note 2. • •

PAGE 151

• 140 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES coming, and the Christian men and women who are here alive, have ordered me to come and await you here with this canoe, to give you a letter which I bring you." Captain Diego de Maya and those who were with him in the brigan tine, felt great joy and satisfaction at seeing that they had discovered what the Adelantado was in search of, and so much desired, and they received that man on board, who came naked and painted, turned into an Indian, with a belt around his loins. The captain embraced him and asked him for the letter. The man drew a cross from under the deerskin belt he wore, and gave it to the captain, telling him that that was the letter which the Spaniards and Christians who were captives there sent to him; and that they entreated him, for the sake of the death Our Lord had received on th31 cross in order to save us, not to pass by without enter ing the harbor, and endeavoring to rescue them from their cacique and take them to a land of Christians. At that moment the Adelantado arrived with his brigantine, and this man came before him, where he heard more in detail from this Christian all that had happened, and about the character of the country and the condition of the Indians; and all, on their knees, wor shipped the cross, rendering thanks to Our Lord. The Adelantado entered the harbor7 and anchored near the shore, for they could jump from the brigantine to land without wetting their shoes. The pueblo, where were a few Spanish women and other Chris tians, was about half a league from there, and two other Christian men and women were at a istance inland; for more than 200 Span iards from ships of the Iridies, lost off the country of that cacique 20 years before, had all been brought to him by his subjects, and his father an he had killed them during their feasts and dances, sacrific ing them to the devil.8 The Adelantado did I\9t dare reveal to that Christian that he thought of taking away the Christian men and women who were there, 7 The Bay of Carlos or Juan Ponce; Charlotte Harbor. 8 Carlos was the most powerful cacique of the Caloosa Indians. There were many caciques subject to h\m.

PAGE 152

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES because it appeared to him that he knew little, and that whatever he told him, he might repeat to the cacique: so he only told him to say m the cacique that he was bringing him many things for him and his wives, and that he should come . to see him. The cacique, hearing of the small number of men the Adelantado had with him, came the next day in the morning with about 300 Indian archers, near the brigantines, down to the shore; while the prow of one touched the stern of the other, and the artillery in them was placed on the landside, with much hail-shot ready for whatever might offer itself; and the Adelantado had a platform9 set up, that the cacique might sit thereon, and he did so, with his principal Indians around him. The Adelantado disem barked from the brigantines, with 30 arquebusiers with their fuses lighted, and seated himself near him, the cacique and his principal • men paying much homage to him.10 The Adelantado gave him a shirt, a pair of silk a doublet and a hat, and other things for his wives: he looked very well, because he was very much of a genel.eman, and was about 25 years old; the Adelantado also made gifts to his principal Indians, and gave them biscuit and honey,11 which they ate very willingly. The cacique bestowed on the Adelantado a bar of silver worth about 200 ducats, and asked him to give him more things, and more to eat. The Adelantado told him that he had not food enough for so many people; that he should come aboard the brigantines with his principal men, and that [there] he would feed them and give them many things for their wives and themselves.'Prompted by covetousness, the cacique did this, and took with him about 20 Indians. The Adelantado commanded, with great secrecy and diligence, that there should be a soldier near each Indian, and 66 [others] 12 near 9 Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos," in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones, p. 87, says that it was a tent. 10 Barrientos says (p. 88) : "The cacique knelt, with the palms of his hands turned upward, and the Adelantado placed his hands on those of the cacique, which act is the highest mark of reverence that t9i.ey [the Caloosa Indians] pay to their superiors." 11 Barrientos adds wine. 12 This number, sixty-six, must be a mistake in the text, for we are told that there were only thirty soldiers in each brigantine. • • •

PAGE 153

• PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES them, and if they should want to throw themselves overboard, not to allow them to do so; and he ordered that the cables should be loosened wherewith the brigantines were fastened to the land, and went out o sea. The Indians were a little disturbed, but they were told by the interpreter that they must not be frightened, for the brigantines had withdrawn from land to prevent more Indians from entering them; as they were small, more people in them might upset them. The cacique and the Indians believed him, and they were given food and many things, and [then] the cacique wished to go. The Adelantado told him that the King of Spain, his Master, had sent him for the Christian men and women whom he [the cacique] held prisoners, and that if he did not bring them to him, he would order him to be killed; that he prayed him to give them up, and would bestow on him many things in exchange for them and would be his great friend al!d brother.13 The cacique said that he was satisfied and would go for them. The Adelantado told him that if he tvent, his [the Adelantado's] men would kill him because he wa s allowed to go; that he entreated him to send some Indians for them. The cacique did so because of fear, and within an hour they brought 5 women and 3 Christian men, to whom the Adelantado ordered some shirts and chemises to be given at once; and from some English woolen cloth he carried with him, he ordered 4 or 5 tailors who came there to make clothes for them, and the same for the Christian men; they wept for joy, so that it was a wonderful thing to see. The Ade lantado consoled the women and gave them many presents, and they said that they felt great s&-row on account of the children that they were leaving there. The Adelantado bestowed many things on the cacique and his men, and sent im away very well pleased, the cacique telling him within 3 months he would have there for him 2 other Christian men and one Christian who were some distance inland; and that 13 Barrientos in Garcia adds (p. 89): "And would favor him with his invin cible Spaniards against the caciques his enemies." This boastfulness and lack of judgment do not sound like Menendez.

PAGE 154

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 143 he prayed him to come the next morning, before he should depart for his village, in order that his wives might see him. The Adelantado that he would do so. In the morning the cacique sent many canoes for him: [arid] the Adelantado being suspicious at his depar ture, that Christian with the cross who had gone out to sea in the canoe, and who had returned with the cacique to visit his wives on behalf of the Adelantado, to take them a present, arrived in a canoe and told the Adelantado that he must not go to the village because they had planned to kill him; and the Indians in the canoes, who knew of the treachery, suspected that that Christian was revealing it, and fl.ed.14 The Adelantado, in order that the cacique and the Indians might think that he did not know of it, hoisted the anchors of the brigantines and.rowed to a point near the village, where he dropped anchor, and there, with 2 bugles sounding, and flags displayed, he sig nalled that the canoes should come for him, because the brigantines could not go farther; and as no canoe would come the Adelantado sailed out of the harbor to arch for his 5 ships, and as they did not appear, the Christians told him that 50 leagues farther from there was 14 Here Barrientos in Garcia gives more details (pp. 89, 90): "[The Chris tian] warned him that he must not go to the village, because they had planned to kill him, and this was to be the order of procedure: that they were to come forth without bows and arrows, but with branches of palms, singing and making great demonstrations of joy; and each Indian on arriving was to take a Christian on his back as a mark of honor; and in a wood, which lay between the village and the beach, they had many armed Indians in ambush; and that each Indian on arriving there with his Christian, was to seize him firmly by the hands while he held him, and the others w ould kill them. [Then] came Cacique Carlos with a great number of Indians, singing and makini all manner of rejoicings, and saying that he brought those Indians in order that the Adelantado and his Span iards might be carried on their backs, since they were persons who deserved it: and that he himself wished to carry the Adelantado, and that his principal Indians would carry his captains and the other men : and that the rest lWJUld accompany them, rejoicing, as they had done for other Christians who had come there, since they were all servants of God. The Adelantado replied, thanking him for this courtesy, and [said] that those who had cottsented to be thus carried were false Christians; that they would not accept that honor: that they [the Indians] might go: that he would go to his village with a few Spaniards only. The In dians, understanding what was the matter, that that Christian was exposing them, fled with their canoes."

PAGE 155

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES a very good harbor, where there were 3 other Christian captives in the power of the Indians. It seemed to the Adelantado that his vessels might have gone there; he felt a desire to ransom those 3 Christiatttl, and he went there, and found neither the ships nor the Christians; but on returning he discovered the 5 ves s els anchored off that harbor of Carlos, and that Estebano de las Alas had gone to the village with one hundred soldiers. When the Indians saw so many ships and people, and went to reconnoitre them in the canoes, they were afraid, and gave a good reception to Estebano de las Alas: the soldiers there got more than 2,000 ducats ' worth of gold and silver from the Indians, in exchange for baubles. The Adelantado resolved to send the Christian to Carlos, that he might give him to understand that the Adelantado 1
PAGE 156

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 145 given him; that he was in debt in Spain, likewise his relatives and friends; that he was also in Havana, and had sent to borrow money in New Spain; and we held him to be a man of poor judgment, who with little trouble might have drawn one hundred thousand ducats from that cacique; for even though he did not have them, his Indians and his friends among the caciques would have, in whose possession was some gold and silver from wrecked ships, and they did not know their value nor what the thing was; through them he might have freed him self from his obligations, also those who were in debt for the love of him; and they would have found themselves more strengthened and encouraged for such a good and holy conquest as that was, in order to try, as he was trying, according to the great inclination which we all saw he had, to establish the Holy Gospel in that land; for the Indians did not know what gold or silver was, and for card, which was an ace of diamonds, one of them gave a soldier a piece of gold worth 70 ducats; and for a pair of scissors, half a bar of silver worth 100 ducats. All the soldiers who had first arrived with Este bano de las Alas, and those who came with the Adelantado in the two brigantines, obtained by barter on that one occasion about 3,500 ducats' worth altogether, which made them very pleased and joyful, and they began to gamble, holding the money of little account: the Adelantado did not take away from them anything of what each one had acquired, nor did he himself obtain anything by barter, so that the Indians should not think that he came in search of gold. And the day following that on which Cacique Carlos departed from the brigantines, the Adelantado went to dine with him, taking 200 arquebusiers with him and a flag, 2 fifers and drummers, 3 trumpeters, one harp, one violin15 and one psaltery, and a very small dwarf, a great singer and dancer, whom he brought with him. The cacique's house was about two arquebuse shots from where he landed, and 2,000 men might gather therein without being very crowded: the Adelantado's people marched in order to that house and he did not allow them to enter it, but stationed them outside, ready for any emergency, with their fuses lighted. 15 A vihuela de arco, a sort of primitive violin. A vihuela is a guitar. •

PAGE 157

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES He entered the cacique's house alone, with about 20 gentlemen, and stood where there were some large windows, through which he could see his men: the cacique was in a large room, alone on a [raised] seat with a great show of authority, and with an Indian woman also seated, a little apart from him, on an elevation half an estado16 from the ground; and there were about 500 principal Indian men and 500 Indian women: the men were near him, and the women near her, below them. When the Adelantado mounted to that place, the cacique yielded his seat to him, and drew quite a distance apart. The Adelantado placed him near him, and then the cacique rose, and went toward the Adelantado to take his hands, according to their custom; going through a certain ceremony which -:s like kissing the King's hand here; no greater mark of deference can be given among them, and it is that which Indian vassals are in the habit of giving to their caciques: then came the Indian woman, and did likewise; and then all the principal Indian men and . women who were there; and more than 500 Indian girls, from 10 to about 15 years, who were seated outside the window, began to sing, and other Indians danced and whirled: then the principal Indian men and women who were near the cacique sang, and they said, according to what was afterward found out, that this was the greatest demonstration of rejoicing, for a ceremony of allegiance, that that cacique or any other of that country, could give the Adelantado, because the brothers of the cacique danced, and his uncles and aunts; for there were some who danced among those principal Indian women, who were 90 or 1 oo years old: they all showed themselves to be very pleased and joyful. After the cacique's principal Indians had finished dancing and singing, the Indian women who were outside, at no time left off doing so, untii the Adelantado departed, and they sang with much order: they were seated in groups of loo, and 50 of them would sing a little and stop, then another 5b would sing. The cacique asked the Adelan tado, after his principal Indians had danced, whether he wished that they should bring the food for him and his Christians. 16 A length measure of i.85 yards.

PAGE 158

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 147 The Adelantado told him that it was too soon; and he carried with him many written words in the Indian language, which were very and friendly, in order that he might speak to Carlos' s principal wife and to his sister; and thinking that she who was there was the principal wife of the cacique, he said to her in her own language the words he intended to say to her: the cacique and the Indians were surprised: they thought that the paper spoke, and what was written thereon; and the cacique thought that the Adelantado believed that that woman wa s his principal wife, and he told him through the interpreter they had there to understand each other, who was one of the Christian captive s , that that woman was not his wife, but his sister; the one whom he had given the Adelantado for a wife. Then the Adel1.ntado rose and took her by the hand, and seated her next to him, between him and the cacique, and through what he car ried written, he said many things to her in her language, reading from the paper; whereat they rejoiced, and all the Indian men and women whb were there. This Indian oman was about 35 years old, not at all beautiful, although very grave, so much so that as time went on we were all surprised at this, because it seemed as though they had trained her from birth to know how to keep silence. The Adelantado begged the cacique to bring his principal wife there, which he did: she was 20 years old, very comely and beautiful, with very good features: she had very fine hands and eyes, and looked from one side to another with much gravity and all modesty: she had a very good figure, for even among the many Indian women who were there seen to be handsome, not one was as handsome as that one: her eyebrows were very well marked, ancf she wore at her throat a very beautiful collar of pearls and stones and a necklace of gold beads: she was naked like the other, the cacique ' s sister, with only a covering in front. The Adelantado took her by the hand, and seated her between the Indian woman and the cacique, and in hef language he spoke many words to her, which he carried written on the paper, whereat she rejoiced greatly; and especially because, the Adelantado having been told that she was very beautiful, he carried written words in her own

PAGE 159

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES language in order to tell her that; whereat she showed herself not to be displeased, and she blushed very prettily, looking modestly at her husband. The cacique showed that he regretted having brought nis wife, and ordered her to depart, thinking that they wanted to take her from him: [but] the Adelantado told him through the interpreter not to send her away, and asked that she might dine there with him, becau s e he had many things to give her; and presently he had the gifts brought, and he had the sister of the cacique clothed in one chemise and his wife in another, and he bestowed green gowns on them, one for each, wherein the cacique's wife looked very lovely. He gave them beads, scissors, knives, bells and mirrors, wherewith they were much pleased, especially at the mirrors, when they looked at themselves therein; and the Indian men and women who were there, laughed greatly at this; and he gave the cacique another garment, besides that he had already given him, and other trifles for barter, two hatchets and two machetes ;11 and likewise made gifts to the principal Indian men and women who were there, without their making any kirfd of return to the Adelantado for this, or his asking for any. He ordered the food to be brought, which consisted of many kinds of very good fish, roasted and boiled; and oysters, raw, boiled and roasted, without anything else. The Ade lantado had had landed one hundredweight of very good biscuit, one bottle of wine and one of honey, and divided them among all those principal Indians; and through the interpreter he commanded them to bring bowls, to give them some of that honey: he gave them some sweetmeats and quince preserves, and the Adelantado ate from a plate of his own, the cacique's sister from another, and the cacique and his wife from another, but on a table and tablecloths, and with napkins which the Adelantado had had brought: they well understood that our food was better than theirs . When the repast was being carried in, the Spaniards blew the trum pets which were outside, and while the Adelantado was eating, they played the instruments ve'ry well and the dwarf danced: 4 or 6 gentle men who were there, who had very good voices, began to sing in excel lent order, for the Adelantado was very fond of music and always 17 A cutlass; a knife for cutting cane.

PAGE 160

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 149 tried to take with him the best he could; when the Indians heard it they were strangely pleased. The cacique told the young girls to stop singing, for they knew little and the Christians knew much: their music ceased: the cacique prayed that until the Adelantado should depart, his men should always keep on singing and playing the instru ments: the Adelantado commanded that it be so. They :finished [eat ing] and the table was removed: then he said he wished to go. The cacique told him that he should go and rest in a room which was there, with his sister, since he had given her to him for his wife, and that if he did not do this the cacique's Indians would be scandal ized, saying that the Adelantado was laughing at them and at her and held her to be of little account; and there were in the pueblo more than 4,000 Indian me1\ and women. The Adelantado showed a little perturbation, an
PAGE 161

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES it; and that he had given him his sister, and was giving her to him again, that he might take her away; wherefore the Adelantado was compelled to take her to the harbor with some Indian men and to accompany her; and after consulting on the matter with his cap tains, he pointed out to them that* it seemed to him there might come a break with the Indians [if he did not], and that would not do be cause of the Adelantado's plans, for since he had left Spain everything showed that his particular interest was that the Indians should turn Christians; and the captains answered him that it was fitting that much attention should be paid to her and the Indian men and women who were with her, and that that night there should be much music and rejoicing, and they should baptize her and give her a name; and the Adelantado should sleep with her, for this woul& be a great begin ning to their t-usting him and the other Christians; that all those In dians and the caciques, their neighbors, would [then] become Chris tians, and that in no manner was it advisable to do anything else. The Adelantado showed much . . . 1:g to try some other expedient, but as none could be found, it was decided that thus it should be done . Then the Christian women who were there bathed and clothed her, and she appeared much better than before, when she was naked; and the captains praised her intentionally as being very beautiful and dignified: they gave her the name of Dofia Antonia, and that of San Anton to the harbor, on account of the prayers the Adelantado had made to Sefior San Anton in order that he might meet with those Chris tian men and women whom he started out to seek. The supper, the music and the merriment took place on land, in some tents the Adelan tado had had set up; his ships, [and lasted] until two o'clock in the morning. The Adelantado had her seated next to him, and said many th.ings to her through the interpreter which pleased her, and she answered so discreetly and in so few words, that we all of us marvelled at her . Her Indian women and the Christian women danced with the soldiers, and when that was ended, they conducted her to rest on a bed which the Adelantado ordered to be made, and he followed her; and in the morning she arose very joyful and the Christian women who 18 The missing word is probably desire.



PAGE 1

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES spoke to her said that she was very much pleased; she at once sent 2 Indian men and 2 Indian women to her brother in a canoe which was t ere, and he came to see her, and the Adelantado received him very well, and told him that he desired that he should have a large cross erected near his house, and that every day in the morning the men, women and children should go to kiss it and worship it, and take it for their greatest idol; he told him the reason for this, and that he should give up the other idols he had. The cacique said that he would do so, but that he could not give up his idols so soon; [he would wait] until his sister should return, and the Indians who were going with her, and they would tell them what they ought to do. This cacique called Carlos because his father was so called, and his father gave himself that name, because the Christian captives he had, told him that the Emperor Charles19 was the greatest King of the Christians. The cross was made and he Adelantado had it set up there, and with much music and great devotion he knelt before it and kissed it, and all the Spaniards who were there did likewise: then the Indian woman, Dona Antonia, did so, and most of the men and women she had with her: then Carlos and his Indians kissed and worshipped it. This Carlos had a captain, a very good Indian, who was married to a sister of Carlos and Dona Antonia, and the cacique had married the captain's sister; and the Indians apparently, according to what the Christians said, feared that captain more than the cacique. He told his cacique that he must be the captain of that cross, in order that all of them should do what the Adelantado comn anded, [that is,] to go and kiss and worship it in the morning; and so the Adelantado delivered it to him and with great reverence he carried it on his shoulders to the canoes; and then the Adelantado proceeded to embark, t ing with him Dona Antonia, 3 Indian men, 4 Indian women and 7 Christian men and women who had been prisoners, b ause 2 of the women had already gone back to the Indians, from the longing they had for the children that they were leaving behind. He gave orders to Estebano 19 Charles V.

PAGE 2

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES de las Alas to sail for Havana with that Indian woman and her peo ple, and to deliver her to Treasurer Juan de Ynistrosa, who was the lieutenant for the Adelantado in that island for the matters pertainirlg to Florida; and he wrote to him to give orders that she and those who went with her should be taught the Catholic faith, and given all good treatment, and be made Christians when the time came; that within 3 or 4 months he would return to Havana, to take her back to her country; and that he [Y nistrosa] was to give as many supplies as he could, in cattle and poultry, to Estebano de las Alas, and then dispatch him with the S vessels he was commanding, to the Fort of St. Augustine, where the Adelantado would expect him, to go against the French, who, it was said, were in Guale and Santa Elena; for he himself was going with 2 brigantines, to discover all that coast n ar Los M:irtires, to see if he found any good harbor in the Bahama Channel, and to try to promote fri;ndship with the caciques and pueblos he ran across; and thus they departed with a prosperous wind: Estebano de las Alas with S vessels, for Havana, and the AdelantaJo with 2 brigantines, along Los M:irtires to St. Augustine. CHAPTER XV. Mutinies at Santa Lucia and St. Augustine. And 8 days after he left the port of San Anton, which is where Ca cique Carlos lives, he entered a harbor he found in the Bahama Channel; and setting out the next day, he sighted a vessel, went to reconnoitre her, and saw that she was z. caravel which they had sent from Havana to Campeche to be laden with maize. He reached her, went on board and found more than i30 persons, and the whole ship laden with maize, anJ [their narrative] was in this manner: That Fray ... de Toral, Bishop of Yucatan, and Don Luis de Cespedes, Governor of that island [ sz'c], had low::Ied that caravel with maize and chickens, honey, sandals1 and other things, on receiving letters from the Adelan tado and at his request; and when she was returning to Florida she 1 Alpargatas, sandals made of hemp.

PAGE 3

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 153 put in at Havana; and Juan de Ynistrosa, as lieutenant of the Adelantado for matters pertaining to Florida, dispatched her at once and o dered that she should go to the country of Ays and the harbor of Santa Lucia, where Captain Juan Velez de Medrano had remained, when the Adelantado left him there with the 13 Spaniards and French men and went with the 2 boats to Havana to seek supplies. The Ade lantado had already succored him with the cargo of a patache; [he had said that the caravel] should leave them a certain amount of fanegas2 of maize, chickens and meat, and should go on to St. Augus tine with the rest; and the master of the caravel in order to so, wished to unload the maize when he arrived at Santa Lucia; where upon the soldiers seized the master and prepared to make off with the caravel, and be{4use Captain Juan Velez de Medrano wished to pre vent this, ' they tried to kill, but wounded ... de AY.ala, his ensign, who was likewise preventing their making off with the caravel; and they had all embarked on board of her and were on their way to Havana, and had already salled more than 15 leagues. The Adelantado placed some of his gentlemen on board of her, and he went on to St. Augustine, where he entered with her on the 20th of March, '66. He found the camp master very ill, and without sup plies; there had been very great mutinies there, and in the Fort of San Mateo; and there was so much connivance between certain captains and most of the soldiers, that as neither the camp master, who was in St. Augustine, nor Gonzalo de Villarroel, in whose charge was the Fort of San Mateo, could stop this, they overlooked some things which were unwisely provided and ordered; and Captain Diego de Maya having arrived at the end of December with a vessel of 80 toneles laden with cassava, meat and cattle, although all together it was but little, and having left part of it at the Fort of St. Augustine, he went with the rest to San and at the entrance of tl?e bar, the ship and supplies were lost [and] the crew escaped: The Adelantado was notified at once, and in the beginning f February he sent them a frigate of 70 toneles laden with maize, wine, oil, cloth, canvas, some ship tackle, rigging and oakum, all this having a value of more than 2 In this sense, a grain measure of about i.60 bushel.

PAGE 4

154 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES six thousand ducats: from one merchant alone he bou ght four thou sand ducats ' worth of those materials and supplie s , on credit for one year; and when the frigate arrived at St. Augu s tine, the soldie s mutinied one night, before she was unloaded; seized the camp master, the magistrates and the r e g imiento3 that were there, and the keeper of supplies; spiked the artillery, and appointed a s ergeant m ajor and an elect o 4 to govern them; for they [ s ergeant majors ] were res pected and obeyed. They remained 6 days in this manner, at the end of which they embarked on the frigate with 130 men; and becau s e she could not hold all the mutineers, the s ergeant major they had appointed, went about indicating tho s e who were to go on board, who h a d to be [taken] from those who had been the most rebelliou s and trea c herou s to his Majesty in that rebellion. That sergeant took him to g uard his person 12 arquebu s ier s and 6 halberdiers; and while he wa s on the point of going on board with tho s e men who were guardin g him, the camp master succeeded in freeing him s elf, and he unbound 8 others, soldiers and officials of his Majesty' s ref;imi ento; and without being heard they took their arquebuse s and went and set upon the mutineers: they deserted the boat, and the camp ma s ter took her: wh e n they saw they were lost, they surrendered and gave up their arms to him: he had them put into custody: he impeached them; there was a di s turbance among some men, friends of those whom they held pris oners there who had not been able to find room on board the fri gate; and the c a mp master having had their confession s taken, cau s ed the ser geant to be hanged during the night, before daybreak. Pity was felt for the e l e cto whom he had likewise made prisoner, because he wa s fooli s h, and had accepted that office very m ch against his will: therefore in the morn ing the camp master released him and the others whom he held in custody, giving them a reprimand; and in order that the frigate might not be ao e to set sail, he armed a patache he had there, to g o and attack her; this having been done, he took on board the patache with him the s oldiers in whom fi e had the mos t trus t, and be gan to fire at the frigate so as to sink her; the rebels cut the cable whi c h held her at 8 Municipal council. 4 In ancient times, the man elected a chief of mutineers was called an electo.

PAGE 5

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 155 anchor, hoisted the sails and fled: the camp master returned to the fort, disarmed the patache and put his men under orders and disci p ine, as before. The Adelantado felt great sympathy for the camp master, on seeing him so weak from the s hock he had had at finding the soldiers wanting in respect to him: it was the 20th of March when the Adelantado arrived there: Bartolome Menendez likewise, who was governor and alcaide of that fort and district, and the brother of the Adelantado, was in bed, very ill; when the mutiny broke out, he had been away with some soldiers, seeking maize from the Indian enemies; if he had been there at the time, they would have killed him, for he was dis liked. Everyone was sad and distressed, and it was a great pity, but with the comingt<:>f the Adelantado they were cheered at o?ce, and the sick became well, for the caravel brought much maize and honey, many chickens and sandals; and the same day Estebano de las Alas entered the harbor, returning from Havana, where he had left Dona Antonia and the other Indians; for also, brought supplies, meat and cattle, and great was the satisfaction , merriment and rejoicing of them all. CHAPTER XVI. Menendez Returns to St. Augustine March 20th, 1566.1 Troubles with Deserters, Conspirators and Indian Enemies. At the time this meeting took place in St. Augustine, there was also one at San Mateo, for it was found out that there was a precon certed arrangement and an exchange of lei:.ters going on from one fort to another between some captains, officers and soldiers, who ordered that the camp master be asked with all insistence that a vessel in the manner of a galley, which the French had left on the st ks at San Mateo, should be finished, and that a patache which was in St. Augus tine should be prepared; [the mutineers !tw'ould then carry off] the first supply ship that might arrive, and would leave the country with the 3 vessels, seizing the soldiers and captains who should want to go, 1 Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos," p. 99, in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones. ' t

PAGE 6

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE" AVILES so that it might be thought they were taking them away by force; and if any captain remained of those in the mutiny, it seemed to them that he would be compelled to depart when any other ship came, because with so few people they could not defend themselves from the Indians if they should be enemies. In this manner his Majesty would keep them in service for remaining there at the time of the mutiny, and during the departure from the country afterward, so that all of them would not perish; and all secrecy was to be observed in carrying this out, for they were afraid of the camp master, and of not being able to bend to their wills the governors and alcaides of the forts, who were Bartolome Menendez, the brother of the Adelantado, in St. Augustine, and Gonzalo de Villarroel in San Mateo; but the camp master, although he realized that making ready the ships w wrong, did not dare to do anything else, because the men were already stirred up: he therefore told them that they themselves must prepare the letter to be sent to San Mateo; that he would sign it; and so it was done: he wrote another, [however], to Gonzalo tie Villarroel, and he had it sewed in the back of the messenger's coat, so that they should not find it; and therein he told Villarroel that he must hinder the completion of that vessel as much as he could, because he had not been able to do otherwise than give the letter the men demanded, as they were in a disturbed state of mind; and that if the soldiers at San Mateo should want to rise in rebellion, he must deal with them as best he could, and according to circumstances, and in such manner that they would not kill him. These mutineers began five days after the Adelantado de parted from St. Augustine, to go to Cape Canaveral to search for the Frenchmen who had themselves there, as has been said; for he left St. Augustine for the Cape on the 26th of October, '65; and from the 1st of November there were letters written from one fort to the oth r, wherein they began to seek an excuse to leave the country, there being no reason or foundation for this beyond its appearing to them that they had no tidfngs of any gold or silver in that land, and most of them held as impossible the victory which God Our Lord had given the Adelantado over the Lutherans. From Santo Domingo and the island of Cuba they could pass on to Peru and New Spain, which

PAGE 7

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 157 were rich and fertile lands, and that was the principal object they had had in setting out from Spain; and as they had not stopped at those is ands, and God gave the victory against the Lutherans, in casting them out of the country, and those Spaniards did not want to be con querors and colonizers there, it seemed to them that this was a good opportunity to say that they were leaving it on account of lack of food, but this they should have settled at the beginning-for the Ade lantado had taken away the 300 men for the second fort, whom he afterward left with Captain Juan Velez de Medrano; and the sailors who manned the vessels he sent for provisions, and the dispatch boat he sent to Spain; they had enough until the end of March, with the great quantity of very good fish, large oysters, cangrejos2 and palmet tos, and a quantrty of oil which the Adelantado had landed; and before the Adelantado captured the enemy's fort, he had arranged that a l't pound of biscuit should be given as a ration, which was very good in a [campaign for] conquest; and meat, at times; dried peas, at others, cooked in oil and vinegar; foili, at others . And in the name of all, Juan de San Vicente replied to him. He was a soldier of Medina del Campo, who arrived in Seville at the time the Adelantado wanted to sail for Florida; he came from Italy because of some quarrel he had had there, and brought a letter of introduction to the Adelantado from Luis de Quintanilla, wherein he told him that San Vicente was a very good soldier, and it appeared to him that he might show as much spirit and valor as Captain San Vicente, his brother; he begged the Adelantado to honor and favor him whenever it might be possible. The Adelantado was a great friend of Luis de Quintanilla, and this was the first thing ... he had asked of him: he had heard that Captain San Vicente, in Italy, the brother of this soldier, was a good captain: it appeared to him that this man might also make a good one, so he appointed him,j captain; and he appointed as his ensign a comrade of his called Fernando Perez, who came with him; he was likewise from Medina del Campo, and they had been together in Italy.8 2 Cangrejo usually means crawfish; at that time in the West Indies, it also meant crab. 8 Cf. P 74

PAGE 8

• • PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES And that captain and his ensign said to the Adelantado: "A ration of one pound of biscuit to each soldier, is little." And although the Adelantado demonstrated with sufficient reasolis that it was enough, and that considering the need and the circum stances, more biscuit ought not to be given out, San Vicente insisted, and some of his soldiers came up to say that one pound per ration could not be endured; on this account the Adelantado decided to make it a pound and a quarter, and he remained very suspicious of that captain and his ensign. And after the capture of the Frenchmen's fort, which burned down with the supplies, there yet remained more than one hundred casks of flour: many of the soldiers increased their eating, without system, and not wanting their rations made smaller. By the middle of Febru ary the supplY. gave out, and they would have wished this to happen much sooner, as was afterward seen; then a frigate of 70 toneles arrived, laden with provisions, and they mutinied and '.Vent off on board of her; then other supply ships afrived, which the Adelantado brought from St. Augustine, and the men at San Mateo, who had risen in mutiny, had not yet departed: he informed them at once of the sufficient amount of supplies which he was bringing, and that there were tidings of Frenchmen coming upon them; [he said] that he for gave them the disturbance, and if he had been with them he would have left the country before then, so as not to perish from hunger; that he did rtot consider them at fault for having mutinied to depart from the country, when they had no food; but now that there was enough, it would be great treason against his Majesty to abandon the two forts he had in that land; especially because, if there remained . a few Christians only, the Indians would immediately become enemies, and there were some Frenchmen among them who would train them to make war on those who might remain in the forts, for in order to serve his Majesty and be loyal vassals to him, some of the soldiers would not want to aband&. them. They received that message, which the Adelantado sent by a notary public. He notified them on behalf of his Majesty, that under penalty of being considered as traitors, they should return to the fort, observe that order and comply therewith: .

PAGE 9

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 159 they replied that they did not know how to cultivate or plough, and that land was not good for anything else; that they wanted to go to '"I the Indies to live like Christians, and not remain to live like beasts in Florida. On that vessel there were over one hundred and twenty soldiers who had risen in mutiny: 35 of them, who were gentlemen, answered that they wished to return to the fort, to serve their King and obey their General; that they wanted to be landed, as they were about two leagues from the fort: the rest said they did not wish to be: those 35 replied, saying that the others risked trouble for themselves in desert ing, for in whatever land of Christians they might come to, they would have to tell the authorities about the mutiny, and how they had de parted from thlt country leaving the fort abandoned, and within it only the alcaide, Gonzalo de Villarroel; his ensign, Troche; Don Hernando de Gamboa; Rodrigo Montes, a first cousin* of the camp master, and four of his relatives; Martin Ochoa, his ensign and sergeant, with other friends? and Captain Francisco de Recalde and a servant of his; 21 persons in all. Francisco de Recalde's ensign and sergeant, who were the chief heads of the mutiny, had done much harm to the Indians and killed several, especially three principal ones, causing the rest to go to war, although up to then they had been so friendly with Saturiba4 and his vassals, that many of them intended to come and settle near the fort. The rebels kriew that if they landed the 35 [gentlemen], as they asked to be, the Indians would kill them; and in order that this might happen the more quickly, the mutineers stripped them of their clothes, 'l * From here to the next asterisk, there is a break in the manuscript, supplied as usual from Barcia's Ensayo Cronologico. 4 Laudonniere's Satouriona, Dominique de Gourgues' Satiroua. Saturiba ap pears very prominently both in the French and the Spanish chron'kles of this period; there are several amusing descriptions of him. His district was the southern bank of the St. Johns, at the mouth of the river. "One enters the harbor [the river mouth] to ?he east, southwest, and on the left hand there is a pueblo of 25 large houses, where in each one live eight or nine Indians with their wives and children, because [those of] one lineage live together. The pueblo is called Saturiba: by this name do the Lutherans call the cacique who is the lord of the place." Barrientos in Garcia, p. 43. •

PAGE 10

160 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and robbing them of whatever they had, took them on shore in a boat; and as they began to walk toward the fort, the Indians sallied forth very fiercely and with their arrows killed them all. Gonzalo de Villarroel was ignorant of all the aforesaid, and as he was short of men, he sent Rodrigo Troche, his ensign, with one soldier, to ask succor at St. Augustine thinking the trail was very safe, as it had been up to then; but they had scarcely left the fort when the Indians met them, calling them: "Christians, brothers and friends." The two did not conceal themselves from them, and they were taken unawares, and carried prisoners to Saturiba, who knew Rodrigo well. He commanded at once that his breast be split open and his heart taken out, and that the same be done to the other man, in order to terrify the rest with these cruelties, and make them leave the country as the had done. The Adelantaqo was then in St. Augustine, preparing to go on his voyage to Guale and the province of Santa Elena, having already picked out 300 soldiers with their captains, and among them Juan de San Vicente; and before dispatching to Havana the two pataches of Juan de Llerena and Diego de Miranda, he placed a caravel in readi ness to bring supplies and munitions from Santo Domingo; but as he knew the boldness of the mutineer s , and that his pity and tolerance had made them worse, he ordered a vessel to be made ready to go and fight them: at the time of embarking, Juan de San Vicente came and asked permission to leave on the caravel with his ensign. The Adelantado refused to grant it, to avoid the bad example, tell ing him that the proper thing was to drive the French out of Guale and fortify themselves [tliere], for it was a good land; this he could not do with less than 300 men; and it was necessary to send loo to Gonzalo de Villarroel, and to leave another ioo in St. Augustine with the master; that as soon as the reinforcements he expected from Spain arrived he would give him permission to go. The captain answered that he and his 4ensign were in ill health and insisted on its being given him. The Adelantado ordered them to draw up a petition, and they pre sented it without delay, more than ioo soldiers presenting others, each

PAGE 11

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES signed by 12 or 15 of them. The Adelantado, on seeing the disturb ance, denied all the petitions; but as he feared that a grea ' ter mutiny might break out in that fort if he absented himself in Santa Elena, and that the lives of the camp master and the other officials might be in danger, he notified Captain San Vicente and others that leaving the country did not befit the royal service, and that during his absence in Santa Elena, they must not stir up rebellions or mutinies, but each one must attend to his duty; that when soldiers arrived from Spain, he would give leave to depart to all who asked for it; that if they wanted to name men to go to Santo Domingo in the caravel, thence to sail for Spain for their private affairs, they should do so at once; but that if, after those had left, the rest intended to mutiny, deserting the forts, they tell him so; that it was less harmful to leave the forts deserted than in the care of such wicked men. They must understand, [however,] that they were to go as prisoners to Seville, under the orders of the royal ,officials of the Casa de la Contrataci6n; and if they did not wish to go through that disgrace, but remained in the fort like good soldiers, he would thank them very much; but if they created any riot, they would be condemned to death, their prop erty would be confiscated, and they would be declared traitors. They replied that if permission were granted them, it should be as his lordship wished; and [the Adelantado] seeing that his efforts were of no use, and would only result in the ruin of the others; and [believ ing] that the caravel would only have room for 50 or 60 men, gave them leave to embark; but they accommodated themselves in such wise that more than loo went on board. 'I'he pilot was given orders to take them to Puerto Rico and return to St. Augustine with sup plies: the penalties already mentioned were intimated to those on board, to which they agreed; but they had hardly left land they rose in mutiny on the caravel and compelled the pilot to set sail for Havana, whence they thought they would• obtain better opportuni ties to go to New Spain, Peru, Honduras or Campeche. A contrary wind arose, and not wishing to land in Puerto Rico, they made their way to Santo Domingo and Puerto de Plata, having first drawn up a

PAGE 12

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES statement that they came by permission, each one swearing falsely for the others. The pilot informed Francisco de Ceballos, who was govem!ng there, of the truth of the matter; but he took no notice thereof; on the contrary, he, the authorities and the rest of the residents received the mutineers very well, although they knew that they had royal cedu las in that town and in other parts of the Indies, to the effect that they w.ere to arrest all the soldiers coming from Florida, and send them back there; but the judges and governors would not comply with them as they appeared to them very rigorous; and if they arrested anyone, they immediately freed him, allowing him to go to Peru or New Spain, as did several of these conspirators; but mdst of them died without going any farther, for there came in the caravel*omany more than she could carry: they were very crowded, the heat was intense, the voyage usually took 10 or 12 days and they were over thirty in mak ing it, and the food and water gave out; it was a miracle that any remained alive. t..-The Adelantado was advised of all this, and that the other 120 soldiers who had risen in St. Augustine, and sailed in the frigate laden with supplies, had arrived there, and been shown much honor and courtesy: he gave notice to the Royal Audiencia of that island, that since those soldiers were not sent back to him in Florida, in ac cordance with his Majesty's cedula, they should be sent to Spain, for his Majesty would be very ill served by their going farther into the Indies. Most of them passed over to those parts to which they wished to go; and others presented themselves before the Audiencia, saying that they had served very well, were not in fault and should be set free; especially Captain San Vicente and his ensign; a thing which caused surprise, and was a very bad example for the larger number of soldihs who remained in Florida in his Majesty's service; for his Majesty through his royal decrees, which were presented before that Audiencia, did not that the cases pertaining to Florida should be tried, but did expressly stipulate that any person setting out therefrom without license from the Adelantado, should be taken back, * The manuscript follows from here. l

PAGE 13

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES well guarded, as a prisoner; and although these decrees were presented before, and made known to, all the judicial authorities throughout the IJdies, out of 500 soldiers who left Florida as mutineers, and 500 others who started for that country and remained in the Indies (the whole thousand of whom the Adelantado brought from Spain at his expense, even giving them passage and ship-stores), they have not, up to this day, sent ten of them back to him in Florida. The Adelantado informed his Majesty of everything, so that he might dispatch his decrees all through the Indies, that the deserters might be sent as prisoners to these kingdoms, and that there should not be so many malcontents in those parts. In order to justify their weakness, most of them, wherever they went, and those who returned to these kingdoms, spoke ill publicl;e of the country and the Adelantado's enterprise; of his officials, relatives and friends who remained there, apd the hunger, hardship and dangers that might come to pass; and this was the reason that many persons [changed their minds], who at the beginning, when the Adelantado sailed, had w!nted to go and settle there; and because of these tales the deserters told, and the letters written by Captain San Vicente, Fernando Perez, his ensign, and others who had shown weakness-letters as prejudicial to the Adelantado as to his agents and officers, in speaking ill of the country against all reason and truthnot a man was found willing to go and live, settle and conquer there. These letters and tidings gained so much credit throughout all Spain and the Indies, that it was said that many condemned the Adelantado for persisting in wanting to settle that land; to such an extent that it was said that several of his Majesty's ministers held him to be in fault; and they did not take note that all those ;,ho said these things had only gone along the sea-shore, through swamps and sandy stretches, guarding the forts and making war against the Lutherans; and that there was not one of them who had gone one league inland in Florida. • •

PAGE 14

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER XVII. Cfhe Adelantado Goes to See Cacique Guale and Cacique Orista,"' April-May, i566. B ecause, as has been said, Captain Juan de San Vicente and his ensign had departed from the Fort of St. Augustine with the hundred and odd persons in the caravel, to go to Puerto de Plata, the Adelan tado changed his mind, for instead of taking 300 men to Guale and Santa Elena, he left I 50 in the two forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo, with the people who were already there, and sailed with the other i50 in two brigantines and a ship of Ioo toneles, directly to Guale, and on the way he stopped at San Mateo, Jeft the men and provisions and visited that fort: his arrival greatly rejoiced de Villarroel and those who were with him: in St. Augustine and San Mateo Captain Francisco de Recalde was being held much to blame for the mutinies that occurred, and general investigation which was made among those who were inculpated resulted against him more than anyone else. The Adelantado did not wish to punish anyone: he sent the report of the proceedings to his Majesty, and Francisco de Recalde as a prisoner to the Casa de Contrataci6n of Seville: the report arrived, [and] it was found that Recalde's offence had been taken out of it; and when he reached Seville, he did not present himself at this court. On seeing that he was not blamed in the report, he begged favors of his Majesty, who delayed grmting them until the arrival of the Adelan tado in Spain. It was held for certain that the Adelantado wou!d order Captain Franciscb de Recalde to be punished because of his offence which [had] appeared in the report, and because in his coffer certain letters were found from a priestcof Seville, called Licentiate Rueda, who had been at the Fort of St. Augustine, and one of the chiefa of the muti neers, and who, owing to the statement he made before the authorities of the city of Santo Domingo, taking other mutinous soldiers as wit-

PAGE 15

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES nesses, now serves as cura1 in that city, and they show him much courtesy. •The Adelantado, leaving the two forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo protected as well as he could, consistently with the [little] time and supplies he had, left San Mateo for Guale at the beginning of April of the said year ' 66. Having sailed for 3 days, he discovered a harbor; he got into the 2 brigantines with about 50 persons, leaving Estebano de las Alas with the other 100 in the vessel of 100 toneles: the Adelantado went to reconnoitre a harbor he saw at a distance and di s embarked there, near the pueblo, about a quarter of a league there from: many Indian archers came rnnning, and one Christian among them, likewise naked, with his bows and arrows; he spoke in Spanish and said: "Wha! people are you [and] whence come you, brothers'?" The Adelantado replied: "We are Spaniards," all9i asked him: "Brother, who are you and what are you doing here'?" The man answered: "I am a Frenchman, al though I was born and reared in Cordova: about IS years ago I escaped from the Castle of Triana, where they held me prisoner, and fled to France: there, in Abra de Gracia, 2 I married: since then I have always journeyed on the sea. I was 6 years in Brazil, learning the language of the Indians there in a harbor of that country. Captain Villagafion8 was there, who was Captain-General of that country, and he went to France to ask for succor, and a Portuguese armada arrived there, and captured the fort he had. Some died and others remained alive: I escaped to the Indies, for I know the language very well: afterward a French vessel came there and aboard of her I returned to Frince: then the Admiral of France got a fleet together: he sent me therein as an interpreter to this land, and Juan Ribao came as Viceroy of all Florida; he was the General of the armada: I came with him, and I am here as in rpreter." Then the Adelantado asked him the name of that country and the cacique thereof. He said that it was called Florida; that the lord of that land, and 1 The priest of the town. 2 Havre de Grace; Havre. a Villegaignon.

PAGE 16

i66 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES the village which appeared near by, was called Guale ;4 and that he sent him to find out what people these were, in order that if they should be Spaniards, the Indians should not let them disembark, for that cacique and his people were friends of the French. The Adelan tado said to him: "We do no harm to the Indians; on the contrary, we do them good; and we do not want to go to their land against their will; come hither, brother, for it grieves me to see you go about in this manner." And he gave him a new shirt, a pair of breeches, a hat and some food; and said that if the Indians wished to eat, they were to come there. The interpreter called the Indians, and presently they came: they sat on the sand, and were given biscuit, which they ate very willingly, and some dried figs: there were about 40 Indians. The Adelantado made them a J some gifts, whereat they took much satisfaction, and they praised the Adelantado by signs, asking him to come to their home. The Adelantado asked the interpreter what they were saying; he replied that they were delighted with the Adelantado, and were re questing him to come to their pueblo to see their cacique. The Adelantado told the interpreter to tell them that so he wanted to do; and he immediately took with him 30 arquebusiers and 4 hal..: berdiers, and landed, leaving the i6 men to guard the brigantines; and the Indians had no fear. As he walked to the village the Adelan tado spoke with the interpreter, and inquired of him who had left him there. He said that 6 months before, Juan Ribao had been shipwrecked with part of his armada, w ile he was going in search of General Pedro Menendez, who came to that land to make the Indians Christians; and Juan Ribao, and the captains and men who were with him, belonged to the n
PAGE 17

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES French might] keep galleys there, to capture the fleets and vessels that passed on their way from the Indies. The arma .da was wrecked in a storm and the men escaped: its General sent a boat with a son-in-law of his, 2 other captains and 12 sailors, and the interpreter among them, so that they might go to a fort they had, to ask that 2 or 3 vessels be sent for the men, for these ships were in the harbor near the fort; and entering the harbor where the fort was, the friendly Indians told them that other Christians like themselves had captured their houses and property and the fort, and had slain the men who were therein. Pres ently a Frenchman ran down to the shore, who had escaped to the Indians, and he related all that had passed; and then the people in the boat decided to go to Santa Elena, because the Indians there were their friends, a!!tl they [the French] knew the country and the lan guage, as 6 years before they had built a fort5 there [Fhich they had for] 3 or 4 years, and because the captain did not wish to go to France, his soldiers killed him, built a ship, and sailed in her to England.6 A servant of this dead captain Red to the woods among the Indians, and remained with them, so that they should not slay him, [thinking] that he would tell in France what had happened: the Indians married him to a daughter of the cacique. * That interpreter also told the Adelantado the state of affairs in Guale; that its cacique was at war with Orista and held 2 of his prin cipal Indians as prisoners, whom he would shortly put to death, as he did the other enemies he captured; and that there was little food in the land, as there had been no rain for 8 months. Many other things the Frenchman said, until they arrived a the pueblo.7 The cacique, already an elderly man, came forth to receive them peacefully, with 5 Charlesfort was built four years before. 6 Cf. Laudonniere's First Voyage in L'Histoire Notable de la Fl ide, edited by Basanier, Paris, 1586; or in Hakluyt's translation, A Notable Historie, Lon don, 1587. * Supplied from the Ensayo Cronologi c o until ext asterisk. 7 Barrientos tells this part of the story much more clearly than does Meras. Ribaut's party, instead of going to ask the help of Orista (or Audusta), who had been so good to Ribaut's fir s t settlers at Charle s fort, near Port Royal, in 1562, stopped on the way and remained with Cacique Guale, who drew them

PAGE 18

i68 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES two of his sons and some of the principal Indians. The Adelantado went through the same ceremonies with him as he had with the rest, and the cacique rejoiced greatly at seeing him, because the Frenchman easily persuaded him that the Adelantado and his men were good peo ple who did no harm to the Indians, but much good. They spoke on some matters, wherein the French interpreter served well; and among other things, the cacique asked the Adelantado how it was that he was at war with the other Christians and killed them, when they were all from one land. He replied to him that they were false Christians and his enemies, being rebels against God, the church and their King, who was a true Christian; that others as wicked as they, wanted him [their King] to be a false Christian, by force of arms, and that if the King of Spain, the Adelantado's master, had not helped him o chastise them, they would ha e wrested the kingdom from him, to bestow it on one of their false sect; that those whom the Adelantado had slain, deserved a death more cruel, because they had come there, fleeing from their country, to deceive the caciques and their ndians, as they had deceived the good Christians, in order that the devil might carry them off. They against their will into his war with Orista; so that the latter, from being the champion of the French, became their enemy and the friend of the Spanish. "During the walk [to Guale's village], the Adelantado asked the interpreter . how he came to be there, and he said that it was six months since Juan Ribao had been shipwrecked with all his armada, while he was going in search of Gen eral Pero Menendez: and he told him that fifteen Lutherans had arrived there, and had lived five months in a house which they built; and having built a boat, they had embarked therein fifteen days before, and went to Terranova [Newfoundland], to sail thence for France by the fishing vessels. He learned likewise from the man that the of Guale and Santa Elena were waging a cruel war on each other, and he of Guale had taken with him those fifteen Frenchmen to fight him, although they went with reluctance because Orista, for thus the Cacique of Santa Elena was called, was an acquaintance of theirs. Going in the very boat J'f the Lutherans, [the Guale Indians] ran across four Indians in a canoe, two of them Orista's relatives, whom they captured: and while returning to Guale with this prize, two ,of them threw themselves overboard, and swam back to Santa Elena, and related to the cacique that the Christians who had been in his land six years before, had taken them prisoners in their bark. [The inter preter also told the Adelantado] how Cacique Orista had sent to threaten the Lutherans, who within two days wanted to kill those principal Indians." Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos," in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Relaciones, p. 103.

PAGE 19

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 169 were so :fiendish and pernicious that no one could have any dealings with them, until they were silenced by being put to death; that was the reason for making war upon them, until such a wicked and pesti lential sect was destroyed. But the Adelantado did not think that the cacique had reason for the cruel war he was making on Orista, since they were all of one same country, and the wrongs which had been done were hardly worth the whipping of one subject. Guillermo the interpreter8 explained all the aforesaid very clearly to the cacique, and* the cacique answered the Adelantado that he wanted to be a true Christian, not a false one, like the other Christians who had been there. The Adelantado told him the power and goodness of God, and all that he told the other caciques; and that he should order his people to come and hea,. the chants which the youths recited; that that was the Christian doctrine; and to come and kiss the cross ;4t'Cllld afterward 8 Guillermo, the Adelantado's own interpreter, was Guillaume Rouffi or Rufin, who remained at Port Royal afttr Ribaut's soldiers deserted his colony and set sail for France, in 1562. Guillermo married a daughter of Orista. Cf. pp. 167 and 174.-"Relacion e informaci6n de los Franceses que han ido a poblar en la costa de la Florida, San Cristobal de la Habana, 9 Julio, 1564." MS. A.G. de I., 54-1-15.-Basanier, L'Histoire Notable de la Floride, ff. 74b-75a.-Hakluyt, A Notable Historie, f. 39b. "The Adelantado brought with him a French Catholic called Guillermo, who had come [to the West Indies] in a frigate which Diego de Mazariegos, Gover nor of Cuba, had sent along the coast of Florida to see if Lutherans were there: and they brought him back with them, because the French had left him there to learn the language. The Governor, by a cedula of his Majesty, delivered him to the Adelantado: this man understood that the other interpreter in Guale was a Lutheran: and the Adelantado, being advised of this, and talking with the other interpreter, understood it to be thus: an he told him that he and his soldiers had come to that land to make the Indians become Christians: that if he had reason to think he [the interpreter] was a Lutheran, they would kill him: that he should tell everyone he was a Catholic and advise the that the Lutherans who had been there were false Christians, and they were 'hue Chris tians, servants of God, and had come to slay those Lutherans who were artful and false Christians: and that if the cacique andJiis people wished to be Chris tians, the Adelantado would defend him against his enemies. The interpreter, from the fright he had, said all this very well to the cacique and his principal Indians: Guillermo the Frenchman being present." Barrientos in Garcia, pages 103-104. * The manuscript follows from here. •

PAGE 20

170 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES they would tell him what those chants meant. He said he would do so; and the Adelantado had a large cross set up there; and all of them having gathered and sung the litanies, kneeling, they went to kiss and worship the cross: the cacique and all the Indian men and women did likewise. The Adelantado prayed the interpreter, since he was born in Spain, to turn to Catholicism and the faith of Jesus Christ, [saying] he would cherish him greatly and give him many things; and if he wished to go back to France, he would send him to Spain, because he could make his way to France from there; but if he wished to remain where he was, he could do that: he replied that there he wanted to be and remain, and that he wanted to become a Christian and a Catholic, and that he would work to the end that the Indians might become so. The Adelantado thanked him very much, and tokl him that next day in the mo ning they should discuss with that cacique a peace be tween him and the Cacique of Santa Elena, and that he [the inter preter] should be the good mediator for that purpose, so that they would not kill those two principal Indians of Orista. He promised him to do what he could in the matter; and the next day in the morning, the cacique and all the Indian men, women, boys and girls, when they saw that the Christian doctrine was being repeated, hastened there and knelt: after which, the soldiers went to worship and kiss the cross, kneeling, and the cacique and all the Indians did the same: then the Adelantado took the cacique by the hand, led him to his house and requested that he would have his principal Indians summoned, as he wished to speak to them; and thus about 10 or 12 came. The Adelantado said through the interpreter that he had learned that they were at war with the Indians of Santa Elena; that he begged them to be friends; that he would go to treat of peace, and they should give him the two Indians they held as prisoners in order to take them him; and if the Cacique of Santa Elena did not want to be their friend, he would bring them back. Guale spoke with his Indians, and replied that he could not 'consent, because Orista would take the Indians from him, and would not want to be his friend. It had not rained for 8 months in the country, and their corn fields and farming lands were dry, whereat they were all sad, on account

PAGE 21

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 171 of the little food they had. The Adelantado told them that God was angry with Guale, because he was at war with Orista and two other caciques, and because he slew the men he captured, and this was the reason God would not give him water; that he would leave him 2 Christians as hostages for the 2 Indians, and that if he did not make peace with Orista and bring Guale back the 2 Indians; he could kill those 2 Christians. Cacique Guale spoke a while with his men, and replied that he was satisfied, and the Adelantado told him that next day he must depart. All the Indians, big and little, showed great pleasure at [the prospect of] that peace the Adelantado wished to conclude, for the Indians of Santa Elena were more powerful than they, and slew many Indians of that CaciquetG-uale. The Adelantado presently went to breakfast with his soldiers, and took with him the cacique and ril. sons he had, very good fellows, and went 2 leagues from there, to see the island and the lay of the land. The cacique, being old, turned back after going half a league: the Adelantado found the land very good and fit for raising grain and grapes. When he returned to the village, the cacique asked him to show him the 2 Christians who were to remain with him: he did so at once, because in his own mind he had already picked them out: the two sol diers were silent, without answering anything, appearing very sad: the cacique said that he did not want those two Christians: that he was to take the two he wanted: the Adelantado said that he was satisfied, and the cacique should choose them immediately: he pointed out a nephew of the Adelantado, called Alonso Menendez Marques, and Vasco Zabal, the ensign of the royal standard, for he saw that they sat at the Adelantado's table, and it was thought likewise that the inter preter might have told him that those 2 were among the most important men. The Adelantado said that he was glad that those should remain; that they were both his captains, among he loved the most, and he would leave each of them a Christian to wait on him, and the youths who were to teach the Christian doctrine. The cacique showed himself very joyful at this, and went to em-• •

PAGE 22

172 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES brace and thank them in his manner, in order to do them honor. They became very sad, saying that it was not right to remain with those savages. The Adelantado replied that he would willingly stay; that they had nothing to fear; that he prayed them earnestly to try through that interpreter to make them understand what bestial lives they led, and how good it was to be Christians: then he told the cacique to treat his Christians well, and if he did them harm, the Adelantado would order that he and all his people should have their heads cut off; be cause he would make peace and bring principal Indians from Santa Elena to conclude it, and would return as soon as he could. The cacique was frightened, and if the Adelantado had urged him, he would willingly have given to him the Christians -With the Indians, on condition $at the Adelantado should leave his country; for the Indians stood in great fear of the Adelantado; they had already had tidings of the victories he h .ad won over the French Lutherans, for in that land, news of the things that happen travels fast from cacique to cacique: he replied to the Adelantado that he would treat his people well, and that neither he nor his men would kill them, if the cacique of heaven did not do so. Thus the Adelantado departed for Santa Elena the next day, in the morning, leaving those 6 Christians there as hos tages and teachers of the Indians: he embarked in his brigantines, went out to sea at midday, discovered a vessel, went toward her, recognized her as being his, at anchor: he boarded her: very great was the pleasure of Estebano de las Alas and his men on meeting the Adelantado, for they had feared much that he was lost; it was 4 days since he had left them to reconnoitre the har,,or, which should have been a delay of 2 or 3 hours only, and that night was stormy. They sounded the trumpets for joy and discharged the artillery: the two Indians whom the Ade lantado was taking to Santa Elena, and a principal one from Guale, who went along to be present at the peace negotiations, were much frightened at the noise, saying it gave them much pain in the head and heart; that the Spaniards should sound the trumpets, that was a good thing; but not to fire any more. The Adelanta?o commanded it should be so, and told Guillermo,

PAGE 23

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 173 the interpreter, to talk to the Indians, since he understood them, and gladden and cheer them as much as he could; and he charged all the seldiers to treat them very well. The Adelantado ordered the ship to hoist anchor, and sailed for Santa Elena with her and the 2 brigantines: then he related to Este bano de las Ala s , and most of the men, what had happened to him, whereat they were all pleased, although they regretted greatly that Alonso Menendez Marques had remained behind, as he was much beloved by all. They arrived at Santa Elena9 the next day in the after noon, for the 3 Indians they brought knew the harbor very well : they entered it at the place to which the Indians guided them, for they were skilful pilots, being accustomed to going there fishing in their canoes. Having entered •he harbor and gone a league up the river, the Indians ordered that the large vessel should anchor, as she could not go farther, and they should embark in the brigantines and go to the village: the Adelantado did this, and embarked in the brigantines, and took with him Esteband de las Alas aI1rl about one hundred persons. He arrived at the pueblo of the Indians, which was 2 leagues from there, and found it burned, and [the inhabitants] beginning to build a few houses again. A few Indians appeared, much disturbed, with their bows and arrows and ready for war: the two Indians the Adelantado had with him, told him that those others thought that he and his men were some of the false Christians, who had captured them in the war, while helping Guale; that they would land and tell them we were very good, and enemies of those people, and the reason we came. The Adelantado let them go, and within half an hour he landed with all his people, leaving IO in each brigantine to guard it; a.ti.cl the Indians immediately came to the Adelantado without bows and arrows, with great humility and making great demonstrations of respect, and many ran off, some by one trail, others by another: this was to notify the the caciques and captains, that they should come to see the Adelantado: then they built a great fire, and brought a " quantity of shell-fish, and 9 The Point of Santa Elena, according to Lowery, was Hilton Head, South Carolina, very near the site of Charlesfort. Cf. Spanish Settlements, i562-1574, p. 440. • •

PAGE 24

174 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES the Adelantado and his men took supper. Many Indians came running, all of them to speak with and pay their respects to the Adelantado, for the love and joy these Indians showed him was something to se . That night came three caciques, subjects of Orista, and told him that he should go to a village one league distant from there, as Orista and others of his captains and caciques would come there to eat: next day the Adelantado did this: Oris ta came and 2 other caciques and cap tains: great was the delight of all on seeing Guillermo, the interpreter, to whom Orista had given a daughter of his for wife, at the time he first came there.1 0 The Adelantado him to tell Orista to gather his principal Indians, because he wished to speak to them: this was done: the Adelantado commanded Guillermo, who was the interpreter, to tell them (the 3 Indians being pre sent whom the.Adelantado had brought with him) all that had passed in Guale concerning the mak ing of peace. said that he would reply pre sentl y , and he spoke with his Indians more than half an hour, discussing the subject, without their wanting Guillermo to be there, o that he should not under stand what they were treating of; and then they called the interpreter, to whom they talked a very long time, and afterward the interpreter told the Adelantado, on behalf of Ori s ta, that it would plea s e him much to make peace, a s the Adelantado ordered him to do; and he would be even more pleased to become a true Christian, with his peo ple, as those of Guale wanted to be, for those people were not to be better than they; that his Indians, whom the Adelantado had brought from Guale, had told them who God was and how good it was to be Christians; that they wished very much to have the Adelantado live in that land and to take him f or an elder brother, in order to do what he should command them; and that they would hold the false Christians as enemies, since they were tho s e of the Adelantado. He replied to them, showing there was great joy in his heart, that he loved them much, but did not think he could live in that land, because it was bad, and his own was better; and that if Orista's Indians killed his Chris-10 Orista was Laudonniere's friend, Audusta. Guale, in L'Hi st oire Notable and in A Notable Historie, is called Ouade, this being the French spelling of the Indian name.

PAGE 25

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 175 tians, and if they did any harm, the Adelantado would at once kill him who did it, because the he brought would not hurt the Ir dians; that he would like to live there solely in order that they might learn to become Christians, so that when they died they might go to heaven. He told them the power and goodness of God, and all that he told the other caciques, that they might become Christians: they showed great satisfaction at hearing him, and repeated* that they wished to become Christians, praying him to leave them someone to teach them: they begged for this with so much earnestness, that the Adelantado offered to leave a man; but [said] that if Orista or his people killed him, he would return to make war on them, and cut off the heads of all of them. Then came Indian women, carrying maize, fish boiled and roasted, oysters and many acorns; and the Adelantado ordered biscuit, honey and wine to be brought, and divided it among the Indians, who drank the wine well, but ate the biscuit dipped in honey-water, better, because they are very fond o sweets. When the meal was over, during which there was great merriment and rejoicing, they seated the Adelantado in the seat of the cacique, and with various ceremonies Orista came to him and took his hands: afterward the rest of the caciques and Indians did the same: the mother and the relatives of the two slaves he had brought from Guale, caressed him very much and wept for joy: then they began to sing and dance, the caciques and several principal Indians remaining with the Adelantado, and the festivities and demonstrations lasted until about midnight, when they withdrew. The next day, the Indians issued many proclamations in the village, in order that no one should do any harm o the Christians, and the Adelantado said to the cacique that he was going in search of a good site where he could make a settlement for his Spaniards, for it was"not right that they should live among the Indians, and quarrel :ffterward. The cacique told him of one, near the place where the vessel was anchored, and he embarked, without any whatever, with his wife and 12 Indians, in the Adelantado' s brigantines; and they all *The passage from here to the next asterisk, is supplied from Barcia's Ensayo Cronologico. •

PAGE 26

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES went very gaily together as far as the spot where they were to land. There the Adelantado gave the Indians their midday meal, and the Spaniards landed to go to Orista's village, where they were very wdl entertained that night. Next morning the cacique took the Adelantado to a very large house, and seated him in his seat, going through the same ceremony with him as he had in the previous pueblo, and order ing the same proclamations to be made. They spent the following day in reconnoitring the site to begin the settlement, and it appeared to all of them very good and pleasant; and without losing time, the Ade lantado, Estebano de las Alas and other captains marked out the fort, and its erection was committed to the charge of Antonio Gomez, whom he had taken with 50 soldiers, and others who were sailors, from the ship of the fleet which was in Havana, so that up t(\ the end of May they could be with him in Florida; and they served him very well. CHAPTER xyn1. The Fort of San Felipe Is Built at Santa Elena. Cacique Guale and the Rain. A fort was built of stakes, earth and fascines, and the Adelantado called it San Felipe. He named Estebano de las Alas as governor of it and of that land and left him 110 men: then he sent the vessel with 20 on board to Santo Domingo, to be laden with supplies so that the fort might be provisioned, for he had little to leave there. He likewise dis patched a brigantine to St. Augustine and San Mateo, to give news of everything. He sent some Indians inland to tell the caciques that very good Christians were there; that they did no evil or harm to the natives, but much gO
PAGE 27

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 177 and he paid them many attentions, so that they took him for their elder brother, to command them at his will: they told him they wanted to,,e Christians and he should give them a cross, and some of his men, to teach them in their country. The Adelantado did so, giving to each cacique I or 2 Christians, and tools for erecting a cross in each village, admonishing them that every day, morning and evening, they should repeat the Christian doctrine and worship the Holy Cross, in order that the Indians might learn it and imitate them. To all the caciques he gave presents, and a hatchet to each one, with which they were very much delighted, and they gave him well tanned deerskins and some pearls, of which there are many in that country, although they are of little value because they are burned. • Taking his leave of Cacique Orista, who was very at having Spaniards [left with him], the Adelantado set out for Guale, taking 20 soldiers, 2 of Orista's principal Indians to negotiate the peace, and Guillermo the interpreter. In-Santa Elena* remained Estebano de las Alas, and the men who were with him, who were pleased because there appeared to be a very good beginning of turning the Indians into Christian s , which, next to driving the Lutherans out of the land, was all that they de s ired; but they had great fear of lack of food, for they had very little remaining; and much work to do in finishing their fort, for each day they expected French Lutherans, who had had tidings of the Adelantado's successes against them, on sea as well as on land, in destroying them and eradicating them from that country, so that they should not teach their evil faith to the Indians. To avenge the injuries they had received from the Adelantado arfd his men, and return to settle in that land, they were getting together a great armada; but hearing that the Adelantado was awaiting them, they did not dare go in search of him, and went to the island of Madeira, which to the King of Portugal, and took it and and robbed it, and returned to France. Even if the Indians had• been willing to give food to Estebano de las Alas and his men, they had none, for it had not rained for many months. The Adelantado arrived in Guale, with 20 * The manuscript continues from here. • •

PAGE 28

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES persons, on May 8th: Guillermo landed first: he told the cacique about the peace that had been concluded, and to Alonso Menendez [Marques] and Vasco Zabal and the other 4 Christians who had remained with him, he told all that had happened to them, whereat they were much pleased. The Adelantado disembarked: he was very well re ceived by Guale and all his Indians: then Orista's two Indians told Guale their errand to Guale, while he had his principal Indians gath ered round him, whereat he showed much satisfaction, he and all his people, big and little; but he regretted that the Adelantado had started a friendship with those of Santa Elena, and that those caciques had taken him for an elder brother; and presently he said to the Ade lantado through the interpreter that he was glad about the peace, and that he wanted to take him for his elder brother, to d:J what he should command him; that they wanted to be true Christians, not false ones, like the French who had been there; and that the Adelantado should leave him people to live in his land, since he had done so for Orista. The Adelantado told him that he hat{ none, but would soon send him some. The cacique replied that he should leave those who were already there, as they were good men, to teach them to be Christians, and that afterward he could send him more. The Adelantado said that he would answer him next day in the mornmg. Then the cacique told the Adelantado that since he was already a Christian, and had made peace with Orista in order not to anger God, he should beseech Him to give him water for his maize fields and other cultivated lands, as it had not rained for 9 months. The Adelantado told him that God was very angry with him, be cause He had ordered him to do many things and he had not done them, arrd on this account He would not give the cacique water, although he besought Him to do so. The cacique turned away very sadly and went to his house: the youths who had been left to teach the natives the doctrine, hearing of this, went to the cacique with the interpreter and told him not to be sad; that they would supplicate God that it might rain.

PAGE 29

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 179 The cacique gave them many gamuzas, which are dressed deerskins, and some maize and fish, all of which they took, and went off with • tliem. When the Adelantado heard this, he ordered that they should give up everything, and be stripped to be whipped. The cacique heard this, and came to the Adelantado very sadly, saying that he was deceiving him, since he would not ask the cacique of heaven for water, and wanted to whip the boys because they had asked Him for it; he begged that they might not be whipped, and no longer wished that they should pray God for water; he said he was content that it should rain when God willed. The Adelantado said to the cacique that those youths were rogues; that they trickedthim and told him those falsehoods in order that he should give them the food and deerskins, and that God was angry with them because they were rogues. He ordered that the boys should not be whipped, and said that if the cacique wished to be a true Christian, God would sooner give water to him than to the Adelantado, or to the youths who told him falsehoods in many things. The cacique replied sorrowfully that he had been a true Christian since the very first day; and he went directly to the cross which was near there, and knelt before it and kissed it, and turned to the Adelan tado and said to him through the interpreter: "Behold, how I am a true Christian." This occurred at about 2 o'clock in the afternoon: not half an hour had gone by when there came thunder and lightning, and it began to rain very hard, and a bolt struck and splintered into many pieces a tree near the village : all the Indian men and women ran to it to take the broken branches and bring them to their houses, to keep them : then they all went with the cacique to the Adelantado's house, some of them weeping, some throwing themselves at his feet, and others taking his hands, imploring him to leave Chris'tians there . •

PAGE 30

180 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER XIX.
PAGE 31

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Elena, for they can go there in a canoe in 2 or 3 days, by a river, with out putting out to sea; that Estebano de las Alas, who was a very good captain and liberal, would make him many presents; and that he would bring back a gift to his cacique, for the Cacique of Santa Elena had sent word to him to send for it. The interpreter was pleased at this, and without knowing that the Adelantado knew it, he came to beg him to give him a letter for Estebano de las Alas so that he might know him, and to give him a hatchet, because he wished to set out to get the present which the Cacique of Santa Elena was to send to his Cacique Guale. The Adelantado told him to give him paper and ink, that he would write the letter at once; and so he did, writing one very favorable to the interpreter, and giving it to him. Then Caciquc:.Guale dispatched that interpreter in a canoe, with 2 of his Indians, that. they might go and return immedijitely. The son of the cacique showed much sorrow because the interpreter was going, and prayed him, weeping, to return at once. The Adelantado sent a soldier with a letter to de las Alas in order that he might have that interpreter killed with great secrecy, as he was a Sodomite and a Lutheran; and if he returned alive, the Indians of Guale who desired to be Christians, would not as quickly become so; that he might greatly entertain the two Guale Indians who went with the interpreter; that Orista should do likewise, giving them a handsome present, send ing another to Guale, and offering him his friendship; and that Este bano de las Alas should feign great regret because the interpreter did not appear, [saying] that as he was a false Christian, he must be hid ing in the woods so as not to return to Guale, and so that if some ship should come from his country, he might go9back on board of her. And therefore Estebano de las Alas had him garroted with great secrecy, and the two Indians returned to Guale; and the Adelantado had already departed for San Mateo and St. Augustine, leaving in Guale his nephew, Alonso Menendez [Marques], and the 4 Christians who were with him: he took away Vasco Zabal. That rain which fell in Guale lasted 24 hours, and extended over the whole island, 2 which may be 4 or 5 leagues in length. 2 Here Meras calls Guale an island; also on pp. 171 and 182. Guale was a

PAGE 32

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER XX. Menendez .LVJoves the Fort of St. Augustine to Another Site 19th-29th). Fruitless Journey to Havana in June. Dona An tonia's Unexpected Visit. Arrival in Florida of the Relief Expe dition from Spain. The Adelantado started for San Mateo in the brigantine, sailing along the waterway between the islands and the coast, without going out to sea. Indians in canoes came out to meet him, saying: "Spain, friends, brothers, we want to be Christians"; because these Indians had heard what had passed in Santa Elena and Guale, and how it had rained in this latter island. The Adelantado would land and make them some gifts, and had many small cr't>sses erected, one for each village; and he proceeded in this way until May 15th, when he arrived at San Mateo, where he found the men of that fort well, but in great need of supplies, and all the Indians on the war path. He learned that twice at night they had shot arrows at the sentinels at St. Augustine, and had killed two sol diers and set fire to the powderhouse, the roof whereof was thatched with palmetto leaves; in this way the fort was burned; and at night they shot their fire arrows at the magazine, and thus the fire started,1 country of the Indians on the mainland; probably the eastern part of the present Georgia, south of the province of Santa Elena. In Spanish manuscripts of the XVII century it is sometimes called the "peninsula" of Guale. The region of that name included one of the coast islands, probably Amelia Island. Brinton, Fairbanks, Gatschet and Shea make the mistake of applying it to Amelia Island alone, con sidered apart from the mainl nd. James Mooney suggests that it might have been given to St. Simon's Island, off the coast of Georgia (The Catholic Encyclopaedia, Vol. X, pp. 384, 385). Cf. also Velasco's Geograffa de las Indias, i571-1574, p . i69, La barra de Guale . Velasco gives the name to Amelia Island. Lowery hinks that Guale was on the mainland (cf. Spanish Settlements, i562-1574, p. 348, note); and that at a later date the name may have been applied to Amelia Island. The confusion on the subject can be explained by the fact that the larger part of it was situated on the mainland. This is made plain by the unpublished colonial records of Florida. 1 For an illustration of this mode of warfare, cf. Le Mayne's picture, No. XXXI, in Brevis Narratio, Part II of T. de Bry's Collectiones, Francoforti ad Moenum, i59i.

PAGE 33

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and because there was a breeze it spread in such a manner that it was not possible to control it, and the powder and munitions, cloth and Tinen, flags and standards, those o _ f the Adelantado as well as those won from the Lutherans, were all burned without anything escaping. [He also heard] that the camp master and all the others were in the greatest difficulties through lack of provisions, and the peril from the Indians, who went about in ambush in small groups so that, when any Christian came forth in search of palmettos or shell-fish, they shot their arrows at him. As these Florida Indians are agile, and feel certain they cannot be overtaken, they are very bold in coming near the Christians, and at other times lying in wait for them; and when the Christians retire, they are in much danger from the Indians, for they shoot their arrows with suih force that they pass through the soldiers' clothing and coats of mail, and the Indians are very quick in sliooting. Once a soldier has discharged an arquebuse, he cannot reload it before the Indian, on account of his fleetness, comes up with him and fires 4 or 5 arrows at him; and while is putting in the powder to prime it, the Indian withdraws through the woods and high grass (for that is very good land), and watches for the instant when the powder takes fire; then he stoops, and as he is naked, he crawls along through the grass, and when the arquebuse is fired, he rises in a different spot from where he was when the soldier sought to take aim at him; and they are so dexterous in this, that it is a thing for admiration. They fight in skir mishes: they jump over the bushes like deer: the Spaniards are far from being as swift as they are; and if the Christians follow them, and the Indians are afraid, they go to places where there are rivers or swamps, for there are many near the sea-l!oast, as they swim like fish, lifting with one hand their bows and arrows above the water, so as not to wet them; and once on the other side, they begin to shout to the Christians and laugh at them; and when the Christians retire, they turn back to cross the river and follow them until they reach the fort, sallying forth from among the thickets fn.d shooting arrows at the Christians, for when they see an opportunity they do not miss it. On this account very unsuccessful war can be waged against them, unless one goes to their villages in search of them, to cut down the plantings

PAGE 34

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and burn the houses and take the canoes and destroy the fishways, which is all the property they have, so that they must leave the land, or keep their word with the Christians so that the caciques and Indians may make friends with them, [the Christians] giving them good treatment when they go to the Forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo; [but] if they are not given food, clothes, iron hatchets and articles for barter, they go away very angry; they declare war, killing the Christians they find. They are very treacherous Indians, and in this manner, by treason under cover of friendship, the Indians have slain more than ioo soldiers at these 2 Forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo, where the French lived: these are the most treacherous. The Adelantado was much disturbed at the burning of the powder house and fort, supplies and munitions, and at th great need and danger wheren were the camp master and his brother Bartolome Menendez, and all the other people. He hastened to St. Augustine, bringing some men, munitions and provisions, from the little there was in an Mateo: he took with him Gonzalo de Villarroel, who was very ill as a result of past hardships, to send him to Havana to be cured: he left Vasco Zabal, the ensign of the royal standard, in his place. He arrived in St. Augustine on the 18th of May: great was the happiness of those who were there: they wept for joy at the mercy Our Lord was granting them in succoring them at such a time with the arrival of the Adelantado, who related to them the pleasant events which had occurred in Guale and Santa Elena, and the good beginning that had been made so that the Indians might become Christians, whereat they all greatly r ' joiced: he ordered the supplies and muni tions he brought to be unloaded, and the rations to be given them. He entered into counsel with the camp master and captains. It was resolved hat they should move from there and erect a fort at the entrance of the bar, where now stands the Fort of St. Augustine, be cause there the Indians c uld not do them so much harm; and that they should place the artillery in it, because from there they could def end themselves better against any vessels of enemies, which might want to enter the harbor; and when that had been done, if the supplies

PAGE 35

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES did not arrive within 15 days, the Adelantado should go in search of them in three brigantines he had there, for of the ships he sent in cfiarge of other persons, none had ever returned. This decision was made public: it gave great satisfaction to all, although it caused them much concern that the Adelantado should leave them, as they heard that the camp master had to go to San Mateo and stay there during Villarroel's absence, for so the soldiers who remained there had re quested, and the Adelantado had promised it to them. Thereupon that day and the following were spent at the bar: they began to mark out their fort and build it with the greatest diligence, and they worked from 3 in the morning, before day, until 9, and from 2 in the afternoon until 6: they divided the men into 4 squads and the work into 4 paiis, and threw the dice to see what part of it fell to each squad. So great was the order, in building this fortjn a short time, for fear the Indians should fall upon them, that it was a pleasure to see it: about 170 persons worked at the fort: in 1 o days it was in a reasonable state of and the artillery in position. No ship arrived with supplies: they ran the risk of all perishing from hunger: so it was agreed unanimously that the Adelantado should sail at once for Havana with the 3 brigantines, and take back the ioo persons, most of whom came from the flagship of the Fleet of New Spain, and the Adelantado was obligated to take them to Havana during May; and as there remained but 70 rations, not more, [the settlers] could sustain themselves a few days until some vessel arrived. And so the Adelantado embarked with the hundred men in the 3 brigantines, at the beginning of June; and the day he departed, he met with one of his own ships, of 60 toneles, laden with prov'tsions, under the command of Francisco Cepero; and aboard of her came Captain Diego de Maya, very ill. If the Adelantado had not met with them at that moment, they would have run on the shoals; and the vessel was aheady in a place where, if she had not cast anchor, she would have been lost, for they believed that they were entering ovef the bar, and it was high tide, and they were in 2 fathoms of water, and at low tide there was none left. The sea ran high, and when the ship loosened her cable, she struck, and the Adelantado boarded her and so exerted himself

PAGE 36

186 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES that he brought them to safety: otherwise everything would have been lost, and all those who came in her would have been drowned. He wrote to the camp master that he should divide those supplies betwe n the forts, and go at once to San Mateo, and not leave that fort until the Adelantado's return, which would be immediately, in the shortest time; that they should load with maize a brigantine that remained to them in the harbor, and send her to Estebano de las Alas, and this was done; and when that ship had been unloaded he was to sink her in order that 20 more men she brought should stay in the fort (for they were very good people), and that the soldiers might not mutiny, not having a vessel with which to leave the country: and so the camp master did it. It was great good fortune that the AdelantadocShould have met with that shi because otherwise, all those who remained in the fort would have perished of hunger. And the Adelantado set sail at once and arrived in Havana with the two brigantines, within 8 days; the could not turn her bow, for the wind and the sea were very high and she put in to the island of Santo Domingo. The Fleet of New Spain had arrived in Havana 2 days before, with Licentiate Valderrama, of the Royal Council of the Indie s , on board; he had been sent as visz'tador2 of New Spain by order of his Majesty, and having accomplished his mission, was now returning to Spain. When the Adelantado landed in Havana he went to church with his soldiers in order to say prayers, and before entering his inn he went to call on Valderrama, as it appeared to him that by finding him there he could quickly succor the forts with men and supplies, for more than 300 soldiers had fled there from Florida. Valderrama lodged in the Governor's house, and thus he and the Adelantado spoke to each other standing, not sitting, saluting and embracing each other very courteously. The Adelantado told him that he considered it very good fortune to find him there, as he had to go back within 4 or 5 days; 2 A visitador was an official who, by special commission from the King, made an investigation into the conduct of any persons, either while they were in office or after they left it.

PAGE 37

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES that he begged him as a favor to name him an hour so that he could talk with him and give him a detailed account of matters pertaining to Florida, of the great need in which those forts were left, and that his Majesty kept 500 men there at his own expense; and although he [the Adelantado] had brought plenty of supplies for the Governor of that island, the Governor had not aided him with anything. Valderrama replied that every time the Adelantado might desire that they should meet, he would be d'elighted thereat. And the following day the Adelantado found out when Valderrama was going to church, and he went likewise; and mass being over, he told him that he was in debt in that country, on account of the sup plies he had bought for Florida, and that for 8 months he had been providing for the soldiers his Majesty kept there, who were left in extreme need of food and peril from the Indians; th(\t those of the region where were the Forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo were all on the war path, there were few soldiers in the forts, and most of them were ill and misused and ve?y discontented, owing to the great hard ships and dangers they had had and were having every day; that there had been mutinies and double-dealing among some of the captains, wherefore more than 400 soldiers had gone from those 2 forts; that there were more than 500 in that island of Cuba, not only of those who had set out from the forts as rebels, but also of those who came from Spain to Florida, who because of a storm had become separated from the Adelantado, had landed on that island and had remained there, without desiring to go to Florida; that although he had many times had recourse to the Governor so that he might succor him with some supplies for his Majesty's account, and oraer that those men be gath ered and delivered to him, the Governor had been unwilling to do this; that since he [Valderrama] was there in order to iiiform his Majesty of everything, he begged him to make a report; ana in order that the Adelantado might return soon, to succor him with 2 or 3 thousand ducats of those his . Majesty carri d in that armada; that if his Majesty were not pleased thereat, he would pledge himself to return them; and that Valderrama should enjoin on the Governor that of the soldiers [recruited] for Florida who were going about

PAGE 38

• 188 PEDR-0 MENENDEZ DE AVILES that town and island, he should give the Adelantado 200 to fortify the 2 forts of San Mateo and St. Augustine. He related to him what had happened in Guale and Santa Elena; how the Indians of that land were all his friends and wished to become Christians, and how he had built a fort and left Estebano de las Alas therein, with 110 soldiers, and the title of Governor of that district; [he said] that he wanted to depart the next day in the morning for the country of Cacique Carlos, and take back to him his sister who was then in Havana, be cause the principal Indian men and women she had brought with her had died, and she had but two left, and if she and they were to die, he would think that the Adelantado had had them killed; and that cacique was the ruler over much land, Los Martires and the Bahama Channel, where the vessels of the Indies run the dan g er in [the course that navigation; that it was very important to have him for a friend and try to make him and his Indians turn Christians, and that he would return within 10 or 12 days, in which time the 200 soldiers could be assembled there, and tfie supplies he would have to take. Valderrama answered him drily that he could not give the money; that as for the soldiers, he would speak to the Governor and recom mend to him [to give them]; and that he held no commission to make the report the Adelantado told him he should make concerning the Governor's ill treatment of him in order that he might assure his Majesty of the truth. Those of us who were present saw the Adelantado change color from grief, and he said to Valderrama: "Senor, during the time until I return from Carlos, your Honor will realize how you can serve his Majesty in this, and will do me the favor which is called for; because it is in your Honor's hands to do that whi h I beg, in order that Florida may not be lo s t, that the souls and natives thereof may be saved, and his Majesty's purpose be fur thered, which is to prevffit the Lutherans from setting foot in that land, and to endeavor to implant the Gospel therein." Valderrama did not reply to him, and presently the Adelantado very sorrowfully took leave and went to his inn. He told Juan de

PAGE 39

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Y nistrosa, the Treasurer of that island, and his lieutenant for matters pertaining to Florida, the little help he had received from Valderrama, and everything which had passed with him: and Juan de Ynistrosa consoled him greatly, saying: "Sefior, I have done all I could for your lordship with my means and my person, and now I shall try to do it with those of my friends. Let not your lordship be discouraged: go tomorrow to Carlos, as you have decided, and I will send to look for some maize, meat and cassava that you must take for the men's food; and meantime I will solicit Licentiate Valderrama, for since he is of his Majesty's Council, and sees how essential it is to give this aid, wherein his Majesty will hold himself to be very well served, I consider it as certain that he will do this." • The Adelantado thanked him, and charged him do. Ynistrosa told him likewise that the Indian woman, Dofia Antonia, the sister of Carlos, was very discreet, and of such grave demeanor that she astonished those of the that she and a maidservant of hers, of whom she was very fond, had learned in a few days with great facility all the things pertaining to prayers and the Christian doctrine, so that she might be baptized, and therefore she had been already; that she had been very sad, because of the absence of his lordship, and the deaths of her Indian men and women, but that since they had told her that his lordship had come, great was her delight and pleasure, and she wept for joy; that it was needful to entertain her and make much of her; that as he wished to take her away, it was fitting that she should go saying much good of them, for he and the people of Havana had shown her great considerati&'n in entertaining her and making her contented. The Adelantado said to him that the day previous, when they had disembarked, he had sent to call upon her, and that that day he would go to see her, and would do so when he had finished dining, and so he did; sending her first some of the food lfe was eating and certain chemises and clothing which he charged the Treasurer to buy for him, that the Indian woman might be pleased and see that he was bringing something; and he took with him when he went to see her, many per-• •

PAGE 40

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES sons of agreeable manners who accompanied her,8 and the music, for the Adelantado never went without it. He found the Indian woman sad, and although the Adelantado made her many gifts, she would be comforted: he prayed her many times through the interpreter to tell him why she was sad: she told him that she wished that God might kill her, because when they landed the Adelantado had not sent for her to take her to his house, to eat and sleep with him. As the Adelantado knew her to be such an important woman, of such good understanding, and knew that she was not lacking in sense, he said to her that when the Christians who wore that cross-for the Adelantado is a Knight of the Order of Santiago-landed from an expedition against their enemies, they could not sleep with their wives until 8 days had passed, and that he wished that mese had gone by, because he loved her much. The Indian woman half laughed and half cried, and said that if she could believe he was telling the truth she would be happy. The Adelantado begged that she woufd become so, for he was tell ing her truth; and she said, beginning to count on her fingers, that 2 days were passed already, and she named the remaining 6; that when those were passed, she would go to his house. The Adelantado told her to do so, and he rose, and she embraced him with great rejoicing, and took his hands, and ordered the instruments to be played, because those she had not seen in that land and they appeared very good to her: the Adelantado remained there more than an hour cheering her. A regidor of that town, called Alonso de Rojas, had charge of this Indian woman: his wife is a person of standing, who was godmother to this Indian when she was baptized, and loved her very much and taught her, and she related to the Adelantado many instances of her good understanding, wherein the Adelantado took much satisfaction. And he asked the Indian woman if she had any desire to go to her country: she said yes, and a very great one: the Adelantado asked Jier if she wished that they shoutd go the next day: she said yes, and that she entreated him very much that they might go: the Adelantado told her 8 "Que la acompafiaron." Ruidiaz, La Florida, I, p. 228. If la is here meant for lo, the words would make sense and read: "who accompanied him."

PAGE 41

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES that they would do so, and he took leave of her and went to his inn, which was near there. ):t happened that night that midnight being passed, and the Adelan tado being a s leep in his room, with a lighted candle, that Indian woman said to a woman who was her friend, whom she loved greatly, one of thos e whom the Adelantado had brought from Florida, whom Carlos, her brother, held as a slave; that she was to go with her to the house of the Adelantado, because he had ordered her to go there. The woman believed this and went with her, and with the Indian woman her ma i d s ervant, and she [the Christian woman] knocked at the door of the Adelantado's inn: they opened to see who it was: they recognized her: she said that the Adelantado had ordered her to go there with the IliKlian woman, and the youth who opened the door, thinking she spoke the truth, let them in and took them \o the Adelan tado's room, where there was a lighted candle; and the Indian woman took it in her hand, and looked to see if any woman were in bed with the Adelantado, and afterwaru she looked around the bed, and under neath it. The Adelantado awoke, although he was very weary and exhausted, and when he saw her with the candle in her hand, he was disturbed, and he spoke across to the woman who came with her, and said: "What is this, sister'?" Doiia Antonia seated herself at the head of the bed with the candle, to see what the Adelantado was saying: the woman replied to the Adelantado that Doiia Antonia had told her that his lordship had ordered that she be brought to him at that hour, and that she, believing this, had done so. ct The Adelantado, with a gay and amused countenance, laughing greatly at this, told her to tell Doiia Antonia that he would be very glad if the 8 days were passed, so that she might lie there beside him. Doiia Antonia said to him through the interpreter that she prayed him to let her lie in a corner of the bed, and'that she would not come near him; in order that her brother Carlos might know that they had slept together, for in any other manner he would think that the Ade lantado was laughing at her, and he would refuse to become a friend •

PAGE 42

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES in truth of the Christians, or to become a Christian like herself, whereat she would be greatly grieved. The Adelantado called a servant of his and told him to draw some things from a chest: they were 3 chemises, and mirrors and necklaces of glass beads for each of them; articles for barter which the Adelan tado had had collected that day to take to her brother, Carlos; and she said to the Christian woman who came with her that she had intended, if the Adelantado had not awakened, to put out the candle and lie down beside him; and with this they went away satisfied. Immediately after in the morning, the Adelantado went to embark, and took the Indian woman with him, and her maidservant, and 2 of the Christian women who had been captives: he started in a patache and a little shallop, with about 30 soldiers and sailoro-;: he set sail with a prosperous he arrived at the pueblo of Carlos on the third day: he anchored at the entrance of the harbor because as he brought few men, he did not dare go up to the town: then the Indian woman told the Adelantado that he should land with her and go to the pueblo. The Adelantado said to her that in no manner could he do this, as it was necessary that he should go at once in search of Christians, so that they could live there, and teach her brother and the Indians of that country to become Christians, if they wished to be; that he prom ised to build her then a house in that country, in which she should live, in the pueblo of the Christians; and that the relatives of the Indian men and women who had died in Havana, would believe that the Adelantado had killed them, and would want to do harm to him and his soldiers; wherefore war with her brother might break out, and this he would greatly regret, because he liked him very much, for the love of her, and held him to be his brother; and that he wished to return at once. The Indian woman answered him that she was very because the Adelantado did not disembark and remain a few days on land, until the 8 days were over, in order that he might sleep with her; but that she likewise feared that the Indians might feel war like and might do him some harm; that she prayed him to come back as soon as he could, and bring Christians so that they might live there, and tum her brother and the other Indians into Christians.

PAGE 43

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES .193 Then there came many canoes, and Dona Antonia sent to tell her brother that she was there and that he should come for her: it was something to see the joy of the Indians at the sight of her, and others wept in grief for the Indian men and women who had gone away with her and died. Within 2 hours [came Carlos], with as many as 12 canoes, and two of them fastened one to the other, with decks covered with awnings of hoops and matting; and first he and the captain, his brother-in-law, got into the patache with the Adelantado, [then] 6 other principal Indians: it was something to see how Dona Antonia and her brother received each other, and the ceremonies they per formed. The Adelantado ordered them to bring food and to play the instruments, and to give some maize and cassava to the Indians in the canoes, likewise oome knives and scissors, mirrors and bells; and hav ing finished dining, he made a present to Carlos for his Jyife, and gave another to the captain for him and his wife, who was the sister of Dona Antonia; and he gave to the principal Indians who were there, and to Dona Antonia some ti\ings which he had brought for her. The Adelantado asked Carlos if he wanted to become a Christian and cut his hair, and if he would like to go to a land of Christians as he had promised him; and that he should bring him the Christians he had said he would give him when he [the Adelantado] should return there. Carlos replied that they must allow him to speak apart with his captain, and that then he would give him the answer; and so they spoke aside for more than a quarter of an hour, and they said to the Adelantado that for those 9 months Carlos could in no manner go to a land of Christians, nor could he turn Christian at that time so that his Indians would not rise against him and• slay him; that when that time had passed, the Adelantado might return; and he justified [him self] with sufficient reasons.* The Adelantado entrusted Dona Antonia to him and wenl back to Havana, where he found that some meat and cassava had been bought through the efforts of Juan de Ynistrosa; but he did not find any men, nor other things that he needed; wherefore he was compelled to have recourse to Don Cristobal de Eraso and Don Bernardino de Cordoba, * Supplied from here. • •

PAGE 44

• 194 PEDRO MENiNDEZ DE AVILES who were there and who had come from Tierra Firme and New Spain. *4 He represented to them his dire necessity, and that he desired to return to Florida with some supplies which he did not have, nor had he the money to buy them; he thought that when they understood the straits he was in, they would speak to the Governor or to Valde rrama; that from each of the more than 30 ships in the fleets and the armada, they could give him one hundredweight of biscuit and one jar of wine; and that with some maize and cassava he begged from his friends in Havana, from each one his share as charity, he could return to Florida with 50 or 60 sailors and soldiers he had there. They succored him with nothing. The Adelantado, seeing this, and [remembering] how few people he had left in the forts, took a frigate, a brigantine and a little shallop, and put on board a' out 6 5 persons, 5 of whom we.re delivered to him by the Governor; and on a gold embroidered suit and garments and other things, he obtained 500 ducats, with which he bought maize, meat and cassava. He sailed from Havana on the 1st of July, in company with the Fleets of New Spain and Tierra Firme, that were going to Spain, and immediately after that day he separated from them. He arrived in Florida, at Fort San Mateo, within 8 days, where he found a vessel anchored off the bar: he went to reconnoitre her: he learned that she had come from Spain with provisions. The men on board of her said that in the harbor of St. Augustine there were 14 other ships, and in that of Santa Elena 2 more, and they all came laden with supplies, and brought 1,500 infantry to succor those forts and the Indies, because there was news that French Lutherans were &etting together a great fleet to come to those parts. * The manuscript follows. 4 They were in command of the fleets. l.

PAGE 45

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 195 CHAPTER XXL •
PAGE 46

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Augustine. On the way he met the camp master, sailing in a brigantine, who was coming to San Mateo to adjust the disagreement between Captain Aguirre and Vasco Zabal: the Adelantado was extremely pleased to see him. The camp master related to him the miseries, hard ships and perils they had suffered before the arrival of the reinforce ments, and how the Indians, near Fort San Mateo, had treacherously killed Captain Martfn Ochoa and other soldiers; and how in that of St. Augustine they had killed in the same manner Captain Diego de Hevia, a relative of the Adelantado; and as they had no food, they were forced to go out in search of large oysters, crawfish and palmet tos: it was necessary that most of the men of the fort should go for this together; otherwise he who went alone did not return. The Adelan tado was very sorrowful at the death of these tw8 captains, for he loved them much, and Martfn Ochoa had greatly distinguished himself at the capture of the fort, and during all the rest of his service he had been very faithful; in such wise that those who mutinied had wanted to kill him many times, because he upheld with great spirit his Majesty's service, condemning the weakness they showed. The Indians had likewise treacherously slain with their arrows 5 other soldiers and an interpreter among them; they were much beloved of the Adelantado, had been among the first to enter when the fort was captured, and had assisted through hardships and dangers, obeying the Governor in everything, without wanting to desert the fort and go off with the mutineers: one of them was Don Hernando de Gamboa, a natural son of Don Prudencio de Bendana; another, Juan de Valdes, a first cousin of the camp master: another was Juan Menendez, a second cousin of the Adelantado . He felt this very much, but when he saw how much the camp master must be grieving, he concealed his sorrow i...
PAGE 47

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 197 the camp master arrived, he had the sentinels stationed at the points where they should be, and gave them the password. They were satisfied t at the camp master, with the powers the Adelantado had given him, was his lieutenant; but afterward the captains heard that the powder house and the Fort of St. Augustine where they were at first had burned with everything therein, all the supplies and papers, and among them the commission that the camp master had from the Adelantado; [so] they agreed to place the sentinels themselves, and give their password, and wanted to name a camp master and sergeant major. To some this appeared right, to others, wrong, and there was some discord among them; but in effect, they went ahead with this action. The camp master was surprised at this change, for never had they said one word to him, nor asked him fo? his commission, before or after: he sent to tell them that they should all meet, as he wished to speak to tli'em, and when they had done so, he said to them: "Gentlemen, the has left me in these provinces as his lieutenant, by the authority which he holds for this purpose from his Majesty, and he gave me sufficient powers therefor. Those papers have been burned, but the notary before whom they were executed is here, and all have knowledge of them, and respect and obey me as the Adelantado's lieutenant. Your Honors can obtain information on this from the captains and soldiers who are in the province, for they are here, and they are Bartolome Menendez, regular Captain to his Majesty, brother of the Adelantado, alcaide of this Fort of St. Augustine and governor of the district; and Gonzalo de Villarroel, alcaide and governor of the Fort of San Mateo and its4tlistrict; the other is .&te bano de las Alas, alcaz"de and governor of the Fort of San Felipe and its district, which is in Santa Elena; they are all three persons of reputation, noblemen and very good soldiers, from whom your Honors can satisfy yourselves of this; and it being as I have said, his Majesty will be served by your obeying me while t am in office; and let us give orders that all suitable measures be taken, as befits his Majesty's service, sending men and supplies to Santa Elena, to Estebano de las Alas, who is in great need, and fortifying ourselves, for if the enemy

PAGE 48

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES come upon us, and it is said they are corning and are strong, we are not [prepared] as soldiers should be." [The camp master went on to say] that Sancho de Arciniega, wlio was General of the armada, and whom they all held to be the head, replied to him that he could not deliver the men before the Adelantado returned, because it had been so decided between him and the captains he brought with him; and that they said his lordship was drowned, because when he set out from St. Augustine for Havana in search of supplies, with the three brigantines, one of them could not turn her prow and put in to Hispaniola; there were two days of strong winds and heavy seas, wherefore they held him for lost, and were thus deter mined to be the heads thernsel ves, and name the officials who were necessary, and remain in that land until they could his Majesty. The camp ma ter had answered Sancho de Arciniega that he regretted deeply to hear such things, because he knew his Majesty would not be pleased therewith, and his royal service w . ould cease in those provinces; and that since they were determined so to act, he and the alcaides of the forts, with the soldiers therein, would hold them in the name of his Majesty, as they were holding them, and would defend them to the death against friend and foe; while Arciniega and his men would be quartered in the fields, accomplishing nothing, wasting the royal funds and supplies; and that if this enterprise were to continue, they must be good friends: they replied to the camp master that so it should be done, and they would maintain that friendship; and he had put up with those things as he saw he could not do otherwise, and it was for the benefit of his Majest s service to overlook them. In that manner had they been governing themselves, without working at the fortifica tions or doing anything else, for 12 days; since that armada and relief expeditibn had entered the harbor. The Adelantado thanked the camp master very much for the wisdom with which he had conducted him self, and said that he hat1 acted like a very good captain, because in conquests and settlements of new lands it is needful for those in power to overlook such insubordination at times, when they can do nothing else; and that that was tl,le true way to serve his Majesty and do what

PAGE 49

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 199 was proper. The Adelantado arrived that day in St. Augustine: he was very well received by all. • General Sancho de Arciniega was on board his ship, and as it was late, did not come on land. The next day in the morning, when the Adelantado had heard mass, he sent to request the captains to come to the fort, because he wanted to talk to them, and enter into council with them: this was done, and Sancho de Arciniega came, who was General of the armada and the forces in that relief expedition and carried a cedula from his Majesty to the effect that he should deliver everything to the Adelantado, and do that which he ordered and commanded. He brought with him Cap tain Juan de Ubila, Admiral of the fleet: the Adelantado received him very well, becalle Sancho de Arciniega had been a great friend of his for many years. . General Sancho de Arciniega gave into his hands his Majesty's dis patches, the armada and the men. When the Adelantado had read the dispatches he acknowledged the receipt thereof, and said to the Gen eral that he had brought with him some bad advisers, since he had not gone through that formality on the day of his arrival, with the camp master as the Adelantado's lieutenant in those provinces, by commis sion from his Majesty; and that the Adelantado could hardly be in all parts of Florida at once, as it was such a large country; that if Arciniega were as familiar with the affairs of war on land as with the same at sea, he would not have believed his advisers, nor allowed him self to be deceived by them; that the Adelantado did not lay as much blame on him as on some captains who, because they wanted to govern and follow their private interest, did not vise him what was fitting for him or for his Majesty's service; but that as this was past, and remedied by his arrival, he did not intend to speak any more about it, and begged of them as a favor to consider him as a b ther and friend, and to advise him in all the things wherein it appeared to them that his Majesty would best be served; an that at the proper time he would entreat his :Majesty to reward him who had served him well:* *A leaf is missing here. The gap is supplied, as usual, from the Ensayo Cronologico. •

PAGE 50

200 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and he added other remarks whereat, without passing over the wrong they had done, nor acquiescing in it, he left them very much satisfied.* They all replied that they would do as he wished, and receive great gratification from the good words the Adelantado had spoken to them. Then the Adelantado went to visit all the women who had come in that armada, of whom there were i4, to whom he had sent an order to assemble in one house, and he congratulated them on their arrival, and they were much pleased at the Adelantado's visit and the favor he did them. He spoke with the priests who were with these people, of whom there were 5: he recommended to them to attend with a Christian spirit to the duties of their charge: he gave them the vicar whom they were to obey, who was Chaplain Mendoza, of Xerez on the Frontier; a very good religious and soldier, who had come from Spain with the Adelan tado, and he had made him vicar of that fort and that of San Mateo; and so they replied they would do it, and pledged obedience to the vicar. The Adelantado went-with all captains who accompanied him for this, and with the advice and concurrence of them all, giving and taking [opinions] about it in order to decide the better-to mark out the site, place and space where they were to fortify themselves, which was in the same spot that the Adelantado had fortified; but because the sea was eating away the fort, they retired further inland, taking a c a ballero from the fort that had been made, for the one that was to be begun. He divided the men into squads and companies, and the work likewise: they cast the dice, so that chance might decide at which part each one was to work, and it was settled in this manner, to the satisfaction of all, s that next day in the morning each captain, man and squad understood which part of the fort had fallen to their share. Next rorning, at dawn, they rang the bells, which was the signal for all to rise; [and] they beat the drums, mustering their men, who all came hastening to wor so that it was a pleasure to see them. * The manuscript follows.

PAGE 51

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 201 CHAPTER XXII. Tc!ze Adelantado Explores the Rio de San Mateo (the St. Johns River) in July. Meets Caciques Hotina, Macoya and Calabay. Santa Elena again. Commissions Juan Pardo to Explore the Interz"or (August, 1566). On the third day, when the Adelantado saw that the task was pro gressing as it should, he summoned the captains to a council, and told them that it would be well to discuss where his Majesty's reinforce ments were to be stationed; and after arguing about it, it was agreed that half of the i ,500 soldiers should remain in those parts, in the 3 forts of St. San Mateo and San Felipe; that the Adelan tado should go with the rest, and 6 vessels, one frigate and one patache, with their crews-about one thousand men altogether-1o cruise about the islands of Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Cuba, in order to chas tise the corsairs who might there, and to fortify those places; and that the other ships should take their departure shortly and go to Spain under the command of Sancho de Arciniega and Juan de Ubila, who, as has been said, had come as General and Admiral of that relief expe dition. In the meantime the 6 ships which the Adelantado was to take from the armada, the frigate and the patache, were being un loaded and outfitted. He wanted to go to visit the Fort of San Mateo and leave therein Gonzalo de Villarroel, who was in St. Augustine and had returned from Havana, with all the people under his charge; thence he wished to pass on to Guale and Santa Elena, to visit the Fort of San Felipe and put it in a state of thorough defence, because 2 vessels had sailed for there, the flagship and 2 other large ones, with 300 soldiers and Captain Juan Pardo in charge of them, and it was not known that they had arrived, nor the state of thingi in those parts. With the concurrence and advice of all captains, he named Captain Juan de Zorita to succor Puerto Rico; Captain Rodrigo Troche,1 1 Both Meras and Barrientos mention Captain Rodrigo Troche, and it is not explained why he should have the same name as Rodrigo Troche, Villarroel's ensign, who was so cruelly killed by Saturiba. Cf. p. i6o.

PAGE 52

202 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES who was one of the first who had gone to Florida with the Adelantado, to succor Santo Domingo; and Ensign Baltasar de Barreda to succor Havana; and he departed for San Mateo, where he left Gonzalo e Villarroel in that fort, with Captain Aguirre's company and the rest of the veteran soldiers who were there. With one hundred soldiers and some sailors, in 3 brigantines, he ascended the River of San Mateo for more than 50 leagues; up to that time he had not done so. His object was to make friends with the caciques and discover the secret as to whether that river went toward the coast of New Spain. The day after he left San Mateo, having ascended that river 20 leagues, he disembarked, and with a guide he had brought with him he walked 5 leagues through the good level lands of a they called Hotina.2 When he was one league from his pueblo he sent him 6 sol diers with this guide, who was an interpreter; and on arriving there they gave him a present which the Adelantado sent him, and told him that the Adelantado was coming to ee him because he held him to be his friend. He received the 6 soldiers very well and replied to them that he stood in fear of the Adelantado, and that if he wis hed to come to his village he should bring not more than 20 men, and should pray to God as he had done for Cacique Guale, that it might rain on his maize fields, which were dry. The Adelantado was following close behind the 6 soldiers, and when the answer came back to him, he was about one quarter of a league from the village. He halted, and ordered 80 of the soldiers to remain there, and went on with 20, laughing at what the cacique asked about the rain; and when he arrived in the pueblo it began to rain very hard, and it was more than 6 months since it had done so. He reached the cacique's house, and did not find him: he told S or 6 In dians wh were there to go in search of him, and to say that he had come with the 20 men and the rain. One of the Indians went, and returned with the answer, • saying that the cacique was hidden in the forest, and sent him word that he was in great fear of a man who had 2 Otina or Utina; he is often mentioned as Outina in Basanier, L'Histoire Notable, and Hakluyt, A Notable Historie.

PAGE 53

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 203 such power with God; that he was to depart with God, since he was His friend. The Adelantado regretted this, for he much desired to see t iis cacique, as it was said that he had a very good understanding and was very powerful on that river bank of San Mateo; and he sent him back a message that he prayed him greatly to come to see him, and not to be afraid, since he had not more than 20 men with him, and the cacique had more than one thousand Indians, all with their bows and arrows. Hotina replied that if the Adelantado was helped by his cacique, who was God, he had many men in those 20 soldiers; that he prayed him to be gone, and from that time he was taking him for his elder brother and he was his friend, as long as the cacique was in his land and the Adelantado in his; and that he did not want to fight with the Ae.dantado or his men, but his Indians did, and that he caused him much anxiety because he did not go. ('/) The Adelantado sent to tell him that he would go to please him, but that he was not afraid of him or his men; that he would sail up the River of San Mateo; that the acique was to notify those of his villages through which the Adelantado would have to pass, that the men and women were to remain therein and not be afraid, and that if they fled, the Adelantado would make war on them, burning their villages and canoes and fishways. And so the Adelantado returned to where the 80 soldiers had halted, and taking them with him, he reached the brigantines at nightfall: his march was a thing they all marvelled at, for it was one o'clock in the morning when he left the brigantines to go and find Hotina, and he was there two hours, and it was still day when he returned; 10 leagues are a long way, although many thought it was 12. That night was very bad for it rained very hard and they could not embark, and as they camped in a wet field they all had a hard time. The next day in the morning the Adelantado sent the largest brigan tine with 50 men back to San Mateo, and he went on his way up the river with the other 50, the 2 brigantines a 1Cl some supplies; for as he had provisions for lo or 12 days [only], if all the men had gone with him the quantity could not have lasted and he could not have dis covered the secret of that river.

PAGE 54

204 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES He was very well received in the pueblos he found along the river banks, for they said that their Cacique Hotina had sent to command them to do so. • The Adelantado tried hard to carry with him some guide, to learn the secret of the river by means of presents he gave the Indians and the kindness he showed them, but no one wanted to go with him. He sailed up quite as far as the French had gone, having with him two who had guided them: the tide rose and fell for a distance of full 40 leagues, a thing which much astonished the Adelantado. He ascended that river about 50 leagues, two leagues farther than the French had gone, as far as [the domains of] a cacique they called Macoya, 3 a friend of Saturiba who was a powerful cacique of the coast and country where are the Forts of San Mateo and St. Augustine [ thi Macoya retired with his India s, leaving the pueblo deserted. The Adelantado landed, entered the houses, allowed no damage to be done, and then turned back and withdrew: he sent the interpreter to see if any Indian appeared: they cam to meet him, for they knew him: they were much pleased at seeing this interpreter. He said that the Christians and their captain were there, and that they should send to tell their Cacique Macoya to come to the village with his men, and have no fear: some Indians went in search of him to tell him this; others came to their houses and brought the Adelantado much :fish: he made them some gifts and received them very well, and prayed them to go and summon the cacique, because he wished to give him many things he brought for him and his wives. They went, and these and the first who had gone, returned and told the Adelantado that their cacique held him in great fear and would not come, and that he and his Indians were his friends, because they knew that he did no harm to any cacique; but that he was to return without going farther up the ri r, for the cacique's Indians were angry because he had come to their land without their permission. 8 The cacique of the puebN> of Mayaca on the St. Johns (Mayarca on Le Moyne's map in Brevis Narratio), where a century later was the mission of San Salvador of Mayaca, one of the largest of the Franciscan Missions, situated about thirty miles west of Caparaca, the Indian village then on the site of New Smyrna.

PAGE 55

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 205 The Adelantado sent him word that he wished to pass up the river, to see some Christians; that he prayed him to give him 2 or 3 Indians (l ' The cacique replied that he would not. The Adelantado commanded the oars to be used, and began to go up the river, rowing about a league: it was already late: he saw many excited Indians with bows and arrows, and on arriving at a narrow pass, he found the river barred with a row of stakes: he broke through and went farther on: the river became no wider than two pikes' lengths, and very deep: there he encountered a very swift current against him, for up to then there had been none whatever, except the rising and ebbing of the tide: the Adelantado feared that the Indians might shoot at t:he rowers. 2 or 3 Indians came down to the river bank and tolG, him on behalf of Cacique Macoya that he must not go farther and must tum back; if he did not, they would begin to make war upon him. The Adelantado answerea them that he did not come to harm them, and they could make war when they wished; that he was obliged to go up that river, and as it was night, he wanted to stay there until morn ing, and he did so. The guide and interpreter the Adelantado brought with him had been a slave of a cacique of Ays whom they called Perucho, who lived 20 leagues up the river and knew this Macoya; he told the Adelantado that he ought to return, for there were many and very warlike Indians in that land, and that they told him that the river became very narrow from there inland for more than 30 leagues, until it emptied into a large lagoon they all Maymi, which they say has a circuit of more than 30 leagues, and which gathers into itself many streams from the hill range; and that [a branch of] this lagoon discharged itself in the country of Cacique Carlos, which is qp. the coast of New Spain, and that another branch drained the land of Tequesta, which is at Los Martires.4 4 From this it would appear that the Timucua told the interpreter of Menendez that the St. Johns emptied into Lake Okeechobee, called by them Maymi, or Mayaimi, and by the French, Sarrope. It was supposed to have a river flowing out of it to the west into Charlotte Harbor (the Bay of Carlos or of Juan

PAGE 56

206 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES The Adelantado desired greatly to discover this secret, because of the friendship he had established with Carlos and because he wanted to know if that river were navigable, for that would be a very tageous thing for the conquest and settlement of Florida; but on the other hand, he feared that if the canoes of warlike Indians came out in that narrow pas s while he was within the barrier of stakes, he might be harmed by them; especially as it had been raining hard, and the soldiers' powder and fu ses were damp. He retired one league back with his two brigantine s , and next morning decided to return; and on the way, 7 or 8 leagues down the river, he landed at a pueblo where some Indians were waiting for him: he gave them presents and told them to summon their cacique, who came, and whom they call Cala bay. 5 He said to him through the interpreter that Macoya had sent to tell him not to pass up that river, and that his soldiers had been much angered again s t Macoya and wanted to land and bum his vil lage and the canoes, and destroy his :fis hways; and to prevent their • doing it, he was returning. Calabay replied that he wanted to be his friend find take him for an elder brother, to do what he should command him; that he prayed him to give him a cros s , and 6 other Christians, as he had to Guale; that he and his Indians wanted to be Chri s tians; that he would show that river, as far as the lagoon of Maymi, to the 6 Christians who might remain with him, because the Indians did not fear a few Chris tians, but did fear many, and that he would do them no harm. The Adelantado was afraid of this cacique, because, being a vassal of Hotina, he might rise ss, and told him that if anyone killed them he would come and make war on him, in such wise that he would burn the houses and Ponce)-the Florida West Cotst becoming Mexico or New Spain-and another river flowing out of it to the east, connecting it with Tequesta or Tegesta on the east coast, near the present city of Miami on Biscayne Bay. See Lowery ' s map, p. So. 5 See the village called Calanay on Le Moyne's map.

PAGE 57

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 207 canoes and destroy the fishways, and cut off his head and those of his men, women and children, for the Adelantado was a friend of his true friends and an enemy of his enemies. The cacique said that he was satisfied, and immediately there were many soldiers who begged that they might be left there. The Adelantado left those who appeared to him the most willing and the best fitted to teach the Indians the doctrine: he gave this cacique a present for himself and another for Macoya, and prayed him that he should send Macoya three of those Christians, who should live with him and teach him and his Indians. Calabay said that he would do this, and so it was done, for he sent Macoya the present and the Christians: Macoya would not receive them but took tu present. He sent to tell the Adelantado that he was his friend and held him to be his elder brother, all the obe dience the caciques of Florida can give; but that if he came to his country he would hold him to be his enemy. When Saturiba heard Calabay had Christians, he sent two of his sons and other Indians to slay them. Calabay would not allow this: Saturiba sent to tell him to kill them, or send them to him, and if he did . not, he would hold him for an enemy. Calabay, fearing Saturiba, sent them to San Mateo. When the Adelantado was on his way back to San Mateo, all the people, big and little, in 3 or 4 villages of Hotina by which he had previously passed, awaited him with much rejoicing; he made them some gifts and had the in s truments played, whereat they were all delighted: they were sorrowful because he was going so soon. He arrived at the place where he disembarked when he went overland t see Hotina: he sent word to him that as he had gone to see him in his pueblo, Hotina should come there to see the Adelantado, and that if he did not do this, he would consider him as his enemy. Hotina feared to anger Adelan tado, and he had heard of the great friendliness the Adelantado had shown in those of Hotina's villages where he had stopped, in all of which they liked him very much; so he came to see the Adelantado, with 300 warriors, and at a quarter of a league from the brigantines he halted, and sent to tell the Adelantado to come there with 20 Chris-

PAGE 58

' 208 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES tians. He did this, bringing with him 20 skilful arquebusiers, march ing in very good order. When he arrived near Hotina, the cacique was frightened, and sent to tell the Adelantado to come to him with ' 2 persons, no more; and at a distance of about half an arquebuse shot, the Adelantado halted with the 20 soldiers, and with two only, and the interpreter, he went to Hotina, who was surrounded with his 300 bowmen, seated on the ground. Hotina showed much humility, ren dering the Adelantado the greatest homage which is customary among them; and then came his principal men one by one, doing likewise, and all the other Indians who were there did that. The Adelantado clothed Hotina in a shirt, for he was naked, with only a belt round his loins, and so were all his Indians; and he clothed him in a pair of breeches and a doublet of green and put a hat on his head. \hat Indian was much of a gentleman in face and figure, about 2 5 years old and very discreet: he told the Adelantado that he took him for his elder brother, to do what he might command him; that he should leave him a cross, as he \1ad to Guale, and Christians to teach the doctrine to him and his people; and a trumpeter, since he was in truth his brother. The Adelantado did so, for he left him the cross and 6 Christians, and the trumpeter among them; he gave him some presents for his wife, and made gifts to the principal Indians who were there: they parted very good friends. The Adelantado embarked and reached San Mateo within 12 days from the day he had set out: he found the whole fort in very good condition, and Gonzalo de Villarroel pleased with the men, although some of them, without his order, had gone two leagues from there to rob houses of Saturiba: the Indians came out upon them, and out of 12 arquebusiers who went, 8 were killed, and 4 returned to the fort within three days, very badly wounded, having in the forest. The Adelantado remained there two days: he departed for Santa Elena: he dispatched notice to his Majesty that the reinforcements had aHived and [told him of] the state of those affairs. He sent a captain with 30 soldiers and 2 Dominican friars to the Bay of Santa Marfa,6 in 37, with an Indian who was the brother 6 Page 32, note 22. •

PAGE 59

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 209 of the cacique of that country, and who had been 6 years with the Adelantado: he was very crafty, a good Christian with very good understanding, called Don Luis de Velasco;7 so that with his assistance they might settle in that land and try to make the Indians Christians. The friars were from Peru and New Spain, a very fertile country [sic] : they had suffered hunger, hardships and dangers in Florida. As it appeared to them that they could no longer endure such a difficult life, they secretly drew some of the soldiers into a conspiracy, for there was no need of much effort to accomplish this, and won over the pilot; and being in accord, and taking testimony to the effect that on account of a storm they had been unable to go to the Bay of Santa Maria, they went to Seville, defaming the country and speaking ill of the King and the Adelantado, because they wanted to conquer and settle it. The Adelantado arrived at Santa Elena: he found E:-.tebano de las Alas in his fort with the first soldiers sent there, and Juan Pardo quar tered outside, building houses to lodge the men, because he had brought an order from General Sancho de Arciniega that one night he should give out the password, and the next night Estebano de las Alas should do so, and therefore Pardo showed Las Alas the order he carried. Estebano de las Alas said to Juan Pardo that he was much pleased at his arrival, and that he had orders from the Adelantado Pedro Men endez, his Captain-General, to guard and defend that fort in the name of his Majesty; that it was his duty to place the sentinels and give the password, and nobody else's; and that on this condition Pardo could lodge himself in the fort with all his men, or with the part of them he wished; or camp in the fields; whichever best to him. Juan Pardo was a good soldier, zealous in the service of his Ma jesty: it seemed to him that Estebano de las Alas was in the right, and Sancho de Arciniega was not; and that he on arriving in Fl01:da, was obliged to obey and comply with the commands of the Adelantado, and not those of others: he pledged obedience to Estebano de las Alas for the defence of the fort, giving him a squad of soldiers for the senti nels' guard, and [saying that], if it were necessary, he would assist 7 Page 32.

PAGE 60

210 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES with the rest; and he quartered himself in the fields, and they all began to work to place the fort in a good state of defence. Great was the joy and gladness which all received on the arrival of the Adela ado. He heard that the Indians were very friendly, and that Estebano de las Alas was in great need of men and supplies when Captain Juan Pardo arrived with 300 soldiers and 2 vessels laden with provisions; because one month before, the Adelantado having sent a boat of supplie s , the day after she arrived the soldiers mutinied and went off in her before unloading anything, leaving Estebano de las Alas a prisoner, with his officers who came with him from Havana, and about 60 men; and in the Bahama Channel they ran into a storm which compelled them to put into a harbor of Florida, at the begin ning of Los M:irtires. They found a pueblo, the cat!ique whereof the Indians calle& Tequesta,8 who was a near relative of Cacique Carlos and the Indian woman, Dona Antonia, for 2 Christians who had been captives there many year s , and who came to meet them in a canoe, told them this; and that those Indians used to kill all the Chri s tians from the ships that were wrecked, but that now they loved them very much because they knew that the most important man among them had a relative of theirs for a wife, a sister of Carlos; that they should have no fear; that the cacique sent to find out from them if they were some of those Christians, and they said they were; and that near there, in a village on the coast, were many more of tho s e Chri s tians, and that was the truth; for of the soldiers who had mutinied at San Mateo, about 20 landed there, when they were on their way to Havana: a very strong wind had come the vess el spread her sails, leaving them in that country, and the Indians treated them very well, sharing with them what they had, for love of the Indian woman, Dofia Antonia. Likewis8i about 20 of Estebano de las Alas's soldiers had deserted him and gone inland: he had about 25 in the fort when Juan Pardo arrived, and no food than that which the Indians sent him. After Captain Juan Pardo's arrival he had hanged 2 soldiers for 8 Tequesta or Tegesta. Along the Florida East Coast, south of Cape Cana veral, were the districts of Caciques Ays, Jega, Tequesta and Matacumbe.

PAGE 61

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 211 mutiny: he held 3 others prisoners : 6 had deserted. The men were half uneasy, as it appeared to them that there was discord between him and • Estebano de las Alas when there was not, but much harmony, and no less than what is told. The Adelantado entered into council: he decided on the way that they should proceed: he remained there 8 days, during which the caciques his friends came to see him, and prayed him to wait there a month, because many caciques from inland wanted to come to see him, to take him for their elder brother: he could not do this, owing to the need there was of his returning shortly to St. Augustine, to dispose of the reinforcements in the manner his : Majesty might direct. He released the 3 soldiers whom Juan Pardo held prisoners, giving them a repri mand, and spoke9to all of them, encouraging and entreating them to remain steadfast in the service of his Majesty's because he wanted to take the reinforcements with him, as he did; the camp master for his lieutenant and Admiral of the armada; and he gave orders to Juan Pardo to go inland, toward New Spain, with i50 soldiers, to visit the caciques who wanted to come to see the Adelantado; and with all possible friendliness, in what appeared to him the most convenient place for the safety of his soldiers, he was to fortify himself, and see that the Indians became Christians. 9 And so the Adelantado departed from Santa Elena at the end of August,10 having confirmed the peace with the caciques, and charging Estebano de las Alas to preserve it. 9 Cf. the "Relacion" of Juan Pardo, A. G. de I., I-1-1/19.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 465-473.-Cf. also the "Relaci6n' 9 of the first Pardo expedition by the soldier, Francisco Martinez, A.G. de I., I-1-1/19.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, PP 477-480. 10 In the year 1566. • •

PAGE 62

212 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES CHAPTER XXIII. Menendez Sails from St. Augustine for the West Indies to Chase Corsairs, October 20th, 1566. H e arrived in Guale in 2 days; he found the Indians very sad at the death of Alonso Menendez Marques, the Adelantado's nephew, whom they greatly loved, and who was the head of the Christians who were there. Many caciques of that district came there with the desire of seeing the Adelantado: he stopped there 8 days, during which 14 or 1 S of them came: they begged him for crosses and Christians, to teach them to be Christians: the Adelantado agreed to leave Jhere one captain with 30 soldiers, most of them important men, who requested that they might be left there, because it seemed to them that [thus] they could best serve God and the King. The Adelantado set forth: he arriv
PAGE 63

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 213 Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba, as had been resolved. He sailed on the 20th of October, although he had been ready to set out at the er1d of September and could not do so owing to contrary winds. In order to take the corsairs by surprise, he arrived on the 5th of Novem ber, with half the armada, at Mona Island, and the camp master, with the other half, at San German, because those are the places to which the corsairs and robbers are accustomed to go, but they found none. CHAPTER XXIV. The Adelantado Fortifies Towns in the West Indies to Withstand the French Fleet (1566-1567). These were captains of the 6 vessels of the aflli\ada: the Ade lantado, who was the General of his ship; the camp master, who was the captain and admiral of his; Juan Velez de Medrano, of another; Ensign Cristobal de Herrera, f another; at the time he was ensign to Captain Diego de Maya, he was the first to plant the flag on the Fort of San Mateo when it was captured from the French; Captain Pedro de Roda b:in, of another; Bal tasar de Barreda, of another; Garcia Martinez de Cos [was captain] of the frigate, and Rodrigo Montes, of the brigantine; he was the first cousin of the camp master and was likewise one of the first to enter the fort. As s9on as the camp master with his vessels anchored at San Ger man, he received tidings from the people on land how a dispatch boat was at Guadinilla, 15 leagues thence: the crew whereof said that on the 25th of September of that year 27 armed ships had de-' parted from France; that they had separated into 3 divisions, and the first had captured the island of Madeira on the 6th of October; that they knew not where the other 2 parts of the armada migh be, and that the whole of it was bringing 6,ooo soldiers and sailors. The camp master at once sent Hernando e Miranda, his Majesty's Factor in Florida, to inform himself and learn particularly about this; he went to Guadinilla and spoke with the master and the pilot of the patache, who were his friends, and who told him the same thing. They

PAGE 64

214 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES gave a written statement of what had occurred in this, signed by a regidor of La Palma, who was in the island of Madeira when the French captured it, and they remained there 17 days; and on the ships came some Portuguese whom that regidor knew, who related to him all that was happening. On the third day Hernando de Miranda returned to San German and gave a report of everything to the camp master, who, because it appeared to him that the Adelantado should know these things (so that his fleet could assemble and a decision be taken as to what he ought to do), sent him the intelligence to Mona Island, 20 leagues from there, where he was with 3 ships. When the Adelantado had received the dispatch, he sent the fleet to San German with orders to the camp master to careen and grease the ve s sels and put them in very good condition, and he went to Sailto Domingo, 50 leagues from here: he was very well received by the Audiencia of that city, for 2 days before they had had news of the French armada and they feared greatly that it might come there. The Adelantado went to the Audiencia, where the President an o i dores1 were assembled: he showed them the cedula he held from his J\fajesty in order to raise assistance: he told them that he brought one thousand soldiers and sailors, all very good men, pilots and sailors, for he had taken for that purpose the seamen he had in Florida, who were very good; and that he came with the determination to chase and entrap all the corsairs there might be in those parts, in order to punish them, so that in times of peace they should not go about perpetrating such extortions and thefts from, and injuries to the subjects of his Majesty; but that owing to the tidings he had that the French armada was coming to those parts, he begged the& as a favor to give him their advice thereon; and the Audiencia, after discussing the matter, summed it up by telling him that the advice they gave was that he should fortify that city and fortress, "that of Puerto Rico, that of Havana and other neighboring ports, as his Majesty ordered him to do, and should then return speedily to Florida. Much did the Adelantado regret that advice, because he desired to 1 The Spanish West Indies were divided into Audiencias or judicial districts; an oidor was one of the judges of an Audiencia.

PAGE 65

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 215 encounter one of those three divisions of the French armada, and other corsairs who went about separately in those parts, who had become ery wealthy from the plunder they had collected; but it appeared to him that his Majesty ordered him by his cedula to do what the Audien cia counselled, and so he determined to do it. He requested them to keep themselves free that afternoon and the next day, in order to see the best method to be followed for the fortifying of that city and fortress, and to examine and understand the points where the enemy might land, so as to station sentinels; and in order likewise that the wheels and gun carriages of the artillery might be replaced because those they had were decayed, so as to set them up and make them ready at the points where they were most needed; which was all done with great diligf6llce and care. The Adelantado left Captain Rodrigo Troche in tfhat city, with 150 soldiers, two thirds of them arquebusiers and one third, pikemen: he left Captain Antonio Gomez as captain of artillery, for he was very skilled in this and a great an for handling powder, and within 6 days the Adelantado went back to San German. He arrived in 3 days, [and] he sent Captain Cristobal de Herrera on his hooker ; with sup plies, munitions and twenty hundredweight of powder for cannon and arquebuses, for the defence of the fortress and the city. There were in that city 10 vessels laden with hides and sugar for Spain: the Audiencia made that hooker the flagship and Cristobal de Herrera the General, as he was a good soldier on land and sea, and with all of them he arrived in Seville in safety. As soon as the Adelantado reached San German, he found the ships quite prepared for war: he entered into council with the camp master and the captains: he told them the decision he had taken on the advice of the President and oidores of the Royal Audiencia of Santo Do mingo, and that he had to abide by and fulfil it. He imme iately dis patched Captain Juan de Zorita, with his armed ship, and ioo arque busiers and 4 artillery pieces on board, witl'l a supply of powder; and the Adelantado went by land from San German to [San Juan of] Puerto Rico, where he was very well received by the Governor and citizens, as they were in great fear that the French armada might

PAGE 66

216 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES arrive. He told them what his Majesty had commanded him: he showed the cedula to the Governor and the regimiento, and [said] that loo soldiers, 4 pieces of artillery and munitions would soon l5e there on an armed ship, because he had just left them in San German about to be dispatched: he visited the fortress and the entrance to the harbor, where orders were given to fortify a tower there, by another and better plan which he had; and he visited other places which were dangerous because the enemy could disembark there. With the advice and concurrence of the governor and the alcaide of the fortress, Juan Ponce de Leon, and of other regidores, he decided on the manner in which they were to fortify and defend themselves, in case the French armada, or a division thereof, should come there. : Most of the resi dents had fled to the woods, with their wives, and property, being afraid th;at the French armada would arrive: the Governor could not bring them to the pueblo, [but] with the arrival of the Adelantado they all came and organized public rejoicings and processions, sup plicating Our Lord to give them victory gainst their enemies, because all the citizens were determined that if the enemy came there, they would sooner die than surrender. On the fourth day the Adelantado departed for San German, and on the third day after he arrived there, he set sail for Puerto de Plata, where with the advice, help and accord of the regimiento and judicial officials of Puerto de Plata, and the citizens thereof, he designed a fortified tower* and went on to Monte Cristo, La Y aguana and Puerto Real, to offer soldiers; but under different pretexts, they would not receive them; for which state of doubt they suffered in the ravages that the French armada among them.* The Adelantado had gone to all 3 of these towns, and they would not receive soldiers. In those days 2 vessels came upon Santiago de Cuba: the Adelantado had left 50 arquebusiers ;-. . . de Godoy, a good soldier, as cap tain thereof; and 4 pieces of bronze artillery, with their powder and munitions; this prevente
PAGE 67

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 217 with 6 pieces of artillery and 200 soldiers, and Baltasar de Barreda as the captain thereof, as had previously been agreed and provided; lie took that succor to Havana on the . . . of January, a thing which appeared done by enchantment, that in such a few days the Adelan tado should have distributed so much succor, where navigation was so difficult, for on October 20th he had departed from Florida, and had been in San German, Mona Island, Santo Domingo and Puerto Rico. He sailed to Puerto de Plata with the armada he had left: having given that s uccor, he sent the camp master by the old channel, with the 3 vessels, to reinforce Havana; on the way he met with a very great storm from the north, and was many times on the point of being lo s t. The Adelantado, with the other ship, went to Monte Cristo, Puerto Real anti La Y aguana, and offered them soldiers to def end them against the corsairs, and they did not want them [he sailed] to Santiago de Cuba, Caho de Cruz and Macaca, a port of Bayan: there he left the ship loading with supplies for Havana, bound thence to Florida, and went on board a z abra; and sailing between rocks and shoals, he arrived at a harbor south of Havana, called ... ; went by land to Havana and arrived on the ... of ... ; he made this jour ney by land and sea, from Bayamo to Havana, in 8 days; a thing whereat people marvelled, for it is a journey of at least one month. Great was the joy of the camp master and the captains, the sailors and soldiers, on beholding the Adelantado: he at once gave orders to fortify that place and harbor, as his Majesty had commanded him: he collected all the munitions on board one of the 3 ships that were there: he sent the other two to Spain: and leaving there Captain Baltasar de Barreda with the 200 soldie h , for the defence of the fortress and harbor, as his Majesty ordered him by his royal cedula to succor that place with the [number of] men he thought best, he dispatched the camp master to Florida with the munitions which were left over, and the supplies brought by the vessel the Adelantado had left in Macaca, being laden with supplies from Bayan, and he like wise sent away that ship which was at his Majesty's expense, as well as the others. He also sent off at once the vessel of Puerto Rico and the hooker that arrived in Santo Domingo, in order to spare expense to

PAGE 68

218 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES his Majesty; for if his Majesty had had to meet the cost of that armada, without the men and supplies, counting only the cost of arm ing and the other things which ships of the armada need, more than twenty thousand ducats would have been spent for his Majesty's account, and in the Indies, more than forty thou sand; and the Adelan tado did not spend one ducat, because with the officers he had in Florida (whom he had brought with him at his expen se), and other things, he did it all with a part of the vessels, men and supplies that had gone to the relief of Florida and the islands, and with 150 other sailors, pilots and men he had; the frigate and brigantine belonged to the Adelantado, and the crews thereof, with no cos t to his Majesty whatever. And the Adelantado gave orders to the camp mas ter when he sailed for Florida, which was on . . . , that be.igg arrived in St. Augustine visited that fort and the Fort of San Mateo, he was to go up the River of San Mateo with 150 men, and 3 of the Ade lantado's own brigantines which he kept in Florida for explorations, until he arrived in the district of Caciqu Macoya, the point the Ade lantado had reached when he turned back. The same day the camp master sailed, the Adelantado departed from Havana for the country of Cacique Carlos, with 6 pataches and brigantine s , and he told the camp master that he would try to learn if there were a river in [the land of] Carlos which extended to [the land of] Macoya,2 and that he would explore that coast. 2 A river from the west coast to the River St. Johns.

PAGE 69

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 219 CHAPTER XXV. Francisco de Reinoso Stationed in Carlos's Country. Menendez and Carlos Meet Again in March, i567. Caci que Tocobaga. His Fine Character. Captain de Rodabdn Mutinies in Havana. District of Cacique Tequesta Organized. 'the Adelantado's Interview with Cacique Saturiba (April, 1567). Previous to the Adelantado's leaving Florida in order to obtain succor, he had decided to dispatch Francisco de Reinoso, a very good soldier of his .Majesty, to Cacique Carlos with 30 soldiers and send him to the cousin of Carlos who was his heir, who was given the name of Don Pedro wJien he was baptized and [it was given likewise] to a servant of his. It appeared to the Adelantado that this Indian, the heir of Carlos, had a very good understanding and was a great friend of his, and he did not wish the Indians to kill Reinoso; and Don Pedro showed signs of becoming a good Christian, and the Adelantado was trying to marry him to the Indian woman, Dona Antonia, since they were to be the heirs of the possessions of Carlos, and would try to make the Indians become Christians. He appointed Francisco de Reinoso as captain of those 30 soldiers, and gave him instructions to build a blockhouse in Carlos's pueblo, and all of them to endeavor with great devoutness to worship the cross mornings and evenings, repeat ing the Christian doctrine so that the Indians should do the same, and working to indoctrinate them as well as they could; and through their friendship with the Indians they were to try to find out if a river which was 2 leagues from there,1 went to mpty into the Lagoon of Maymi, and what the distance was in leagues; for the Adelantado already knew how many leagues there were from that lagoon to Macoya, and that there was a passageway; and within 3 01 4 months he would go to Carlos with a sufficient number of ships, to see if he could travel by that river to San Mateo and St. Augustine, which was what the Adelantado much desired, because of the great service he knew he would be doing his Majesty, the traders in the Indies and the 1 The Caloosahatchee; named after the Caloosa Indians, subjects of Carlos.

PAGE 70

220 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES general good of those who went to conquer and settle in Florida; and he gave Francisco de Reinoso a present for Carlos, another for his wife and another for the Indian woman, Dofia Antonia. And when Francisco de Reinoso in the brigantine had reached Carlo.s with his 30 soldiers, Don Pedro, the Indian, Carlos's heir, and the other Indian, they landed the two Indians in order that they might speak with Carlos and Dofia Antonia, and great was the satisfaction the Indians received on seeing them; and presently Carlos came to the patache, offering his friendship to Captaiu Francisco de Reinoso and his soldiers, [and saying] that since the Adelantado was his elder brother, and sent to order him to receive them and give them good treatment, he must do so, and that neither he nor his Indians would do him any harm: so they landed with great contentlilent and rejoic ing, and he t k them to his pueblo. Francisco de Reino s o gave him the present he brought, with a letter, and the interpreter made clear to him what the Adelantado said therein, which was to enjoin on him earnestly that the Christians should be ell treated by him and his Indians; and Carlos promised Captain Reino s o to do so, and he had a house built for him wherein [the Spaniards] gathered; and near it they erected a cross, which they went to wor s hip morning s and eve nings, repeating their Christian doctrine; and all the Indian men and women came to it with great devoutness. He sailed for Havana in the brigantine with 5 or 6 sailors, as the Adelantado had ordered: he took with him Dofia Antonia, the Indian woman, with 5 or 6 principal Indians, as the Adelantado had so com manded for the safety of Captain Francisco de Reinoso and the 30 soldiers with him, because iie had very little confidence in Carlos, for when he had had dealings with him he saw him give many signs of being a traitor. When the Indian woman arrived in Havana on the brigantine, within 6 days of her sailing from Carlos, Alonso de Rojas, a r eg idor of that town, came at one to the shore, and took Dofia Antonia and her Indians to his house, as he had done before; and his wife, who was the godmother of Dofia Antonia, received her very well, entertaining her greatly and giving her good treatment; and soon the brigantine

PAGE 71

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 221 and the patache were laden with livestock and some supplies, and went with them to Carlos. Captain Francisco de Reinoso wrote of the hardships and dangers they lived through, and that 2 or 3 times Carlos had wanted to kill them treacherously, and that he sent to tell his sister, Dofia Antonia, and the other Indians that he had a very great desire to see them and they should return at once, so that when he had them with him he could slay Franci sco de Reinoso and the soldiers who were with him, for that cacique and his , father were very bloodthirsty to kill Chris tians. Thos e men and women whom the Adelantado had found prisoners there, said that in 20 years the father and son had slain more than 200 Christians, sacrificing them to the devil, and holding their feasts and on those occasions; and that they were all people from shipwrecked vessels of the Carrera of the Indies, because even though they were lost ioo leagues from there, they were brought to him, as he was the cacique of much of the sea coast near Los Martires and the Bahama Channel, hich is where the ships which go from the Indies to Spain run the greatest danger; wherefore the Adelantado was making great efforts to settle that coa s t, and bring the caciques and Indians into friendly relations with him. And so [the Adelantado sailed for Carlos] with the 6 brigantines he obtained in Havana with 150 men, on the day that the camp master departed for St. Augustine, on the vessel laden with supplies and munitions which had been taken from the surplus of the armada; this was on ... ; and the Adelantado had given him orders to go up the River of San Mateo as far as Macoya, for he was on his way to learn if he could go to Macoya from the direction of Carlos, in order to go from there to St. Augustine and San Mateo; he took Dofia Antonia with him, and the Indian men and women she had with her, and he arrived in 2 ordinary days, with a prosperous wind. He had with him Father Rogel,2 of the Society of Jesus, a very great and learned religious, and Father Francisco [de Villarreal], 3 of the same Society; likewise some principal Indians of Tequesta, which 2 Introduction, pp. 30, 32, 33 3 This should be Brother Francisco de Villarreal.

PAGE 72

I 222 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES was where the ship, coming from San Mateo with the men who had mutinied, left the 20 soldiers; and when a brigantine which the Ade lantado was sending from Florida to Havana for supplies succeedeo in getting through [the channel] and arrived off that harbor, it struck a contrary wind, and entered therein, and found all the Christians among those rebels who had remained there very well. They told them the good treatment given them by the cacique and his Indians, because the Adelantado had Dofia Antonia for a wife, and that 5 or 6 of them had gone inland; and the men of the brigantine took about I 5 of those soldiers and the cacique sent a brother of his on that brigan tine, 3 Indian men and 3 Indian women, to tell the Adelantado that he and his Indians wished to become Christians and he should come to see him, because he wanted to take him for his elder brother, to do what he comm i nded him. There was a great war between that cacique and Carlos, and the reason was that Cacique Tequesta used to be sub ject to Carlos, and when Carlos learned that he had those Christians, he sent for them and Tequesta would no give them to him, and after ward he sent to have them killed treacherously: Tequesta heard this, defended them and slew two of his own Indians who went about trying to kill the Christians. And the Adelantado was taking with him this third time those messengers of Tequesta, as well as Dofia Antonia, all of them together, in order to treat of peace and friendship between Carlos and Tequesta; and when the Adelantado entered the harbor belonging to Carlos 2 days after he left Havana, as has been said, he was seen by Captain Francisco de Reinoso and his soldiers, and by Cacique Carlos and his men. They hastened to him at once with the canoes and brigantines: the Adelantado landed: he was very well received by the Christians and Indians: he had a house built for Dona Antonia near the Chris tians' houC/;e, and a chapel where Father Rogel said mass. He preached to the soldiers the next day, for they had sore need of being taught, and because of the good e ample he gave them they begged the Ade lantado that he might be left with them, for otherwise they would soon be savages like the Indians themselves; and the reason was that the Indian women loved them greatly, to such an extent that if the Ade-

PAGE 73

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 223 lantado had not arrived there, Carlos and his Indians-even though they should lose Dona Antonia, the sister of Carlos, and the six Indian men and women she had with her-were determined to kill Francisco de Reinoso and all the Christians who were with him, although be cause of the warning the Indian women gave the Christians, that Carlos and his Indians wanted to s lay them, they lived with great caution. Francisco de Reinoso reported formally to the Adelantado on the habits and customs of Carlos and his Indians , and on the many occa sions when they had wanted to slay them; [he said] that great was the devoutness they showed before the cross, although Carlos was very trouble s ome and laughed at our ceremonies. The Adelantado greatly pleased Carlos arid all his men: he took him twice to dine with him, and his wife, and his principal men and women. "' The Adelantado learned that the passage he was seeking was not to be found there, but that 50 Jeagues farther on, in a pueblo they call v-' Tocobaga, he would find a waterway.4 The cacique of that land was a great enemy of Carlos and made much war on him. Carlos had asked the Adelantado and Franci sco de Reinoso to go with him and hi s men to make war on Tocobaga. Francisco de Reinoso said to Carlos that he could not do this without orders from the Adelantado, because if he did, the Adelantado would command that his head be cut off. And the Adelantado replied to Carlos that the King of Spain, his Master, had not sent him to that land to make war on the Indian caciques, but that if they were quarrelling he would try to make them friends, and ask them if they wanted to become Christians; he would teach the doctrine to those who did, for it showed the manner of be coming so, in order that when they died on this earth, they might go to God in heaven, who is the Lord of all the earth; that therefore he 4 Tocobaga was on Tampa Bay. Needless to say that neither by means of the / Caloosahatchee River at Charlotte Harbor, nor the Hillsboro River at Tampa Bay, could the Adelantado travel to the St. Johns (the River of San Mateo).

PAGE 74

224 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES wanted to be a friend of Tocobaga, and would go to treat of peace with him. Carlos regretted very much that the Adelantado would not go to make war on Tocobaga, but told him that he wished to go with him in his brigantines to Tocobaga, with about 20 of his principal Indians, and that there the Adelantado could discuss peace. The Adelantado was pleased at this, and at once discussed the peace and friendship between Carlos and Cacique Tequesta, with Carlos, Tequesta's brother whom the Adelantado had there, 2 other Indian men and 3 Indian women: they were settled very satisfactorily: the Adelantado left a very friendly feeling confirmed between the Indians and soldiers: and until he should return from Tocobaga he left there Tequesta's Indians with the Christians, and the two fathers of the Society of J es\JS. Father Rogel was making haste to learn with a vocabulary the lan guage of Carlos and Tocobaga, to begin to preach to the Indians. Father Francisco was learning the lahguage of Tequesta, because the Adelantado intended, on his return from Tocobaga, to leave Father Rogel at Carlos and take Father Francisco to Tequesta. Within 3 days after he reached Carlos, he sailed with all 6 brigan tines in the direction of Tocobaga: he took Carlos with hirri and 20 oI liTs principal Indians: he arrived at the harbor the 2d day, at night. The cacique lived 20 leagues inland, and one could sail up close to Y side o . f his house by a channel of salt of those who Carlos, in such. . a manner toward the north, ? although it was at night and there was no moon, that with a prosper, ous wind, _ the Adelantado arrived one hour before daybreak near the house of Tocobaga, without being discovered, and he ordered the brigantines to anchor with great secrecy. Carlos " prayed the Adelantado to let them land, burn the pueblo and kill the Indians. The Adelantado would'-not do so, telling him that [if he did], the King of Spain, his Master, would order his head to be cut off, because neither Tocobaga nor his Indians had ever done him harm; but that if they had, he would do what Carlos said. Carlos remained very sad at

PAGE 75

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 225 this, and he asked the Adelantado to land him and his Indians, [say ing] that he would go and set fire to the cacique's house, and would swim back to the brigantines. The Adelantado told him not to do so, nor would he consent to it, since Carlos came with him to treat of and friendship: Carlos was much angered thereat, and wept in his spite. The Adelantado consoled him the best he could, and said that he would try to make a very honorable peace between Carlos and Toco baga, who should give up to Carlos lo or 12 of his Indian men and women whom he held as captive s . Carlos was greatly cheered at this, because there was among them a sister of his and of Dofia Antonia, and he said to the Adelantado that with that he was satisfied. The Adelantado com 1 nanded that a small s hallop with 8 rowers, and a Christian of those who had been captives in Carlos-woo knew Toco baga's language-should go up to the cacique's house; and he ordered that once near there he should tell him in a loud voice, in his language, to have no fear; that all the rlien brought by the ships that were there were his friends, Christians in truth; and when he had done so, the Indians awakened, and saw the ships close to the houses, and started to flee, with their wives and children. The cacique remained quiet, with S or 6 Indians and one wife; and the day having come he sent a Christian he had to the Adelantado, to tell him that he thanked him greatly for not having killed either him or his people, or burned his village; that that Christian he sent him was the only one he had; that his people had fled, and he had remained in the house of his god s , his house of prayer; that he would sooner die than forsake them; that if the Adelantado 'wanted him to go to his ships, he would do so, and if the Adelantado wanted to land, to give him life or death, he could do that, for he was awaiting him. The Adelantado was much pleased with the message and •with the Christian who brought it, who was a Portuguese from Tavila, which is in the Algarve. He said that he had been Zi. prisoner there 6 years; \ that they were in a bark laden with maize and chickens, honey and woolen blankets, bound from Campeche to New Spain, that a storm had cast them ashore there and that the Indians killed them all within • • •

PAGE 76

226 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES one hour; that he had hidden in the woods so they could not find him, and had gone about for a month, concealed therein, eating palmettos, acorns and some shell-fish; that some Indian fishermen saw him by chance, seized him and brought him to this cacique, and that he had been serving them by carrying wood and water and cooking for them; that from the day he had been shipwrecked until now, he supplicated God each day to free him from captivity, and that he had been expect ing Christians for eight days, for every night of the 8 days he had dreamed that Christians were coming there to live, whereat he was very glad. He told the Adelantado of matters concerning that land, although he knew very little, never having gone more than 20 leagues out of that pueblo; and the Adelantado would not say to that Chris tian that Carlos had come there, nor that Tocobag.i should come to the ship, for dove of Carlos: he sent him to say that he would land and go to speak with Tocobaga, who should have no fear; and he enjoined on the Christian that he must encourage him, that the Adelan tado would do him no harm, and that 'locobaga was to send and tell his Indian men and women to return to the village : and so the Chris tian went with that answer, and the Adelantado landed at 8 o'clock in the morning. He spoke with the cacique who received him very well and seated him near him, in the highest and most prominent place: the cacique had with him 6 Indian men and one Indian woman. He told the Adelantado through the interpreter that he had not thought the Christians were so good; that well did he realize they could slay him and his people, and burn his idols and his village; that he had known for a long time that Christians went about in that country, who had sent to tell the caciques, his friends, that they must give them maize, and if they did not, they would kill them, and because they gave them none, the Christians slew many; that he had great fear of them, and afterward there came other Christians who killed the first; and that it was said the caciques and Indians greatly loved these last Christians, and [he wished to know] which they were. The Adelantado replied to him that he and his men were some of the last Christians, who had come to slay those first ones who came to make slaves of the Indians and caciques; that those were false Chris-

PAGE 77

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 227 tians, wherefore he would kill them; that he and his men were Chris tians in truth, and had not come to slay or enslave the Indians, or seize their maize, but only went about asking them if they wished to be Christians, teaching them how to become so, and to make them friends and brothers; that he came not to wage war, or to slay any cacique or Indian save those who wanted to harm him, or kill some Christian; and that if Tocobaga and his men wanted to become Chris tians, he would rejoice thereat. The cacique was much pleased at what the Adelantado told him, and he rose: he and his 6 Indians rendered the Adelantado great homage very humbly, and kissed his hands, and then they sat down again. Then the Adelantado said to the cacique that he was a friend of Carlos and kef>t Christians in his land, and that was no reason why he should be an enemy to Tocobaga; that he had with him on board the brigantines, had brought him to treat of peace and friend ship with him, and he should return to him the 12 persons whom he held as prisoners; and that i' he and his Indians were willing to be come Christians, the Adelantado would be greatly gratified thereat and would leave him Christians there as he had in Carlos, in order that they might defend them from their enemies and teach them to be Christians. He replied that he had far from there his principal men and the caciques, his friends and subjects, and that he could not answer the Adelantado without their coming and his speaking with them; that the Adelantado should wait 3 or 4 days, and he would send to summon them. • The Adelantado said that he would be glad [to do it], and so the cacique sent to summon his principal Indians and the caciques, and he prayed the Adelantado to order his soldiers not to go near th1.house of his gods, whom that cacique held in great veneration. That night the Adelantado and his men went back to sleep on the brigantines, and the next day in the morning Cacique Tocobaga came to see him. He and Carlos spoke together and had several arguments: Carlos wanted to disembark with Tocobaga and his Indians, but be cause the Adelantado considered Carlos very treacherous he hesitated • •

PAGE 78

228 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES to take the risk, thinking that Carlos might speak ill of him and his Christians to Tocobaga, and the 2 caciques might agree so that Carlos would kill the Christians that he had in his country, and Tocobaga, those he might leave with him. On the other hand, the Adelantado dared not anger Carlos, and therefore he allowed him to land, but with 2 interpreters who should al ways go about with him so that he could not speak ill of the Christians to the cacique and his Indians. In those 3 days came more than 1,500 Indians, with their bows and arrows, all men of very good appearance. When the Adelantado saw so many people, he told the cacique that his soldiers were joyful because they thought that the cacique's Indians wanted to be warlike and fight them; that he had better keep the prin cipal men with him, to treat of peace, and send bacl!2 the others. The cacique did thk On the fourth day, 29 caciques having assembled, with about 100 principal Indians whom they kept with them, the cacique sent word to the Adelantado to come and treat of peace; and so he went, taking Carlos with him; and when they were assembled, the Adelantado being seated in the most prominent place, Tocobaga said to him that he had told those caciques and Indians who were there, all that the Adelan tado had said, and that if he said those things in truth, all would be glad to take him for an elder brother and turn Christians; and make peace with Carlos, and give him his people; but that if Carlos should again make war upon him, the Adelantado was to help him, and if he should break the peace with Carlos, the Adelantado should help Carlos; because he wanted to make peace with the true Christians, not the false ones; and [he asked] that the Adelantado should leave him a captain with 30 Christians, to teach him and his caciques to be Chris tians. Everything was done in this manner, peace being made with Carlos, and his people returned to him; and the Adelantado left 30 soldiers there, under the charge of Captain Garcia Martinez de Cos, who remained sorely agamst his will; and the Adelantado left him because he was displeased with him owing to a certain disobedient act of his, but likewise because he was a good Christian and had a good understanding; and Tocobaga told the Adelantado that he could not

PAGE 79

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 229 go to Macoya with so few men, for the Indians on the way were numerous and warlike. Immediately after he departed thence with his brigantines, within 4 days of his arrival, and within 8 he sailed back to the village of Carlos; and on the way he perceived that Carlos's rage and vexation were very great, on account of the warm friendship the Adelantado had formed with Tocobaga, and he tried very hard to conciliate him, but could not. A sailor passed in front of Carlos and happened to let the end of a rope fall on his head, and he, thinking the sailor had done it on purpose, gave him a great blow in the face and grappled with him to throw him overboard: the Adelantado ran up and wrested him from him: the sailor was one of the best they had there. This was greatly resente
PAGE 80

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES and went to embark to go to Tequesta; and when the ships were on the point of sailing, to take back the Indians he had there, confirm the peace and go thence to the Forts of St. Augustine and San Mateo, he saw a vessel enter the harbor, whereat he was astonished, not knowing what she might be; and when she had anchored, he recognized her as a patache of his which he had left in the harbor of St. Augustine when he set forth with the armada against the corsairs. She had been sent to Havana from the Forts of St. Augustine, San Mateo and San Felipe, to give notice to the Adelantado that he must send supplies; and when that brigantine had reached Havana, Treas urer Juan de Ynistrosa, the lieutenant of the Adelantado for the affairs of Florida in that town and island, sent her on with advices to the Adelantado, and she likewise brought letters from all the regidores of Havana. The was that when the Adelantado sailed from Havana on that last voyage, at the very time he wanted to leave, a captain called Pedro de Rodaban, one of those his Majesty had sent to the Adelantado with reinforcements, had risen in rebellion and escaped to the woods with the flag, with the design of passing over to New Spain, which was then in a disturbed state. The Adelantado feared his going: he delayed several days, think ing he could seize him, and he instituted proceedings against him, sum moning him to appear by proclamation, sentencing him as a rebel and notifying Governor Garcia Osorio of the sentence, so that if that cap tain could be captured, they should send him to Spain, to his Majesty, with the papers in the case; and [his friends] wrote him by that brigantine that the day after the Adelantado left that town of Havana, Captain Rodaban was walking openly about that town, and accompanied the Governor, and dined with him, with many of the rebel soldiers who had fled from Florida; and that within 6 days after the Adelantado departed, the Governor had sent for Captain Baltasar de Barreda, whom the Adelantado had left in that town with 200 soldiers, for the defence o the fortress and the harbor thereof, as his Majesty ordered him. The captain went and found the Governor in the company of his Majesty's officials of that island, and the regidores of the town; and the Governor made the captain sit near him, and

PAGE 81

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ordered his ensign and other gentlemen who came with him, to go out; and he told the captain that he wished to see the instructions he held his Majesty for the defence of that fortress and harbor. The captain said that the Adelantado had sent them to him origi nally by a notary, as his Majesty commanded him, but that he had with him there a certified copy thereof, with the order the Adelantado had left with him; and he put his hand in his pocket and drew it forth, and gave it to the Governor, who said that if it were not the original he did not wish to see it. The captain replied that the notary who had signed it was one of those present there. The Governor would not take it, and directed a notary who was present to ordei the town crier to make a proclamation that under penalty of death, all the soldiers of Captain de Barreda's company were to keep to their barracks, and none should come out without his order and permission. Captain Barreda was surpPised thereat, and remained silent, answer ing nothing; and after a little he saluted the Governor, saying to him and most of those who were there that he kissed their hands, and he rose to go. The Governor rose and laid hold of him, saying: "Prisoner of the King." Two alguacilel with 7 or 8 porquerones6 immediately came forward and seized the captain, but as they could not make him re linquish his sword which he held, they went circling round. His ensign who was outside-a good soldier, a gentleman from Trujillo, called . . . -heard the noise: he entered, and seeing how badly they were treating his captain, he grasped his sword anCl attacked like a lion those who were hemming in the captain: they left him and retreated into an apartment, and the Governor with them: they locked the door inside. The captain and the ensign went out of the house: they many soldiers coming, much disturbed: the captain ordered them to retire to the guard-house under penalty of dead>.; and Captain Rodaban controlled many of Captain Baltasar de Barreda's soldiers, having 5 Constables or bailiffs. 6 Sheriff's officers. • •

PAGE 82

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES caused them to mutiny; and he had gathered many others of the rebels, and it was said that they were in the Governor's hou se, so that Cap tain Baltasar de Barreda being seized, his flag and company should he delivered to Captain Rodaban. The Adelantado received certified testi mony of all this by that brigantine, and a letter which all the reg i dores had written to him, beseeching him to come at once to Havana and remedy these things, because otherwise great evil might befall. When the Adelantado had seen those dispatches, he sent the Indians to Tequesta and he went to Havana, and arrived within 3 days: Cap tain Rodab:in at once absented himself in the woods. He investigated what was happening, and was compelled to delay there a month, so as to see whether he could capture that Captain Rodaban, who had taken to the woods with 15 or 20 "rquebusiers. He used spies so that he caught him, and brought him to jus tice: he sentenced Rodaban to be beheaded; he wanted this carried out: but many flocked to the Adelantado, requesting him to grant him an appeal, and advising that he should \.\do it, in order the better to justify the case to his Majesty. The Adelantado granted it; and leav ing matters there in as much security as he could, he sailed for Florida with some supplies obtained from other vessels which he had sent to Campeche to be laden with maize; he went to Tequesta, where he was very well received by that cacique and those Indians: he made great peace with them: they took him for their elder brother: he left there 30 soldiers, and . . . as their captain; and left them a saw, and some carpenters to build a blockhouse. He erected a cro s s with great devout ness: the Indians worshipped it: he left there Father Francisco, of the Society of Jesus: he remamed 4 days in that pueblo: great was his satisfaction at seeing that every morning and evening all the Indian men and women, big and little, hastened to the cross to worship it and kiss it wifu great devotion. The cacique gave the Adelantado a brother of his and two principal Indians, one of whom was the captain of one of Carlos's villages, in or&r that he might carry them to Spain; and the Adelantado sailed with them, in good weather. The third day he arrived in San Mateo, where he found Gonzalo de Villarroel and his men, all very well; that Saturiba was mustering a great number

PAGE 83

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 233 of warriors, and that some caciques and Indians, his subjects, had killed all his [de Villarroel's] cattle. He held prisoners, in chains, Emoloa, a son of his, two others, heirs of two caciques; two other principal Indians of Saturiba, for there were i6 Indians in all, whom he held in prison, in chains; and the Adelantado learned how the camp master, with 3 brigantines, had sailed up that River of San Mateo for 50 leagues, as far as Macoya; and because he found a great number of Indians, and the river was narrow and both banks densely wooded, he had turned back, as he had no news of the Adelantado, who had told him that he himself would have to go inland from the side where Carlos lived. And although the Indians in Tocobaga had told the Ade lantado, when he went there with the brigantines and left the Chris tians, that. there.was a river in those parts which went on to Macoya, he had but few men to go there, and there were manJ Indians, very warlike all of them, who were enemies of Tocobaga; [but he had said] that when the Adelantado came another time, he and his warriors would go with him. • In agreement with Gonzalo de Villarroel, the Adelantado decided the second day after his arrival at San Mateo, to set free one Indian of those that Villarroel held prisoners in chains, and he sent him to Saturiba to tell him that the next day in the morning he should be at the point of the bar, which is two leagues from there, b<:cause the Ade lantado wanted to go to St. Augustine and desired to see and speak with him, for the Adelantado had never seen this cacique and desired greatly to talk with him, and they said that the cacique liked the Ade lantado very much, but stood in great fear of him. Saturiba, who was 2 leagues from the of San Mateo, received the message: he replied to the Adelantado that he would go to the bar, as he ordered him to do, and he prayed him to bring the Indians with him, because he wanted to see them. The next day in the morning the Adelantado departed from the fort, leaving the soldiers as much cheered as 11.e could, entreating and encouraging them to be steadfast in the service of his Majesty, because he had to sail at once for Spain, as all prayed him to do in order that his Majesty might succor them with pay and supplies, in order to • •

PAGE 84

234 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES clothe themselves, for they now went about little less naked than Indians. He took with him Gonzalo de Villarroel: they found Saturiba at the bar, quite a distance from the shore, and many Indians wit him: the Adelantado brought there with him Emoloa and 6 other principal Indians: the Adelantado set one free and sent him to tell Saturiba to come down there to the shore, under the pledge of his word. Saturiba replied that the Adelantado was to land Emoloa and the Indians he brought with him, because he wanted to speak to them first. The Adelantado did so, but kept on them the chains which they had on their feet, and placed them in front of a brigantine, holding 20 arquebusiers in readiness and two demi-culverins with small shot, in order to be able to kill any Indians who might want to carry them off on their bac\s. Saturiba would not come to speak to Emoloa: he sent two of hi s principal Indians, who spoke with him: hese came and went between Saturiba and Emoloa for a space of more than two hours: it was found at the end that their parleying was for the purpo s e of freeing the Indians and inducing the Adelantado to land, s o that they might shoot arrows at him and the soldiers he had with him, for the Indians Saturiba held in ambush were many; the Adelantado obtained knowl edge of the plot from a soldier, a friend of Emoloa, who was entrusted with the task of feeding him and his Indian s , and understood their language, although they did not know it. The Adelantado took back on board his brigantines Emoloa and the other Indian pri s oners he had landed: he sent to tell Sa riba that he had al ways desired to be his friend, and desired it then also, and that it caused him great regret that he did not wish to be his: that from then on Saturiba should con sider the delantado as his enemy, and to avenge the Christians he had treacherously killed, the Adelantado would command that his head be cut off, or that he be drFven out of his country. The cacique sent him many insulting messages, saying that although he had told the Adelantado's captains many times that he was his friend, he did not say it with a willing heart, because he held all Chris-

PAGE 85

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 235 tians as enemies; and that the Adelantado and his soldiers were hens and cowards; that they ought to land and fight with him and his Ix!dians. CHAPTER XXVI. Captain Enriquez Gives Trouble at St. Augustine. cfhe Adelantado Makes War on Saturiba. Goes to Santa Elena. Las Alas to Be Lieutenant-Governor in His Absence. Captain Juan Pardo's Suc cessful Explorations. The Adelantado left him, without desiring to answer him: he crossed the bar and went to St. Augustine, where he found the camp master and the
PAGE 86

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES The Adelantado gave this captain's company to Francisco Mufioz, and to his sergeant and officers: he delivered the captain's person, with the record of the case, to his Majesty and the Sefiores of the Royal Council of the Indies. The Adelantado appointed Estebano de las Alas, who was there, his lieutenant of those provinces, as he had done before: he discussed in council the manner of war which was to be waged against Saturiba, and it was agreed upon; he left instructions concerning this, and before his departure he made an attack at 4 points, and went in person with 70 soldiers, to the place where Saturiba was understood to be. In order not to be heard, he marched ten leagues that night, until dawn: neither he nor the others could find Saturiba: about 30 Indians were killed: the Indians slew one sailor and 2 soldiers, and wounded 2 others, but not one of th men with the Adelantado was either hurt or wounded. They retired to the Fort of St. Augustine: he spoke to the captains and soldiers who remained there, encouraging them and begging them to be very firm in the service of his He embarked in a brigan tine for Santa Elena, where is the Fort of San Felipe, and the camp master [went] in a frigate: the Adelantado took with him as prisoners the two captains, Miguel Enriquez and Pedro de Rodaban, to take them to Spain, and 3 principal Indians, one of them a son of Emoloa; and he freed Emoloa and all the other Indians, telling them that he would treat well the 3 whom he was taking to Spain, with the other 3 from Tequesta, and would bring them back; and that if Saturiba made war on the Christians, and Emoloa and his Indians, and the other principal Indians whom the Adelantado was setting free helped him [Saturiba], he woul cut off the heads of those 3 he took with him; and with a prosperous wind, he arrived on the third day at Santa Elena and the Fort of San Felipe, where he found Captain Juan Pardo very we and all the soldiers much pleased with the fair country they had seen when they went inland about 150 leagues, and they had left a fort erected at the foo of the sierra, in the land of Cacique Joada. The Adelantado had received advices from his Majesty that a large armada of Lutheran corsairs had sailed from France bound for those parts as they said, and he should be thoroughly prepared for war;

PAGE 87

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 237 wherefore the Adelantado had sent orders to Captain Juan Pardo that leaving some soldiers in that inland fort, to take care of the Indians a;d friendly caciques and teach them the doctrine, he should come at once to the coast and place himself in the Fort of San Felipe, so that if a French armada arrived there, they could defend the fort. CHAPTER XXVII. Menende z Prepares to Go to Spain. Captain Juan Pardo told the Adelantado of the great friendship the caciques and Indians of the inland country had shown him, and of the desire the.f had to be Christians like the Adelantado and take him for an elder brother, to do that which he should CQmmand them; that the caciques of the coast and their Indians of that province were just as friendly, and that all desired greatly to behold him and tum Christian. • The Adelantado would have liked well to tarry there a month, to confirm the friendship with these caciques and Indians; but the sup plies he was leaving in the forts were very few and the rations the soldiers ate were very short; it was 10 months since he had written to his Majesty that he would soon be in Spain, and he had received intelligence that Flanders was in rebellion against his Majesty and that his Majesty was going there; and so, for the relief of the soldiers who were in Florida under his charge, as well as of those who were in the islands of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba-that they might be succored and paid, for they suffered frcrm great need of food and clothes-and in order that he might give a detailed account to his Majesty of the state of things in Florida and in all the islands and Indies, and of the robberies the corsairs were committing, for if a remedy were not found, so much would be lost; likewise [to suggest to his Majesty] how he could better and maintain the forts of Florida at much less cost to his Royal Exchequer; and to be able to serve him in the campaign of Flanders; he embarked in the frigate, which was of about 20 toneles, made to order and very swift • •

PAGE 88

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES with both oars and sails. The brigantine he had brought from St. Augustine with that frigate was not strong enough, and she was laden with 50 hundredweight of biscuit and sent to St. Augustine and Mateo, for as some of the soldiers of Fort San Felipe had gone inland, this biscuit had been saved. CHAPTER XXVIII. The Adelantado Sails from San Felipe for Spain, May 18th, 1567.1 Mistaken for a Corsair on His Arrival. The Adelantado took with him in the frigate the camp master and Francisco de Castaneda, Captain of the Adelantado' e guard; Captain Juan Velez dt\Medrano, to whom the Adelantado had given leave to return to Spain because of his lack of health; Francisco de Cepero, Diego de Miranda, Alonso and Juan de Valdes, ... de Ayala,2 the ensign of Captain Medrano; . . . de Sale do, Juan de Aguiniga, A 0 • de Cahra, Licentiate ... , who was a priest; Captain Blas de Melro and other gentlemen, to the number of 2 5, all of them with their arquebuses and their good fire-arms; persons who were in the habit of accompany ing the Adelantado and eating at his table, most of them; and there were 5 others who were sailors; for the rest of those soldiers were sailors as well, and understood navigation; [there were likewise] 6 Indians, and the 2 captains the Adelantado held prisoners, Pedro de Rodaban and Miguel Enriquez, 38 men in all. The Adelantado had such a prosperous wind, and the frigate was so fast, that in 17 days he sighted the islands of the Azores, aving averaged 72 leagues a day, as will be seen on the chart of the voyage. When he saw the islands in such a short time he was greatly pleased, for that demonstrated the great swiftness of his frigate: he entered the harbor of Terceira Island: he had tidings that his Majesty was on his way to embark at Corunna, to go to Flanders, and it appeared to him that if he followed that course he might overtake him before his departure from Corunna, and that 1 Barrientos, "Vida y Hechos," p. 144, in Garcia, Dos Antiguas Rela c iones. 2 Grayiel de Ayala.

PAGE 89

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 239 he could flee by means of his oars and sails from the corsairs with large seagoing vessels he might encounter thereabouts; while if he the course to Cape Saint Vincent of Seville, and ran across any Moorish fusta s,8 they might overtake him by rowing. He had some contrary land winds until he reached Corunna, and arrived off that harbor on Saint Peter's Day: near it, about 3 leagues away, he en countered two French vessels and an English one which pursued him: he ran from them and on the second day entered the harbor of Vivero, 20 leagues from Corunna, where he learned that his Majesty was at Court, that he had not left yet for Corunna. From Vivero he sent the two captive captains, Rodaban and Miguel Enriquez, and placed them in charge of Ens ign Ayala, so that in custody and under good guard he might • deliver them to the court prison and hand over the record of the case to the Royal Council of the Indies. • He wrote to his Majesty of his arrival in that harbor and that he would shortly go to kiss and the day following his arrival there, he left at noon for Aviles, 28 leagues from Vivero, where were his wife and his home: he had such a pro s perous wind that in that same day he sailed 2 5 leagues and entered a bay they call Artedo, where were anchored IO ships, which, when they saw that frigate of a new type, and so plentifully equipped with oars that she seemed like a Turkish craft of the seas of the Levant, were afraid of her, and the crews deserted their vessels and started to flee to land in the ships' boats; and one of the vessels, which was laden with iron, ran aground in the sand; her hull was torn open, so that if the Adelantado were a corsair, he could not make away with her. He anchored with his frigate in the midst of tho s e ships: there was not a man or a boat on board of them: he was very anxious at this, since one of them was stranded: he made great efforts, ordering a sailor of the frigate to to some boat to come alongside. She carried 3 small pieces of bronze artillery, and two of the 5 sailors were very good b-sglers: the Adelantado, to avoid any disturbance, would not let them play their instruments or fire any artillery. The men on the frigate went to rest, since it was 8 A lateen-rigged lighter; a boat with a triangular sail. • •

PAGE 90

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE VILES already 10 o ' clock at night, and no boat had come to reconnoitre the frigate: at midnight a boat arrived, well equipped with oars, and from a distance its men called to the men on the frigate, inquiring what vessel theirs was and where she came from: they answered them from the frigate that she belonged to the Adelantado Pedro Menendez, who came from Florida, and asked them to come on board: the men in the boat feared to do so, thinking they were being deceived, for many of the sailors thereabouts knew the Adelantado well, and they said that they were afraid they were being deceived; that if the Adelantado would speak to them, they would certainly know him. The Adelantado, who was listening, said to them: "My brothers, do me the favor of going to that vessel which is aground, going to pieces, and tell her crew that I am theAdelantadoPed : oMenendez and that I come from Florida, so that they may try to save their ship; and tell the same to the men of those other vessels, for it appears to me that they have fled to the woods, and left their vessels yonder to shift for themselves; and this done, return here, 1lor I should like to speak to you." They were to tell the masters of the other ships to come in their boats and board the frigate. They replied from the boat that his lord ship was welcome, and they would go and do what he commanded them; and they did so at once. Those men in the boat were detained until dawn, giving notice to the crews who had fled from the vessels, and helping to save that ship laden with iron; and at daybreak they all came in their boats and boarded the frigate, where the Adelantado had a streamer of crimson damask unfurled as a standard, and a field banner, and he ordered the bugles to be sounded and the 3 artillery pieces to be fired: the boatinen were alarmed, thinking he was a corsair, and turned and fled: the only boat to remain was that which had first spoken the Adelantado, the men whereof had recognized him. There ' were S Portuguese caravels, laden with salt; 3 others were fishing vessels, and the other two were laden, the one with iron and the other with lumber. That boat turned back at once to reassure the rest, and they came on board the frigate to speak with the Adelantado: all were very glad to see him and marvelled . . . sailed such a distance in so small a

PAGE 91

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 241 vessel; and certain it is that this is one of the . . . things which up to thjs day have been seen on the sea. CHAPTER XXIX. 'The Adelantado's 'Triumphal Reception at Aviles. He Reports to the King. Calumnies and Criticisms against Him. The Adelantado set sail, and within 2 hours he entered his town, where they already knew he was coming, because a man in the boat which was sent to land, to give notice who he was, went by land that night to ask the reward for good news from the Adelantado's wife and kindred. • The rejoicing of his wife, relatives and neighbors such, at his arrival in that town, that it cannot be described; for besides the fact that the Adelantado and his kindred are among the important persons of that district, he is so well 1'eloved and well thought of by all, that many dropped on their knees, with their hands raised to heaven, prais ing Our Lord who had brought him safely home, and gazing at the frigate, at which they marvelled, seeing such a small vessel with so many banners and pennants, and the arquebuses and pieces of bronze artillery, which the men fired; and the sounding bugles, and strange, ragged-looking soldiers; it was as if a spell had been cast over all the beholders, as they stared at one another. The Adelantado went directly to the church, to render thanks to Our Lord and his blessed Mother for the mercy he had shown him in thus bringing him safely through • the voyage: he was accompanied as far as his house by the inhabitants of the pueblo, and then he was received by his wife and daughters, and his sisters and nieces who were with them, awaiting the Adelantado, .. as may well be supposed. The Adelantado had been 18 years in the service of his Majesty, in the capacity of Captain-General of the armadas of the coasts of Biscay, the Asturias !ind Flanders, and of the Carrera of the Indies, during which time he had been at his home but 4 times and in them . . . 1 [the Adelantado] was received very favor-1 There are so many words missing in this part of the Meras manuscript (Rui-• •

PAGE 92

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ably by his Majesty, who considered that the expedition had been a great service and [said] that he would reward him. The Adelantado related at length the destruction of Ribao and the other heretics, and that within 300 leagues of coast he had discovered 4 harbors, the shal lowest having at least 4 fathoms at high tide, and 20 others of two fathoms and a half, au of which he had entered and reconnoitred in person with 4 or 5 brigantines, exploring them, taking soundings and marking the entrances; that he had established peace and friendship with the caciques within those 300 leagues, except Saturiba, who would not have it; that he had made 7 settlements, 3 forts and 4 pueblos; and he gave an account of the fortifications of St. Augustine, San Mateo, San Felipe; of 5 other blockhouses he left, with soldiers and munitions, in Ays, Tequesta, Carlos, Tocobaga ci'nd of that which Juan Pardo erected inland. dlaz, La Florida, I, pp. 316-317) that the description of these events is also given here as supplied from Barrientos: ,, In 18 years the Adelantado had come home but four times, during which he did not stop twenty days: this time he remained. The camp master, whose home was four leagues from there, went to see his parents: the Adelantado went to Madrid to kiss the hands of his Majesty, where he arrived on the 20th of July with six naked Indians, with their bows and arrows, in the same manner as they went about in Florida. He gave his Majesty an account of the state of affairs in Florida and of the soldiers' need of supplies ; of the harm the corsairs were doing to the trade of the Indies and in all the islands, and of the danger run by the fleets which carried the money: his Majesty provided immediately that the soldiers should be succored, and commanded him to give recommendations on the best measures that could be adopted for punishing the corsairs who, in times of peace, sailed about in those parts, robbing the King's subjects, in order to lessen the damage they might inflict. He commanded that the Adelantado should hold himself in readiness for the voyage he was to make to Flanders, and that the succor for the Florida soldiers should be sent by one of the captains he brought with him. After the Adelantado had replied to him that in the one and the other [matter] he would beseech Our Lord to favor him, that he might be able to succeed in serving his Majesty, he approached to kiss his royal hands. His Majesty thanked the qi.mp master, who was only as yet 24 years old, be cause he had served signally in that expedition and knew well how to conduct himself, and because he had been previously a soldier in Italy: he held to his credit the campaign he had made, and did the same with the other captains and gentlemen [the Adelantado] brought with him. Barrientos in Garcia, pp. 145-146.

PAGE 93

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 243 The King was much pleased to see the Indians, and he and the mem bers of the Council were so satisfied that they asked the Adelantado to • put in writing what presented itself to his mind about the matters concerning the Indies, and* particularly Florida, which he did; they asked him for a memorandum of many things in order to provide them, which he gave. Among the things he said was this: many captains and soldiers among the Florida mutineers had made reports wherever they arrived, before the Governor of Havana and other courts of justice, some tak ing oaths in favor of the others [to the effect] that they had served very well, and more signally than those who remained there [in Florida] in the service of his Majesty, [who were] those who had • • distinguished themselves in his royal service, in the capture of the • forts from the Lutherans as well as in sharing the hardships, famines and dangers, and wars with the Indians, which occurred in that coun try. Through these reports "'1:iich the mutineers made, so favorable to themselves, they felt so confident that they all, captains as well as soldiers, spread them all over the Indies and Spain, in order to vindi cate their weakness at the time they had mutinied, and had taken prisoners the camp master, the officials of justice and the regimiento, spiked the guns and seized their supplies, leaving them without any; and the Indians being friendly, had killed three of the principal ones, that the caciques and Indians of that land might unite, as they did, and kill the camp master and the soldiers, who remained in the forts with out any food; because in this manner those.[ Spaniards] who remained in Florida would perish, and his Majesty reward the mutineers liber ally, in return for their report. Wherever these rebels were, they spoke ill of the Adelailtado and all those who remained with him, and this they based on many lies and falsehoods, giving the best reasons they couJd, in order to be believed. Some begged his Majesty to grant them favors for their services, which his Majesty postponed doing until the arrival of the Adelan-*Here follows the last leaf of the manuscript . • • •

PAGE 94

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES tado; and as he reported on several of these matters, they absented themselves. The Adelantado saw that some of the members of the Royal Council of the Indies had become convinced to his detriment, that what these mutineers said was the truth. Several others of his Majesty's ministers, who were close to his royal person, held the belief that the Adelantado, in some things, went beyond what was reasonable; and it appeared to them that the Adelantado had undertaken that expedition and enter prise more for his particular interest than for the service of God Our Lord and of his Majesty; which was quite the reverse, as was seen and known; and he had been the same all the time he had served his Majesty, as is notorious through his experience of 18 years during which he was Captain-General, fulfilling such important duties with large I!. armadas; a position of such trust, honor and profit, that if he had so desired, he could have become very rich; but without being reckless, or making heavy expenditures, he had 1.t .wo very good galleons and thirty thousand ducats in money before being general of his Majesty' s armada; and since then he had made prosperous ventures and voyages with many galleons, vessels, armed ship s , z abra s and pataches of his own, wherewith he has won great renown in the short and successful voyages he has undertaken; and he has held his profits very much at the service of his Majesty and without prejudice to his office, in which he has made more than two hundred thousand ducats. All this he has spent, like a good captain, for things needful in the service of his Majesty, that the affairs in his charge might come to a successful issue, for neither his Majesty nor his ministers would provide them; and in carrying very good captains and soldiers, people of standing and trust, both sailors and soldiers, in all the fleets under his command, to whom he gave hiany inducements, as neither his :Majesty nor his ministers would do so. And because he never called on his Majesty for more pay and perquisites than were due him for the time he actually served, and this was less than was given to other generals; and the voyage once ended, his Majesty dismissed him; and until another offered itself, there remained under his care the captains, officials, and noblemen who

PAGE 95

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 245 followed him and served his Majesty in his company, whom he main tained like . . . 2 2 This is the abrupt termination of the manuscript copy of the Menendez "Memorial" by Gonzalo Solis de Meras. The version of the rest of the Adelan tado's career as given by Barcia in his Ensayo Cronologico para la Historia General de la Florida, has been condensed by Ruidiaz as a conclusion. I give the remainder of the Adelantado's story in Barcia's own words, unchanged and unabridged. Barcia's account of the Jesuit Missions (cf. pp. 32, 33), is omitted; also his description of Dominique de Gourgues' expedition in i 568 to avenge Ribaut, during the absence of Menendez in Spain (cf. p. 28). The original narratives of these events do not contain the errors made by Barcia in the Ensayo Cronologico, and will be published in another work. • • • • • • • • • •

PAGE 96

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES EXTRACTS FROM ENSA YO CRONOLOGICO PARA LA HISTORIA GENERAL DE LA FLORIDA By Don Gabriel de Cardenas z Cano (Barcia). Year MDLXVIII1 ... The Adelantado Pedro Menendez was in Spain, making great efforts in order that apostolical preachers might go to Florida, and attending his suit against the Fiscal of the Council of the Indies, on the matter of the cost of the galleon San Pelayo being refunded to him, and other disbursements he had made outside the terms of his asiento; and the suit having been ended on March 13th, he departed for San Lucar to prepare for his voyage to Florida, his Majesty having appointed him Governor of Cuba, and succored him with 200,000 ducats as an aid to expenses (as says). He took all he needed, and 1 o missionaries . . . Year MDLXXII.2 The Adelantado Pedro Menendez set sail from Seville with the Fleet of Tierra Firme. T}le galleon San Felipe caught fire in the Gulf of Las Y eguas, without its being possible to save any one of those on board .... The Adelantado arrived in Havana; he went on to Florida and found eight married residents in St. Augustine, and forty-eight in Santa Elena. He succored both presidios abun dantly, with hopes that their population would increase. . . . Year MDLXXIII.8 Reconocimiento of the East Coast of Florida4 by Pedro Menendez Marques. Year MDLXXIV.5 The Adelantado returned to Spain by order of the King, who commanded him to remain there for matters pertaining to his service. He gave ah. account of the condition in which he left Florida and the Carrera of the Indies: he claimed that they should pay him large sums due him, with warrants and without them, and on the 16th of 1-ebruary 1,591,200 maravedis were ordered to be reimbursed to him, with which he had succored 312 soldiers whom his Majesty . 1 Ensayo Cronologico, p. 137 2 Ibid., p. 145. 8 I bid., p. 146. 4 Cf. p. 30. To be published shortly. 5 Ensayo, p. 149.

PAGE 97

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 247 sent to Florida, in the years 1565 and i566; wherefore a sobre-cedula6 was dispatched, repeating those which had been given out on the i3th f October and the igth of December, i569. He likewise obtained another sobre-cedula on the i8th of February, to the effect that 5,000 ducats should be paid him in Panama; which was spoken of in the year i570. And on the igth of March they delivered to him i,ooo ducats as damages in addition to the salary, for what was earned by the Adelantado's own frigates, that came as a protection for the fleet in the aforesaid year 1 569. The soldiers who came from Florida in his company, arrived in Seville well and strong, because of having used the water from sassa fras wood. The faith they had in the virtue of this tree was so great, that Doctor N\folas Monardes (who was the first to write in detail on the simple medicines of the West Indies; whose Carlos Clusio translated into Latin, after he had travelled in Spain, and added very scholarly notes) certifies that when he was with some soldiers, inform ing himself about the tree, '1ie greater pai:t of them took a good-sized piece of it out of their pockets, saying to him: Here you see this wood, which we all carry with us to cure us if we fall ill, as we did in Florida; and each one would relate, with great exaggeration, the prodigy it had accomplished for him. Monardes, having faith in so many experiences as they reported, and seeing that the soldiers who had not used it, were weak, swollen and pale, in danger of losing their lives; reduced to a system the por tion of water to be taken; for up to then the Indians, Spaniards and Frenchmen had made use thereof without weighing or measuring it, in such wise that they followed no rule 4'n the manner of doing the cooking; rather did each one do it as appeared best to him, but always with good effect; and they felt that their health in the Indies was so safe with this remedy, that if any soldiers fell ill where tree did not grow, either they brought it, or they sent the sick men to Santa Elena or San Mateo in order that they . might be cured of all the diseases they suffered from; whether they were chills or fever, light <;:ases or severe ones ; and so they were not afraid of being ill, because ' 6 A sobre-cedula repeated the contents of another cedula or decree. • • • •

PAGE 98

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES they believed that wood to be an universal remedy. It was only when there was hunger in the presidio that the soldiers refrained from drink ing the [sassafras] water, for it increased it till it became unbearable-; and many times did they prefer to suffer from the illness which afflicted them, rather than endure the hunger that water caused them. The King entrusted to the Adelantado the preparation of the armada destined, it was said, for Flanders and England, with entire confidence in his zeal and prudent disposition, offering him a reward for his great services, as at other times; and he appointed as a successor to the Generalship of the Armada of the Carrera of the Indies, Diego Flores de Valdes, a relative of the Adelantado: he ordered a royal cedula to be dispatched on the i8th of February, commissioning Do" mingo Gamarra, the Accountant of the armada, to alldit the accounts of the Adelantado: of what he had had under his charge at the time that he was General thereof. The accounts could not be finished before the armada sailed and Diego Flores de Valdes was ordered to pay him from the armada's subsidy, six tho;isand ducats which he had spent from his estate in fitting out with supplies the galleon San Thadeo and four frigates; and although Diego Flores wanted to carry this out, he did not then have the funds; but the Adelantado gained all the favor of the King, who, in order to have before him always such a valiant man, and lover of the royal glory, commanded that he should be painted as one of the most remarkable men of his time, and that his picture be placed in the palace gallery; and he sent him the title of General of the large armada which was being assembled in . Santander. Having received that honor, he abandoned his own in terests more and more, for 1.e dedicated himself so earnestly to the new and difficult office that the King found that his confidence was well placed: since the Adelantado furthered by all the means he could the splendor f the crown, preserving its funds without wasting them on useless and ostentatious objects. He had a private correspondence with the King and his Councilg; of War, of State and of the Indies, which held such a high idea of his prudent experience and religious truth, that they decided few things of importance without his opinion: to this point was he led by his goodness and valor, and the distinction

PAGE 99

PEDRO MENENDEZ D ' E AVILES 249 of being the most able seaman known, since he facilitated the naviga tion of the ocean, which formerly was so difficult and perilous, by the more than 50 voyages he made to the Indies. Having departed from the Court, in Biscay, he proposed imme diately to the Council of War that the license for the Newfoundland fisheries be denied to the vessels which had gone to Portugal for salt, because the multitude of pirates made their risk evident; and by deny ing it, the enemy would be deprived of that profit which they had obtained a short time previously, when they captured three Spanish vessels, very well armed, which were going to Newfoundland: the pirates reinforced their ships with artillery, and increased their num ber. In the matter of preparing the armada of which the Adelantado had been named' General, he pointed out the difficulty of assembling men and sailors, and [procuring] the money to satisfy4them. To over come this, orders were given him on July 29th, to compel pilots, sailors and surgeons to embark; to appoint persons who should raise soldiers and sailors in the districts of Castile, Leon, Biscay and other parts; sending word to Count de Olivares, Chief Royal Accountant, to give him all the funds needful; charging him to have a good under standing with him, as the armada's being promptly in readiness was of such importance. These measures caused the English so much anxiety that they began to form another armada with great haste, in order to learn the purpose of that which Pedro Menendez was assembling; but they could never find it out, for only the King, the Adelantado and some trusted councillors knew the secret. The King granted him all the authority and powers he asked for, the 8th day of Sep tember the Royal Ministers delivered the armada to him as Captain General, which was composed of 300 sails and 20,000 men; [the occa sion being observed] with great rejoicings, gun salutes and ct..'temonies. It was one of the greatest celebrations that could be seen; but that same day he was attacked by a violent . fever that they despaired of him: he received all the sacraments, made his will and died on the 17th day, converting the joy of all into weeping: fearful were the lamentations of so many relatives, friends and followers, and the be-• • • •

PAGE 100

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES wilderment of all was so great that the armada could not be kept together nor could the King find anyone to whom to entrust it. And in view of what has been said of his house and family under the year 1565, it will be a worthy task, deserving the highest con sideration, to show the ancient and venerable family of so great a hero . • THE TREE.7 He died so poor that there was not enough to carry out the condi tions of his will, leaving to his fame the more reason to glorify his poverty, which was caused by his expenditures in the royal service, extending the monarchy's dominions and defending his country against the wrongs done it and so many tyrants who wickedly attacked it; and to his greater honor be it said, he not only exhaustecfl-his estate, which might have the most opulent of that century, but that of his kindred and friend s , exposing the lives of all for the protection of the kingdom, and lo s ing in his enterprises and conquests one son, two brothers, and many relatives and frien s, who were among the most prominent gentlemen of Spain. He declared in his sealed will,8 which he executed in Santander on the 15th of September, that he had served 32 years as Captain-General of the royal armadas; and he supplicated the King to grant him the favor of ordering, as he had so many times offered to do, that he be paid what was due him, so that he might satisfy his debts, because he left no property therefor. He left two daughters: Dona Catalina, mar ried to Hernando de Miranda, and Dona Maria, a professed nun in Las Huelgas at Avila;9 a:i.d, as his executor, Pedro del Ca s tillo, r e gi-7 This is obviously an allusion to his genealogical tree, which may be the "Casa de los Adelantados de la Florida" in s erted immediately before the First Decade o the Ensayo Cronol o gico, and which contains some serious mistakes. 8 This alludes to the codicil of his will, in Simancas, Secretar!a de Estado.A. R. G., 9-11.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 522-528. For the will itself, cf. PP 516-521. 9 This is a mistake, repeated from the genealogical tree. The will of Menendez speaks of Doiia Maria as being married to Diego de Velas co. They had six children. Cf. Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, p. 518; also "lnforrrtaci6n de algunos servi cios," A.G. de I., 1-2-1/18; La Florida, II, p. 590.

PAGE 101

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 2fl dor of Cadiz, his intimate friend; he ordered his daughter Dona Catalina to continue the suit which he had pending against the Fiscal of the Council of the Indies, in the matter of his being given satisfaction for what he had spent as a surplus in the conquest and settlement of Florida: he directed that if any property of his remained, a mayorazgo10 should be founded, whereof he named as first heir Dona Catalina, [who was] his daughter and the daughter of his wife, Dona Maria de Solis; and Dona Catalina's children and descendants; and in default of any he named Pedro Menendez de Aviles, his nephew _ (the son of his brother, Alvaro Sanchez), who was killed by the Indians of Florida, and left one s on, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, who worked hard, but with little result, to restore the memory of the Adelantado in the crea tion of his ma)4Jrazgo, which his posterity preserves with great re nown, as may be seen in the Tree; although his descendants, imitating the go'!dness and virtue of their ancestors, have tried more to serve the King, than to increase their patrimony by making petitions for the reward which was deserved !>y the great services the Adelantado had rendered. He likewise directed in his will that they should bury him in the town of Aviles; and in fulfilment of his wishes, his body was placed on board a ship accompanied by many prominent captains, and his relatives and friends; but the ocean tempests were so great during those days, that they could not reach the port of Aviles; finding them selves obliged to put into the harbor of Llanes, and to deposit him in that church, with the greatest solemnity that was ever seen; for besides the military ceremonies with which he was honored by the captains and soldiers who accompanied him, innuJierable people from those districts attended to celebrate the obsequies. Afterward, in fulfilment of his wishes, his body was removed to the parish of Saint Nicholas in the town of Aviles, in a caske ! fastened with iron, with its cross-bars and locks; which they placed in the sepul chre itself, which in the church referred to T s on one side of the altar, inserted in the wall and raised six feet above the pavement. Above the niche occupied by the casket and sepulchre is the coat-of-arms that the 10 An entailed estate. • • •

PAGE 102

252 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Holy King Don Fernando gave to this family; on one side of the escutcheon, which is divided, there is a ship with a saw at the prow, attacking a chain fastened to two castles, and on the other there are five fleurs-de-lys. Under the casket the following epitaph is inscribed: "Here lies interred the very illustrious cavalier, Pedro Mene de Aviles, native of this town, Adelantado of the Provinces of Florida, Commander of the Holy Cross of La of the Order of Santiago, and en. Gen1 • of the Ocean Sea and of the Catholic Armada which the Lord Philip II assembled against England in the year 1574, at San tander, where he died on the I 7th of September of the said year being 55 years of age." • •

PAGE 103

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 253 APPENDIX A. • Concerning Dona Catalina, Elder Daughter of the Adelantado. Year MDLXXV.1 Dona Catalina Menendez de Aviles, daughter of the Adelantado, who was married to Hernando de Miranda, 2 had recourse to the Council of the Indies, setting forth the death of her father, his great services and the urgent need wherein she found her self; begging that, by means of a Treasury order, she might be assisted to fulfil the will. On the 21st of June, it was ordered that 1,000 ducats be delivered to her, a royal cedula being dispatched to the Official Judges of the Casa de la Contrataci6n of Seville, Francisco Duarte, Ortega de Melgoso and Don Francisco Tello. But this amo nt did not suffice to alleviate the penury wherein the royal service had placed the Adelantado, nor would i t have sufficed though it had been greater, because on the 24th of August the Fiscal, in the name of the Council of the Indies, had all his property attached; which occasioned such great . lawsuits and dissensions that if the in heritance of the Adelantado had consisted of many millions, they would have been consumed. Dona Catalina, on account of not being able to live at court in a manner corresponding to her position, maintained herself in the town of Grado: although on the 17th of May the King had commanded that to Hernando de Miranda should be fulfilled all that had been offered to the Adelantado in regard to the Adelantadoship and govern ment of Florida and the other agreements. 1 Ensayo Cronologico, p. 152. • 2 After his death she married Hernando de las Alas, according to Ensayo Cronologico, the "Casa de los Adelantados," before the First Decade.

PAGE 104

254 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES APPENDIX B. 'the Site of the Massacres at Matanzas Inlet. There is little doubt as to the site of the massacres, yet it may be opportune to give the beginning and the end of an interesting letter of Benjamin E. Dupont, one of the well-known planters near Matanzas Inlet in the middle of the last century. It is undated and was written to Buckingham Smith, at St. Augustine, probably in the late fifties or early sixties, after he had been a Secretary of the United States Lega tion at Madrid, and had made his Collection of Transcripts of Spanish MSS. relating to American History. Mr. Smith and Mr. Dupont had evidently been discussing the site of the massacres, according to Mr. • Dupont's letter: • "To Mr. Smith, Dear Sir: I have read the book you lent rne, very carefully, and here return it to you, with a hasty sketch of the l\1atanzas River, the Bar and environs. The figure 1 shows where the St. Augustine light-house is situated; 2, some palmetto huts built by my Father on Anastatia Island, some two months ago; 3, Matanzas Fort; 4, the place where the French probably stood, and from where they were taken by the Spaniards over the Bar to No. 2 on Anastatia Island .... I think the French were murdered at what is now the south end of Anastatia Island, near some palmetto huts built there lately by my Father to remove his negroes to in case the Indians broke out. No. 2 represents the place. In th'c rear are two high sand-hills. James Pellicer coincides with me in this opinion. (He says an account of this massacre is to be found in the Archives.) To Mr. B. Smith, St. Augustine, E. Fa." 1 Smith, Vol. for i561-1593, p. 233. Yours truly, in haste, Benj. E. Dupont.1

PAGE 105

I , . • ' t .. • ,.., , , , ... . Obtlton,o/kt,./dte v,,of'/.fit:U-0. %, l:tr ,af:e,,o,uy on&-.Afnoum and. 0

PAGE 106

? . ..-' ;-ra,r . (" .. /J •

PAGE 107

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 255 APPENDIX C. L'tl.st Letter of Pedro Menendez de Aviles Addressed to His Nephew, Pedro Menendez Marques.1 Most Magnificent Sefi
PAGE 108

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES at :finding myself separated from Florida, he did me the favor to tell me. that every time it shall be possible to give me leave for it he will do it very willingly; and I hope to God he will do so in the spring, for I hold that without doubt the affair of Flanders will be arranged this winter, and when that is accomplished, I shall be at liberty to go at once to Florida, not to leave it as long as I live; for that is all my long ing and happiness. May Our Lord do this as he can, and may he see that it is needful.2 It appears that the Audiencia of New Spain wrote to his Majesty that my conquest through P:inuco is to be understood [to start] from the River of Palms, which is forty leagues from there; and when I heard this, I went to court by order of his Majesty. I complained of this to the Council, and they decreed it again, b approving the asiento, the cl ula for which I am sending to Licentiate Lope de Miranda so that possession may be taken, and Don Luis de Velasco be written to that he shall do this in my name, in case Your Honor should not go to do it; which would be for me tli e greatest satisfaction. It is certain that as for me, I consider that it is one of the best asientos which have been granted for all the settlers who may come there, who will be fully contented; although I shall always keep my dwelling and establishment where I have it, moving if I go to Guatari or Cano, or to the best site of fertile land there may be in the interior, not far from the sea-coast. I have ready a great number of farmers in this home land, as well as Portuguese from the River of Mino, in order that they may embark at Bayonne; all of them eople trained to many tasks, and [among the] tradesmen, stone-cutters and carpenters, who appear to me to be 2 • • • "y despues de la sal uacion de mi alma no hay cosa en este mun do que mas dessee ques verme en la florida para acabar mis dias salbando almas y ansi dando cuenta a su magd del descontento que traygo en verme apartado de la florida me ha hecho merced de decirme que todas las veces que se sufriere darme licencia para ello lo hara de buena voluntad y espero en Dios lo hara a la primavera porque sin duda tengo que este lmbierno se allanara lo de Flandes y como esto sea yo quedo con libertad para me ir de hecho a la florida para no sallir della en quanto biuiere questos son todos mis deseos y felicitad. nro s• lo haga como puede y vea ques menester."

PAGE 109

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 257 among the most useful there are in the s e kingdoms, very suitable for settlements we have at present in Florida, as they are for those we have to make; and for Panuco, if this should seem good to Your Honor. As for me, I should be very glad if Your Honor could arrange on receiving this letter, to come over to see me, for I hold that without doubt I shall be in Madrid in the coming month of March or April; because even if I go into Flanders, it is agreed that I shall be there [in Madrid] at that time, so that should it be necessary to increase the armada with large ships and galleys, his Majesty will be able to do it, and be so powerful in this western sea, and especially in Flanders, England and France, that there could be no resistance against the armada he would bring, and he could end everything at one time ;although, as I have said, I to God that the matter will be decided this winter, and if I be free we can go back together; and if not, Honor can sail with very good succor, not only for the settled regions but for that of P:inuco. • You shall take as settlers and soldiers, many and good people, after which I shall be able to rest, having provided moderately in the one and the other for a good beginning, so that the Holy Gospel may be implanted in those provinces in perpetuity. And in order that that succor may be increased as much as possible, Your Honor shall bring me the greatest amount you can from the funds which are due me in Florida, and that belong to me from the munitions and supplies I have contributed and still contribute every day; and you shall deliver it all to Pedro del Castillo, so that by means of the order I shall give him, he may provide Your Honor with everything you may need. You can come over in a short time with some swift frigate, with oars and sails, which will be able to weather storms; and arrived in these kingdoms, you can meet me wherever I may be, so t!iat after we have been together, Your Honor may return alone with all speed, in case I cannot go so soon. • I kiss the hands of Senora Dofia Maria ;8 and since Your Honor has to come here, it is my opinion and advice that you leave her in Florida, 8 The wife of Pedro Menendez . Marques, Maria de Miranda. •

PAGE 110

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES where she will be better served and treated than in any other part of the Indies. I am sending the duplicate of this letter to Don Diego de Velasco, and to Pedro Menendez de Aviles, my nephew, so that in case Your Honor should not be in Florida, it may be forwarded to you wherever you may be, and you may receive it shortly, and decide from it what you have to do. I am not writing to Sefiores Bernaldo de Miranda4 and Diego Londonio de Otalora, for I have nothing to say; Your Honor will give them my compliments, and they will consider this letter as theirs, for I wish I might be able to do them a favor, and if I should be, I shall not fail to do so. I kiss the hands of Senoras Dofia Elvira and Dofia Catalina, not for getting Dofia Magdalena, for as I am not in Florida, .. I regret to think of her as bei there; I shall help her as though she were my own daughter, and shall do the same for Dofia Maria de Solis, my niece, not forgetting those whom Don Diego de Velasco took with him. If from this letter it should appear to Y ou ' r Honor that you should first take possession of Panuco, and collect some of the subsidy due in 1\tlexico in order to take with you a moderate sum of money, you may do so, providing that there be no delay because of this in the coming of Your Honor; and that in case you do not take possession, the period for establishing my pueblos does not expire. Let Your Honor consider and reflect on the one and the other, and do what seems best to you, as I leave everything to you in this matter. And may Our Lord enlighten you so that you succeed in choosing the better [course], and may . he protect and increase Your Honor's most magnificent person and house, as I desire it. From Santander, on the 8t:h of September, i 574. 4 Probably meant for Hernando de Miranda, son-in-law of the Adelantado . •

PAGE 111

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 259 APPENDIX D. apitulaci0n y Asiento. 'the King's Agreement and Contract with Pedro Men e ndez de Aviles for the Conquest and Settlement of Florida.1 The King :-Whereas we have given asientos at various times for the discovery and settlement of the provinces of Florida, and likewise charged Don Luis de Velasco, who was our Viceroy of New Spain, to send a certain number of people and religious to settle that country, and an a siento was last made concerning this with Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon; and efforts have been made by the persons to whom we gave the said asientos, .as well as by the Viceroy aforesaid; never up to now has that land been colonized; nor has what we desired, ;vhich was the aforesaid settlement, been accomplished; nor the teaching and conver sion of the natives of those provinces, and the bringing them into our Holy Catholic Faith; and as we have in mind the good and the salva tion of those souls, we have decided to give the order to send religious persons to instruct the said Indians, and those other people who are good Christians and our subjects, so that they may live among and talk to the natives there may be in those lands and provinces of Florida, and that [the Indians] by intercourse and conversation with them may more easily be taught our Holy Catholic Faith and be brought to good usages and customs, and perfect polity. And to you, Pedro Menen dez de Aviles, Knight of the Order of Santiago, have I offered and do offer, because of the desire you have for the service of God Our Lord, and for the increase to the Royal Crown of !hese kingdoms, that dur ing the coming month of May of this present year, you shall hold ready and prepared to sail, in San Lucar de Barrameda, in the port of Santa Maria or in the Bay of Cadiz, in order to depart with'1ie first opportunity, six shallops of :fifty toneles each, more or less; and four swift zabras, with their oars, arms and laden with supplies and fully prepared for war; and that you shall take :five hundred men, 1A. R. G., 2-5 (copy in Smith, vol. for 1561-1593).-Col. Doc. Amer., XXIII, pp. 242-258.-Ruidiaz, La Florida, II, pp. 415-427.-Vigil, Noticias, apend. III, p. 160 (extract). •

PAGE 112

260 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES one hundred of them farmers and one hundred sailors, and the rest of them naval and military men and officials, others professional stone-.. cutters, carpenters, sawyers, smiths, barbers, locksmiths; all of them with their arms, arquebuses and crossbows, and helmets and bucklers, and the other offensive and defensive weapons which you may see fit and which may be suitable for the said voyage; and two priests; and that you shall do other things declared above, all of this at your cost and under your commission, without Our being obligated, or the Kings who may come after Us, to pay or indemnify you anything thereof other than what may be conceded to you by this Agreement, as you have entreated me to make it with you and to grant you certain favors; whereupon, because of the confidence and satisfaction we have in you; because the qualities required are found in you, and ecause you have served Us oft and well; I commanded that with you, the said Pedro Menendez de Aviles, the following agreement and asiento be made: Firstly, you, the said Pedro Menendez, bind and commit yourself to hold ready and prepared to sail, for th'e said month of May, in San Lucar, Cadiz or the port of Santa Maria, the said six shallops of the tonnage mentioned; and four swift zabras with their oars, arms, artil lery and munitions, laden with supplies and fully prepared for war; and to take the five hundred men aforesaid, and among them seamen and soldiers, priests and tradesmen, as has been said. Item: You shall offer and bind yourself to hold ready for the said time, the galleon you have, called S a n Pelayo, which has a capacity of more than six hundred toneles and is new, about to make her first voy age; and you shall load sail her for whatever place in the Indies you may choose, laden to half or two thirds of what she can carry, and the remaining space you shall leave vacant to take over therein about three h mdred men of the five hundred aforesaid whom you must carry thus, and any food and sustenance they may need, as far as Dominica or the Cape of Tiburon, or the Cape of San Anton, as you t. shall prefer, which is seventy leagues from Havana, more or less, and as many more from Florida; because the said shall ops being small and open vessels, cannot carry the said people, and they would sicken and die with the great heat from the sun and the heavy showers there are in

PAGE 113

I PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES the said parts; nor could they take the supplies necessary for the men aforesaid, as the voyage is long. And on arriving at Dominica, or the • place which may appear best to you, you shall transfer the men from the said galleon to the said shallops, and the said galleon shall con tinue her voyage, and you shall go with the said shallops and four zabras, and the said five hundred men, supplied and prepared for war as has been said, to the coast of Florida, where you pledge yourself to test and reconnoitre the best and most convenient places of the said coast, as it seems to you; coasting along by sea and searching and in vestigating on land where a harbor and place for a settlement can best be found; and you will try to obtain information as to whether there are on the said coast or [in the said] country, any settlers who are corsairs, or of other nations not subject to Us, and you shall endeavor to cast them out by the best means that seem you possible; you shall take the said land of Florida for Us and in our name, trying to attract the natives thereof to our obedience; and you shall explore from Los Ancones and the tay of San J osepe, which is one league from Florida toward the west, as far as the Cape of Los Martires, in twenty-five degrees; and thence as far as Terranova, which lies between fifty and sixty degrees [north latitude], east or west and north and south :2 the whole coast, in order to reconnoitre and test the harbors and currents, rocks and shoals and inlets there may be on the aforesaid coast; having them marked and indicated as accurately as you can by their latitudes and ships' courses, so that the secret of the said coast and the harbors which may be thereon, shall be known and under stood; and you must do what you can wit in this year, and the rest within three years, the period wherein by this asiento you obligate yourself to settle the aforesaid country. Furthermore: You offer and pledge yourself to take ov r on the said voyage sufficient supplies for all the said five hundred men for one year, the time being counted from the men shall be on the ships ready to depart. 2 "Y de alli hasta la Terranova, que esta de cinquenta grados, hasta sesenta del Este 6 Hueste y Norte Sur ... " This would have brought him to Hudson Strait and the northea s tern point of Labrador.

PAGE 114

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Item: You pledge yourself that in the three years following the day you set sail, you will bring to the said land and coast of Florida about five hundred men to be settlers thereof, two hundred of whom shall be married, or one hundred at least; and the rest for the greater part must be farmers and workmen, in order that the land may be cultivated with more ease; and they shall be people of pure descent and not of those who are prohibited.8 Item: You offer and pledge yourself that with the aforesaid people you will build and settle, within the said three years, two or three towns of at least one hundred inhabitants each, in the parts and places which shall seem best to you; and that in each of them there shall be a large house of stone, mud or wood, according to the nature and charac ter of the land, with its moat and drawbridge; the \'nost substantial that can be b\hlt according to weather and circumstances, so that in case of need the residents may gather therein and shelter themselves from the perils which may beset them from Indians, corsairs or other people. Furthermore: You offer and pledge yourself that within the said time, and among the number of the said people whom you bind your self to take, you will include at least ten or twelve religious, of the Order which may appear best to you: persons who are of a good life and example; likewise four others of the Society of Jesus, so that there may be religious instruction in the said land, and the Indians can be converted to our Holy Catholic Faith and to our obedience. Furthermore: You pledge yourself to bring to the said country within the said time, on' hundred horses and mares, two hundred calves, four hundred swine, four hundred sheep and some goats, and all the other cattle and live stock that shall seem proper to you. Item: You offer that in all that is possible to you the said voyage for discovery and settlement shall be with all peace and amity, and in a Christian spirit; and you will carry on the government of the people under your charge with fue greatest Christianity and best treatment that you can, so that in everything Our Lord and Ourselves may be 8 "Y que sea gente limpia y no de los prohividos." There were to be no heretics or other undesirable persons among the settlers.

PAGE 115

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES served, in accordance with the instructions which shall be given you, and which it is customary to give to those who go to make similar ettlements. Furthermore: You pledge yourself to import to the aforesaid coun try, within the said three years, five hundred [ negro] slaves for your service and that of the people you are to take over, and in order that the towns may be built and the land cultivated with greater ease; and for planting sugar cane for the sugar mills that may be built, and for building the said sugar mills. Item: Inasmuch as there are shallops and zabras on the coasts of Biscay, Asturias and Galicia which are more suitable than [those] in Andalusia; likewise carpenters, smiths, stone-cutters and laborers; We declare deem it well that the section of this armada and the people who may set out from those parts, shall go directly to the Canary Islands without proceeding to the said towns of San Lucar and Cadiz, being first examined before the magistrate, or person whom We shall appoint, of the port w ence the people and vessels are going. Furthermore: Under condition that the aforesaid armada which you have thus to assemble, as has been said, must first be inspected by one of our officials, according to the system which it is customary to follow, so that it may be ascertained that it goes by the order and in fulfilment of this asiento. Item: You pledge yourself to give security which shall be legas, llanas y a bon a d as; that in case you shall not be ready to set sail in the first fair weather, in the coming month of May of this present year; and in case you should not have everything prepared which you are obligated to take over at the aforesaid ti ie, in accordance with this asiento, you will return to us fifteen thousand ducats which we grant you and order to be given you, and you must give the said security at this court or in the city of Seville, and submit it to those [gentlemen] of our Royal Council of the Indies and to our other courts of Justice. And as an aid to the great expenses, da. gers and labors that you, the said Pedro Menendez, must have in the said discovery and settle-A legal term which signifies that the security shall be adequate in property and reputation.

PAGE 116

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES ment, that which on our part shall be fulfilled with you is the fol lowing: And in order that you, the said Pedro Menendez de Aviles, may the more willingly accomplish and fulfil all the aforesaid, it is our will and pleasure to appoint you our Governor and Captain-General of the said coast and country of Florida, and of all the settlements you may establish therein, for all the days of your life, and of that of a son or son in-law of yours; and you shall receive from Us each year a salary of two thousand ducats, which are to be paid you from the products and rents which may belong to us in the said country; but if there be none, we shall not be obliged to give and pay you the said salary. Furthermore: In order to grant you more favor, we promi s e to give you now fifteen..,thousand ducats, so that you can make yourself ready. Furthermore: vVe shall give you license so that from these kingdoms and dominions, or the kingdom of Portugal, or the Islands of Cape Verde, or Guinea, you or whoever you rrfa.y empower, may transport to the said coast and country of Florida five hundred negro slaves, at least one third of whom shall be females, free of any duty which may belong to us from them; whom you must take registered for the said coast and country, and not for any other parts, under penalty of your losing them if you should take them to other parts. ' Item: I shall grant you the favor of bestowing on you the title • of our Adelantado of the said coast and country, for you and your heirs and successors in perpetuity. Furthermore: I shall give you authority so that to tho s e who may go to settle in the said country, you can give reparti m i entos5 and lands and estates, for their establishments, farm lands and pastures, in accordanc . with the station of each one and what may appear best to you, [but] without prejudice to the Indians. Furthermore: If we establish a Royal Audiencia in the aforesaid country of Florida, we shall grant you the favor of giving you the 5 Allotments of territory made by Spanish conquerors in the West Indies and North and South America; but in Florida there was no enforced labor of Indians included in the grants, as there was in the West Indies.

PAGE 117

• PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES title of alguacil mayor of the said Audiencia, for you and for your heirs and successors, in perpetuity . • Item: Of what you shall thus discover and settle in the said coun-try of Florida, we will grant you twenty -five square leagues, in one place or in two, as you may prefer; and it shall be good land and in a locality which shall be convenient to you, (but] without prejudice to the Indians; the which shall belong to you and your heirs and suc cessors in perpetuity, forever and ever, (but] without your holding any jurisdiction therein, or owning any mines, because that must remain for Us. And inasmuch as you have begged Us to bestow on you the title of Marquis of those twenty-five square leagues, which we command to be given you, we say that when the expedition has come to an end, and have fulfilled in all things what is contained in this asiento, we will grant you the favor that may be in con formity with your services. Furthermore: We grant you in perpetuity, free of costs, for you and your heirs and successors, one fifteenth part of all the income, mines of gold and silver, precious stones, pearls and products which We shall have from the said lands and provinces of Florida. Item: We will grant you in the said lands of Florida, for you and your heirs and successors, in perpetuity, two fisheries which you shall choose, the one for pearls and the other for fish. Item: We grant to you, the said Pedro Menendez, and to the settlers and inhabitants of the country aforesaid, and to those who may go to it hereafter, that for the first ten years after the said country has been settled, you and they shall not pay any duties of almoxarif azgo6 on anything that you and they may bring over as supplies for your per sons, wives, children and houses. Furthermore: We grant to you, the said Pedro Menendez, and to the residents and inhabitants who are settlers in the said country that from all the gold and silver, pearls and precious stones which may be dis covered therein, you and they shall not pay us more than one tenth, for the period and space of ten years, which shall be counted from the day that the first smelting of metals shall take place. 6 An ancient duty on imports or exports. . .

PAGE 118

266 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Furthermore: We hold it to be well that in case you, the said Pedro Menendez, should absent yourself from the said country and should wish to come to these kingdoms or navigate in the Indies, you shah be able to leave a lieutenant in your place, so that in everything he may have the same authority as yourself, providing that the lieutenant you appoint shall be a person possessing the qualities requisite therefor. Furthermore: We it well, and we so grant it to you, that during the whole of the three years wherein you must fulfil this asiento, you shall not pay to us or any other person, any duties of almoxarifazgo, or on galleys; nor any other charges or taxes, either on ships, or on supplies, arms and munitions, or on articles for barter with the Indians, or on any manner of food or beveMges; for all the aforesaid nothwg shall be paid, as has been said; it being understood from what is said that these things are to be taken to the said country of Florida. Furthermore: We give you license a ii authority that in the first year following the day you shall depart from these kingdoms to go to the said land of Florida, you may have for the navigation of our Indies for the term of six years, two galleons of a capacity of from five to six hundred toneles, and two pataches of one hundred and fifty or two hundred toneles, armed and with mounted ordnance, either merchant vessels or armed, with the fleet or independently, as shall be and seem best for you; and that you may send them together or separately to any part or parts of our said Indies that you may desire, although they cannot go laden with any merchandise save supplies of food and drink; that for those that they may fetch and carry, and the freight charges and ship dues, you shall not be compelled to pay fleet duties for any armada or galleys, the which we give you as a help in the expenses and labors that you must have to encounter in the settlement and provisioning of the said land of Florida; and that on the return from the Indies you may oring the goods you choose, free from cost of port duties, as is said; but you cannot bring gold or silver, or pearls or precious stones; you may only bring the funds which may belong to you and be yours, and the proceeds from the freight charges of the

PAGE 119

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES galleons and pataches, upon which, as has been said, no port duty shall be paid. • Likewise, we give you license and authority that for a period of six years you may take from these our kingdoms, and from whatever part thereof, to the islands of Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Cuba, and the said country of Florida, and from those parts to these, six shallops and four zabras, together or separately, with the fleet or independently, for the trade and commerce of the said country of Florida, and so as to fulfil the said asiento, and carry on board thereof what may seem best to you and be needful for the people who may be in the said country of Florida; wherefore if you should wish to unload in the aforesaid islands any provisions of food or drink that the said shallops and zabras may carry, you can do so, in order that in place thereof they may be laden with cattle and the things necessary for the said country of Florida; and that if any shallop or zabra of these should remain in those parts or be lost, you can take others in their place; which six years must be counted, and 'We so desire it, from the month of June of the coming year i 566; and we hold it well that if the masters and pilots who may go on those ships are natives of these our kingdoms, they may serve as such even though they have not been examined. Item: We deem it well and we command that these shallops and zabras aforesaid, which must navigate during the said six years, as is said, shall not and must not pay any port duties on what they may bring the first time they sail on their voyage to the said country of Florida; but that if, during the period of the said six years, they should bring any goods to these kingdoms from the country of Florida, ,, or the islands of Santo Domingo, or San Juan de Puerto Rico, or Cuba; or take over from these kingdoms supplies of food and drink, or other things needful for the aforesaid land of Florida; in such case they shall pay the fleet duties apportioned among the ga1leys that navigate along this western coast of Spain, whereof Don Alvaro de Bazan is Captain-General; and that if the said shallops and zabras go from our Indies under convoy of the armada which goes there, they must likewise pay the fleet duties on that; but that if the said shallops and zabras shall sail alone, and not under convoy of the said armada

PAGE 120

268 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES which goes to the Indies, they shall not have to pay the fleet dutie s of the said armada which goes there. Furthermore: We think it well that in wh a t concerns the ship's clerk to be taken over, the order we have given be observed in what relates to the two galleons and two patache s ; but as to the s ix s hallops and four za br as, we hold it well and we command that not more than one ship's clerk be appointed by Us, for all of them jointly, inasmuch as they are your s hips, and the whole cost of the arms, artillery, muni tions, supplies and all the rest they may or should take, must be yours and at your risk; and inasmuch as they are small vessels, of little tonnage, and it would be very expensive for you to carry a ship ' s clerk on each one. Item: We grant you the favor, as we do by these of giving you the comm is sion of our Captain-General of all the s aid armada and the ships and people that may belong thereto, and we s hall com mand that a formal commission be given you to that effect. Furthermore: We wish and deem it well that everything y ou may capture from corsairs with the said galleons, za bras and patac hes dur ing the term of the said six years s hall be your property and that of your heirs and successors; and the same shall apply to whatever pri s on ers you may take or seize from them without prejudice [to you ari s ing] from the tithe collector,7 as we do hereby grant this to you. Item: It is stipulated and agreed that in no manner during the period of the said six years, shall anyone place any embargo upon , or detain for our service, in these kingdoms or in any of our Indie s afore said, any of the s aid galleqps, pataches, shallops or za bras; but that if for any necessary or imperative reason, any of the said vessel s should be requisitioned, you shall have the right to put others of a like ton nage in tl\eir place; and in case you should not do this, you shall have the right at the end of the said six years to use them in accordance with this said asiento, for the whole period of time they shall have been requisitioned or detained; and our Officials of Cadiz, or of the Casa de 7 The tercero was the official appointed to collect the taxes known as diezmos, a tax of ten per cent levied on all merchandise whi c h was transported from one district to another, or brought through the ports into Spain.

PAGE 121

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES la Confrataci6n at Seville, and any other courts of justice of these \
PAGE 122

270 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES a person who does not observe and fulfil, but trespasses against, the commands of his King and natural Master. And we order that these presents be given to that effect, signed by our hand, and by the members of our Council of the Indie s , and coun tersigned by Francisco de Erasso, our Secretary. Done in Madrid, on the 20th of March, 156 5. I the King. By order of his Majesty, Francisco de Eras so.

PAGE 123

INDEX AcEVEDO, Colonel Diego de, 50, 54. Acorns, 226; used as food by Indians, 175. Adelantado (see Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, Adelantado). Aguiniga, Juan de, 238. Aguirre, Captain, 195, 196, 202. Alas, Estebano de las, lieutenant of Adelantado, 76 , 77, 130, 139, 144, I 152, 165, 172, 173, 177, J8J, 186, 197, 209, 210, 211, 236; arrival of, 138; his soldiers obtain precious metal, 145; ordered to sail to Havana, 151; arrival of, in St. Augus tine, I SS; lays out site for fol9t at S anta Elena, 176; in charge of set tlement at Santa Elena, 188; de serted by his men, 210. Alfonso, Antonio, son of Juan Al fonso, 42. Alfonso [de Saintonge], Juan, 42. Alonso, Licentiate Martin, friend of Adelantado, 65. Alvarado, Captain de, 105, 107. Antonia, Doiia, sister of Cacique Carlos, 151, 193, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 229; received in tents on shore, 150; left in Havana, I SS ; visited by Adelantado, 189; comes to Adelantado by night, 191; claims to be wife of Adelantado, 21 o ; goes to the house of Alonso de Rojas, 220. Antwerp [Low Countries], 46, 47 Arango (see Valdeses y Menendez). Arciniega, Sancho de, 1981 201, 209; arrival of, at St. Augustine with men and supplies, 194; sends company of soldiers to Captain Agui rre, 195; gives King's dispatches to Adelantado, 199; rebuked by Ade lantado, 199; relief expedition of, returns to Spain, 212. Artedo, Bay of [Spain], 239. Articles of barter used in trade with Indians, 127, 184, 192, 193; ap preciated by Indians: 148. Asturias, province rn Spain, 60, 71, 77 Audiencia of Santo Domingo does not observe King's cedulas, 162. Aviles, Alvaro Sanchez Menendez de (see Menendez de A vilcs). Aviles, Pedro Menendez de (see Men endez de Aviles). Aviles, a town in Spain, 39, 60, 76, 239. A vileses (see Cascos y). Ayala, de, ensign of Adelantado, 153, 238, 239. Ays, Cacique of, 128, 205; receives Adelantado well, 126. Ays, Indian village in Florida, 127, 129, 130, 153; blockhouse at, 242. Azores, Islands of the, 4J; Adelan tado arrives at, 238. BAHAMA CHANNEL, 124, 126, 127, 129, 152, 210; dangers of, 135, 188. Bahiahonda [Cuba], 130, 131. • ..

PAGE 124

272 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Banegas, Licentiate, Fiscal of the Casa de la Contrataci6n, 6s, 66. Barreda, Baltasar de, ensign and cap tain, 213, 217, 230, 231; sent to succor Havana, 202. Barter (see Articles of). Bayamo [Cuba], 217. Bayan [Bayamo], 216, 217. Bayon, Gonzalo, shipmaster, 7S Bazan, Alvaro de, 72. Belle-Isle [France], 42. Bendana, Prudencio de, loses son at hands of Indians, 196. Benes a (see Sanchez de). Bermuda, Island of, 68. Bilbao [Spain], 57, S9 60. Biscay [Spain], 71, 77 Blockhouse, French build, on Bahama Channel, 124; burned by Adelan tado, 126. Boulogne [France], 48. Bow and arrow (see Indians). Brittany [France], 42. Brussels, s6. Bullion from the Indies, 4S Bustio y Vegil, a family related to Adelantado, 44. CABILDO by Adelantado in St. Augustine, 12s. Caho de Cruz [Cuba], 216, 217. Cahra, Alonso de, 238. Cabrera, Luis de, 78. . Cadiz [Spain], 71, 72, 74 Calabay, Cacique, visited by Adelan tado, 206; requests Spani-.rds to teach Indians Christianity, 2o6; sends Christians to San Mateo, 207. Calais [France], 46, 48, 49 Campeche [Yucatan], 161, 22s; Ade lantado sends to, for maize, 137; vessel returns from, 1 s2. Canary Islands, 43, 76, 84. Canaveral, Cape, 127; mutineers go to, 1S6. Canoe (canoa), 143• lSl, 173• 181, 182, 184, 193 203, 206, 207, 210. Captains, Council of, in St. Augus tine, 201. Carlos, Bay of, 140, 144. Carlos, Cacique, 139, 14S• 1S2, 188, 189, 191, 193, 206, 210, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228; meets Adelantaclo, 141; makes ad vances to Adelantado, 144; offers his sister to Adelantado for a wife, 147; origin of name of, 1s1; promises to receive Christians, 220; reputation of, for killing Chris tians, 221; unfriendly to Tequesta, 222; asks Adelantado to make war on Tocobaga, 223; ill will of, for Adelantado, 229. Carlos, Indian village in Florida, 192; blockhouse in, 242; chapel built in, 222. Caroline, Fort, captured, 101; name changed to San Mateo, 104 (see San Mateo). Carrera of the Indies, ships of the, are wrecked on Florida coast, 221. Carvajal, Luis de, 46, 47, 48, SS Carvayo (see Suarez Carvayo, Pedro). Casa de la Contrataci6n, rivalry of, with the Council of the Indies, 7S Cascos y Avileses, a family related to the Adelantado, 44. Cassava (casava), 130, 137, 1s3, 189, 193, 194 Castaneda, Francisco de, captain of

PAGE 125

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 273 Adelantado's guard, g8, IOI, 107, 238. Pedro del, regidor of Cadiz, 71, 7S 76. Castro (Spain], 46. Catalina, Dona, daughter of Adelan tado, 2so, 2s1, 2S3 Ceballos, Francisco de, receives muti neers, 162. Cepero, Francisco, commander of a ship, i8s; ship of, saved by Ade lantado, 186; returns to Spain with Adelantado, 238. Cespedes, Luis de, Governor of Yu-catan, 1s2. o Charles V, Emperor, 43. Charlesfort built by French, 82, 167. Chinch6n, Count de, 62. Christians, sacrificed by Indians, 140; enslaved by Indians, 139, 226. Clerc, Jacques le (see Pie de Palo). Cocoa plums used as food, 127, 128. Colindres [Spain], 62. Contrataci6n, Casa de la (see Casa). Cordoba, Bernardino de, 193. Corsairs, French, 40, 41, 42, 43, 4S• SS; at Santo Domingo, 134. Corunna (Spain], 43, 46, S9• 60, 238; Adelantado arrives at, 239. Cos (see Martinez de, Garcia). Council of the Indies, rivalry of, with Casa de la Contrataci6n, 7S Crabs, 157. Cuba, 73, 78, 84, 126, 129, 136, I s6, 187, 201, 213, 237. DARTMOUTH (see Hartamua). Deerskins (see gamuzas). Dobaque, Mr., a Flemish gentleman, S7 Dover [England], 46, 48, 49 Duarte, Francisco, Factor in Cadiz, 74, 7S 76. Dupont, Benjamin E., letter of, to Buckingham Smith, 2 S4 ELIZABETH, Queen of England, s8. Emoloa, Cacique, 234, 236; held prisoner by Villarroel, 233. England, heretics in, 69. Enriquez, Captain, 238, 239; insub ordination of, in St. Augustine, 23S; prisoner of Adelantado, 236. Eraso, Cristobal de, 193. Eraso, Francisco de, 71, 73. Espir i tu Santo, a vessel of Adelan tado, 76. Estrada, Sebastian de, relative of Adelantado, s6. Evoli, Prince de, 48, so, SL FELIPE II, King of Spain, marries Queen Mary of England, 43 ; his relations with Adelantado (see Menendez de Aviles, Pedro). Figueroa, Regent, 47. Finisterre, Cape of [Spain], 41. Fishways of the Indians, 184, 203, 206, -::07. Flanders, 47, 48, 49, so, SI, S4• SS S6, S7• S9• 62; heretics in, 69; campaign in, 237. Florez de Val des, Captain Diego, 50, 93, 114, 122, I2S; succeeds Adelantaqp as General of armada, 248. Florida, bad reputation of, 163. France, heretics in, 69. French : corsairs (see corsairs) ; fleet, news of, 213; Lutherans (see

PAGE 126

274 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Lutherans) ; reported in Guale, 152 ; found in Guale, 16 5. Fuenterrabia [Spain], 56. GALICIA [Spain], 40, 46. Gamboa, Hernando de, I 59 ; treacherously killed by Indians, 1g6. Gamuzas (deerskins), 177, 179. Germany, heretics in, 69. Ghent [Flanders], 57 Gijon [Spain], 60, 77. Ginete, Juan, master of a caravel, 76. Godoy, Captain de, 216. Gomez, Captain Antonio, commis sioned to fort at Santa Elena, 176; left in 215. Guadinilla [ Guadianilla, Porto Rico], dispatch boat at, 213. Guale, Cacique, 171, 173, 178, 181, 202, 206, 208. Guale, an Indian village in Florida, 139 160, 164, 165, 177, 182, 184, 188, 201, 212; French reported in, 152; French found in, 165; In dians of, invite Adelantado to their pueblo, 166; chief of, at war with Orista, 167. Guillermo, interpreter, 169, 172, 174• 177, 178, 180. HARTAMUA [probably Dartmouth], 50, p, 54 Havana, -.129, 130, 131, 136, 137, 145, 152, 155, 161, 186, 188, 192, 194 195 198, 201, 210, 214, 216, 217' 222, 230, 246 ; to be uticcored by Baltasar de Barreda, 202; de fence of, arranged by Adelantado, 215. Heretics, 69. Herrera, Cristobal de, ensign, com mander of one of Adelantado's ships, 213; conducts fleet to Spaii-1., 215; captain, sent with his ship to Havana, 215. Hevia, Captain Diego de, treacher ously killed by Indians, 196. Hispaniola, 73, 79, 84, 90, 198, 213, 237; fleet reaches, 78. Honduras, 161. Hotina, Cacique, 203, 204; refuses to meet Adelantado, 202; Calabay a vassal of, 206; visits Adelantado, 207; fine appearance of, 208; re quests Christian to teach his peo ple, 208. Hoyos, Pedro de, secretary to the King, 62. Hu:uenots, 76. INDIANS: their appearance and dress, 69, 139, 140, 147, 193• 208; agri culture, 178; food, 127, 130, 17 5; navigation, 130, 173; swimmers, 183 ; canoes (see Canoe) ; singing, dancing and feasting, 82, 140, 146, 175; idolatry, 151, 225, 226, 227, 229; sodomy, 180; house, 146, 176; seat of authority, 146, 176; trained to silence, 147; villages: Ays, 126; Calabay, 206; Carlos, 140, 149; Guale, 166; Hotina, 202 ; Macoya, 204; Orista, 173 ; Saturiba, 159; Tequesta, 210; Tocobaga, 223; villages on the River San Mateo, 204; intercourse with strangers: friendly to French, 106; gesture of adoration when they meet the Adelantado, 82 ; ceremomes of welcome, 146, 168, 176, 208; trade with Spaniards,

PAGE 127

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 275 14 5, I 77, I 79 ; surprised at writ ing, 147; like Spanish food, 148; • like Spanish music, 149, 207; warfare: bow and arrow, 81, 165, 173, 205; fire-brands, 182; method of fighting, 183; bar San Mateo River with stakes, 205; treachery, 183, 184; enslave captives, 139, 226 ; sacrifice Christians to devil, 139, 140; manner of killing men as in Mexico, 160; bloodthirsty, 221 ; methods used by Spaniards against them, 183. Isla, Diego de, captain in Adelan tado's fleet, 55. J OADA, Cacique, 236. K1NG of Spain (see Felipe II, I'elayo and Rodrigo). LA CONCEPCION, ship of Adelantado, 75 La Esperanza, a brigantine of Adelantado, 7 5. La Mejorada [Spain], 72, 73. La Palma [Madeira Islands], 214. La Rochelle [France], 42. La Yaguana [Santo Domingo], 138, 216, 217. Laredo [Spain], 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 55, 56, 59, 6o, 61, 62. Las Penas de Gijon [Spain], 60. Las Tortugas, Islands of, 138. Las Y eguas, Gulf of [Nicaragua], 246. Laudonniere, Rene de, 106. Le Moyne, Jacques, 76. Leon, Juan Ponce de (see Ponce de). Leon [Spain], 60. Llerena, Juan de, 160. London, 51, 55. Lopez de Padilla, Gutierre, 63. Lopez Patino, Andres, 100, 105, 124. Los Martires, Islands of, 138, 152, 188, 205, 210, 221. . Ludunice, Captain (see Laudonniere, Rene de). Luna, Captain, 76. Lutherans, 72, 81, 87, 91, 92, 109; some become Catholics, 130. MAcAcA [Cuba], 217. Macoya, Cacique, 204, 205, 206, 207, 218; pueblo called, 219, 221, 229, • 233. • Madeira, 213, 214; French reported to have sacked, 177. Madrid, 72. Magdalena, a shallop of the Adelan tado, 75. Maize (maiz), 153, 155, 175, 178, 179, 186, 189, 193, 194, 202, 225, 226, 227; Adelantado sends to Campeche for, 137; from Cam peche, 152, 232. Malta, 73. Manzanilla [Cuba], 216. Marfa, Dona, daughter of Adelan tado, 250. Marqtes (see Menendez). Martinez de Cos, Garcia, captain of Adelantado's frigate, 213; left at Tocobaga, 228. • Martinez de Recalde, Juan, purveyor, 46. of England, married to Felipe II, 43; 48, 51; pleased with services of Adelantado, 49; death of, 56. Matanzas [Cuba], 136. • • •

PAGE 128

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES Matanzas [Florida], execution of French at, 114; second execution of French at, 122. Maximilian, Regent, 42, 43. Maya, Captain Diego de, 93, 100, io3, 106, 126, 130, 131, 138, 139 i40, 153 185, 213. Maymi, Lake, 205, 206, 219; sup posed to have outlets through coun tries of Carlos and Tequesta, 205. Medina del Campo [Spain], 74. Medrano (see Velez de, Captain Juan). Melro, Captain Blas de, 238. Mendoza, Diego de, purveyor gen eral, 46, 47, 51;)52, 53, 54, 55, 62; commander of fleet, 50. Mendoza, Chaplain, made vicar, 200. Mendoza, Diego de, fleet of, barred from Hartamua harbor, 52. Menendez, Captain Bartolome, brother of Adelantado, 65, 67, 93, 197, 235; imprisoned in Seville, 64; fined, 66; alcaide of St. Augustine, 125; ill, i55; feared by mutineers, 156. Menendez, Juan, son of Adelantado, 56; lost in storm, 68. Menendez, Juan, second cousin of Adelantado, killed by Indians, i96. Menendez de Aviles, Alvaro Sanchez, brother of Adelantado, 45; Ad miral, 46, 49, 55, 56; death of, 63. Menendez rle Aviles, Pedro, Adelan tado of Florida : his origin, 39 ; chooses military profession, 39 ; affianced to Ana Maria d Solis, 40; enlists in armada against cor sairs, 40; rescues bride from corsairs, 41; sent by Maximilian against corsairs, 42; on coast of Brittany, 42; kills Juan Alfonso, 42; de feats Antonio Alfonso, 43; named Captain-General by Felipe II, 43-: his first voyage to the Indies, 45; his relatives, 44; sends his brother, Alvaro Sanchez, to the Indies, 45; sent by King against corsairs on coast of Spain, 45; sent to Flanders, 46; arrives at Dover, 46; conducts fleet to Zealand, 47; or dered to accompany English fleet, 47; makes forcible entrance into Hartamua harbor, 53; loss at hands of corsairs, 55; summoned by Princess of .Portugal to take Queen Mary to Flanders, 56; death of Queen Mary, 56; named by King to bring him from Flander , s to Spain, 56; skill as ship de signer, 57; receives King on his ship, 57 ; lands King at Laredo, 61 ; is promised a reward for his services, 63 ; ordered to take a fleet to the Indies, 64; imprisoned in Seville, 64; fined, 66; suit against, 66-67 ; reinstated by King as Gen eral of Fleet of the Indies, 68; King promises help to, 69; King makes contract with, 70; sails for Florida, 71 ; pla ns to oust French, 72-73 ; the personnel of his expedi tion, 74; sails with fleet, 76; ad vises immediate attack on French, 78; seeks French, 82, 83, 84; holds council on attacking the French, 84; attacks French fleet, 87; enters harbor at St. Augustine, 90; his speech, 90-93; his march to Fort Caroline, 95-97; surprises Fort Caroline, 98-107; leaves Fort Caroline (San Mateo) for St. Augustine, 105; the

PAGE 129

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 277 two massacres of the French, 107122 ; e s tablishes cabildo m St. • Augustine, 125; marches to French blockhouse at Cape Canaveral and destroys it, 126; sails from Ays, 129; arrives at Havana, 130; asks Osorio for supplies, 132; Osorio refuses to give them, 133; proposes to his captains and pilots that they seek corsairs to obtain supplies, 134; strained relations with Osorio, 136; receives news of fleet about to leave France, 136; sails for Florida, 138; rescues Chri s tians froen Carlos, 139; Car los off e rs him his sister in marriage, 144; visits Cac ique Carlos, 146; expounds Christianity to Carlos, 149; permits mutineers to leave St. Augustine, 161; criticisld for Florida enterpri se, 163; sails for Guale, 164; meets Cacique of Guale, i 68 ; leaves Guale, 172 ; makes peace between Orista and Guale, 174; gives presents to ca ciques at Santa Elena, 177; returns to Guale, 177; leaves Guale for St. Augustine, 181; goes to San Mateo, 182; sails for Havana in quest of food and supplies, 185; saves Cepero's ship, 186; orders supplies sent to Estebano de las Alas, 186; begs Valderrama for assistance without success, 186-188; Dona Antonia's night visit, 191-192; departs with Dona An tonia for her country, 192; they arrive in country of Carlos, 193; returns to Cuba, 193; pawns his clothes to obtain supplies, 194; leaves Havana for Florida, 194; decides to visit San Mateo, Guale and Santa Elena, 201; ascends San Mateo River, 202; visits village of Cacique Macoya, 204; forced to sail down San Mateo River, 206; visits village of Calabay, 206; leaves six Christians with Calabay, 207; meets Cacique Hotina, 207-208; sends soldiers and friars to Bay of Santa Maria, 208; in coun cil at Santa Elena, 211; leaves Santa Elena, 211; arrives in Guale, 212; arrives in San Mateo, 212; sails for West Indies to pursue cor sairs, 212; arrives at San Germ a n, 213; goes to Santo • Domingo, 214; consults Audie:cia of Santo Do mingo, 214; goes to defence of Puerto Rico, 215; sends supplies to Florida, 217; great speed of movement, 217; orders further ex ploration of San Mateo River, 218; plans to win over country of Carlos, 219; sails for country of Carlos, 221; tries to establish friendship between Carlos and Tequesta, 222; takes Carlos to Tocobaga, 224; meets Cacique Tocobaga, 226; fears Carlos's treach ery, 228; discusses peace with caciqt1es of Tocobaga, 228; leaves Garcia Martinez de Cos at Toco baga, 228; leaves Tocobaga, 229; receives news of insubordination, 232; leaves for St . Au g ustine, 232; captures rebellious Captain Rodaba19at Havana, 232; wants to meet Saturiba, 233; interview with Satu riba at San Mateo. Bar, 234; ar rives m St. Augustine, 235; pre pares for war against Saturiba, • • •

PAGE 130

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 236; orders defence of Fort San Felipe, 237; prepares to go to Spain, 237; sails for Spain, 238; arrives at Corunna, 239; goes to Aviles, 239; triumphal entry into Aviles, 241; positions held by, 241; well received by King, 242; relates his experiences, 242 ; ad vises King and council on affairs of Florida, 243; entrusted to pre pare armada against Flanders and England, 248; his portrait ordered painted by King, 248; activities in organizing armada, 249 ; his de scendants, 2 50; his will, 251 ; his epitaph, 2 52, his last letter regarding Florida, 2 55-2 58; his asiento with the King, 259-270. Menendez de Aviles (the Younger), Pedro, nephew of the Adelantado, killed by Indians of Florida, 251. Menendez de Aviles, Pedro, grand nephew of the Adelantado, 251. Menendez Marques, Alonso, nephew of the Adelantado, 76, 173, 178, 180; chosen as hostage by Cacique Guale, 171; remains in Guale, 181; death of, 212. Menendez Marques, Pedro, nephew of the Adelantado, 132, 136, 138; sails with two vessels, 77 ; : : .rrives in Havana, 130; Admiral of fleet, 135; sent to Spain, 137 ; reconnois sance of east coast of Florida, 246. Miranda, Diego de, 160, 238. Miranda, Hernando de, son-in-law of the Adelantado, 213, 214, 2 _\:,'); ap pointed Factor by the Adelantado, 73 Mona Island, 213, 217; Adelantado at, 214. Monte Cristo [Santo Domingo], 216, 217. Monte de Rey, name of the district_ where the Adelantado's manor house is situated, 39. Montes, Rodrigo, 104, 159; com mander of the Adelantado's brigan tine, 213. Muii.atones, Licentiate, 63. Munoz, Francisco, 236. Mutineers put on shore, Spanish gen tlemen, 159. Mutinies attempted in St. Augu s tine, 212. NECKLACE, of gold beads, 147; of pearls and stones, 147 Newfoundland, 49. New . pain, 45, 63, 68, 79, 138, 145• 156, 161, 162, 202, 205, 209, 225, 230; Fleet of, 185; arrives in Havana, 186. Nieva, Count de, Viceroy of Peru, 63. Nombre de Dios [Panama], 45, 7i. Normans meet Adelantado in battle, 47 Nuestra Sen ora de las Virtudes, a caravel of the Adelantado, 76. Nue stra Senora del Rosario, a vessel of the Adelantado, 76. OcHOA, Captain Martin, 95, 98, 99, 106, 159; treacherously killed by Indians, 196. Orista, Cacique, 170, 171, 174, 176, 177, 181; at war with Guale, 167. Oruii.a, Juan de, left in San Lucar, 195 Osorio, Garcia, Governor of Havana,

PAGE 131

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 279 131 ; jealous of Adelantado, 132; refuses supplies to Adelantado, 133; the Adelantado orders a mus ter taken, 134; Governor of Cuba, 195 230. Otafiez, Martin de, commander of a vessel, 62. Otina (see Hotina). Oviedo [Spain], 60; ancient families of, 39 Oysters, 157, 196 ; used as food by Indians, 148, 175 PADILLA (see Lopez de, Gutierre). Palmettos, 130, 57, 183, 196, 226; used as food by Indians, 127, 128. Pardo, Captain Juan, 209, 210, 236, 237; sent to San Felipe with three hundred men, 201; hangs sW.diers for mutiny, 211; ordered to make inland exploration, 211; explora tion inland, 236; reports on Indians of interior, 237; erects block house, 242. Parra, Captain Juan de la, 133, 135. Patino (see Lopez, Andres). Paya, Dona, 44, 45; castle of, 39. Pearls, 147, 177. Pedro, Don, cousin of Cacique Carlos, 219. Pelayo, King of Spain, 39, 44 Perez, Fernando, 157, 163. Perez, Francisco, 74 (see Perez, Fernando). Peru, 79, 156, 161, 162, 209. Perucho, interpreter for Adelantado, 205. Pie de Palo, French corsair, 46. Ponce de Leon, Juan, Governor of San Juan de Puerto Rico, 216. Portland, Island, 52, 54 Portugal, Princess of, summons Ade lantado, 56. Portuguese: caravel captured in Gulf of Mexico, 133; from Tavila, 225. Pravia [Spain], 39 Priests, five, arrive from Spain, 200. Puerto de Plata [Santo Domingo], 137, 161, 164, 216, 217. Puerto Real [Santo Domingo], 216, 217. Puerto Rico, Island of, 73, 84, 161, 213, 214, 217, 237; to be succored by Juan de Zorita, 201. QUEEN, Elizabe\ii Csee Elizabeth) ; Mary (see Mary). Quejo [Spain], 49. Quintanilla, Luis de, friend of Ade lantado, 74, 157. RAMUA [Flanders], 57. Recalde, Francisco de, 93, 100, 123, I 59; accused of being responsible for mutinies, 164. Recalde, Juan Martinez de (see Martinez de, Juan). Reinoso, Francisco de, 71, 220, 222; sent to country of Carlos, 219; arfives in country of Carlos, 220; writes of his hardships, 221; in danger from Carlos, 223. Ribaut, Jacques, son of Jean Ribaut, 102. Ribaut, Jean, 78, 87, 91, 109, 116, uz, u8, u9, 120, 124, 134, 165, 166; offers large ransom to Ade lantado, 121; murdered, 122. Ribao (see Ribaut). Rodabin, Captain Pedro de, 212, 213, • •

PAGE 132

• 280 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 231, 232, 238, 239; revolts, 230; prisoner of Adelantado, 236. Rodrigo, Don, King of Spain, 39. Rodriguez, Hernando, shipmaster, 76. Rogel, Father, 221, 222, 224; studies language of Indians, 224; left in Carlos, 229. Rojas, Alonso de, regidor of Havana, has charge of Dona Antonia, 190; receives Dona Antonia, 220. Rueda, Licentiate, priest, fomenter of mutiny, 164. SALARIES of officials in Adelantado's fleet, 77. Salcedo, de, 238. San Andres, a shallop of the Adelan tado, 75. San Anton, harbor and village of Cacique Carlos, 150, 152. San Antonio, a caravel of the Ade lantado, 7 5. San Felipe, name of the fort built at Santa Elena, 176, 197, 201, 230, 236, 238, 242. San Felipe, a galleon, caught fire, 246. San Francisco, Order of, first priests of, sail, 77. San German [Puerto Rico], 214j, 214, 215, 216, 217 San Juan de Luz [France], 47, 55. San Juan de Puerto Rico, 78; defence of, 215; fear of French fleet in, 216. San Lucar [de Barrameda, 75, 195 San Mateo, Fort, 101, 104, 107, 108, 109, 111, 124, 12 5' 127, 128, 129, 139 158, 164, 16 5, 176, 181, 182, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 194 195 196, 197 200, 201, 202, 207, 208, 210, 212, 213, 218, 222, 230, 23 238, 242, 247; burns down, 123; mutinies in, 153, 155; discord among troops of, 197. San Mateo River, 203, 204, 219, 221, 233; explored by Adelantado, 202. San M i guel, a shallop of the Adelan tado, 7 5. San Pela yo , a galleon of the Adelan tado, 71, 75, 106, 246. San Sebastian [Spain], 46, 59, 60. San Thadeo, a galleon equipped by the Adelantado, 248. San Vicente, Captain Juan de, 74, 79, 93, 96, 158, 160, 164; leader of mutineers, 157 San Vicente [Spain], 162, 163. Sin ez de Aviles, Alvaro (see Menendez de Aviles). Sanchez de Benesa, Pedro, General of armada, 63. Santa Cruz, harbor of, on Island of Teneriffe, 43. Santa Elena, 139, 160, 161, 164, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 184, 188, 194, 197, 201, 2o8, 209, 211, 236, 246, 247; French re ported in, 1 S2; Adelantado arrives at, 173. Santa Lucia, harbor of [Florida], 153 Santa Marfa, Bay of [Florida], 208, 209. Santa Marfa de Nieva, a town m Spain, 72. Santander [Spain] , 59, 60, 63, 77. Santiago de Cuba, 217; Adelantado arrives at, 216. Santo Domingo, 84, 106, 111, 156,

PAGE 133

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES 160, 161, 164, 186, 201, 214, 217; succored by Rodrigo Troche, 202. antoiia, a cliff on coast of Spain, 61. Sarria, Count de, 47. Sassafras wood, use of, 247. Saturiba, Cacique, 204, 206, 207, 208, 232, 233, 234, 236, 242 ; angered at Spaniards, 159; treachery of, 233. S c illy, Islands, 47, 48, 49, 55, 58, .S9 S c otland, heretics in, 69. Seville [Spain] , 43, 44, 4 5, 71, 106; arrival of fleet at, 215. Slaves, Negro, 77. Smith, Buckingham, letter to, from Benjamin E. 254. Solis, Ana Maria de, affianced to Adelantado, 40. St. Augustine, 85, 88, 96, 97, 104, 106, 107' 108, 109, 111, 11 5 123, 124, 127, 129, 153 158, 160, 161, 164, 165, 176, 181, 182, 187, 188, 194 195, 197, 198, 199 204, 206, 211, 212, 218, 219, 221, 230, 236, 238, 242, 246; Florida sighted by Adelantado on Day of St. Augus tine, 80 ; reason for name of town, 83; site marked out by Adelantado, 89; cabildo established in, 125; fort, I 52, 188, 201; burned, 182; plans for rebuilding, in new loca tion, 184; new site for, is laid out, 185; mutiny of soldiers in, 154; one hundred and twenty soldiers desert, 162. St. Johns River (see San Mateo). St. Quentin [France], 48; victory of, 46. St. Vincent [Portugal], Cape, 239. Suarez Carvayo, Pedro, shipmaster, 76. T ENERIFFE, Island of, 43, 78. Tequesta, Cacique, 224; at war with Carlos, 222. Tequesta, region of, 205, 210, 221, 229, 230, 232; blockhouse in, 242. T erceira, Island of [Azores], 238. Tierra Firme, 63, 138, 194. Tocobaga, Cacique, receives Adelan-v tado, 226; wishes to become Christian, 227. Tocobaga, Indian village of, 223, / 224, 233 ; blockhouse at, 242. Toledo, Archbishop of, 47. Toledo [Spain], 63. Toral, Fray de, Bishop of Yucatan, • 152 . • • Torres [Spain], 60. Troche, Rodrigo, 1 oo, 1 59 ; made prisoner and killed by Saturiba, 160; captain of same name, sent to succor Santo Domingo, 201; left in Havana with one hundred and fifty soldiers, 21 5. Turks march on Malta, 73 U BILA, Captain Juan de, Admiral of fleet, 199• 20 L Ushant, Island of, 47, 4f1, 49, 55, 58, 59 • VALDERRAMA, Licentiate, visitador of New Spain, 186, 187, 194; re fuses assistance to Adelantado, 188. Valdes, Alonso de, 238. • Val des, Diego Florez de (see Florez de, f aptain Diego). Valdes, Juan de, 238; killed by In dians, 196. Valdes, Pedro de, prospective son-in law of Adelantado, camp master • • •

PAGE 134

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES of Adelantado, 79, 93; ill, 153; imprisoned by mutineers, 154; afraid to exert authority, 156; at San Mateo lacks provisions, 183; tries to make peace between Aguirre and Zabal, 196; loses commission in fire, 197; reports arrival of Arciniega, 198; takes half the fleet to San German, 213; helps his commander, 21 7 ; returns to Flor ida, 218; returns to Spain with Adelantado, 238. Valdeses y Menendez Arango, a fam ily related to Adelantado, 44. Valenzuela, Lope de, purveyor, 46. Valladolid (Cpain], 40, 44, 46, 56, 62. V egil (see Bustio y). Velasco, Doctor, member of council, 56. Velasco, Don Luis de, Christian Indian interpreter, 209. Velez de Medrano, Captain Juan, 105, 107, 124, 129, 157, 238; re mained in Ays, 153; commander of one of the Adelantado's ships, 213. Victoria, a galley of the Adelantado, 75 Villagafion, Captain [Villegaignon], 165. 6 Villarreal, Father Francisco de, 221, 224, 229; left at Tequesta, 232. Villarroel, Captain Gonzalo de, 9&• 105, 123, 125, 153, 156, 159, 185, 197, 201, 202, 208, 212, 232, 233, 234; appointed ale aide of Fort San Mateo (Fort Caroline), 104; sends to St. Augustine for help, 160; visited by Adelantado, 164; succeeded by Vasco Zabal, 184. Vivero, harbor of [Spain], 239. w INDW ARD ISLANDS, 78. Women, fourteen, o rrive from Spain, 200. Y NISTROSA, Juan de, Treasurer of Qaba, 132, I 52• I 53, 189, 230; ob tains supplies for Adelantado, 193. ZABAL, Vasco, 178, 180, 181, 195, 196; chosen by Cacique Guale as a hostage, 171 ; succeeds Villarroel as ensign of the royal standard. Zealand, 46, 47. Zorita, Captain Juan de, sent to de fence of Puerto Rico, 201, 215.

PAGE 135

LIST OF SUSTAINING MEMBERS OF THE FLORIDA STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SocIETY, Worcester, Massachusetts. AVERY LIBRARY AND HISTORICAL SocIETY, New Port Richey, Florida. BANCROFT LIBRARY, University of California, Berkeley, California. BARTOW PUBLIC LIBRARY, Bartow, Florida. BOSTON PuBLIC LIBRARY, Boston, Massachusetts. CHICAGO PuBLIC LIBRARY, Chicago, Illinois. CLEMENTS LIBRARY OF AMERICAN HISTORY, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, New York City. CONNECTICUT HI ORICAL SOCIETY, Hartford, Connecticut. DARTMOUTH COLLEGE LIBRARY, Hanover, New Hampshire. DENISON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, Granville, Ohio. FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN LIBRARY, Tallahassee, Florida. HARVARD UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, Cambridge, Massachusetts. HENRY E. HUNTINGTON LIBRARf AND ART SocIETY, San Gabriel, California. JACKSONVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Jacksonville, Florida. JoHN B. STETSON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, DeLand, Florida. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, Washington, D. C. MIAMI PUBLIC LIBRARY, Miami, Florida. MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SocIETY, Saint Paul, Minnesota. NEW SMYRNA FREE LIBRARY, New Smyrna, Florida. NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY, New York City. NEW YoRK PUBLIC LIBRARY, New York City. OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, Columbus, Ohio. PALATKA PUBLIC LIBRARY, Palatka, Florida. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, Princeton, New Jersey. RoLLINS COLLEGE LIBRARY, Winter Park, Florida. SAINT PETERSBURG PUBLIC LIBRARY, Saint Petersburg, Florida. SuPREME CouRT OF FLORIDA LIBRARY, Tallahassee, Florida. TAMPA PUBLIC LIBRARY, Tampa, Florida. UNIVERSITY OF CmcAGO PRESS, Chicago, Illinois. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBR ARY, Gainesville, UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS LIBRARY, Austin, Texas. VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY, Richmond, Virginia. WEST PALM BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY, West Palm Beach, Florida. YA L E UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, New Haven, Connecticut. •

PAGE 136

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES INDIVIDUALS ADAMS, Miss MAUDE, New York City. ALLISON, JAMES A., Miami Beach, Florida. ANDERSON, ANDREW, Saint Augustine, Florida. ANGE, J. F., Orlando, Florida. AYER, EDWARD E., Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois. BARRELL, EDWARD P., DeLand, Flor-ida. BEAVER, F. P., Dayton, Ohio. BEEMAN, H. L., Orlando, Florida. BENTLEY, FIC\NK, Tampa, Florida. BIGLER, B. B., Augustine, Flor-ida. BOND, MRs. ELIZABETH G., DeLand, Florida. BoND, MRs. ROBERT M., DeLand, Florida. BROREIN, W. G., Tampa, Florida. BROWN, CHARLES H., Tampa, Florida. BRYAN, WILLIAM JENNINGS, Miami, Florida. BuRT, FRED N., DeLeon Springs, Florida. CALL, RHYDON M., J acksonv11e, Florida. CANNON, HENRY W., Daytona, Florida. CARSON, JAMES M., Miami, Florida. CARTER, FRANCIS B., Pensacola, Florida. CARTER, W. R., Jacksonville, Florida. CHAPIN, GEORGE M., Jacksonville, Florida. CHASE, S. 0., Sanford, Florida. CLAUSSEN, JoHN W., Miami, Florida. CLEWIS, A. C., Tampa, Florida. COACHMAN, W. F., Jacksonville, Flor-ida. COLTON, LITCHFIELD, DeLand, Florida. CONNOR, MRS. JEANNETTE THURBER, New York City. CONNOR, WASHINGTON E., New York City. CoNNOR, WAYNE E., New Smyrna, Florida. CONRAD, MRS. CARRIE F., DeLand, Florida. CORBETT, WALTER P., Jacksonville, Florida. CuBBERLY, FRED S., Gainesville, FloridS!'. CUESTA, A. L., Tampa, Florida. CURTISS, G. H., Hi-a-le-ah, Florida. DEAN, S. BoBo, Miami, Florida. DEERING, CHARLES, Miami, Florida. DEERING, JAMES, Miami, Florida. DETWILER, JOHN Y., New Smyrna, Florida. DEWHURST, W. W.; Saint Augustine, Florida. DOGGETT, J. L., Jacksonville, Florida. DOUGLAS, MRS. MARJORY STONEMAN, Miami, Florida. EVERITT, CHARLES P., New York City. F ARRISS, CHARLES S., DeLand, Florida. FEE, WILLIAM I., Fort Pierce, Florida. FISHER, CARL G., Miami Beach, Florida.

PAGE 137

PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES F1sHER, MRs. GEORGIA GERTRUDE, DeLand, Florida. EMING, F. P., Jacksonville, Florida. FLETCHER, DuNCAN U., Washington, D.C. FOSTER, WARD G., New York City. GAMBLE, JAMES N., Cincinnati, Ohio. GARWOOD, H. C., DeLand, Florida. GILLETT, D. C., Tampa, Florida. GLE , JAMES F., Tampa, Florida. GORDIS, Vv. S., DeLand, Florida. GREENE, JAMES A., Winter Haven, Florida. GRIFFIN, J. A., Florida. HANAFOURDE, B. K., Jacksonville, Florida. HARDEE, CARY A., Tallahassee, Florida. HARPER, LATHROP C., New York City. HENDERSON, ROBERT A., JR., Fort Myers, Florida. HuLLEY, LINCOLN, DeLand, Florida. JAMESON, JOHN FRANKLIN, Washington, D. C. JENNINGS, MRS. W. S., Jacksonville, Florida. JIJ6N Y CAAMANO, JACINTO, Quito, Ecuador. JoRDAN, SAMUEL D., DeLand, Florida. KAY, WILLIAM E., Jacksonville, Flor ida. KETTERLINUS, J. L., Saint Augustine, Florida. KNIGHT, PETER 0., Tampa, Florida. KNowr.Es, WILLIAM H., Pensacola, Florida. LAKE, FORREST, Sanford, Florida. LAMAR, G. B., Saint Augustine, Florida. L'ENGLE, E. M., Jacksonville, Flor ida. LEWIS, Miss MARY D., Tallahassee, Florida. LOFTIN, ScoTT M., Jackson ville, Flor ida. LOOMIS, JoHN T., Washington, D. C. MACFARLANE, HowARD P., Tampa, • orida. MACWILLIAMS, W. A., Saint Augustine, Florida. MALONE, E. R., PenilcJl.a, Florida. MASSEY, Louis C., Orlando, Florida. MAXWELL, E. C., Pensacola, Florida. McKAY, D. B., Tampa, Florida. MICKLE, \V. Y., DeLand, Florida. MuRPHREE, A. A., Gainesville, Florida. MYERS, W. B., Tallahassee, Florida. O'NEAL, W. R., Orlando, Florida. OSBORNE, F. R., DeLand, Florida. PANCOAST, THOMAS J., Miami Beach, Florida. P ATTER\)pN, GILES J., Jacksonville, Florida. PAUL, JOHN J., Watertown, Florida. PERKINS, J. W., DeLand, Florida. PERRY, P. R., Saint Augurtine, Florida. • RASCO, R. A., Gainesville, Florida. REAVES, 0. K., Tampa, Florida. REESE, J. H., Miami, Florida. REYNOLDS, B. S., Washington, D. C.

PAGE 138

286 PEDRO MENENDEZ DE AVILES REYNOLDS, CHARLES B., New York City. REYNOLDS, E. H., Saint Augustine, Florida. RICKMERS, MRS. EDNA A., Miami, Florida. RIGBY, GEORGE W., Ormond Beach, Florida. RoMFH, E. C., Miami, Florida. RosENBACH, A. S. W., Philadelphia, P ennsy 1 vania. SANCHEZ, EUGENE M., Jacksonville, Florida. SAUL, MAURICE B., Moylan, Pennsyl vania. SEYMOUR, MRS. ROBERT MORRIS, Miami, Florida. SHACKLEFORD, T. M., JR., Tampa, Florida. SHARKEY, WILLIAM L., Jacksonville, Florida. SHUTTS, FRANK B., Miami, Florida. STANLEY, MRS. M. L., Daytona, Florida. STETSON, JOHN B., JR., Elkins Park, Pennsylvania. STOKES, JOHN P., Pensacola, Florida. STONE, EDw ARD L., Roanoke, Virginia. STOVALL, W. F., Tampa, Florida. • STOVER, IRvING C., DeLand, Florida. THURBER, MRs. JEANNETTE M., New York City. TRICE, W. W., Tampa, Florida. WALL, PERRY G., Tampa, Florida. WATSON, W. H., Pensacola, Florida. 'VELLCOME, HENRY S., London, Eng-land. WILDER, MRs. C. M., Daytona, Florida. WILKINSON, E.G., Naples, Florida. WILLIAMS, ARTHUR T., Jacksonville, Florida. WILMSHURST, HENRY J., DeLand, WINSHIP, GEORGE PARKER, Cam bridge, Massachusetts. W ooD, S. A., DeLand, Florida. WRIGHT, SILAS B., DeLand, Florida. YoNGE, P. K., Pensacola, Florida. YowELL, N. P., Orlando, Florida.

PAGE 139

It Three hundred and twenty-five copies of book have been pr i nted for the Florida State Historical Society by the Yale University Press under the direction of Carl Purington Rollins. cf his is No./.?:-_{) r M'S. LUCERNE AVE. L "IAMPA, F\.A

PAGE 140

• • • • • I • •


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close

Download PDF

Images

Choose Size
Choose file type


Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.