History of Florida, past and present, historical and biographical, volume I.


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History of Florida, past and present, historical and biographical, volume I.

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History of Florida, past and present, historical and biographical, volume I.
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Cutler, H. G.
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History -- Biography -- Florida -- United States, Florida ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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F 31 \ c. \ }.I A GIFT TO THE LIBRARY FROM F. WILL CASEY CSTATE OF FLORIDA

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. Editorial Board HON. R. F . TAYLOR, Tallahassee Justice State Supreme Court HON. H. CLAY . CRAWFORD, Tallahassee Secretary of State JUDGE BENJAMIN HARRISON, Jacksonv ille HON. CHARLES B. PARKHILL, Tampa Ex-J11stice State Supreme Court J. E. I NGRAHAM, St. Augustine Vice-president Flol"ida East Coast Railway Compa11y HON. HERBERT J. DRA 'E, Lak e l and Congress111a11 W. L. STRAUB, St. Petersburg Postmaster D. B . McKAY, Tampa Editor a11d Proprietor, Times JOH G. RUGE, Apala c hicola Clzairma11 of Florida Board, Atla11tic-Mississippi Canal Commission HON. WALTER KEHOE, Pensacola Lawyer; Ex-Congressman FRED CUBBERLY , Gainesville U. S. District Attorney T. FREDERICK DAVIS, Jacksonville Author History of Jackso11vil!e GUYTE P. McCORD, Tallahassee Mayor J. B. MORROW, Pensacola Clzairmari Industria l Commission, Clza111ber of Commerce W. M. GLENN, Orlando Editor .Morning Sentinel GUY W . LIVINGSTON, Miami Secretary of Chamber of Commerce FRANK HARRIS, Ocala Editor of Banner and Nestor of Florida Journalist s J. H . COOK , Apalachi c ola Mayor; Secretar y Clzamber of Commerce HON. WILLIAM B. SHEPPARD, Pens;icola Judge of tlze U. S. District Court HARRY GARDNER CUTLER Research Historian A11tlio r of Panorama of Natio11s; joint autlzor of Bancroft's Book of tlze Fair; i"..ncyclopedia of Illinois; Ellis' Standard History (lo Vols.); col/abomto1, with Harriet Taylor Upton, on His t o ry of tlze Western Reser ve, and witlz Dr. Elroy M . Avery, on History of Clev eland; also contrib11tor to standard guides and magazints of tlze United States

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Past and Present HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL Issued in 'Three Volumes Volume I THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 1923

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COPYRIGHT, 1923 BY THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

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PREFACE Florida is one of the and balmy countries of the world which is n:ot enervating and detrimental to continued exertion and enter pri se. It is a land whose shores are laved by soothing waters and yet invigorated by cool off-shore ocean streams and whose varied surface is swept by fresh breezes from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. there are few tropic storms which sweep up from the Caribbean waters that are not broken by the isles of the West Indies or the nearer fringes of key s which line both shores of the peninsula. Jutting far down into the southern seas, Florida is the American out post looking toward the Latin countries of the Western Hemisphere and the s outheastern Atlantic . It is the key to the incursions of possible enemies who might desire ' to range and devastate the southern coasts of the United States. Its harbors on the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico could shelter the fleet of the nation, with maneuvering waters to spare. Fernandina, Jacksonville, Miami, Key West, Tampa and Pensacola throw open their protecting arms toward ocean and gulf, with hundreds of other shelters of minor extent along the coasts and long stretches of rivers and canals in eastern Florida. All the ' leading coast cities of Florida are historic and yet alive with modern vitality . Pensacola, the old capital of West Florida, is a fine progressive city, and St. Augustine, so long the government headquarters of East Florida, although of minor commercial importance and retaining a charming atmo s phere of historic memories, is still absorbing present day ambition and impr o ving accordingly. These two old-time capitals were bandied about by Spain , France, England and the United States, and later arose J a cksonville as a manifestation o'f American push and enter prise. The scene of action in Florida during the Civil war chiefly revolves around Pensacola as the keynote to the Federal invasion of the south eastern states from the Gulf. A distinct pha s e in the development of Florida was its rise from a land of fisheries to that of a commercial state, the domestic and foreign trade of which was largel y centered at Jacksonville, Key West, Tampa and Pensacola. At the same time, its wonderful coasts, rivers, and lakes, were turned over to a world of fishermen, boatmen, bathers and water sports men while its picturesque shore s , valleys and interior lands attracted an other world of touri s ts and plea s ure s eekers. Many who thus came to enjoy the country remained to bec o me permanent -residents. A large percentage of Florida's increa s e of population and its growth in trade and general pros perity is traceable to that source. The expansion of the citru s fruit industries forms a remarl<:able and interesting chapter in the development of the state. A striking phase of that topic i s the forcing of the citru s belt many miles southward and beyond the line of destructive fros ts. While this trans formation wa s progressing occurred the birth of the Florida East Coa s t Rai Jway , and never in the building of American commonwealths was so considerable a portion of a state absolutely de veloped by a s ingle enterpri se. Preceding the extension of the line from St. Augustine to Key Wes t cities were platted along its route, great hotels constructed, thou s ands of tourists drawn thither, and both com munities and a traveling public created simultaneously . With the rail-111

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IV PREFACE road development came also the building of the canal system connecting the St. Johns and Indian rivers with the Atlantic coast, and the drainage enterprise conducted by the state and designed to not only bring a new area of fertile lands into the market and to assist in the development of the East Coast cities, such as Palm Beach and Miami, but to provide trans Florida transportation which had not been secured through the railroads. Therefore it is that nowhere on earth is there a more charming and luxurious stretch of pleasure resorts than along the east coast of Florida. The blessings of nature and all the comforts and elegancies offered by the modern caterer are found in that favored region. On the west coast the pleasures sought and generously provided are more in the open and of a simpler, if not more democratic nature. St. Petersburg, the City of Sunshine, has arisen as a queen of the western coast resorts. Not only do the railroads now care for the thousands of touri.ts, com mercial travelers and home people who are penetrating and crossing its territory in every direction, but its system of highways is yearly becoming more finished. By geographical necessity, Florida is the terminus of several great transcontinental highways, which come from the west along the old Santa Fe trail, down ' the east Atlantic coast through the southern states and from the Glacier Park of Montana by way of the Northwest, Middle West and South. By railway, by automobile and by horse and afoot the people come to Florida from all points of the compass, and its citizens, as well as its travelers, have a high average stamp of experience and breadth of view. While the coast lands of Florida are of great attraction, with their historic and prominent cities, the interior of the state is as distinctively charming and progressive. No more enjoyable or instructive rides in the country can be obtained than through the rich citrus lands of the lake country, radiating from Lakeland, Orlando and the other east-central cities of the state. Not only is the country beautiful, but these interior cities are progressing with substantial strides to the front of the home municipalities. Fruits, vegetables, phosphates and manufactures based upon their production, are largely responsible for the prevailing pros perity in this section of Florida. In a word, there is no state in the Union of its population which offers a greater variety of inducements for both enjoyment and permanent support than Florida.' It is the development of this remarkable state of contented, happy and enterprising people which this work endeavors to depict. Every effort has been made to attain that end, neither time, expense nor expert and thorough research having been spared. As a whole, the cooperation between the editors and the Florida public has been spontaneous and complete. Where the exceptions have proven the rule, the explanation seems to have been a lack of understanding as to the purport of the work, or a preconceived prejudice not to be overcome by an honest endeavor at explanation. Too high commendation cannot be given to the assistance of state officials, both in the gathering of material and its verification of those who were in a position to know the facts. In this connection special mention may be made of Hon. H. Clay Crawford, secretary of state, and W. A. McRae, commissioner of agriculture. The chambers of commerce and boards of trade, without exception, have been most courteous and helpful in furnishing the salient facts as to present conditions and modern de velopments. The history could never have been completed, as now published, with out the advice, revisory service and general assistance of the Editorial Board, of which Mr. Crawford was a member. Judge Benjamin Harrison, of Jacksonville, was an invaluable aid as the work progressed, and his actual contributions in manuscripts and illustrations are not only warmly acknowledged in this preface but in several sections of the work itself. Hon. R. F. Taylor, the veteran justice of the State Supreme Court,

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PREFACE v revised the chapter of the "Bench and Bar," and Hon. Charles B. Parkhill, ex-justice of the State Supreme Court, and D. B. McKay, editor and proprietor of the Times, passed upon the portion of the history devoted to Tampa. The chapters which historically developed Jacksonville were revised and, in large measure, contributed by Judge Harrison, J. Evarts Merrill, former secretary of the City Commission, and T. Frederick Davis, author of a valued history of "Early Jacksonville." James E. Ingraham, of St. Augustine, vice president of the Florida East Coast Railway Com pany, and one of the few men living are among its founders, revised the manuscript picturing the progress of that railroad and the related de velopment of the East Coast pleasure resorts and permanent cities. Guy W. Livingston, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Miami, examined the manuscript, depicting the founding and growth of that typical East Coast resort. Hon. Herbert J. Drane, congressman, of Lakeland, and W. M. Glenn, editor of the Orlando Morning Sentinel, revised the chapters setting forth the history and present status of those progressive interior cities of the picturesque lake region of Florida. Hon. Fred Cubberly, of Gainesville, United States attorney, was of special assistance in the prep aration and verification of the paper covering the Dade massacre of 1835. The record of Tallahassee as a city was examined by Guyte P. McCord, its mayor. ' The \Vest Coast cities were also ably represented on the editorial board. Pensacola had as its member Hon. William B. Sheppard, judge of the United States District Court, and J. B. Morrow, chairman of the Industrial Commission of the Chamber of Commerce. John G. Ruge, of Apalachicola, chairman of the Florida Board of the Atlantic-Mississippi Canal Commission, furnished the material and revised the sketch covering the history of the project, while the manuscript account of Apalachicola, one of the. old and quaint places of West Florida, passed through the hands of J. H. Cook, its mayor. St. Petersburg, well named the unshine City and the gem of the \Vest Coast, had as literary sponsor, W. L. Straub, postmaster and newspaper man. The foregoing, and others too numerous to specifically mention, have brought to this history of Florida whatever merit it possesses. Of that its readers and the public of the present and the future are to judge. I tf. G. CUTLER, Research Historwn. ,

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•

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE BACKBONE OF FLORIDA ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I CHAPTER II NON-AMERICAN FLORIDA 24 CHAPTER III INDIANS AND INDIAN WARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 CHAPTER IV TRANSPORTATION BY LAND AND WATER .......................... 55 CHAPTER V INDUSTRIES BY SEA /\ND LAND............. ... ................. 82 CHAPTER VI THE EVERGLADES OF FWRIDA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 CHAPTER VII COMMONWEALTH PRIOR TO SECESSION .......................... 108 CHAPTER VIII UNDER THE CONFEDERACY .................................... I30 CHAPTER IX VLORIDA FROM I865 TO I885 ................................... I48 CHAPTER X UNDER THE CoNSTITUTJON OF I885 ........................... . I64 CHAPTER XI CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES ............................ 202 CHAPTER XII THE FOUNDATION OF THE STATE .............................. 2o6 CHAPTER XIII • HISTORY OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ................................ 220 CHAPTER X I V REFORMATORY A D CHARITABLE ................................ 250 Vll

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Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER XV JACKSONVILLE PRECEDING MUNIClP.\LTTY ........................ 258 CHAPTER XVI JACKSONVILLE AS A MUNICIPALITY ........................... . . . 271 CHAPTER XVII CITY AND CouNTY OF TODAY .................................. 293 CHAPTER XVIII HISTORY OF TAMPA AND WEST TAMPA 3II CHAPTER XIX TAMPA, WEST TAMPA AND THE COUNTY ........................ 325 , CHAPTER XX ST. PETERSBURG AND PINELLAS COUNTY ..................... : .. 347 CHAPTER XXI PENSACOLA CHAPTER XXII As AN AMERIC.\N CITY ................................ . ..... . 374 . CHAPTER XXIII MIAMI AND DADE COUNTY ..... . . ............................ CHAPTER XXIV KEY WEST AND MONROE COUNTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4I9 CHAPTER XXV ORLANDO AND ORANGE CouNTY ..... .......................... 433 CHAPTER XXVI Pou: CouNTY-frs CITrns AND TowNs ......................... 449 CHAPTER XXVII VOLUSIA COUNTY CHAPTER XXVIII PALM BEACH COUNTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49I CHAPTER XXIX ALACHUA COUNTY AND GAINESVILLE ............ : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 CHAPTER XXX • ST. AuGUSTINE AND ST. Jorrns CouNTY ......................... 507 CHAPTER XXXI TALLAHASSEE AND LEON COUNTY .......................... . ... 524 I

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\ TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER XXXII IX .PALATKA AND PUTNAM COUNTY ............ ............... ... 532 CHAPTER XXXIII SANFORD AND SEMINOLE COUNTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 CHAPTER XXXIV FERNANDINA AND NASSAU COUNTY ........................... 539 CHAPTER XXXV OCALA AND MARION COUNTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 CHAPTER XXXVI LAKE CITY AND COLUMBIA COUNTY ......................... .. 549 CHAPTER XXXVII BRADENTOWN AND MANATEE COUNTY .......................... 553 CHAPTER XXXVIII ARCADIA A D DESOTO COUNTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 CHAPTER XXXIX LIVE OAK AND SUWANEE COUNTY ..... ... '. ..................... 559 CHAPTER XL QUINCY AND GADSDEN COUNTY .......... . . . '. ................... 56I CHAPTER XLI APALACHICOLA AND FRANKLIN COUNTY ...... . ... .............. 565 CHAPTER XLII MARIANN A AND } ACKSON COUNTY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 CHAPTER XLIII BETWEEN TUE ESCAMBIA AND CHOCT.\WlIATCHEE ........ ......... 574 CHAPTER XLIV BETWEEN THE CllOCTAWHAT C llEE ANO APAL.\ClllCOLA ............ 579 CHAPTER XLV THREE SISTER COUNTIES ........ ............................. . 583 CHAPTER XL VI BETWEEN THE AUClLLA AND SUWANNEE ................. . .... . 586 CHAPTER XL VII BAKER, BRADFORD AND UNION COUNTIES ....................... 590 CHAPTER XL VIII LEVY, CITRUS AND SuMTER Cou TIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 92

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x TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER XLIX .HERNANDO AND PASCO COUNTIES .............................. 595 CHAPTER L FIVE NEW COUNTIES OF 1921 ................................. 597 CHAPTER LI LEE AND BROW ARD Co UNTIES .................... : . . . . . . . . . . . . 6o I CHAPTER LII FouR EAST FLORIDA CouNTIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6o6 CHAPTER LIII NORTHEAST FLORIDA COUNTIES ............................... 6IO " '

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INDEX "Abandoned lands," I, 149. Abercrombie, James E., II, 196. Abernathy, Charles V., I, i83. Acosta, John S., II, 330. Acosta, Tracy, II, 330. Acosta, Tracy L., II, 329. Act of secession, I, 0129. Adair, Henry P., II, 179. Adamo, Frank S., II, 164. Adams, Daniel M., IlI, 121. Adams, Hal W., III, 373. Adams, Milton A., IIl, 334. Adamson, William P., II, r.29. Adcock, J: Dean, II, 235. Admiralty Court at Key West, I, 208. Advertising Club of Miami, I, 413. Agassiz, Alexander, I, 12. Agricultural I, 222. Agricultural Experiment Station, I, 235. Agricultural organizations, I, 97. Agricultural products, Duval County, I, 309. Agricultural statistics, Orange County, I, 447; Alachua County, I, 500; Leon County, I, 530; Putnam County, I, 534; Marion Coun ty, I, 545; Colunl"bia County, I, 549; Jack son County, I, 568. Agriculture, I, 82; statistical, I, 85. Ahrens, George W., II, 22r. Aiken, Maud, III, 36r. Alachua, I, 503. Alachua Academy, I, 220. Alachua County, formation, I, I 13; delegates to first convention, u8; location, 500; phos phate production, 500; agricultural and live stock wealth, 500; changes in area and pop ulation, 502; railroads, 502; schools, 503 ; library, 505; newspapers, 505; industries, 505; banks, 5o6. "Alachua Savanna," I, 3r. Alapaha River, I, 588. Albertson, George M., III, 39. Albertson Library, Orlando, I, 439. Albright, 0. Russell, III, 157 Albritton, Paul C., II, 266. Alcazar Hotel, I, 6r. Alden, George J., I, 379. Alexander, T. F., II, 178. Alford, I, 573. Allen, Charles Z., II, IIJ. Allen, David C., III, 8. Allen, Don 0., III, 302. Allen, Dwight A., II, 193. Allen, G. Frank, IIi.. 26. Allen, George W., lI, 194. Allen, J. D., III, 148. Allen, Louis A., III, 46. Allen, William G., II, 99. Alligator, I, 45, 50, 550. Alligator City, I, 550. Alligator Pond, I, 552. Allison, Alexander K., I, 136. Allison, George F., III, 225. Alsobrook, John W., III, 85. Xl Altamonte, I, 537. Altitudes, I, 6. Alumnae Association, Florida State College for Women, I, 243. Alvarez, Mariano, II, 191. Amelia Island, I, 29, 540. American Bank and Trust Company, St. Petersburg, I, 356. American Legion, I, 505. American National Bank, Pensacola, I, 380; III, 57. American National Bank, Tampa, I, 338. American Prison Association, I, 250. Amerigo Vespucci, I, 24. Amory, Frederic, I, 74 . Anastasia Island, I, 508; illustration, 509. Andersen, Anders S., III, 77. Andersen, J. Leo, III, 208. Anderson, Edward K., III, 348. Anderson, Eric A., III, 62. Anderson; Francis M., II, . 180. Anderson, Halcott, III, 68. Anderson, James P., I, 140. Anderson, Milam R., II, 324. Anderson, Robert H., II,
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XU INDEX Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, I, 53, 57, 107, 321, 327, 442, 451, 457, 465, .502, 535, 541, 546, 556, 560, 587, 589, 590, 592, 595, 598, 6o2, 6o4. Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company, I, 59; principal lines owned by, 6o. A:tlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Company, I, 57. Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal Association, I, 78. Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal project, I, 75. Attorneys-General , I, 216. Auburndale, I, 463. Aucilla, I, 585. Aucilla River, I, 7. Ausley, Charles M., III, 161. Australian ballot system, I, 169. Avery, A. P., III, 357. Aviation camps, I, 556. Avocado groves, I, 493. Ayars, Emerson W., II, 144. Ayers, Preston, II, 23r. Bacon, Everett J., III, 258. Bacon , Henry, II, 43. Bahia Honda, I, 18, 426. Bahia Honda Bridge, I, 70. Bahia Honda Channel, I 17. Baile, J. C., I, 417. ' Bailey, Edward B., III, 156. Bailey, Effingham W., II, 255. Bailey, ]. C., I, 6o. Baker, James M. (illustration), I, 145; II, 34. Baker, John D. , II, 112. Baker, Robert C., III, 132. Baker, William H., II, 34. Baker County, I, 590. Baldwin, Abel S., I, 219. Balfe, John ]., II, 85. Balmori, Louis, II, 305. Baltzell, Nicholas A., III 267. Bananas (illustration), I: 558. Bank of Bay Biscayne, I, 408. Bank of Florida, I, l 14. Bank of Pennsylvania, I, 295. Banks, I, II4, 127, 295, 322, 337, 338, 356, 358, 37.5, 4o8, 417, 429, 435, 441, 459, 461, 462, 463, 483, 497, 5o6, 528, 533, 537, 541, 552, 554 , 56o, 577, 579, 588, 589, 593, 595, 598, 604, 6o6, 607, 009, 6ro. Baptists, I, 298, 300, 316, 342, 414, 458, 461, 467, 533. Bar, the, I, 215. Barbe, John S., III, 372. Barbe, Minnie K, III, 372. Barberville, I, 469. Barco, Samuel J., II, l6o. Barnard, James C., II, 2-10. Barnes, Benjamin F., II, 25r. Barnes, Charles E., III, 91. Barnes, Charles W., II, 296. Barnes, Jim, I, 469. Barnett, William S., II, 42. Barnett National Bank, Jacksonville, I, 295. Barrancas, I, 27. Barrett, Edward K., II, 90. Barritt, William J., II, 149 Barrow, George W., II, 207. Barry, Patrick, I, 519; II, 333. Bartholomew, Harvey C., III, 75. Bartnett, Peter E., II, 216. Barto, E. H., II, 204. Barton, John T., II, 225. Bartow, county seat of Polk County I 449 46o; public utilities, 461; city 461; banks, 461; schools, 461 ; churches, 461 ; library, 46r. Baskin, James G., III, 272. Bassett, George W., Jr., III, 286. Bates, James E., II, 40. Battle of New Orleans, I, 528. Battle of Okechobee, I, 48. Baughman, G. Norman, II, 191. Baxter, Maxwell, II, 165. Bay County, I, 579. Bay of Florida, I, 17. Bay Port, I, 595. Bay Street and Main, Jacksonville (illustra-tion), I, 3o6. Bays, I, 17. Bazile, R., I, 441 Beacham, Braxton, III, II2. Beall, Philip D., III, 66. Bean, Lorenzo L., III, 358. Beans (illustration), I, 548. Beard, John, I, 122. Beard, John S., III, 52. Beardall, Harold M., III, 162. Beardall, William, III, i;6. Bebinger, E. W., II, 153. Beckham, Joseph ]., II, 58. Beckwith, John P., I, 72; II, 39. Beecher. Gertrude C., III, 365. Bee-keepers, I, 9r. Bee Line Highway, I, 573. Bee Ridge, I, 598. Beekman, John C., III, 187. Beeman, Harry L., III, l ro. Bell, I, 502. Bell, Norman C., III, IO. Bell, William Z., I, 182. Bell Found in Lake in Madison County (illustration),'I, 587. Bella Vista, I, 477. Bellair Road, I, 529. Bellamy, Abraham, I, 267. Belote, Willlam P., II, 84. Belser, Theodore L., III, u6. Bender, Joseph E., III, 6r. Bennett, Arthur C., III, 46. Bennett, W. M., II, 156. Benton, George H., II, l 39. Bermont, I, 599. Berry, Daniel W., III, 6o. Berry, William T., II, 189. Bethune, Mary M., III, 37r. Bevis, Ted J., III, 38. Bidaman, Edwin ]., III, .J28. Big Cypress Swamp, I, 16. Big Pine Key, I, 17. Biggers, L. Garland, II, 2or. Biggs, Earle L., III, 26. Bigler, Barton B., III, 284. Billman, D. E., III, 178. Billy Bowlegs War, I, 318. Bimini drainage project, I, 613. Binkley, Almon C., III, 59. Bird, John U., III, 189. Bird, Thomas B., III, 152. Bird reservations, I, 22. Birds, I, 22. Bisbee, Frank D., II, 122. Bisbee, William A., II, l2I. Biscayne Bay, I, 12, .17, 416, 426 . Biscayne Bay Company, I, 395, 401. Biscayne Bay Front at Miami (illustration), I, 393. Biscayne Hotel, I, 404. "Bivouac of the Dead," I , 378. Blackburn, Benjamin L., II, II4. Blackwater river, I, 7, 574.

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INDEX Xlll Blackwell, Jacob B., III, 135. Blackwe ll, J ohn L., III, 228. Blalock, Alonzo L., II, 279 . Blandford, Freeman W., II, 238. Blan t on, Kelsey, III, 301. B lin ck, J ea n R. V. J., III, 80. Blind, problems in educa tin g, I, 247. Blitch, I. S., I, 250. Blomgren, A u g u st R., III, IOI. B l omq ui st, J oh n J., III, 318. Bloom, Lynn W., III, l5r. B l o unt , Braxton B., III, 297. Blount, George L., II, 167. B l ount, J. DeVotie, II, 167. Blount, William H., II, 167. Blount Brothers, II, 167. Blountstown, I, 582. B loxham, William D., I, 160; second term, 171. Blue Springs, I, 8, 470, 547, 573. Bl u e Springs, Mario n Count y (illustration), I, 542. Board of Bond Trustees, Jac k sonville, I, 278. Board of Comm i ssio n e r s of State Institutions, I, 167, 174 Board of Fire Co mmi ss i o n ers, J ac ksonville, I, 275. Board of Health, State, created, I, J 65. Boards of health, I, 218, 374. 13oard of Immi gration, I, 166. Board of Internal Improvements, I , 123. Board of Port Co mmi ss i o n e rs, Jacksonville, I, 287; Tampa, 332 . Board of Trade, Orlando, I, 441 ; Tampa, III, 93. Board of Trustees for Water Works a nd Im-provement Bonds, J ac k so nville, I , 283. Boardman, Paul R., III, u6. Bobst, Merwin S., II, l 54. Boca Grand, I , 6o2. Bolick, Clinton, III, 290. Bond, Benjamin J., III, 31 r. Bonded debt, reduced, I, 175 Boney, David W., I, 450. Bonifay, I, 577. Bonita Springs, I, 6o4. Boone, John T., II, 9r. Booth, Frank J., III, 189. Booze r , Rufus T., II, 33r. Bostrom, J o hn A., II, 26. Bos twick , Charles E., III, 219. Boswell, C l are.nee A., II, 3 10. Botts, Fred, II, 162. Boulden, Geo r ge W., II, 321. Boundary dispute, I , 127. Bouton, Fletcher P., III, 16. Bow d en, Basil 0., II, 343. Bowden, Ri chard F., II, 43. Bowen, Frederick J., III, l,72. Bowers, Percival R., II, lg8 . Boyd, William F., II, 227. Boyer, Cha un cey A., II, 212. Boykin, Edgar H., III, 217. Boylan Home and Indust ri a l Training School for Co l o r ed Girls, I , 302. Boy nt on, I, 67, 73, 49r. Boy nt on, Lennard 0., III, 317. Boynton, Sadie M . , III, 186 . Boynton, .William J., III, 186. , Brackenridge, Henry M., I, 206. Bradentown, incorporated, " I, 553; banks, 554; newspapers, 554; schools, 554 . Bradford, County, I , 590. Bradley, George L., I, 74. Brady H o tel, Jacksonville, I, 263. Braman, J ohn 0., III, 348. Brammar, Samuel, III, 330. Brandon, William S., III, 243. Branford, I , 560. Brannon, Henry C., II, 179 Brant, Jack, III, 36. Brantley, James F., II, 323. Breakers Hotel, I, 495. Brent Bank, Pensacola, 1, 3t:o. Brevard, Caroline M., Ill, I'4L Brevard, Ephraim M., III, 140. Brevard, Theo. VI/., I, 143 Brevard County, I , 6o7. Brewer, George R., II, 24. Brickell, William, I , 397. Bridges, I, 70, 293. Briggs, Josep h B., II, 324. Bright, C. W., I, 417. Bright, James H., I, 417. Brinson, J o hn B., Jr., III, 1 5 7 , Bristol, I , 583. Britt, Morgan C., II, 214. Britt, William F., III, 312. Brock, Frank J., II, 72. Brodie, Rob e rt, III, 9r. Brokaw, Wilford H., III, ro5. Brook, A. H., II, 248. Brooker, H enry, II, 135 Brooksville, I , 595 (illustrations), 594 . Broome, James E., I , 126. Brorein, William G., II, 10. Bross, Julius, III, 317. Bross, J. & Company, III, 317. Broward, Napoleon B., I, 177, 179, 6o4. Broward County, I , 6o4. Brown, A. V., III, 67. Brown, Charles H., II, .176. Brown, C. M., III, 170. Brown, Frank, II, II5. Brown, Freel W., II, 137 Brown, George W., II, 250. Brown, Grace, III, 253. Brown, Henry C., III, 253. Brown, Lew B., III, 36r. Brown, Richard A., III, 194 Brown, Tho mas, I , 122. Brown, Vet L., II, 306. "B r own's H ote l ," I , 422. Browne, Fielding A., I, 422. Frank S., II, 152. Browne, J effe rson B., I , 215. Bruce, Frederick W., II, 1 2 4 . Bruce Dry Docks, I, 387. Bryan, Nathan P., I, •179 Bryan, Paul C., III, 36. Bryan, Tom M., III, 76. Bryant, Thomas W., III, 146. Bryant Oak, near Jackso nvill e (illustration), I, 259. Buckman Act, I , 231, 24r. Buckman law , I, 175 Buckmaster, Richard P., II, 228. Buena Vista, I , 401, 418. Buford, Rivers H., III, 155. Buhner, Alice, III, 335. Building permits , Tampa, I, 329. B ullock, H. Stanley, 'III, 33I. Bullock, Ralph G., II, 212. Bullock, Raymond B., III, 202. Bullock, Robert, illustration, I , 143; II, 318. Bullock, William S., II, 319. Bunker, E. W., III, 149. Bunnell, I , 613. Burdick, Lore n Z., III, 216. Bureau of Immigration, I, 160. Burgman, Charles F.', II, 5. Burket, J oh n F., III, 264.

PAGE 19

XIV INDEX Burleigh, Edward S., II, 287. Burnett, James F., III, 22. Burnett, James M., II, 226. Burton, W. C., II, 335. Burton, William L., III, 237. Burton-Swartz Cypress Co. of Florida, III, 236. Bushnell, I, 593. Butler, Goold T., II, II8. Butler, Robert, I, IIS. Calcareous Hammock Land, near Fort Myers (illustration), I, 6or. Caldwell, Stafford, II, n7. Calhoun, Edward N., II, 85. Calhoun County, I, II8, 58r. Call, George W., I, l6o. Call, Rhydon M., III, 245. Call, Richard K., I, 47, 56, IIO, IIS, illus tration, II6; 129, 226, 527. Call, Wilkinson, I, 100, 162. Cali's Old Mansion, Tallahassee (illustra-tion), I, •II]. Caloosahatchee Canal, I, 105, 107. Caloosahatchee River, I, 598, 6or. Camp Howard, I, 282. Camp Mitchell, I, 282. Campaign of 1916, I, 180. Campbell, Alexander D., III, 365. Campbell, Alexander R., II, 50. Campbell, Angus G., III, 48. Campbell, Calvin W., III, 4I. Campbell, Charles H., Jr., II, 3r. Campbell, Giles B., II, 283. Campbell, John T . , II, 340. Campbelltown, I, 573. Camphor farms, I, 534. Canal and railroad building, I, 162. Canal Point, I, 493. Canals, I, 56, 74, 103, 105; total length of main, 107. Cannon, Greene F., II, 189. Cape Canaveral, I, rn, 47i. Cape Romano, I, 6o4. Cape Sable, I, 419. Cape San Blas, I, IO. Cape St. George, I, 10. Cape St. George Lighthouse (illustration), I, 565. Capital, location of, I, III. Capitol of Florida, Tallahassee, I, I. Capitol, corner stone laid, I, II3; new, .167. Capitol grounds, I, 526. Captiva Island, I, 6o2. Caraballo, Martin, II, 144. Carbonell, Juan, II, 29I. Caribbean hurricanes, I, 69. Carleton, George A., II, 30. Carlton, Albert, II, 299. Carlton, Carl S., II, 300. Carlton, Martha W., II, 300. Carmichael, Murray D . , II, 214. Carr, C. C., III, 99. Carroll, Frank X., III, SI. Carson, Joseph W., II, 352. Carson, Munsey B., II, 352. Carson Brothers, II, 352. Carswell, Raymond H., II, 236. Carter, Charles R., III, 139 Carter, E. Ben, I, 68. Carter, Edward F., II, 39. Carter, Henry B., II, 275. Carter, Jerry W., III, 238. Carter, Paul, III, 86. Carter, R. W., I, 6g. Caruthers, Thomas J., II, mo. Caruzo, Gonzalo M., I, 509. Caryville, I, 579. Cash, William T., III, 199 Casino, The, I, 6I. Cason, John R., Jr., III, 79. Cassels, James E., III, 88. Catlin, George, I, 376. Cattle (illustration), I, SOI. Cattle industry, growth of, I, 90. Cattle Raisers' Association of Florida, I, 97. Catts, Sidney ]., I, lBo; III, 98. Catts, Sidney ]., Jr., II, 225. Caverns, I, 8. Caxambas, I, 6o4. Cayocosta Island, I, 6o2. Cedar and Bay Streets, 1870-1880, Jacksonville (illustration), I, 269. Cedar Key, I, 592. Celery Avenue, Sanford, I, 536. Celery City, Sanford, I, 536. Census figures, I, 85. Central Avenue, St. Petersburg (illustrations), I, 35. Central Bank of Tallahassee, I, l 14. Central Florida, natural features of, I, 6; Indian reservation in, II2; opening of lands, II4. Central Florida Poultry and Pet Stock As-sociation, I, 447. Central National Bank, St. Petersburg, I, 356. Cerro Gordo, I, 578. Chafin, William T., III, 300. Chaires, Benjamin, I, 267. Chaires, McQueen, III, 25. Chamber of Commerce, Jacksonville, I, 295; Miami, 412; Pensacola, 385; St. Petersburg, 353. Chancellor, T. A., II, 294. Chancey, R. E. L., II, 46. Chapman High School, Apalachicola (illus-tration), I, 564. Charitable Institutions, I, 250. Charles, James B., II, 105. Charlotte Harbor, I, 598, 6or. Charlotte Harbor (town), I, 599. Charlotte County, I , 597. Chase, Beulah C., III, 3 16. Chase, Charles T., I, 156. Chase, J. C., I, 536. Chase, John F., III, 316. Chase, Lena M., III, 316. Chase, Sydney 0., I, 536; II, 327. Chase, William H., I, 140, 378. Chase & Company, I, 536. Chattahoochee, I, 563. Chattahoochee River, I, 569. Chautauqua Assembly, I, 483. Chavous, William P., III, 270. Cheek, Bert G., II, 138. Cheney, Donald A., III, 276. Cheney, John M., III, 276. Cheney, Joseph Y., II, 228. Cherbino, Jerome, III, 4I. Cherokee Lake, I, 437. Chester, Peter, I, 366. Chief executives, Jacksonville, I, 290. Chief justice, first, I, 210. Chief justices, 1845, 1905, I, 2u ; 1905-22, 215. Chiles, Joseph H., III, 104. Chillingworth, Curtis E., III, 84. Chipley, I, 579. Chipley, William D., I, 38o. Chipola Lake, I, 58i. Chipola River, I, 569, 58r. Chiselbrook, Fred, III, 234.

PAGE 20

INDEX xv 'Choctawhatc\1ee National Forest, r, 2r, 575. Choctawhatchee River, I, 7. C hri stia n s (Disciples of Christ), I, 300, 415, 458, 4 6 r. Christian S ci entists, I, 300, 458 . Christy, H. Howard, I , 385. Chubb, Henry S., II, I85. Chubb, Leland M., II, , I85 . Chuluota, I, 73, 537. Churches, Jacksonville, I, 297, 342, 350, 358, 414, 425, 436, 458, 46I, 4 67, 483, 497, 505, 5I9, 533, 537, 567, 606, 6o9, 6II, 647. Cigars, manufacture of, I, 329, 424 . Circuit courts, I, 2I5. Circuit judges, I, 210. Citizens-American Bank a nd Trust Compa ny , Tampa, I, 322, 338. Citizens Bank, Homestead, I, 4r7. Citizens Bank and Trus t Company, Tampa, I, 322, 338. Citizens Memorial Committee of J ackso n v ille , I, I84. Citizens National Bank of Pensacola, I , 380. City Commission, Jacksonvi lle, I, 284, 290 . , City Commission, Tampa, I , 335. City Gates, St. Augustine (i llu st rati on), I, 522. City Hall, Jacksonville (illustration), I, 268. City Pumping Station, Apalachicola (illustra-tion), I, 564. Citronelle, I, 592. Citrus Co. unty, I , I64, 592. Citrus Culture in Orange Count y ( illustration), I, 445. Citrus Grove (illustration), I, 558. Citrus industri es, I, 85, 340, 440, 446, 45I, 465, 480. Civil and criminal codes, c han ges in, I, 212. Civil and military authority, clash between, I, ISL Civil Se rvice Commission, Miami, I, 408. Civil war, I, I32, 377, SI8. Clarendon Hotel, I, 482. Clark, Charles A., II, 92. Clark, Frank, II, 162. Clark, Frank, Jr., II, 162. Clark, Harold L., II, 246. Clark, Henry L., II, I46 . Clark, John D., III, 336. Clark, William W., II, 328. Clarke, L. Phillips, II, 209. Clarke, Scott D . , III. 2or. . Clarkson, Theodore H., III, 168. Clash between Civil and Military authority, I, ISL Clay County, I , 612. Clearwater, location, I, 357; library, 358; schools, 358; churches, 358; newspapers, 358; banks, 3 58; h ospital, 358. Clearwater Bay, winter sports (il lu st r ation), I, 358 . Clearwater Country Club, Golf C lubh o use (illustration), I, 357. Cleary, A. ]., II, 132. C lement , J., I, 441. Clermont, I, 610. Cleveland, I, 599. Climate, I, 83, 295. Clinch, Duncan L., I , 40, 47. Clubs, Tampa, I, 342; St. Petersburg, 356; Orlando, 440 ; Lake land , 460; Sarasota, 598. Clyde Line, I , 294. Coal piers , Pensacola, I , 387. Coastal Plain, I, 6. Cobb, Randolph H., III, 97. Cobb, William D., II, 347. Coc hran, Samuel D., II, I34 Cochrane, Thomas E., I, 222. Cocoa (town), I, 608. Coconut Grove, incorporated as v illa ge, I , 416; bird sa nctuary , 417. Coconut Palm in Bearing, and Coco nut Palm Walk (illustration), I, 406. Cocowitch, J obn F., Ill, 235. Cody, I, 585. Coe, C. S., I , 68. Cohen, Jacob E., III, I7I. Cold waves, I, 169. Coldwater River , I, 574. Coke r , Andrew B., Il, 299. Cole, Henry H., II, 46. Co l ee, Harold W., III, 67. Colee, Louis A., II, 97. Co leman, Abel T., II, 3II. College of Engineering, University o f Florida, I, 238. College of Law, University of Florida, I, 234 , 238. Co lle ge of Pensacola, I, 220. Co llins, Eugene M., III, 215. Collins, Paul F., III, 169. Collins, Ralph F., III, 169. Co llins, Robert L., II, Colonial Hotel, I, 67. Colonial House in Ocala (illustration), I , 545. Colored School, "Highwood," I, 166.\ Col o r ed vote, fight for, I, 152. Co l so n, Jam es H., III, 242. Columbia, I, 552. Columbia County, delegates to first co nv e ntion, I , I •l8; area, 549; forests, 549 ; agricultural s tatistics, 5 49; sixteenth county created, 550; cypress belt of northern Florida, 549; industries, 549; railroads, 550. Comer, Thomas L., III, 331. Commerce, I, 82, 330. Commission form of gove rnment, first int ro duced, I , 178; St. Petersburg, 353; Miami, 407; St. Augustine, 523; Tallahassee, 528. Commission of Fisheries, I , 166. Com mi ssioner of Agriculture, I , 174 Common school system, I, 22r. Community Forum, Daytona, I , 483. Cone, Daniel N., III, 1 9!. Cone, John W., II, 45. Confede racy , Florida und er the, I , 130; councils of the , I, I44. Confederate Congress, l as t s urvivor of, I , 145. Conflagrations, Jackso nville , I, 205 . Congregatio nalists, I, 300, 342, 350, 442, 4 61. Congressional contests, I, r6o. Congressio nal election, first, I, II3. Co n gressiona l representatives, s inc e 182r , I , 202. Conklin, Jesse I., II, 171. Conover, Simon B., I , I57 Conradi, Edward, III, I59. Co nstituti on, first, I, II 8. Const ituti o n of 1868, I, 153, 212. Constitution of I885, I, I64, 215, 218. Constitutional Conv e ntion , first, I, n6, II8. Co nstitutional Convention of 1865 I, 148. Constitutional Convention of r88s, I , rf2. Cont inental Hote l , Atlantic Beach, I, 68. Convicts, improvement in treatment of, I , 174. Conway, I , 444. Cook, Andrew K., III, 4. Cook, Bayard S., III, 17. Cook, H . M:. II, I IO. Cook, John H., III, 269. Cookman Institute, I , 302. Cooper, Charles M., II, l 16.

PAGE 21

XVl INDEX Coquina rock, I, 18. Cora l reefs, I, 2, 12, 18. Cordes, Henry B., II, 325. Cordes, Henry B., Jr., II, 325. Cordova Hotel, I, 62. Corn Field in Northern Florida (illustra-tion), I, 88. Corne lius; George H., II, 47. Cornell, Harold E., III, JSI. Coronado , I, 481. Corwin, Henry B., II, 215. Corwin, Samuel C., III, 255. Coryell, I., I, 74. Cotton, Ernst, I, 69. Cotton fields, Miami, I, 392. Cotton port, Apalachicola, I, 565. Cottondale, I, 573. Cottrell, Eugene L., III, 22. Council, Jesse F., III, 1 I. Counties, formation of new, 1824, I, l 13. County Agricultural School Farm, Largo, I, 359. County courts, I, 215. Court House, Palm Beach (illustration), I, 492. Courts, first, criminal, I , 109, 215; first at Jacksonville, 267. Cow Ford, I, 260, 263. Coxe, Granville D., II, 79. Coxwell, Thomas L., II, 273. Craig, Augustus H., II, So. Craig, William B., III, 334. Cralle, Ray B., II, 127. Crane, H. L., I, 316. Cranford, James F., II, 15. Crawford, H. Clay, I, 161; III, 3. Crawford, John L., I, 154. l6T. Crawford, John T. G., II, 75. Crawfordville, I, 584. Creekmore, George R., II, 350. Creel, Robert W., III, 173 Crescent City, orange groves, I, Crescent Lake, I, 613. Crestview, I, 575. Crocodiles, I, 33. Croom, Hardy, III, 92.-Crops, value of all, 1920, I , 85. Cros by, Carl, II, 48. Crosby Lake, I, 59r. Cross City, I, 589. Cross State Highway, I, 492, 496. Crystal River, I, 8, 592. Crystal River (town), I , 592. Crystal River Springs, I, 8. Cuban revolutionists, activities of, I , 382. Ci1bberly, Fred, I, 42; III, 234. Cucumbers (illustration). I, 548 . Culpepper, Cincinnatus T., III, 14. Culpepper, John 0., III, 198. t Cumberland Island, I, 540. Cumberland Sound, I, 539. Cunningham, Ernest G . , III, 19I. Cunningham, Phillip V., III, 17. Currie, George G., II, 215. Curry, Charles R., II, 303. Curry, Roland, II, 292. Curtis, Charles S., III, 214. Curtis, Paul A., III, 173 Curtiss, Glenn, I, 417. Curtiss-Bright live stock ranch, I , 417 . Cushman, C. E., II, 133. Customs receipts, Tampa, I, 329. Customs reports, Jacksonville, 1921, I, 289. Cypress, I, 549, 573. Cypress • belt, I, 549 . Cypress swamps, South e rn Florida, I, 16. Dacie, Francis L., I, 44 , 313 , 399 , 4 2 5 . Dacie battle ground, I, 47 . Dacie County, delegat e s to fir s t c o nventi o n , I, l 18; original county, 397 ; Perrine Grant, 399; development of, 400; populati o n , 400 ; schools, 4113; bird reservation , 417; indus tries, 417. Dacie Ins titute, I , 220. Dacie Massacre, I, 42, u6, 313 . Dacie Massacre Memorial Monument (illu s-tration), I, 43. cl'Arriola, Andres, I, 363. Dairy Herd (illustrati on), I, 5 58. Dairy Herd and Silos (illustr ation), J , 5 56. Dairy industry, I , go. Dairy Scene (illustration), I, 5 46. Dania, I, 67, 73, 605. Daniel, J. J . , I, 28 2 . Daniel, William J., III, 2 68 . Dann, Herman A., III, 1 27. Dart. Ernest, II, 83. Davenport, I, 463. David, Salem K., II, 274. Davidson, James L., III, 213. Davis, Arthur W., Ill, 34. Davis. Calvin W., II, lJ. Davis, Edwin C., II, 213 . Davis, Edwin W., III, 105. Davis, Ernest F., III, 128. Davis, Frank S., II, I 55. Davis. Freel H., II, 7. Davis, James A., III, 143. Davis, James E., III, 141. Davis, Jefferson, I, lJJ, 166. Davis, Joseph S., III, lJO. Davis, Julius C., Jr., III, 209. Davis, Phil J., III, 54. Davis, Robert L. , III, 262 . Davis, Robert W . , III, 32. Davis, William B., III, 24. Davis, Vv. M. G., I, 142 . Davis pirates, I, 510. Davison, Joseph A., III, 289. Dayton , Orville L., II, 345. Daytona, p o pulati o n , I, 482; banks, 483; n e w s papers, 483; s chool s and churc h es , 483; clubs, 483. Daytona Beach , I, 482. Daytona-Halifax Journal, I, 483. Daytona Educational and Indus trial Train ing School for Negro Girl s , I, 483. Daytona Normal and Indus trial In stitute , III, 37!. Deadman ' s Bay, I, 587. Dean, Russell H., II, 102. DeCottes, George A., III, 239. Deep water channel, I, 67. Deerfield, I, 67 , 73, 6o5. DeFuniak Springs, population , I, 576; school s , 576; newspaper s , bank s , 577. de Herreda, Alonzo H . , I , 512 . DeLand, H. A., I , 466, 484. DeLand, county seat of Volusia county , I , 466; "City of Oaks," 466; founder o f city and university , 466; schools, 467; 1 ibrary , 467; hospital, 467; churches, 467; clubs , 467; hotels, 468; park c o mmi ss i o n , 4 68; •brick roads, 46g. DeLand Academy, I, 222. DeLand Commercial Club (illu s trati o n ) , I , 468. Delavan, Fred M., II, 241. DeLeon Springs, I, 469. Dell, James M., II, 29. Dell's Bluff, I, 263. Delray, I, 67, 73, 491, 499.

PAGE 22

INDEX XVll Demens, P. A., I, 349. Demeritt, William W., II, 305. Democrats in power, I, 162. de Monteano, Manuel, I, 511. de Narvez, Panfillo, I, 3II. Denaud, Pierre, I, 6o2. Dennis, Nicholas L., II, 343. Denny, John W., I, 74. Denominational educational institutions, Jack-sonville, I, 302. Desassure, E. C., I, 182. DeShong, L. Henry, III, 120. de Soto, Hernando, I, 25, 312, 361, 543. DeSoto County, created, I, 164; formed, 556; railroads, 556; created, 597. DeSoto Map of Florida, I, 5. DeSoto Park, I, 344. Dettre, Rexford H., I, 182. Detwiler, John Y., I, 472. De Vane, Augustus H., III, 146. De Vane, Edward J., III, 354. De Vane, Frank E., III, 87. Dew, Roy L., III, 127. Dewhurst, William W., II, 254. Diaz, Julian, II, 174. Dickens, George W., II, 234. Dickenson, Edwin R., II, 93. Dickerson, L. B., III, 188. Dickie, Laurance P., III, 93. Dickson, Henry H., III, 104. Dillard, James L., II, 197. Dillingham, V. P., III, 62. Dimick, Elisha N., II, 200. Dimick, Ella J., II, 200. Dipping and Scraping Pine Trees (illustra-tion), I, 92. Disston, Hamilton, I, 161. Distinguished Service Cross Men, I, 182. District judges, I, 209. Division of the territory, I, II6. Dixie County, I, 589. Dixie Highway, at Miami City Limits (illustration), I, 4n, 437, 455, 461, 481, 4g6, 529, 537, 546, 556, 595, 598, 606, 6o9, 61 I. Dixon, E. Allen, III, 6g. Docks and terminals, Jackilonville, I, 286. Dodd, Herbert L., II, 329. Doggett, John L., I, 267; II, 314. Donathan, C. R., II, 231. Donathan Building Company, II, 231. Donnelly, John P., III, 366. Donovan, Theodore E., III, 255. Dorgan, Dexter P., III, 363. Dorman, John F., III, 145. Dorn, John, III, 33. Dot Lake, I, 437. Douglas, Thomas, first chief justice, I, 210. Douglass, Elisha A., III, 164. Downing, W. W., III, 70. Down ng Park, I, 56o. Dozier, Henry C., III, 348. Drainage, I, 84. Drainage administration, I, 177. Drainage and reclamation work, I, 13, 98. Drainage canals, I, 107, 480. Drainage of everglades, I, 15. Drainage Work (illustration), I, 1o6. Drake, Sir Francis, Siege by (illustration), I, 26. Drake, Gaston, I, 417. Drane, Herbert J., II, 303. Drayton, William, I, 478, 513. Dreggors, Harry R., II, 346. Dreka, George A., II, 32. Drew, Benjamin, III, Sg. Drew, Columbus, Sr., I, 270; II, 37. Drew, Columbus, Jr., II, 120. Drew, George F., I, 1fo; III, 323. Drew, George L., III, 305. Drew, Horace R., II, 38. Drew, William L., II, 297. Drew Press, I, 270. Driscoll, Almeda E., II, 257. Driscoll, Willis E., II, 257. Drives ' by Water's Edge (illustration), I, 6oo. Dry Tortugas, I, 133, 171. DuBose, John W., 11, 39. Duckworth, Eugene G., III, roo. Dudley, Edward H., II, 364. Duncan, William E., II, 52. Dunedin, I, 359. Dunes of Southern Florida, I, 14. Dunkle, David F., II, 205. Dunn, Charles B., III, 138. Dunn, Joseph R., II, II2. Dunn, William S., III, 39. Dupont, Charles, I, 212. Durkee, Jay H., III, 254 . Durkee, Joseph H., III, 253. Durrance, Augustus L., III, 343. Durrance, Charles M., II, 59. Durrance, Selser W., II, 147. Duval, John P., II, 78. Duval, William P., I, 38, 109 (illustration). IIO, II5, 220, 268, 373. Duval County, created, I, 1 IO; delegates to first convention, l 18; first county court, 267; jail, 268; schools, 300; one of four original Florida counties, 309; area, 309; population, 309; soils, 309; agricultural products, 309; 'beauty spots (illustrations), 310. Duval County Medical Society, I, 219. Dyal, Clayborne D., II, 27. Dyer, W. H., II, 177. Dyke, J. W., III, 78. Earman, Joe L., II, l 94. Eastern coast, pinelands of, I, 13. East Coast Bank and Trust Company, Daytona Beach, I, 483. East Coast Railway, I, 71, 535. East Florida, I, 28, 109; first governor of, 28. East Florida Seminary, I, 226, 229, 230. East Tampa, I, 327, 328. Eaton, E. L., III, 29. Eaton, John H., I, HS. Eaton, Oscar M., III, 11. Eaton, Robert L., III, 312. Econfena River, I, 588. Education, prior to the Civil War, I, 220; from 1884-1905, 221; industrial, 222; state superintendents of public, 222; men devoted to cause of, 222; establishment of public schools, 223 ; present system, 223 ; school tax, 223 ; compulsory school attendance, 224; vocational, 224; status of public school system. 225; school population, 225; taxation, 225; school fund receipts and sources, 226; normal schools, 230; vocational, 235; mixed public school a failure, 274; denom inational institutions, Jacksonville, 302. Educational system, public, I, 122, 274. Edwards, Arthur B., II, 301. Edwards, John S., III, 193. Egan Grant in 1808, I, 392. Eiselstein Brothers, II, 36o. Eiselstein, Dana P., II, 36o. Eiselstein, William D., II, 36o. Eissfeldt, Theodore, III, 187. Elarbee, Thomas W., II, . 127.

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xviii INDEX Electric lighting plants, Jacksonville, I, 282. Electric Railway, Tampa, I, 336. Elks House, Tallahassee, I, 528. Ellaville, I, 587. Ellerton, I, 555. El\iot, Fred C., I, 98; III, 108. Ellis, A. Cary, III, 65. Ellis, Robert N., I, 278; II, 33. Ellis, Robert N., Jr., II, 34. Ellis, William H., I, 2I5; III, 160. Ely, Robert L., II, 359. Endicott, James M., III, I43 English, Hugh S., II, 263. English, William F., I , 394. English land grants, I, 26o. English occupation, I, 475, 477. English West Florida, capital of, I , 366. Enterprise Junction, I, 470. Eola Lake, I, 437. Epidemics, Jacksonville, I, 276, 28r. Eplscopalians, I, 298, 300, 342 , 425, 458, 46I, 520, 533. Epperson, William J., III, 284. Erosion by Spray, Key Vaca (illustration), I, 420. Escambia County, I, 109, IJ8. Escambia River, I, 7. Espiritu Santo Bay, I, 25, 3rr. Espiritu Santo Springs, I, 359. Estero Island, I, 6o2. Estero Springs, I , 6o4. Estes, Verner W., II, 229. Eustis, I, 610. Eustis-Dora Canal (illustration), I , 6II. Eustis ."Water, Light & Power Company, I, 6Ir. Evans, Charles H., III, 361. Evans, Charles R., III, 300. Evans, Edward L., III, 353. Evans, William A., II, Sr. Everglade, I, 6o4. Everglades, I, 6, 8, II, I3; ongm of, IS; drainage of, IS; preliminary survey, 68; drainage scheme, 84; reclamation of, 99; description of, IOO; soil, IOO; drainage plan, 103; waters which affect, 103; land surveys, Io6; soil, Io6; founder of drainage, I75-Everglades Drainage District, I, 98; map, 104 ; created, I 76. Everglades Experiment Station, I, 493. Exchange National Bank , Tampa, I, 322, 338. Exports, I921, Jacksonville , I, 295. Fairbanks, George R., II, 36. "Faith bonds," I, rr8. Falligant, Robert, II, I69. Farm property, value of, I, 85. Farmers Union of Florida, I, 97. Farris, Ion L., II, I09. Fariss, Fred P., III, I54 Faulkner, N&ris A., III, 181. Federal appointments, first, I, 207. Federal Building, Fernandina ( illu stration), I, 540. Federal Inter-Departmental Hygie ne Board, I, 238. Federation of Women's Clubs, I, 180. Felkel, Herbert, II, 88. Fender, Isaac 0., II, 336. Fennell, J. Morgan, II, 31. Fenno, Fred E., III, 93. Ferlita, Castenzio, II, 235. Fernandina, incorporated, I, 113; harbor at, 539; first settlements, 539; occ upied by U. S. Troops, l8I2, 539; harbor improv e d , 540; population of present city, 540; 111-dustries, 54i ; banks, 54I; newspapers, 541. Fessenden, Catherine D., II, . 16r. Fessenden, J ohn H., II, l6J. Filer, Davoult Z., III, 338. Filibustering expeditions to Cuba, I, I70. Filor, James, I , 422. Finances of state sta • bilized, I, I68; improve ment of, 175 Financial and commercial statistic , Jackson-ville, I, 294. Finegan, Joseph, I, l4I. Fink, H. George, II, 79. Finlayson, William D., III, 23. Finley, Jesse ]., I, 142. Finney, Otis W., II, 294. Fires, St. Augustine, I, 522. First Baptist Church, Jacksonville, II, 258. First inhabitants, I, 2. First National Bank, I, 497. First National Bank, Daytona, I, 483. First National Bank, Gainesville, I, 506. First National Bank of Key West, I, 429. First National Bank, Miami, I, 409. First National Bank of Pensacola, I, 380. First National Bank, St. Petersburg, I, 356 . First National Bank of Tampa, I, 322, 338. First Savings & Trust Compa ny, Tampa, J , 337. First Seminole war, I, 29, 33. First Trust and Savings Bank, Miami, I, 409. First State Bank of Fort Meade, I, 46r. Fish, Cary B., III, 35r. Fish and oyster industr y, I, 93, 592. Fisher, Charles M., I, 414 . Fisher, Leslie C., II, 24. Fisheries, I, I66. Fisheries convention, I, 173. Fishing grounds, Miami center of, I, 416. Fitton, Robert N., III, 36. Fitz, Max A. H., III, I44 Fitzpatrick, R. R., I , 392. Flagler, Henry M., I, 60, 62, 71, 74; 178, 39(5, 397, 401, 404, 43I, 464, 49I, 495, 497, 519, 52I, 535. Flagler County, Flagle r Hospital, St. Augustine, I, 519. Flagler hotels, I, 6I, 63. Flagler Street, Miami (illustration), I, 402. Flagler system, I, 72, 465 . Flanagan, E. C., III, II. Fleming, Francis P., I, 165. Fleming's Island, I , 6I3. Fletcher, Duncan U., I, 179. Floating islands, I, 588. Florence Villa, I, 454. Florida, birth of, I, l; geology, l; first hu man inhabitants, 2; primitive races, 3; geography, 5; geology of the keys and southern end of, 6; trees, 21 ; area, 21 map of, publi s hed 1584, 25; as an ican territory, 38; prior to secession, ro8; first governor of, •lo8; admitted into the Union, l 18; military force, I21; under the 130; under military rule, I37; contnbut10n to Confederate cause, 137; from 1865 to 1885, 148; fully restored to the union, 154; finances stabilized, 169; quota in Spanish-American war, I72 in World's Wa. r, 181; foundation of state, 2o6; bar of, 215; revised statutes, 215; divided into judicial circuits, 210; first governor, 268; prehistoric and historic relics, 479; first territorial delegate of, 5 r 8 capital of, 525; first Masonic l odge in'. 58o.

PAGE 24

' INDEX xix Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, I, 222, 234 , 246, 527. Florida Agri cultura l College, I, 222, 228, 230. Florida Agri.cultural. Experiment Station, I, 230, 235, (illustration), 236. Florida, Atlanti c & Gulf Centra l Railroad, I , 56. Florida, Atlantic & Gulf Centra l R. R. Company, I, 127. Florida Bank and Trust Co mp any, I, 506. Florida Central Compa ny, I, 58. F l orida Central & Peninsular R a ilr oad I 57. Florida Citrus Exchange, I, 340. ' ' Florida Coast Line Canal a nd Transportation Compa n y, I, 74, 162. Florida Cross-S t a t e Ca n a l project, I, 75. Florida Dairy Association, I, 97. Florida Educational Society, I, I I4, 220. Florida East Coast Cana l , I, 74. Florida East Coast Railroad, I, 57, 60, 72, 107, I 78, 403, 420, 4Jl, 465, 470, 489, 519. Fl6orida East Coast Railway Company, I, 63, 7. . Florida Farm Bureau, I, 97. Florida Federation of Woman's C lub s I 169 Florida Female Co ll ege, I, 2 4 r. ' ' Florida Keys, I , 16. F l orida Metropolis, I, 303. Florida Mi lit a r y a nd Naval Academy I, 612. Florida News, I, 303. ' Flor!da Rai_lroads, first, I, 56. Florida Railway & Navigation Co mpany I 58. . ' ' Florida Real Estate J ou rnal, I , 40. Flor!da Reef, I! I 7 ; sa lva ge from, 422. Florida Republican, first page (illustration) April 6, I854, I , 304. ' "Fl orida sa nd, " I, II. Flor!da Sanitarium, Formosa Station, I , 439. Florida School for the Deaf and Blind, I , 222, 247. Florida Sentinel, I, 303. Florida Southern Railroad, I, 59. Florida State Arsenal, I , 5I3. Florida State Automobile Association I, 437. F lor!da S tate Bar I, 2I6.' State Beekeepers' Association, I, 97. Florida State Canal Commission, I , 75. Florida State College for Women I 222 2JI! 241; Administration 'Bu'ildin g ( illu stration), .241; ground s and buildings, 2 42; sc h o larships, m e dals and l oa n funds 2 43; al.umnae association, 243; college gam zat10ns, 243; College of Arts and Sci ences, 244; School of Educ atio n and Normal School Organization, 244 School of Econom!cs, 244;' School' of Express i on Physical Education, 244; Sch oo l of Music, 244; D epartment of Business 245 ;, Extension Service, 245 ; off!c1 a ls, 2 4 5 ; student body, 245. State Fair and Exposition, I , 97. ' Flon.da State Farm, I, 250. Flor:da State Horticultural Society, I , 97. Florida State Hospital, C hattah oochee I 255 Florida Strait, I, 17. ' ' Florida s hip canal, I , I 16. Florida Unive r sity, I, 229. Flor!da Times-Union, I, 303. Florida & Alabama Railroad, I, 56. Flournoy, William W., III, 6. Floyd, C. B., III, 42. Fogarty, Bartholomew, III, 25r. Fogarty, Barth o l omew, Jr., III, 25r. Fogarty, Katherine, III, 25r. Folmer, James Q., III, 217. Folk, Edward H., II, 55. Folsom, Moses, II, 250. Forage, I, 90. Forbes, James G., I, S • IS. Forbes, John, I, 513, 520. Forbes, John F., I , 486. Ford, James A., II, 205. Forest City, I, 538. Forests, Manatee County, I, 553; Suwanee County, 559. F orsyth Street, Jacksonville (i llustration), I, 280. Fort Barrancas, I, 363, 377 (illustration), 372. Fort Brooke, I, 3I3; Tampa town displaces, 314. Fort Caroline, I, 26, 258, 472. Fort Clinch (illustration), I, 539. Fort Dade, I, 47. Fort Dallas, I, 50, 391, 394 (illustration), Fort Denaud, I, 6o2. Fort Gadsden, I , 34, 36. Fort George, I, 366. Fort Jackson, I, 29. Fort King, I, 43, 3I3. Fort Kissimmee, I, 609. Fort Lauderdale, I, 67, 73, 491 (illustrations), 603. Fort Marion, St. Augustine (i llustration), I, 26, 518, 52r. Fort Matanzas, I, 28. Fort McRae, I, 377. Fort Meade, o ld est settle d point in Polk county, I, 449, 461; bank, 461; n ewspape r, 46r. Foi;t Myers, population, I , 6oI; public utili ties , 604; schools, 6o4; library , 604; banks, 6o4; new s papers, 6o4. Fort Picke ns, I, 378. Fort Pierce, I, 606. Fort St. Nicholas, I, 259. Fort San Carlos, second settlement of Pen-saco la , I , 27, 29. Fort San Luis, I, 528. Fort San Marco, I, 27, 510, SIL Fort San Mateo, I, 258. Fort Taylor, I, 427. Fort Thompson, I, 6o2. Fort White, I , 552. Foster, J o hn G., I, 137 Fourteenth Amendment rejected I, ISL F ourth Florida Regiment , I , 318.' Fouts, John 'L., III, 192. Fowl, I, 9L Fowler, Geo r ge W., III, 75. Fowler, J a me s R., II, 2L Fraleigh, Albert E., III, I8. Fraleigh, Louis A., III, I9. Francis, Nel so n W., II, 35L Franklin County, I, n8. Fraternities, Jackso nville , I, 305; Tampa, 343; St.. Petersburg, 356; Orlando, 439. Frazi e r, Frank J., III, 82. Frazier, Josie E., III, 82. Freder!ck, E. S., III, 54. Frederick, J olm S., III 53. Free Public School I , 123, l 56. Freedmen's Bureau, I, I49 , IS6. Freeland, William L., II, I45. Freeman, H. J., II, I68. Freeman & Sons, II, 168. Freezes, o f 1835, I , 85, 435, 45I; of I894-95, 85, 401, 451; of October, I92I, 85. French Pillar o n St. J o hn s Bluff ( illustration), I, 3. Friend, Charles T., II, 232.

PAGE 25

xx INDEX Frierson, Taylor, III, 288. Fromme, Harry F., III, 288. Fromme, Harry F. & Co., III, 288. Frost, Martin C., II, 108. Frost, William E., II, 267. Frostproof, I, 463. Fruit and vegetable shipping points, I, 554. Fruit packing houses, I, 536. Fruits and berries in December (illustrations), I, 34!. Fruitland Park, I, 610. Fruitville, I, 598. Fry, John H., I, l6I. Fuel oil facilities, Pensacola, I, 388. Fugate, Harry C., II, 232. Fugitive slave law, I, l2J. Fullers earth, I, l, r8. Fuquay, Dana F., III, 222. Fussell, Vincent 0., II, 302. Futch, John A., III, 50. Futch, Truman G., II, 336. Gadsden, Christopher, I, ,13. Gadsden, James, I, n2, IIJ. Gadsden County, I, IIJ, n8; area, 561 ; products, 562; railroads, 562; soil, 562; schools, banks, newspapers, 562. Gainer, Benjamin F., III, 143. Gainesville, University seat, I, 226, 231; most central city, I, 502; schools, 503; churches, 505; newspapers, 505; industries, 505; banks, 506. Gale, William E., II, 221. Gallemore, James G., II, 324. Gamble, John G., I, n4, 226. Gamble, Robert H., I, 155-Game preserves, Tallahassee, I, 529. Gammage, Tom R., II, 162. Gandy, George S., II, 288. Garcia, Parsons M., II, 128. Gardner, John D., II, 140. Gardner, Miranda M., III, 288. Gardner, William P., III, 287. Garner, James F., III, 294. Garnett, R. B., II, n8. Garnett, Robert S., II,. n8. Garrard, Jacob A., II, 327. Garriga, James, III, 39. Garvin, Edgerton C., III, 128. Gary, Thomas W., III, 315. Gary, I, 327; population, 328. Gasparilla, Don Jose, I, 344. Gasparilla, I, 599. Gasparilla Carnival (Tampa), I, 344. Gasparilla Island, I, 6o2. Gates, Edward F., III, 329. Gates, Irvin, III, l6I. Geer, Harvey G., III, 37. Geiger, A. B., II, 25. General Federation of Woman's Clubs, I, 302. Geneva, I, 537. Genovar, Bartolo, II, 0177. Genovar, William P., II, 89. Geologic monsters of Florida waters (illustration), I, 2. Geology, I, l, 4; of the keys and southern end of Florida, 6. Georgia-Florida Boundary dispute, I, 127. Georgia Southern & Florida Railroad, I, 73. Gerow, Daniel T . , II, 68. Getzen, J. P . , III, 10. Gibbs, George C., III, 364. Gibson, Lee J., III, 324. Gilbert, Daniel H., III, 310. Gilbert, Elsie M., II, 134-Gilbert, Robert E., III, 206. Gilchrist, Albert W., I, 178. Giles, James L., III, 70. Giles, Samuel J., III, JOI. Gillespie, John H., II, 316. Gillett, Tod F., I, 183. Gillis, Daniel A., III, 48. Gillis, D. Stuart, II, 33. Girdlestone, Charles W., III, 194 Girvin, Ralph 0., III, 168. Givens, Morris M., II, 333. Glades County, I, 597, 599. Glass-making sand, Alapaha River, I, 588. Glass manufacture, I, 9(5. Glassbrenner, Fred L., I, 182. Glazier, Henry S., III, 242. Glenn, William M., III, 372. Glenwood, I, 469. Glover, George B., III. 146. Godard, Robert F., III, 195 Gold, Pleasant D., II, 30. Goldenberg, William B., II, 14. Goldwaite, George A., I, 182. Gonzalez, I, 37!. Gonzalez, Manuel, I, no. Gonzalez, Manuel S., III, 297. Good roads, I, 81; Polk county, 454; Volusia county, 469. Good roads movement, I, 436. Goode, Obe P., II, n9. Gorlov, Svend, II, 135 Gornto, John M., III, 230. Gorrie, John, father of artificial ice-making, I, 219. -Gorrie ice machine, I, 566. Gorrie Memorial Monument (illustration), I, 218. Goulds, I, 417. Government, first under State Constitution, I, 120. Government Bureau of Entomology, Madison, I, 586. Government highway, I, 56. Governor's Mansion, St. Augustine, I, 509. Governor's Mansion, Tallahassee (illustra-tion), I, 178, 526. Grabel, Robert E., II, 279. Graceville, I, 573. Grady, Henry L., III. 265. Graham, Harold S., II, 164. Graham, Harry B., II, 158. Graham, Walter S., II, 164. Gramlich, Charles, II, 172. Grand Army post, second largest in U. S., I, 6o9. Grand Ridge, I, 573. Grant, Henry T., II, 222. Grant, James, first governor of East Florida, I, 28, 476, Grapefruit tree (illustration), I, 558. Grapes (illustration), I, 558. Grass Fiber Pulp and Paper Corporation, I, 6II. Graw, A. C.. III, .rr9. Great Sink, I, 33. ' Greek colony, I, 474. Greek-Italian rebellion at New Smyrna, I, 476. Green, Angus, II, 278. Green, Edwin L., I, 34. Gre\'!n, Emmet P., III, 249. Green, Jesse B., III, 369. Green, Robert A., III, 232. Green Cove Spring, I, 8. Green Cove Springs, I, 612. Greene, C. W., III, 125. Greene, Ralph N., II, 109.

PAGE 26

Greene, Raymond W., III, r3r. Greenville, I, 587. Greeson, Guy B., II, 180. Gregory, E. Paul, III, 277. Gregory, George S . , III, 216. Gregory,. John M., III, 183. Grerworth, I, 493. Greynolds, Albert 0., III, 34. Griffin, B., II, 87 . Griffin, J o hn D., III, 167. Griffin, Samuel S., III, II3. Griffin, Walter D., III, 350. Griswold, L. S., I, . 12. Groover, William R., II, 253. Groveland, I , 610, 6rr. Gulf, Florida & Alabama Railway, I , 388. Gulf Hammoc k belt, I , 592. Gulfport, I , 359. Gulf Ports T e rminal Railway, I , 388. G ullett , Benjamin D., III, 250. G unn , Hugh, II, 307. G unt e r, Herman, I , 4, 6; III, 104. G u stafso n , C harl es G., II, 184. Gwy nn, C lift o n B., III, 273 . Gwynn, George H .. III, 212. Gwynne, Andrew D. , In s titute, III, 356. Gwynne, Kate L., III, 356. Gwynne, William F., III, 355. Haddon, Ray m o nd B., II, 280 . Hagan, Peter M., II, 23. Hahn, Frank W., III, 38. Hai le, Alston R., II, 2r. Haile, Carol M., II, 104. Hakes, Louis A., II, 270. Haines City, I. 4 63. Hale, Hug h, II, 3 45. Halifax Riv e r, I , 48 2 . Hall, A ugu stus S., II, 218. Hall, G. S., II, 218. Hall, R. E., I, 413. Hall, William C., II, 263. Hallam , Mary, II, 32r. Hallam, Willard F., II, 320. Hallendale, I, 67, 73. Halleck, I, 50. Hallowes, Willi am A., Jr., III, 175. Halton, Joseph, III, 348. Halton, Jack, III, 270. Hamilton County, I, II8, 588. Hammatt, Cla r ence S .. III, 2o8. Hammond, Thomas C., II, 182 . Hampton, Howell M .. III, 2 0 . Hampto n , J osep h L., III,. 313. Hampton , Martin L .. II, 216. Hampt on, William W., II, 12. Hanafourde, B radl ey K., II, 130. Hanbury, James H . , II, 343. Hancock, .John H., II, 332. Hancock, Raford J.. II, 18. Hand, Ca r ey, II, 22 7. Hand , Cha rle s M., III, 228. Haney, Harry, II, 73 . Haney, Thomas W., II. 73. Hanna, M. Grace B. , III, 346. Ha1o1son, J . P., II, .1.17 Hanson , Julia A., II, 2 74. Hanson, Willi am, II, 27 4 . Harbor d eve lop ment, Miami, I , 412. Hardee, Cary A., II, 3. Hardee, Charles, II, 260. Hardee, C. Jay, II, 2r7. Hardee, Ira W., II, 262. Hardee, .T ohn R., II, 26r. Hardee, M. C., JI, 142. Hardee, Noble A., II, 262. INDEX Hardee County , I, 597. Hardin, Joseph B., II, l8r. Harkisheimer, William J., II, 56. Harney, General, I, 5 . r. Harrell, John F. , III, 229. Harris, Adelle K., II, 296< Harris, Ernest C., III, 79. Harris, Frank, I, 547. Harris, Frank E. , II, 337. Harris, Fred A. K., II, 296. Harris, John D., II, 290. Harris, Roy, I, 182. Harrison, Benjamin, I, I, 30, 55, 130. Harrison, J. F., III, 106. Harrison, Micajoh 0., II, 269. Hart, Isaiah D., I , 263, 267. Hart, Ossian B., I, 152, 157 Hart, Peter J., III, 294. Hartridge, John E., II, 64. Hartsfield, Benjamin D., II, 2 69. Harvey, Earl E., II, 186. Harvey, Henry S . , II, 209. Harvey & Clarke, II, 209. Hathaway, Fons A., I, 300; II, 9r. Haughton, Malachi, II, 36. Haughton, Matthew H., II, 36. Haughton, T. S., II, 35. Hawks Park, I, 482. Hawthorne, I, 502. Hay, Allen S., II, 56 . Hay, James D., III, 1$. Hay and grain plants, I, 90. Hayes, Percy S., III, 56. Hayn es, Maggie M., III, 7. Haynes, Pede n B., III, 7. Hazard, Julian L., II, 156. Health Department, Tampa, I, 344. Heap, Robert F., II, ISL H eb rew congregations, I, 300. Hedrick, John J.. Jr., III, 133. H e ffernan, David J.. II, 130. Heggie, Norman M., II, 298. Heinberg, L eopo ld E., III, 40. H e lms , John S., II, 95. Helve nston, Brantley W., III, 277. Henderson, Andrew, I, 314. Henderson, Greenville T., II, II3. H e nd e rson, James F., I, 314. H e nderson, John A., I, 314; II, 7. Henderson, John W., II, 7. H e nderson, Joseph P., III, 92. Henderson, Parker A., I, 407. H e nderson, Wesley P., I, 314. Hendry, Francis M., II, 355. Hendry, James R., II, 186. Hendry, Louis A., III, 309. H e ndry, Wesley A., III, 14 . Hendry, William T., III, 129. Henriquez, Rafael, II, 290. XXl Henry, Arthur M., III, 210. Herlong, Mark B., II, 6g. Hernandez, Joseph M., I, 109, II3, IIS, 518. Hernando County, I, 595 . Herrin, Mrs. James A., III, 252. Hetherington, M. F., III, 9. Heyser, Allen E., I, 413. Hibbs, William H., III, 13. Hiers, Bryant D., III, 3r. Hiers, Jacob B., II, 164. High Springs, I, 503. Highland Lake, I, 436. Highlands County, I, 597, 599. Highlands Glades Drainage District I, 492. Hightower, James T., III, 137. ' Highways, I , 55. Hilburn, 0. P., II, I
PAGE 27

xxn INDEX Hilliardville, I, 584. Hillsborough Bay, I, 325. Hillsborough Canal, I, 493. Hillsborough County, organized, I, 3I4; military reservation opened to homesteaders, 3I5; population, 325. Hillsborough River, I, 7. Hilson, Irving B., III, 83. Hindry, Louis F., II, IOI. Hinrichs, George H., II, I9I. Hinson, Rex C., III, 263. Hobbs, Raymond B., II, 57. Hobson, William A., II, 258. Hodgens, Thomas H., III, 323. Hodges, W. Randolph, III, 274. Hoffer, A. L., II, I7I. Hoffman, Benjamin F., II, 227. Hoffman, George E., III, 58. Hofstatter, Theodore, II, 298. Hogs (illustration), I, 5S8. , Hogs Fattened on Velvet Beans and Pea-nuts (illustration), I, 84. Holder (phosphate) Mine No. 2, I, 593. Holland, Benjamin F., III, 320. Holland, Spessard L., I, I82; III, 320. Holloway, E. W., II, I30. Holly, Robert ]., III, 224. Holmes, Lincoln C., II, 220. Holmes, I, s78. Holmes County, I, 577. Holsberry, Leroy V., II, 248. Homosassa River, I, s92. Homes and Institutions, Tampa, I, 343. Homestead, I, 67, 73, 4I7. Homestead Enterprise, I, 4I7. Honey and Beeswax, I, 9I. Honor Roll , World War, I, I84; (colored) World War, I, I9S Hooker, E. P., I, 442. Hopkins, Charles F., II, 76. Hopkins, Hamilton, II, 249. Hopkins, H. A., II, 3s6. Horn, Harry A., III, 73. Horne, Hendley F., II, 8I. Horne, William D., II, IS2. Horney, Harry D., III, 244. Horticultural organizations, I , 97. Hospitals, I, 2s5, 300; Tampa, 342; St. Petersburg, 3S6; Clearwater, 3S8; Key West, 427; Orlando, 437; Deland, 467; St. Augustine, SI9; Marion County, S47 Hotard, Roland F., II, 224. Hotel Marion, St. Augustine, III, 290. Hotel Ormond, I, 490. Hotels , I, 6I; West Tampa, 32I; Miami, 4IS; DeLand, 468. Housholder, Ernest F., III, 28. Howard, Emmett K., II, I49-Howell , Lawrence D. , II, 63. Hoyer, Henry B., III, 303. Hubbard, Henry G., I, 1S3. Hubbard, Osceola 0., II, 363. Hubsch, Hugo V., II, I36. Hudson, Arthur T., III, 3•I5. Hudson, Frederick M., II, I4I. Huffaker, Robert B., II, 326. Hughes, Robert L., II, 3IS. Huguenot attacks by Spanish under Menendez, scene of, I, 24. Hull, Cecil F., III, 3I3. Hull, William N., III, 42. Hulley, Lincoln, I , 486; III, 340. Humphreys, Gad, I, III. Hunt, Mrs. R. L., I, us. Hunter, William, II, IIS. Hurri<;ane of October, I 92I , I, 324; at St. Petersburg, 3S4 Hutchens, Ezra L., III, 345. Hutchins, J. Nimrod, III, I29. Hutchinson, William F., II, 337. Ice, formula for making, I, 95; inventor of artificially made, 95. Igon, William M., III, 344. Imeson, Thomas C., II, 90. Immokalee, I, 6o4. Independent, The, St. Petersburg, I , 3S3-Indialantic-by-the-Sea, I, 6o8. Indian chiefs on the march (illustration), I, 36. Indian Council, I, III, II2. Indian Key, I, 426. Indian problem, I, III. Indian reservation, I, S3, II2. Indian River, I, 607. Indian trading post, I, 604. Indian trails and fords, I, S5 Indian Wars, I, 30. Indians: Timagoa, I, 3, 30; removal of, 38; threaten settlements, SI; work of Protestant Episcopal church among, s2; uprising of, •IIS. Indians planting (illustration), I, 49. Indigo, I, 480. . Industrial education, I, 222. Industrial School for Boys at Marianna, I, S73-Industrial School for Girls, Ocala, I, S47 Industries by sea and land, I, 82; unusual, 9J; at Jacksonville, 2g6; at Tampa, 338; salt, 424; sponge, 427; at Orlando, 440; aL Gainesville, SoS ; at Putnam County, S34; at Fernandina, S4I; at Wakulla County, 584; turpentine, 585, 589; fish and oyster, s92; at Leesburg, 6u; at Lake County, 6r2. Iograham, James D., II, 8I. Ingraham, James E., I, I5, 63, 72, 40I, 434, S35 ; III, 370. Ingram, Lawrence, III, 102. Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb, St. Augustine, I, 222. Internal Improvement Act of 1849, I, s6. Internal Improvement Fund, I, S7, I6r, 3I9. Internal improvements, I , . I22, I26. Internal Revenue Office, Florida District, collections, I, 295. Internal Revenue statistics, Tampa, I, 329. Inverness, I, 593. Irsc h , Caesar F., II, n6. Island Grove, I, 502. Istokpoga Lake, I, S99-I versen, Ulysses W., II, 25r. Ives, Albert M., II, 7I. Izagora, I, 578. Jackson, Andrew, I , 29, 35, 43, 108, 122, 267, 36g, 374, 394, SlS, 56g, 575, 584. Jackson, John, I, 314; II, l9S Jackson, Kate V., II, I95-J ackson, Robert, I , JI4. Jackson , Thomas J. (Stonewall), I, 450. Jackson, William H., II, 75. Jackson, William K., II, 125. Jackson, Governor, I , I
PAGE 28

INDEX xx iii Jacksonville : preceding municipality, I, 258; historic beg innin gs, 258; site of, 258; first sett l ers, 261 ; first pe rman ent residence o n site of, 261; first residence of a white family (i llustration), 264; platting of, 265; first stree t , 265 ; named, 267 ; fiq t county buildings and courts, 267; first l oca l law yer, 267; town created, 268; d ecade 1832-41, 26g; corporate limit s extend ed, 270; rechartering of town, 270; as a municipal ity, 27r"; first telegraph line, 271; fire, 271; military occ upati on, 27 1 ; mayors during Civi l war, 272; educatio nal sys t em founded, 274; schoo ls, 274; origin and development of fire department, 274; police departments, 275; water system, 276; ep idemics, 276; waterworks, 278; city limit s extended, 278; epidemics, 281; e l ec tric lighting plants, 282; municipal development in 1893-1917; Board of Bond Trustees, 284; City Co mmissi o n , 284; d eve lopm ent of water sys tem , 285; municipal docks and terminals , 286; port commissioners, 287; custom r eports fo r 1921 ; chief executives, 1877-1922; City commission created, 290; city of today, 293; population, 293; street rail ways, 294; railroads, 294; transportation center, 294; steam ship lin es, 294; financial and commercial statist ics , 294; taxes, 294; exports 1921, 295; banks, 295; postoffice eceipts, 295; climate, 295; vital statistics, 1921, 2g6; population, 296; in dustries, 296; churches, 297; hospitals, 300; Y. M. C. A. and Y . W. C. A., 300; sc h oo ls, 300; reformatory work, 302; clubs, 302; libraries, 302; n ewspapers; 303; fraternities, 305. Jackso nvill e (i llu stration), I , 28 7 . Jacksonville Associated C h arities, I, 302. Jacksonville A u xi liar y Sanitary Association, I, 282. Jacksonville Bar Associatio n , I , 216 . Jacksonville Business College, I, 302. Jacksonville Colored Graded School, I, 222. Jacksonv ille Courie r , I, 269, 303. Jackso nvill e Driving Club, I, 97. Jacksonv ille , St. Augustine & Halifax River Railroad, I, 61. Jackso nville, St. Augu stine & Indian River Company, I, 63. Jacksonv ille Terminal Company, I , 59, 67. Jacksonian ordinances, I , 206. Jacobs, Frederic L., II, 61. James, Tho mas R., II, 199 Jan es, A. B., II, 202. Jasper, I , 588. J eacle, William H., III, 246. J effcott, William, III, 311. Jefferson County, I, l 18, 584. Jefferson County Academy, I, 220. Jefferso n Davis Mem o ri a l Highway, I, 575. Jeffries, Ca l vin H., II, 129. Jenkins, Leon R., II, 188. J e nnin gs, I, 589. Jennings, Frank E., III, 177. Jennings, May M., II, 3or. Jennings, Sherman B., II, 60. J ennings, William S., I, 173, .175; II, 300. Jesup, Thomas S., I, 47. J e ud evine, Henry H., III, 64. Johns, Everett M., III, 231. Johnson, Albert B., III, no. J o hn son , Arthur L., III, 155. Johnson, Charles E., II, 193 Johnson, C laudi ous F., II, 366. Johnson, Charl es L., II, 322. Johnson, David B., II, 342. Johnson, George W., III, 174 Johnson, Luther C., III, 359. Johnson, Thomas H., III, 57. Johnson, Thomas W., III, 304. Johnson , William C., II, 342. Johnston , Hewitt, III, rn3. Johnston , John K., III, 125. Johnston, Pat, III, 332. Johnstone, George, first governor of W t>st Florida, I, 28. Jones, Jacob J., Jr., III, 286. J o nes , James G., I, 422. Jones, John L., II, 335. J ones, Lucius A., III, 55. Jones, Morgan F., II, 57. J o nes, Peter, I, 275. J o nes, Robert P., III, 287. Jones, Walter, III, 248. Jones , W e rner G., III, 32r. Jones, William F., III, 49. Jonesvill e , I, 503. J ordahn, Gus, II, 233. Jordan, Samuel D., III, 221 Jupiter, I, 492 . Justice, Robert L., III, Jus tison, Harold D., II, 150. Katz, Howard M., III, 357. Kaune, Walter R., III, 285. Keen, James C., II, 218. Kelley , James K. , II, 349 . Kell ey, W. McKee, II, 348. Kellum, John G., III, 1\)8. Kelly, Daniel A., II, 256. Kelly, James L., III, l8g . Kelly, Patrick, II, 267. Kelly, Patrick C., II, 268. Kelly, William J., II, 97. Kenan, William R., Jr., I, 72. Kenansville, I, 73. Kendall, I, 417 . Kendrick, Odis G., III, 124. Kennedy, Isaac N., II; 282. Kennedy, Stephen R. M., II, 228. Kennedy, Thomas P., I, 314 . Kensinger, Charles E., III, 147 Key, Arthur R., II, 14. Key, Sadie, III, 157 Key Largo, I, 17. Key Vaca, Erosion by Spray (illustration), I, 420. Key West, I, 16, 17, 67, 133, 0171; Admiralty Court at, 208; military and naval base, 419 ; harbor, . 419 ; area, 419; origin of name, 420; strategic importance as U . S . Naval Station of, 420; courts, 423; pioneer mails, 423 ; population, 424; industries, 424; churches and schools, 425; incorp orate d as a city, 425; h osp itals, 427; hur ricanes, 427; sponge industry, 427; in th e 'sos, 427; during the Civil war, 428; schools, 429; pu blic utilities, 429; banks, 429; during the Spanish-American war, 430; newspapers , 430; belated railway to, 431 ; movement of vessels, 431; export commerce, I, 431. Key West Chamber of Commerce, I, 430. Key West Extension, I , 68. Key West Railroad, I, 60. Keys o r i s lands, I , 16. Kibler, David B., III, 271. Killian, Daniel L., II, 135 Kimball, Ray, III, 142. Kime, C. D., I , 446. Kime, Rufus R., III, 132.

PAGE 29

xxiv INDEX King, Benjamin P., II, 332. King, Murry S., II, 222. King, William G., III, 134 King, William M., II, 24r. King, Philip, I, 47. Kings Road, I, 55, 26o, 263, 477. Kirby-Smith, Edmund, I, 139 Kirkhuff, William I., II, 26o. Kirkpatrick, Charles H., II, 275. Kissimmee, I, 609. . Kitching, Stanley, III, 8r. Kittredge, C. D., II, 247. Klock, Guy A., III, 233. Knight, James M., III, 43. Knight, Jesse J., II, 259. Knight, John C., III, 88. Knight, John C. (Miami), III, 170. Knight, Levi J., III, 257. Knight, Marion S., III, 298. Knight, Peter 0., II, ro3. Knight, Peter T.; I, f!.22. Knight, Raymond D., Jr., III, 309. Knight, Raymond D., Sr., III, 308. Knight, William C., II, IOI. Knight & Wall Company, I, 319. Knights Key, I, 17. Knights Key bridge, I, 70. Knott, William V., I, 180; III, 337. Knowles, Courtenay fl:., II, 180. Knox, James A., III, n5. Kooker, T. Hurd, II, 63. Koonce, James C. B., II, 3rr. Kramer, John E., III, 339. Kramer, Louis H., II, 318. Kreamer, Harry M., III, 35!. Krom, J. ]., III. 7r. Krome, W. J., I, 68. Kyle, W. C., II, 201. Labelle, I, 6o2. Lady Lake, I, 6ro. Lafayette, granted a township by Congress, I, II3, 527. Lafayette bridge, I. 325. Lafayette County, I, 589. Lagoons, I, IO. Lainhart, George W., III, 158. Lake, Forrest, III, 276. Lake Apopka, I, 437, 446, 6ro. Lake Boney, I, 450. Lake Butler (town), I, 59T. Lake City, leading industries, I, 549; origin of name, 550; location, 55 I ; population, 552; schools, 552; newspapers, 552; com merce, 552; naval stores, 552. Lake County, created, I, 164; description, 6ro. Lake Dora, I, 6ro, 612. Lake Easy, I, 454. Lake Eola, I, 440. Lake Eustis, I, 6ro. Lake George, I, 532. Lake Griffin, I, 6ro. Lake Harris, I, 610. Lake Helen, I, 470. Lake Hollingsworth, I, 450. Lake Jackson, I, 529. Lake Jessup, I, 537. Lake Johns, I, 446. Lake Lucerne (illustration), I, 438. Lake Mary (town), I, 538. Lake Monroe, I, 470, 535. Lake Monroe (town), I, 538. Lake Okeechobee, I, 8, ro2, 492, 598, 599. Lake Okeechobee (town), I, 6o7. Lake Parker, I, 450. Lake Poinsett, I, 608. Lake Ranasofkee, I, 593. Lake Wales, I, 462. Lake Wales Citrus Growers Association, I , 463. Lake Weir, I, 544, 547. Lake Worth, I, IO, 491, 495. Lake Worth (town), description, I, 491, 498; newspaper, 498; schools, 498; churches, 498; banks, 498. Lake Worth Drainage District, I , 49 r. Lake Yale, I, 610. Lakeland, description, I, 449; churches, 458; schools, 458; population, 458; banks, 450; newspapers, 459; libraries, 460; public utilities, 46o; sports and amusements, 460. Lakeland Highlands, I, 454, 46o. Lakeland Improvement Company, I, 457. Lakes, I, 7 ; Volusia County, 46-1; Leon County, 529. Lambdin, Ludlow, III, 122. Lambrecht, Sim, III, 29. Lambright, Edwin D., II, 73. Lamont, I, 585. Lamson, Herbert, III, 182. Land claims, litigation over, I, 2IO. Land drainage, I, 84. Land office, Tallahassee, I, IT 3 . Land surveys, Everglades , I, 1o6. Land titles, Pensacola, in security of, I , ;i75. Lane, Freeman P., III, 97. Laney, William T., IP, 285. Lang, David, I, r 44. Lange, Adolph W., II, ;i;i8. Langley, W. Theodore, III, 32. Lanier, William T., II, 166. Largo, I, 359. Larrabee, Charles W., III, 3 63. Last Florida battle, ,I, 135. Latin-American Bank, Tampa, I, 337, 338. Laura Street, Jacksonville (illustration), I, 3o8. Laurel, I, 598. Lawson, William C., III, 74. "Lease system," I, 250; abolish.eel, 251. Lebel, Ernest H., II, 133. Lee, I, 587. . Lee County, created, , I, 164; description, 6or. Lee, William E., IIj:, 88. Lee and Jackson Highway, I, 456. Leesburg, I, 610. i Leffingwell, John B., III, 250. Legislative Council, first, I, l ro, l r r ; mem bers of, II2; laws by, 208. Legislative Council of 1823, I, 517. Legislature, first, I, 121; under 1868 Constitution, 154; of 1887, r64. Leiman, Henry, II, 240. Le Master, Hoyt C., III, 49. Lemon City, I, 4oi, 418. LeMoyne, I, 31, 36, 49. Leon County created, I , M3; delegates to the first convention, n8; in the Civil War, 526; boundaries, 527; county created, 527; lakes, s29; agriculture and live stock, 530; population , 531. Leon Female Academy, I, 227. Leon High School, Tallahassee ( illustra-tion), I, 524. Leon Hotel, Tallahassee, I, 528. Leon Railway Company, I, 56. Leslie, Archibald E., III, 227. Lester, Joseph G., I, 422. Lettuce (illustration), I , 548. Levy, David, III, 64. Levy County, I, 592. , • •

PAGE 30

INDEX xxv Lew, Jack A., II, 94. Lewis, Amos, III, 266. Lewis, John C., III, 303. Liberty County, I , s83. Libraries, I, 302, 356, 358, 439 , 460, 467, sos, s 28, S33, S47, s98, 604, 610 . Licata, Philip F., II, 190. Liddon, Benjamin S., I, 2 r4. Liddon, Charles C., III, 304 . Limestones, I, 8, 9, 18. Lindsley, Horace, II, 313. Linebaugh, L. E., III, 100. Lipscomb, James H., III, 358. Literary C o llege of the Univers ity o f Flor-ida, I, 2 28. Lites, Jame s R., II, 330 . Litigation over land and war claims, I, 210. Little River, I, 418, S93 Live Oak, I, 560. Live stock, wealth in, I, 84, 90; Orange County, 446; Polk County, 452 ; Volusia County, 465; Alachua County, 500; Leon County, 530; Marion County, S45 Live stoci): organizations, I, 97. Lively, Lewis M. , III, 2r8. Livings ton, Archibald, II, 27r. Livingston, A . R., II, r 28. Livingston, Guy W . , II, 157. Livingston, J. S., III, 136. Livingston, Madison C., I, 586. Livingston, S. E., II, JOO . Livingstone, A. Cuming, III, 73. Lloyd, I, 585. L o ck, Edward E., III, 335. Loc key, W., III, 264 . L o ftin, !;icott M., II, 304. Logan, Mrs. Henrietta, III, 364. Logan, Harry P., III, 364. Long, C. Stanley, II, 219. Long, Eustace, III, 322. Long, Frank M., III, 333. L ong Key bridge, I, 70. Longwoo d, I, 537. Lop ez, Andrew L., II, 293. Lord, Charles, II, 222. Loring, William W . , I, 140. Los Olas, I, 605. Louisville & Nashville Railro ad , ] , 57, 58, 380 , 388. Lovell, Charles P., III, 335. Lowe, A. M., III, 367. Lowe, Curtis M., III, 36::i. Florida, I, 12. Lowry, Sumter L., Jr., II, so. Loxhatchee Drainage. District, I, 492 . Lucerne Circle, Orlando (illu stration), I, 433. Lucerne Lake, I, 437 . Lufsey, Robert E., III, I 59. Lukert, John M., III, go. Lulu, I, 552. Lumber and naval stores. I, 3 , 456. Lumber industry, Perry, I, 330 , 58S. Lumley, Thomas A., III, 336. Lummus, James E., I, 405. Ltming, John C., III, 314. Luthe rans, I , 300, 458. Lyman, Morris B., III, 7 2 . Lynch, John P., III, 13, r . Lynch , Louis C., III, 21. Lynn, James M., III, 246 . ._ Lynn Haven, I, s81. Lyons , Thomas F., II, 165. Macfarlane, Hugh C., II, 175. Macfarlarie, Matthew B., III, 68. Macfarlane Park, Tampa, I, 344. Mack, Clyde C., III, 211. Mack, F. J., III, 133. MacKenzie, William A . , II, 308. Mackintosh, Allan, II, 168. Maddock, Sidney, III, ]'I. Madison, I, 586 . Madison, Jose ph C., II, 6r. Madison County, I, II8, 586. Maestre Tract, I, 26r. Magaha, Ernest M., II, 138. Magnolia Springs, I, 612. Maguire, Fred H., II, 200. Maguire, Raymer F., III, II 5. Mahon, William L., II, 178. Mahon, William L. C., II, 266. Mahoney, Francis W., II, r8. Main canals, total length of, I, rn7. Maines, Ira S., III, 224. Maitland, I, 444. Mallard, Mary M., III, 305. Mallory, Stephen R. (illustrntion), I, 132 ; in Confederate Cabinet, 145; death of, 166, 178, 424; II, 229. Malone , E. R., III, S7 Manatee, oldest settled community in Manatee County , I, 554. Manatee County, formed, I, 426 , 5S3; area, 553; agriculture, S53; forest and artesian wealth , 553; seven counties formed from, 597. Manatee River, I, 7. Mangrove swamps, I, rs, r6. Mans on, George E. , lII, 33. Manufacturing, I, 82. Map of Florida, published 1S84, I, 2s. Marco Island, I, 604. Marianna, defense of, I, 135; location, 570; first settler s , S70; one of last ' battles of Civil war at, 571; newspapers, 572; schools, 573; population, 573; when settled, 584. Marianna Academy, I, 220. Marine Hospital, I, 427, 43r. Marine Railway, I, 599. Marion County, formed, I, 543; area, 544; historical points, 544; phosphate industries , 544; other industries, 545; National Forest preserve, 545; agricultural and live stock statistics, 545; schools, 547; natural at tractions, 547. Marion County Hospital, I . . 547. Marshall, Cyril J., II, 15. Marshall, James E., II,, 123. Marshall, Williarri. H., III, 17r. Marshall, William H. (Panama City) , III. 182. Martin, Cornelius J., III, 40. Martin, John M., I, 545. Martin, John W., III, 8. Martin, Kinlock F., III, 34. Martin, Leon H., II, ISL Marvin, William, I, 148. Mason, Adelbert W., II, 219. Masons, I, .481 ; first lodge in Florida, 580. Massey, Louis C., III, Sr. Massey Business College, I, 302. Mathews, John E., II, 60. Mathis, Charles C., III, 121. Mathis, Clarence E., III, 366. Mattocks, John E., II, 281. Maule, Evert P., II, 144 . Maxwell, Augustus E., I, 213. Maxwell, Evelyn C., III, 58. May, Ellis C., III, 34r. May, Frank P., III, 218. May, Hugh R., III, 339.

PAGE 31

XXVl INDEX Mayfield, D. A. , II, 362. Mayfield, William V., III, 243. Mayo, I, 589. Mayo, Nathan, III, 223. Mays, Dannitte H., III, •126. McCall, Carl H., II, 178. McCall, Israel J., III, 226. McCalley, Robert B., III, 137. McCallum, Duncan H., II, 204. McCarley, Robert L., II, 220. McCartney, Johnson N., II, 146. McCaskill, J. M., II, 198. McCaskill, Robert E. L., II, 126. McClellan, Howard T., II, 28. McClelland, Frank B., III, 350. McClure, Carl C., III, 295. McConnell, Thomas H., II, 187. McCouk, Edward, I, 136, 152. McCormick, Robert R., I, 495. McCoy, W. S., III, 134 McCrea, George A., III, 16. McCrea Motor Car Company, III, 16. McDade, Thomas J., III, u3. McDavid, Wiley J., II, 59. McDevitt, P. J., III, 7. McDonald, Joseph A., I, 403, 404. McDonald, Robert E., II, 243. McGahey, T. B., II, 105. McGeachy, Reuben A., II, 315. McGhan, Frank P., III, 44. Mcilvaine, Eugene T., II, 89. Mcintosh, James M., I, •l4I. Mcintosh, John H., I, 29. Mcintosh Lake, I, 544. Mcl(ay, II, 64. McKay, Charles A., II, 66. McKay, Don ' ald B., I, 314; II, 66. McKay, James, II, 65. McKay, John A., II, 66. McKay, Kenneth I., II, 67. McKenzie, Henry S., I, 533; II, 16. McKillop, Andrew S . , II, 362. McKillop, James H., III, 179. McKinley, William L., II, 35r. McKinnon, Charles B., II, 137. McLean, Angus B., II, 313. McLeod, Roderick D., II, 264. McLeod, Roderick D . , Jr., III, 265. McLe.od, Walter R., III, 123. McMillan, Alven S., II, 326. McMullen, D. Byrd, III, 168. McMullen, M. A., III, 190. McNair, Lindsay E., II, 333. McNamee, Robert, II, 68. McNeill, Alexander D., II, 105. McNulty, John T., III, 147. McQuagge, Archie G., III, 283. McRae, Annie, II, 34r. McRae, William A., I , 82; III, 162. McWhorter, George G., I, 213. Meade, George G., I, 449. Mechanical refrigeration, I, 566. Medical Board, first, I, 218. Medical matters, I, 217. Medicinal springs, I, 554. Meginniss, Benjamin A . , II, 6. Melbourne, I, 608. Melbourne Beach, I, 6o8. Meloy, Charles R., II, 148. Melton, J. E., III, 13. Memminger, H. E., III, 153. Memorial and Lake in Confederate Park, Jacksonville (illustration), I, 299. Memorial in Hemming Park, Jacksonv . ille (illustration) , I, 273. Memorial Presbyterian Church, St. Augus tine, I, 519. Memorial Reservation, St. Augustine (illu s-tration), I, 46. Mendenhall, Fred P., I , 183. Mendenhall, George D., III, 9. Menendez, I, 507, 519. Menendez expedition, I, 47r. Menge, John F., II, 358. Merchant, Thomas C., III, 205. Merchants and Miners Steamship C o mpany, I, 294. Merchants Bank, Daytona, I, 483. Meredith, Joseph C., I, 68, 7r. Meridian Stone, I, 527. Merrell, Herman, III, 126. Merrill, Del E., II, 69. Merrill, J. Evarts, II, 159. Merritt, Z. T., I, 413. Merryday, Harry L., II, 12. Mershon, George W., III, 153 Mershon, Martin L., II, 170. Metcalf, W. I., III, 164. Methodists, I, 298, 300, 316, 342, 415, 458, 461, 462, 533. Miami, incorporated, I, 65; first mayor, 65; southern terminus of Flagler system, 67; laid out by railroad, 73; population, 391 ; founding of, 391 ; newspapers, 391; Egan grant in 1808, 392; cotton fields, 392; site in 1845, 394; hotels, 397; "City of Eternal Youth," 397; commencement of modern city, 401; freeze of 1894-95, 401; Flagl e r Street (illustration), 402; as a municipal ity, 404; population, 405; mayors of, 405; commission form of government, 407; banks, 498; valuation of public properties, 410; parks, 410; public buildings, 410; public utilities, 412; harbor development , 412; civic organizations, 412; clubs, 412; schools, 413; churche s , 414; newspaper s , 415; sports and recreations, 415. Miami Bank and Trust Company, I, 409. Miami Beach, I, 4or. Miami Canal, I, •105, 107, 493. Miami Exchange Bank, I, 409. Miami Extension Railroad, I, 64. Miami Herald, The, II, I 39. Miami Metropolis, I, 391, 404. Miami National Bank, I, 409. Miami Realty Board, I, 413. Miami Rotary Club, I, 413. Miami Woman's Club, I, 412. Middlebrooks, Violet, III, 329. Middleburg, I, 613. Middleton, William E., III, 343. Midwinter Biscayne Bay Regatta and Races, I, 416. . Milam, Arthur Y., II, u4. Mil es, G e orge F., I, 74. Military and naval base, Key West, I, 419. Military convention, I, 173. Military force, I, 12r. Military instruction, University of Florida, I, 236. Mi l itary schools, I, 231. Miller, Ansil D., II, 283. Miller, Francis D . , II, g6. Miller, James T., III, 347. Miller, Leon W., II, 2II. Mill e r , Redden L., III, 3u. Miller, William, I, 142. Millican, Elisha W., III, 272. Millville, I, 580. Milord, Domingo J., II, 29r. Milton, John (illustration), I, 13Q.

PAGE 32

INDEX X.X:Vll Milton, William H., III, 307. Milton, county seat, Santa Rosa County, I, 574. Mineral industries, I, 5, 18. Mining, I, 82. Minium, Harry B., III, 237. Minor, Tyranus J., II, 179 Minorcans, I, 475. Mirror Lake, I, 352. Missions, St. Augustine, I, 508; destroyed, 509. Mitchell, Alexander J. , II, 107. Mitchell, Emily L., III, 332. Mitchell, Henry C., II, 35. Mitchell, Henry L. , I, 168, 214, 3 .14. Mitchell, Lucien , I, 314. Mitchell, L. B., II, 49. Mitchell, Neal, III, 306. Mitchell, Robert, I, 314. Mitchell, Samuel, I, 314. Mitchill, Joseph D., II, 173 Mixon, Joseph A., III, 45. Mizell, Everett, III, 262. Mizell, Jackson, III, 261. Mizell, Leon E., II, 325. Moffat, George D., Jr., III, 51. Monroe, Manford B., II, 250. Monroe County, I, u3, l 18, 419; created, 421; territorial changes in , 426. Monson, Kate, III, 253. Monson, William F., III, 252. Montanus, I, 507. Montgomery, Earl S., III, II5. Monticello, I, 584, 585. Montverde, I, 612. Monument to the Confederate Dead, Pensa-cola, I, 166. Moodie, Bazil M., II, 192. Mooney, R. A., II, 126. Moore, Charles R., III, 366. Moore, Edward R. L., In, 319. Moore Haven, I, 599. Morales, Richard D . , II, 131. Moran, Ramon, II, 266. Moreno, Fernando I., I, 394. Morgan, Frank F., III, 212. Morgan, Leroy, II, 163. Morgan, William T., II, 55. Morningstar, Leroy, I, 183. Morrey, Edward B., III, 83. Morris, John E., III, 296. Morris, Sheldon A., II, 4'1. Morris Plan Bank, Tampa, I, 337. Mo,rrow, S. Grover, II, 158. Morse, Frederick S., I, 405. Moseley, William D. (illustration), I, 120, 121, 226; II, 36. Mosquito County, I, u3. Mosquito Inlet, I, 48o. Mosquito Lagoon, I, 10. Mothers' Club, Jacksonville, I, 302. Moultrie, John, I, 477, 478, 513. Moundbuilders, I, 4. Motmt Dora, I, 612. Mount Pisgah, I, 30. Mountain Lake, I, 454. Moylan, Edward B., Jr., II, 128. Mulberry, I, 462. Mulford, B. W., III, .16. Muller, Henry S., III, 290. Municipal Electric Plant, Jacksonville (illus-tration), I, 283. Municipal Wharf, Pensacola, I, 389. Munn, Abraham G., I , 457. Munroe, Kirk, I, 417. . Munroe, Ralph M., I, 416. Munson's Lake, Tallahassee (illustration), I, 530. Mur.i,t, Achille, I, 528. Murdaugh, Josiah P., II, 312. Murphree, Albert A., II, !O. Murphy, Augustus B., III, 26o. Murphy, Garrett, III, 259. Murphy, Hugh K., III, 364. Murphy, John J., III, 263. Murphy, Ralph D., III, 324. Muscogee, descendant of old chief (illustration), I, 52. Myers, Abraham C., I, 6o2. Nall , J. E., III, 188. Naples-on-the-Gulf, I, 6o4. Narvaez, Panfilo de, I, 361, 386, 58o. Nash, George S., III, 98. . Nassau County, delegates to first convention, I, II8; boundaries, 541; population, 54 r ; pecan section, 541; transportation facilities, 541. Nassau Sound, I, 541. National City Bank, Tampa, I, 338. National Farmers' Alliance, I, 167. National Forest Preserve, Marion County, I, 545. National forests, I, 2r. National Good Roads Congress, I, 436. Natural Bridge, last Florida Battle, I, 135 Natural Bridge over Santa Fe River, I, 500. Natural 1 bridge, I, 573, 588. Naval stores industry, Pensacola, I, 384; Polk County, 456; Wakulla County, 584. Navy Club of Key West, I, 431. Neals , I, 502. Neel, Ona , II, 340. Neeley, John L., II, 197 Negro Fort, I, 34. Neil, Henry W., I, •184. Nelson, Levi W., III, n9. Neville, George W., III, 28. New Port Richey, I, 595. New Prospect, I, 6o2. New River Canal, I, eo5. New Smyrna, claims first settlement in Florida, I, 471; missions, 473; Greek-Italian rebellion, 476; fall of the colony, 478; his toric relics, 47$; mission building, 48o; present town, 480; suburbs, 481. New Smyrna Colony, I, 28; in 1763, 473; founder of, 474. New Smyrna-Coronado Board of Trade, I , 481. New Tallahassee, I, 525. Newberry, I, 503. Newell, Leigh G., III, 99. Newland Spring, I , 8. Newman, Heber P., III, 315. Newspapers, I, 303, 342, 352, 358, 391, 404 , 415, 430, 441, 459, 46!, 463, 483, 497, sos, 523, 533, 537, 541, 547, 552, 554, 557, 562, 577, 579, 581, 588, 591, 593, 595, 598, 6o4, 6o7, 6o9. Niceville, I, 57 5. Nichols, Samuel E., II, 240. Ninth Street Bank and Trust Company, I, 356. N obi es, Velpean R., III, 66. Nobles, William D., III, 61. Nolan, Edward A., II, 136. Nolan, Oscar H., II, 237. Non-American Florida, I, 24. Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Youth, I, 483.

PAGE 33

XXVlll INDEX Normal schools, I, 166, 222, 230. Norman, Walter H., II, 347. North and South Bee Line, I, s29. North New River Canal, I, 107, 178, 493. Northern Florida, natural features of, I, 6. Northern Methodists, I, 467 . Northrup, Thomas J., III, 130. Nunan, J. , III, 320. Oakland, I, Oats, "Congressman" Joseph, I, 1 sr. Oberg, Victor, III, 36. Ocala, founded, S43; homes of celebrated Confederates, S43; geographica l center of state, S46; railroads, S46; population, S46; hospital, S47; library, S47; churches, S47; banks, S47; schools, S47 Oca l a National Forest, I, 21. Ocala platform, I, 167. Ocean and Bay Streets, Jacksonville (illustration), I, 266. Ocean Beach, I, 404. Ocean Bou l evard, Palm Bea.ch (illustration), I, 493 . Ocean Inlet, I, 48o. Ochlockonee River, I, 7, 562. Ocklawaha River, I, 7, S43 Octahatchee I, s88. Odom, Alex H., II, 18. Odom, Patrick H., II, 74. Oglethorpe, James E., I, SM. O'Hara, D. E., III, 5S. O'Hara, Oliver, I, 425. O'Hara, Theodore, I, 378. Ohlinger, Frederick W., III, 354. Ohlinger, Orren H., II, 355. Ohmer, Clarence J., III, 87. Oil wells, I, 4, 6, 19; map showi ng location of, 20. Oil, Florida State Geological Survey, report on, I, 19; storage of, 330. Oil companies, Pensacola, I, 388. Ojus, I, 67, 73, 418. Okaloosa County, I, S7SOkeechobee, I, 73. Okeechobee County, I, 6o7. Old Chapel Bell (illustration), I, 587. Old Florida Trail, I, 562. Old Roads Key, I, 426. Old Spanish Trail, I, 574. Old Springfield, I, 263. O ld Tallahassee, I, 525. Oldest House, St. Augustine, I, 522. Oldsmar, I, 359. Oliver, George W., III, 335. Oliver, L. C., II, 161. Olliphant, Horace K., III, 32 L Olustee, I, 590. Olustee, battle of, I, 133 O'N eal, William R., III, 11 r. O'Neill, Addison, II, 28 . Opsahl, John, II, 163. O'Quinn, Barney, III, 282. O'Quinn, Charles A., III, 12. O'Quinn, Karl B., III, 190. Orange • belt, I, 434. Orange Belt Railway, I, 349. Orange City, I , 470. Orange County, created, I, 433; reduced to present area, 433; population, 433; rail roads, 433; freeze of 1835. 435; lakes, 437: citrus cu lture (illustration), 445; crops and livestock , 446; citrus fruit industry, 446; agricultural statistics, 447. Orange General Hospital, I. 437-0range grove (illustration), I, 594. Orange grO\e on East Crooked Lake (illus-tration), I, 86. Orange groves, o ld est, I, 608. Orange Lake, I, 547. Ordinance of sece sion, annu lm ent of, I, 149. O'Reilly, Gerald J., II, 154 . Orl ando, I, 433; growth of, 435; popula tion, 435; banks, 435; good roads move ment, 436; churches, 436; schools, 436; public utilities, 436; hospitals, .437; schools, 439; library, 439; fraternities, 439; clubs, 440; churches, 440; industries, 440; citrus fruit industry, 440; banks, 441. Orlando Bank & Trust Company, I, 44r. Orlando Country Club, I, 437. Ormond, I, 483, 489. Ormond Beach, I, 490. Ormond-by-the-Sea, I, 490. Orr, John B., II, 142. Osborne, Joe, II, 20. Oscar Daniels Company, I, 332. Osceola, I, 42, 47; capture of, 48, 543; illu stration, 544. Osceola County, I, 164, 6og. Osenbach, William, III, 103. Osprey, I, 598. Overseas Railroad of Florida, I, 68. Overstreet, Moses 0., II, 4. Oviedo, I, 537. Owen, Crockett, II, 339. Owen, Dubois F., II, 49. Owen, Frank H., II, 67. Owens, Frederick L., IT, 285. Owens, Robert E. L., III, 290. Owl Commercial Company Pit, Quincy (il-lustration), I, 562. Oxford, I, 593. Oyster industry, I, 592. Pace, John E., II, 83. Packing houses, fruit, I, 96, 608. Paddison, R. P., III, II 1 . Paddock, Fred L., II, 208. Page, Richard C. M., l, 182. Palatka, founded, I, 5.32; city of today, 532; schoo ls, 533; churches, 533; banks, 533; library, 533; n ewspapers, 533. Palatka Heights, I, 53.1 Palatka High School, I, S33 Palm Beach, Surf Bathing (ill ustration), I, 497. Pal m Beach County, created, I, 49 c; pio n ee rs, 49r; county seat, 49r; population, .J91; area, 492; canals, 493; agricultural stati s tics, 493; schools, 494; organized , 495; banks, 497; schools and churches, 497; newspapers, 497. Palm Beach Farm Company, I, 498. Palm Beach hotels, I, 64. Palm City, I, 492. Palm Springs, I, 538. Palmer, Dabney B., III, 203. Palmer, Henry E., III, 200. Palmetto Flatwoods (illustration), I, 602 . Panama City, I, 580. Panton, Leslie & Company, I, 367. Paola, I, s38. Paper, manufactured from sawgrass, I, 6 . 1 1 . Parker, Edgar W., III, n7. Parker, George E., Jr., I, 183. Parker. Streety, I. 450. Parkhill, Charles B., I, 3 19; II, 95. Parkhill, John, I, 526. Parrott, Jo eph R., I, 68, 72, 179 Pasco, John, III, 19$'. Pasco, Samuel, III, lg6.

PAGE 34

I DEX XXIX Pasco County, I, 164, 595. Pascua Florida, I, 3, 24. Pass-a-Grille, I, 359. Patch, Clarence L., II, 128. Patten, George C., III, 249. Patterson, James C., II, 245. Paucher, J o hn , II, 297. Paul, Julian, II, 57. Paved Roads Radiating from Tamp a (i llu s-tration), I, 345. Payne, Tom, III, 17. Payne's Prairie, I, 31. Peabody, Don, III, 45. Peabody, John D., III, 140. Peabody fund, I, 156, 230. Peace River, I, 7. Peacock, Beverly, II, 155 Peacock, H. Blain e, II, ,120. Peacock, John R., III, 302. Peacock, Samu e l H., S r. , III, 195. Peanuts, o n e of Florida's l a r ge sources of wealth, I, 8 4 , 589. Peat beds, I, 95. Pecans, I, 89, 5 4 I. Peek, Eugene G., III, 202. Peel er, James M., II, 74. Pelican Island, I, 22. Pelican Lake Drainage District, I, 492. Pel sang, Abi j a h , III, 193 Pendry, Augustus S., II, 357. Penn ey, A . D., II, 132. Pennington, James E., III, 24r. Pennin gton, Thomas D., II, J:JO. Pennsyl va ni a Sugar Company, I, 417. Pensacol a, second settlement of, I, 27; recaptu r ed, 27; surrendered by Span ish, 29; occ upied by B riti s h , 34; incorporated, 113; beginnings of, I, 361 ; o ri gi n of n a me, 362; contested ow nership of region, 363; in 1743, 364; first known business transaction, 364; in 1763, 365; as cap it a l of English West Florida, 366; from 1772 to 1781, 367; again Spanish, 1781, 368; A meri ca n occupatio n , 1814, 36g; str eet reminders of Spanish occupancy, 373; city founded, 374; obstac l es to growth, 374; insecurity of land titles, 375; incorporated as a city, 375; banks, 376; defenses strength ened, 376; chief justices, 377; railroads, 377; in the Civil war, 377; rail roads, 380; banks, 380; s tati s ti cs . 382; after 188b, 382; population, 382; fire d epartment, 382; demand for public improvem ent, 384; naval sto r es industry, 38 4 ; navy yard, 385; Chamber of Comme r ce, 38.=;; coal pie r s, 387; fuel oil facilities, ;81; r ai l roads, 388; as a muni cipa lity, 389; population, 389; real estate valu e, 38Q; waterworks, 389; municipal statistics, 389. Pensacola (ill ustration), I, 36o . Pensacol a Bay, I, 24 , 133, 362, 376, 386. Pensacol a Electric Company, I, 389 . Pensacola Gazette, I, 525. Pensacola Harbor, visit of White Squadron to, I, 381; description of, 386; berthing capacity, 389. Pen saco l a Medica l Society, I, 380. Pensacola Naval Air Station, I, 385. Pen sacola Shipbuilding Compa ny, I. 387. Pen sacola, St. Andrews & Gu l f Steamship Company, I, 38g. Pen saco l a & Geo r gia Railroad, I. .=;6, 127. Pen saco l a & Gul f Rai lr oad, I, :-8. Perkins, Alfred W., II. 269. Perrine, Henry, I, 399, 426. Perri ne, I, 67, 73, 417. Perrine Grant, I, 399. Perry, Arthur F., II, 3. Perry, C. H., II, 16g. Perry, Edward A., I, 14'1, 162 , 166. Perry, Madison S., I, 127; illustration, 1 28. Perry, N o rvin A., II, 89. P e rry, William Y., III, 257. Perry, I, 588. Person, William C., III, 256, Persons, Edgar G., II, 317. Peters, Thomas J., I , 417. Petersohn, William, III, 192. Peterson, J. Hardin, II, 36o. Petris, J osep h E., II, 185. Petteway, Hubert C., III, 147. Petteway, W. Raleigh, II, 158. Pfficfer State Bank, • Gainesville, I, 5o6. Pheil, Abr a m C., III, 240. Pheil, Lottie, III, 240. Philips, Henry B., III, t54. Philpot, Russell 0., III, 358. Phosphate Belt, I , 92, 595' Phosphate industry, I, 166, 330, 546. Phosphate min e (illustration), I, 33r. Phosphate-producing couhties, I, 18. Phosphates, I , 2, 5, 18, 9:2, 166 , 251, 329, 449 , 454. 461, 500, 543. Pickard, Arthur F., III, 95. Pierce, C larenc e H., II, 344. Pierce, Robert S., II, 273. Pierson, I , 4 6g. Pilcher, Luther W., I , 182. Pinder, Ralph B., II, 288. Pine Cas tl e, I , 444. Pine Forest (illustration), I , 9i. Pine I s l a nd , I , 602. Pine Lands, I , I>I, 13, 92, 553. Pine Lands, drained, n ea r DeLeo n Springs (illustration), I, 470 . Pine Lands, Santa R osa County (illustration), I , 574. Pinellas County, I , 347, 357. Pinellas Co unt y Courthouse at C l earwa t e r ( illustrati o n ) , I , 347. Pinellas County Fair, I , 359. Pinellas Peninsula, I, 34;7, 357 . Pinellas Post, I , 353. Piney Point, I , 555. Pinkerton, Arthur R. , III, ror. Pioneer's Cabin unde r British occ upati o n (illi.1stra ti on), I, 27. Plant, H enry B., I , 59, 63, 325, 434. Plant Investment Co mpany, I , 59, 434 , 450. Plant Memorial F o untain, I , 3 25. Plant Park, I, 325, 344. Plant System , I , 58, 4 6 4 , 503, 535. Plantation Key, I , 17. Plaza Ferdinand VIII, P e n saco la , I , 383. Pledger, Milton, III, 33r. Poe Spring, I , 8. Pointed Land, I, 4 . Politi ca l co nfli c t s, I , 157. Polk County, area and natura l f eatures, I , 449; phosphate d epos its, 449; county c r eated, 450 ; population, 450; railroads, 4 50; ph osp h ate beds, 450; citrus fruits, 451; freezes, 4 51; truck crops, 452; liv e stoc k industry, phosphate field, 454; s p orts and r ec reat10n s, 4 5 4 ; road sys tem, 454; lumbe r and n ava l stores, 456; churches, 4 58; sc h oo l s, 4 58; lak es, 46o ; churches, 462; new spapers, 463. . Polk County National Bank, Bartow, I, 461. Polk County's Ca nnin g Club, I , 46o. Pompano, I, 605. Pomar, Theodore V., II, 87.

PAGE 35

xxx INDEX Ponce de Leon, I, 3, 258, 3II, 391, 471, 578. Ponce de Leon Bay, I, 419. Ponce de Leon Hotel, St. Augustine, I, 19, 61, 519. Population, I, 85, 225, 293, 296, 309, 319, 321, 325, 327, 328, 338, 357, 382, 389, 391, 400, 405, 409, 431, 433, 458, 464, 491, 518, 526, 53• 1' 535, 537, 540, 541, 546, 552, 554, 567, 572, 592, 593, 595, 598, 604, 606, 6o7, 608, 609, 613. Porro, Anthony F., III, 277. Port Leon, I, 56. Port of Jacksonville, I, 287. Port of Tampa, I, 322, 332. Port I, 482. Port Richey, I, 595. Port Tampa, I, 327. Porter, George E., Jr., III, 20. Porter, Richard G., III, 327. Porter, Sidney W., III, 328. Post Office Park, St. Augustine, I, 510. Postoffice, St. Petersburg (illustration), I, 355. . Potter, G. Walter, II, 77. Potter, Wilbur N., II, 310. Potter Pal!T\er estate, I, 598. Poultry (illustration), I, 558. Poultry Farm (illustration), I, 594. Poultry Industry, Orlando (illustration), I, 447. Powell, Charles S., II, 338. Prairie lands, I, 12. Prairie soil near Sebastian (illustration), I, II. Ptehistoric relics, I, 479. Presbyterians, I, 298, 300, 342, 41-1, 458, 462, 467, 521' 533. Presidential Council, la s t, I, I 13. Prewitt, Cricket, II, 255. Price, C. H., II, 23. Price, Charles M., II, 325. Primitive races, I, 3, 30. Prince, John T., III, 204. Princeton, I, 417. Prison farm, I, 174, 25I. Protestant Episcopal Church, work among Indians, I, 52. Provisional Congress, I, 144 Provisional government, I, 148, i 50. Public educational system, I, 122. Public libraries, Tampa and West Tampa, I, 342. . Publ ic properties, Miami, valuation of, , I , 410. Public schools, establishment of, I , 223; status of, 225. Public utilities, Tampa, I, 334; Pensacola, 382, 389; Miami, 412; Key West, 429; Orlando, 436; Lakeland, 46o. Puleston, Fred, II, 12. Puleston , Samuel, II, 19. Pulver, Frank F., II, 358. Punch Bowl tract, I, 392. Punta Gorda, I, 598. Punta Rassa, I, 6o2. Putnam County, formed from Alachua, I. 532; area, 532; roads, 533; schools, 533; agricultural and industrial statistics, 534. Quii1a, Marion E., III, 8I. Quincy, settled, I, 561 ; county seat. Gadsden County, I, 562. Quincy County Academy, I, 220. Quinton, Amelia S., I , 53. Rahner, Joseph D., III, 305. Railroad commission, I, i64, 17I. Railroads, I, 56, 127, 294, 319, 332, 377, 380, 388, 431, 433, 450, 464 , 502, 536, 546, 551, 554, 568, 573, 577, 579, 584, 587, 589, 590, 595, 607, 608, 613. Rainey, Homer B., II, 363. Ramsey, A. H., II, 140. Ramsey, Gardner V., II, 326. Ramsey, G. Robert, II, 174. Ramsey, Lowndes L., III, 353. Ramsey, Perry G., III, 31. Ramsey, Thomas W., II, 237. Rancourt, John I., I, 182. Randall, Edwin M., I, 213. Randall, Thomas, I, 226. Randolph, Orrin, II, 234. Raney, George P., I , 214. Rannie, William R., II, 184. Rasco, Richmond A., III, 222 . Raulerson, John D., II, 316. Ravages of pests, I, 180. Ray, Alexander, II, 106. Ray, Thomas C., II, 272. Raymond, Arthur E., III, 289 . Real and personal property valuation, Tampa, I, 334. Reaves, 0. K., II, SI. Reclamation work, I, 13. Redd, Frank, III, 293. Redd, Isaac A., III, 293. Redd, James D., II, 208. Reed, Earl J., II, 200. Reed, Harrison, I, 154, 155, 380. Reetz, Conrad C. A., III, 183. Reeves, Cadwallader B., II, 295. Reformatory institutions, I , 250, 302. Reid, Robert R., I, I>I8, II9. Reilly, John B., I, 65, 405. Renedo, Joseph M., II, 306. Representatives, United States, I , 202. Reptiles, I, 23. Republic of West Florida, I, 29. Republican, I, 303. Reserve Officers' Training Corps, I. 2 :6. Revised Statutes of the State of Florida, I, 215. R eynolds, George W., I, 422. Rhodes, Lucian M. , III, 178. Ribault, Jean, I , 25, 258, 507. Rice, Peter, III, 235. Rickard, Clarence E., III, 37. Riddle, Wilber M. , III, i2. Rigby, George N., II, 27. Riggins, N. A .. III, 150. Riggs, Walter B., III, 102. Ritch, Nelson T., III, 26. Ritta, I, 493. River highways, I , 55. River Junction, I, 563. River May, I, 25, 258. River steamer (illustration), I, 73. Rivers, I, 7. Riverside Park, Jacksonville , I , 263. Roach, Edward ]., II, 276. Road scene (illustration), I , So. Roads, apportionment for improvement of, I, 81 ; good, movement , I, 436; Polk county, 454; Putnam county, 533. Roads (illustration), I, 529. Roan , John W., II, 277. Robbins, George M., II, 62. Robbins, Louis J., II, 276. Robbins, Mary E., II, 63. Robbins, Rufus M., II, 63. Robbins, William R., II, 138. Roberson, Lucius E., III, 23r. Roberts, Abel J., II, 76.

PAGE 36

INDEX XXXl Rob e rts, Charles H. J., II, 289. Rob e rts, E. C., II, u9. Rob erts, J. Ken, III, 44. Robins on, Carl B., III, 1 s3 . Robinson , Ernest L., II, rc;o. Robins o n, Jopatlian, I, II2. Robins on, Thomas P., II, 209. Robinson, w : K., III, 33. Robinson Point, I, S75 Robson, Jam es N ., II, 16. Rochelle, I , so3. R ock ridges of Southern Florida, I, 14. Rockledge, I, 608. Roesch, Otto E., III, 26o. R ogers, Charles B., II, 41. Rogers, Cha rl es W., III, 227. Rogers, Robert F., III, 30. Roge rs, Will iam P., II, 24-1. Rolleston, Frank A., II, 94. Rollins, A. W., I, 442. Rollins Co ll ege, I , 222, 436, 441 ; II, 183. Roman, Cha rl es, II, 132. Roman Cathol i cs, I , 298, 300, 3-12, 4 tS, 458, 461, 462 , 467, 500, SIO, &14, s19, 533. Romans, Bernard, I, 513. Ronalds , T enna nt, I , s29. Roof, D a ni e l R., II, 258 . Rose, Ca rl G., III, 233. Rose, Charles J.. II, 196. Ross, Francis J., I , 267 . Ross, John H., II, 362. Rountree, Edgar W., llI, 299. Rowles, Sherman, III. 142. Royal Palm Hotel, Miami, I , 397, 4c5. Royal Palm State Park, I, 21, 180. Royal Palm Walk and Ca n a l Bordered with Coconut Palms '(illu s trati on), I, 398. R oya l Poinciana Hotel, I, 64, 494 ; (illustra-tion), 49S R oyal Vic t o ria H otel, Nassau, I , 67. Ruge, J o hn G., I, 75; II, r6o. Ruins of a n Old Building, near ew Smy rn a, (illustration), I , 47r. Russ, Carl S., III, r8o. Russe ll, Albert J., I, 222. Russell, Franklin G., III, 183. Rutland, Fletche r L., II, 312. Sadler, Frederick W., III, 69. Safety Harbo r , I, 359. St. Andrews, site of city, I, s8o. St. Andrews Bay, I , JO, 580. St. Augustine Historica l Soci ety, III, 374. St. Augustine, siege of, I, 27; cap ital of East F lorida , 28; incorporated, r 13; first s ite, 472; ea rly hist o ry, 5 07; before 1671 (illu st ration), 507; founding of, so8; cen ter of mis s i o n work, 508; town de stro yed by Drake, so8; mi ss i ons destroyed , 509; Governor's Mansi o n , S09; Federal Buildii;ig, 509; city gates, 5rn; an English town, s , 12; exodus of Spani s h re s i dents, 512; duri n g th e R evo lu tionary period, s12; agai n a Spani s h t o wn , 5 14; Catholic ca thedral, s14; tablet at Plaza of the Consti tuti o n, s14; unde r the American flag , 514 ; in 1823, SIS; earl y records, 515; first council m eeti ng, SIS; Board of Health estaiblis h ecl, s15; Legislativ e Council of 1823, 517; in th e '40s, s , 18; sea wall , S 18; during Civil war period, s18; p o pulation , s 19; churc hes , s19; city of today, s21 ; Oldest House, s22; great fires, 522; n ewspapers, s23; com mission form of governme nt, s23. St. Augustine His tori ca l Society and In s titu te o f Science, I , s22. St. Augustine Road, I , SS St. Augustine & Palatka Railroad Company, l , 6r. St. Cat herine, I, S93 St. C l oud, I, Gog. St. George's Sound , near Lanark (illustra-tion), I, s64 . St. J o hn , A lbert H., 11, 70. St. J o hn, L. D., II, 326. St. J o hn s Bluff at St. Johns River (illus-tration), I, 24. St. Johns County, I , 109, IIO, u8, so7. St. J o hns Mirror, I, 303. St. J oh ns Railroad, I, s6. St. Johns river, I, 2, 7, 8 , 19, 25, SS, 258, 532, 612. St. Johns River bridge, I , 63; (illustration) , 29. St. Johns River Railroad, I, 60. St. J o hns Sound, near Lanark (illustration) , I , s67. St. J osep h's Academy, I, 302, 436; II, •J07. St. Josephs Bay, I, s82. St. Lucie canal, I, 105, 493. St. Lucie County, I, 6o6. St. Lucie River, I, 6o6. St. Marks, I, 583. St. Mary's River, I, 7, 539, 590. St. Petersburg, location o f , I , 347; origin of name, 347; early se ttlers, 347; railroads, 349; naming of, 349; churches, 3SO; re incorporated as city, 351; population , 351; municipal improvements , 3SI; newspapers, 352; Chamber of Commerce, 3S3; commis sio n form of government, 353; hurricane of 1921, 354; building record of 1921, 354; street railways, 35S; schools, 356; public librari es, 3SS; hospitals, 3SS; frate rniti es , 355; banks, 355; transportation, 357. St. P etersburg-Tampa bridge, I, 35S. St. Petersburg Times, I, 352. St. Vincent Sound, I, ro . Sal as, Juan Pablo, I , 420. Salt indu s tries, Key West, I, 4 2-1. Salvage from Florida Reef, I , 422. Sa mm o ns, Alvin L., II, ISS Sampson Lake, I, 59r. . Samsula, I , 482. San Ca rlos de Barrancas, I, 369. San Carlos Fort, I, 369. San Marco, barracks, I, s13. San Mateo, I, 259. San Mateo orange groves, I , S34 Sanchez, Leonard F., II, 93. Sand-clay road, Tallahassee (illu s trati on), I, S29 Sandford, S. S., II, 47. Sanford, Henry S. , I , 535. Sanford, Samuel, I , r2. Sanford, first hous e on site of city, I, 53S; c e l ery city, 536; packing houses, s36; rai l r oads, 536; population, 537; banks, schools and c hurches, 537; newspapers, S37 Sanford Chamber of Commerce, I, S37 Sanibel Island, I, 6o2. Santa Fe Lake, I , s or. Santa Fe River, Natura l Bridge over, I , 500. Santa Maria de Galva Bay, I, 362. Santa Rosa County, area, I, 5 74; county formed, 574; population, S74 Santa Ro sa Island , I , 36r. Sapp, Joshua M., III, 267. Sarasota Bay, I, S97-Sarasota County, I, S97 Sattler, Frank J., III, lSr. Sauls, Jos e ph L., II, 284. Savell, J. F., II, 25.

PAGE 37

XXXll INDEX Sa wgrass, I, 9(5. Scenic Highlands Highway, I, 456. Schabinger, J. J., III, 65. Schabinger, May, III, 65. Schneider, William, II, 252. Schofield, Major, II, 148. School fund, I, 223, 226. Schools, I , II4, 122, 156, 220, 223, 224, 274, 300, 340, 356, 358, 413, 425, 429, 436, 439 , 441, 458, 461, 467, 483, 494, 497, 503, 505, 528, 533, 537, 547, 552, 554, 556, 56o, 562, 567, 572, 576, 586, 595, 598, 6o4, 6o6, 6o7, 609. Schrader, F. J., II, 218. Schulte, Henry B., III, 32r. Schultz, Arthur, II, 230. Schultz, Walter H., II, 174 Scofield, George W., III, 340. Scott, J. Warren, II, 58. Scovell, Tiley H., III, 109. Seaboard Air Line, I, 57, 321, 434, 461, 502, 541, 546, 551, 556,. 560, 584, 585, 587, 588, 590, 591, 592, 593, 595. Seabreeze, I, 482. Seabrook, Chades, II, 238. Sea island cotton, I, 559. Sea wall , St. I , 518. Sebastian River, f, 6o6. Sebring, I, 599. Secession, divisiob of opinion, I , 123. Secession Convention, I , 130. Second Seminole war, I , 37. Selden, Ray L., II, 334. Sellards, E. H., first state geologist, I , 4, 6, 8, 19. Seminole County, formed, I, 535; population, 535 ; schools, 537 ; banks, 538. Seminole County Court House, I , 537. Seminole Heights, I. 327, 328. Seminole village (illustration), I , 50. Seminole Indian war, I, 392. Seminole Indians Coming from the Ever-glades (illustration), I, 99. Seminole wars, I, 33, 35, 37, 50. Seminoles, I, 29, 33, 49, 52, 54, 167. Senators, United States, I , 202. Seven Years' War, I, n5. Seventeenth Amendment, I, r 79. Seventh Day Adventists, I, 300. Severence, 0. W., III, 18o. Seville, I, 469. Sewell, E. G., I, 404. Sewell, John, I, 405. Shackleford, Thomas M., I , 215. Shady Pond, I, 588. Sharon, James G., III, 366. Sharp, F. Emory, III, 250. Sharpe, V. V., III, 34r. Shaw, Isaac W., III, 357. Shaw, J. W . B., II, 48. Shaw, Martin L., II, 143. Sheats, William N., I, 221; III, r88. Sheddan, William E., III, 247. Sheeran, Edward, I, 69. Shell deposits, I, 19. Shell mounds, I, 19, 30, 479. Shelley, William P., III, 254. Shelly, Uriah S., JII, 219. Shepard, Guy B., III, i45. Shephard, Carl L., III, 268. Sheppard, Arthur H., II, 289. Sheppard, Charles R. M., III, 239. Sheppard, William B., II, 4. Ship canal, I, II3. Shipbuilding Yards (illustrations), I , 223. Sholtz, David, III, 249. Shoup, Francis A., I, 142. Siege of St. Augustine, I, 27. Silver Spring, I, 8. Silver Spring Run, I, 8. Silver Springs (illustration), I, 542, 547. Simmon, Lewis A., III, 368. Simms, Robert W., III, 245. Simons, George W., Jr., III, 50. Simonton, John W., I , 4 20. Simpson, Charles A., III, 123. Simpson, Horace L., III, 48. Simpson, Monroe V., II, 285. impson, Ray C., III, 4. Sims, Buford M., II, 18r. Sirmans, Henry I., III, 285. Sisson, Sanford S., II, 40. Sisters of St. Joseph, II, 107. Sjostrom, P. Rob ert G., II, 45. Slappey, Eugene H., III, 152. Smalridge, George N., III, 46. Smart, Benjamin F., III, 256. Smiley, Charles E., I, 467. Smiley, Mrs. George H., I, 467. Smith, Avery C., II, 147-Smith, Barton H., II, 213. Smith, Columbus B., III, 207. Smith, C. E., III, 248. Smith, Dean T., II, 9. Smith, Ida May, III, 353 . Smith, James A., III, 82. Smith, John C., III, 65. Smith, Lisle W., III, 334. Smith, Marvin H., II, 86. Smith, Nicholas, I, 422. Smith, Oscar B., III, 295. Smith, Peter S., I, 518. Smith, Rupert, III, 359. Smith, William J., III, 352. Smith, W. P., I, 407. Smith Creek (town), I, 584. Smith-Lever Act, I, 234. Smith-Lever Supplementary Act, I, 235. Sneads, I, 573 . Snell, Henry W., II, 321. Soils, I, r l, 83, lo6, 309. oldiers, Civil War, I, 137; of high rank, 139. o lomon, Benjamin L., II, 279. Son1mers, J. Harold, III, 102. South Florida Military College, I , 23r. South Jacksonville, I, 258. South Lake Apopka, I, 44r. South New River Canal, I, 107, ry8. South Prong pond, I, 591. Southern Bank and Trust Company, I, 409. Southern College of St. Augustine, I, 220. Southern Everglades, I, 12. Southern Florida, coral reefs, I, 12; topography of, 13; pinelands, 13; dunes, r4; rock ridges of, 14; swamp lands of, J 5; cypress and mangrove swamps, lll; divided into counties, l 13. Southport, I, 58r. Southwest Cape, I, 10. Spanish-American war, I, 17 r , 430. Spanish and French land claims, I, 2 1 o. Spanish land grants, I, 26r. Spanish Trail, I, 55, 570. Sparkman, Hugh C., III. 73. Sparkman, Simeon E., III, 19. Sparkman, Stephen M., III, 5. Spates, Webster, II, 166. Speckled Trout and R ed Fish (illustration), I, 93. Speer, Arthur, II, 182. Speer, James G., II, 182. Spence, Howard J., III, 346.

PAGE 38

INDEX XXXlll Spencer, Lucien A., I, 53, 54; II, 357. Spencer, William C., III, 75. Spiers, William H., II, 220. Spivey, J. W., II, 117. Sponge industry, Key West, I, 427 . Spooner, D. S., III, 94. Sprague, John T., I, 152. Sprague, R obert J., II, 183. Spring Bayou, I , 358. Springfield Park, Jackso nvill e (illustration), I, 262 . Springs t ead, C. W., II, 356. Standard, I, 303. Stark, William, I, 513. State Agricultural College, Lake C ity , I, 550; removed, 551.' State Automobile Association, I, 44r. State Bank o f Bartow, I , 46r. State Bank of Orlando, I , 435. Sta t e Bank of Orlando & Trus t Company, I, 44. 1 . State Board of Co ntrol , I, 222. State Board of Dental Examiners, I , 218 . State Board of Drainage Cbmmissioners, I, 177. State board of e ducation, I , 223 , 224 . State board of examin ers, I , 224. State Board of H ealth, I , 165, 218. State Board of Legal Examiners, I , 215. State Board of Pharmacy, I, 218. Stat e capital, attempt to relocate, I , 174. State College for Women, Tallahassee, I , 239; III, 159. State Co mmi ssioner of Agriculture, I, 82. State fla g, I , 121, 155 State Geological Survey, I , 4. State geo l og i st, first , I, 4 . State His t o ri ca l Society incorporated, I , •100. State House, I, I19. State judiciary, first, I, 210. State Military Institute, I , 230. State militia, r eo rganizati o n of, I , 175. State Normal School fo r Negroes, I, 222. State Normal School for Training Negro Teachers, I, 246. State Muse um, I, 236. State Plant Board, I, 180. State Prison System, I, 250. State sea l , I , 155, 211. State s uperint en d ents of public instruction, I , 222, 223. State Supreme court, fir s t , I, 2 1 o. State T eac h e rs' Association, I, 230. State troops reorganized, I, 173. State University, Gainesville, I , 222. Statehood, I , 120. Steamboat navigati on, I, 73. S t ea m s hip d ocks, Tampa, I , J32. Stearns, Marcellus L., I, . 158. Steed, William J., III, 328. Steel bridges, I, 293. S t ee le, Peter J., III, 373. Stephen s, Thomas M., III, l8r. Steph e n so n , C. G., III, 125. S t etso n , J o hn B., I , 4 67 , 469 . Stetson U niv e r s ity, I , 222, 466 , 483; munific ent gifts to, I , 486; property, 487; work of, 488. Stevens, Arthur D., II, 264. Stevens, Ralph E., II, 17. Stewart, J a m es B., II, 256. S t ewart, J a m es J., II, 270. S tewart , J o hn A., II, 259. Stewart, Kirby P., I, 182. Stillm an, Richard E., II, 82. Stinking Cedar, I, 583. Stivender, R. Eugene, II, 323. Stock Farm (illustration), I , 594 . Stockton, John N. C., III, II7. Stokes, Clare nce J., III, 62. Stokes, John P., III, 42. Stollenwerck, Amasa D., II, 99. Sto ne, Welborn D., II, 143 Stone House, I, 472 . Stone pillar , I, 25. Stoneman, Frank B., II, 139 Storm of S eptember 29, 1896 , I, l6g. Story, William L., II, l8g. Stovall, Wallace F., III, 78. Stowe, Harrie t Beecher, hom e of, I , 612. Stranahan, Frank, II, 239. Straub, William L., II, 36o. Stringer, Sheldon, II, 44. Stringfellow, Lucius G., II, 16. Stringfellow, Thornton B., III, 325. Stroman, Henry Hj' I, 183. Strum, Louie W., I, 72. Stuart, Allen T., II, IIO. Stuart, . Ollie L., III, 339. Stuart, I , 492 , 499 . Stumpe, Nelson A., III, 238. Sub-Peninsula Sun, I, 352. Sugar beets (illustration), I , 548. Sugar. cane, I, 88, 480, 493, (illustration), 548. Sullivan, Jerry M., II, 208. Sulphur SQring , I , 8, 612. Sulphur Springs, I, 327 , 3 28. Sulphur Springs Park, Tampa, I , 327, 344. Summer School Act, I, 234, Summerlin, Asbury, II, 34r. Sumner, R. H., III, 244. Sumter County, I , 593. Sumterville, I, 593. Sundy, J. S., III, 63. Sunny South Guards, I , 318. "Sunshine City," I, 347. Supre me Court Buildings, Tallahassee (illustration), I , 527. Surf bathing, Palm Beach (illu stration), I, 497. Survey of a route to Key West, I, 60. Suwanee County, created, I, 5 59; products , 559; forest, 559; soil, 559; railro ads, 56o; sc hool s, 560; newspapers , 560; banks , 560. Suwannee River, I, 559,. 589. Suwannee Sulphur Spring, I, 8. Swamp lands, I, II, 15. Swanson, John R., II, 150. Swartz, E. G., III, 237. Swatts, H enry L., III, 174. Swearingen, John T., II, 275. Swearingen, Van C., II, III. Sweet Potatoes (illustration), I, 548. Sweetwater River, I , 574. Sweger, Roy L. , III, 215. Taft, I, 444 . Tallahassee, Indian council at, I , 112; land office opened at, II3; e ducati o nal center 114; political center, 114; never captured' 138; capital , 208; c o lleg es, 228; p ermanent ca pital , 375; as an Indian town, 524 ; o rigin of :word, 525 ,; new spapers, 525; fir s t Lcg1s la!1ve Co un cil at, 525; capital, 525; P ? PUlat1on, 526 ; sc h oo ls , 528; library, 528; city of today, 528; banks, 528; game pre serves, 529. Tallahassee and St. Marks road, I, 127. "Tallahassee c liqu e, " I , Il4. Tallahassee Railroa d Company, I, 56.

PAGE 39

XXXlV INDEX Tallahassee Street Scene (illustration), I, 525. Tallahassee University, I, 229. Talton, William G., III, 327. Tamiami Trail, I, 6o4. Tampa, beginnings of, I, 3II; first families of, 314; town displaces Fort Brooke, 314; pioneers and events of the 'sos, 316; churches, 316; first newspaper, 317; in the Civil War, 318; l870-188o, 319; popula tion in 1870, 319; railroads, 319; incorpo rated, 320; description, 325; public center of, 328; city hall, 328; statistics, 329; popu lation, 325, 328; commerce of, 330; public utilities, 334; area, 334; City Commission, 335; electric railways, 336; banks, 337; industries, 338; population, 339 ; commerce, 340; schools , 340; libraries, 342; news papers, 342; churches, 342; clubs, 342; hos pita ls, 342; Homes and Institutions, 343; fraternities, 343; parks, 344. Tampa, Birdseye View (illustration), I, 336. Tampa (illustrations), I, 326. Tampa Bay, discoverer of, I, 3u. Tampa Bay Casino, I, 325. Tampa Bay Hotel, I, 59, 321, 325, 344. Tampa Clearing House Association, I, 337. Tampa Daily Times, I, 314. Tampa District Nursing Association, I, 344. Tampa Gas Company, I, 337. Tampa Truisms, I, 329. Tampa Waterworks Company, I, 335. Tampa Woman's Club, I, 325. Tampa & Jacksonville Railway, I, 502. Tarpon Springs, I, 358. Tarr, Russell H., II, 126. Tavares, I, 610. Taxation for schools, I, 225. Taylor, Harry G., III, 317. Taylor, John P., III, 205. Taylor, Joseph E., III, 177. Taylor, Robert F., I, 214, 2 r 5; Ill, 18-1. Taylor, Samuel C., III, 338. Taylor, Zachary, I, 48, 50, 122. Taylor County, I, 587. Teachers College and Normal School, Uni-versity of Florida, I, 238. Tecumseh, I, 34. Temperature, annual mean, I, 83. Ten Thousand Islands, I, 17, 419. Ter Bush, Gerald E., II, 353. Terra Ceia, I, 555. Territorial Counci l , first, I , 207. Territorial courts and judges, first, I, 207. Territory of Florida, I, 109, 207. Tervin, Wallace, III, 34r. Thew, George M., I, 395. Thomas, Fred, II, 172. Thomas, Louis P., II, 271. Thomas, Rupert W., III, 136. Thomas, Walter C., II, 53. Thomas, William R., II, 8. Thompson, General, I, IIS. Thompson, Alexander R., I, 602. Thompson, Charles H., II, 98. Thompson, Edgar C., II, 225. Thompson, Frank H., III, 315. Thompson, Harry W., III, 47. Thompson, Leon, II, Thompson, Maurice, I, 527. Thompson, Norburg, III, 330. Th' ompson, Royce L., III, 352. Thompson, Uly 0., II, 239. Thompson, Walter W., II, r68. Thompson, 'l,Viley, I, 39, 43. Thornton, Macon, II, 3 I. Thrasher, Barton A., III, 30. Tiger Tail, I. 50, 592. Tilden, Charles H., II, 175. Tilden, Emily A., II, 230. Tilden, Luther F., II, 230. Tilden, Luther W., II, 230. Tilden, Wilber L., III, 105. Tildenville, I, 446. Tillman, George C., II, 210. Timber industries, I, 92. Tippetts, Katherine B., III, 362. Tippins, Frank B., III, 294. Tison, G . ordon B., II, 19. Titusville, I, 607. Tobacco Field (illustration), I, 561. Tobacco industry, I, 586. Tolar, Julian N., III, 236. Tomatoes (illustration), I, 548. Tomkies, Anna T., III, 84. Tomkies, Thomas W., III, 83. Tomoka race, representative of (illustration), I, 32. Tonnage by water, Tampa, I, 329. Tonyn, Patrick, I, 28, 478. Topliff, Francis W., III, 96. Touchton, Wi11iam ]., II, 294. Tourist hotels, I, 59. Tourist News, St. Petersburg, I, 353. Towles, William H., III, 3or. Townsend, Jack F., II, 319. Trails and fords, I, 55. Trammell, Park, I, 179 Transmarine Corporation, I, 387. Treat, James A .. II, 187. Treaty at Payne's Landing, I, 38. Treaty between pain and Great Britain, I, 513. Treaty of Cession, I, 29. Treaty of Fort Moultrie, I, 517. Treaty of McKenzie's Pond, l, 38. Treaty of Paris, I, 28, 5 12. Treaty of Versailles, I, 28. Trees, I, 21, 22, 259. Trenton, I, 503. Trevino, Ricardo G., II, 354. Triangle Highway, I, 482. Trice, William W., II, 170. Trimble, Frederick H., II, 224. Tropical trees (illustration), I, 21. Truck crops (illustration), I, 453. Tucker, Eppes, Sr., III, 150. Turnbull, Andrew, I, 28, 473, 478, 513. Turnbull, Maria G., I, 474. Turnbull, Theodore T., III, 197. Turnbull grant, I, 474. Turner, A. C., I, 352. Turner, C. Buck, III, 134. Turner, Hiram G., II, 54. Turner, John B., III, 95. Turner, John C., II, 236. Turpentine industry, dipping and scraping pine trees (illustration), I, 92. Turpentine stills, Jefferson county, I, 585, 589. Turtle Mound, I, 30, 472, 479, 481. Turtle Mound, North Indian River (illus-tration), I, 6o6. Tuten, David B., III, 220. Tuttle, Henry D., I, 396. Tuttle, Julia D., I, 396, 40I. Uhrback, Joseph F., II, 306. Umatilla, I, 610. Underground channels and caverns, I, 8. nderground waters, I, 6. Union, I, 578.

PAGE 40

INDEX xxxv Union Bank, Tallahassee, I, II4. Union County, I, 59r. Unitarians, I, 300. United States courts established, Key West, I, 423. United States Department of Agriculture, I, 235. United States Engineer Department, I, 540. United States Naval Station, Key We t, I, 421. United States Plant Introduction Station, Brooksville, I, 595. United States Senators and Representatives, I, 202. University Avenue, Gainesville (illustration), I, 504. University of Florida, foundation, I, 226; birds-eye yiew, 227; Alumni Association, 231 ; prominent Alumni, 232; Cooperative Extension Work, 234; summer school, 234; military instruction, 236; Graduate School, 237; College of Arts and Sciences, 237; College of Agriculture, 237; College of Engineering, 238; College of Law, 238; Teachers College and Normal School, 238; Division of Military Instruction, 238; Department of Hygiene, 238; Division of Rehabilitation, 238; Extension service, 239; grounds and buildings, 239; Marshall Debating Society, 240; Faculty and student body, 240; military organization, 240; University Minstrels, 240; Y. M. C. A., 240; Debating Council, 240. Upchurch, Nathaniel S., II, 78. Upchurch, Noble A., II, 79. Uplands, I, 7. Useppa Island, I, 6o2. Valparaiso, I, 575. Valz, Frederick M., II, 75. Van Byrd, L., III, 63. Van Fleet, J. F., III, 326. Van Horn, Isaac, II, 350. Van Valkenburgh, Robert B., I, 2r4. Van Winkle, Noah A., III, 186. Vanderipe, Eliza J., III, 319. Vanderipe, William H., III, 319. Vanderpool, Fred W., II, 53. Varn, William A., l'I, 322. Vaughan, Alexander, III, 223. Vegetable Docks (illustration), I, 77. Vegetable Growing (illustrations), I, 548. Velvet beans, I, 84. Venice, I, 598. Verigan, J. F., III, 18o. Vernon, I, 579. Vero, I, 6o6. Verot, Augustin, I, 520. Vestel, Edgar D., II, 187. Vickers, Jacob, III, 203. Vicksburg Limestone, Marianna Phase (illus-tration), I, 570. Vining, C. L., III, 221. Vivian, Cyril A., II, 153 Vivian, Homer, III, 95. Vocational education, I, 224, 235. Vogel, Rhoda, II, 345. Volusia, I, 490. Volusia county, area, I, 464; population, 464; railroads, 464; lakes, 464; citrus fruits, 465; stock farms, 465; schools, 467; beaches and resorts, 482; ocean resorts of, 489. Volusia County Million Dol1ar Triangle Drive, I, 46g. von Behren, William J., II, 206. Voorhis, Harry M., III, ro8. Vredenburgh, Peter, III, 291. Wacassassa River, I, 592. Wade, Leonidas E., III, 279. Wahoo swamp, I, 550. Wagen, J. C., II, 219. Wagg, Alfred H., II, 203. vVakulla, I, 584. Wakulla County, I, 583. Wakulla Hammock, near Crawfordsville (il-lustration), I, 585. Wakulla Springs (illustration), I, 584. Waldeck, George A., II, 152. Walden, Emmett S., III, 299. Walden, John I., III, 314. Walker, Albert H., II, 252. Walker, Charles H . , II, 293. Walker, David S., I, 123, 150, 221. Walker, George W., III, 190. Walker, William H., III, 90. Walker, William S., I, 14!. Wall, Perry G., I, Jl9; II, 52. Wall, William H., I, 422, 424. Wallace, George B., III, 352. Wallace, William R., III, 369. Waller, Floyd E., II, 123. Waller Construction & Supply Company, IT, 123. Wallin, Henry D., III, 129. Walton county, I, lI3, rr8; created 1824, 575; population, 576. War claims, litigation over, I, 210. War Council of Florida Indians (illustra-tion), I, 3r. Ward, George M., III, 5. Ware, Govan G., II, 308. Ware, Henry A., II, 302. Ware, William S., III, 94. Warlow, Thomas P . , II, 2H. Warner, Lawrence R., II, 334. Washington county, I, 118, 579. Water system, Jacksonville, I, 276. Water transportation, I, 73, So. Waters, Reginald V., II, 170. Watertown, I, 552. Watkins, Neil B., II, 206. Watkins, William R., II, 176. Watson, Herman, III, 154 Watson, John W., I, 407. Watson, Young L., III, 21r. Wausau, I, 579. Waybright, Edgar W., III, 172. Wear, Hugh W., II, 361. Weaver, Reed W., III, 318. Weaver, Robbie H., II, 352. Weaver, William L., III, 200. Webb, Curren E., II, 173. Webster, Benjamin H., III, 319. Webster, Edson H., II, 29. Webster, Wilber P., II, 70. Weekewachee Spring, I, 8. Weidling, C. P., II, 244. W ekiwa Springs, I, 8, 538. Wellborn, I, 56o. Wells, Angus L., III, 137 Wells, George B., III, 85. Wells, Joel R., III, l 18. Wells, Richard M., II, 153. Welsh, Al•bert R., III, 329. Wertz, Fred M., III, 55. West, James W., III, 220. West, Thomas F., I, 215; III, 236. West Florida, I, 28, 109, 379. West Florida Advertiser, I, 525. West Florida Seminary, I, 227.

PAGE 41

XXXVl INDEX \I{ est Palm Beach, I, 63, 67, 73, 49c , 495: incorporated, 4g6; location , 496; banks, 497; schools and churches, 497; new s papers, 497. West Palm Beach Canal, I, 107 , 493. West Tampa, founded, I, 321; hotels, 32r; incorporated, 322; banks, 322; population, 327. Westcott, James D., I, 155, 157 Westcott, James D., Jr., I, 213. Westcott, John, I, 74, 162, 219, 519. Weston, Darrell A., II, 9. Westville, I, 578. Weybrecht, Price W., II, 226. Wharton, Frank H., I, 405. Whidden, Felix H., III, 56. Whidden, Robert E., II, 277. Whipple, Henry B., I, 520. Whipple, Henry U., II, 22. White, Alvin L., III, 292. White, Henry G., II, 103 . White, John C., II, 162. White, Joseph M., I, II3, 226, 375, 377. Whitt; Reginald, II, 91. White Springs, I, 588. Whitehead, John, I, 422, 423. Whitehead, William A., I, 423, 424, 425. Whitewater Bay, I, 17. Whitfield, James B., I, 215; III, 122. Whitlock, William E., III, 275. Whitney-Orr boundary, I, 128. Wideman, Jerome E., II, 1o6. Wienbarg, Fred W., II, 86. Wilbur-by-the-Sea, I, 483. Wild Cat, I, 48, 50. Wildwood, I, 593. Wilhelm, John W., III, 368. Willard, Ben C., II, 157 Williams, Alexander H., III, 138 . Williams, D. Lester, III, 58. Williams, Frank M., I, 184. Williams, H o race, III, 124. Williams , John C., I, 348. Williams, John S., I, 57. Williams, Joseph E., II, 140. Williams, Josiah A., III, 274. Williams, 0. Edgar, III, 3 18. Williams, Stokely D., III, 349. Williams, Thomas F., III, 325. Williams, William A., III, 76. Williams Park, St. Petersburg, I, 354. Williamson, Albert M., II, 82. Willis, Alva J., II, 183. Willis, Jasper N., III, 185. Willis, John R. , III, 316. Williston, I, 592. Willoughby, W. L., I, 15. Willson, Edward B., III, 326. 'Nilson, Alexander L., III, I 59. Wilson, Augustus M., III, 258. Wilson, Cephas L., II, 348. \Vilson , Cornelius V. S., III, 26o. Wilson, Edward F., III, T 39. Wilson, Fred R., III, 186. Wilson, Harold M., II, 167. Wilson, Lorenzo A., II, 292. Wilson, P. L., I, 68. Wilson, Solon G., III, 347. Wilson, William D.", III, 292. Windsor, Lester, II, 300. \Vingatc, Cassie B., II, 20. Wingate, Leon G., III, 244. Winter Garden, I , 446. Winter Haven, "the town of a Thousand Lakes," I, 462. Winter Park Land Company, I, 442. Winters, Bert, II, 208. Withee, Abner G., II, 354. Witherington, Henry H., III, 144 \Vithlacoochee River, I, 7, 592. Wolfe, Elmer E., II, 224. Wolfe, J . Emmett, II, 223. vVome n's Clubs, I , 169, 302, 344. \Vomcn's National Indian Association, T, 53, 167. Wood. Alvin J., III, 15. Woodbery, Hunter S., III, 283. Woodrow, I, 6o2. Woodruff, Seth, III, 148. \Vo o ds Scene, near Vernon, Washington County (illustration), I, 580. Woodward, Augustus B., I, 208. \ Vootten, Francis, III, 163. World War Honor Roll, I, 184, 195. Worth, William G., I , 50. Wotitzky, Edward, III, 299. Wread, Martin L., III, 346. Wright, Benjamin D., I, 377. Wright, Mrs. George M., ITI , i 75. Wyatt, Mathew IL II, 257. Wyman, Albert F., II, 263. Yates, David H., III, 27. Ybor, Vicente Martinez, I, 321, -125. Y • bor City, I, 321. Yellow fever, I, 164, 219, 374. Yellow Pine, I , 549. Yellow River, I, 574. Yonge, Philip K., II, 243. Young, James L., III, 8g. Young, Sam T., II, 134. Young Men's Christian A sociation, U ni ver sity of Florida, I, 240; Jacksonville, 300; Tampa, 343. Young Women's Christian Assoc:ation. Jacksonville, I, 300; Tampa, 343. Yowell, Newton P., III, 107. -Yulee, David L., I , 120, 123, (i llu st rati on) 125; 132, 145, 147, 3r9; II, 364. Yulee sugar plantation, I, 592. Zahra, Kamel, III, 135. Zaragoza, I, 373 . Zcllwood, I, 446. Zctterlund, Olof, II, 199. Zcwadski, W. K., Jr., II, 49. Zimmerman, H. B., III, 86.

PAGE 43

CAPITOL OF FLORIDA, TALLAHASSEE

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. History of Florida CHAPTER I THE BACKBONE OF FLORIDA Tature laid down the peninsula of Florida along a geological back Lone; other more superficial bones were projected from the central column to form the complete skeleton, and over and around the framework was packed the rich soils of the land which have made it a magic of veg etable production. The graceful trees of all the zones of climate came, and the bright flowers and the animals and birds and primitive man, with his instincts for eating and hunting and pleasure. Crude settlements in the woods and on the shores of all the waterways were made, and they gave place to the towns and cities and institutions of a more developed race. But when the last word is said, those who revert to the funda mentals repeat that the backbone of Florida's physical and institutional growth, from first to last, was placed in the misty ages of geological creation. THE BIRTH OF FLORIDA The idea underlying the foregoing paragraph is not original , and it ha s been expanded so graphically, and with specia l application to Florida, in all its essentials, that the essay is presented as it comes from the pen of J uclge Benjamin Harrison, of Jacksonville. Here it is: "In the beginning of time which is without date, a ridge of stone pro jected from the mountains of Georgia and reached down a long finger towards the south into the watery expanse. Then the great Gulf of Mexico covered what is now the valley of the Mississippi and the salt water reached northwards to the point on our maps where now rests the City of St. Louis; into this waste of waters the line that was to grow into the State of Florida extended. Era after era sent heat and waves and rains to beat upon those cliffs and from the disintegrating masses a beach was formed upon which monsters sprawled and devoured each other and died. Sea creatures with great wings stretching twenty feet sat and roosted on the summits and sides of the cliff and from their roosts and nests the rains carried down fertility to the soi l forming on the beaches . "Back of the cliffs, vegetation ran rampant and rose on the beaches as soon as soil was provided-their roots held the soil against the waves so that the land encroached on the ocean. In this soil the bones of the great sea-beasts are yet seen in the phosphate beds and the contrib uti ons of the birds provide for the pebble phosphate-Florida was in process of formation. Down from the cliffs rushed the rains and rivulets of fresh water, collected into creeks and made for themselves channels through the marshes. Forests of giant ferns and great grasses gave place to palms and seeds from the higher lands to the north provided for the hard woods-millions of years were required for growth but the baby was coming to her own as we see it today. Just outside the line of coast Vol. I-1 1

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2 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the cora l s builded reef after reef which held back the accumulating soil and when the space between had been filled another re e f was provided by the same industries for another extension of land. "The process is not a matter of conjecture; each succe s sive step is marked for the observer and the process continues before our eyes. River after river was formed as the protection of the coral barrier extended. First there was a salt water lagoon with inlets to the sea and the reef grew into a beach ridge. Another coral reef was placed and when the tides no l onger kept the inlets open fresh water drove out the salt, covered the sea-shells with mud, filled the channel and chano-ed the lagoon into a fre h water river flowing parallel with the coast into the ocean . "What Indian River is today the St. Johns was; what the St, Johns is today Indian River will be. Another reef is forming on the coast from Cape Canaveral to Key West and there will soon be another s alt water lagoon along the inside passage where boats already take their THE GEOLOGIC MONSTERS OF FLORIDA w ATERS From their boi:ies come our phosphates. course for protection behind the coral bulwark. For Florida the work of primitive creation continues, while north of Cape Hatteras the ocean takes revenge by making inroads on the coast line. When men are plant ing crops on the bed of the St. Johns and Indian River in a fresh water stream, fish will swim on the site of Fulton Market in water twenty feet deep and the City of New York will desert its island. "v\Tho were the fir t human inhabitants of Florida? Vie know as little as we knew who were the aborigines of England or France, but all have left proofs of their exi tence. Here we dig into the shell mounds and find remains of charred woods and shaped stones far below the pres. ent level of the marshes . Men once lived or were driven into these retreats where they must subsist on such food as could easily be found or were helpless to resist. As the waves retreated and the sea-monsters died under the changed conditions, the monsters of the land came clown to wallow. monstrous in bulk and fearful in form, against whom the clubs and flint weapons of man were powerless. Escape from them could only be found in the platform huts over the waters just as the lake-dwellers . in Europe sought refuge from similar conditions. "But on l y the imagination can write a history and de cribe the peo ple who so li ved and died with the help of the few proofs of exi tence that remain to us. We only know that the ages did their work and

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 3 Florida grew while savages slew each other and while tribe and race succeeded each other. Then in April, ISI3, of the Christian era, Ponce de Leon saw the coast line of Florida, or the Pascua Florida of the church and then history began for the land so built. The baptism took place on the East Coast between the mouth of the St. J ol111s River and the entrance to the harbor of St. Augustine. From this point the adventurous voyagers sailed back towards the south. We know along the Atlantic coast the inhabitants were hospitable, kind and peaceable, while on the Gulf coast they were fierce and implacable . Whence came the difference? FLORIDA'S PRIMITIVE RACES "When the European saw Florida, the Atlantic coast from the mouth of the St. Marys to Cape Canaveral was occupied by a race that had been long in possession and may stand for the aborigines to the best of THE FRENCH PILLAR ON ST. JOHNS BLUFF our knowledge. Their possessions extended inland to an uncertain and varying boundary on the north but reached across the valley of the St. Johns and to Lake Okeechobee, being pushed backward by the stronger invaders from the north. On the shores of Okeechobee they had a stronghold and on Drayton Island in Big Lake George they held their tribal ceremonies in what may be called the capital of the race. Divided into communities or clans they admitted a common name which has been handed down to us Timagoa, or Timucua, Atimuca or Tomokan, as the sounds appealed to the different hearers. They were agriculturists and hunters and fishermen, tall, vigorous, hospitable and kind. South of Cape Canaveral the beach ridge was occupied by the Aises, speaking an unknown tongue of which we have preserved only a few words. On the southern Atlantic coast and extending up the Gulf coast to the neighborhood of Tampa dwelt the Caribs, whose original home was on the southern continent but who were the sailors of those seas, having great canoes in which they came to attack the islands, being feared by all their neighbors and reproached as cannibals. They had but lately made a lodgment on the Florida coast. They feared not to attack the ships of the Spaniards and met all comers without waiting for explana tions. They sent Ponce de Leon back to die. "North of a line clrawn east from Tampa Bay, the adventurous in-

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4 HISTORY OF FLORIDA vaders of the great Maskoki race had taken possession. These boasted of a progress from the far west across great plains and may have been the remnants of the great Moundbuilders who have left their marks so widely in our West and South. De Soto was told that he went to his death at the hands of the invincible Apalache es of the same race-a peo ple that held their empire till broken by settlers of the country who formed another great union of states and now call themselves Americans by pre-eminence, if not by priority. "From the Tomokans we have no name for the whole peninsula, but the Maskokis or Muscogees named it Ikan-faski or the Pointed Land while its people were Ikaniuksalgi, or the people of the Pointed Land. Savages are not geographers, save for limited areas and in providing a name for the whole peninsula the Indians did more than other peoples in like conditions. It was long before an island of great fame became known as England and France took its present name from its invaders and conquerors, not from its original inhabitants or from the classic historians." THE FLORIDA STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Florida, in common with the other states of the Union, has closely cooperated with the general government, in making detailed surveys and estimates of the construction and potential wealth of its physical body. Within the fifteen years since the work commenced to be systematically pushed, such a flood of light has been thrown upon the latent riches of the state as to be a powerful cause in the practical development of agri culture and various industries largely founded upon it. The steps leading to these scientific surveys, with the results obtained, are thus described by Herman Gunter, present state geologist: "The Florida State Geological Survey was authorized by the General Assembly of 1907 and the act was approved by the governor on June 3, 1907. This act provides for the appointment of a state geologist, de fines his duties and provides for the maintenance of the survey. "Dr. E. H. Sellards , Ph. D., was appointed the first state geologist in June, 1907. He retained this position until June, 1919. He was as sisted during these years by Herman Gunter, who succeeded Dr. Sellards upon the latter's resignat i on. Since its establishment the Survey has employed various geologists and other scientists to assist in the preparation of the yearly reports. It has also cooperated with the United States Geological Survey in several reports on Florida geology. "Until the year 1919 the offices and the museum of the survey were in the chemistry building on the capitol grounds. Since that time it has occupied a suite of offices in the Perkins Building on Monroe Street. There has been space provided in the addition to the capitol building, work on which has recently begun, for the offices and the museum of the survey. "The results of the investigations of the Florida State Geological Survey have been published in the yearly reports. The following is a brief resume of these investigations: The water supply of the state has been rather thoroughly investigated and the area of artesian flow has been mapped. \!Veil logs and records from the various parts of the state have been collected and studied and tabulated. It is to these well logs that much of the knowledge of the underground stratigraphy of the state is due. "The stratigraphic geology of Florida has been the subject of several reports and the succession of the formations has been accurately de termined in most parts of the state. The range of formations in the state is rather limited, the Eocene being the oldest formation exposed within its boundaries. However, there have been many deep wells drilled in Florida for artesian water and several for oil, and the survey has been fortunate in securing samples from many of these wells. Thus

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 5 much has been learned of the succession and structure of the formations for several thousand feet below the surface. Many of these well logs and the interpretation of the samples have been published in the reports of the survey. • "The mineral industries of the state have received much attention both from a scientific and from an economic standpoint. The Florida Survey has cooperated with the United States Geological Survey in the collection of the statistics on mineral production in the state. The phosphate deposits, phosphate being the most important product of the state, have received much attention, the origin of both the hard-rock and the pebble-rock phosphate having been thoroughly investigated by Dr. E. H. Sellards. The mode of occurrence and the distribution of THE DESOTO MAP OF FLORIDA the deposits are well known. Florida is the leading state of the United States in phosphate production, having produced 85 per cent of the total production for the year 1920. Fullers earth is another mineral in the production of which Florida leads, having produced 82 per cent of the total output for the year 1920. "The Florida Survey has cooperated with the United States Bureau of Soils in a soil survey of several counties of the state and the origin of the soils is the subject of a report by Dr. E. H. Sellards. "Florida offers exceptional opportunities for the study of fossil re mains, both of vertebrates and invertebrates. While there has been a good deal of work done on these subjects there is a vast field here for the palreontologist. Some very interesting reports have been made by Doctor Sellards and others on the human remains and associated fossils from Vero, St. Lucie County. There has also been considerable work done on the foraminfera from the deep wells of the state. "The geography of state has been the subject of two reports by

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6 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Dr. Roland M. Harper. These reports have been published by the Florida Survey. "The detailed geology of the state has been the subject of much study by the State Survey and it has cooperated with the United States Geo logical Survey in the preparation of a geologic map of Florida. "In the last few years the oil of Florida have received much attention. There have been several wells drilled in various parts of the state for oil, but so far none of these have proven successful. The oil possibilities of Florida are the subject of a report by Dr. E. H. Sellards. This report is to . be published in the near future. "Other subjects _ which have not been investigated thoroughly, but which the survey contemplates working on in the near future, are the days, sands, limestones, rare earths, bauxite and diatomaceous earth." The State Geological Survey has issued annual reports since, and including 1908--thirteeh in all-and they contain a fine stock of mate rial on such topics as mineral industries, phosphates, artesian water sup plies, road materials, vertebrate fossils, including human remains, underground waters, wells and springs, disappearing streams and water and soil analyses . ' Both the state and the United States Geological surveys were espe cially interested in examinations of the underground waters of Florida with their surface indications of springs and disappearing streams. Intimately related to the subject were the sources of domestic supply for rural communities, towns and cities, through artesian and other deep wells. Both in the investigation of this subject, and other geological topics , they closely cooperated , and in 1908, the year after the estab lishment of the state s urvey, Prof. E . H. Sellards, then state geologist and Herman Gunter, his assistant, visited sixteen counties in Central Florida for the special purpose of gathering data on the water supplies. Two Federal surveyors had previously been engaged in similar work in Northern and Central Florida. The result of this cooperation ap peared in the second annual report of the Florida Geological Survey. G . C. Matson, one of the men engaged in the Federal survey mentioned, afterward became connected with the General Land Office and made changes and additions to his original report, and Samuel Sanford, en gaged in geologic work for the Florida East Coast Railway, was assigned to investigate the geology of the keys and the southern end of the state. From these, and numerous local authorities, was prepared an elaborated publication , issued from the Government Printing Office , Washington, in 1913, under the direction of Thomas Wayland Vaughn. It is the authoritative publication on the "Geology and Ground Waters of Florida," and much of the material which follows is condensed from it. NATURAL FEATURES OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA Florida , as a whole, forms a part of the geographical province known as the Coastal Plain-a broad tract of relatively low land which extends from New York to Mexico, rising gradually from the coast to a height of a few feet and for the most part apparently flat or gently rolling. Although Florida is a region of. comparatively slight relief, its surface presents considerable diversity, ranging from a nearly level plane in the coastal region and the Everglades to a deeply dis sected upland in the northern portion of the state, where it is trenched by steep-walled valleys, and to a highland in the peninsula, where it shows many more or less rounded depressions separated by narrow di vides. Altitudes within the state range from sea level to more than 200 feet above, at places on the ridge that form the center of the peninsula, and to about 300 feet above, at the western end of the state near the western boundaries of Walton, Santa Rosa and Escambia counties.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 7 The southern part of the peninsula, comprising an area about 150 miles Jong and over 100 miles in average width, lies in general less than fifty feet above sea level. Narrow strips of lowland also border the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The valleys of the streams do not rise above the fifty-fqot contour for a considerable distance from the coast, and one of them (St. John's River) is nowhere more than 30 feet above tide. The uplands of the peninsula and the adjacent part of North Florida are separated into two more or less distinct parts by Ocklawaha River. Beginning southeast of Arcadia, a belt of high land, very irregular in shape, extends northward to Summit on the Atlantic Coast Line Rail road. and separates the Kissimmee River drainage basin from that of the streams to the west. At Lakeland , Brooksville, and several other points this upland rises more than 200 feet above sea level. Another broad, irregular upland, stretching northward from Ocklawaha River to the Georgia line , includes a considerable tract more than r 50 f ee t above sea level and forms the divide between the Atlantic and Gulf drainage basins. Its narrowest part is along the western boun darie s of Clay and Duval counties, where it forms the long north-south divide known as Trail Ridge. This upland includes Lake City , at an altitude 201 feet above sea level, and Highland on Trail Ridge at an alti tude of 210 feet. Near the Georgia line the upland broadens into the Okefenokee swamp, which occupies a large area in Georgia and extends a short distance into Florida. The western slope of the highland is cut by Santa Fe River and its tributaries, and its eastern slope is deeply dis sected by the tributaries of St. Johns and St. Marys rivers. Near the state line in the northern and western parts of Florida lies a narrow upland which has been deeply dissected by several streams. On its seaward side this highland in many places descends rather -abruptly to the low coastal region. Its highest points are near the northern line of the state, where considerable areas rise above the 250-foot contour. Notable examples of this upland are seen in Gadsden County and in the counties west of Choctawhatchee River. RIVERS AND LAKES The rivers which drain Northern and Central Florida are classified as "conseque .nt streams," because their courses were determined in con sequence of the initial slope of the coastal land as it emerged from the sea; "superimposed streams," which have cut through the surface for mations and have become superimposed upon the older strata, and "extended streams," which partake of both, having worn their way into the older rocks and also extended their channels through the coastal deposits. To the consequent streams belong the Kissimmee-Caloosahatchee system. with its numerous lakes which were formed by depressions in the sand. Portions of the courses of the St. Johns (north of Sanford), and the Manatee and Aucilla rivers are of the "consequent" variety, while the most important "extended" streams of the state are the Escambia, Black water, Yellow, Choctawhatchee, Apalachicola, Ochlockonee, Withlacoo chee, Hillsborough, Peace and St. Marys rivers. Florida may be divided into three topographic provinces-the upland region of the peninsula (commonly known as the "lake" region), the lowland, and the coast. Lakes, of course, are not confined to the upland or "lake" region. Generally speaking, however, they are grouped in two more or. less distinct areas, those lying in rock basins occupying the up land and those lying in sha.llow depressions in the sand in the coastal and southern lowlands, though many in the highlands lie in depressions in the sand and some small ones in the lowlands are known to occupy rock basins. The highland area of the peninsula , however, where rock basins predominate, has commonly been known as the lake region, and for convenience this designation is retained. Although the State of Florida is crossed by many large rivers, it con-

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• 8 HISTORY OF FLORIDA tains numerous tracts of land which are very imperfectly drained and are occupied by lakes or swamps, some of them being of considerable size. The most noteworthy undrained area is the southern part of the peninsula where the Everglades and adjacent lowlands form a nearly impenetrable wilderness. In this lowland tract lies Lake Okeechobee, one of the largest and most interesting lakes in the south Atlantic States. According to Sanford the Everglades nowhere rise more than 25 feet above sea level, and the slope of the surface is so gentle that much of the water which falls during the rainy season is held for a time in broad, shallow ponds and marshes that carry excellent growths of saw grass and other aquatic plants. UNDERGROUND CHANNELS AND CAVERNS The upland, or "lake" region, is underlain at no great depth by several hundred feet of porous limestone. Where surface water bearing car bonic acid derived from decaying organic matter enters this rock, it gradually dissolves the limestone and forms underground channels. A large part of the mineral matter thus removed by the underground water is carried to the surface and, entering the rivers, is transported to the sea. E. H. Sellards, former state geologist, estimates the amount of solid matter removed in this manner, basing his calculations on the amount of mineral matter contained in solution in the waters of eight of the large springs of the state. These springs emerge from caverns in the underlying limestone and are fed by the rain falling on the surrounding areas. The percentage of mineral matter in solution was determined by analysis and the volume of flow was estimated. Not to follow in detail all the mathematical steps leading to the conclusion, it became evident that in a comparatively btief geologic time many underground channels and caverns would be formed in the limestone . The process is in tinuous operation, and some of the caverns are already hundreds of feet in diameter and several miles in length. As the solution of the limestone progresses, the cavern roofs become weakened at numerous points and collapse, forming the depressions known as sink holes. SPRINGS The great development of underground drainage in many parts of the state has given rise to many springs at places where streams emerge from subterranean channels. The number of such springs . is very great. In size they vary from mere seeps to discharges which give rise to creeks and rivers large enough to float good-sized passenger and freight steamers. The best known and largest is the Silver Spring in Marion County, which gives rise to a large stream of remarkable clearness and beauty. The water emerges from a basin over 35 feet deep in a stream (Silver Spring Run) that is about 50 feet in average width and more than 9 feet in minimum depth in the center of the channel. The water is so clear that objects lying on the bottom are distinctly visible. Among the other large springs of the region are W ekiva Spring, the source of the river of the same name; Sulphur Spring, near Tampa; Suwannee Sulphur Spring, near Suwannee; Blue Spring, near Juliet Station; Blue Spring, near Orange Junction; Green Cove Spring, on St. Johns River; Itchatucknee Spring, near Fort White; Poe Spring, near High Springs; Crystal River Springs, the source of Crystal River; Weekewachee Spring, near Bayport; and Newland Spring, near Falmouth. All these springs are well known and many of them are very large . They are supplied with water by the limestones of the Vicksburg group, which are everywhere porous and in many places cavernous. ' A spring at Tarpon Springs is worthy of special mention because it appears to be in part supplied with water from a small lake . The water emerges at the bottom of the bay a few feet below mean tide level. On

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 9 the opposite side of the town is a small lake which is without surface outlet and apparently occupies a sink hole. Usually the flow of this spring is comparatively insignificant, but at times the discharge is enor mous . Observations made upon the lake just before and after one of these outbursts of the spring appear to show that the lake discharges water into the spring through some underground channel, for the surface of the lake is said to have been lowered several inches while the spring was flowing rapidly. Aside from the large springs mentioned many others yield large quan tities of water, and springs of moderate size exist in nearly all parts of the state. Some of the smaller springs are supplied with water from the superficial sands, but many of them derive their from the lime stones. ARTESIA N W ATERS OF FLORIDA The problem of pure drinking water is at the basis of individual and community health , and the years of geological investigation as to the nature of Florida's underground circulation of water have therefore brought results of the utmost importance to the well-being of her people and the growth of the state. As the rainfall in different parts of Florida determines primarily the abundance of potable water which may be drawn through springs and wells, it is important to learn that the average pre cipitation north of the Keys is 52 inches annually . Considerable quan tities of water occur in cavities and crevices in rocks but by far the larger proportion occurs in the minute pores between the individual grains of porous rocks . The earth's crust is under enormous pressure at no great depth from the surface, and it has been estimated that at a depth of approximately six miles this pressure must be sufficient to close all openings. The thickness of the sands and porous limestones in Florida is known to exceed 1,200 feet and, assuming an average porosity of 20 per cent of their volume, these rocks would contain enough water to cover the entire surface of the state to a depth of more than 240 feet. This estimate should not be taken as a measure of the amount of potable underground water, because the deeper waters of Florida are too highly mineralized to be classed as drinkable . Most of the water which is absorbed by the soil is either lost to the air by evaporation, or returned to the surface by means of springs and wells. The limestones of Vicksburg group are the important artesian water-bearing beds Florida. The occurrence of the artesian waters depends on several factors, which have sometimes been designated "artesian requisites." The first is an adequate rainfall to supply the water, and this requirement is met by the large annual precipitation of the region. The second requisite is a porous water bed , and this is furnished by the loosely aggregated limestones of the Vicksburg group. The third requi site is the pra,ctical exposure of the porous bed to form a catchment area. The principal catchment area of this limestone occupies a belt in the central portion of the peninsula and extends northward into Georgia. A subordinate area is located in west Florida, where it occupies a tract of land extending from near Chipley northward into Alabama. The fourth requisite is a confining layer of relatively impervious rock, which is furnished in Florida by layers of chert. In some places there is a second layer of chert below the artesian bed, but this is not essential, because the rocks below the artesian bed are saturated with water. The fifth requisite is an inclination of the water-bearing bed, and this is sup plied by the dip of the limestone away from the center of the peninsula and outward from the adjacent mainland. The artesian heads, or the altitude of the catchment area, or water table, which largely determine the force of the escaping streams, varies in different sections of the state. Along the east coast the head varies from 65 feet above sea level at Jacksonville to only a few feet above, "' •.

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10 HISTORY OF FLORIDA farther south. In the interior, the head of the artesian waters is in places high. At Sanford it is approximately 25 feet above sea level and at Kissimmee, 75 feet above-the latter probably being the maximum head in the state. The head of the artesian water diminishes to the south, and along the main chain. of the keys the water will probably not rise above sea level. On the west coast of the peninsula, it increases toward the south. Thus at Tampa the artesian head is approximately 17 feet above sea level; at Manatee and Bradentown it rises to about 25 feet, and at Fort Myers it reaches nearly 45 feet. Such artesian heads will vary; due to either fluctuations in the tides and rainfall or to the sinking of numerous wells in thickly settled areas. . Although underground water often appears to be quiesGent, in most localities it is moving very slowly thl'.ough the rock toward some point of escape. The causes for this movement are several, but the most important is gravity. Gravity operates to bring underground water to the surface of the earth at a lower l evel than that of the place where it entered and so enables it to join the surface water or to evaporate. Capil larity brings water to the surface, where it is evaporated, or brings it within the reach of plants which return it to the air. Flowing wells, which seem to act in opposition to gravity, are really due to that force act ing upon a body of water which elsewhere extends to a level higher than that of the mouth of the well. Pressure exerted on the water-bearing beds may be a cause of movement of water, but in Florida this force has no noticeable effect . BARS, CAPES, SOUNDS AND LAGOONS The formation of the bars, capes, sounds and lagoons on both the east and west coasts of Florida is simply explained. On the east coast where the prevailing currents move southward, the bars are commonly extended by additions to their southern ends. On the Gulf coast, the dominant currents appear to be in the opposite direction, and the bars are usually builded by successive additions to their northern ends, though an eastward current of some importance may be inferred from the posi tion of the bar at the entrance of St. Andrews Bay. Behind the shore bars are narrow bodies of shallow water which, on the east coast, are commonly known as rivers, though they might more appropriately be termed sounds. To this class belong such bodies of water as Halifax and Indian rivers. As the sounds become more nearly surrounded by the growing bars, they change into lagoons, which are in .turn filled with silt and thus transformed into marshes. Musquito Lagoon and Lake Worth on the east coast are excellent examples of lagoons. Many of the important capes of Florida appear to have been built of sand deposited by currents moving along the shore. Cape Canaveral on the east coast was formed where the easterly trend of the current caused the southward-moving current to move outward from the coast into the deeper water where the velocity of the water was checked, caus ing it to deposit some of its load of sand. From the outward end of the cape there projects a long narrow spit of sand, which rises nearly to the surface. The seaward end of this spit is often bent into a hook by the action of the current: On the west coast the northward-moving current encounters the islands near the west end of St. Vincent Sound, and turning westward forms Cape San Blas. Cape St. George at the western end of the island of the same name, and Southwest Cape, west of Apalachee Bay, appear to ' have been formed in a similar manner. All of these capes are gradually being extended seaward by the continual addition of material transported along shore by the currents. Many minor projections usually known as points have originated in practically the same manner as the larger capes . In 18g8 Gulliver studied the origin of Capes and San Blas, and designated them "current cuspate forelands."

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 11 SOILS OF FLORIDA The chief types of soils recognized by geologists and agriculturalists are sands, fine sands, sandy loams and fine sandy loams; subordinate types, loams, silt loams, clays, mucks and meadow. The clay soils are chiefly small tracts in the neighborhood of streams; they may be more correctly described as a variety of sandy loam. The sand, or real sandy loam soils, which cover the greater part of Florida, respond quickly to treatment and produce large crops of fruits and vegetables. The peat and muck soils of the state, in the Everglades and other swampy dis tricts, are, with drainage and cultivation, showing their great productiveness. The Florida Department of Agriculture classifies the soils of the state into pine lands, swamp lands, Everglades , low hammocks, high hammocks and prairie, and gives the following additional bits of information: The greater portion of Florida lands are designated as pine lands because of the predominance of pine timber . The lands on which there PRAIRIE So IL, NEAR SEBASTIAN is a mixture of pine and hardwoods are termed mixed hammock lands. Wonder at the productivity of "Florida sand" is modified when it is known that the sand is thoroughly mixed with particles of shell which contain carbonate of lime, and other minerals and decomposed vegetable matter. Lands that are considered worthless in more northerly climes are wonderfully productive in Florida because of the influence of its semi tropical climate and abundant water supply. First class pine land is covered with vegetable mould, beneath which is a chocolate colored sandy loam, mixed with limestone pebbles and resting upon a substratum of marl, clay or limestone rock. Swamp lands are regarded as the most durable rich lands in Florida. They are alluvial and occupy natural basins which have gradually been filled with deposits of vegetable matter washed in from the higher lands. Drainage is necessary to successful cultivation. The best swamp lands are in east and south Florida. The low hammock lands of Florida are mostly level, and have greater tenacity than high hammock lands. They are somewhat indiscriminately classed as swamp lands, but are not considered as desirable. High hammock lands are regarded with great favor in Florida. They occupy higher ground than the low hammocks and generally present an undulating surface. They consist of a fine mould of vegetable matter

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12 HISTORY OF FLORIDA mixed with sandy loam , sometimes several feet deep, and rest upon a substratum of clay, marl or limestone. They produce a great variety of crops and are easily cultivated. ' The prairie lands of Florida are found in extensive tracts and are like the swamp lands in character, their freedom of timber being the chief difference. Care should be exercised in the selection of such lands, however, for some of them are rendered non-productive by a substratum of hard-pan which is impervious to moisture. Prairie lands afford fine grazing, and the counties of the south-central peninsula embracing them constitute the best cattle raising section of the state. SOUTHERN FLORIDA For purposes of description and classification, the Government sur vey has separated Southern from Northern and Central Florida. Though. the division is somewhat arbitrary, the section named is Lowland Florida, naturally given over to the domain of the waters, but by the might of man being steadily reclaimed from them year by year. The term Southern Florida includes the portion of the peninsula with its bordering islands or keys lying south of a roughly northeast-southwest line extending from the north line of Palm Beach County on the east coast past the south end of Lake Okechobee to the mouth of San Carlos Bay on the west coast . The piece of mainland thus arbitrarily cut off is 140 miles in extreme length, north and south, and 120 miles in maxi mum width, east and west. Its area is about 7 , 300 square miles, of which 6 , ooo square miles are swamp or land so low as to be covered with water during the rainy season, from June to October, or, near the coast, by unusually high spring tides. The total number of the keys is unknown, but their area is here estimated at 300 square miles. I GENERAL FEATURES Growing coral reefs extend along the Florida coast for over 200 miles and are found nowhere else in the continental limits of the United States. Because of the reefs and the teeming marine life of the surrounding waters, Southern Florida has attracted attention for over fifty years and has been visited by a number of eminent scientists who have described and discussed the main features of the keys and the southeast shore of the mainland. Owing to the difficulties of travel in this region and its comparative remoteness and inaccessibility before the building of the Florida East Coast Railway, these visitors confined their observations largely to the reefs, the shore line of the keys, and the edge of the main land in the vicinity of Biscayne Bay. . In 1907 and 1908 Samuel Sanford had an opportunity to study in detail some features of the topography and geology and their relation to underground waters that were not so evident in former years as they are today. Between 1896, the year of two important contributions to the geology of the region-the papers by Alexander Agassiz on the elevated reef and by L. S. Griswold on the southern Everglades-and 1909, when the geology was described in detail in the second annual report of the state geologist, the railroad had been completed from Palm Beach to Miami and from Miami to Knights Key. At the mouth of Miami River, where only a few houses stood at the time of Griswold's visit, there is now a city of over 5,000 inhabitants, from which radiate miles of excellent macadam roads. What was then a barren wilderness now includes thousands of acres of truck farms and orange and grape fruit plantations. The result to the geologist from this transformation is a great increase in the easily obtainable rock evidence. Wells, quarries for road metal, and railroad borrow pits make the compiling of geologic data along the east coast vastly easier than it was in 1895. Even on the

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 13 relatively remote west coast, from Cape Sable north, there are more set tlements today than there were then, and with the coming of the motor boat the exploration of the shallow and tortuous passages characterizing that coast has been much facilitated. The larger portion of the interior is included in the great saw-grass swamp of the Everglades. Though repeatedly crossed by troops in the Seminole War and well known to many white men, hunters of alligators and plume birds, living on its borders, this expanse of water and sedge covered muck had until 1907 been visited by few geologists and traversed by none. Gri!iwold's account of what he saw toward the south end of the Everglades remained for years the best description of the more noteworthy features of the topography and geology of the region. Now, however, the drainage and reclamation work carried on by the state is yielding evidence that the individual explorer, from the physical difficul ties to be overcome, could not possibly hope to obtain. IN THE INFANTILE STAGE Taken as a whole the topography of the Southern Florida mainland has all the aspects of infancy. Drainage is defective; sloughs, shallow ponds, and lakes abound. Most of the interior is a swamp; no well defined river systems nor stream -valleys exist; and some of the short rivers that flqw from the Everglades into the Atlantic are, where bed rock comes a few feet above sea level, characterized by rapids in their upper courses. The average elevation of the surface of the Southern Florida main land is below twenty feet and over long stretches of the ground is almost a dead level. The general slope of the surface is south, though elevations along the east coast may average ten feet higher than along the west coast. This is shown by the drainage of Lake Okechobee, the greater length of the west coast rivers and the trend of the river courses. In consequence of the slight relief, the imperfect drainage, and the result ing accumulation of surface water during the rainy season, small differ ences in elevation have a marked effect on vegetation, and make it possible to roughly divide the mainland into pineland and swamp. THE PINELANDS The pinelands of Southern Florida are not remarkable by reason of the size of the the thickness of growth, nor the yield of good timber per acre, but as they include the larger portion of the surface lying above what may be termed normal water level they are impressive from their extent. In round figures perhaps 1,300 square miles are to be regarded as pineclad . The pinelands of the eastern coast extend for the most part as a narrow belt between the Everglades and the coastal swamp from the north line of Palm Beach County to twelve miles southwest of Homestead. This belt is widest at the north, where it may be twenty miles across, and is much narrower south of Jupiter Inlet, where it is about six miles wide, varying in width from two to eight miles and tapering to its south western extremity. West of the Everglades the pines are more irregu larly distributed; at Naples they grow to the shore of the Gulf; along the north line of Monroe County they grow in more or less disconnected areas separated by narrow and broad strips of cypress; between Cape Romano and the mouth of Lostmans River they lie from five to fifteen miles back of the outer face of the network of kevs that constitutes the apparent shore line. South of Lostmans River there is no pineland. As the trees grow on areas of very different topographic aspect, the pineland of Southern Florida may be divided according to the character of its relief into dunes, rolling sand plains, rock ridges, and flat lands.

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14 HISTORY OF FLORIDA THE DUNES Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of the dunes of Southern Florida is their quiescence. If cleared of pine timber and palmetto scrub they grow good pineapples, but even when bare their sands are little rrioved by the prevailing winds. The blasts of a hurricane may affect them somewhat, but certainly nowhere in Southern Florida is there any such movement as is characteristic of dunes in active growth; no leeward march overwhelms trees and threatens dwellings, and no such drift is in progress as can be seen at Cape Henry, Virginia, and at other points on the Atlantic coast. Instead of burying forests the dunes of Southern Florida, where not cleared, are covered with scrub or large pine trees. In short, they are quiescent. In Southern Florida the larger dunes lie near the coast. East of the Everglades and Lake Okechobee they reach . south to New River as a discontinuous series of irregularly distributed mounds and ridges , in places separated by considerable intervals of flat or gently rolling country or by stretches of shallow water. South of Jupiter Inlet dunes are numerous but occur as disconnected mounds or ridges and not as continuous or contiguous ridges. A typical dune, forty-seven feet high, at West Palm Beach, according to report, contained masses of rock. There are dunes twenty feet high near Palm Beach. Isolated dunes and ridges near the shore between West Palm Beach and Jupiter are shown by the Coast Survey charts . South of West Palm Beach the dune belt lies farther inland, though generally parallel to the seashore. On the west coast of Southern Florida, dunes are not nearly so numer ous as on the east coast and are more irregularly distributed. In that section of the coastal region, the . best developed dune system has been located in a stretch of about eight miles east of the south end of Caxim bas Island, covering several other islands in whole or in part. The general location is a few miles north of Cape Romano. Just back of Caximbas postoffice, at the west end of the system, is a dune thirty-five feet high. A mile to the northeast another ridge, having a maximum height of sixty feet, is said to be the highest in the system. Ro c K RIDGES The absence of rock outcrops over the greater part of that portion of the mainland included under the term Southern Florida is striking, and indeed remarkable when one finds that in many places solid rock lies only a few feet below surface. To outcrops of any extent the term rock ridges is here applied, though it should be understood that these rock ridges may not rise more than two feet above the level of the surrounding country and probably nowhere have an elevation exceeding twenty-five feet above sea level. The rock ridges of the east coast comprise the prominent outcrops of oolitic limestone that extend from five miles north of Miami to Homestead and separate the great saw-grass swamp of the Everglades from the fringe of mangrove swamps and salt prairie along the western shore of Biscayne Bay. North of New River, between the sea and the Everglades, except for the coquina near the beaches, outcrops of rock are few and scattered. In the Everglades some of the keys have a rocky foundation, such being reported nearly to Lake Okechobee, but so far as known the only ones that form bare rock ridges are Long Key and the keys related to it, none of which reach as far north as the latitude of Miami. On the west coast of Southern Florida hard rock outcrops are more scattered than on the east but cover a much wider area. Throughout the pine island and cypress strands, limestone projects here and there through the sands and is found along the roads from Fort Myers to

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 15 Fort Shackelford and from Fort Myers past Immokalee to the head of Allens River. Moreover, narrow interrupted strips of bare rock, some of them several miles in width, run through the pinelands. THE EVERGLADES OF FLORIDA 1 The swamp lands of Southern Florida include the Everglades, the cypress swamps and strands around its edges, or intermingles with the pinelands, and the salt meadows and mangrove swamps of the coast. It is difficult for a person who has not seen the Everglades to form even an approximate idea of that far-extending expanse of sedge, with its stretches of shallow water, its narrow winding channels of deeper water, its scattered clumps of bushes, and its many islands. Photographs fail to convey the impressions of distance, of remoteness, and of virgin wild ness which strike the visitor who for the first time looks out across that vast expanse. On the north the main body of the Everglades reaches to the southern and southwestern sides of Lake Okechobee. Arms extend farther north, but much of the eastern and most of the northern shore of the lake is bordered by cypress swamps, some of these containing the tallest and c'.eanest cypress to be found in Florida. East of the lake the Everglades fade away irregularly in the Allapattah Flats, a region largely under water at the end of each rainy sea s on, where interwinding strips of saw-grass swamp and grassy prairie, set with patches of cypress and, more rarely, with hammocks of hardwood, stretch away in an almost dead level. Farther south the Everglades are bordered by prairie and cypress swamp or at a few places reach nearly to the coast. The rocky pine-clad islands that extend southwestward from the main body of the Biscayne pineland nearly to Whitewater Bay have a fringe of prairie, but east of them lies a saw-grass strait and to the south lie wide expanses of saw-grass dotted with keys that disappear seaward among thickets of dwarf cypress or mangrove. On the west the Everglades from Whitewater Bay to Lostmans River just south of the Ten Thousand Isbnds, reach the mangrove swamps that fringe the coast. Iorth of Lostmans River an arm of the Everglades runs up between the mangrove swamp and the prairie bordering the pine islands and gradually disappears before reaching Allens River. Cypress swamp and prairie form the western boundary of the main body of the Everglades from Lostmans River to Caloosahatchee River. The Everglades have been variously called a lake in a rock-rimmed ba s in and a vast sink. In the light of the facts accumulated by surveys of the War Department, the Disston Company, the Florida East Coast Railway, . and the State of Florida, and by the explorations of ]. E. Ingraham, H. L. Willoughby , and others, both these designations appear inexact. Bedrock apparently lies at or near the surface around the edges of the Everglades. Along the east side from Jupiter River to Hillsboro River outcrops are few . South of New River they are more numerous, and from just north of Miami to Homestead the rock forms bare ridges with a maximum elevation of fifteen feet above mean 'water level in the Everglades. This line of ridges bends at its southern end to the west and gradually disappears as a series of rocky keys running west and southwest and reaching nearly to Whitewater Bay. The Everglades owe their existence primarily to an abundant rain fall and to the slight elevation of Southern Florida. Even were there no basin-like structure whatever, and were the bedrock surface absn-i With the progressive drainage of the Everglades and the reclamation of large tracts of lands around its margins, much of the data which was true to the facts eight or nine years ago is now out of date ; but the observations published by the United States Geological Survey in 1913, as to the physical features of the State constitute the latest . reliable word on the numerous subjects which they cover.

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16 HISTORY OF FLORIDA lutely flat along an east-west line, the present rainfall, the sluggish drain age, and the luxuriant growth of vegetation would result _ in a swamp forming across the center of the peninsula from Lake Okechobee. In short, the Everglades resemble in origin the Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and Virginia. CYPRESS AND MANGROVE SWAMPS Most of the many tracts of cypress scattered over Southern Florida call for no especial notice. Probably the finest cypress grows northeast of Lake Okechobee, but the largest tracts of good timber are west of the Everglades; Okaloacoochee Slough and the Big Cypress are the two most important. Both have extremely irregular outlines with numerous arms forming strands among adjacent pine islands or prairies. The southern boundary of the Big Cypress is not indicated on most maps of Southern Florida and on many its extent is greatly exaggerated, the name being printed across a region where cypress swamps, prairies, ham mocks, and pineland are intermingled. During periods of high water boats can pass through the Big Cypress from the Everglades to the Gulf north of Cape Romano. The maximum east-west width of the swamp may be forty miles. Ten miles east of the head of Henderson Creek is a cypress swamp six miles wide, and east of Everglade is another swamp six to twelve miles wide, these swamps being connected with other swamps that form arms of the Big Cypress. The mangrove swamps of both eastern and western coastal regions constitute a typical feature of Florida's physical life. The red mangrove most frequently grows as a bushy tree, under twenty feet high. The swamp which forms the southern fringe of the mainland from Chis Cut to six miles east of Flamingo has such low trees, as have many islands in Whitewater Bay, north of Cape Sable, and most of the patches of swamp along the main line of the Florida Keys from Biscayne Bay to the Marquesas. In the Shark River archipelago and over the Ten Thousand Islands . . still going northward along the Gulf coast, the mangrove f9rms a noble forest, the trees growing to a height of sixty feet or over, with clean smooth trunks two feet or more in diameter at the butt, and without a limb for thirty feet from the ground. They rise from the Gulf like a green wall and are one of the most striking features of the shore line of Southern Florida. The majestic appearance of these trees com pared with the look of those in Whitewater Bay cannot be explained _by any local peculiarity of climate. Rather it result from the ae.ratlon of the thick bed of soft gray marl on which they grow by the . swmg of the tides, which here have greater amplitude than anywhere else on the whole coast of the Peninsula, fully five feet. Northward toward Cape Romano, the trees become smaller, and along the inlets back of Caximbas they are as bushy as in Whitewater Bay. THE FLORIDA KEYS ' The keys or islands that fringe the Southern Florida mair:iland dif!er greatly in size, shape, and surface features. Some are tyi;>ical barner beaches, long, narrow, low-lying banks of sand, crowned with cocoanut palms and buried in mangrove swamps to land"'.ard. a.re true mangrove islands, shoals formed by the efforts of tidal and currents where mangroves were able to take root and arrest material thrown up by the waves. Others are sand banks so low-lying or so exposed as to support only a of .beach grasses and and still others, notably those m the mam cham. that extends from Virginia Key opposite Miami to Key West, are of rock or ha.ve a foundation reachina to or above mean sea level and covered with vanous b • scrubby hardwood trees, palms, and even pmes. . Within this chain, fringing the mainland or dotted over the Bay of

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 17 Florida are many keys in all stages of growth, from banks below sea level to banks just bare at low tide on which mangroves have got a foot hold and by their entangling roots are catching seaweed and driftwood, arresting the movement of calcareou s sand and mud, and actively push ing out the shore line. Whitewater Bay, which lie s behind Cape Sable and has an extreme northwest-southeast length of perhaps twenty miles, is full of these mangrove islands . North of Whitewater Bay the Ten Thousand Islands form a netwotk of channels and of marl banks supporting a heavy growth of red and black mangrove. From Big Marco Pass to Sanibel Island an almost continuous beach of siliceous sand, broken only by narrow inlets, such as Johns Pass, Gordon Pass, Big Hickory Pass, and Big Carlos ' Pass, faces the Gulf. These passes lead to inner "bays" dotted with islands of many sizes, but with few features of especial interest. Since the keys were elevated to their present height they have been subjected to forces that tend to advance the shore line and to those that tend to push it back. The easterly winds have played an important part in giving the eastern and southern faces of the keys their present forms, Differences in time and height of tides in Florida Strait and the Bay of Florida, together with the area of the bay,, result in strong curr.ents sweeping through the passages between the keys, particularly the open ings west of Long Key. When northers blow the shallow waters of the bay are milk-white over large areas from the limy stuff in suspension. This is deposited, to be picked up with a change of wind or tide, or is carried to sea in such quantities as to s how in the blue waters of the Gulf Stream ten miles outside the keys. The bars and banks about the keys and in the Bay of Florida , the areas of marl and calcareous sand above sea level, show the activity of waves and currents and indicate how much material they have recently handled. THE FLORIDA REEF The shores of the main line of keys, extending from opposite Bi s cayne Bay to Key Wes t and Boca Grande, are in places rocky and in other places are bordered by flats of soft marl or calcareous sand. On some keys the surface is bare rock; on others it is sand or marl; on very few do wide strips of land stand as much as six feet above the highest spring tides. The longest key-Key Largo-is thirty miles in extreme length, but is nowhere over three miles wide , and its maximum width abov e the high spring tides is considerably less . Big Pine Key is ten miles long and its high ground is nearly two miles wide with a greatest elevation of ten feet. . Key West is four miles long by one mile wide and it s highe s t ground, which is near the center of the city of Key Wes t, has an eleva tion of thirteen feet. The highest measured points in the whole chain of keys are two small knolls eighteen feet high, one on Windleys Island and the other on Plantation Key, just to the north. The knoll on Wind leys Island was quarried for fills and ballast along the railway line to Knights Key. The Florida Keys are separated by Bahia Honda Channel into two distinctly differentiated divisions . Eas t of the channel the islands are narrow and lie along a sweeping arc curved toward the southeast. Outside this arc is the Florida Strait; inside it are the Bay of Florida, Barnes ' Sound, Blackwater Bay , Card Sound, and Biscayne Bay. The western end at Bahia Honda is thirty-five miles from East Cape on Cape Sable, the nearest point of the Florida mainland. The rock ridge of Key Largo is not two miles from the edge of the mangrove swamp that fringes the end of the peninsula and from there northward the keys are within eight miles of the mainland. West of Bahia Honda the keys form an archipelago roughly triangular in outline. In this group, the westward prolongation of the arc

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18 HISTORY OF FLORIDA in which lie Bahia Honda and the keys to the east and northeast is found in the southern shore line of the keys; but the keys themselves, instead of lying parallel to this arc, have a prevailing north-northwest, south southeast arrangement, perpendicular to the arc. The causes of this striking dissimilarity in position are twofold , a difference in rock structure and a difference in the direction of the forces which have shaped the islands. Bahia Honda and the keys east of it represent an uplifted coral reef more or less covered with sand and marl; hence their basement rock ridges have the trend of the coral patches of the old reef. The keys west of Bahia Honda consist of an oolitic limestone formed from de posits in a broad expanse of shallow water; hence there was no original ridgelike upbuilding, no pronounced trend to the rock structure. Differ ences in resistance to erosion have resulted in irregularities of the rock surface, which, as along the old reef to the east, have been more or less covered with marl and calcareous sand. The prevailing north-south trend of the passages separating the keys, hence the trend of the keys them selves; is due . to tidal currents, which owe their power to differences in time and height of the tides of the Gulf and the Strait of Florida. The shaping of the great arc of the keys is the joint production of several factors. The old coral reef that forms its greater part was built up from the bottom in water of a certain depth along a line that had the general direction of the southeastern and southern edge of the submarine plateau of the Florida peninsula. The curve of its western end was con trolled more or less by the eastward flow of the Gulf Stream against the westerly movement of the . prevailing winds. THE MINERALS OF FLORIDA By far the most valuable of the mineral deposits in Florida are the phosphates, which are found in the shape of hard rock and land pebbles. They are found chiefly in the western part of the central pen insula. The matrix in which the hard rock phosphate is imbedded is variable, but is generally pervaded by a light gray sand. The land pebble phosphates are much more uniform in their manner of occurrence than are the hard rock deposits. The matrix of the pebble variety generally consists of clay, sand and soft phosphate. Although variable, the phos phate bed has an average thickness of from 8 to IO feet, its maximum being from 18 to 20. The chief phosphate-producing counties of Florida are (from south to north) DeSoto, Manatee, Polk, Hernando, Citrus , Marion and Alachua. Some of the earliest and richest deposits (land pebble) were opened in the valley of Peace Creek. The most striking increase in production has been in the latter variety. Although in ton nage six or seven times as much of the land pebble phosphate as of the hard rock is pi:oduced, the latter is valued at more than twice as much per ton. At the same time the aggregate , value of the land pebble is more than three times that of the hard rock phosphate. In 1920, Florida produced 82 per cent of the entire quantity of phosphate mined and marketed in the United States. Florida is also the chief producer of fuller's earth in the country. It is principally used for clarifying oils, as an ingredient of talcum pow ders, and for medicinal purposes. The chief commercial deposits are those of Gadsden County, in Northern Florida, and of Manatee County, in Southern Florida. The limestones of Florida, which are widely distributed over the central and eastern portions of the state, are used for a variety of purposes. The lime burned from them is employed for chemical and structural purposes, and the raw material is used for building purposes, while broken and ground, if forms beds for highways and railroads and fer tilizers for the soil. The coquina rock of Anastasia Island near St. Augustine has been

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 19 known as a building stone for more than three hundred years . This coquina was in fact the first stone used for building purposes in America, its use having begun with the settlement of St. Augustine about 1565. Coquina consists of a mass of shells of varying size or fragments of shells cemented together ordinarily by calcium carbonate. A small admixture of sand is in some instances included with the shells. When first exposed the mass of shells . is imperfectly cemented and the rock is readily cut into blocks of the desired size. Upon exposure, however, the moisture contained in the interstices of the rock evaporates and in doing so de posits the calcium carbonate which it held in solution, thus firmly <::ementing the shell mass into a firm rock. Thus indurated the resisting qualities of the rock are good. The shells from this formation have been exten sively used with concrete in the construction of modern buildings at St. Augustine. Aside from its occurrence on Anastasia Island coquina is found at many other points along both the east and the west side of the peninsula. Shell deposits, both recent and fossil, are numerous in the state .. The use of shell from the coquina rock for builrling purposes has already been mentioned. Among notable buildings from these shells may be men tioned the Ponce de Leon Hotel at St. Augustine. The calcareous shell mass as found at this locality may contain a small admixture of siliceous sand blown in by the winds. Recent shell deposits occur at many places along both the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts. Shell mounds piled up by the Indians are likewise numerous on and near the coast. Some occur inland also, those of the St. J ohos River from Jacksonville to Sanford being notable examples. Deposits of fossil shells are likewise numerous, although as a rule less free from impurities than are the accumulations of recent shells. Compact and hard limestones are found at many locali ties in the state, which when crushed afford desirable material for con crete. PETROLEUM The last (fourteenth) annual report of the Florida State Geological Survey contains a paper by Herman Gunter, the state geologist, and Dr. E. H. Sellards, on the "Petroleum Possibilities of Florida." It is interesting and. instructive from the geological and scientific standpoint and contains the facts of what has been actually accomplished in the petroleum survey of the state. The following are extracts in point. "The widespread search for petroleum that is now in progress makes it certain that all states of the Union will in time be more or less tested with respect to their petroleum possibilities. In Florida a few test wells have already been drilled and others are sure to be drilled in the future. In view of these facts, this report has been prepared to give such infor mation as is now available, both as to the character. of rocks to be ex pected in drilling in Florida and as to structural conditions in the state. "So far as actual drilling is concerned, Florida has as yet been but little tested. Some of the tests made for oil of which record has been obtained are the following: In 1903 the Pearson Oil and Gas Company completed a test well for oil two and one-half miles south of Sumterville in Sumter County. This well reached a total depth of 2,002 feet and is reported to have given some shows of oil. A well was subsequently drilled by this company in Citrus County, about two miles north of Crystal River, to a depth of about l,900 feet. The Pensacola Develop ment Company drilled two wells in Escambia County, one located five miles west of Pensacola and two miles north of the Navy Yard, the other located on East Hill, Pensacola. These are reported to be l,620 and l,702 feet deep, respectively. Records indicate that no shows of oil were found. In 1905 the Southern States Lumber Company drilled a test well for oil about three miles west of Cantonment in Escambia County. This well reached a depth of l,452 feet . No oil shows are reported. In 1914

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20 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the Kissimmee Oil Company attempted a test south of Kissimmee on S. 25, T . 26 S., R. 29 E. After much delay this well was finally drilled 2,000 feet or deeper. A log of this well will be found later in this report. (See Osceola County.) In 1916 the Bonheur Development Company began drilling near Burns in Wakulla County. Two wells have been drilled by this company, one of which reached a depth of 2,169 feet. Shows of oil were reported. The second well is not completed, but has a depth of about 2,000 feet. In 1917 the Florida East Coast Oil, Gas and Mineral Co. began a test three and one-half miles south of Mel bourne in Brevard County. This was drilled to a depth of about 1,000 feet, at which depth it abandoned. Well No. 2 was started and J'LOB!llo\ STJ.ll GEOLO
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 21 Rat Head, and the other about twenty-five miles southeast of DeFuniak Springs, near Bruce. These tests have a reported depth of 1,88 , 8 feet and 770 feet, respectively. (For logs see Walton County . ) During 1920 and 1921 a very careful test to 4,912 feet was made by the Chipley Oil Company about four miles south of Chipley, Washington County. This is the deepest well so far drilled in Florida. "A few tests are in progress at the present time, among which are: Central Florida Concord Gas Company, about ten miles southeast of Tallahassee, Leon County, which was begun in March, 1921; the well by Mr. Rollin V. Hill, near Oldsmar, Pinellas County, begun Novem ber 24, 1921, and the test by the Florida Petroleum Syndicate, about twelve miles southeast of Ft. Myers, Lee County, which was begun March 30, 1922." THE TREES OF FLORIDA 2 Of the 35,111,000 acres covering the area of Florida, 1,110,000 acres are in wood or timber, but although more than 28o different varieties of • VARIETY OF TROPICAL TREES native and cultivated trees have been listed a few of them only are valu able commercially-such as the long leaf pine and the cypress. The trees of Florida are therefore of far more interest to scientists than to men of affairs. It is said that there are two trees not elsewhere found than in the state; they are scientifically termed Tumion Taxifolium (stinking cedar) and Taxis Floridana. For the purpose of conserving the great variety of trees which have made Florida scientifically famous, the United States Government ( 1908) established the Choctawachee National Forest, embracing 735 square miles in Walton and Santa Rosa counties, in the northwestern part of the state, and the Ocala National Forest, of smaller area, in Marion County. Work along similar lines has been accomplished (1915) by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, which purchased a park of nearly two thousand acres, near the southern extreniity of Dade County around the headwaters of the Taylor River. Because of the royal palms which tower above all the other trees of the country it was given the name Royal Palm State Park. It was in this sub-tropical region of wonderful trees and birds that the two specimens unique to Florida were discovered, and a majority of the flora common to the state were also located. also geographical description in this chapter.

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22 HISTORY OF FLORIDA The v . ariety and peculiarities of the Florida trees are thus graphically described by Dr. John K. Small, head curator of the Museums and Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, who has made a close study of the subject: "The peculiar geographic position of Florida and the diversity of its surface, although apparently slight, results in a larger tree-flora than any other area of similar size in North America, at least north of the Tropic of Cancer; in fact, nearly one-half of the trees known to occur naturally in North America north of Mexico and the W Indies, grow naturally in the relatively small area of the State of Florida. "The state consists primarily of two major divisions , the first a northern portion, a comparatively narrow strip of territory extending east and west for a distance of nearly four hundred miles. Bere trees char acteristic of temperate regions predominate. The second division con sists of a large peninsula and accompanying islands and the Florida Keys, extending southward into the eastern part of the Gulf of Mexico, for a distance of over four hundred miles, reaching almost to the Tropic of Cancer. In this portion of the state, trees of temperate regions gradually give place to those characteristic of subtropical regions; and these, in turn, on the Everglade Keys at the southern end of the peninsula, and on the Florida Keys are replaced by trees of a strictly tropical character. However, this extraordinary arboreous flora is surprising when we . take into account the simple topography and the slight diversity of climate in which it apparently was developed and in which it now BIRDS, FISH AND REPTILES In the early days of Florida, before the coming of the railroads and the hunters and sportsmen and tourists to every coast, stream, lake, forest and lagoon in the land, all the birds of bright plumage and sweet flesh known to either north or south visited its trees and waters at . some season of the year. Then, before the inroads of gun and rod and the close and disturbing contact with humankind, they commenced to seek more primitive regions, or were almost exterminated. The paraquet and the egret all but disappeared. Finally. bird lovers were aroused, and the people of Florida have the honor of being the first to induce the General Government to establish a Federal bird reservation in America. Pelican Island, on the eastern coast of Volusia County, had long been the resort of ornithologists, and it was set aside by the Government for the special protection of the fowl for which the island is named, on March 14, 1903•. There are twelve other bird reservations in Florida, including the Royal Palm Park. In the order of their establishment they are Pelican Island, Passage Key, Indian Key, Mosquito Inlet, Tortugas Keys, Key West, Pine Island, Palma Sola, Matlachla Pass. Island Bay, Orange Lake, Julia A. Hanson reservation,3 and the Royal Palm State Park. The most important birds protected in the Florida reservations are brown pelicans, which breed at Pelican Island; terns, the chief haunts of which are at the Tortugas; herons, at Mosquito Inlet and Passage Key, and 9ther reservations on the west coast; manatees, also at the Mosquito Inlet, and the snowy egret and pink curlew, on Passage and Indian keys. On the Hanson reservation, a few miles from Fort' Myers, are white egrets, herons, ibis and roseate spoonbills (pink curlew). The snowy egret and pink curlew were formerly the prey of plume hunters, but of late years the practice has been outlawed. The fish of the Florida coasts are as varied as the land and aquatic , birds. The chief game fish are the tarpon, the Silver King of its waters, which chiefly haunts its bays and the borders of the Gulf Stream and s Established by the Florida Audubon Society, and named after the chairman of the Bird Protection Committee of the Florida Federation.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 23 the capture of which is one of the ambitions of real sportsmen; the black and channel bass, of the coasts and streams; the whiting, which hovers about the inlets , and the soft mouthed and sly sheepshead, which gets safely away with so much of the angler's bait. The sportsmen and the scientist are equally interested in these and numerol.J.S varieties of Florida's finny tribe. The reptiles of the land have been rather slandered as to numbers and dangerous habits. The only venomous serpents are the rattlesnake and the mocassin , and as the former . gives due warning of his proximity, the latter is very timid, and as both are becoming more and more scarce the danger point is vanishing to the minimum. Alligators are also :rapidly disappearing, their principal increase being . on the farms of those who are cultivating them for show or sale. Thus this chapter commences and ends with an exposition of the works and creations of nature as a foundation for the conservations or improvements of man.

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CHAPTER II NON-AMERICAN FLORIDA This chapter is simply a chronology of the land now called Florida before it be . came a territory of the domain known to the world as the United States of America, or, more pithily and graphically stillAmerica. The period thus covered is from 1513 to 1821, more than three centuries . Ponce de Leon was not the first to sight the shores of Florida, but the old maps and records indicate that Amerigo Vespucci, (Photo b y G. M. Chapin) ST. JOHNS BLUFF AT ST. JOHNS RIVER Some 20 miles from Jacksonville and about 4 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. Scene of Huguenot attacks by Spanish under Menendez in 1565. This was the first battle on American soil for religious freedom-55 years before Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock. the Florentine astronomer and discoverer, was the first to do so, either in 1499 or 1512. It was Juan Ponce de Leon, however, one of the com rades of Columbus on his second voyage in 1493, who in his search for the fabulous Fountain of Youth set foot upon the east coast of Florida, at latitude 30 8', not far from the site of St. Augustine, on Easter Sunday, March 27, 1513, two days less than six months from the date that Balboa, the Spanish conqueror, discovered the Pacific Ocean from the heights of the Isthmus of Panama. The continuous history of Florida dates from Ponce's footfall. 1513-March 27. Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida, on Easter Sunday, 1513; hence its name, Pascua Florida, which translated from the Spanish means Easter Sunday. 1516--Diego Miruelo sails up the western coast of Florida and discovers what is believed to be Pensacola Bay. 151g-Francis de Garay, governor of Jamaica, sends an expedition under Pineda, which skirts along the American Gulf coast to Mexico, and proves that Florida is not an island, as believed by Ponce de Leon. 1528--April-Sept.-Panfilo de Narvaez, one of Cortes' former lieuten ants, conducts an expedition of conquest and discovery, which, . 24

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 25 through stQrms, Indian attacks, treachery and general misfortune includes land-falls (supposedly) at Tampa Bay, Apalachicola and other points along the Florida Gulf coast . Leader drowned near the mouth of the Mississippi, and only a few survivors reach Mexico. (See early histories of Tampa, Peqsacola, etc.) ' 1539-May. Hernando de Soto, a captain of Pizarro, who had borne a great fortune from Peru to Spain, sails from Havana, with authority to conquer and settle Florida, whicq was then supposed to extend northward to the limitation of the C:abot discoveries, or modern Canada. On May 25th, his captain, Maldonado, makes a bay on the coast, and as it was the \fay of the Feast of MAP OF FLORIDA, P:UBLlSHED 1584 Pentecost it was named Espiritu Santo Bay. (See early history of Tampa.) I 559-J uly I. Landing of expedition of soldiers, settlers and priests to colonize country at Espiritu Santo (Pensacola) Bay, sent by the viceroY. of Mexico under Don Tristan de Luna y Arellano. Colony fails. r 561-Sept. 23. King of Spain declares that no further attempts will be made to settle any part of Florida, as there was no danger of a French colony in that region. 1562-May I. Jean Ribault, the Huguenot leader, lands at the mouth of the St. Johns River, which he names the River May. There he sets up a stone pillar as a mark of French possession and continues on his northward course to Port Royal, South Carolina (then Florida). I 564-June 23. Rene de Laudonniere, formerly under Ribault, lands at the River May with his own expedition, notes the pillar set up

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26 HISTORY OF FLORIDA by Ribault, and builds Fort Caroline, the exact location of which is in dottbt. (See history of St. Augustine and New Smyrna.) 1565-In August, Sir John Hawkins arrives off Fort Caroline and saves the French colony from starvation. A short time afterward, THE SIEGE BY Sm FRANCIS DRAKE A u gust 29th, as the still famished colonists are about to sail for France, Ribault arrives with provisions, additional colonists and other means of relief. On September 4th , Pedro Menendez de Aviles, who had been sent by Philip of Spain to take possession of Florida as its gov ernor and captain general, sights Ribault's fleet and prepares to attack it. On the 19th, surprises and attacks Fort Caroline. Fort • FORT MARION, ST, AUGUSTINE Completed by the Spanish about 1750. Important as a garrison and for fortification. and colony destroyed; Ribault among the killed; Laudonniere and fifty others escape. ' 1568--In the spring of 1568 , Dominic de Gourges, a Frenchman of noble birth, l ands an expedition, organized largely through his private means, and avenges the sack of Fort Caroline, by killing most of the garrison at Fort San Mateo (its successor) and virtually obliterating the settlement. 1586-May. Sir Francis Drake burns St. Augustine. Here comes a long hiatus in Florida history, from the aban-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 27 donment of the De Luna colony, at Espiritu Santo Bay (Pensacola), in I 560, and the burning of St. Augustine in I 586, until the accession of the English colonial rule in 1763. That period was largely occupied by attempts of the Spanish priests to chris tianize the Indians, and by the sporadic efforts of the settlements at Pensaco l a Bay and .the mouth of t h e St. Johns to grow into sub stantial towns. (See histories of Pensacola and St. Augustine.) 1638-Apalache Indians conquered and large numbers of them brought to work on Fort Marion (Spanish, Fort San Marco). It was completed in 1756, chiefly by descendants of the original Apalache slaves. 1696-Don Andres d'Arriola erects Fort San Carlos, near present s ite of Barrancas, and founds second sett lement of Pensacola. 1699--Pierre Lemoine d'Iberville, a French Ca nadian, arrives off Pensacola harbor, on voyage to settle Southern Louisiana, claimed on account of La Salle's voyages ( 1680-86). Settled Biloxi (now PIONEER'S CABIN UNDER BRITISH OCCUPATION in Mississippi) in 1 699 ; French settlement afterward ( 1702) moved to Mobi le. 1702-0ctober 22. Combined forces of white soldiers and Indians under Governor James Moore, of South Carolina, after having invaded Florida and destroyed many of its missions, assault Fort San Marco. Repulsed and siege raised after investment of fifty days. 1718-March. At the request of the chief of the Apalaches, Don Jose Primo de Ribera, erects Fort San Marcos de Apalache (St. Marks). In the same year a French fort was erected . on St. Joseph's Bay, but was soon abandoned, as was the Spanish fort which displaced it. 1z19-May 14. De Bienville, governor of Louisiana, appears with fleet before Pensacola and surprises Spanish commander and gover nor, who surrenders town. Soon afterward recaptured by the Spaniards. 1719-Sept. 18. Large French fleet recaptures Pensacola; town strayed and Fort San Carlos blown up. (See history of Pensacola.) 1723-J an. Wrecked Pensacola , returned to Spain, peace having been declared between France and Spain in February, 1720. 1740--June I. Siege of St. Augustine begun by Gen. James Oglethorpe,

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28 HISTORY OF FLORIDA of Georgia, war having been declared in October, 1739, between Spain and England. Fort Diego first taken by English forces. 1140-June 20. English batteries open on Fort San Marco. Siege raised July 17th. (See history of St. Augustine.) 1763-Feb. IO. By treaty of Paris, of that date, Florida ceded from Spain to England. 1763-0ct. 7. By royal proclamation , the new English province divided into East and West Florida. The Apalachicola River the divid ing line. East Florida, of which St. Augustine was the capital, included the peninsula of Florida. West Florida, of which Pensacola was the capital, was bounded westward by Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River as far north as the thirty-first parallel of latitude. (See hi sto ries of Pensacola and St. Aug ustine.) 1763-0ctober. Arrival of James Grant , first governor of East Florida, at St. Augustine. 1764-February. Arrival of George Johnstone, first governor of West Florida, at Pensacola. (Photo by G. M . Chapin) FT. MATANZAS Eighteen miles south of St. Augustine on Atlantic Coast. Ere cted by Spani s h governor, Mantarero, about 1727-42 to repel the attacks of Governor Oglethorpe and other leaders of Engli s h coloni s ts and settlers in Georgia. 1766--First immigrants for the New Smyrna colony, founded by Dr. Andrew Turnbull, settle at Mosquito Inlet. (See history of New Smyrna.) 1769--Insurrection at New Smyrna by which the colony was dispersed, many of the settlers going to St. Augustine. 178o-December. General assembly of the two houses of the East Flor ida government meets at St. Augustine, under the adm,inistration of Governor Patrick Tonyn. The popular body never convened in West Florida under English rule. 1781-May 9. Surrender by the British of Fort George and Pensacola to Bernardo de Galvez, Spanish Governor of Louisiana, after stub born resistance. War between England and , Spain had been de clared two years previously, when Spain had acknowledged the independence of the American colonies. 1783-Jan. 28. Treaty of Versailles, between Great Britain and Spain, signed. Florida reverts to Spain. 1783-Sept. 3. Treaty of Paris, between Great Britain and the United States, acknowledging the independence of the latter , fixing the thirty-second degree of latitude as the southern boundary of the possessions thus relinquished. After a diplomatic contention with Spain, extending over a period of twelve years, the United States secured a treaty affirming that boundary.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 29 1803-Napoleon sells Louisiana west of the Mississippi to the United States. 1809 -Governor Vincente Fokh, of Spanish West Florida, leaves Pensacola to take command of the Mobile district, headquarters at Mobile. The district lay between the Pearl and the Perdido rivers. 1810-0ct. 27. The Republic of West Florida, formed by Americans, a month before, between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers, and formerly known as the Government of Baton Rouge, annexed to Louisiana. 1812-War declared between the United States and England. l8r2-March 17. Fernandina and Amelia Island occupied by patriots of the Republic of Florida under Gen. John H. Mcintosh. (See history of Fernandina.) 1813-April 13. Mobile occupied by an American force and Spanish commander retires to Pensacola. r814-Aug. 9 , Peace made with Gen. Andrew Jackson by the remnant of the Creek nation of Indians, at Fort Jackson. 1814 Nov. 8. Spanish surrender Pensacola and its forts to Jackson, on his way to Jew Orleans, where he fought the historic battle, on January 8, 1815. 1817 Nov. 20. Active hostilities of First Seminole war commence by of Colonel Twiggs on Fowltown, an Indian village just above the Georgia line. 1818-May IO. Jackson crosses Apalachicola River into West Florida, after successful campaign against the Seminoles in East Florida. 1818-May 27. Fort San Carlos and Pensacola surrendered to Jackson, thus giving to the United States complete possession of West Florida. 1819-September. In pursuance of the sentime 'nt of the United States Congress, the American forces evacuated Pensacola and Fort Barrancas. A treaty of cession had already been approved by the United States commissioners, but Spain delayed. 24 . Treaty signed by the king of Spain. 1821-Feb. 19. Treaty finally ratified by the United States Senate.

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CHAPTER III INDIANS AND INDIAN WARS The prehistoric remains of the primitive races in Florida are usually imbedded in shell heaps of more or less magnitude, and not commonly found far from the coastal lands. There are few such heaps or mounds in the interior, except in the upland lake region, as the Indians doubtless largely depended for their sustenance on oysters and other shell fish. Most of these elevations seem to be rather evidences of domestic and communal life, with extensive collections of pottery in evidence. The valleys of the St. Johns and the Kissimmee rivers seem to have been populated very thickly, especially around the present site of Palatka and the shores of Lake George. Lakes Monroe and Kissimmee and the Caloosahatchee River and Cyprus Lake are also in a region liberally s prinkled . with shell mounds, which occasionally reach the extent of forti fications. But the most imposing evidences of primitive occupation, perhaps , are along the east coast and the Indian River, in the New Smyrna region and near the mouth of St. Lucie River. Turtle Mound and Mount Pisgah are familiar names to all Florida archceologists. Regarding the rema_ins in the Kissimmee Valley and about Lake Okechobee, it is the general conclusion that the works in that region were constructed by a race antedating the Seminoles, and for purposes of worship or war. There are also evidences of attempts at internal im provements by a system of canals, as in places along the Gulf coast, in the Charlotte Harbor district. Detai l ed description of noteworthy mounds and other evidences of prehistoric human life are reserved for the localities in which they occur. From tradition and early Spanish documents, it appears that before the coming of the white man Flodda was inhabited by warring races speaking different tongues. Therefore, it is probable that no common name was ever adopted to designate the land covered by this work. "We may assume," writes Judge Benjamin Harrison, who has made a deep study of the pioneer red men of his state, "that the Muscogees had driven back the people they found in Florida upon their comparatively recent arrival and now held the territory north of a line drawn on our map from Fernandina to Tampa. As stated, they called the country Ikan-faski or the Pointed Land, while the inhabitants were Ikaniuksalgi, or the People of the Pointed Land. South of this line to a line drawn from Daytona to the mouth of the Caloosahatchee dwelt the several fami lies who spoke of themselves collectively as Tomokans from the principal tribe , but this appellation was probably derived from Torno, a house used in the sense of council-house or capitol. On the coast from New Smyrna south were the Aises or Deer people whose ruder habits and more primitive speech might indicate a primary claim to ownership . On the Gulf coast, with several villages whose northern limit was held by Calusa nearest to Tampa, lived the Calusas who are usually accepted as Caribs , in which case they had come from the coast of South America from which the war-canoes of the race had made themselves known to all . the islands as pirates and cannibals. Only by them were the ear\y Spanish invaders attacked by war canoes and they were the only native ' Floridians who maintained a navy. "No doubt each of these p e oples had a name for their country, but. had any of them a name for the whole of Florida? Unless we accept the 30

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 31 Muscogee Peninsula and Peninsular people for the patronymics we have none, but the Muscogees themselves were late comers and would have scorned to adopt anything from the enemies they had robbed and looked upon as inferiors. Just as the Florida Muscogees called themselves Apalachees, so the families of the Tomokans had little occasion to use any name descriptive of a country beyond their own holdings. On coming to Florida the Muscogees called their new settlers The People Beyond. Not even Columbus was allowed the honor or pleasure of naming his new World, and so the custom is. Did our forefathers give name to this continental empire they founded? There. was first Virginia and then New England, but we are now driven to the necessity of calling our selves Americans and our country America, though each of these is open to grave objections." Among the earliest accounts of the country originally known . as the "Alachua Savanna" of Florida, and subsequently as Payne's Prairie (because of the fall in battle ( r8r2) of the Indian chief by that name), w AR COUNCIL OF FLORIDA INDIANS Fr,om LeMoyne, 1563. is the description published in "Bartram's Travels . in North America" ( r 793), describing a visit made to the locality in r 77 4. The pertinent extracts are given: "The morning cool and pleasant , and the skies serene, we decamped pursuing our progress round the Alachua Savanna. Three of our com panions separating from us, went ahead, and we soon lost sight of them; they again parting on different excursions in quest of game and in search of their horses. * * * We crossed the green verge of the plain under surrounding hills occasionally penetrating and crossing the projecting promontories as the pathway or conveniency dictated to avoid the water and mud. * * * Our progress this day was extremely pleasant over green turf, having in view numerous herds of cattle and deer and squadrons of horses, peaceably browsing on the tender and sweet i?;rass shooting through the cool fragrant groves of the surrounding heights. "Passing through a great extent of ancient Indian fields , now grown over with forests of stately trees. orange groves and luxuriant herbage, the old trader, my associate informed me it was the ancient Alachua the capital of that famous and powerful tribe, who peopled the hills surrounding the savanna , when, in days of old , they could assemble by thousands at ball play and oth e r juvenile diversions and athletic exer-

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32 HISTORY OF FLORIDA cises, over those, then happy fields and green plain. * * * And there is no reason to doub! this .account. being true a.s almost at every step we take over those fertile heights, discover remams and traces of ancient human habitations and cultivation. "We again came up to a long projecting point of the high forests beyond which opened to view an extensive grassy cove of the savanna' several miles. in circuit. We crossed straight over :om this promontory to the opposite coast, and on the way were constramed to wade a mile or more through tlie water, though at a little distance from us it ap peared as a delightful meadow, the grass growing through the water the middle of which, however, when we came up, proved to be a space of clear water almost deep enough to swim in; it being a large A REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ToMOKA RACE branch of the main creek which drains the savanna. As getting this morass, we arrived on a delightful, level, green meadow, as usual, which continued about a mile, when we reached the firm land, and then gradually ascending we alighted on a hard sandy beach, which exhibited evident signs of being washed by the waves of the savanna, when in the winter season it is all under water, and then presents the appear ance of a latge lake. The coast here is much lower than the opposite side which we had .left behind us, and rises from the meadows with a gradual sloping ascent , covered scatteringly with low spreading live oaks, short palms, Zanthoxylon, Laurus Borbornia, Caffine, Sideroxylon, Quertus Nigra, Q. Finuath, and others; all leaning from the bleak winds that oppress them. About one hundred yards back from this beach the sand hills gradually rise, and the open pine forests appear. We coasted a mile or two along the beach then doubled a promontory of high forests, and soon after Game to a swift running brook of clear water, rolling over gravel and white sand which being brought along with it,

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 33 in its descent down the steeper sandy beach formed an easy swelling bank or bar. The waters spread greatly at this place, exhibiting a shallow glittering of water but just sufficient continually to cover the clea r gravelly bed, and seemed to be sunk a little below the common surface of the beach. This stream, however, is soon separated into a number of rivulets by small sanely and gravelly ridges; and the waters are finely stolen away from the sight, by a charming green meadow but again secretly uniting under the tall grass, from a little creek, meandering through a turfy lane, marking its course by reeds and rushes, which spring up from its banks, joining the main creek that runs through the savanna and at length delivers the water into the great sink. Proceed ing about a mile farther we came up to and crossed another brook larger than the former, which exhibited the like delightful appearance. We next passed over a level green lawn, a cove of the savanna, and arrived at a hilly grove. We lighted in a pleasant vista, turning our horses to graze while we amused ourselves with exploring the borders of the Great Sink. In this place a group of rocky hills almost surrounds a large basin, which is the general receptacle of the water, draining from every part of the vast sava nna, by literal conduits winding about and one after another joining the main creek or conductor, which at length delivers them into this sink; where they descend by slow degrees , through rocky caverns, into the bowels of the earth, whence they are carried by secret subterraneous channels into other receptacles and basins . "In and about the Great Sinks are to b e seen incredible numbers of crocodiles, some of which are of enormous size, and view the pas senger with incredible impudence and avidity; and at this time they are so abundant, that, if permitted by them, I could walk over any part of the Basin and the river upon their heads, which slowly float and turn about knotty chunks or logs of wood, except when they plunge or shoot forward to beat off their associates," press ing too close to each . other, or taking up fish , which continually crowds in upon them from the river and creeks. draining from the savanna, especially the great trout, mud fish, cat fish , and the various species of brea m , the gar or rather too hard for their jaws or too rough for their throats, especially here, where they have s uperfluous ple nty and variety of those that are every way preferable, beside s, the gar being, like themselves, a war-like vora cious creature, they see m to be in league or confederacy together, to in slave and devour the numerous defenseless tribes." PREVIOUS TO FIRST SEMJNOLI': VI/ AR The Seminoles were originally Creeks, whose villages were located along the Chattahoochee River in Georgia. Owing to tribal quarrels. Secoffee, one of their chiefs, separated from the tribe and. in 1750. with several hundred followers moved to Florida, settling in the vicinity of Micanopy, Alachua County of today. .There he found beautiful lakes teeming with fish and shady hammocks abounding with game. As he was attached to the English, he was loath to believe the report that Florida had reverted to his old enemies, the Spaniards, in 1783. Although seventy years of age, he prepared to make war against them, and while thus engaged was stricken ill, and at his decease left hi s hatred as an in heritance to his two sons, Payne and Bowlegs, which they subsequently expended upon those other enemies of England, the Americans. In 18o8, another party of Creeks under Micco Hadjo, left the main tribe and settled near Tallahassee. They found the country occupied by a weak band called Miccasukees whom the invaders absorbed. Afterward, the Creek nation named the Micco Hadjo band , Seminoles, or Runaways. Whether classed as Creeks or Seminoles. those who settled in Florida had several traits in common. They persistently raided the plantations of either the Spanish of Florida or the Americans of Georgia and Alavo1. I 3

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34 HISTORY OF FLORIDA bama, and indiscriminately stole their cattle and slaves. And the blacks themselves, who were not averse to the free life of the Indians, found a n'ady asylum among them. In this work none were i;nore active than King Payne and Bowlegs, the sons of the deceased chief, Secoffee. A small force of Georgia troops, in 1812, marched into Northern Florida and in several engagements near Lake Pithlachocco (now Newman's Lake, a short distance east of Gainesville) defeated the Seminoles, under Payne and Bowlegs. In one of the fights, King Payne received a mortal wound. Stirred by Tecumsel:, the great Shawnee chief and British agent, a large branch of the Creek nation arose against the American settlements of the South. In 1813, 1,000 warriors of the nation under a nephew of Col. Alexander McGillivray, the chief of the Creeks, massacred the women and children at Fort Mims, above Mobile. In the follow.ing year, Jackson, who had been summoned from Tennessee, drove the Indians either into the swamps of Florida, or to their British friends at Pensacola, which he subsequently captured. In August, 1814, the Spaniards allowed Pensacola to be occupied by a British fleet under Capt. William H. Percy; with about three hundred marines commanded by Lieut. Col. Edward Nicholls, and it is said that the Creeks who had escaped Jackson were drilled by them in British uniforms on the streets of Pensacola. Before the American general could reach the British force there, the commanders had departed, with their Indian allies and 100 negroes belonging to the Spanish resident of Pensacola. On the eastern banks of the Apalachicola, they built a fort on the spot afterward occupied by Fort Gadsden. Primarily, it was to be a refuge for runaway negroes and Indian refugees. Two large magazines were also constructed and filled with ammunition, and 3 , 000 stands of arms deposited for use in a war against the frontier settlements of Georgia, Alabama and Florida. How and why it was destroyed is thus told by Dr. Edwin L. Green in his history of Florida: "Even after the close of the War of 1812 British agents continued to incite the Seminoles to commit depredations on the lower Georgia and Alabama settlements. And the fort built by Percy and Nicholls on the Apalachicola became an obstruction to navigation. This refuge for Indians and for fugitive slaves went by the name of the Negro Fort, and was under the command of a negro, by name Garcia. In August, 1816, Colonel Clinch, 150 miles up the river at Fort Crawford was notified that supplies were to be con veyed up the river to him; and that in case opposition was made by the Negro Fort to the navigation of the stream, it should be reduced. Learning of the arrival of tl:ie provisions at Apalachicola Bay, Colonel Clinch set out dciwn the . river with 116 men. On the way he was joined by a band of Creeks who were marching to attack the fort, and another body of these warriors increased his force the next day. From a prisoner he learned that Midshipman Luffborough and four men had been sent from the transports into the river after fresh water, and that, attacked by the Seminoles, only one man of them had escaped. "A part of the Indian allies were stationed near the fort to keep up a harassing fire and shut off communication with the outside world, a second body, with a detachment of American troops went_ to the rear of the fort, and on -the opposite bank of the river a battery was stationed, below which the gunboats took position, coming up from the bay. Over the fort floated a red ftag, the British Jack waving above it. The garrison opened fire at once, but so effectively was it answered that at the fifth discharge a hot-shot struck one of the magazines, exploding it, and blow ing up the fort, which besides 100 warriors contained 200 women and children . Not over fifty escaped the explosion. Garcia and an outlawed Choctaw chief were tried by -the friendly Indians and condemned to death for the murder of Midshipman Luffborough and his companions. The Spanish negroes were handed over to the Spanish agent, and Colonel Clinch took charge of the slaves who were runaways from American

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HISTORY OF F .LORIDA 35 owners. One hundred and sixty barrels of powder were secured from the uninjured magazine, besides property to the amount of $200,000." The destruction of the Negro fort opened communication with New Orleans, by way of the Apalachicola River, and enabled the American forces under General Gaines to protect the frontier settlements of Southern Georgia and Alabama, as well as the scattered settlers of Northwest Florida, still under Spanish "protection." Fort Montgomery, G:eorgia, was the center of military operations conducted by General Gaines. In the fall of 1817, the murders of both Indians and whites increased, and the Seminole chiefs, according to a letter written by General Gaines, to the secretary of war, in October, "set up a claim against us for the lives of three Indians, for whom they allege they have not yet taken satisfaction. They charge us with having killed ten of their warriors,'' continues the general, "and, claiming a balance of three to be due them, they admit. by necessary implication, that they have killed seven of our citizens." ORIGIN OF FIRST SEMINOLE w AR Notwithstanding such threats, and the more definite warning by the chiefs of the Fowltown, twenty miles above the Georgia-Florida bou,ndary, that "to cut another stick on the east side of the Flint River" would be considered an act of war, "and that they had nothing to do with the runaway negroes, Major Twiggs, the commander at Fort Scott, five miles below the Semipole town, attacked the place, under orders from General Gaines, on November 20, 1817. Four of the Seminole warriors were slain , and an Indian women (by mistake) was killed. The town was destroyed by the American soldiers. This act, as to the justice of which there has been much dispute, was the origin of the First Seminole war. About two years afterward, D. B. Mitchell, then Indian agent for Florida, who had occupied the same position for Georgia at the time of the Fowltown "affair," appeared before a committee of investigation, appointed by the United States Senate, and said: "General Gaines arrived with a detachment of troops from the west, sent for the chief of Fowltown, and for his contumacy in not immediately appearing before him, the town was attacked and destroyed by the troops of the United States under order of General Gaines. This fact was, I conceive, the immediate cause of the Seminole war." Estimates as to the number of hostile warriors who entered the war differ. The Indian agent reports his estimate at more than seven hundred Seminole warriors; negroes at about three hundred. General Gaines; in a letter to Major General Jackson, his superior, who had been ordered to carry the war into Florida, writes: "The reports of friendly Indians concur in estimating the number of hostile warriors, including the Red Sticks (Creeks) and Seminoles, at more than two thousand; besides the blacks, amounting to nearly four hundred men, and increasing by runaways from Georgia. They have been promised, as several Indians in form me, assistance from the British at New Providence." The most lamentable affair, from the American standpoint, of the Fjrst Seminole war, which concluded with the march of General Jackson through West Florida and the capture of Pensacola, in May, 1818, was the massacre of a party of soldiers, women and children, by the Indians, on the Apalachicola River, about a mile below the junction of the Flint and Chattahoochee rivers. Lieutenant Scott and a detachment of soldiers had been sent down the river from Fort Scott to the mouth of the Apalachicola in order to protect three vessels laden with supplies for the posts on the frontier. Instead of retaining the entire force to assist him, as General Gaines advised, kept only about twenty men and, in their place, put a like number of sick, with the women and children and some regimental clothing. On the 30th of November, ten days after the "Fowltown affair," the boat laden with sick men, women and children, and a

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36 HISTORY OF FLORIDA few able bodied soldiers, was ambushed at the point named, the women and children all killed except one adult, and the greater part of Lieu tenant Scott's detachment killed, wounded or taken prisoners." At the commencement of the war, General Gaines was ordered to Amelia Island and General Jackson to Fort Scott. As stated by the sec retary of war, John C. Calhoun: "General Jackson promptly organized a volunteer force from his old New Orleans comrades in arms, and in January started for the scene of operatiqns, bidding the volunteers to follow him promptly. On the way he was joined by a force of friendly Creeks under the chief, General . Mcintosh, and by the Georgia volunteers , 9QO strong. A little later the old mounted gunmen of West Tennessee became a part of his force." According to his own report to the war department from "Headquarters, Division of the South, Fort Gadsden (east bank of the Apalachi cola River, formerly Negro Fort)," General Jackson reached Fort Scott, Georgia, March 9. 1818, "withthe brigade of Georgia militia, 900 bayonets INDIAN CHIEFS ON THE MARCH From LeMoyne, 1563. strong, and some of the friendly Creeks who had joined me on my march a few clays before." He found provisions very short, but on the 13th, while on the march down the Apalachicola River, met a welcome pro vision boat ascending. On the 16th a fort was erected on the site of the Negro Fort, and it was named in honor of one of his engineers under whose direction it was constructed, Lieutenant Gadsden. Lack of pro visions and the delay df the Tennessee volunteers in joining him, made the preliminary steps of the campaign slow. But by Apnl, Jackson was well provisioned and the Tennessee troops had joined him, as well as the Creek warriors under General Mcintosh, who had been sweeping down the right bank of the Apalachicola, and was prepared to concentrate on Fort St. Marks which he required as a base of operations. He jw:;tified its capture, which was bloodless, on the ground that it was necessary to be used in the subjection of the Seminoles, whom the Spanish authorities could not prevent from attacks upon American settlements. He was also convinced that hostile Indians and British agents were at Fort St. Marks. The Scotch trader, A. Arbuthnot, who had built trading posts at St . . far ks a . nd on the Suwannee River, and who appears to have been friendly with the British officers at Pensacola, the Spanish authorities and the Indians, was arrested near Fort St . . Marks by General Jackson and charged with inciting the Indians against the United States. He had

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 37 originally come from New Providence with a rich store of goods for the Red men of the southern country. While scouring the surrounding country, with his associ . ate commands, he had also captured Robert Am brister , a former lieutenant of the Colonial Marines, a friend of the British officers and a co-worker with Arbuthnot. A Court of Inquiry found both guilty of the charge. Arbuthnot was hanged near Fort St. Marks and Ambrister was shot. On April 19th General Jackson was back at St. Marks, having per formed a march of 107 miles in less than five days, and his sick and wounded were comfortably embarked for the same place in the schooner captured from Arbuthnot. On May 2d he was back at Fort Gadsden, his headqua1iers, from which point he reports to the secretary of war as follows: "The duplicity of the Spanish commandant in expressing friendship toward the United States while he was actually aiding and supplying savage enemies, throwing open the gates of the garrison to their free access, appropriating the King's stores for their use, issuing ammunition artd munitions of war to them, and knowingly purchasing of them property plundered from the citizens of the United States, is clearly evidenced by the documents accompanying this correspondence. * * * The capture of his ( Arbuthnot's) schooner near the mouth of the Suwany * * * and the papers found on board unveiled his corrupt transactions as well as those of Captain Ambrister. * * * The proceedings of the court in the case, with the volume of testimony justifying t, heir condemnation, present scenes of wickedness, corruption and barbarity, at which the heart sickens, and which, in this enlightened age, it ought not scarcely to be believed that a Christian nation would have participated, and yet, the British Government is involved in the agency. If Arbuthnot and Ambrister are not convicted as the authorized ageQts there is no room to doubt that the Government had a knowledge of their assumed character and was well advised of the measures which they had adopted to excite the negroes and Indians in East Florida to war against the United States. I hope the execution of these two unprincipled villains will prove an awful example to the world and convince the government of Great Britain, as well as the subjects, that certain, though slow, retribution, awaits those unChristian wretches who, by false promises, delude and excite an Indian tribe to alJ the horrid deeds of savage war." Without looking into all the details of the case of treason against Arbuthnot and Ambrister, it is evident that. Jackson considered their dis position as a justifiable means toward ending the war, and wrote as much to Secretary of War Calhoun. He did not remain long at Fort Gadsden, and on the 12th of May, with 1 , 200 men, crossed the Apalachicola River, at the Ocesee Village. Twelve days afterward, he passed the Escambia, an
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38 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the record of a stronger race crowding the primitive occupants of the soil into the less fertile regions of the land and finally dispossessing them of it altogether; and the fierce opposition of the Seminoles was an evi dence of the working in the savage breast of Jackson's immutable law of sel -preservation. At the conclusion of the First Seminole war, the Indians occupied East Florida, with the exception of the St. Augustine zone. Their defeat broke up their villages , and they became more migratory-perhaps more a menace to the settlement of the whites. They continued to harbor run away slaves from the neighboring colonies; so much so, that in 1822, it is estimated that the 4,000 Seminoles in Florida had 1,000 negroes in their midst. At first the American governor acted as superintendent of Indian affairs, bu,t in 1823, during the gubernatorial administration of William P. Duval, Col. Gad Humphreys, of New York, was appointed Indian agent by President Monroe, and took up his residence at Fort King. With the opening of Florida as an American territory, the popular demand had reached Washington that the Seminoles should be restricted in their residence and wanderings, and Colonel Humphreys remained as the agent in that difficult task for eight years. The first evidence of his work was the treaty with the Seminoles concluded at Camp Moultrie, six miles below St. Augustine, on the 18th of September, 1823, by which they agreed to keep within a reservation, the northern boundary of which was fixed at about twenty miles south of Micanopy, or about on the parallel of latitude occupied by Ocala of today. They were to be paid $6,ooo in cash and an annuity of $s,ooo. They were to keep within their reservation upon pain of flogging, they were not to shelter fugitive negroes and no white was to enter their domain without their permission. In 1828, under the terms of the treaty of McKenzie's Pond, a number of Seminole chiefs examined some lands west of tlie Mississippi River, but their proposition was rejected by the War Department, and matters remained in statu quo 1832. In 1826, Governor William P. Duval, in his capacity of Indian superin tendent, at the solicitation of the chiefs of the Seminole nation, examined such lands as were possible, which had been assigned by the treaty of 1823, his examination of thirteen days extending to Tampa Bay. Most of the land he considered too poor even for Indian settlements, and his general conclusion was: "The best of the Indian lands are worth but little; nineteen-twentieths of their whole country, within the present boundary, is by far the poorest and most miserable region I ever beheld. I have therefore to advise, as my duty demands, and the honor and humanjty of my country require, that the Big Swamp be also given to the Indians, and that the northern side be fixed five miles north of the. Big Swamp, and extended to the Okelewaha River east, and so far west as to include the Big Hammock. This line will take in no good land bu,t the Big Swamp of any consequence, but by extending into the pine barren five miles, , it will keep off the settlers from the Indian boundary who would otherwise crowd near the line and sell whiskey to the Indians." On the 9th day of May, 1832, a treaty was concluded at Payne's Landing, in Florida, by Colonel Gibson , with the Seminole Indians for the cession to the United States of the lands in that territory, and for their removal to the country west of the Mississippi. This treaty contained a provision that certain chiefs, therein named , together with their agent and interpreter, "should be sent at the expense of the United States as early as convenient to examine the country assigned to the Creeks west of the Mississippi River, and, should they be satisfied with the character of that country, and of the favorable dis position of the Creeks to reunite with the Seminoles as one people" then this treaty was to be "binding on the respective parties." , Agreeably to this stipulation the delegation repaired to the country west of the Mississippi, and, being satisfied on the points referred to their

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 39 discr e tion, they concluded on the 28th of March, 1833, at Fort Gibson, a treaty with Messrs. Stokes, Ellsworth and Schermerhorn, rendering abso lute the above-mentioned treaty of Payne's Landing. The treaty of Payne's Landing was ratified on the 8th of April, 1834, and the supplementary treaty on the 12th of April, 1834.1 The treaty of Payne's Landing provided that the Indians should remove within three years after the ratification of the treaty, and that the emigration should commence as early as practicable in the year 1833, and with certain bands therein specified; so that a proper propor tion might be removed in each of_ the three years. The treaty not having been ratified until the spring of 1834, and no appropr"iation having been made, definitive measures cquld not be taken for the removal of any of the Indians until tl:ie proper season arrived; and, indeed, they could not have removed with any just regard to their health and circumstances, till the succeeding winter. In the meantime, however , on the 8th of April, being the day of the ratification of the treaty of Payne's Landing, General Thompson, the Indian agent for Florida, was inforn1ed that his return to his agency at an early date was im portant, as arrangements "will be made for the removal of the Seminoles as soon as the appropriatiqns , are made." On the 8th of July succeeding, being immediately after the adjournment of Congress, regulations were adopted prescribing the operations for the removal of the Indians during that year. Those relating to the Seminole Indians were placed in the hands of Gen. Wiley Thompson, special agent for their removal, with Captain Russell as disbursing officer. General Thompson was to report on the number of Indians and other detail s and recommend as to the best mode of transportation as well as to notify the Indians that they must move . The first information which reached the department furnishing any authentic evidence of the disinclination of the Seminoles to remove was c ontained in a letter from General Thompson, October 28, 1834, in which he transmit ted a formal talk from them to him and his answer on the 2Jd of that month. The Indians objected to moving, declaring that the treaty of Fort Moultrie permitted them to remain in Florida for twenty ye a rs. This treaty was concluded September, 1823, and secured them the reservation subsequently ceded by the treaty of Payne's Landing. There is in it no such provision as they allude to, and, if there were, the state of the case would not be altered by it, for by the treaty of Payne's Landing concluded ten years subsequently, they ceded their reservation and engaged to remove. The only limitation in the treaty of Fort Moul trie is one of twenty years, at which time certain annuities were to cease. Some of them urged that, although the lands west of the Mississippi were good, the Indians in that quarter were bad; that they wanted to keep their families where they were, and that it would require much trouble to gctiliue. . From the report of General Thompson, as well as from the tenor of his interviews with the Indians1 it was obvious that the Seminoles were divided on the subject of a removal; that a portion were willing to remove, and another portion indisposed to go. On the 24th of November, immediately after the receipt of these dis patches , General Thompson was informed by the secretary of war by direction of the President, that the demands 6 the Indians to be per-1 The text of the treaty which thus formally subscribed to the treaties con cluded at Payne's Landing, May 9, 1832, and at Fort Gibson, March 28, 1833, between the Seminoles and United States commissioners, shows the signatures of D. L. Clinch, brigadier general United States Army; A. C. W. Fanning, brevet lieutenant colonel Uniteci States Army; C. W. Thurston, captain Third Regiment Artillery; T . W. Lendrum, captain Third Regiment Artillery; Joseph W. Harris, first lieutenant Third Artillery; and Wiley Thompson, superintendent removal Seminole Indians; and the "marks" of Charlie Emathwor, Zucobatcha Haga, Fuc-e luity, Coa Hago, Trustenne Hago, Foothatchliet Micco, Oakta Micco, Billy John, Albutto Hago, Billy Hicks and Afixyaaola Micapetoka.

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• 40 HISTORY OF FLORIDA mitted to remain could not be submitted to, and the letter thus continues: "Every consideration of good faith and expediency, with respect to them selves and the just and humane policy on the part of the Government, requires their removal in conformity with the stipulations of the treaty. I have no doubt you are right, and that the sentiments disclosed by the Indians are those of interested advisers and not their own. They have (Through the courtesy of Florida Real Estate Journal) INDIAN VILLAGE NEAR EVERGLADES stipulated :o remove west. ' They have ceded their country in Florida, and it will soon be sold and occupied by our citizens. Part of the appropriations for fulfilling the treaty have been made, and others will be asked for as soon as required. It is nothing less than insanity, or an utter igno rance of their own position which can induce them under these circum stances to expect to remain. To comply with their wishes, or rather what is represented as their wishes, would be utter ruin to them." General Thompson was also informed that orders had been given for the increase of the military force in the vicinity of the Indians and he was instructed to communicate freely with General Clinch who was

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 41 directed to take command. He was also informed that the annuities would be withheld until they complied with the treaty. At the same time a talk from the President to these Indians was sent to General Thompson, in which the views of the President were fully communicated to them and they were distinctly told that they had ceded their land in Florida and had agreed to go West, and that these stipulatiqns must be carried into effect. "The effort to remain," said this talk, "would be destructive to you, and the President will not listen to such a propoition." On the 28th of December General Thompson communicated to the department the result of his interview with the chiefs, when he informed them of the views of the Government and the determination that they must adhere to their treaty and remove. After much discussion on the subject General Thompson states "the result was that we closed with the utmost good feeling, and I have never seen Powell or the other chiefs so cheerful and in so fine a humor at the close of a discussion on the subject of their removal." On the 27th of January, 1835, General Thompson reported that he considered the force stationed in and on the borders of the Seminoles not large enough to effect the object for which it was intended. He also stated that a large portion of the Indians were opposed to removal and he had no doubt that they had been tampered with by designing persons until some projects of speculation or some •fraudulent claims for slaves could be successfully prosecuted. The military means , as will appear from the accompanying report of the adjutant general, were immediately provided agreeably to the suggestion of General Thompson, and to one made by General Clinch about the same time. At this time, and subse quently, the agents of the Government were employed in endeavoring to persuade the Indians to remove, and in making such arrangements as were necessary. In two letters from General Clinch and in one from General Thompson the then state of affairs with the Seminoles was fully communicated. They reported that they found in their interviews with the Indians that the President's talk had produced a favorable effect; but the Indians were desirous of being allowed a short time with a view to determine upon the measures they would adopt. These letters show the v i ews of those officers. In answer to the views pre_ sented by Generals Thompson and Clinch they were informed by the secretary of war, on the 14th of April, that the subject had been submitted to the President and that the views of General Clinch were deemed equally judicious and humane. He was told that there was not the slightest wish to oppress the unhappy Seminoles who had stipulated for their own removal. But their continuance where they then were for any length of time was absolutely impossible, and the sooner they were satisfied of this fact the better it would be for them. "Still, however," writes the secretary of war, "I should much prefer a v:oluntary and peaceful removal to one effected by force. It would only be in the last resort that the Government would be willing to compel them to comply with their own engagements; and it would be better to suffer a temporary inconvenience if thereby their feelings could be quieted than to require them to be removed without their own consent. The matter, therefore, is referred entirely to your discretion, and to that of General Thoripson. If they should all be willing to go this year it would certainly be better to remove them; but if they are opposed to this and will generally agree to go quietly by the first of March, or as soon thereafter as the necessary arrangements can be _ made, then they may be suffered to remain until that time. But in that case let a written agreerne11J be drawn up stating the reason of the delay , their readiness to remove by that time, and to go in a body by such route as you and General Thompson may think be t for them, and the most economical for the Government, and let this agreement be signed in open council by all their

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42 HISTORY OF FLORIDA influential men. It is my decided opinion that they had better go by water, and every proper inducement should be held out to them to assent to that measure. Still, however, if their repugnance should prove to be in vincible, that point may be yielded to them. "Should the Seminoles, however, peremptorily decline to pledge them selves peaceably to remove next season, you will then proceed to carry into effect the instructions heretofore given." Before the receipt of the above letter, viz., on the 23d of April, an arrangement was made with the Indians by Generals Clinch and Thompson and the disbursing agent by which the validity of the treaty of Payne's Landing was recognized and the Indians agreed to carry into effect its provisions. In consequence of this instead of removing a part of them at that time theywere allowed until the succeeding winter to make their preparations, when they all agreed to go together and it was understood that they would be removed about the 15th of January. * * * The first information of any act having a decided appearance of hos tilities was conveyed in a letter from General Thompson received at the department December 23d, in which he states that from four hundred to five hundred of the Seminoles friendly to emigration and five of their chiefs had fled to Tampa Bay for protection; that one of the most intelli gent and active chiefs had been murdered by those opposed to their removal. Seven days subsequently General Thompson reported that many of the Indians had disappeared from their usual places of residence imme diately after the murder. General Thompson concludes his information by stating that he then considers the Indians in a decided state of hos tility. The murdered chief to whom reference was made was old Charley Emathla, or Charlie Emathwor, who supported the Payne treaty. He was gathering his tribe together for removal to the West, when he was shot by Osceola and a number of the Miccosukies. He had just sold his cattle and had his money tied up in a handkerchief at the time he was killed. It is said that Osceola would allow no one to touch the gold of the dead man, saying that it was the price of the red man's blood. The spring and summer of 1835 passed without any general uprising of the Seminoles. There were some murders, and Osceola, the son of William Powell, the Englishman, and the Creek woman, had defied Gen eral Thompson, the new Indian agent at Fort King. But there were no general signs of trouble. In fact, as late as August, Lieutenant Harris, the disbursing agent, reported to the commanding officer, Gener;:il Clinch, that "the prospects of emigration were promising." From that time, until the conclusion of the war, seven years later, Osceola, although not even a chief, was the great leader o.f the Seminoles. Fierce and unrelenting to white men arrayed against his warriors the blood of his English ancestors asserted itself in his mercy to women and children. His revenge for the indignity which he had suffered by his imprisonment at the hands of General Thompson was satiated on December 28, 1835; for while the Indian agent and Lieut. Constantine Smith were strolling together near Fort King Osceola and one of his bands shot them to death from ambush, and after killing some of the employes and scalping them, departed to join his confederates at the Big Wahoo swamp who were bound on a more fearful mission of slaughter. STORY OF THE DADE MASSACRE The Dade massacre of December 28, 1835, was the greatest disaster in Indian warfare which up to that time had ever befell a command of the United States army, and that date has had no other parallel than the Custer massacre of 1876. The Florida tragedy in the history of American arms has been so completely told by Hon. Fred Cubberly, of Gainesville, as published in Senate Document No. 33, 67th Congress, 1st Session, that the text of his story is here reproduced:

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 43 "The year 1835 fonnd the Seminole Indians of Florida in a disturbed condition; a few of the chiefs only being favorably disposed to remove to the country west of the Mississippi as the treaty of Payne's Landing had obligated them to do. There had been numerous conferences and talks between Gen. Wiley Thompson, the Indian agent, at Fort King, near the present site of the City of Ocala, and the agent had reported to the Washington authorities from time to time of the impending difficulties. The Indians claimed that the first treaty, made at Camp Moultrie near St. Augustine, should control in their affairs and the administration at . Washington held for a strict constructron of the treaty of Payne's Landing, made at a later date. "At this time President Andrew Jackson took a firm stand in the con-I DADE MASSACRE MEMORIAL MONUMENT troversy, and in a message dated February 16, 1835, directed to the chiefs and warriors of the Seminole Indians in Florida, used the following expressions : 'You know me, and you know I would not deceive nor advise you to do anything that was unjust or injurious. * * * I tell you that you must go and that you will go. * * * You have sold all your country. You have not a place as large as a blanket to sit down upon.' These stern words were communicated to the Indians at coun cils held at Fort King in March and April, 1835, and the situation was fully expl ained to the principal chiefs and warriors by General Thompson, the agent, General Duncan L. Clinch, then in command in Florida, and experienced army officers. "During the summer of 1835 but few Indians came to Fort King, and the parleys with the Indians having been prolonged it was decided that removal would be deferred until the beginning of 1836. From time to time General Thompson and others had advised that the small force at Fort King and at Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay, would be insufficient and

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44 HISTORY OF FLORIDA recommended a reinforce ment of these posts, and particularly of the post at Fort King. "Orders were given in due time for detachments of the First and Second ArtiUery and Fourth Infantry to move from Key West, via Tampa Bay, to Fort King. This command was given to Maj. Francis L. Dade. "From Fort Brooke. on Tampa Bay, there was a trail or road known as the Fort King Road. The distance between the two posts was about one hundred miles, and over the larger streams had been placed crude. bridges. "Late in December, 1835, Major Dade and his troops began their march from Fort Brooke, and for several days nothing was heard from the command. Early in January there came to Fort Brooke a private soldier named Daniel F. Clarke, bearing seven wounds, weak from the loss of blood and the great hardships he had endured, and barely alive, as he ha
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 45 the outer garments. Major Dade and Captain Fraser closely followed the advance guard and the men in double file followed. "About four miles north of the last night camp, and while in the open pine woods and just west of a small , pond, and at a point where the grass was tall and there were many clumps of saw palmetto, the Indians, 18o in number, besides a large number of their negro slaves and retainers, had concealed themselves . in the grass and in the palmettoes. The command was slowly progressing along the trail at this point where the attack was, according to the methods of Indian warfare, not to be expected. The cold, quiet morning was suddenly startled by a shrill warhoop, uttered by the chief, Jumper, followed by a single shot fired by Micanopy, and then immediately a sheet of fire from the concealed Indians poured into the startled soldiers. More than half the command went down at the first volley. The aim of the Indians was well-nigh perfect and the attack had been carefully planned and discussed by the chiefs. "Halpatter-Tustenuggee, or Alligator, in his narrative of the battle says that after the first volley the soldiers were rallied by the few remain ing officers and that the fieldpiece was loaded and fired several times, but the Indians soon shot down the artillerymen and the gun was silenced. He says that one officer, a little man, was a very brave man, and that he drew his sword and swore great oaths and made every effort to rally the soldiers. From all accounts this officer was Captain Fraser, as it appears that Major Dade was killed during the first volley from the Indians. The soldiers took refuge behind trees and fought to the last. The firing continued for some time, and then the Indians retired a short distance to replenish their ammunition, An Indian coming up said that there were a few white men left and that they had thrown up a breastwork of logs. The savages returned to the ground and placed the survivors under a severe fire, and the soldiers' fire was soon silenced for want of ammunition . The Indians sent their negroes into the inclosure and found three white men alive who, after a conversation with them in English, were put to death , but not until . one soldier, who refused to surrender, seized an Indian, took away his rifle and with one blow dashed out the brains of the Indian and then ran up the road . . He was purstied by In' qians on horseback and soon shot down. Clarke, who had received seven wounds, corroborates this account, and said that he pretended to be dead when the Indians came into the inclosure. A negro slave gave him a push with his foot and said, "He is dead enough." Clarke lay, feigning death among his dead comrades until nightfall, and then crawled out of the bloody pen and started on his long and painful journey to Tampa Bay. "The Indians had taken all the guns and ammunition, so he was un armed. He shortly fell in with another soldier, and they traveled together, always at night, hiding in the daytime. They soon discovered that the Indians were on their trail and separated. Clarke said that soon after he heard a volley of shots that told his companion's death. "That the Indians themselves were astounded and perhaps awed by the fearful slaughter is evident from their actions after the battle. But few of the dead were scalped or their clothing taken, two thi 1gs that were invariably done after a successful battle. The officers were not robbed of articles of jewelry or personal adornment. Alligator says that they hastily left the battle-ground and returned northward into the swamp, where late that night they were joined by the chief, Osceola, and his band, fresh from the murder of General Thompson and Lieutenant Smith, at Fort King. Osceola and his band were loaded with loot from the sutler's store at Fort King, and the two bands celebrated their bloody work until far into the night, many of them drunk on the liquor they had taken from the sutler's store. It is said that Osceola placed the scalp of General Thompson on a pole, and many of the Indians made speeches to the departed spirit of the general. "For weeks the bodies of the slain remained exposed to the vultures

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46 HISTORY OF FLORIDA and the elements. Gen. Edmund P. Gaines, who had landed at Tampa Bay with a considerable force of men, marched against the hostiles, and reaching Fort King trail advanced to the scene of the massacre, arriving there February 20, 1836. "Capt. Ethan Allen Hitchcock, a graduate of West Point, and serving as inspector general of the Gaines command, reports that it was indeed a melancholy scene that greeted the advance of the command. The bodies of the slain were scattered along the trail. The oxen, their yokes still upon them, were lying as though they had fallen asleep; the horses of the officers lying dead, and the ground littered with the remains of boxes and packages that had contained the ammunition and supplies of the detachment. Then they came upon the small inclosure where the last stand was made and there found the skeletons of thirty or more men (Photo by G. M. Chapin) MEMORIAL RESERVATION AT ST. AUGUSTINE as a burial place for soldiers engaged in S e minole Wars. The three pyramidal piles cover remains of ro8 U. S. troops, under Major Francis L. Dade, who were massacred by Indians on December 28, 1835, who were lying in the position they must have occupied during their last fight, their heads to the log breastworks, bodies parallel with each other and arms extended, showing to the last they had held their weapons directeq upon the enemy. They had evidently died fighting to the last. Passing the inclosure other bodies were found, and then they came to the place where the advance guard and most of the officers fell. The bodies of all the officers were identified, as many of the officers with General Gaines were friends and associates of those who had fallen. The little army of General Gaines was halted, and the bodies of the men gathered and buried in a long trench , the officers in another, and the. proper and usual military honors paid to the dead. To this day the outlines of the trenches may be seen, the remains having been removed therefrom many years ago and taken to the national cemetery at St. Augustine, where they rest under a monument erected by the men and officers of the Florida Indian war. The six-pound gun was found in the pond nearby (where it had been thrown by the Indians) and plac e d in an upright position at the head of the trenches. "The officers of the command who perished on that fateful December

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 47 morning were Maj. Francis L. Dade, Captain Fraser, Captain Gardiner, Lieutenants Bassenger, Henderson, Mudge and Keais; and Dr. J. S. Gatlin, surgeon. The bodies of ninety-eight privates and noncommis sioned officers and eight officers were found and interred. Two of the command, in addition to Clarke, reached Tampa Bay after suffering great hardships on their perilous journey." Published in the same document by the Government Printing Office ( 1921) are the names of ninety-four noncommissioned officers and men who were killed in the massacre. Capt. E. A. Hitchcock, acting inspector general, in his report of the battle states that ninety-eight men and eight officers were buried on February 20, 1836, on the arrival of the command of Gen. Edmund P. Gaines. In front of Memorial Hall, United States Military Academy, West Point, stands a memorial monument in honor of Major Dade and his command. It was erected in 1845, and several years ago was transferred from another place in the grounds to its present site. For some years an effort has been made, supported by such men as United States Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, Congressman Herbert J. Drane and Mr. Cubberly, to erect a memorial on the exact site of the battlefield, and thus mark the historic spot on Florida soil. The Dade battle-ground has been purchased by the state, appropriately inclosed and the memorial '!3tatue is being erected (October, 1922) on a massive stone pedestal. INDECISIVE CAMPAIGNS Three days after the Dade massacre, a volunteer force .under Colonel Clinch and Gen. Richard K. Call met a band of Seminoles led by Osceola and Alligafor, at the Withlacoochee River, and routed them only after a severe engagement. Soon afterward the volunteers disbanded, the plantations and settlements were left almost unprotected, the inhabitants fled to the larger towns, and the Seminoles, for the time, had the upper hand. In February, 1836, General Gaines had arrived in Florida from New Orleans, and from the gruesome . scene of the Dade massacre passed on to Fort King. As he found no provisions there, he abandoned the fort, and, while about to cross the Withlacoochee was attacked by the enemy, driven back and finally relieved by General Clinch, who assumed command and led the troops to Fort Drane (northwestern part of the present Marion County). Soon afterward, in a parley with Captain Hitchcock, of General Gaines command, Osceola, Jumper and Alligator agreed to make peace if allowed to occupy the country south of the Withlacoochee; needless to say, their request was ignored. In March, 1836, General (now Governor) Call assumed command of all the Floriaa forces, at the direction of the secretary of war, and so con tinued until the fall of the following year. Forts King, Drane and Micanopy were successively abandoned during the summer, murder and destruction continued in the country east of the St. Johns River and so .uth of Picolata, or St. Augustine, and East Florida appeared almost to be given over to the Seminoles, its original people. In the fall of 1836, Gen eral Call was somewhat active in the Big Wahoo Swamp, but in November his campaign had proved so indecisive that (Jen. Thomas S. Jesup relieved him from the military command. The brief period that Gen. Winfield S. Scott was in command of the Florida forces added nothing to the termination of the war, and Gen. Thomas S. Jesup succeeded him. At first he left the command of the forces to General Call, but after the Withlacoochee campaign he assumed the active command . Establishing Fort Dade in what had been the center of the Indian settlement, General Jesup started toward the Everglades in pursuit of the fleeing Seminoles, but the main band escaped him. In February, 1837, King Philip and his son, Coacoochee (Wild Cat) led 400 warriors against

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48 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Fort Mellon , on Lake Monroe, but were repulsed, and in May, through the mediation of the negro interpreter, Abraham, several of the Seminole chiefs gathered their followers and assembled at Fort Dade. They had agreed to move south of the Withlacoochee and, as soon as possible, migrate to the West. The negroes were to accompany them and they were to be paid for their cattle and ponies. As June approached about seven hundred Seminoles, with their families and negroes, had assembled at Tampa Bay . . where was also collected the United States transports ready to convey them to their reservation in Arkansas. Osceola, King Philip, Coacoochee and Coe Hadjo, the war spirits of the Seminoles, were drawing their rations near Fort Mellon, and appeared to be in accord with the general plan. Suddenly, the entire situation changed, largely, it has been suggested, because of the appearance of planters at Tampa Bay to claim their runaway slaves; and the negroes were now considered indispensable to the life of the Seminole nation. At all events, on the 2d of June. 1837, Osceola came to camp and at midnight had induced Micanopy, Jumper and the other chiefs to abandon Fort Dade and again return to the Everglades . The territory was ag-ain in arms and volunteers were drafted from all the neighboring South. /'. .\CJI.\R\' TAYLOR AT OKEECHOBEE The capt ure of Osceola and Wil d Cat, and their confinement at St. Augustine, with the escape of the latter and the death of Osceola, at Fort Moubie. Charleston. are described elsewhere. An attempt on the part of a Cherokee delegation to mediate between the eminoles and the mili tary authorities of the United States took them to vVashington, but was of no avail. Col. Zachary Taylor was then called into the field south of the vVithlacoochee, his chief mission being to give battle to Sam Jones. the chief of the Micasukies, the most desperate leader of the Seminoles then active in the war. Taylor moved down the west bank of the Kis s immee River toward Lake Istokpoga, leading a force of about eleven hundred men, a part of whom were Shawnee Indians, and on the third day's march saw: signs of the enemy. Before noon of December 24, 1837, the Americans , both regulars and volunteers, took position in a dense swamp, which the men were obliged to cross before they could come into close contact with the Indians. They then gained some hammock land fro m which . the general advance was made. The engagement, which lasted from 12 :JO to 3 P. M., was a severe one, and a part of the time at very close quarters. The volunteers, at the first of their engagement. lost their commanding officer, Captain Gentry,' and withdrew from the fight. The Fourth and Sixth Infantry of regulars did most of the hard fighting, the latter being the special target for the fire of the Seminoles Colonel Thompson, it s commander, and Lieutenant Centre , his adjutant, were killed, and every officer, w . ith one exception, as well as most of the noncommissioned officers. were either killed or wounded, of the five com0panies in the Sixth Infantry, which withstood the brunt of the battle. The Indians were finally completely broken and driven to the shores of Lake Okeechobee. The battle of Okeechobee was the hardest fought engagement of the war, and virtually ended it; for the Seminoles did not again rally to a standing battle with the whites. Colonel Taylor reported his loss at 26 killed and r 12 wounded. The fatalities among the Seminoles were unknown, as many of their dead and wounded were carried from the battlefield . Writing of the fierce battle of Okeechobee , its commander draws this picture: "And there I mu st be permitted to say that J experienced one of the most trying scenes of my life. and he who could have looked on it with indifference. his nerves must have been very differently organized from my own. Besides the killed, among whom were some of my personal

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 49 friends, there lay r 12 wounded officers and soldiers, who had accom panied me 145 miles, most of the way through an unexplored wilderness, without guides, who had so gallantly beat the enemy , under my orders, in his _ strongest position, and who had to be conveyed through swamps and hammocks from whence we set out, without any apparent means of doing so. This service , however, was e ncountered and overcome, and they have been conveyed thus far, and proceeded on to Tampa Bay on rude litters constructed with the axe and knife alone, with poles and dry hides, the latter being found in great abundance at the camps of the hostiles . The litters were conveyed on the backs of our weak and tottering horses _ aided by the balance of the command, with more ease and comfort to the sufferers than I could have supposed, and with as much as they could have been in ambulances of the most approved and modern construc tion . " Co'.o nel Taylor left his camp on the morning of the 27th of December INDIANS PLANTING From LeMoyne, 1565. and four days late! was at Fort Dade, se nding forward his wounded to Tampa Bay on New Year's day of 1838. As to the Seminole population in Florida, C. A. Harris, commissioner of Indian affairs, reported that at the commencement of hostilities there were 3 ,000 Indians, and, assuming, as was customary, every fifth Seminole to be a warrior, the fighting force o'f the Seminole nation would be 600. Of the 3,000, 407 had been renioved. At the same time that this report was made (in January, 1838), the adjutant general estimated that 7,633 American troops were employed against the Seminoles-regulars and marines, 4,500; militia and volun teers, 2,855; sailors, roo; Indians, 178. In the foregoing sta tement, the Georgia volunteers under General Nelson, 1,200 strong, were not taken into account. -In February, 1838, the secretary of war reported the disbursements on account of the Seminole war to be $9,360,000. From their route at the battle of Okeechobee, the Seminole war spirit co mmen ced to disintegrate, although so me of their able leaders, such as were still at large . Jumper and some of the minor chiefs had given themselves up , with their bands, and were encamped at Tampa Bay ready for their western venture. General Jesup also captured about seven hundred Indians and negroes at Fort Jupiter, where they had as-

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50 HISTORY OF FLORIDA sembled for a "talk," and many Seminole villages were destroyed and their inhabitants sent on to the Tampa rendezvous. The grand result was that by the summer of 1838, some twenty-four hundred Indians had been captured and more than half sent to the West. TAYLOR SUCCEEDS JESUP In May, 1838, General Jesup was succeeded in command of the Florida troops by General Taylor. In the meantime, a stockade had been erected at the mouth of the Miami called Fort Dallas, in honor of Alexander James Dallas, then (1836) in command of the American naval forces in the West Indies. Two years later, Capt. L. B. Webster, under orders from General Jesup, erected a more substantial fort, probably on the site of the 1836 stockade, for the purpo s e of maintaining a post there by which he might crush any enemy Seminoles who might be driven through the Everglades toward the east coast. Fort Dallas was the predecessor of Miami. SECOND SEMINOLE w AR CONCLUDED In the month that General Taylor succeeded General Jesup, the troops were withdrawn from Fort Dallas to Key Biscayne, where they remained through that year, the new post being named Fort Bankhead, after one of the officers prominent in the Seminole war. Fort Dallas was reoccupied in January, 1839, although it did not play any important part in the prosecution of General Taylor's campaigns. Since the Indians had aban doned open warfare, he attempted a systematic campaign of subjection, or extermination. In the winter of 1838-39, he divided Florida into small squares, or districts, each containing a block house with a squad of infantry and mounted men, for patrol duty and active operations. Then Gen. Alexander Macomb, commander of the United States army, arrived from Washington, ;;ts a peace-maker, and while the settlers were com mencing to breathe freely over the Seminole assurance that the red men would dwell below Peace Creek and Lake Okeechobee, the band of Billy Bowlegs descended on Colonel Hamey's camp and half of his men were killed. The proposed experiment of tracking the Seminoles by means of Cuban bloodhounds was a failure, since the discriminating dogs had been taught to hunt negroes, not Indians. In May, 1840, Brig. Gen. W. R. Armistead relieved General Taylor of his command. After several months of murders and peace talks , the end of the war (now in its fifth year) seemed still far away. In June, 1841, however, a real gain was made in the capture of the bold and able Coacoochee, with a band of relatives and intimate followers, and the transportation of the entire dangerous lot to Louisiana. During the preceding May, Col. William G. Worth, formerly in command of the Tampa District and one of General Scott's old staff officers, had been appointed to succeed General Armistead. Until all the chiefs and their followers surrendered to the military authorities, Colonel Worth's campaign was one of diplomacy rather than of war; and he proved to be the right man to end the seven years' of bloodshed and dis ruptions of all individual or public plans which promised progress. He brought back Coacoochee (Wild Cat) who was en route to New Orleans and the West, and through him secured several minor chiefs. Alligator was returned to Tampa Bay from Arkansas; Alligator enlisted Tigar Tail in the search for Halleck, the last recalcitrant chief of the Seminoles. The last battle of the war was fought by Colonel Worth with Halleck, on April 19 , 1842; location, on the Withlacoochee River, near Lake TsalaApopka. On August 14th, the commander issued a proclamation from Cedar Key that hostilities had ceased, and assigned the Indians to the country south of Peace Creek. In January, 1843, Pascoffer and his Creeks surrendered on the Ock-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA . 51 lockonee River, and, with their transportation, Middle and West Florida were finally relieved of the red men. In the following November, Brigadier General Worth reported to the adjutant general that there remained in Florida only 95 Indian warriors-42 Seminoles, 33 Mickasukies, IO Creeks and IO Tallahassees. Including women and children, the Indian population amounted to 300 . Assiniwa Otulkeethloko (Bowlegs), nephew of Micanopy, was the acknowledged chief. INDIANS AGAIN THREATEN SETTLEMENTS For a number of years the few Indians remaining in Florida were quiet and remained within the limits assigned to them, but in I846 they commenced to roam abroad, steal cattle and commit other depredations. The Fort Gatlin settlement in Orange County was especially disturbed. SEMINOLE VILLAGE There were other disturbances in I849, and many of the settlements from New Smyrna southward on the Atlantic coast were almost abandoned. In I852, there were threatened outbreaks, chiefly on the part of the bands led by Chiefs Bowlegs and Sam Jones, and finally a delegation was brought from Arkansas to have a talk with the Brethren. A military force was organized under the authority of Governor Brown, who ordered Gen. B. Hopkins , at Mellonville (now Sanford), to organize a company and proceed against them. The Indians were in the neighborhood of Lake Harney, I50 miles north of their reservation. Result: Capture of several Indians, and the emigration of about one hundred of their num ber. In December, 1855, the Seminoles who had been in a restless state because of friction with the settlers along Peace Creek, in regard to the ownership of certain cattle, attacked a detachment of United States troops near Fort Drum, in what is now Okeechobee County. About 1,500 men were organized against what threatened to be a serious uprising, under General Harney. The "war" consisted of a pursuit of the Indians through Big Cypress Swamp into the Everglades, and from one swamp and hammock to another. A few Indians were killed, and a few more consisting mainly of women and children, were captured and sent

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52 . HISTORY OF FLORIDA to Arkansas; but the total population was reduced by less than IOO. The state, which had borne the expense of the volunteers, even to the extent of going into debt on an issue of bonds, made repeated demands upon the general government for reimbursement, but her claim was not paid until 1903 , and at that time aggregated $1,IOo , 000. Peace was not altogethe r restored until I858. REMAINING SEMINOLES OF FLORIDA From I836 to the. close of the war in 1842, the removal of 3,930 Indians from the territory was effected. They were transported to the West in seventeen different parties. When the war closed about three A DESCENDANT-OF AN Ow MuscoGEE CurnF hundred Indians were still in the swamps, where they remained for thirteen years as a body. Then came the Billy Bowlegs uprising, and in 1858 his departure, with 159 of his followers. One hundred (efused to leave the Everglades, and from this band have descended those who remain on their reservation in Lee County. WORK OF 'fl-IE PROTESTANT EPIS COPAL CHURC H From I870 to I888 several attempts were made by the United States Government to assist these swamp wanderers, and agents were sent to them. Nothing practical resulted, however, until I89I, when the Women's National Indian Association entered Florida and commenced work among the miserable Seminoles. Ih March of that year that organization established a mission, and in June Dr. J. E . Brecht and his wife were placed in active charge of it. In 1895, the mission station was transferred to the Missionary Board of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Southern

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 53 Florid a. Dr. and Mrs. Brecht remained with the Indians for eight years. The. doctor was first under the commissioner of Indian affairs, and afterward of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and, with his wife, not only acted as industrial teacher and disbursing agent of Government funds, but treated the Indians medically and surgically, without charge, furnish ing the medicines from his meager income. In all of this pioneer work they were faithfolly supported by Mrs. Amelia S . Quinton, president of the Women's National Indian Association. A summary of the work accomplished since the care of the Seminoles was intrusted to the Episcopal Church, in 1895, with a statement of the present status of what remains of the Seminole nation-now a small colony of cleanly, law-abiding, moral, domestic people-is thus given by the chief medical supervisor of the Florida Seminoles, an official of the United States Office of Indian Affairs, the date of his report being April 8, 1921: "The work was carried on from 1895 until 1914 by the Episcopal Church, but in 1913 the Rev. Lucien A. Spencer, a priest and dean of that church, was appointed special commissioner and is still serving in that capacity, although his services were interrupted by military duty extending over four years from 1916 to 1919, inclusive, where he was a chaplain in the United States army. In the interim the position was filled by the detail of Inspector Coleman and later Special Supervisor B_randon, the latter serving until the return of Major Spencer. "Arrangements were finally completed ( 1917) for acquiring land for these Indians and the holdings now consist of 26,741 acres in Lee County and 481 acres in Broward County. "While Supervisor Brandon was in charge , the agency was removed from Miami, on the east coast, to Fort Myers on the west coast, the latter being more accessible to the outpost-agency near the Everglades. "Miami is about ' one hundred and fifty miles east of Fort Myers and the outpost-agency is half way-between. When the trans-state road con necting the two places is fini s hed the agency might as well be in Miami as Fa.rt Myers. "The Atlantic Coa s t Line ' Railroad is extending its road to Immokalee, 2 about thirty-five miles east of Fort Myers, and the Special Commissioner will remove the agency, as soon as .practicable, to that point,, thus locating it within forty miles of the outpost-agency which ii_ on the border of the reservation. When this extension is completed ita.rill re duce the overland haul from seventy-five to forty miles. "The reservation property consists of l7,28o acres in Lee County and 5 , 76o acres in close proximity. The land for the most part is excel lent for grazing purposes and contains a number of arrable, fertile tracts that will grow enough crops to feed the Indians. There is enough pine timber to provide lumber for all construction that may be needed. A cattle range of l2,8oo acres has already been fenced , and wire has been purchased to fence l,28o acres in hog range. "The buildings at the output-agency consist of a dwelling house for the laborer, a warehouse, a small office, and stables; the land and build ings in Lee County are worth about two hundred and fifty thousand dol lars. In the course of time other buildings will be needed, but for some years to come , there will be no need for an extensive building program at the outpost-agency." The combined population is made up of 228 males and 226 females, and it is evidently increasing. The first reliable census was taken by Rev. Clay MacCauley, an agent of the Government Bureau of Ethnology, who, in the midst of his investigations, in 188o, ascertained that the Billy Bow legs band of 100 had increased to 200 in twenty-two years. In 1920, when Major Spencer made his enumeration for the Bureau of the Census, 454 were reported , as noted 'in this paragraph. 2 Completed since 192r.

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" !.... , .. 54 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Maj. Lucien A. Spencer, the special commissioner and special disburs ing agent of the Seminoles at Fort Myers, in his report of June, 1921, adds to the foregoing information, under the head "Industrial Policy":. "The United States Government holds 26,74r.72 acres of land for the use and benefit of the Florida Seminoles. An industrial policy has been outlined looking toward the establishment of an industrial center on the largest tract of this land ( l7,28o acres) situated in Lee County about eighty miles from Fort Myers. For the purpose of carrying out this policy, $20,000 was appropriated for the year 1920 and with this money l2,8oo acres of grazing land were fenced, necessary reservation buildings erected and the interest and cooperation of the Indians established. Four thousand dollars was set aside for the purchase of cattle for this range. "In order to continue the work, $15,000 was requested for 1921 but only $5,000 appropriated. The Indian Office refused to allow the purchase of cattle because there would be no funds to carry the herd through the year, and the work came to a standstill. The actual expense of main taining the work during the year 1921 was approximately $7,207. In order to prevent actual famine, the Indian Office advanced $2,207 of its own funds; $ 7,000 has been appropriated for the year 1922 and every cent will be needed to prevent actual suffering and keep the present plant from deteriorating. "The idea of the industrial policy is to make these Indians self supporting and not a constant drain upon Government funds. With the disappearance of game and the occupancy of the land by white settlers, some provision must be made for these Indians. With sufficient appro priations this can be accomplished in less than five years, while, on the other hand, small appropriations merely prevent actual suffering for the time being but give no remedy for existing conditions. They make the Indian an object of charity instead of helping him to maintain his inde pendence and self respect."

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CHAPTER IV TRANSPORTATION BY LAND A D WATER To reach their feeding grounds, and those of the hunt, animals and savages instinctively follow the highest and dryest and easiest routes of travel through the land in which their lives are cast. Thus in Florida, as in all other lands of the earth, when the whites came upon the heels of the Indians, they found a few great routes of, travel laid out for them without the aid of the surveyor. The great east and west route through Northern Florida, followed the highlands and the headwaters of the rivers, and was known as the Spanish Trail, or the St. Augustine Road. From St. Augustine, it crossed the St. Johns at Tecoi; thence to Lake Santa Fe, across the intervening country to Tallahassee; thence, in almost a direct line to Pensacola and westward, along the coast, to Mobile. This became the most traveled road for the traders of the South, in Spanish times. INDIAN TRAILS AND FORDS Returning to the Indian routes of travel, whether by land or water which preceded the means of transportation adopted by the whites, Judge Benjamin Harrison lays them down in this wise: "The river St. Johns was the national highway of the Tomokan race and they held stoutly to both banks, guarding the valley against their enemies of Muscogee Confederacy, hiding their granaries of reserve pro visions in its jungles and placing their religious capital on its bosom in Big Lake George on its beautiful island to which has been given the name of Drayton. "Another trail of the Tomokans led from Tampa until that site was occupied by the Caribs : afterwards from the town of Hirrhigua across the valley of the Kissimmee and then to their stronghold on Lake Okee chobee; thence two routes passed to the east to intersect the southern trail-one crossed the St. J olms at the mouth of Lake Monroe and the other at Palatka. The campaigns of the Seminole war read like puzzles until these routes are studied as they were exa,mined by Scott and Twiggs and Harney. "The fords of the St. Johns most important were at Jacksonville, Tecoi, Palatka and Volusia where towns now flourish: the crossing at the northern end of Lake Monroe has no town because the Government estab lished Fort Mellen, a few miles to the south, and Sanford was afterwards built still nearer; military and sterner demands having broken the rule in this instance. But all these trails, to the eye of the Englishman' with _ colonies in Georgia, logically came together along the Kings Highway and crossed at Jacksonville." THE KINGS ROAD Two years after Florida became an English colony, in 1765, a public improvement was made in the northeast which was designed to afford an easy means of access to the southern possession from Georgia, South Carolina and the other southern colonies. It was the Kings Road laid down upon an old trail from the St. Marys River, opposite Colerain, Georgia, to the Cow Ford (Jacksonville), and thence to St. Augustine 55

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56 HISTORY. OF FLORIDA and New Smyrna. At about the time of the building of the King Road, it is said that a small canal was surveyed near Lake Okeechobee. FIRST CANALS PROPOSED IN FLORIDA Before Florida came into possession of the United States, but while General Jackson was temporarily occupying West Florida in I8I8, John C. Calhoun. the Secretary of War, had directed an examination of the sources of the St. Marys and Suwannee rivers (in Southern Georgia), with a view of connecting these streams by a canal; thus connecting the waters of the Atlantic Ocean with the Gulf qf Mexico, and saving the voyage around the Florida peninsula. Later surveys were made for pro, posed ship canals between the St. Johns and the Suwannee and the St. Marys and the St. Marks. But such a plan was abandoned. FIRST GOVERNMENT HIGHWAY Railroads had not yet come into their own, and waterways as a means of transportation were naturally . most discussed by Floridian . But about I824, under the provisions of a congTessional act, a twenty-five foot road was surveyed by Capt. Daniel E. Burch, United States en gineer, following substantially the old Spanish trail from Pensacola to Augustine, and the section from the Ocklockonee River, west of the new capital, Tallahassee, was built to the St. Johns River. The contractor was John Bellamy, Captain Burch's father-in-law. FIRST RAILRO.'\D I N THE TERRITORY The first railroad company incorporated was the Leon Railway Com pany, in I83I, to build a line from Tallahassee to the port of St. Marks., on the. Gulf coast. Three years later, it was incorporated as the Tallahassee Railroad Company, and soon afterward the line of twenty-three miles was constructed to the Fort St. Marks and extended across the river to a point on Apalachee Bay, where was founded the flourishing Port Leon. It was completed about I836, in the first year of the admin istration of Governor Richard K. Call, who was its chief promoter and owner. The Tallahassee-Port Leon road was not operated by steam, but by mule power, so that no claim can be made that it was a pioneer in the George St,ephenson class of railways. The Port was destroyed by a storm in 1843, and St. Marks, at the junction of the Wakulla and St. Marks rivers, became the southern terminus. SLOW RAILROAD BUILDING However, interesting an examination of the various incorporations of railroad schemes may be, the fact remains that until the early 'sos the Tallahassee road was the only one in Florida in actual operation. Another had been built from St. Joseph, on the Gulf bay by that name,' to Iola, on the west bank of the Apalachicola River, in 1839, at an expenditure of $300 , 000, but two years later was abandoned as a losing enterprise. The Internal Improvement Act of 1849 yielded little more than "incorporations," Congress continued to encourage the building of rail roads, and in 1856 conveyed more than 2,000,000 acres of public lands to the companies then operating. Then came the panic and hard times of 1857 to delay construction, and yet by April, 1861, the following lines were in operation: Florida Railroad (Fernandina to Cedar Key), 155 miles; Pensacola & Georgia (Lake City to Tallahassee), l 14 miles; Florida, Atlantic & Gulf Central (Jacksonville to Lake City) , 6o miles; Florida & Alabama (Pensacola to Alabama line), 47 miles; Tallahassee railroad, 22 miles; St. Johns railroad, 130 miles. The total expense of building and equipment was estimated at $7,000,000.1 i Fleming's "Memoirs."

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 57 INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT FUND MADE AVAILABLE The war of 1861-65 founc;l the railroad system uncompleted from Tallahass ee to Pensacola and from Waldo to Tampa Bay, and how Florida was finally netted with lines is largely explained by the release of the Internal Improvement fund from debt, in 188r. This subject, as well as other public matters of a nature state-wipe in their scope, is expanded in c;letail in the chapters devoted to the state government; and much of the data explaining the development of the great railroad systems of Florida has been used in the histories of the cities and counties of the state. Under the stimulus of the release of the heavy debt from the Internal Improvement fund, in 188I, by the sale of 4,000,000 acres of land to eastern and foreign capitalists, the railroad mileage of the state increased, in three years , by more than 8oo miles, making a total of 1,207 miles in operation. Ten years after the release of the Internal Improvement lands ( 1891), 2,566 miles of railroad were in operation throughout the state. It was during that decade that the great railroad systems which now dominate Florida were taking shape-the Louisville & Nashville, the Atlantic Coast, the Florida East Coast and the Seaboard Air Line. T1rn SE.\BOARD Arn I 1 E The Seaboard ir Line, which enters Northeastern Florida by way of Fernandina and Jackso nville, traverses more than half of Northern Florida, where it connects with the Louisville & Nashville system, throws out trunks and branches into the central, western and southern parts of the state, as far as the latitude of the Lake Ockeechobee district, where it joins the Atlantic Coast Line (Plant ystem) at Arcadia. It was not until 1900 that the Florida Central and Peninsular Railroad Company, which, with its predecessors, had been extending various lines from the Atlantic toward and to the Gulf. was absorbed by the great southern organization known as the Seaboard Air Line, under the presidency of John S. Williams. of Richmond, Virginia. In 186o , the Florida Railroad Company built the line of 155 miles from Fernandina to Cedar Key. The construction of the line, as well as the railroad to Tampa Bay, was urged by ecretary of War Jefferson Davis in 1855, both from commercial and military standpoints. In trans mitting a report of the engineers appointed to survey the routes to the United States Senate, he says: "Florida, by projecting so far south, make s the great and salient point in our coast, and, like other similar points, is the one most exposed. The fact that so large a proportion of our commerce must pass around it , and at t\1e same time close to a for eign s hore , has for years created much solicitude as to its safety in time of war." This line and other railroads between Tallahassee and Jacksonville were sold to eastern capitalists and syndicates, because of default in the payment of on the bonds issued to build and maintain them , and the new owners endeavored to carry out the original scheme of railroad construction projected through the Internal Improvement fund. In 1871 , the Atlantic, Gulf & West India Transit Company assumed the enterprise of building to Tampa and Charlotte Harbor. The Tampa line was completed in the late 'Sos under auspices of the Florida Rail way & Navigation Company, then in the hands of a receiver. In the , meantime various lines had been projected down into Middle Florida beyond Ocala to Wildwood. Orlando and other southern points, and in i893 the Florida Central & Peninsular completed the extension from Yulee, Nassau County, northward to Savannah, Georgia, making the mo s t direc t line between that city and Jacksonville, and connecting all the railroad systems of the state with the seaboard lines of the southern states.

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58 HISTORY OF FLORIDA That part of the old east and west line, known as the Pensacola & Gulf, was extended from Quincy to Chattahoochee in the early '70s. Between Lake City and Jacksonville the line was owned by the Florida Central Company, and it was operated under that name until I883, when, with other properties, it was consolidated under the management of the Florida Railway & Navigation Company. Although the last of the important railroad system s of Florida to be organized, the Seaboard Air Line embraces the section which repre sents the pioneer road from Tallahassee to St. Marks. The system as now organized dates from I9I5, when the Seaboard Air Line Railway and the Carolina, Atlanta & W estem were consoliqated under various articles of agreement between the stockholders of these corporations, which were filed with the secretaries of state of Virginia, North Caro lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Alabama. The principal lines of the system in Florida are those from Jacksonville to River J unc tion, 209 miles; from Fernandina to Cedar Key, I55 Miles, Wildwood to Lake Charm, 70 miles, and Durant to Sarasota, 53 miles. THE LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE (ATLANTIC COAST) SYSTEM 2 The Louisville & Nash ville Railroad Company, whose field is Northwest Florida, is represented by its trunk line from Pensacola to Chatta hoochee, or River Junction, with a northern extension west of the Escam bia River to Flomaton, Alabama, and thence west to the Gulf ports of Mobile and New Orleans. The section from Pensacola into Alabama was first completed in I870 by the Pensacola & Louisville Railroad Com pany, and in I877 the road went into the hands of the Pensacola Rail road Company. In I88I, the Pensacola & Atlantic Railroad Company was chartered by the Legislature, in August of that year ground was broken for the construction of the line from Pensacola to the Apalachi cola River, and the entire line of I6I miles was completed April 11, I883. The splendid work accomplished by the Louisville & Nashville (which absorbed both the Pensacola Railroad Company and the Pensacola & Atlantic) in the development of Perisacola, since I896, is fully described in the history of that city. In I909, the Louisville & Nashville acquired the capital stock of the Louisville & Atlantic, but since I902, as already stated, it has been controlled by the Atlantic Coast Line. The Gulf, Florida & Alabama lines, which branch from the Louis ville & ashville northward into Alabama, have their origin in the Pensacola & Perdido Railroad, which was chartered in I868, and completed from Pensacola to the Perdido River in I872. The Pensacola, Alabama & Tennessee afterward built to Muskogee. ATLANTIC COAST LINE (PLANT SYSTEM) The Atlantic Coast Line, or the Plant System, the roads of which are so thickly interlaced with those of the Seaboard Air Line in the northern, western and central portions of the peninsula, has forced its system somewhat farther east and south than that of its chief competitor. The Atlantic Coast Line commenced to be pushed down into Florida during the Civil war period, as offshoots of the Savannah, Albany & Gulf Coast Railroad, which by I86I had been extended from Savannah to Thomasville, I3I miles, and during the Civil war period to Bainbridge on the Flint River, Southwestern Georgia; it was then called the Atlantic & Gulf. The company, although it was paralleling what afterward be came the east and west trunk line of the Seaboard, first came down into Florida from Dupont to Live Oak, where it connected with the Pensacola & Georgia road and gave the Federal authorities necessary connec tions for the transportation of troops and supplies into Florida. 2 See also Pensacola.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 59 In 1887, the Savannah, Florida & Western built from Monticello, Jefferson County, to Thomasville, Georgia, giving Middle Florida its first rail connection northward. The company named had succeeded the Atlantic & Gulf. It had already secured control of the East Florida road and now had direct connection between Jacksonville and Savannah, instead of by way of Live Oak. . Under the charter of the Florida Southern, in the early 'Sos, lines were completed from Live Oak to Gainesville, Lake City, Ocala, Lees burg, Bartow, Sanford, Orlando, etc., and in 1883 the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railroad Company opened the line from Bartow Junction to Tampa. In 1887, the extension was made from Tampa to Port Tampa, and the development of that seaway . to Tampa was commenced (see his tory of Tampa). The next great extension of what afterward became the Plant System was that of the Orange Belt Railway Company from Oakland, Orange County, to Tarpon Springs and St. Petersburg on the Gulf coast. It was completed in 1888, and afterward extended to Sanford as the San ford & St. Petersburg Railroad. About the same time, various local companies brought Ocala, Dunellon and Homosassa, near the Gulf, into railroad connection. The details as to the time when the leading cities and towns of Florida were first given train service may be found in the histories of those localities. In 1892, the lines constructed by the Florida Southern, the Savannah, Florida & Western and other minor railroad companies, was absorbed by the reorganized company of which Henry B. Plant, of New York, was at the head, known then as the Plant Investment Co_ mpany, and in 1899 the main line of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West system from Jacksonville to Sanford was absorbed by the same corporation. After the death of Mr. Plant, the Atlantic Coast Line came under the presidency of R. G. Erwin, of New York. What has become known as the Plant System has not been confined to railroad building. Through its land department immigration along its numerous lines has been greatly stimulated. Also, the impressive system of tourist hotels, of which the Tampa Bay Hotel (now municipal property) is the most noted, which has developed with the extension of the railroads, has contributed ma terially to the growth of Florida as a state. As to Tampa and Port Tampa-the Atlantic Coast Line holds the same fatherly relation to them as does the Louisville & Nashville to Pensacola. In 1900, the original company of the system assumed the name of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company of Virginia, and in the same year other companies were merged with it and the name Virginia was dropped from the title. In July, 1902, the consolidation of the Savan nah, Florida & Western Railway Company, known as the Plant system of railways, with the former, became effective as the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company. In October of that year the management acquired $3oi6oo,ooo of the $6o,ooo,ooo capital stock of the Louisville & Nash ville line, thus obtaining a controlling interest in it. Further, in 1902, which was an epochal year in the development of the Plant System, the St. Johns and Lake Eustis and Sanford & Lake Eustis lines were merged into it; in 1903 the Florida Southern and Sanford & St. Petersburg were absorbed; in 1904, the Jacksonville & Southwestern, and in 1913, the Sanford & Everglades. The last named has been extended as far south as Clewiston on the southern shore of Lake Okeechobee and Immokalee, Lee County. In common with the other Florida railroads, the Atlantic Coast Line was taken over by the United States Railroad Administration during the period of ' the country's participation in the World war, 1918 and 1919, and restored to private management in March, 1920. The events which marked the development of the system during recent years was the opening of the new Union passenger station at Jacksonville. in Novem ber, 1919, which was constructed by the Jacksonville Terminal Company

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60 HISTORY OF FLORIDA and adds so mat e rially to the accommodations of the Coast Line at that point, and the construction of the line (by the Tampa Southern) from Uceta, a short distance south of Tampa, to Bradentown , in I9I9-20. The principal lines owned and operated by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company in Florida are those from Dupont, Georgia, to Fort Myers, 348 miles; from Milldale (Jacksonville) to Perry, I63 miles; Palatka to Brooksville, I45 miles; Sylvan Lake to St. Petersburg, I44 miles, and from Haines City to Goodno, IOO miles. THE FLORIDA EAST COAST RAILWAY The old-time doctrine of Predestination has had firm champions in the thousands of Floridians who have had the privilege of coming into touch with the masterful and magnetic life of the late Henry Morrison Flagler. In the early '8os, the Time and the Man were at hand for the • creation of modern East Flotida, with its entrancing charms of nature, its marine and floral wealth, its isolated iron links, its budding towns and its little city at the gateway of the Gulf of Mexico and at the extremity of long stretches of islands and reefs which rimmed the Indies of the West. Key West. the naval guardsman of America's southern commerce. had developed into a city of 10,000 people before Mr. Flagler came to Florida to build the hotel Ponce de Leon, at St. Augustine, and make it accessible by rail to the tourists of the country. In fact, the construction and formal opening of his string of magnificent hotels along the East Coast were at first the primary influences which guided the extension of his system of railroads into Southern Florida. The exten sion in Key West constituted the heroics of the vast project of hotel building, resort building, city building and railroad building, which occu pied the mind, heart and soul of the master architect for nearly thirty years, or until his death, one year and nearly four months, after the com pletion of the Florida East Coast Railway to its ultimate objective point. EARLY SUGGESTIONS FOR KEY WEST RAILROAD Long before Henry M. Flagler ever thought of Florida as a sphere for his great organizing abilities, and his directness and honesty of purpose, southerq statesmen and publicists had urge
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 61 scrap iron l a id o n scant lin g, and the fare for the fifteen miles to the river was $z. Before the C i vil war the road was built within a mile and a half of St. Augustine, and afterward was r eco n struc t e d with better rails and with a coffee-mill e n g in e o n a platform as the motor. In 1870, the road was so ld to William Astor1 of New York, who orga nized the company which m ade the improvements noted. Doctor Westcott wa s still identi fied with th e l oca l m anage m e nt. As Mr. Astor desired to secure better con n ect i o n s westward a nd across the St . .T ohns River, which he could not acco mpli s h at Toco i , h e extende d t he road to Palatka, under the in corporated n a m e o f the St. A u g u sti n e & Palatka Railroad Company. The lin e was buil t in 1886. And Mr. Flagler was already on the ground, with hi s sharp eye on St. A ugu st ine. In 1883, the Jacksonville, St. A u g u sti ne & Halifax River Railroad had been built frorri So u t h Jacksonville to St. A ugustine, thirty-six miles. At th. e same time, Deacon S . V. White of New York and the local presi d e nt , U. J. White, had developed logging road from the river to San Mateo into a narrow gauge lin e of fifty-one miles running from Eas t Palatka to Ormond and D ay tona on the coast. Thus little unrelated l ines of road were b e in g built from Jacksonville to Daytona, in Eastern Florida, r eady to the o rganizin g brain of Mr. F lagl er. Early in 1884, Mr. F la g ler first came to F l o rida and decided t o b uild a h ote l in St. A u g u stine whic h sho uld be a great pleasure resort. Her etofo r e Florida had been considered so l e l y a health resort-a good country for the st r engt h e nin g of weak lun gs, or the h ea fing of diseased ones . Mr. F lagl e r ' aim was to make St. A u g u stine a to uri st ce nter, and his first step wa to build a uniqu e h otel. For that purpose he employed Carrera & Hastings, of New York, sons of o ld friends, and sent them to Spai n to study the grace'ful and massive a r chitecture of the Moors. U pon their r et urn, work was comme n ced upo n the Pon ce de Leon Hotel, under the superintendency of McG uir e & McDonald, builders. Before the Ponc e d e Leon was finished, he began work o n the Casi no and the Alcazar Hotel, on opposite sides of King Str eet. In 1885 h e h ad purchased the J ackso n ville & St. A twu sti n e Railroad , a nd while the Ponce de Leon was building c h anged its narrow gauge to the standard width so that it could b e j o in ed to the northern ystems a nd give his to uri st r esort general con necti ons. To contro l the travel and t h e traffic with Jacksonville, he also bought the ferry from the main c it y to South Jacksonville and afterward constructed the bridge across the river at Jacksonville. The Ponce de Leon. t h e first of the Flagler hotels, was formally opened to the public o n January lS , 1888. Its main site was an orange grove, which had been purchased from Doctor Anderson, of St. Augus tine , and tha t portion of the h ote l grounds was one of the features of the Moorish and Spanish-like surroundings which carried out the ambi tion of it s originator in so realistic a manner. It was a bit of MoorishSpain transplanted b odi l y to North east Florida, and, when the thousand s o f visitors commenced to swa rm through its wonderful gardens, and l ooked upo n it s gorgeo u sly decorated walls and h alls and chambers, the uni ve r sa l verdict was t hat t h e like of this $z,ooo,ooo hotel had never been se en in America. The first all-Pullman train from New York to Florida was run dai l y by the Pennsylvania Railroad, Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac, A tlantic Coast Line, C harle ston & Savannah Railroad, Savannah, Florida & Western, and the Jacksonville & St. A ugu st ine, between New York and St. A ugustine, for the ope nin g of the Ponce de Leon H o tel and during the tourist seaso n . It was the first a ll-Pullman train in the South, and was called the Florida Special. The ga u ge of the southern railroad s from Quantico, Virginia, was changed in A u g u st, 1886, from five feet two , t o standard, which permitted this all-Pullman train to be run through without c h a n ge of trucks, a ve r y notabl e incid e n t in the railroad history of the South. In the following winter ( 1889), the m assive and g raceful Alca zar,

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62 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the sister hostelry, was thrown open across King Street. Like the Ponce, its architecture is of the Spanish Renaissance, with a distinctive Moorish stamp. This style is followed, even to the patio and flower gardens within its walls, surrounded by an arcade upon which open shops and offices. The Cordova, purchased by Mr. Flagler after its completion, is an annex of the Alcazar, and works smoothly into its scheme of architecture and decoration. THE MANNER OF MAN. Before developing, in this sketch, the logical extension of the Flagler railroads southward designed to feed the resorts and the towns and the cities which he projected just in advance of them, it is a literary neces sity to briefly indicate what manner of man this was who was doi'ng this wonderful missionary work for Florida. He was a strong electrical man well toward sixty. Born in the little Town of Hammondsport, just south of Rochester, in 1830, he was the son of a Presbyterian minister, laboring in God's vineyard for $400 a year. The son received a little schooling until he was fourteen years of age, when, in love for his parents and his sister, he decided that he should earn his own living. On foot, by canal and lake, sore of body and weak with sea-sickness and home-sickness, he finally reached Sandusky with his little carpet-bag and $1 in money. He worked in various Ohio towns, and among other business men came in contact with John D. Rockefeller, then a commission merchant in Cleveland, and to whom young Flagler sent considerable grain for Mr. R. to sell. Mr. Flagler made about fifty thousand dollars as . a distiller and then gave up the business on.conscientious grounds. Next he lost his fortune in manufacturing salt at Saginaw, Michigan. At this point in his career, in talking to his old pastor, Dr. George M. Ward, he was asked, "Did you fail?" "What do you mean?" he said. "Why, of course not. I borrowed the money, paid my debts and came back and started again , $40,000 in the hole." To state the matter more definitely, Mr. Flagler's relatives loaned him enough money, at IO per cent interest, to pay his debts, and afterward he moved to Cleveland and engaged in the grain and produce commission bu s iness. "John D. and William Rockefeller and Samuel Andrews had started a small oil refinery in Cleveland on the side of a hill," he says, "when the second refinery was built in 1867, Stephen Harkness backed me for $100,000 in a partnership with Mr. Rockefeller and his associates. Other little refineries sprang up and we bought them. Our business was developed rapidly, and in 1870 we closed our partnership and organized the Standard Oil Company. We worked night and day, making good oil as cheaply as possible and selling it for all we could get." From this time on, Mr. Flagler's fortune increased with the wonder ful expansion of the Standard Oil interests, of which he was vice presi dent and director. But the father of Eastern Florida was not content with even that large financial success, and when he first came to Florida, in 1884 , the year after his second marriage, he became inspired with the spirit of the pioneer builder; and the wonder of Mr. Flagler's achieve ments was that he should not only become a pioneer in Florida's develop ment, but that he should live to see so much of its modern growth. It is not necessary to express an academic opinion as to Mr. Flagler's purpose in coming to Florida, for he himself has already analyzed his own motive. The writer again borrows from another interview reported by Doctor Ward, who said : "It was a bout this time (not long after the completion of the St. Augustine hotels) that I asked him his purpose in Florida. He had asked me a most pertinent question and in response I offered to trade questions to answer him if he would answer me an equally pertinent question. 'Well,' he said, 'I never trade blindly. What is it?' '

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 63 " 'What are you trying to do in Flori.da? Is this investment, or philanthropy, or are you anxious to pose as a state builder?' . " 'That's pertinent enough,' he said. 'I believe this state is the easiest place . for many men to gain a living. I do not believe that anyone else will develop it if I do not. This is a safe kind of work for me to do. I believe it's a th.ousand times better than your colleges and universities (this was rubbing it into me), but I do hope to live long enough to prove I am a good business man by getting a dividend on my investment.' "I do not think if we analyze the situation," continued Doctor Ward, "that at the outset the notion of philanthropy entered his head, but as the work progressed it grew upon him and the desirability of such as this became a positive factor in his work. Later, when we thought his railroad building days were over, he called me into his office one day and showed me a map of Florida with a red line drawn through the keys to Key West. " 'What do you think of that?' he asked. " 'Why,' I said. 'It looks to me like a very fair map of Florida. What is there unique about it?' J " 'Do you notice that red line?' " 'Yes, what is it?' " 'That is a railroad I am going to build,' was his answer. "'A railroad in that God-forsaken section? Well,' I said. 'You need a guardian.' " 'I had supposed you wou l d make some foolish remark,' was his answer. 'It is amusing how little some supposedly intelligent men know.'" EXTENSIONS TO WEST PALM BEACH After Mr. Flagler had founded the wonderful St. Augustine hotel s and introduced the tourist world to them through his railroad and river transportation, his vision swept farther south. In 1887 and 1888, he had purchased the White road running from Palatka to Ormond and Daytona and the Astor line, from St. Augustine to Palatka. In 1889 the St. Johns River bridge was completed and in that year through train service was opened between Jacksonville and Daytona. Flagler had already bought the little Anderson-Price Hotel at Ormond, which was the forerun ' ner of the palatial house at that point and the beginning of the fine stretch of bathing beaches and resorts in that section. The first Flagler hotel at Ormond was opened in 1890. In 1892, Mr. Flagler incorporated the Jacksonville, St. Augustine & Indian River Company, to operate the Astor and White lines and develop them. They were made standard gauge, and the line extended southward to Rockledge, beyond Titusville, on the west side of the Indian River. "Soon afterward," says Francis P. Fleming in his "Memoirs of Florida" ( 1902), "this company was succeeded by the Florida East Coast Railway Company, of which Mr. Flagler is president. Asso ciated with him in the directorate are E. M. Ashley, of New York; Dr. Andrew Anderson , of St. Augustine; J. R. Parrott, of Jacksonville and J. E. Ingraham, of St. Augustine, previously president of the South Florida Railroad Company.'' JAMES E. INGRAHAM Jorns MR. FLAGLER "Mr. Ingraham had made a journey of exploration through the Everglades, from . Fort Myers to Miami, early in 1892, at the instance of Henry B. Plant, who had in mind a railroad across that region, if condi tions permitted. This was largely prompted by the excessively cold winters for several years which had interfered with the growing of vegetables in the central peninsular for the early markets in the . North. More southern territory was demanded by the railroad developers. Mr.

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64 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Ingraham found that a railroad thr'ough the Everglades was imprac ticable but his report of the journey, which was one of extreme difficulty aqd danger, and of the capabilities of the East Coast, persuaded Mr. Flagler to push his line further down the coast, and secure Mr. Jngraham's association in the enterprise." BUILDING OF THE PALM BEACH HOTELS The East Coast line was extended in the summer of I893 ; and opened for business to West Palm Beach on April II, I894 The commence ment of the magnificence of Palm Beach, one of the most elaborate resorts for tourists in the world, was the opening of another of the Flagler chain of hotels-the Royal Poinciana-in the season of I895 It was several times enlarged until it became the largest tourist hotel in the wprld, with a capacity for 2,000 guests and a frontage of I,ooo feet fronting Lake Worth. . In the following season (I896), the Breakers was opened as The Inn. It was destroyed by fire early in I903, and in the following January was opened under its name. The Breakers is located close to the ocean beach, about half a mile from the Poinciana, and is itself a mam moth and magnificent hotel. Around these two splendid pleastire houses was founded a city of tourists, and across Lake Worth, on its western shores, aro e a fine, enterprising city of business , trade and permanent homes, known to all Florida as West Palm Beach. The story of this great uprising of Flotida is reserved for another chapter. While the main East Coast line was being pushed south to West Palm Beach, the management was giving due attention to the cross lines which wer,e being constructed, and in I894 those running from Titusville to Sanford and from Blue Springs (Orange City) to New Smyrna were absorbed by the Flagler system. THE MIA-MI EXTENSION Two forces operated to prompt Mr. Flagler to extend his system from West Palm Beach to Miami . One of the forces was personal-a strong woman with a seer's vision and the other a visitati011 of nature, which , at first, seemed to be a Florida calamity. Both worked for eventual good . • o one has told the story of this remarkable work which so well illus trates Mr. Flagler's rare combination of bravery and tenderness, coupled with broad business foresight and intrinsic trust in the better instincts of human nature, than James E. Ingraham, still vice president of thf' system and, until the death of its builder, one of his able and faithful lieutenants. He thus described it in an address which he delivered before the Women's Club of Miami, upon the unveiling of a memorial tablet, in honor of Mr. Flagler, at the library building, in that city. on November I2, I920: "Sometime before Mr. Flagler finished his railroad to Palm Beach, I met at a dinner party in Cleveland, Ohio, Mrs. Julia T. Tuttle, who told me that she was about to remove her family and effects to Miami, and during the evening she said: 'Some day somebody will build a railroad to Miami. I hope you will . be interested in it, and when they do I will be willing to divide my properties there and give one-half of them for a town site.' "'Well,' I said, 'Mrs. Tuttle, it is a long way off, but stranger things have happened, and possibly some clay I may hold you to that promise.' "On December 24, I895, occurred the first of the great freezes, which was a tremendous disaster, at first supposed, to Florida, ruining the orange groves in the orange belt, touching the pines on the Indian River, and nipping the cocoanut leaves in the groves as fat' south as Palm Beach. As the orange industry was the principal one at that time in Florida, it seemed as if this freeze was a fatal thing and could not be overcome, and in almost every family dependent upon the orange industry it seemed as if death and disaster were in their daily lives.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 65 "Immediately after this freeze I came to Miami, and I found at Lauderdale, Lemon City, Buena Vista, Miami, Cocoanut Grove and Cutler, orange trees, lemon trees and lime trees blooming , or about to bloom, without a leaf hurt, vegetables growing in a small way untouched . There bad been no frost there. I gathered up a lot of blooms from these various trees, put them in damp cotton; and, after an interview wjth Mrs. Tuttle and Mr. and Mrs. Brickell, of Miami, I hurried to St. Augustine, where I called on Mr. Flagler and showed him the orange blossoms, telling him that I believed these orange blossoms were from the only part of Florida, except possibly a small area on the extreme southern part of the western coast, which had escaped the freeze; that here was a body of land more than forty miles long, between the Everglad-es and the . Atlantic Ocean, perhaps very much longer than that, absolutely un tquched, and that I believed it would be the home of the citrus industry in the because absolutely immune from devastating freezes . " I said: 'I have also here written proposals from Mrs. Tuttle and Mr. and Mrs. Brickell, inviting you to extend your railroad from Palm Beach to Miami and offering to share with you their holdings at Miami for a town site.' "Mr. Flagler looked at me for some minutes in perfect silence. Then he said: 'How soon can you arrange for me to go to Miami?' . "I said: 'If you can give me three days in which to get a messenger through to Mrs. Tuttle, advising her of your coming, so that she may prepare for you to get a carriage and horses to Fort Lauderdale, I will arrange to have the launch meet you at West Palm Beach, take you down the canal to Fort Lauderdale and from there, by carriage, to Miami. How many people will you have in your party?' "Mr. Flagler thought for a minute and said: 'There will be Mr. Parrott, Mr. McDonald (our Mr. McDonald, whose memory Miami people should never allow to grow cold), Mr. McGuire, yourself and myself.' "The trip was made according to schedule and we arrived in Miami perfect day, and that night was the most perfect moonlight that I have ever seen. Before bedtime, Mr. Flagler had accepted the proposi tion for the extension of his railroad, had located the site of the Royal Palm Hotel and told Messrs. McGuire and McDonald to build it, and had authorized Mr. Parrott to extend his railroad from West Palm Beach to Miami, and told me to go ahead and make plans for Miami town site, clear up the town and get it ready. He selected, too, the sites for a passenger station, freight yards and station, and told Mr. Parrott to put advertisements in the state papers that labor of all kinds could find employment for many months at Miami in the construction of the rail road, hotels and other classes of work. He sent down one of the steamers that had been running on the Indian River to the canal to establish railroad camps for the construction work, carrying men, ma terial and supplies. He arranged to have an additional dredge put on the canal to hurry the completion of the work between Lauderdale and the head of Biscayne Bay, that supplies might be pushed into Miami. "In July, 1896 , the City of Miami was incorporated with 502 voters. Mr. John B. Reilly, son-in-law of Mr. Joe McDonald, was the first mayor. The railroad was finished later and the city began to grow. There were hundreds of people who had come into this territory to engage in truck ing , vegetable gardening, putting out nurseries of young trees, who had been brought in by the railroad and encouraged to settle in this com munity. "On the 7th of February, 1897, occurred the second of the great freezes. This time trees were in bloom throughout the whole state, vegetables were nearly ready, in many localities , to be shipped, and the loss was utter dismay in its overwhelming conditions. At a conference with Mr. Parrott, Mr. Beckwith and our other officials, it was decided that the railroad company would issue seed free, would haul fertilizer Vol. I-5

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66 HISTORY OF FLORIDA and crate material free, but Mr. Parrott told me that that was as far as he thought the railroad company could go. I immediately got in touch with the seed houses, ordered supplies and seed to be given out free, and bought all the seed beds of tomatoes tha . t I could get my hands on for free distribution. While we were talking in the afternoon, a telegram was handed to me from Mr. Flagler, saying: 'Come to Miami at once.' "I took the first train and arrived at Miami about 6 :30 in the morning following, and found Mr. Flagler waiting for me on the steps of the Royal Palm. He took me by the arm; he did not say 'Good morning' or 'How do you do?' but walked with me into Mr. Merrill's (the man ager's) office, and turned around and, putting both hands on my shoulders, said: 'Ingraham, tell me how bad it is.' I said: 'Mr. Flagler, it is a total loss. The orange trees, we think, are ruined; they were in bloom, full of sap, and the mercury went to fourteen. Vegetables everywhere are killed; the pineries on the Indian River are killed; it is a 100 per cent loss.' He asked: 'What have you decided to do?' I said: 'After a conference with Mr. Parrott, he authorized me to issue free seeds and to haul fertilizer and crate material free. This is as far as he felt that we could go, and I have bought up all the seed I could get my hands on, and seed beds, for that purpose.' He replied: 'That is all right so far as it goes, but it does not go far enough. These banks in this territory are not strong; the banks will have to shut down on the merchants and the merchants on the farmers, and they will starve. Mr. Ingraham, I want you to get right into this territory. These people are not beggars nor paupers and they must have money to go on. In order to save time, issue your own check and let them have such money as they need at 6 per cent on their notes for as long time as they desire. You can use $so,ooo, or $wo,ooo, or $200,000. I would rather lose it all, and inore, than that one man, woman or child should starve.' "I should like to have you people think a minute of this situation. Mr. Flagler had expended hundreds of thousands of dollars on the extension to Miami in the hopes of getting into a territory that was abso lutely free of frost. There was never a word of reproach to me, who had been largely instrumental in attracting his attention to this territory-not one word-nor did he have one thought in his mind, I am sure, for the protection of this territory when he authorized this issue of money to those in need. It was simply that no woman and no child should starve. I was almost speechless when he told me. He said: 'Now get right out, issue your own check and cover it by drafts on Beardsley, whom I will wire about the matter.' "Don't you know that when I wired my associates and told them what Mr. Flagler had told me to do that they were tremendously revived. their courage was restored, their energies renewed, and they realized what a great thing it was to do, and why they chose to stay by Mr. Flagler and work with him and for him, rather than independently. "The effect of Mr. Flagler's decision to extend his railroad to Miami after the great freeze of 1895 restored confidence in the state, because other people, other territories, other banks, other corporations had realized that if Mr. Flagler had faith in Florida that it would pay them to have faith too, and carry on the works in their territories; and they did; and the freeze instead of being, as we first thought, a great disaster, ruining the principal industry of the state, brought about a realization of the very great amount of resources in the state, the rehabilitation of some, build ing )lp of others, to such an extent that Florida was stronger after the freezes, by far, than before. The effect of the loans to the people in Miami to enable them to carry on again was marvelous. It gave them courage, it kept them from drifting away. That it was needed, I can assure you was absolutely true. I saw some of the direct suffering that Mr. Flagler's money relieved , which I could not have believed possible had I not seen it; and much of the welfare of this county, in fact the backbqne of the county, lay in the strength of the men and women who

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 67 stuck to their work, went on with their plantings and brought about a renewed condition of confidence in this territory. Within seventy-two days of the time that the first relief check was issued , vegetables, toma toes, snap beans , began to move, first by express, then by carload, then by trainload; and I want to tell you that the season was so good a one as to price and quantity as to establish permanently the trucking industry . in this territory." In making the exten s ion from vVest Palm Beach to Miami, Mr. Flagler laid out the towns of West Palm Beach, Boynton, Delray, Deer field, Fort Lauderdale, Dania, Hallendale, Ojus, Miami, Perrine and Homestead on the main line, and Chuluota, Kenansville and Okeechobee on the Okeechobee Division, and at both of the termini he contributed largely to public improvements not directly connected with his railroad interests. For a number of y"ears, Miami was the southern terminus of the Flagler system, and its guiding head spent this period in consolidating his interests at Jacksonville and all along the line. Gradually and surely, also, the bold, astute and creative mind of the enterprise had projected it to its only logical terminus on American soil, Key West. His ideas had been continually expanding as the line was pushed by fate and his own power, sustained and intensified by a body of unexcelled lieutenants and friends , southward and still southward. From a splendid business and commercial enterprise of untold moment on the development of Eastern Florida; from a scheme in which his railroads and his hotels and tourist resorts and cities were advancing hand in hand down the coast without ultimate objective, his mind conceived the system as an international agent in exchanging a vast bulk of the southern commerce of the United States with the West Indies and South Americathrough the tip of Florida and the American terminus of his lines at Key West. CONSOLIDATING LINES OF COMMUNICATION As preparatory to this bold extension, which involved . appalling obstacles for the bravest of engineers and financiers, shortly before the road reached Miami formal transfers of the various properties which he had acquired were made to the Florida East Coast Company. These included the St. Johns River, the Atlantic & Western, the St. Augustine & Halifax, the St. Johns and Halifax, and the Jacksonville, St. Augustine & Halifax railroads, and the properties of the Jacksonville Bridge Com pany and Palatka Bridge Company. The Jacksonville Terminal Company was also organized , with Mr. Flagler as president, J. R. Parrott, secretary, H. R. Duval, treasurer, and W. M. Davidson, superintendent. Through that organization was constructed the Union Depot at Jacksonville, with all neces sary trackage and other facilities for the various lines entering the metropolis, and feeding so much the northern traffic into the Flagler s ystem. Its head had already commenced to connect Miami with the Wes t Indies by water. In I895 a deep water channel was dredged and within two years Mr. Flagler installed a line of steamers connecting the southern terminus of his system with Key West and Nassau, the central port of the British Bahamas, opposite Miami , 164 miles by ocean travel. Key West had already marine connections with Havana, which were to be so radically improved by the Peninsular & Occidental Steamship Com pany, under the presidency of Mr. Parrott. It was during this period ( 1895) that Mr. Flagler built the only hotel outside of Florida. First he bought the Royal Victoria, at Nassau, and shortly afterward erected the Colonial at that point. In I899, the Florida East Coast system absorbed the Palatka & Indian River Railroad, which extended from Enterprise, on the St. Johns to Titusville, on the Indian River, forty-seven miles. Another important acces s ion to his grand combination of railroad and hotel properties was

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68 HISTORY OF FLORIDA that of 19<=>0-01, by which the Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad, which had been built several years before between South Jacksonville and Pablo Beach, was purchased and extended to Atlantic Beach, where the Continental Hotel was erected for summer visitors. By 1904, the preliminaries were set in motion for the first chapter of the romanc e of achievement in the history of the Florida East Coast Railway. First, the road was extended to Homestead, Dade County, twenty-eight miles south of Miami, and this was made the starting point of s urvey s to a deep water port somewhere in southernmost Florida . THE K EY WEST E X T ENSION The P a nama Can a l , another triumph of American executive ability and engineering genius, was commenced nearly a year befor. e the work of c o nstruction actually begun on the Key West Extension, and was com pleted nearly two years afterward. So that while that vast excavation was being pushed through the rocky ledges of Central America, the Overseas Railroad of Florida was b e ing thrown along the islands and over the ocean gaps of Southeast Florida. It happened , also, that the chief engineer of the Florida work, almost from first to last, had been drawn from the engineering force of the more gigantic , but not less wonderful, undertaking. Foremost in the lis t of Mr, Flagler's lieutenants for years, and es pe c ially while the culmination of his achievements in Florida was being worked out, was Joseph R. Parrott, vice president of the Florida East C oast Railway Company and general manager of all his property interests . A Yale University man, large physically and broad mentally, an old time athlete, either phy s ically or intellectually all his life, Mr. Parrott's legal training and his executive abilities had made him Mr. Flagler's right hand prop from the beginning; and when this great project of the Overs eas extension from Homes tead was detennined, the two cooperated in every detail as brother spirits. As early as 1902, the decision was reached that an outlet for the Flagler system, as then extended to Miami, must be found at the most point farthest south. The first preliminary survey, under W. J. Krome, was through the jungles and swamps of the Everglades to Cape Sable on the mainland . After two year s of this heroic and dis couraging work, Mr. Krome reported _ against the route , and Turtle Harbor, on Key Largo , became the objective point. Late in 1904 , the or_ der was given by Mr. Flagler that the extension should be to Key West, and after one construction company after another had refused to undertake the task Mr. Parrott was told to "go ahead , " as the chief executive of the enterprise, under Mr. Flagler himself. From that time on. the work called for an engineer of wide reputation and broad experience, and in April, 1905, when the extension of the line begun south from Homestead J. C. Meredith, a leading engineer on the Panama Canal and a man of established reputation, was placed in charge. Mr. Krome , the younger and le s s experienced man who had done such splendid preliminary work , became his first assistant and confidant. At that time he had been out of the University of Illinois and Cornell University but a few years. Mr. Meredith was not permitted to see the completion of his task. as he died in April, 1909, from a disorder brought on and aggravated by exposure and incessant demands upon his strength. Mr. Krome was immediately named to complete the work and ably finished it as chief engineer of construction. Mr. Meredith's significa11.t words are often recalled: "No man has any bu s iness being connected with this work who can't stand grief." Also the remark of Mr. Krome: "We have put things through because we had to." Among-the leaders of the workittg-force "who put things through" were E. B e n Carter, chief engineer; P . L. Wil s on, C. S . Coe and Ernst

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 69 Cotton, division engineers; R. W. Carter, bridge engineer, and Edward Sheeran, general foreman. FEATURES OF THE CONSTRUCTION The work of construction over the 128 miles from Homestead to Key West
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70 HISTORY OF FLORIDA senting a surface over which the advancing wave glides, as over a piece of glass, and retreating gains no hold for its work of destruction. The material was found in the marine marl, or coral rock, which occurs in plentiful deposits along the line of road. This rock, 92 per cent car bonate of lime, is found as a thick plastic mass, dazzling white in color, which upon exposure to air and sun becomes harder and harder as time goes by, and it presents a surface as smooth as glass. Spread over the fills and embankments of the construction work, it covers them as with an unbroken, compact blanket impervious to the waves and offering no leverage on which they may get a destructive hold. "Still another problem was forced upon these engineers for solution and it led to, and through, many complications. It was the determination of the elevation of the bridge work above the water. From the start it was evident that the rails must be laid above the reach of the waves. The wind might at times carry the spray to the tops of these viaducts, but they must be high enough above low mean tide so that the destructive action of ocean billows could never surmount them. What, then, de termined the height of the wave? The depth of the water over which it rolls, and to some degree the uninterrupted sweep of the winds which raise it. Therefore, the deeper the water, the higher must be the bridge which spanned it. "Then these engineers were brought face to face with a question of economical construction. The arched bridge of concrete is more costly than the steel girder laid on piers of concrete, but once completed the former needs no repairs and resists the ravages of time, which seem only to strengthen it. The steel truss must be painted to withstand the action of moisture and, in this climate, the attack of salt-laden air. In the course of long years, the steel girder may have to be replaced. It was calculated that the interest on the difference in cost between the two types of bridges would meet perpetually the expense of maintenance of the cheaper-the steel girder mounted upon the concrete pier." The three great viaducts spanning wide gaps of water, known as Long Key, Knights Key and Bahia Honda bridges , are representative of all. Long Key bridge is 2;1 miles in length, built on arched spans of rein forced concrete Hudson River rock; Knights Key bridge, the longest of the series, more than seven miles in length, has a draw over Moser channel, a direct passage between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, and Bahia Honda bridge, a structure of the truss type, is nearly a mile in length. The deepest water found in the construction work was that encountered in building Bahia Honda bridge, approximately thirty feet to bed-rock. In the progress of the work the construction company employed twenty-seven launches, eight stern-wheel steamers brought from the Mississippi River, three tugs, twelve dredges, eight concrete mixers , twelve steam pile drivers, ten power excavators, eight derrick barges , one catamaran (for handling coffer dams), I 50 lighters, two steel barges more than one hundred and fifty feet long, six locomotive cranes, and two sea-going steamers for handling concrete in bulk. All the floating equipment was fitted with dynamos for generating electric light, for much of the concrete work went on night and day. The company maintained an extensive plant for repairing its own machinery at Boot Key harbor, just northeast of Knights Key. There were a marine railway for repairing vessels and floating equipment, boiler and machine shops, S<_!W mill, an electric-welding plant and other accommodations for keeping the construction work in motiori. The problem of maintaining the health and working efficiency of the four or five thousand laborers who were sometimes employed was a serious one. After ascertaining that deep borings through the lime stone and coral rock would not bring water for drinking and domestic purposes, it was determined to run special trains from Everglade, a sta tion near Homestead, for the purpose of maintaining a supply. At that

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 71 place a tank of 100,000 gallons' capacity was erected and the supply pumped from the Everglades. In addition, the company maintained in each large camp an emergency hospital in charge of two trained orderlies, to render first aid to the injured or care for ordinary cases of sickness. If the cases were too serious to be thus handled, the patients were s:!nt to Miami or Key West where the company had regular hospitals freely open to its employes. Chief Engineer Krome thus tells the story of the completion of the East Coast Railway: "It was near the end of February, last year ( 191 I), when the question of finishing the road for traffic in the possible time came up . We were asked, 'Can you complete the extension so that we put Mr. Flagler into Key West, in his private car and over his own rails, from Jacksonville, on his next birthday, January 2, 1912?' "I did some close figuring and I replied that we could complete the road for that purpose by January 22d, provided that no storm or other unforeseen delay should overtake us . And we will Jay the last rail on the morning of January 21st." All of which was done to the letter. And, after an estimated ex penditure of $50,000 , 000 Henry M . Flagler realized his ambition of seeing a wonderful East Coast country developed largely by his coordinated system of railroads and hotels stretching from Jacksonville to Key West, . with cross lines everywhere . penetrating the interior. It is said that he had invested some $12,000 , 000 on his hotel system, $18 , 000,000 on his railroads projected to Homestead and a full $20,000,000 on the Key West Extension. These . figures take no account of Mr. Flagler's large invest ments in such private properties as his magnificent Whitehall, his $1,000,000 home in Palm Beach, or his donations to churches, hospitals a1;d numerous other philanthropies. AMBITION REALIZED AND LIFE ENDED Twenty days after Mr. Flagler had passed his eighty-second birthday, January 22, 1912, he rode into Key West in his own private car, on his special train, which bore those who had been the instruments in accom pli s hing the great ambition of his life. Not long afterward, he returned to his palatial Whitehall, at Palm Beach, where in the early spring of 1913, a little more than a year afterward, he had a severe fall which confined him to his bed for several weeks. That was his last illness, and on May 20, 1913, he peacefully passed away at Nautulus Cottage, in the presence of his wife and only son. His body was taken to St, Augustine, the scene of his first labors as a builder of the state, and there thousands bf people gathered from near and far to do homage to a great, good and generous man-a man of $100,000 , 000 and of unbounded sympathy . The remains of Mr. Flagler were laid away in the beautiful mauso leum connected with Memorial Presbyterian Church, which he had erected in St. Augustine, in memory of his first wife and daughter and her daughter. The last piece of constructive railroad work that Mr. Flagler under took, and just before his death, was that known as the Okeechobee Divi s ion, from Maytown on the Titusville Branch, to Okeechobee , on the Nosohatchee River, two miles northeast of Okeechobee, it being deemed better to have the terminal cm the river, where shipping could be pro tected, than in the open waters of Lake Okeechobee. This road was built in a first class manner and opened for service a short time prior to the great war. IN MEMORY OF CHIEF ENGINEER MEREDITH In the same burial grounds, the Florida East Coast Railway Com pany had erected an unhewn granite monolith above a modest grave bearing this inscription: "In memory of Joseph Carroll Meredith, chief

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72 HISTORY OF FLORIDA engineer in the construction of the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Railway, who died at his post of duty April 20, 1909 This memorial is erected by the railway company in appreciation of his skill, fidelity and devotion in this last and greatest work of his life." STRONG MEN OF THE FLAGLER SYSTEM Joseph R. Parrott, who had been for years both president of the Florida East Coast Railway Company and the Florida East Coast Hotel Company, was expressly desired in Mr. Flagler's will to continue in those offices and trusts, as necessary to carry out the purposes of the deceased in the management, administration and operation of his railroad properties. President Parrott passed away in 1913, and in his death the Flagler system lost one of its strongest supporters and promoters after its founder himself. W. H. Beardsley, who was vice president and trea surer at the time, succeeded Mr. Parrott as president of the road. J. E . Ingraham, one of the oldest officials identified with the Florida East Coast line, has long been one of the vice presidents, in charge of the land and industrial department, and J. P. Beckwith, the other vice president, is the active manager of traffic and operation. Mr. Beardsley enjoys the honor of being the man who had been longest in Mr. ' Flagler's affairs, and who had his chief's absolute confi. dence and esteem. It is to Mr. Beardsley's great ability as an executive and financier that, during the stormy times of finance, the Florida East Coast properties carried on without difficulties . He had charge of a ll of Mr. Flagler's financial operations. William R. Kenan, Jr., the executive vice president, is devot ed Jo carrying out Mr. Flagler's policy in the development of these great properties. Mr. Beckwith's grasp of the unusual conditions surrounding the traffic of the East Coast, and his appreciation of the requirements of this traffic, which is essentially perishable in its nature, fruits, vegetables, fish, etc., and heavy tourist passenger traffic, has enabled him to realize the impor tance to this growing territory, of a high class service, such as has been provided for the East Coast territory. Many years ago Mr. Beckwith was the first of the traffic men in the state who realized the importance of expedition in the movement of citrus fruits, and he originated the tracing of shipments of fruit by wire, a practice that has since become general, and has been tremendously beneficial to the growers of fruits and vege tables in this state. Mr. Beckwith, who has been in charge since Mr. Parrott's death, as vice president, of operation of the road, gairied his . experience as a traffic officer in several of the great southern transporta tion companies, and joined Mr. Flagler's officials in the fall of 18_9.3, as traffic officer, later having full charge of the operation of. the railroad. Mr. Beckwith is well known for his grasp of detail, and his devotion and loyalty to his work. The succinct history of the Florida East Coast Railway commences with its incorporation under that name September 13, 1895, as the suc cessor to The Jacksonville, St. Augustine & Indian River Railroad. The section from Jacksonville to Miami was completed in 18. The Jackson ville & Atlantic Railway was acquired in September, 1900, and Enterprise and the Titusville division of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West line, in July, 1902. By February, 1908, the section from Homestead to Knights Key, eighty-two miles, was completed and on January 22, 1912, opened to Key West, forty-six miles farther south. In 1915, the exten sion was made from Maytown, on the Titusville branch, south through the Kissimmee Valley, 125 miles, to a point near the shore of Lake Okee chobee, and in the following year the link between the main line and the Okeechobee branch was completed between New Smyrna and Maytown. The main line of , the Florida East Coast Railway from Jacksonville to Key West i s 522 miles long and the chief branch from New Smyrna

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 73 to Lake Okeechobee is 139. Altogether the system embraces more than seven hundred and sixty-four miles. The towns of West Palm Beach, Boynton, Delray, Deerfield, Fort Lauderdale, Dania, Hallandale, Ojus, Miami, Perrine and Homestead, on the main lin e of the Florida East Coast Railway, and Chuluota, Kenansville and Okeechobee, on the Okeechobee Division of the Florida East Coast Railway, were a ll laid out by the Industrial Department of the Florida East Coast Railway with Mr. Flagler's hearty cooperation and interest, during his lifetime . THE GEORGIA SOUTHERN & FLORIDA RAILROAD A line of more than sectional interest for the people of the state was opened in 1889-90, when the Georgia Southern & Florida Railroad was .. built from the Florida line to Lake City and Palatka, a distance of I r6 miles. The entire line from Valdosta, Georgia, to Palatka, is 134 miles. Another line of the same road runs from Macon, Georgia, to Grand Crossing, or Jacksonville. The Georgia Southern & Florida Railway Company was incorporated in Georgia during 1895, and reorganized in 1902 when it purchased the property of the Atlantic, Valdosta & Western Railway Company. It is controlled by the Southern Railway Company. FLORIDA NAVIGATION Before the days of the railroads, the navigation of the Florida rivers was mostly confined to the Indians and traders, to the transportation of soldiers and provisions by way of the Apalachicola from the Gulf of ONE OF THE COMMODIOUS RIVER STEAMERS Mexico to Southern Georgia, and the military waterway of Eastern Florida, the St . .T ohns. As East Florida developed, with the coming of the railroads. the founding and growth of Jacksonville and other cities of the Atlantic Coast region, the St. Johns system of waterways and the stretch of streams and l agoons nearer the coast, were utilized by tourists, commercial travelers and others, as necessary and pleasant means of transportation. The rivers and lakes of East Florida, since the years of the Second Seminole war, have never lacked for steamboat navigation . One of the first to stir the St. Johns was the Sarah Spaulding, a sma ll steamer which plied between Jacksonville and Fort Mellon, on Lake Monroe (afterward Mellonville, or Sanford). Afterward, a hotel for tourists was built on the lake , and other steamers, for pleasure, were put on the line. In I845, steamboats were running between Savannah and the St. Johns River to the cotton plantations ttlong Black Creek and in the Palatka District. The boats devoted to the cotton trade between these points were running until the early '8os. Not a few of the steamers thus

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74 HISTORY OF FLORIDA engaged were burned, wrecked or exploded. There was also a large trade in cotton between Charleston, South Carolina, and East Florida, through the river steamers of the St. Johns. Shortly before the commencement of the war, a steamer began to run between Jacksonville and New York, but, during the progress of hos ti l ities it was burned. The l ast year of the war, in the fall, the steamer Mount was lost, with all on board, on her second voyage from New York to Florida, and a later attempt to start a line, made by the Mallory people, was frustrated by the shallowness of the bar. In the meantime, a boat was put on between Jacksonville and Enterprise, a likely resort above Mellonville , on the St. Johns , and freight boats were running up the Ocklawaha River to Gainesville, Ocala and Leesburg. Shortly before the early '8os, when the railroads took such a boom, some thirty steamers were navigating 400 miles of the St. Johns system; but there was a general decline of navigation until, some years later, the Plant Investment Company installed its People's line of pas senger and freight boats, not only on the St. Johns, but the Apalachicola. The great Clyde line followed (see Jacksonville). THE FLORIDA COAST LINE CAN AL From the numerous canal schemes which have been projected to con nect the series of natural waterways from Jacksonville to Miami, only one has survived and been brought to completion. That is known as the Florida East Coast Canal, and was thirty years in the building. The total length of the natural and artificial channels included in the system is approximately four hundred miles. The specified width of the canals is fifty feet and the depth, five feet at mean low water. The canal, as a whole, has been constructed to accommodate launches, house boats, yachts and dredges . The first charter of the Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation Company was obtained from the Florida Legislature on June 24, 188r. The originators of the enterprise were Dr. John Westcott and Col. I. Coryell. Operations were begun in November, 1882, between the Matanzas and Halifax rivers, and a short cut at each end was made; then the work was suspended for lack of funds. About two years later the Haulover Canal was cut through the north end of Merritt's Island to North Indian River, and certain improvements made in the channel of the Halifax River. Between 1888 and 1891, the Indian River section o'f the waterway was opened up between the Haulover Canal and J U:piter Inlet, and in 1893 the work of connecting Lake Worth with Biscayne Bay was started. That division of nearly seventy mi l es was completed in 1906, and in the ' following year the connection between Jupiter Inlet and Lake Worth was completed. The channels of some of the open waterways were improved in 1898-1900, but during the succeeding three years, the difficulty of financing the constructive work prevented progress. In 1903, the work of completing the formidable canal between the Matanzas and Halifax rivers was renewed, and, in 1908, completed. The section between the St. Johns and Matanzas rivers was constructed in 1909-12 , when the canal was opened throughout its entire length. The presidents of the canal company, who had stood by the project through many trying times, had been as follows: Dr. John Westcott, 1882-88; John W. Denny, 1888-93; Henry W. Flagler, 1893-96; George F. Miles, 1896-99; George L. Bradley, 1899-1906; Frederic Amory, from 1906 to the present time. The total cost of the canal has been more than three million five hundred thousand dollars. From that sum may be deducted the proceeds of the State Land Grant, amounting to $1,300,000, leaving the net cost of the canal something over million two hundred thousand dollars. The canal company is not interested in any of the freight boats operat ing on the waterway beyond the revenue from tolls derived from them

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 75 and other craft. For purposes of collection, three toll chains were estab lished in 1914, and three more in 1916-the six thus organized being on each of the following canals: St. Johns-Matanzas, Matanzas-Haliax, Haulover, Jupiter-Lake Worth, Lake Worth-New River and New River Biscayne. THE ATLANTIC-1'0-MlSSISSlPPI CANAL PROJECT A great southern canal connecting the Atlantic Coast at Cumberland Sot!nd, between the states of Florida and Georgia, with the Gulf of Mexico, at St. Georges Sound, or Apalachicola Bay, is a section of the vast system of interior waterways which will make possible the circum navigation of the United States east of the Mississippi River. The two states most directly concerned in its construction have appointed canal commissions which are closely and practically cooperating in the further ance of the splendid enterprise which is destined to bind together the Mississippi Valley and the far southern states. The chairman and active head of the Florida State Canal Commission is John G. Ruge, of Apalachicola, who is also a leading director of the . Mississippi Valley Association and, for years, an enthusiastic promoter of the enterprise. He therefore writes as an authority, when he thus sets forth the matter in a late number of the Mississippi Valley Magazine: "The Florida Cross-State Canal project, covering a distance of about two hundred and fifteen miles, from Fernandina to Saint Georges Sound, has been discussed since the days of Washington. The project was pro posed initially in 1763, when the British took over Florida, and again in r82r, wheri the United States got possession. The United States took up the proposition finally. In r876-r880, a survey was made by General Gilmore, covering a lock barge canal 9 by 8o feet, a lock ship canal 25 by 8o feet, and a lock ship canal 24 feet deep and 240 feet wide at bottom. "The then-estimated cost of the lock barge canal was about eight mil lion two hundred and fifty thousand dollars; the lock ship canal about fifty-one million dollars, and the larger lock ship canal about sixty-one million dollars. No doubt the present cost of labor would be greater, yet on the other hand improved dredging machinery can handle the work at much less cost than forty years ago. This barge canal would be a valuable aid to the navy, as well as increase our ability to move products out of and into the Mississippi Valley, thus meeting all conditions of war, as well as peace, and in addition, it will save over five hundred miles between New Orleans and New York, and over four hundred miles be tween New Orleans and Liverpool, a saving of at least one day each way. "This elaborate report, made in r88o, was reprinted in r9r8 under the title of 'Ship Canal Across Florida,' and with the hope of accom plishment of this objective , a Florida State Canal Commission was created by the Legislature of r921 to secure the construction of the Atlantic, Gulf and Mississippi Canal. "The commission is composed of Governor Cary A. Hardee, ex-officio; John G. Ruge, chairman; Mrs. F. R. S. Phillips, Secretary, and Hon. Frank D. Upchurch. A similar commission has been appointed by Governor T. W. Hardwick, of Georgia, consisting of J. M. Becker, chairman; C. C. Thomas, secretary, and Lee J. Langley. These two commissions will work cooperatively with the Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal Associa tion to promote this great canal to furnish an all-inland protected water way from Cumberland Sound on the Atlantic to the Mississippi River, and thus directly benefiting all the states of the Mississippi Valley, and particularly the Chattahoochee Valley, in providing a safe route to and from the Atlantic Ocean and the headwaters of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, as well as the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Mobile and Warrior, and their tributaries. With the Illinois Drainage Canal connect ing Chicago with the Mississippi River, it will be possible for vessels

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76 HISTORY OF FLORIDA from the Great Lakes to reach Cumberland Sound via the Mississippi River and the Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal. "At a recent meeting of the American Bankers Association at Los Angeles, an official endorsement was given to the plan for a barge canal connecting the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence. The Waterway Divi sion of the Mississippi Valley Association has already endorsed the de velopment of the inland waterways, including this canal, and will give assistance in getting Congress to authorize a survey. The people of the various states and all Chambers of Commerce will be urged to their members to accomplish the construction of this canal. "It has been said that this proposed canal has been only a dream of many years. So was the Panama Canal, and later the New Orleans Gulf, which now after forty years is an accomplished . fact. "With faith all things are possible, and faith, like the muscle, increases with exercise. It takes courage and hard work to live, yet the harder the effort the greater the victory and greater -the man. The difference be tween failure and success is concentration of purpose and a -will to accom plish. Therefore, let no man delude himself with the idea that any enterprise can be built up on other than unconquerable faith and united efforts. We must form a new idea of our responsibility, as this canal and the state does not belong alone to the people of the State of Florida, but to the people of the whole United States, and they have a right to demand increased and better transportation facilities. "The effect of this work is not only to bring the mouth of the Missis sippi River to the Atlantic Ocean, but make a trunk line of protected waterways along the northern edge of the Gulf of Mexico, intercepting all the rivers which flow into the Gulf, connecting them with each other and with the Mississippi and the entire 1,500 miles of rivers with a warm water coal bunker port on the South Atlantic. "There is a strong and growing sentiment for waterways, notwith standing the fact that the North Atlantic ports, and particularly New York, are opposed to increased water facilities for the South Atlantic and Gulf ports. Only recently New England has been won over to the cause of waterways. "The consensus of opinion of authorities show that the use of water transportation is coming back, and will be developed more in the future. With the combined effort of the states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, the Mississippi to the Atlantic Inland Waterways and this canal will be an accomplished fact." In April, 1921, Congressman Frank Clark, of Gainesville, Florida, introduced a bill in the House of Representatives providing for a resurvey of the proposed route of the canal, and it is this measure around which the friends of the great project have since been rallying. A forceful and official appeal has gone to the chambers of commerce, women's clubs, boards of trade, merchants associations, bankers, exporters, importers, manufacturers and "all interested in promoting domestic and foreign commerce." T o appropriation for the construction of the canal is re quested at this time, as that cannot be considered until after the Govern ment surveyors ' have made the resurvey and reported to the secretary of war their recommendations as to the type of canal and estimate of the cost to bring the mouth of the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean. From the appeal, or circular, thus dispatched to the organizations and individuals practically concerned in the canal enterprise, the following extracts are taken: "In 1876-77, Lieut.-Col. Q. A. Gilmore made a survey from Cumber land Sound via the St. Marys river, Okefinokee Swamp (Georgia), the Suwannee River (Florida), St. Marks River, St. Georges Sound, to the Gulf of Mexico, and his report strongly recommended the construction of this canal. It appears that no action was ever taken to carry out his recommendations, and the matter was allowed to drop. "In 1894 the matter was again taken up by Maj. Robert Gamble, of

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78 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Talla}iassee, Florida, and a memorial was presentecf to the Senate of the United States and referred to the Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard, and ordered printed. (Mis. Doc. No. 37, 53d Congress, 3d Session, Dec. 20, 1894.) "In 1918, Governor Hugh M. Dorsey, of Georgia, at the request of Mr. J. H. Becker, of St. Marys, Georgia, and others, revived the matter by calling a meeting at St. Marys and Fernandina (Florida) in June, i918, which meeting was attended by the governors of Georgia and Florida and many men prominent in public life. Endorsement was given the project and a temporary organization was effected. "In August, 1918, the Georgia Legislature passed an Act (No. 491) . authorizing the appointment of a committee to go to Washington and arrange for a hearing. "On September 6, 1918, a hearing was had before the Committee on Rivers and Harbors and same was ordered printed. On account of the World war it was not possible to take the matter further then, and noth ing more was done until 1919, when the North Florida Chamber of Com merce (headquarters Tallahassee, Florida) secured the cooperation of Congressman Frank Clark, of Florida, who introduced a bill in Congress (H. R. 9449) asking for a survey of the route from Cumberland Sound to St. Georges Sound. This bill was later withdrawn and a new bill introduced by him extending the route westward from St. Georges Sound to the Mississippi River (H. R. rn919). This bill carried an appropria tion of $rno,ooo, 'or so much thereof' as necessary to cover the actual cost of the resurvey. "In October, 1919, the orth Florida Chamber of Commerce asked Governor Dorsey to arrange for another meeting, and the same was held at St. Marys on December ll-12, 1919, and the delegates were entertained by the St. Marys Board of Trade and the Fernandina Chamber of Com merce. At the session held in Fernandina, on the second day, a 'steering committee' was elected to secure a hearing for the new bill, and on January 29, 1920, the hearing was held before the Committee 9n Rail ways and Canals of the House of Representatives of the United States, and this committee made a favorable report in February, 1920 (Report No. 1246, 3d Se sion, 66th Congress), recommending that the resurvey be made, but reduced the appropriation to $so,ooo, 'or so much thereof' as necessary to cover the cost of the survey. As the Esch-Cummins Bill (the General Transportation Act) and other important legislation was then being considered by Congress, the steering committee decided to wait until these bills had been disposed of before having Mr. Clark's bill brought up, as this canal project is of national importance and should not be overshadowed by other legislation; and there the matter rested. "A little later in 1920 the 'Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal Association' was permanently organized, with the following as the officers : President, Hon. W. G. Brantley, Washington, District of Columbia; vice president, Mr. E. R. Malone, Pensacola, Florida; secretary and managing director, Mr. C. C. Thomas (formerly of Waycross, Georgia; now of Savannah), and a board of directors was duly elected and all have given valuable aid. The association officials realized that this canal was more than a 'canal across Georgia and Florida,' and should be handled as a national project. since its construction , will be vital to the development of domestic and foreign commerce; and in the event of future wars this canal would he invaluable to the Government, as it would not only provide a safe, protected inland route from the Mississippi River to Cumberland Sound -a deep-water harbor with thirty-two square miles of anchorage area with depth of from thirty to ninety feet and only three mile's from the open sea, and where a bunker coal port could be established at a port never closed by ice-but at Cumberland Sound the canal would connect with the inland waterway along the Atlantic coast to New England, mak ing it possible (as Major Gamble states) for the Government to 'send from New England to Louisiana, promptly and safely, armaments and

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 79 stores to meet emergencies, which could not venture upon the high seas floating a hostile navy.' And the inland route from Cumberland Sound to Mississippi Sound would not o . nly save many miles, but vessels could avoid the dangerous straits of Florida and the tropical storms that fre quent the Yucatan Channel and the Gulf of Mexico. A canal over this route will not only be feasible but economically and financially a sound proposition . Barges and other craft could use the canal. Nature has already provided, ready-made, most of this route. Boats could enter or leave the canal, to and from the Gulf of Mexico, through the numerous bays and sounds; the actual excavating would probably not exceed one hundred and fifty miles. "In 1915 the Government constructed a canal to connect the Apala chicola River and St. Andrews Bay (about twenty-four miles) at a cost of about five hundred thousand dollars. A cut of fourteen miles would connect St. Andrews Bay with Choctawhatchee Bay and Santa Rosa Bay and Sound into Pensacola Bay . A cut of four miles would connect with Perdido Bay, and a further cut of ten miles would connect with Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound; thence through Lake Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain, and via the Industrial Canal at New Orleans, to the Mis sissippi River. "After forty years of endeavor, the Industrial Canal was dedicated on May 2, 1921, during the annual convention of the Mississippi Valley Association in New Orleans, and this canal will be open to traffic within a year or two. There is no reason why the Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal should not be dedicated to commerce in 1930, or sooner, if all agencies will cooperate and concentrate upon the matter. The first step, now, is to secure support for Congressman Clark's bill (which has been introduced in Congress as H . R. 418o) , so it can be passed before Congress adjourns in the summer of 1923. If the resurvey is then immediately ordered, it may be 1924 before the Government engineers will have . their report ready for the secretary of war to present to Congress with his recom mendations; hence there is real need for all possible haste, and all the power possible, to insure success at the present session of Congress. After the report has been presented, then proper steps will be taken to finance the construction of the canal. The canal could be built by funds derived from the sale of bonds, tax-exempt, say for thirty years; and the bonds could be issued in series, as needed, like the Liberty and Victory bonds, and would be as eagerly bought by the public. The construction would provide work for thousands of men for several years, relieving the unemployment situation, and put millions of dollars in circulation, to the benefit of all classes of business. "The Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal could be used every day in the year (unlike northern canals and rivers that are ice-bound for the four to six months each year) ; barges and other vessels could come from the upper Mississippi and tributary rivers and waterways, from the Great Lakes via the canals connecting them with the rivers of the interior states, with shipments for the Southeast and for export, anq could carry return loads of . citrus fruit, produce, minerals, lumber and naval stores, coal and other merchandise; there would be no loss through one-way traffic. "In 1921 the legislatures of Florida and Georgia created State Canal commissions (Laws of Florida, 1921, Chapter 8578-No. 183; Georgia Laws, 1921, Part _I, Title VI, pg. for the purpose of. the construction of this canal. The legislatures of Alabama, M1ss1ss1pp1 and Louisiana will, no doubt, create similar commissions to work jointly with the Florida :;nd Georgia commissions and the Atlantic-to-Mississippi Canal Association to materialize this national project. "President Warren G : Harding has declared himself in favor of the broadest development of inland waterways of the United States. The Mississippi Valley Association is committed to waterway development and has endorsed same, as has the Atlantic Deeper Waterways Associa-

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80 HISTORY OF FLORIDA tion, the Southern Commercial Congress, the North Florida Chamber of Commerce, and l ocal commercial organizations along the proposed route of the canal. The use of water transportation is coming back and will be de veloped more in the future. The building of the Atlantic-to-Missis sippi Canal will benefit the corn-growing states enormously, as corn shipped through the canal will not be affected as when shipped the Gulf Stream around the Straits of Florida; it will benefit the Middle Western States, the New England States, the Central and Southern State -practically every state, except those along or adjacent to the Coast. And in future years, when the Intracoastal Canal is extended from New Orleans via the Rio Grande to California, it will change the ONE OF MANY CHARMING RoAD ScENEs An Aisle of Overlapping Trees and Spanish Moss. shipping routes of the world, that now pass through the Panama Canal, and at an enormous saving of time and fuel, and avoidance of the dangers of the open sea. All of the states of the Valley and of the Chattaho.ochee Valley will be directly benefited, as the canal will provide a safe route to the Atlantic Ocean from the headwaters of the Missis sippi River, the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers, the Ohio, Missouri, Warrior and Mobile Rivers, and their tributaries. "Chicago will soon be connected with the Mississippi River by the Illinois Drainage Canal, a twenty-million dollar project. Lake Erie will be connected with the Ohio River by the Lake Erie and Ohio River Canal; the Erie Canal-New York Barge Canal-all, will be connecting links in the national waterways system. From the west, the rivers and waterways will connect with the Mississippi River and have direct con nection with the Atlantic Ocean at Cumberland Sound. All classes of business will be stimulated, through increased and cheaper transporta tion and access to the coal fields of the interior states; new transporta-

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 81 tion routes will relieve the congestion at northern ports, relieve the shortage of fuel, prevent interruption to traffic during the winter months , and will be a permanent blessing to our country." FLORIDA'S Goon RoA ns It is said that Florida spends more money per capita for road improvement than any other state in the Union; and yet the Good Road movemerit is comparatively young, as a rule not extending back more than fifteen or twenty years. Perhaps the greatest impetus to the movement was given in 1896-1912, while the Florida East Coast Railway was extending its line southward, creating popular tourist centers, towns and cities as it went. The growth of such interior places as Sanford, _ Orfando, Lakeland and Bartow, with the necessity of good connections by auto lines, and a similar rapid development of Tampa, St. Petersburg, Bradentown and other cities on the Gulf coast of the peninsula, had a stimulat ing effect on the expansion of the systems of highways which is making Florida famous . The metropolis of the state, Jacksonville, has become the center of a fine system of itself. The improvement of the highways of Florida has also become a matter of vital concern to the argiculturists of the states-the fruit. growers, the truck farmers, the stock raisers and others-who find good roads so much a help to the marketing of their products. This fact is clearly seen when it is learned from the reports of the Federal census for 1920 that the 54, o0o farms accredited to Florida were operating 9,383 automobiles and 1,617 trucks, or, to put the matter in another light, 8,761 farmers reported 9,383 autos and 1,500 farms reported 1 , 617 trucks. About one fifth of ,the owners of farms in Florida were using automobiles and trucks on the highways of the state, for the convenience and pleasure of their families and the prosecution of their business. There are 10,000 miles or more of improved roads in Florida; Polk, Duval, Hillsborough and Palm Beach being among the leading counties in this regard. Not only are millions of county and district bonds issued for the building of sectional roads, but the Federal Government realizing the value of great inter-state highways , has made liberal appropriations in their encouragement. On December 31, 1920, there was available to the State of Florida for that purpose $915 , 918, and under the Sells bill of 1921 her apportionment was $2,697,150 .

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CHAPTER V INDUSTRIES BY SEA AND LAND Other states than Florida have greater industries in bulk and value, but not'le have a more varied assortment founded on the soil of the land a . nd the waters of ocean, gulf and lake. As her industries are not con centrated into a few special classes, such as agricultural, cotton, wool, wood or iron, the average outsider thinks of Florida as the state in which oranges and grapefruit are raised, or as a land in which residents make their living by "picking the tourist crop." NOT SUPERFICIAL OPTIMISM No man is in a better position to ascertain the facts regarding such varied industries than W. A. McRae, the state commissioner of agricul ture. In justification (if any were needed) of certain statements made in one of his bulletins, under the head "Optimism and the Future," Mr. McRae says: "My ancestors, on both sides, have been Floridians for practically a century, and I have been a student of Florida a.ffairs for the greater part of my life." "Superficial optimism," he says elsewhere, "may lead to no better results than pessimism. Aircastles must have their foundations on the earth if they are to be inhabited. "Prosperity is always traceable to one of four sources or a combina tion of them, viz.: agriculture, manufacturing, mining, commerce. "Florida has agriculture of a more diversified nature than any other state in the Union. "Florida had manufactutjng of a basic character which must prosper if any kind of manufacturing prospers. "Florida has mining tha. t supplies commodities of international de mand and permanent in character. "Florida has a substantial commerce, both domestic and foreign. No matter what articles may be depressed in price if there are those which demand still keeps floating Florida has them . People may substitute one thing for another in choosing the articles of consumption but they can scarcely dodge Florida products. No matter how low European ex change may go nor how little her people may consume there is a world just to the south of us which Florida products can reach with less dis tance to travel than from the other states or from other countries. South America, Central America and Cuba were little affected py the World war and are as good customers as they ever were. Trade between South America and Europe has been seriously disturbed and they are ready to form trade relations with new customers. "Florida does not carry all of her eggs in one basket. If she gets a dozen baskets smashed she has another dozen baskets to fall back on. The bottom fell out of cotton va lues and Florida abandoned it for other things-producing least crop last year in half a century. This is true not only with the variety of her products but it is true with the seasonal chances of producing crops. If one crop should fail it does not mean that a whole year's work has failed as there are three more seasons in which to try other crops. , "When Florida runs up the white flag there won't be any other flags floating on the ramparts. Florida is unacquainted with bread lines and public soup houses . Whatever prosperity is in store, Florida will get 82

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 83 . her share. So long as the human race lives they must consume. Florida furnishes consumers with the material wherewithal of life. "One cause for much dissatisfaction on the part of farmers manifest during recent months is that by some strange alchemy the money the producer received lost a considerable part of its purchasing power after he came in possession of it. In other words farmers are selling at prewar prices and buying at from fifty to a hundred per cent above pre-war normal. This fact is emphasized by the new . secretary of agriculture, Mr. Wallace, in his first statement to the public. "Freight rates have not been lowered, farm labor is not yet back to normal; iron, coke, factory wages and freight determine the price of farm machinery and they have not been reduced to normal. These things must be adjusted before the ledger of business can be balapced. "The general depression did not reach Florida for months after other sections of the country were seriously affected. It has not sensibly shaken realty values yet. The depression will be lifted from Florida earlier than from the country as a whole. This involves no miracle, but is the result of natural law in the placing of varied commodities on the market and receiving an influx of money from investors who see the future of the state and from sojourners of the season . s." SOILS AND PRODUCTS The soils of Florida, as a whole, are not rich in organic, or vegetable matter, which produces that most valuable element of growth, nitrogen. Despite this natural disadvantage, the climate of the state is so equable. year in and year out, that large crops, especially of the citrus fruits and corn, are coaxed from soils which in some of the other states would be considered indifferent, or even poor. Since I892, the annual mean temperature of Florida has ranged from 68.go ( IgGI) to 72,3 ( 19u), and the precipitation from 45.50 inches (I8g5) to 64.88 (I9I2). The highest temperature recorded in the state was 107 degrees Fcrhrenheit, and the lowest, two degrees below zero. These ranges of temperature are easily explained by the fact that Florida covers nearly five degrees of latitude. The citrus belt of central Florida has experienced no retarding temperature of a serious nature for a quarter of a century, as that section of the state is virtually below the frost line and above the hot zone of far Southern Florida. About the only fruit which cannot be produced in Florida is the apple and the only grain, wheat; futile attempts have been made to raise the latter in conunercial quantities in some of the northern and western counties. . PROGRESSIVE FARMING With a wonderful climate as his right-hand assistant, the Florida farmer for the past ten or fifteen years has advanced rapidly in the scientific and practical methods of putting those elements into the soil which it naturally lacks to make it hardy and continuously productive. For years the erosion of the uplands and rolling lands had been pro gressing by continuous cultivation without crop rotation, shallow plowing, running furrows down the hills, leaving the land bare of vegetation in the winter, neglect of control of the gullies and the general exhaustion of ()rganic matter. This loss has been somewhat remedied of late years by the cultivation of hay and pasture crops which deepens the soil, by occasional deep plowing, the use of barnyard and green manures, the raising of live stock with natural fertilization, the use of winter cover crops such as rye and oats, and the application of phosphates, crushed limestone and other fertilizers. Florida farmers are now spending more than $10,000,000 for fertilizers, against a third as much only ten years ago. In the scheme for soil improvement along the line of crop rotation,

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84 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Florida has found nothing better than the planting of velvet beans and peanuts. They are not only great soil improvers, but are among the best fattening feeds for hogs and cattle. As the state is buying several mil lion dollars worth of pork annually, the combination, especially of the velvet bean with the hog, is a promising one. As to other live stock, C. K. McQuarrie, state agent Florida Agricultural Extension Division, makes the following as among his "Farm Suggestions for 1921": "With the reduction of cotton acreage there is going to be released a large amount of land, in West Florida especially, that must either be abandoned or planted to feed crops. The most economical way of marketing these crops is by feeding it to livestock. Every farmer, therefore, should strive to increase his livestock, especially in good beef and dairy cattle, so as to have a sufficient number to consume the surplus feed on the farm. Where advantageously situated, farm dairying will unques tionably prove profitable . Livestock will not only pay a good profit for Hoes FATTENED oN VELVET BEANS AND PEANUTS feed consumed, but will very materially increase the supply of farm manure, thus saving the fertility that otherwise would be sold from the farm." DRAINAGE OF LANDS The cultivable lands of Florida are also being largely improved by drainage. To what extent is noted by the census of 1920 , the figures of which state that 147 , 940 acres of farm land within the state has been provided with artificial drainage, and that 687,021 acres are in need of it. Vvith the pr9gress of the great drainage schem
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 85 STATISTICAL AGRICULTURE The census statistics for I920 plainly demonstrate that the agricultural industries and resources of Florida are yet in their infantile stage. The terms "land in farms," or "farm acreage," are somewhat misleading, without the corollary, "improved land." In I920, the number of farms in Florida, whether improved or not, was 54,005, as against 50,0I6 in I910, and the agricultural acreage had increased from 5,253,538 in I910 to 6 . 046,69I in I<}'.20. Such figures, however, do not indicate the produc tive potency of the land, for the improved land, or farms, only amounted to 1.805.408 acres in I910 and 2,297,27I in I920. Progress is better indicated by making comparisons since I850, as follows: I850, improved farm land in acres , 349 ,049; I86o , 654 ,2I3; I870 , 736,I72; I88o, 947,640; I890, I,I45,693 ; I900, I,511,653. In I920 , the value of all the Florida crops was as follows: Field crops .............................. $ 27 ,671 ,320 Fruits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,788,500 Stock cattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2I,444,525 Truck products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5,8I8.297 Horses and mules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I2,282,6o4 Poultry and egg s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,768,I95 Milk and butter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,427,304 Hog-s on hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,076,85I Milk cows on hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,204,I86 Thoroughbred cattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IA54,I54 Sheep, wool and goat s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505,298 Honey and beeswax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98,5I5 Total ............................... $127,539,749 The census figures for the past decade indicate a tendency of Florida's population to migrate from the country districts to the towns and cities. In I910 , the percentage of the rural to the urban population was 70.9; in I920, 63.3. The figures were: In I910, rural population, 533,539, and urban, 2I9.080; in I920, rural, 6I2,645, and urban, 355,825. The value of all farm property, including land, buildings, implements, machinery, and live stock, increased from $I43,I83,ooo in I910, to $330,-30I,7I7 in I920. Of the farms in Florida, 50,797 are operated by men and 3,208 by women , while 38 , 836 farmers are white and I2,954 colored: As to indebtedness , 25,010 are reported free from mortgage, and 8,102, as mortgaged. The average citizen is quite prone to consider the farmer as a salesman of his crops, livestock and other products-as mostly on the receiv ing end of the community's affairs. The census mentions several large items through which he places several million dollars in circulation in Florida alone. During the year I9I9, he expended $10,830.397 for labor -$l0,II7,53I in ca s h and $7I2,866 in rent and board. For fertilizers, as already noted , he spent $rn, 3I6,929, and for feed, $5,024,668. Con sequently, the farmers of the state contributed more than $z7,ooo,ooo to the prosperity of its communities. HISTORY OF TfIE CITRU S INDUSTRIES The citrus fruits still con s titute the largest and the representative crop of Florida and, as a whole, the industry founded on their produc tion has had no material set-backs except in the freezes of I835 and I894-95, which pushed the s o-called "orange belt" farther south, and the great storm of October, I92I, which swept over several of the western counties of the belt and injured perhaps 5 per cent o.f the crop. Since I884, the industry and trade have been so well organized that records of the production of citru s fruits in Florida have been accessible. Their

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AN ORANGE GROVE ON EAST CROOKED LAKE

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 87 collection has been intrusted to that very useful body of the state gov e rnment, the Department of Agriculture and Immigration / which, from the scope of its functions, might almost be called the Department of History and Statistics. The crop for 1884-85 amounted to 6oo,ooo boxes, which, five years later (with the increase of shipping facilities), had increased to 2, 150,000 boxes ( 1889-90). . With the rapid expansion of the railroad lines and systems, the industry progressed by great leaps, so that by 1893-94 more than 5,000,000 boxes of fruit were being produced in the state. Then came the calamity of 1894-95 . On December 27, 1894, the mercury dropped to 14 degrees above zero defoliating the trees, and at the same time starting the flow of the sap and second growth . On February 8th following, when the trees had partially recovered from their first blow, came another sudden drop to 14 degrees and all citrus vegetation was congealed, destroy ing about $75,000,000 worth of property, and seemingly killing the in dustry for all time. In 1895-96 , there were less than 150,000 boxes of oranges produced in all Florida. For a period of five years the growers of oranges and other citrus fruits were oppressed with gloom and partial paralysis , and no revival was witnessed until lgoo-01 , when the production reached 1,350,000 boxes; but the high tide of prosperity, which had been reached in 189394, did not again appear until 1908-09, when the figures indicated a pro duction of 5,250,000 boxes. This had increased to 8,125,349 boxes in 1912-13, valued at $16,925,756, and to 10,928,781 boxes, or crates, in 1919-20, valued at $25 ; 041 , 530. In the latter year there were 3,356,175 bearing orange trees in Florida , 2,831,058 non-bearing trees and 3,007,28o trees in nurseries, altogether valued at $18,684,384. The production of oranges had been 7 , 872,479 crates, valued at $19,672,909. There were 1,159 , 348 bearing grapefruit trees, 897,756 non-bearing, and 477,502 in nurseries, while the production of grape fruit had amounted to 3,056,302 crates valued at $5,368,621. In other words, the citrus fruit growers of Florida have invested more than $22,000,000 in their orchards, which produced more than $25,000,000 in one year. Not a bad investment! OTHER FRUITS Aside from the citrus fruits, among which lemons and limes cut little figure in Florida, the most . widely distributed are peaches. Although the banner counties are, as a rule , along the Gulf Coast and in Northwestern Florida , such . as Hillsborough, Washington, Okaloosa, Franklin and Leon, still some of the interior counties are very successful in growing peaches-as Putnam, Volusia and Polk-and they are raised in large quantities in St. Johns County. Throughout the state, the money value of the crop is nearly $250,000. Although avacado pears bring more money to the horticulturist than pears , they are mostly harvested by one county (Lee), which in 1920 realized $6oo,ooo of the $009,000, representing the total value of the crop. Strawberries have also become a profitable commercial crop in Florida since systems of refrigeration have been introduced to the railroads and steamships of the South. The center of production has long been the Tampa region, Hillsborough County alone being credited with an annual crop of 1,131,000 quarts or more than half the total of the state. The balance of the crop is virtually divided between Polk County, Central Florida and Bradford, in the north eastern part of the state. The total value of the crop in 1919-20 was $665 , 308, of which the three counties named realized nearly $629,000. CORN, SUGAR CANE AND COTTON Next to the production of the citrus fruits, the raising of corn is the most profitable agricultural industry in Florida. The zone of its pro duction covers substantially the northern counties of the state. Jackson

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88 HISTORY OF FLORIDA leads thein all, with its annual production of 844,000 bushels in I9I<)-20, valued at $1,206,000. Then comes Alachua, Leon, Suwanee, Holmes, Bradford, DeSoto,1 Santa Rosa, Washington, Hillsborough (west coast), Madison,. \Valton, Okaloosa and Putnam. As exceptions prove the rule, corn is substantially a product of Northern Florida. In 1919-20, 725,002 acres were under cultivation in the state, and they produced 6,951,618 bushels valued at $ro,28o,715. Much the same territory is now occupied by the most productive fields of sugar cane , with the exception of old DeSoto County and the counties of Hillsborough and Pasco, on the west coast, the sugar cane country covering the northern and the northwestern sections of Florida. The counties in the order of their importance as producers are Jackson, DeSoto (before being subdivided), Madison, Alachua, Bradford, Cal houn, Leon, Jefferson, Hillsborough, Pasco, Hamilton, Nassau, Santa Rosa, \Vashington and Lee . In early times the largest sugar plantations were along the St. Johns, Ocklawaha, Halifax (New Smyrna planta-CORN FIELD IN NORTHERN FLORIDA tions) , and Indian rivers and on the Homosassa and Nanatee rivers, near the Gulf coast . After the Civil war, the raising of sugar cane was not revived until the early ' Sos, when a crop was produced on reclaimed land on the shores of St. Andrews Bay. Later, fields were prepared from reclaimed lands at St. Cloud, on the southern shores of Lake Tohopekaliga, in the western part of Osceola County, Eastern Florida. The bulk tjf the sugar cane produced in Florida is, as stated, raised in its northern and northwestern sections, but as the rich lands of Southern Florida are reclaimed by drainage large areas will be opened to its culti vation. Its commercial value is almost confined to the manufacture of syrup, which for the year 1919-20 amounted to 3,124,049 gallons for which $3,683,693 was received. More than 20,000 acres are devoted to the production of the cane. In the manufacture of the syrup Florida is now the second in rank, being preceded by Georgia which produces nearly twice as much. Florida is no longer classed as a large cotton producing state; in fact, with the exception of Virginia. it is a:t the bottom of the list comprising the coast states of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Prior 1 The great county from which Hardee, Sarasota, Highlands, Glades and Charlotte counties were carved in 1921, and the most noteworthy exception to the loca tion of the Florida corn zone.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 89 to the Civil war, it was one of the chief articles of commerce of the state1 Middle Florida was devoted to the upland variety. The sea island cotton was . raised in Northeastern Florida . east of the Suwannee River to the ocean, along the streams and coasts of that section, J GJ.Cksonville, Apalachicola and St. Joseph, as leading ports of shipment, bfne fited therefrom for many years. In the '40s, the shipments from the Gulf ports alone had reached over 200,000 bales. The Civil war drove many of the cotton planters out of the country, and as late as 1l>70 the crop had only reached an annual production of less than 40,000 bales. There was an increase of some 15,000 bales in the following decade, and during the succeeding twenty years it remained about the same. Then came a period of rapid decline , and from 1909-10 to 1919-20, the pro duction decreased from 65,056 bales to 23,825. This decline was largely due to the increased acreage in corn, which amounted to nearly 195,000, qS well as to the tremendous expansion of. the culture of citrus fruits. The largest cotton-producing counties of the upland grade are Leon, Holmes, Jefferson and Jackson, and of the sea island variety, Suwanee, Hamilton and Columbia haye a monopoly; in other words, Northeastern Florida along the Suwannee River is the prevailing habitat of the sea island cotton and Northwestern Florida, of the upland variety. TRUCK FARMING The possibilities of truck farming in Florida are bright, as there are large areas of land best adapted to it which are yet to be reclaimed from the coastal sections and marshes. The progress which has been made. \vithin the past decade is most encouraging. To take as specimen crops, those which have been, on the whole, most profitable -during the year 1919-20, the 6,390 acres laid out in cabbages brought a money value of $1,395,566, the counties of Palm Beach, Manatee and Polk protlucing rpost of them; tomatoes which covered an acreage of 5,578, largely in Broward, Palm Beach, Manatee and DeSoto counties, brought a 'harvest of $1,416,787; water melon vines spread over 15,352 acres of land, but it was chiefly the growers of Polk, Lake and DeSoto counties who received the total amount realized from the fruit, $1,100,248; the total p,roceeds from the cultivation of the appetizing pepper amounted to $692,266, and of that sum Palm Beach County, wi .th it"s ravenous tour ists, absorbed $383,090; most of the 379,000 crates of lettuce, at $584.517, raised in Florida, are produced by Manatee, Orange and Polk counties, while three-fifths of the $579,481 which was realized from the cucumber crop of the state-went to the truck farmers of Orange and Levy counties. To condense-the 35,000 acres from which were raised the chief truck crops of Florida brought an income of more than $6,000,000. PEANUTS, PECANS AND POTATOES The lowly peanut has become one of Florida's chief sources of agri cultural wealth, and a dozen or more counties are reaping harvests from it of more than $100,000 each annually. More than 250,000 acres are devoted to its cultivation , 3,436,092 bushels of the nut are rai ed, and $4,444,967 received as income. Alachua County is the leader, with its pr\oduction of 587,000 bushels valued at $571,000. LaFayette is second, fo _ lowed by Suwanee, Holmes, Jackson, Hamilton, DeSoto, Marion, Levy, Bradford, Jefferson, Washington, Columbia and Leon. Peanuts are eaten by man as a rrlish and by hogs as a feed, and they fulfil their mission to a nicety. Pecans are a less important crop, its value being only about $414,000 annually. \i\T al ton, Leon , St. Johns and Santa Rosa counties are the leaders in their production. In the production of potatoes, the Irish has left, far behind, what used to be considered the typical tuber of the South, the sweet potato. •

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I I 90 HISTORY OF FLORIDA In the production of potatoes, although the typical tuber of the South, the sweet potato is raised in larger quantities than the Irish, the value of the latter crop is nearly twice that of the sweet variety . In the year I9I9-20, 25,31 I acres were planted to sweet potatoes in Florida, and 2,644 ,135 bushels were produced valued at $3,385,161. The coun ties of Nassau, Leon, Alachua, Bradford, St. Johns, DeSoto, Jackson, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Polk, Madison, Volusia, Santa Rosa and Lee were the leading sweet potato sections, in the order named. The 23,481 acres devoted to Irish potatoes yielded r,319,r ro bushels and were valued at $6,586,511. St. Johns County produced neady one half the yield of the state and her farmers in this line received two-thirds of the income. The other large producers were Putnam, DeSoto, Hills borough, Volusia , Osceola, Palm Beach and Polk. FORAGE, HAY AND GRAZING PLANTS On account of a well distributed and abundant supply of water, and a climate which is generally warm and equable, Florida is favored with as great a variety of forage, hay and grazing plants as any state in the country. More than forty varieties of these feeds for livestock and for the preservation and rejuvenation of the soil have been enumerated by the State Department of Agriculture 2 classified as green forage, clovers, grasses and vetches, and leguminous crops other than clovers. Of the grasses, the Bermuda and carpet grass are the great stand-bys for the stockman. The most valuable leguminous crops are the velvet bean and field pea. The former is not only a great upbuilder of the soil and feed for livestock, but produces a crop of velvet beans valued annually at more than $1,000,000. The velvet bean hay brings nearly $200,000 to the farmer. The bean crops are largest and most profitable in Holmes, Jackson and Washington counties, and the hay crops in Alachua and Escambia. The native grasses of Florida are widely distributed and as a com mercial crop average more than $500,000 in value. In this line, Marion, Columbia, Orange, Hillsborough, Alachua and Polk counties lead the state. The Natal grass is a leading hay crop and realizes about a quarter of a million to Florida farmers. WEALTH IN LIVE STOCK From the earliest times of Florida history, cattle have been among the main sources of living and livelihood upon which the people of the land have depended, but it was not until about sixty years ago that they were considered a commercial asset. At that time (about 1858) certain raisers and dealers organized a trade between Tampa and Havana. That was the commencement of the export business. Within the past twenty years, the growth of the cattle industry may be inferred from the fact that in 1900 the cattle of Florida were valued at $2,494,683, and in 1920 (July I) at $21,151,646. Their number had increased from 452,267, in 1900, to 1,014,183 in 1920. The native breeds flourish everywhere in Florida, but the great cattle-raising counties are DeSoto (the old county), Polk, St. Johns and Alachua. The four counties named have nearly half the cattle in the state, valued at more than half the total. The income from the industry is represented by the beef and the dairy receipts. During the year 1919-20, cattle were slaughtered for home use valued at $637,561, exported alive $317,179, and sold living for local use, $1,854,107. Total, $2,8o8,847. The dairy income was !ji5,723,594 for milk sqld and used, and $703,513 for butter. Total, $6,427,107. The grand total is $9,235 ,954; from which is to be deducted $270,66o, representing the 2 See Report 1915-16, paper by H. S. Elliott, chief clerk.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 91 value of the cattle which had died from disease, leaving a net total of $ 8 ,96 5,294. The raising of hogs, with the abundant production of corn, peanuts an
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92 HISTORY OF FLORIDA out of five). There have been seasons when it would have been almost impossible to get enough bees together to harvest all the orange honey secreted by the blossmns." a THE TIMBER INDUSTRIES Although there are more than two hundred distinct varieties of trees in Florida , the pine and the cypress are the only ones on which are based its commercial industries. A. H. Curtiss, of Jacksonville, and Roland M. Harper, formerly with the State Geographical survey, have made thorough studies of the trees and forests of Florida. They, with other experts, agree upon the following classification of the standing timber in the state: Long-leaf pine (which covers two kinds of slash pine), short-leaf and loblolly pine (probably including black pine), cypress (two species) and hardwoods. In July, 1920, there were yet standing in Florida, I ,i 10,3 I2 acres of "ood or timber , r e ady for the axe, the turpentine still and the factory. DIPPING AND SCRAPING PINE TREES, TURPENTINE INDUSTRY The largest acreage is in Bradford, Calhoun, Madison, Leon, Putnam, Okaloosa and Polk. The merchantable pine timber is most abundant in Madison, Orange, Jackson , Bradford, Calhoun and Alachua counties. By reading the sketches of the counties mentioned in other portions of this work, details will be learned as to the industries based upon this invalu able stock of raw material. The pine timber in Florida which can be transformed into merchantable articles covers 469,073 acres. PHOSPHATE PRODUCTION Although Florida produces several . minerals in commerc ; ial quantities, such as clay, limestone and phosphates, the last \named is the only one upon which has been erected an industry of any magnitude. A somewhat extended reference has already been made to it in the chapter devoted to the natural products of the state vegetable and mineralancl the special industrial development of the rock and the land pebble varieties is reserved for a later description of the various counties and localities which are in what is known as the Phosphate Belt. In I9I I, 2,436,248 tons of . phosphate, valued at $9,473,638, were shipped from Florida. There was a decided decrease in shipments dur-a Frank Sterling, secretary of the State Beekeepers' Association .

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 93 ing the World war period, and a marked increase in I920. During the year named, 3,369,384 long tons were produced and mostly shipped, valued at $I9,383,362 and divided as follows: Rock, 4I4,202 tons valued at $4,634,742, and land . pebble, 2,955,I82 tons valued at $14,748,620. The quantity of phosphate rock mined and marketed during I920 from the entire United States was 4,103,982 tons; consequently, Florida produced 82 per cent of the national output. UNUSUAL INDUSTRJES The foregoing text covers some of the outstanding industries which have given Florida a substantial standing among her sister states; but it numbers many which are unusual and some which are unique. An account of those which are not commonly known is taken from an article published in a December ( I92I) number of the Tampa Daily Times, and contributed by Frank K. Anderson. Mr. Anderson treats of the fishing industry, as a whole, which is not so unusual, and gradually drifts into the "unusual" classes. The applicable portions of the paper, with a slight rearrangement, are as follows: FISHING INDU0STRY "Of course : a state with something like 2,000 miles of coast line is to be expected to have a fishing industry of prominence and importance. A Two HouRs' CATCH OF SPECKLED TROUT AND RED FISH Florida's fishing industry not only supplies local demands but takes care of the requirements of a good portion of the country to the northward, supplying a considerable tonnage of both salt and fresh water fish. "Of the fresh water fish shipped from the state the larger portion comes from Lake Okeechobee, the large lakes in the interior of the state to the north of there, and from the St. Johns River. Apalachicola oysters are well known throughout the South. The shrimp of Florida are unrivalled for both size and flavor, and the canneries at Pensacola, Ap alachicola and St. Augustine each season send a large pack northward. The Key West crawfish, or Florida lobster, as it is sometimes errone ously termed, is a most delicious morsel of seafood. "It is to be found on bills of fare of the exclusive hotels and cafes throughout the South, but local consumption within Florida takes care of the larger portion of the output of these fisheries. These are briefly a few of the items of a fishing industry of very considerable importance. But we must not forget clams. SPEAKING OF CLAMS "When the people of the United States think of clams, they are most likely to think of the Maine coast as a source of supply, or the nearby

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94 HISTORY OF FLORIDA shores of the northern Atlantic. It may surprise some to know that at Caxambas there is a very large clam industry which has been operated for a decade by one of the largest producers of clams and clam chowders in the country. It is safe to say that many a modest Florida clam has served to delight the palate of many a person who fondly thought it came from Maine. Other large clam canning plants not far distant con tribute to make Florida's clam output important and a source for consid erable revenue. As TO TURTLE SouP "Yet how many know of Florida as a source of turtle soup? Nevertheless, there is in Orlando a small but busy factory, the activities of which are devoted to supplying a truly delicious turtle soup to the exclu sive hotels and cafes in the north. The turtles which form the very necessary ingredient for such an epicurean delight come from the very hundreds of fresh water lakes surrounding that city. This product has thoroughly proven itself over a period of some years. . "Naturally, a lot of persons would associate alligator leather with alligator hides, in turn associ4ting the alligators in their minds with Florida. The manufacture of alligator leather on a small scale takes place at a number of points in Florida. However, not many are familiar . with the fact tl;iat shark skin leather has for a number of years been made at several points along the Florida coast. Recently a movement has been put forward to go into the production of this leather on a consider able scale. What this will bring remains . for the future to develop. PALMETTOES ALSO "The palmettoes that do so much to give Florida its tropic scenery are doing their part, too, in providing industries. At one point in Northern Florida is located a small paper mill which utilizes the ordinary cab bage palmetto for the production of a paper pulp from which is made as good a grade of craft wrapping paper as is to be had in the world. "The virtues of palmetto berries are widely known in medical circles and the gathering of these berries under certain conditions for sale to cer tain manufacturing pharmaceutical houses furnishes employment to a number of persons. Recently it has been found that the root of the much abused scrub palmetto contains a most excellent fibre, which can be uti lized to make scrubbing brushes which will resist hot water .and lye and will outwear many times the ordinary scrubbing brushes on the market made of imported rice fibre. "Last year an inventive genius found a still newer use for the cabbage palmetto. Trunks of the cabbage palmetto trees were sawed crosswise to give disks an inch in thickness and the diameter of the tree trunk, which make about the best sort of breadplate any housewife ever saw, as they impart no flavor to the bread, are practically impervious to ordinary stains after their pore have been covered with an application of filler , and are unique and attractive in appearance. Moss AND "HORSEHAIR" "The natural gracefulness of the palmetto also has made it possible to . produce by its use a new and most attractive line of furniture, securing artistic effects which are at once original and charming. The future de velopment of such a furniture industry doubtless holds considerable promise. "It is not a far cry from furniture to upholstery. Few know that Florida furnishes the United States with a very considerable portion of its 'horsehair' for filling upholstery. The 'horsehair' in question is none other than the gray Spanish moss of Florida, from which the outer gray

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 95 portion has been removed by a process known in the 'hair factories' of Florida, leaving the fine iJ:lner back fibre of the moss, which closely re sembles horsehair in appearance and has practically the same strength and resiliency, though being far niore sanitary. This same moss, treated in somewhat similar fashion, also is used as a filler for mattresses in moi:e than one mattres s factory in Florida, and it produces very excellent mat tresses, too . "Florida as a source for starch is little known. Yet down on the lower east coast is a starch factory of fair size which is kept busy supply ing the demand for its product. This factory utilizes the koonte plant, from which to make a very fine grade of starch. "The koonte was the bread plant of the Seminole Indians. Its root i s tremendously rich in starch, which is extracted in this factory by a proces s invented by a Florida man. The koonte plant grows wild over a territory of many, many square miles around about the site on which the fac tory is located, and is to be had for the gathering only. The starch made at this factory from the koonte plant is of very high quality . FORMULA FOR ICE "A portion of the output is sold to two of the largest manufacturers of bakery goods in the United States, who utilize it in the production of some lines of very delicate biscuits and cakes. The principal owner of this plant was one of the pioneers in undertaking the manufacture in Florida of starch from the cassava root, but after a number of years' experience has found the koonte plant a more satisfactory source of starch and a more economical one. "It was a Florida man whose invention first gave to the world arti ficially made ice. Another Florida man, several years ago , got to ponder ing upon the problem of how best to automobiles in a freight car when loaded for shipment. The results of his thinking took the form of ingeniously contrived cypress blocks of unusual shape, which when fastened to the floor of the freight car held the automobile immovable and safe. This invention has led to a considerable industry located in a: progressive city on the Florida peninsula. A big factory is kept busy day in and day out each year producing many carloads of such blocks which are bought by automobile manufacturers all over the United States. AND PINE STUMPS "A man who went out to buy pine stumps might in some sections have his sanity questioned, yet the business of buying pine stumps fur nishes employment for several such men in Florida. The stumps pur chased are shipped to a plant in the northern part of the peninsula, where the rosin remaining in the stumps is extracted by a process and the result ing turpentine and commercial rosin sold to considerable advantage . "Ireland is known for peat, but how many Floridians know of th e considerable peat deposits which exist in several places in Florida mostly near the Atlantic coast? The operation of some of these peat beds furnishes certain materials as fertilizer ingredients and peat for fuel and keeps a number of persons busy. "Florida as a source of tannic acid is little known, but Florida is in a position literally to supply the world's commercial demands for tannic acid. "The brownish color of most Florida streams, even though filtered by the sandy soil of their beds, generally is due to the presence in their waters of tannic acid in solution in large quantities. This tannic acid comes from the roots of both cabbage palmetto and scrub palmetto, and recently the extraction of tannic acid upon a commercial basis has gone so _far as to establish it in at least one locality as a regular business . .

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96 HISTORY OF FLORIDA "The despised sawgrass of Florida, of which there are thousands upon thousands of acres, botanically is highly similar to the papyrus of the Nile, which formed the base for the first manufactured paper of the ancients. Now a movement is going forward for the commercial manufacture in Florida of paper pulp from this sawgrass, which hereto fore has been wholly waste. A large mill now is in course of construc tion which will have, it is said, as a part of its equipment the largest pulp converter in the United States, if not in the world. "Glass manufacture is an entirely new industry in Florida . How-: ever, ' there have been installed within the last six months two such manufacturing plants, one at J acksonviile and one at Tampa, which already aire producing a commercial product, utilizing Florida sand. Inasmuch as heretofore the nearest source of supply for glassware of any sort has been Maryland, \i\Test Virginia, Ohio or Indiana, the importance of this infant industry hardly can be overestimated once it is proven practicable ancf of economic value. "In a state whose citrus industry assumes such tremendous importance it is natural to expect that the machinery used in citrus packing houses should be manufactured at home. That is true in Florida, and the manu facture of citrus packing house machinery at Dunedin, on the west coast, has built a big factory which many men. "From this fqctory comes all the citrus house machinery and repairs for the many packing houses in Florida and for Cuba, Porto Rico and the Satsuma belt of the lower Gulf coast, including Alabama and Texas as well . Recently this factory shipped a $z5,ooo order of citrus packing machinery to Jaffa, in Palestine, where it is being installed by progressive Americans who are taking hold of the citrus industry of Pale sti!1e and endeavoring to handle it in truly A.t:l).erican fashion. . PERFUME AND FERNS "Few ate informed that perfume is tpanufactured in Florida, yet there are at least a , dozen small laboratories which produce perfumes and e ssences and which do a very profitable business. One larger concern more recently has b e en endeavoring to obtain .an output on a considerable commercial scale. "At various places on the lower portion of the peninsula travelers along the road are accustomed to considerable areas covered with lath. Often it is assumed that these are pineries, given to the production of the delicious Florida pineapple. Some are, but in a number of instances outside the pineapple area it wiHbe found that these are devoted to the cultivation of ferns. As a matter of fact it is Florida emeries which supply the metropolitan cities constantly with the maidenhair and asparagus fern and other stellar forms of . greenery used both as potted plants and for floral decoration. SHELL GATHERERS "In a state which annually is invaded during the winter months by approximately a million tourists, it is natural to expect to find a consid erable number of small undertakings designed to supply souvenirs and other things for sale to the tourist population. . "The gathering of shells and their sale, together with the manufacture of shell necklaces and other ornaments in the total keeps a considerable number of persons busy and supplies them with a good livelihood . Down on the lower east coast. where the cocoanuts thrive abundantly, the sale of cocoanuts as souvenirs , in one form or another, is sufficient materially to expand the receipt s of the postoffices and express offices in the tourist centers, where the visitors hasten to send home a cocoanut in some form or other shortly after they have had the privilege of first viewing them growing on the tree. In Miami is a factory which produces a consid-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 97 erable quantity of carved cocoanuts each year, the outside husks being wrought into various forms, artistic and otherwise, and made to serve as tobacco jars, vases and other things." AGRICULTURAL, HORTICULTURAL AND LIVE STOCK ORGANIZATIONS All the older counties of the state have their own organizations de voted to their agricultural, hortirnltural and live stock interests . There are also several of state-wide scope, such as the Farmers Union of Florida, the Florida Farm Bureau, the Florida State Horticultural Society, the Florida Dairy Association, Cattle Raisers' Association of Florida and the Florida State Beekeepers' Association and the Florida State Fair and Exposition. The representative establishment which stands for Florida industries of whatever kind is the Florida State Fair and Exposition, with head quarters at Jacksonville. Its grounds, \Vhich are located in the northern section of the city, have increased from 40 acres in 1917 to 127 acres in 1921, and the attendance during that period from 40,000 to 120 , 000. Eighty-seven acres of land were acquired in 1921 and leased to the Jack sonville Driving Club for racing events, and that part of the grounds has been thoroughly improved . Horses and automobiles are both pro vided for, and the track is used practically throughout the year. The infield of the track has been laid out for both football and baseball games , There are twelve buildings in the expositipn plant, all being of wood and one story except the administration building, which is of stucco and pro vides the main entrance, through three arches, to the grounds, The other main buildings are those devoted to county exhibits, to swine and cattle, dogs and cats, the industries patronized by merchants and manu facturers, poultry , feminine handiwork and the educational and indus trial exhibits of the colored people. In 1922 the officers were as follows: W. ,F. Coachman, president; D. D , Upchurch, vice president; A. P . An thony , treasurer; B. K. Hanafourde, secretary and general manager. The Cattle Raisers,. Association of Florida succeeded the Florida State Live Stock Association in December, 1919, at a meeting held on the 12th of that month at Orlando. Charles A. Carson, Jr., was the first chairman, and was succeeded by G. Murphy, one of the oldest cattlemen of the state, who is still at the head of the association. Its headquarters are . at Kissimmee, although the annual meetings are held at different places, sucl:i as Orlando, Tampa and Bartow. It is the opinion of S. Summerlin, secretary , that the high-grade cattle do not prosper in Florida as do the range cattle, although up to the present time a grass has not been found "that will carry through the cold and thrive through the dry and hot weather. The Government has been experimentmg for a long time to bridge the gap." The Florida State Beekeepers' Association was founded at Gainesville in October, 1920 , by Wilmon Newell, E. K. Bragdon, W. J. Barney, Frank Sterling and other beekeepers. Mr, Barney, of Sarasota, has been president from the first, and Mr. Sterling succeeded Mr. Bragdon as secretary. Vcl. 1-7

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.CHABTER VI THE EVERGLADES OF FLORIDA Set Massachusetts down into . what is known as the Everglades, or the Everglades Drainage District of Southern Florida, and it would overlap the bounds of that famous region by only a few hundred square miles. The drainage and reclamation of the Everglades in the cause of Florida's general progress is to . have a two-fold effect. It will bring-is already doing areas of land into productive and clear the way for the connection of both the' waterways and the railroad systems of far Southern Florida. Colonies and settle ments and villages have been forming on the shores of Lake Okeechobee ever since drainage operations have been systematically conducted. Some are connected with Atlantic coast points by means of five canals, and others, such as Moore Haven, Clewiston . and Okeechobee , have secured .railroad connections through the Florida East Coast and the Atlantic Coast lines. HISTORY OF STATE DRAINAGE PROJECTS The drainage and reclamation of the large district of which Lake Okeechobee is the key is one of the oldest public improvements which has engaged the ittention of the public men and engineers of Florida , although it has been less than twenty years since it has been prosecuted in a practical way. F . C. Elliot, the chief drainage engineer who has had charge of the work for a number of years, is the best authority as to what has actually been accomplished, and the following account is extracted and condensed from one of his contributions to the quarterly bulletin of the State Agricultural Department, and his last annual report to the Board of Commissioners of the Everglades Drainage District and the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund. Under date of January 1, 1921, Mr. Elliot says: "This is the eighteenth year since the beginning of the great drainage project on which the State of Florida has embarked, and the fourteenth year since the commencement of dredging operations on the r.eclamation enterprise. * * * "The great tract of land composing the southern portion of Florida was, until recentfy, a valuable but neglected asset in the state's develop ment. In fact, anything to be appreciated first be known and under stood. From the time that these millions of acres of land were granted to the state by Act of Congress of 1850, until the last few years, the region south of Lake Okeechobee, marked 'Everglades,' had no particular identity in the minds of the public. It had not been penetrated except occasionally by a stray scientist, an adventurous hunter, or a traveler with more curiosity than common, and it had never been surveyed. It was considered much in same lights as the African jungles were before Livingston and Lord Stanley made their excursions into the in terior of those dangerous and obscure regions. There was little or nothing known of its fauna, its flora, or its soil. It was known . that the Seminole Indians had their home on the edge of this vast inundated prairie and subsisted by hunting and fishing, but even they could not find a resting place in the interior, owing to inundation and continual overflow . So, from 1850 to 1900, a period of fifty years, this great 98

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, HISTORY OF FLORIDA 99 asset of the state lay practically unexplored, with almost nothing accom plished in the way of practical development. "The reclamation of the Everglades was a much discussed subject for many years prior to the time of actually beginning construction operations on the drainage project. It was a subject of Congressional and Legislative action as early as I845, and since that time various plans have been proposed for its reclamation, without substantial results, until the administration of I90I to I905.1 During this four year period the governor of Florida undertook energetically and actively the preliminary steps necessary for the beginning of reclamation. These preliminary operations consisted in determining and fixing the status of Everglades land through opinions and actions of the courts of the state with respect to drainage, of clearing up a number of outstanding conflicting statutory land grants, and of enacting laws by the Legislature for the creation of the area including the Everglades into a drainage district with full power and authority to actively proceed with the construction of drainage works, and the carrying out of a plan of reclamation. "In the campaign of I905 the successful candidate for governor 2 was elected on a platform pledged to the drainage of the Everglades, and SEMINOLE INDIANS COMING FROM THE EVERGLADES THROUGH ONE OF THE DRAIN AGE CANALS since that time, notwithstanding many obstacles necessary to be over come, reclamation by drainage has on its own merits gradually become one of the fixed policies of the state just as has the improvement of its public highways, ad advancement of its school system, or the carrying out of any other great and far-reaching development. "The Everglades Drainage District was created by Act of the Legis lature of I905, amended in I907 and thereafter. Since that time the work of reclamation has taken definite form and has proceeded actively and without interruption under successive laws and amendments of laws enacted by the Legislature especially for the benefit and encouragement of the Drainage District. See Chapter 6456, Acts of I9I3, and acts amendatory thereto replacing the acts of I907. "The district is administered by five commissioners, consisting of the governor, comptroller, state treasurer, attorney general, commissioner of agriculture and their successors in office. It is thus seen that the affairs of the district are• vested in a board composed of five of the highest state officials, of which the governor is chairman. 1 See administration of Governor W. S. Jennings. 2 See administration of Governor N. B. Broward.

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100 HISTORY OF FLORIDA "Originally all of the lands comprising the Everglades, and also por tions of other lands not in the Everglades, but forming a part of the district, were owned by the State of Florida. These were among those lands designated as swamp and overflow lands, and were declared by the Legislature to constitute a fund called the Internal Improvement Fund, and the administration of this fund was vested in five trustees. The prin cipal object looking to the improvement and en _ hancing of the fund was the reclamation of the lands by means of canals and drains. "There now remain under the ownership of the state approximately one and one-fourth million acres of land in the Everglades, which together with all other lands in the Drainage District are subject to drainage taxes imposed by the Legislature for the purpose of providing funds for prose cuting the drainage work. At the present time Everglades Drainage taxes upon the lands in the Everglades amount to from five to twenty-eight cents per acre according to drainage benefits received by the lands and their nearness to main drainage canals, and to other reclamation works constructed or in process of construction. DESCRIPTION OF THE EVERGLADES "The Everglades proper are situated in the southeastern portion of the Florida peninsula, below the 27th parallel. Generally speaking, they lie south of Lake Okeechobee, have a width of about forty-five miles and a length of nearly one hundred miles, with an area of 2,862,000 acres. The Everglades Drainage District includes the Everglades proper and contiguous lands embraced in the same drainage area or basin. The total superficial area of the district is as follows : Land .............. 4 , 370,096 acres, \\rater . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473p88 acres , 6828.28 square miles 739.2 square miies Total .............. 4,843 , 184 acres, 7567-48 square mile s "The surface of the Glades, before drainage began. was twenty-one feet above sea level , just south of Lake Okeechobee. By soil subsidence the land has become s lightly reduced in those areas affected by drainage. The land slopes gently toward the south at the rate of about three inches per mile. West of Miami the surface of the Glades is from six to eight feet above sea level. The Glades are in no way a swamp. . They present the appearance of a broad, level , grass-covered prairie. They are covered almost uniformly with a growth of saw-grass. There are few trees in the Everglades, and these are. found only in scattering clumps. Small bushes are found near the eastern edge and in the . southern portion in addition to the predominating saw-grass . Along the eastern border, where the Glades merge into the higher land , considerable growth of cypre ss occurs, usually of small size, though in some places fine timber is found. On the western edge of. the Glades occur fine strips of prairie, now utilized as . cattle ranges. A heav y growth of custard apple fringes the southern and southeastern s hores of Lake Okeechobee. At their southern ex-. tremity, the Glades merge almost imperceptibly into the tide water of the sea. "The soil of the Everglades consists chiefly of muck or peat, varying in depth from ten to twelve feet just south of the lake, to three or four feet in the southern portion of the Glades. The muck is reduced to a thin layer at the edge of the Glades, finally giving way to the sand of the surrounding country. This muck soil was formed .by the dying, falling and decaying of each successive growth of vegetation. In their normally inundated condition the Everglades were covered with water from a few inches to a foot or more in depth. "The vegetation of the Upper Glades is much denser , as a general rule, than in the Lower, or Southern Glades , and as the soil is produced principally by fallen vegetation, it would naturally be supposed that the ...

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 101 soil wquld be deeper over the areas of densest growth. Such is, in fact, the case, the soil being ten to twelve feet thick near Lake Okeechobee, where the vegetable growth is heaviest, and thinner, as a rule, iri the Southern Glades, where vegetation is and has been less dense. Of course there are other agencies which also affected the thickness of the muck or peat, but the one ' above referred to is the most important under normal glade conditions. "A log thoroughly and continuously immersed in fresh water will be preserved for ages. Timbers have been removed from fresh water that are known to have been submerged for hundreds of years and found to be in a fair state of preservation. As so this accumulation of muck has been made possible by the preserving action of the water which covered it continually and prevented thorough decomposition which would have occurred had the ground been much exposed to the air. "Soil, generally speaking, is formed by the decomposition of the rocks of the surrounding country or by the building up and elevating of marine deposits. Often the soil is transported far from the place where it was originally formed. As a general rule, soil is the product of the destruc tive agencies of nature. Not so with the soil of the Everglades, which is an exception to the general rule. This is a cumulose soil and is a product of constructive agencies. It has built itself up by its growth of vegeta tion, and has actually created itself, to a very large extent at least, by this constructive process. "The soil is underlaid by a bed of limestone, chiefly oolitic in char acter, rather soft, but very jagged and uneven along the eastern edge and in the southern portion of the Glades. This gives place to a hard, smooth slab limestone further toward the interior of the Glades. Some of this original limestone formation through geological changes, has become im pregnated with silica in the form of base chalcedony, is extremely sharp and hard, affording good material for concrete masonry and other build ing purposes, but expensive to move in the process of canal dredging. . "This great bed of limestone forms a broad, shallow, flatbottomed trough or flat basin, slightly tilted or turned up at the outer edges, these outer edges forming what is commonly called the rock rim of the Everglades. Down through the interior of this broad, shallow, flat-bottomed rock trough, from north to south, the slope or dip which is toward the south is very slight, so slight that for all practical purposes this great limestone bed inside of the outer edges of the same may be considered as an immense level floor.• More especially is this the case in the upper half of the Glades. This condition exists from the south shore of Lake J Okeechobee eastward and westward to the edge of the Glades, and south-ward to a line drawn generally southwestward from Fort Lauderdale. Southwest from Fort Lauderdale, the flat slab rock formation, common to the Upper Glades, begins to change and is replaced toward the south by the softer limestone. The rock floor maintains its generally level character, but is full of small pot holes, with sharp, jagged edges, very much like an immense honeycomb. This characteristic extends all the way from the line southwest of Fort Lauderdale to the southern extremity of the Glades, gradually dipping toward the sea until tidewater is reached in the proximity of the Thousand Islands and White Water Bay. To the southward also the soil undergqes a change from the predominating muck or peat to a soil commonly termed marl, which predominates in certain sections of the Southern Glades. "On this great limestone floor lies the soil of the Everglades, thicker. at Lake Okeechobee, thinner at the edges of the Glades and toward the . south. The soil resting on this level rock floor, being thick at the lake and thin toward the south, gives to the surface of the Glades that gradual slope, which permitted the waters which overflowed from Lake Okee chobee and the waters from natural rainfall on the Glades, to gradually find their way, seepii1g through soil and meandering through saw grass southward to the sea. But by far the greater portion of the water on the •

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102 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Glades passed into the air by evaporation and was in that way disposed of. At a few places along the eastern edge of the Glades, notably at New River and Miami River, the water broke through the rock rim of the Glades and made its way directly to the sea. Other portions of this . water from the Glades made . its way slowly and tediously through the entire length of the Glades to the sea at the southern extremity of the peninsula. LAKE OKEECHOBEE "Lake Okeechobee, the second largest body of fresh water wholly within the United States, is nearly circular in form, about thirty-two miles in diameter, and has an average depth of about fifteen feet . Its normal elevation, before drainage operations began, was 200 feet above the of the sea, and through the varying seasons of the year fluctuated through a vertical range of about two and one-half feet between high water in the rainy season and low water in the dry season. The banks of the lake on southwest and south are low and marshy. On the north, .. east and west a low sand bank confines its waters. This lake is the catch basin receiving the runoff from a watershed to the northward about seven times its own size , finding inlet to the lake by creeks and rivers, the principal of which, and by far the most important, being the Kissimmee River . During . heavy rainy seasons an enormous quantity of water is discharged from this watershed . into the lake, and continues in less amount during other seasons. Formerly, iri its natural condition, when the lake became filled to overflowing, discharged its water over the low shores on the south , adding its quota of water to that of local precipitation on the Glades , inundating this entire territory and subjecting the same to continual overflow. Flood waters escaped very slowly on account of the insignificant slope, lack of channels, and the obstruction to flow offered by the dense growth of vegetation. "Lake Okeechobee is at once the greatest menace to the Glades area, and also one of the most valuable assets which the territory possesses. The successful drainage of the Everglades depends in large measure upon preventing the waters of the lake from overflowing and inundating the land to the southward, while the best interest of the project demands that the water be not unnecessarily wasted, but be properly conserved for its numerous valuable uses . The storage value of the Lake as a reservoir in which to store a portion of the flood waters from the northern watershed is of great value both in safety and economy of drainage to the district. Furthermore, Lake Okeechobee in time of need could supply from a depth of two feet of its storage, six inches depth of water for irrigation over an area of a million acres, allowing nearly one-half for wastage . "Lake Okeechobee is a navigable body of water held by the United States Government to be under its control and jurisdiction. The interest of the United States relates to navigation, and so important does it con sider the matter of ' conserving its water and preserving its navigability that the war department is ever watchful of this great inland waterway . Prior to the construction of drainage canals connec;ting Lake Okeechobee with the sea , the lake had no navigable outlet, nor connection by any sort of_ natural channel with the sea. As has already been stated, water flowed from the lake only in time of flood, and this occurred by spreading out broadly in a shallow sheet a few inches deep over the territory bordering on the south and southwest. The lake, therefore, was an inland body of water confined entirely within the borders of the state, having ' no navigable connection with waters outside of the state or with waters leading to the sea. Through the construction of drainage canals there has resulted purely as an incident to drainage, such navigation as the drainage canals, by reason of their size, afforded. "Provision has been made to lower the level of the lake about four t

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 103 feet. It is possible that this provision may require modification as the results of drainage become further manifested. There should remain a depth sufficient for navigation as far as this feature can be advantageously harmonized with drainage, but it is essential for flood protection that there be provided a safe margin within which the waters of the lake may fluctuate without overflow . The method of controlling Lake Okeechobee within safe levels will be briefly alluded to later on in describing the plan. THE DRAINAGE PLAN "The waters which affect the Everglades are from two sources: "1. Water from the overflow of Lake Okeechobee. "2. Water from excess local rainfall on the Glades. "The lowering of Lake Okeechobee below the overflow level is one part of the drainage plan, and the removal of excess rainfall from the Glades is the other part of the plan. "The accomplishment of these two things constitute the principal part of the work of draining the Everglades. The foregoing is being carried out, first, by constructing a large canal by the shortest feasible route from Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic for the purpose of lowering the lake and bringing it under control, and, second, by building drainage canals proper through the Everglades connecting it with the sea for the purpose of carrying off the excess local rainfall. The Saint Lucie Canal, which is the principal unit of the Lake Control plan, extends from the eastern side of Lake Okeechobee to the St. Lucie River, a distance of twenty five miles. The canal will vary from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet wide, will have a normal depth of flow of ten to twelve feet, w . ith gr. eater depths during flood periods and less during dry periods. The greatest depth of cut is twenty-eight feet. In addition to the control canal composing the principal canal unit for regulating the lake, certain of the drainage canals proper will be available part of the time for assist ing in control. Regulation of water discharged through the control plan will be accomplished by controlling works located at the intake end and near the outfall end of the canal. As a further protection a substantial levee is proposed to be constructed around the low portions of lake shore, which will provide additional safety against the lake, and permit control of its waters within satisfactory limits. "The Everglades Drainage canals proper, composing the second part of the plan , vary in dimensions from forty to fifty feet wide at their upper ends by a depth of ten to twelve feet , generally increasing in width to eighty or one hundred feet, and in depth to twelve or fifteen feet at their lower end. Sizes of canals vary according to requirements of the area which the canal must serve. The accompanying map shows the general arrangement of the principal part of the major system for con trofling Lake Okeechobee and for providing the main drainage outlets for the Everglades. "From an engineering standpoint the practicability of draining the Everglades has been determined by careful and thorough investigation of the conditions which control and govern the situation. The results which . have become manifested through the partially completed plan, indicate to a certainty that the lands of the Everglades are susceptible of successful drainage, and there is no question of drainage when the complete reclamation plan shall have been put into execution. "The conditions existing, almost universally, in the Everglades per-1 • mit drainage by means of canals operating under gravity. There is a comparatively narrow margin in the southern extremity of the Glades, which may ultimately require other drainage works than simple gravity canals, but the present scheme of drainage is not to attempt the com plete reclamation of this class of land until a later date when need from the colonization standpoint, and demand for additional lands, justify the •

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• , VERGLADES DRA.INACE DISTRICT leeued l:J!flt'feChier Oramoge Engineer Toi lahaseee_. Flo., Cof"fOl.5 co.-.st,•u.tff or coMWc.t.ion p,.opo"'H c.orool• t.o b• n..-2.t. EVERGLADES DRAINAGE DISTRICT

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 105 extending of the completed works into this territory. The elevation of . surface above sea-level and the distance from the sea are generally such that the canals which will be constructed will have a sufficient grade to give a good current for carrying off the water without making excessive cuts. Beginning at the edge of Lake Okeechobee the slope of the land toward the southward is nearly uniform at the rate of about three inches per mile. The bottom of the canals, which run southward from the lake, will follow very closely this slope so that the depth of cut for the canals extending through the Glades generally from north to south, is nowhere excessive for obtaining a favorable depth of flow. This is of great value in the economical construction of the main canals, which traverse nearly the entire Glades from north to south. Also the water stage in the canals can be controlled by a few simple and economical locks and dams, which would not be the case if the Glades had uneven slopes, making necessary great numbers of controlling works. "In connection with main drainage canals, a system of controlling works is planned. By means of these controlling works it is intended to regulateJi water levels to the best possible advantage. Controlling works arc reqqired near the lake shore on each of the canals running otttward from the lake. These controlling works are advantageous for protective purposes against high water levels of the lake, and their Ideation and arrangement for this service is given due consideration. One of these structures, consisting of a lock and movable dam, has been constructed at the upper end of each canal leading outward from the lake, with th' exception of one on Miami Canal, work on which is now in progress. Other controlling works are provided at intervals through the canals for carrying out a further regulation of water levels. r: "The controlling works for the Saint Lucie Canal are for the purpose of regulating the discharge of water from Lake Okeechobee through this outlet. When the tendency of the lake is to rise to undesirable levels, the gates at the dams will be opened to permit water to flow outward from the lake , and as the lake becomes lower, the dams will be regulated ac cordingly. In connection with the works constructed for regulating drain age levels, locks are being provided for harmonizing the navigation fea ture, which is incidental to drainage. The locks in the drainage canals proper, with the exception of three smaller ones first built, are 25 feet wide, 130 feet usable length, having normal depth over sills of 30 feet. The locks on Saint Lucie Canal will be 30 feet wide, 150 feet long, with a normal depth over sills of 6 feet. Three locks constructed in the Caloosahatchee Canal have lengths of 140 feet, widths of 30 feet, and depths over sills at normal levels of 5 feet. By means of these lQ<;ks the navigation feature of the drainage canals will be developed . as far as drainage considerations make the same feasible, it being understood that navigation is an incidental feature resulting from the size of canals con structed for drainage purposes, and that the principal function of the canal is drainage. The navigation feature is of great value in providing means of access to this region. At the present time the drainage canals furnish the only means of ingress and egress for the greater portion of this territory. Mention has been made of controlling works on the drainage canals at the edge of Lake Okeechobee. When these canals will be called upon to carry their full capacity of water from local rain fall on the Glades adjacent to them, they will be shut off from Lake Okeet:hobee by means of the controlling works at the upper end so that they will not be burdened by water from the lake, and may thus be per mitted to operate to their full capacity for removing local rainfall. "Such, briefly, is the main drainage plan for providing the major out lets controlling works for the Everglades Drainage District. There is another class of drainage works commonly called lateral canals or farm ditches, which are essential for supplementing the main canals and for completing satisfactory drainage . * * *"

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106 HISTORY OF FLORIDA LAND SURVEYS "The Everglades were a great unsurveyed territory. The grant from the United States to the State of Florida conveyed these lands as unsurveyed. In the early days the Government surveyors detailed for work in the territory adjacent to the Everglades did not attempt to penetrate this area. They confined their operations largely to the dry land and did not contemplate in their survey the great inundated area reported in their field-notes as impracticable and impenetrable marsh. In connection with the drainage work, a plan of surveys has been inaugurated, to include the Everglades lands. The principal base lines and guide meridians have been projected, over a million acres have been surveyed into townships , ranges and sections , and the task of subdividing this vast and hithertq DRAIN AGE WoRK unsurveyed area is being carried out a s rapidly as is warranted, until in time it will be as easy to locate an acre of land in the Everglades as anywhere else in the state. SOIL "Everglades lands ate essentially agricultural. Upon the assumption that the lands of the Everglades would become valuable for agricultural purposes when drained, rests the entire justification for drainage, entail ing a great expenditure of time, labor, and money. Experiences thus far have supported the original belief in the agricultural value of these lands . Their natural fertility, adaptability to a large variety of crops, respo'nsive ness to cultivation, economy of preparation, fertilization, cultivation, etc., and the high degree of immunity from freezing temperatures, make these lands especially valuable. Some of the crops successfully grown on drained lands in the Everglades are tomatoes, potatoes , peppers , beans , egg plants, onions, cabbage, cucumbers , strawberries, beets, lettuce, celery

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 107 and other vegetables; sugar cane, corn, rice, alfalfa, kaffir corn, sorghum, millet, milo maise, many grasses and other staple crops; and fruits such as bananas, guavas, avacadoes, papayas, oranges, grape fruits, and limes. In few instances have lands been drained for a sufficient length of time to bring fruit trees into general bearing-, but indications are that certain fruits adapted to this type of soil will become valuable assets to gen eral agricultural crops of the district. Considerable activity is being shown in hog raising, and in the growing of stock for both dairy and beef. This branch of agriculture is offering promise in the developments of . these essential items of food supply. * * * DEVELOPMENT "Five main drainage canals connect Lake Okeech.obee with tidewater and traverse the Glades. One of these has two branches. Three canals have been constructed leading from the eastern edge of the Glades to the Atlantic. A main drainage canal is under construction leading northwest from the . lake for providing outlet to lands adjacent to it. The Caloosahatchee Canal is open connecting Lake Okeechobee with the gulf by the Caloosahatchee River. The West Palm Beach Canal is in opera tion from the lake to the Atlantic. The North New River Canal is open from Fort Lauderdale, on New River, to Lake Okeechobee. The Miami Canal and its branch, the South New River Canal, are open from the lake to the Atlantic. Waterways affording navigation of about three feet draft are open from Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach to Lake Okeechobee, and connect via Lake Okeechobee with Moore Haven on the west side of the lake at the head of Caloosahatchee Canal, extending thence west via the canal and Caloosahatchee River to Fort Myers, on the gulf. The distance from Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach to Lake Okeechobee is sixty-one and forty-two miles, respectively. The distance across Lake Okeechobee to Moore Haven is approximately thirty-five miles, and from Moore Haven to Fort Myers seventy miles. "The Florida East Coast Railroad extends to Okeechobee, a town on Taylor Creek, about three miles from the north end of the lake. Moore Haven on the west side of the lake is the present terminal of a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad extending into the Glades area.3 l'hese two railroad po . ints afford the most dired railroad connection be tween the Everglades and northern points. The main line of Florida East Coast Railroad is crossed by the water ways leading outward from the lake on the east and south, and thus affords additional railroad con nection with the Everglades territory. "The total length of main canals now open in the Everglades is 361 miles. The total excavation .in providing these canals amounts in round figures to 45,250,000 cubic yards of earth and rock. Twelve Locks with their accompanying dams and controlling works have been constructed, and much other work, of less extensive though essential nature, has been accomplished. The total amount of money expended in main drainage works of every description up to the present time amounts, in round figures, to million dollars. The above represents a portion of the plan only. Construction of drainage works will be continued and advanced as conditions require and make practicable." 3 Line extended to Clewiston since this was written.

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CHAPTER VII COMMONWEAL TH PRIOR TO SECESSION Florida as an American commonwealth has passed its century mark. It formally passed to the control of the United States when the Spanish flag was lowered and the national emblem displaced it, at St. Augustine and Pensacola, in July, 1821. It was not until March of the following year that the United States flag was raised at Key West by Lieut. Matthew Galbraith Perry, brother of the already famous Commodore Oliver H. Perry, and himself to become noted more than thirty years thereafter as the Commercial liberator of Japan. The first step in the founding of Florida as a domain of the United States was the approval of a Congressional act, on March 3, 1821, providing that "All the military, civil and judicial powers exercised by the officers of the existing government of the territories shall be vested in such person and persons, and shall be exercised in such manner, as the president of the nited States (Monroe) shall direct, for the maintaining of the inhabitants of said territories in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion; and the laws of the United States relating to the revenue and its collections and the laws relating to the importation of persons of c?lor, shall be extended to said territories." JACKSON FIRST GOVERNOR OF THE FLORlDAS Under the provisions of that act of Congress, General Jackson was appointed governor of the Floridas, with authority to receive their transfer at the old capitals of East and West Florida. At the same time the following were appointed officials of the provisional government, pending a civil territorial organization: Elijias Fromentin, of Louisiana, as United States judge for West Florida and all west of the cape of Florida; William P. Duval, judge of the region east of the territory men tioned; Alexander Anderson and John G. Bird, both of Tennessee, United states attorneys; James Grant Forbes, marshal; George Walton, of Georgia, secretary of West Florida and all west of the cape of Florida; William G. D. Worthington, of Maryland, secretary of East Florida; Mark Harden, of South Carolina, collector of customs at St. Marks; John Rodman, of New York, and Richard S. Hackley, of Virginia, customs officers at St. Augustine, and Alexander Scott, W. S. Smith and Charles Jenkins, customs officers at Pensacola. Although General Jackson had been endowed with extraordinary power well expressed in his official title, "Governor of the Provinces of the Floridas, exercising the powers of the Captain-General and of the Intendant of the Island of Cuba over the said Provinces and the Gover nors of the said provinces respectively," he was advised that, under' the Spanish law, the only civil official was the alcalde; a municipal or probate judge. He therefore retained that office in the temporary scheme of government , of which he was the supreme head, and appointed H. M. Brackenridge, an intelligent lawyer and afterward a Pennsylvania con gressman, to the position. There was some trouble both at Pensacola and St. Augustine over the delivery of Spanish public documents to the new American authorities, and a decisive clash at the former capital of West Florida between Jackson and United States Judge Froinentin over some papers in dispute held by the former Spanish governor, Callava . The 108

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 109 • Federal judiciary wished the matter settled by legal proceedings conducted in court; Jackson was for military methods. The offending paper was finally obtained by Alcalde Brackenridge from the ex-Spanish executive , and the matter subsided. As stated,1 Governor Jackson's first ordinance divided the Floridas into Escambia County, west of the Suwannee River, and St. Johns County, east of the waterway. County courts were provided for, through the promulgation of other measures; grand and petit juries were authorized; and speedy and public trials required. Other ordinances restricted liquor selling and gaming houses by license, prohibited the selling of intoxicants to soldiers, established a board of he'!-lth and quarantine at Pensacola , and at the suggestion of Mrs. Jackson, required the observance of the Christian Sabbath. The last ordinance, under Jackson's adminis tration, was dated September 6,' I82I, and proposed to regulate the practice of medicine. _ The Sabbath regulations were so distasteful to the Floridians of that period that they were soon repealed, largely through the exertion s of Joseph M. Hernandez, of St. Augustine, an able Spanish citizen and the first territorial delegate to Congress. The first session of Congress in which Florida was represented was the Seventeenth of the National House. It covered the period from March 4, I82I, to March 3, I823, although Mr. Hernandez did not take his seat until January 3, I823. The congressman from Florida was both able and refined, was long ' prominent in territorial affairs, and died in Cuba thirty-four years after he commenced his term in Congress. During General Jackson's administration, military forces were sta tioned at Pensacola, St. Marks, Amelia Island and St. Augustine. His temperament ill adapted him for civil affairs , and he resigned the gov ernorship in November, I82I, leaving Col. George Walton as acting chief executive. TERRITORY OF FLORIDA On March 3, I822, the Territory of Florida was created by act of Congress approved by Monroe, and provided that the cessions of Spain to the United States, known as East and West Florida, should be united under that name. The governor was to be appointed by the president and his term was to be three years. He was to be ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs, and in his absence from Florida the secretary of the territory was to act in his place. All the territorial officials, as well as the delegate to Congress, were to be appointed by the president , while the governor was authorized to appoint all local officials. The legislative power was vested in the governor and in thirteen of the "most fit and discreet persons of the territory" to be called the Legislative Council. That body was to be appointed annually by the president . The judicial power was vested in two superior courts, one for each division of the territory, the regulation of which, as well as that of county and munic ipal governments, being also assigned to the Legislative Council. Certain acts of Congress were extended to the territory, the importation of slaves being prohibited. It is evident that under the original act the territorial government was a creature of either the president or the governor. FIRST TERRITORIAL GOVERNOR William P. Duval, who had been appointed one of the United States judges under Governor Jackson, became the head of the territorial gov ernment under the creative act of March, I822, and served as governor for twelve years, or until I834. He was witty an.cl genial , short, stout and ruddy, a fine lawyer and linguist, a ready speaker and a charming con-1 Fleming's "Memoirs of Florida."

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110 HISTORY OF FLORIDA versationalist. Of Huguenot descent and a native of Virginia, he had built up a sturdy young manhood as a Kentucky woodsman and hunter, served against the Indians in I8I2, was a successful lawyer and had been a member of Congress before he became governor of Florida. Albeit a shrewd politician, his experience had been such that he was well adapted to handle the affairs of the territory, which he did, to the general satis faction. He proved especially skilful in dealing with the Florida Indians , who trusted him implicitly. General Duval died in Washington, on March I9, I854. FIRST LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL The governor arrived at Pensacola in June, I822, and presided over the first Legislative Council which was obliged to adjourn to the Fifteen Mile House, north of the seat of government, in September. Little progress had been made in the e nactment of laws before yellow fever in Gov. WILLIAM P. DuvAL, I822-34 a virulent form appeared, and forced the adjournment noted. It was in this ranch house of Don Manuel Gonzalez, located on the site of the town by that name, that the Florida Statutes of I822 were enacted. They were a medley of legislation. "One of them" as noted in Campbell's "Colonial Florida," "illustrates the vice or virtue there may be in a name. The title of 'An Act for the Benefit of Insolvent Debtors,' was misprinted in the laws of the session so as to read 'An Act for the relief of Insolent Debtors.' The error destroyed its utility, and no man, it is said, as long as it remained on the statute book, ever invoked the aid of its provisions." RICHARD KEITH CALL At this first session, also, West Florida was divided into Escambia and Jackson counties, and East Florida , into St. Johns and Duval. Before taking leave of it, an introduction is in order to Capt. Richard Keith Call, the young Virginian who had so ably and bravely served under Jackson, and who, after eight years' service in the United States Army, had resigned to become a member of the territorial Legislative Council. He was, perhaps, the mo s t prominent public man during the territorial period , as his leader s hip was manifest at its comm e ncement

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 111 and continued until the advent of Statehood. In 1823 he was appointed brigadier-general of the West Florida militia and in 1825 became receiver of the land office. Between those years he served as the Florida delegate to the Eighteenth Congress, succeeding Joseph M. Hernandez, of St. Augustine. He is best known as the of Florida, in 1836-39 and 1841-44, during the critical period of the Second Seminole war, and as the builder of the first railroad in Florida, from Tallahassee to St. Marks. During the entire period of his public life Governor Call was a resident of the inland capital of the territory and the state. MOVE FOR MORE CONVENIENT CAPITAL In May, 1823 , the Legislative Council was held in St. Augustine, the capital of old East Florida; but Pensacola and St. Augustine were too . far apart for the territorial legislators to periodically endure the circum navigation of Florida in order to make the laws for their constituents. The annual exchange of courtesies between Pensacola and St. Augustine, at the expense of so . many discomforts, was voted down, and an act passed to fix the capital of the territory "betwixt and between," in the vicinity of St. Marks. That the permanent seat of government might be convenient to both West and East Florida the Council appointed Dr. William H. Simmons, of St. Augustine, and John Lee Williams, of Pensacola, as two commissioners to make the selection.2 They were to examine carefully the country lying between the Chipola and Suwannee rivers , a region then but little known. Without going into details at this point as to the visits made by the commissioners to the leading chiefs of the region around Lake Talla hassee, it is enough to note that, with the agreement of the red authorities, the location of Florida's capital was selected on an elevated tract, lying along the south side of that lake, near the ruins of Old Tallahassee, the village which the Indians had abandoned at the time (six years previ ously) when Jackson was sweeping through Eastern Florida . As described by Governor Duval in his proclamation, issued in the spring of 1824, the location was "about a mile southwest from the old deserted fields of Tallahassee, about half a mile south of the Ocklockonee and Tallahassee trail, at a point where the old Spanish road is intersected by a small trail running southwardly." INDIAN PROBLEM ENTERS In the meantime, the Indian problem had been interjected into the official life of the new territory and continued to agitate public and military leaders for many years. In the fall of 1821, General Jackson had informed leading representatives of the Seminoles that they must con centrate themselves and not overrun the entire country, and when Governor Duval came into office they asked for an agreement concerning the lands which they really occupied and for an assignment to some definite reservation which would be free from the encroachments of incoming white settlers . Governor Duval arranged for an Indiap council to be held at St. Marks, in November, 1822, . but the meeting was post poned to await the arrival of the newly appbinted Indian agent, Col. Gad Humphreys, of New York, who reached St. Marks in the early part of 1823 . During the eight following years, he did what he CO\lld to protect the interests of the Government wards without offending the whites. While the Legislative Council was yet in session at St. Augustine, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun ordered a council with the Florida Indians. It was finally held at Moultrie Creek, near St. Augustine, on 2 On the authority of a printed statement made by Mrs . Ellen Call Long , daughter of Go v ernor Call, William M. McCarthy was a third member o f the commission .

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112 HISTORY OF FLORIDA September 18, 1823. The representatives of the United States were Governor Duval; ' Col. James Gadsden, late adjutant general of the regular army and author of the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico; Colonel Humphreys, the Indian agent, and Bernardo Segui, of St. Augustine . Indian chiefs and warriors came from the east and from the west of the territory, Colonel Humphreys bringing from West Florida to the place of meeting a delegation of 350 leading red men . Although thirty-two chiefs finally signed the treaty, those who then refused to negotiate encouraged the spirit of dissatisfaction among the Florida Indians and planted the seeds of the Second Seminole war. By the treaty, they agreed to remove to their reservation of 4,ocx:>,000 acres in Central Florida, embracing the Withlacoochee country on th1e north and Charlotte Harbor and Lake Okeechobee on the south . All coastal lands, however, were excluded from the reservation. The United States agreed to pay the expenses of removal, support the Indians for a year while they were settling on their reservation, pay the m a certain sum for the improvements they aban doned, as well as an annuity, and accord them other privileges for a period of twenty years. The treaty also provided for the extension of the reservation northward, if its area proved to be insufficient for the support of the Indians, but Colonel Gadsden's survey proved that it was amply sufficient . FIRST COUNCIL TO MEET AT TALLAHASSEE Before commencing the erection of the buildings for the accommoda tion of the territorial government, the Indians agreed to the location of the capital . site. Congress donated a quarter section of land 3 "for the seat of government," says Fleming in his "Memoirs," "and three quarter sections adjoining, to be sold to provide a fund for public buildings, and a survey of twenty townships round about was ordered that they might be opened to settlement first in the territory. This was the first land surveyed in Florida, and consequently the principal meridian and base line for the state intersected at Tallahassee." Maj. Jonathan Robinson began the erection of the Government build ings in the newly surveyed town and had thrown up a rude log house on the southeast corner of the Capitol Square for the meeting of the Legislative Council, when it first assembled at Tallahassee in November , 1824. "Around that square," says Caroline M. Brevard's "History of Florida," "Fifteen or twenty houses sprang up like mushrooms. All around this little settlement the unbroken wilderness stretched in every direction. Deer, panthers, and other wild animals were often killed within the limits of the town, and the red men came to the very doors of the houses, looking wonderingly upon the white strangers, but offering ' no violence. Patriotism was shown in naming the streets for Monroe, Adams, Calhoun, and other statesmen. A square was named for Greene, of Revolutionary fame, and another for Jackson, while the streets Mc Carthy, Gadsden, Bronaugh and Call were named for members of Jack-son's staff." The members of the Legislative Council who met in the little log house on the heights near the old Indian village of Tallahassee, in the fall of 1824, were William R. Reynolds, Peter Mitchell, Joseph M. Hernandez (former congressman), Abraham Bellamy , John L. Doggett, James Bright, Thomas Russ, Jonathan Robinson, Richard J. Compton, John de la Rua, Joseph Noriega and Benjamin D. Wright. As Governor Duval did not believe in incorporating banks, holding that they were "unsuited to the genius and spirit of our free institutions , " he vetoed acts proposing to do that aristocratic thing, and, although the council passed the measures over his veto by a vote of six to three, Secretary George Walton refused to receive them on the ground that the law a Act of May 24, 1 824 .

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;HISTORY OF FLORIDA 113 required a two-thirds vote of the council; and Judge Woodward, of the Superior Court, sustained the secretary. So the executive door was shut in the face of the Florida banks at that time. 1 Another kind of incorpora tion, however, met with both executive and legislative favor. The acts were approved by Governor Duval for the incorporation of St. Augus tine , Pensacola and Fernandina as cities, and at the session of I825-26 Tallahassee was admitted to the list of municipalities. The 29th of December, I824, was a busy day for the Legislative Council in the formation of new counties. Walton was carved from Escambia, which had been created in I82I; from Duval, formed in I822, were taken Alachua and Nassau; Leon County was sliced from Gadsden, which had been established in I823, and South Florida was divided into Mosquito and Monroe counties. Mosquito County included the territory from the head of the south branch of the Matanzas River, not far from St. Augustine, to the latitude of Charlotte Harbor, and Monroe County, all of the peninsula south of that locality. All of these counties created in I824 were of far greater area than those of the present by the names indicated; the disagreeable name of Mosquito County was to Orange in I845. From 1824 to the present year ( 1922), Florida counties multiplied so rapidly and their histories so expanded that the details are reserved for special chapters. FIRST CONGRESSIONAL. ELECTION In April, 1825, was held the first general election in Florida for the choice of a delegate to Congress. The cand\dates were Col. James Gadsden, former Congressman Joseph M. Hernandez, and Joseph M. White of Pensacola. Mr. White's election to the Nineteenth Congress was his inauguration to a long and distinguished career in the national House of Representatives, which only ended with the conclusion of his sixth term in March, 1837. LAST PRESIDENTIAL COUNCIL The Legislatlve Council of 1825 was the last one appointed by the president, and bears several historical marks. James Gadsden, W. H : . Simmons and Edward R. Gibson were selected to investigate a route for a ship canal across Florida, from the Atlantic coast to the Gulf of Mexico; in order to avoid the long and arduous trip around the Peninsula when East and West, and now Central Florida, wished to communicate. Thus was a project launched whjch is still under way. Congress had granted Lafa,yette a township of land lying immediately east of the site of Tallahassee-one of several substantial evidences of gratitude evinced by the United States toward the patriotic and able Frenchman. The Government of Florida went still farther, for in December, 1825, at the request of the Legislative Council, Governor Duval wrote to Lafayette not only pressing him to visit the territory, but to make it his home should he ever wish to leave France. In the year 1825, the land office was opened at Tallahassee by Richard K. Call and George W. Ward, and quarter sections were placed on the market at $I.25 per acre, and in , the following year Congress passed a preemption law favoring the of 1825. CORNER-STONE OF CAPIT. OL LAID The corner-stone of the permanent capitol was laid in January, 1826 , but the people of the territory were poor, the government had to be economical, the Indians were a constant menace and operations against them a continuous expense, and the erection of a public building was a slow process indeed. As various sections of the capitol were erected, they were occupied by the territorial officials and the council, and it wa

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114 HISTORY OF FLORIDA not until i842, the last year of active hostilities in the Semip.ole war, that the capitol was pronounced completed. Wings were added to the building sixty years afterward, and the commencement of its final recon struction was an early event of 1922. THE ARISTOCRATIC AND POLITICAL CENTER The selection of Tallahassee as the capital of the territory and the opening of the lands in Central Florida to settlement and private owner ship soon attracted a large and constant stream of residents-men and women of means, and representatives of old families from Virginia, Tennessee and the Carolinas. They brought with them many slaves and established large and beautiful homesteads and plantations of cotton and corn. The territorial officials also built handsome residences and before the '30s Tallahassee was the political, social and educational center of Florida. It is estimated that by 1830 Tallahassee had a population of 6 , ooo and that some 16,000, or about two-thirds of the population of Flor"da , were in what is now known as the "Northern Division" of the state-that section between the Apalachicola and Suwannee rivers. Although in Central Florida the negroes outnumbered the white two to one, the personnel of the latter numbered a majority of the cultured and wealthy men of the territory. The planters were especially prnsperous and, with their typical generosity and long-sightedness, when the public treasury was low, replenished it from their private purses. Thus the "Tallahassee clique" had such a leverage on political and public affairs as to raise up bitter opposition in other sections of the territor:y. TALLAHASSEE A BANK CENTE R This centralization of power was even intensified by the chartering of the Bank of Florida and the Central Bank, of Tallahassee , over the veto of Governor Duval, as well as the establishment of the Union Bank, at the capital, in 1833. The last named became the most important financial institution in Florida, and was established and operated by Col. John G. Gamble, a Virginian, who had settled in Jefferson county, a few years previously. Most of the stockholders fellow planters, who were authorized to take out a loan of bank bills up to two-thirds of their stock. The territorial bonds which formed the basis of these issues were secured by mortgages on the lands and slaves of the stockholders, and, as to the Union Bank, the authorized bonds amounted to $3,000,000. The territory issued bonds for smaller amounts to other chartered insti tutions. The unusual expansion of currency intoxicated the people of Florida , especially the central section, and made Colonel Gamble a power. As the residence of Congressman white had also been changed from Pensacola to Monticello, Jefferson County, the Tallahassee district was still very much in the ascendency . The sudden and unreasonable expan sion of currency and expenditures was followed by the panic of 1837. AN EDUCATIONA L CENTER The capital of the territory had commenced to arise as an educational center , as well as the nucleus of the financial and political activities of Florida. In January, 1831, was organized at Tallahassee, the Florida Educational Society to encourage a general system of instruction, and later in the year the Legislative Council authorized Governor Duval to appoint a commjssion of three members to investigate the subject and recommend a plan looking to that end. In 1832, an act of the council authorized the counties to elect commissioners who should have charge of the sixteenth sections of public lands, authorized by Congress to be sold for the support of free schools, but such legislation proved of no :i.vail. Yet all these movements were efforts in the right direction, as was

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 115 the proposal made in I905 to establish a University of Florida. Congress named as trustees for this initiation of higher education, Joseph M. White (then congressman), Richard K. Call (then governor), Thomas Randall, J. G. Gamble and others of less note. THE INDIANS AGAIN In I832, under the Duval administration, when it became plainly evident that the Indians did not intend to move to their Florida reserva tion , a number of their chiefs, with General Thompson, the new Indian agent, and Abraham, the negro interpreter, examined the western lands allotted to them as a reservation, and expressed themselves as satisfied with it. But when the delegation returned to Florida , the rank and file of the red men claimed that they had neither been <.:Onsulted nor repre s ented by the chiefs who claimed to have spoken for them, and refused to abide by their decision. The consequence was that in I834, when the government made preparations to move the Seminoles to their western reservation, the Indian spirit of opposition and rebellion flared into open warfare. The Dade massacre, with the death of the leader of the expe dition and all but one of his men, sent to the relief of Fort King, as well as the murder of the Indian agent, General Thompson, near that post, , precipitated the Second Seminole war, known in Florida history as the Seven Years' War. In I834, while it was gathering momentum, Governor William P. Duval was succeeded by John H. Eaton, a native of North Carolina, an able lawyer of Tennessee, a United States senator from that state , and a stanch friend and defender of Jackson throughout the severe criticisms of his military acts. Governor Eaton was an honorable and highly educated gentleman, but better adapted for diplomacy than Indian wars, and, after holding the gubernatorial office for a year, resigned to become minister to Spain. GENERAL A ND GOV E RNOR RIC H ARD K. CALL Gen . Richard Keith Call was of another character and caliber, and well fitted to guide the destinies of Florida through the troublous and momentous times of that period. He was one of Jackson's officers, and during the Seminole war, which covered his fir s t administration and extended well into his second, repeatedly led the American forces against the savage enemy, a s commander-in-chief of the territorial troops. Governor Call had come to Florida with Jackson, and for a time was in command of the militia of West Florida, General Hernandez being military commander of East Florida. With Gen. Robert Butler, he had served on Jackson's staff at the battle of New Orleans and was advanced in rank for gallant conduct.4 When Governor Jackson returned to Tennessee, General Call remained in the new territory. He studied law and practiced for a time in Pensacola, but was among the first to move to Tallahassee-his home from that time. Both he and General Butler had plantations on the beautiful lake a few miles north of Tallahassee, which they named Jackson , in honor of their former commander. It i s said that Governor Call's home, which he built substantially as it stands today near the beautiful governor's mansion of the present, was almost a replica of Jackson's historic "Hermitage" in Tennessee. It is now occupied by Mrs. R. L. Hunt (nee Long), the great-granddaughter of the territorial governor. As has been stated, Governor Call was the second delegate to Con gress, succeeding General Hernandez. While a member of that body he was especially prominent in the "good road s " movement of that earl y period, and was one of the leading promoter s of the road from Pensa-• Brevard" s "His t o ry of Florida. "

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116 HISTORY OF FLORIDA cola to St. Augustine. He also strongly urged upon the Federal Govern ment the construction of the ship canal from ocean to gulf, but was far in advance of the times and either the national or territorial resources. The first survey for the Florida ship canal was made during the adminis tration of Franklin Pierce under the direction of Jefferson Davis, then secretary of war. But it was as one of the dominant Florida figures in the Seven Years' War against the Seminoles that Governor Call most aroused the admiration of his home people; for "he not only went against the enemy himself, but when money was needed to raise and equip forces to protect the people, he advanced what was necessary from his own Gov. R1c:HARD K. CALL, 1835-40, 1841-44 purse, at one time keeping up at his own expense a line of posts from the Suwannee to the Eucheeanna." FIRST CONSTITUTION AL CONVENTION Early in his first administration, Governor Call championed statehood, and in 1837 recommended a convention to consider it. On the 12th of February, of that year, the Legislative Council, by practically a unani mous vote, authorized a popular expression of opinion as to the advis ability of calling a constitutional convention. The popular vote was to be taken in the following April, at the time of the congressional election . CONVENTION CARRIED BY ..ABOU T I,000 MAJORITY The strongest opposition to a state convention came from the political element centering in St. Augustine, which advocated the division of the territory into East and West Florida. That sentiment found strong and definite expression in a public meeting held in the courthouse of that city, on the 29th of August, 1838, at which Gen. Joseph M. Hernandez was appointed president, and Maj. John J. Beard, Jr., and S . Hill Williams, secretaries of the meeting. The meeting was addressed by Major Putnam and several other gentlemen and on motion it was resolved that Gabriel W. Perpall, Gen. Peter Sken Smith, Col. John M . Hanson, Bernardo

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 117 Segui and Col. Gad Humphreys be appointed a committee to draw reso lutions, which the committee reported and adopted, protesting against the calling of a s tate convention to form a s tate constitution, against the imposition of state taxes, and in favor of div ision. Among the resolu tions was the following: "Resolved, That we have organized for divi s ion and nothing but division , and for the purpose of cooperating with our fellow citizens of the east for th e division of this vast territory-comprising, as it does, the country and the c a pabilitie s sufficient for two states; the west being nearly equal in s ize to Mass achusetts and Maryland combined; and nearly as larg e a s South Carolina ;-and the t e rritory lying east of the GovERNOR CALL's 0Ln M ANSION, TALL A H A SSEE Suwannee possessing an area approaching in extent Pennsylvania or New York and equal in extent to Tennessee or Michigan. . "Resolved, That a glance at our geographical position sh0ws that the natural outlet of the middle and west is to the Gulf of Mexic'o, while the east has its natural outlet to the Atlantic coast. Thus, from the begin ning, nature designed the separation-that subsequently the conflicting and diversified interests of the Floridas demanded and obtained-and, seeking divisiori, we only seek to establish that right of separation that had its foundation in the jus tice and policy of the Spanish and English governments, under which the Floridas were formed . into two separate provinces, each having its own g o vernor ; and they were so ceded by Spain to the United State s." An act passed by the council on February 2, 1838, had called a con vention to meet at St. Joseph-then, one of the leading towns of Florida, but now wiped from the map; therefore, do not confound the town of

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118 HISTORY OF FLORIDA 1838 with the hamlet west of Dade City.5 Its stated object was "to adopt a bill of rights and constitution and all needful measures prepara tory to the admission of Florida into the National confederacy." On December 3, 1838, the first constitutional convention of Florida assembled at St. Joseph, and Judge Robert Raymond Reid was elected its presiding officer over former Governor Duval by one vote. Fiftyfive delegates were present and they represented nineteen counties. As they included most of the prominent men in the territory at the time, their names are published herewith, as well as the counties which they represented : Alachua : Isaac Garrason, E. K. White, Edmund Bird. Calhoun: William P. Duval, Richard C. Allen. Columbia: John F. Webb, Wilson Brooks, George C. McClellan. Dade : Richard Fitzpatrick. Duval: Alexander W. Crichton, Oliver Woods, Samuel Y. Gary. Escambia: Jackson Morton, Benjamin L. Wright, Thomas M. Blount, Walker Anderson. Franklin: A. G. Semmes, C. E. Bartlett. Gadsden : Banks Meacham, John W. Malone, John M. G. Hunter, Samuel B. Stephens. Hamilton: Joseph B. Watts, William B. Hooker. Jackson: Thomas Baltzell, Samuel C. Bellamy, Alfred L. Woodward, Richard H. Long. Jefferson: Abraham Bellamy, John M. Partridge, Joseph McCants, E. Carrington Cabell. , • Leon: George T. Ward, John Taylor, Thomas Brown, Samuel Parkhill, James D. Westcott, Jr., Leigh Read, Leslie A. Thompson, William Wyatt. Madison: John C. McGehee, Richard I. Mays. Monroe: William Marvin, Joseph B. Browne . Mosquito: William H. Williams. Nassau: James G. Cooper, William Haddock. St. Johns: Jose S. Sanchez, Robert Raymond Reid, David Levy, Edward T. Jenckes. Walton: John L. McKinnon, Daniel G. McLean. Washington: Stephen J. Roche, E. Robbins. The constitution restricted incorporations and prohibited the issue of what had become known as "faith bonds"-bonds based upon little more than faith that they would be paid. So severe had been the lesson taught by the panic of 1837 and the hard times of that period that any bank officer was prohibited from holding any position in the state government until he had severed all connection with the institution for a year. Duel ing, or challenging to a duel, was a disqualification for office, and ministers of the Gospel were debarred from the Legislature and the governor's chair. Internal improvements were to be encouraged and the capital was fixed at Tallahassee for only five years. The constitution was submitted to the people at the congressional election of May, 1839, and was adopted by a small majority. Mr. Downing was reelected to Congress in opposition to Thomas Baltzell, who was a locofoco, or a radical opponent of the banks. The state constitution did not become operative until it was approved by Congress and Florida was admitted into the Union, on the 3d of March, 1845. During that period of six years the presidents of the had been as follows: John Warren, 1839; John Warren,' George S. Hawkins, 1840; William P. Duval, 1841 ; W. H. Brockenbourgh, 1842; George Walker, 1843-44; George W. Macrae, 1845. The speakers of the House had been E. L . Drake, R. H. Long, Peter W. Gautier, N. W. Walker, Joseph B. Lancaster (two sessions), and W. T. Forward. s Port St. Joe is a little seaport on St. Joseph's Bay, near the site of the old town of St. Joseph.

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 119 A BETTER STATE HOUSE DEMANDED In the year of calling the convention ( 1838), Congress had created a territorial Senate and House, which was carried over into the state government. The fact that Florida was getting ambitious politically was reflected in more public ways than one; but one illustration of her desire to expand was found in various appeals to Congress to improve the little capitol at Tallahassee. One of the prominent citizens of the territory addressed a letter to the national House, in January, 1839, asking for an appropriation of at least $50,000 for a new State House; rather an appaling sum for those days. The gentleman probably believed in the policy of asking much more than one expects in the hope of getting a reasonable amount. These were the grounds of his request: "The accommodations for the Legislative Council of Florida are totaUy;nade quate to the purpose. The building has but one room for the council, not large enough for one branch of that body. Until the recent addition of a Senate it was scarcely large enough for the twenty-six members who composed the single branch. Since a Senate has been added to that body it is physically impossible to make our present State House available. It is a small two-story , building of brick-I should suppose about 24 feet by 30. The first floor is divided into two rooms-the one occupied by the governor and the secretary of the territory, the other by the auditor and treasurer; upstairs, the council chamber. * * * In 1824 an act was passed granting us one entire quarter section of land for the seat of government; this is the location. In 1829 (act of March 2d) they gave us four quarter sections, or 640 acres to erect public buildings in Tallahassee." Although Florida did not get a new State House at that time, various amounts were expended, at intervals, until by 1841 about $40,000 had been expended on the old building, and only two-thirds of it was com pleted. In 1841, $12,000 was expended. The amount required for its completion was estimated at $26,542. The committee on territories (House of Representatives) in May, 1842, added: "The very high prices of labor and material in the territory for several years past, and the failure to realize as much as was anticipated from the sale of lots in consequence of the increased pecuniary embarrassments of the territory, are ascribed as the reason of the present deficiency. The committee has concluded to recommend the same allowance to Florida for public build ings which was made to Wiskonsan and Iowa, and accordingly report a bill appropriating the sum of $20,000 which, with the sum previously granted, will make the same amount appropriated, in 1836 and 1838, for the same purpose in Wiskonsan Territory and in 1839 for Iowa Territory." Previously, Thomas Baltzell, commissioner of the City of Talla hassee, had written to Governor Call, in regard to an appropriation, concluding his letter: "Allow me to call the attention of Your Excellency to the fact that grants of land have been made in the other territories to an amount greater than in Florida. Illinois received four entire sec tions from the Government, Indiana the same, Missouri the same, Mich igan five, Arkansas fifteen, and one thousand acres of land for a court house at the seat of government. These were all for the erection of public buildings. Florida has received but one section and three quarters, one of the quarters originally designed for her having been taken for General LaFayette." GOVERNORS REID AND CALL Robert R. Reid, who had been president of the constitutional conven tion, succeeded Governor Call as chief executive of the territory. The .latter had incurred the displeasure of President Van Buren because of repeated strictures he had made on the conduct of the Seminole war from Washington, and had been removed from office. Governor Reid held the

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120 HISTORY OF FLORIDA office for a year , when he died at his home near Tallahassee, on July 1. 1841. General Call again assumed the governorship by appointment of President John Tyler. ADMISSION OF FLORIDA TO STATEHOOD In 1844, John Branch was appointed governor of Florida by President Tyler: He had been one of the most distinguished men in North Caro lina, having been a member .of its Senate, governor of the state, United States senator, congressman and secretary of the navy in Jackson's cabinet. He assumed office at a time when the territory contained two marked factions, divided between the admission of Florida as one com monwealth o r as two states. Eastern Florida g-enerally, as represented by conventions held in 1844 at Palatka and Fort King, favored a division, and the Legislative Council as a body supported that section of the terri tory as a measure of preserving "a just balance of power between the slave-holding and the non-slave-holding states." The admission of Florida was also opposed by the Territorial Council on the ground that the St. Joseph constitution was not acceptable to a large portion of the people, and their congressional delegate ' , David Levy , of St. Augustine, was asked to act accordingly. But Mr. Levy, who had succeeded himself in the Twenty-eighth Congress, and was ably servirtg in that body, had strong opinions of his own. The proposed constitution provided that a liberal system of internal improvements should be encouraged by the state government, and "it shall be the duty of the General Assembly as soon as practicable, to ascertain by law proper objects of improvement in relation to roads, canals, navigable streams, and to provide for a suitable application of such funds as may be appropriated for such improvements." By an act of Congress passed in 1844, 500,000 acres of land were to be made available for internal improvements in Florida when it should be admitted into the Union. From that fact, Delegate Levy took his cue and issued a pamphlet in favor of the admission of Florida as a united state. He argued that the half a million acres of internal improvement lands would build a railroad from ocean to gulf and the profits would support the state government; and that the sixteenth sections of school lands would yield an educational fund of $z ,500,ooo. Congressman Levy's arguments were sustained by elaborate statistics and had a strong effect in ulti mately securing a decisive majority for statehood. The fact , also, that Iowa was applying for admission to the Union. tended to change the attitude of the Legislative Council in favor of division, the discussions of which might delay definite action toward statehood. Even the clause in the Florida bill as reported in Congress providing for future division was stricken out, and Iowa and Florida were simultaneously admitted into the Union by the National House of Representatives. On the closing day of President Tyler's administration, by 'the signature of the chief executive of the United States, Florida became a state March 3, 1845. FIRST GOVERNMENT UNDER STATE CONSTITUTION Governor Branch then fixed the 26th of May, 1845, as the date for the popular election of the state officers. For governor of the new state the democrats placed in nomination William D. Moseley, of Monticello , Jefferson County, one of the wealthy and able planters of Central Florida. He was also a native of North Carolina, which furnished so many able leaders to the territory and the state, and _had become prominent in that commonwealth before he came to Florida in 1839. He was a lawyer by profession and was an earnest advocate of higher and common schools. The democrats were successful , as a whole , the whigs carrying West Florida by small majorities. Moseley received 3,115 votes against 2 , 6o2 cast for General Call, the whig candidate for governor.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 121 Under the constitution of I838-39, which was now in force, the governor was elected by popular vote for a term of four years. The • only .other officials chosen directly by the people were members of the General Assembly and county officers. The Legislature elected the executive department officers other than the governor and also the two United States senators. Under these provisions, the first Legislature of the State of Florida, which convened on June 22, I845, elected James T. Archer, secretary of state; Joseph Branch, attorney general; N. P. Bemis, comptroller of public accounts, and Benjamin Byrd, treasurer. A few days after the General Assembly convened David Levy of St. Augustine , and James D. Westcott, Jr., of Tallahassee, democrats, each received forty-one votes for United States senators, and Gen. Joseph M. Hernandez, of St. Augustine, and Col. Jackson Morton, of Pensacola, whigs, sixteen votes. The election was strictly along party lines. Under the constitution, the four circuit judges of the state constituted • Gov. WILLIAM D. MosELEY, I845-49 a Supreme Court, which was to sit annually. Each county was also provided with a probate judge and justices of the peace. The first circuit judges elected by the Legislature we ' re George S. Hawkins, western circuit; Thomas Baltzell, middle; Isaac H. Bronson, eastern; William Marvin, southern. At the inauguration of Governor Moseley, the ceremonies of which were performed in the completed capitol, a state flag was displayed con sisting of horizontal stripes of blue, orange, red, white and green bearing the motto, "Let Us Alone." The motto was significant, in view of the long period of discussion over the aggressions of the Federal Government and the North, and the warnings of Florida nullifiers who were following Calhoun rather than Jackson. The strong States Rights element had also introduced into the council's call for a constitutional convention the phrase "the admission of Florida into the National Confederacy." The state flag placed an added emphasis on the "Let-Us-Alone" attitude of Florida. The new state asked to be allowed to work out her own salvation. In order to provide for a state military force, the constitution limited the right of franchise to white males twenty-one years of age who were

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122 HISTORY OF FLORIDA enrolled m the militia . Its system of taxation tended to develop the agricultural interests of Florida and place heavy burdens upon the free persons of color as compared with the slave. For instance, the poll tax levied upon the black freeman was $3; upon the slave, the i>ame as upon the white male, 50 cents. Bank and industrial properties , stock in trade and professional incomes bore a tax of 20 cents on the $100, while land was taxed ;Vs of a cent to 1 cent per acre. The plan was to get away as far as possible from the northern life of the tradesman and the manu facturer and encourage the characteristic interests of the South. Among the early acts of the first state Legislature was the creation of the office of register of public lands, whose influence was great from the first. The position was first filled by John Beard, who held the office from 1846. to and during_ that period there was an unusual influx of settlers. ' DEATH OF ANDREW J ACKSON OBSERVED On June 23, 1845, the second day of the first session of the General Assembly of the state, the death of Andrew Jackson was announced, and badges of mourning were worn by the legislators for sixty days. Thpus a nds who were not entitled to wear them officially deeply grieved for their fiery and positive hero of the olden days. Governor Moseley continued in office until October, 1849, and made a creditable chief executive. As Florida was mainly quiet during his administration, only two companies being raised in it for the Mexican war, the governor, a college man and a classmate of James K. Polk (who was president during his gubernatorial term), devoted much of his time to the encouragement of immigration and the establishment of a system of education for the infant state. With the admission .of Florida to statehood, Congress had passed a supplementary act granting two townships of public lands for the establishment of eastern and western seminaries of learning and five pe r cent of the proceeds of the sale of Florida public lands by the United States for the encouragement of free education. Although the process of realizing any material "proceeds" was slow, Governor Moseley's administration, with the active cooperation of Register John Beard, at least made a fair beginning. w HIGS CARRY FLORIDA FOR THOMAS BROWN In 1848, Zachary Taylor, the hero of the Mexican war-and, what was more to the point with Floridians, the hero of Okeechobee-was elected president of the United States by the whigs. Personal admiration for "Old Rough and Ready," as well as the influence of a rousing party sweep, carried Florida for the whigs. Thomas Brown, of Tallahassee , a kindly , able Virginian, was elected governor. After hi s venture as a planter near Lake Jackson, northwest of Tallahassee, had pro v en unfortu nate, he established "Brown's Hotel" at the capital. As its genial land lord he became widely known and a public character of prominence before he was elected governor. Associated with him in the state government were: Charles W. Downing, secretary of state; Simon Towle, comp troller; William R. Hayward, treasurer; David P. Hogue , attorney general. ENCOURAGING PUBLIC WORKS AND SCHOOLS The Brown administration is mainly notable for its more liberal attitude toward legitimate corporations, its encouragement of internal improvements, its virtual establishment of the public educational system of the state, and its radical stand taken on the repeal of the fugitive slave law. In 1849, the General Assembly permitted "special and limited copartnerships and associations to construct railroads and canals , " and

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 123 later incorporated stock companies for the building of plank roads and railways. But all such organizations were at the mercy of the Legis lature, which fact was most discouraging to the investment of private capital in public improvements. • To remedy such defective legislation and generally encourage internal improvements in Florida, a Board of Internal Improvements was created in 1851, comprising the governor and other state officers and a repre sentative from each judicial district, viz., John Darling, James W. Bryant, Richard K. Call and Archibald T. Bennett. In the following year, after consultation with Maj. B. A. Putnam, the surveyor general, Governor Brown appointed Arthur M. Randolph and Henry Wells to locate the swamp lands of the state donated by Congress, under a general law, in 1850. In January, 1853, the Legislature elected Francis L. Dancy, state engineer and geologist, and the following Board of Internal Improve ments was selected: Richard H. Long and James M. Long, western district; J. C. McGehee and James T. Archer, middle district; John C. Pelot and Paul McCormick, eastern district; John Darling and J. M. Bracewell, southern district. While these preparations were being made to put into practical effect the plans of encouragement promulgated by the Federal Government to advance public improvements in Florida and the other states and the territories, the public school system of the state was in process of creation. It had been earnestly discussed both in the Legislature and in public meetings, the vital problem being how to a working fund from the sale of the Congressional school lands. In Florida, the problem was partially solved in 1850, during Governor Brown's term, by appoint ing David S. Walker (afterward governor) register of public lands and ex-officio state superintendent of schools. This able and patriotic man established a school at Tallahassee, sustained by taxation, one of the first in the South to be successful, and he was largely to be credited with the law approved January 1, 1853, to establish a system of free public schools, sustained by a pro rata distribution of the general school fund, aided by local taxation in each county. The judges of probate were to be county superintendents, and, with the county commissioners, form a County School Board. ! : I "Nothing can be of more vital importance in our free government," urged Superintendent Walker, "than the general education of the people, since upon their intelligence and virtue depends the very existence of our institutions." But the conditions were not favorable to the development of a flourishing system of common schools. The wealthy owners of land and slaves gave their children all the advantages of private tutors, and academies and colleges of the older states and of Europe. Free schools were looked upon, naturally, as charitable institutions for the benefit of the poor whites. DIVIDED AS TO SECESSION The discussion of the fugutive slave law in the Legislature of 1850 developed the general state .of public sentiment. As a slave state, Floricja was generally opposed to Federal interference with slavery, but was divided as to the constitutional right of secession. In the event of the repeal of the law, Governor Brown asked the Legislature for permission to call a convention of the Southern states for general action. Although Jhe "constitutional secessionists" were in the majority, no formal reso fotions were adopted, as the Legislature was politically divided-Senate, 9 whigs and IO democrats; House, 19 whigs and 21 democrats. DAVID LEVY: YULEE Midway in the Brown administration, one of the great men of Florida completed a definite period of his remarkable career, David Levy Yulee

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124 HISTORY OF FLORIDA being defeated for reelection to the United States Senate by Stephen R. Mallory, former judge of Monroe county, and collector of customs at Key West, but then a resident of Jacksonville. Senator Yulee had served two terms in Congress and one (six years) in the Senate.6 His grandfather was a Portuguese by was a high official in the court of th emperor of Morocco and at the death of his patron fled the country with his wife, an English Jewess, and their infant son. The husband had been given the Moorish name of Yulee; the maiden name of the wife, Levy. Upon reaching maturity the son b eca me a merchant and, through the influence of hi s mother, adopted her family name and became Moses Elias L evy. He settled in Porto Rico, made a fortune as a lumberman in St. Thomas, West Indies , and, under the Spanish rule , became the owner of large tracts of land in Central and East Florida. His son, David Levy , was born in St. Thomas, and after having received a partial university education and a smattering of the law , lived upon his father's plantation at Micanopy, Central Florida, and at times visited the aristo cratic old town of St. Augustine, the military and civic center of East Florida. Afterward he mastered the law, came into public notice for his ability and urbanity, and finally advanced into real prominence as a member of the constitutional convention and a delegate to Congress. In the House of Representatives , Congressman Levy was a stalwart champion of railroads for Florida. "As early as 1834," he once said, "I thought the solution of the proper route of transit was reached by the discovery of the harbor of Cedar Keys. * * * As the heat of the Indian war began to subside, numerou s projects of railroads were started. Various were the routes placed in rivalry before the public. Jacksonville. Garey's Ferry, Picolata, Palatka, all o n the St. Johns Ri ve r , contested for the terminus, and Fort White, on the Santa Fe, Fanning on the Suwannee and St. Marks, were the rival gulf ports. No one seemed to think of the occasion for better water ports on the Atlantic. . One of my first act s , after taking my seat in Congress, was to obtain an appropriation for a survey of a railroad across Florida." . During his first canvass for Congress, Mr. Levy proved his ability as a politician and popular speaker. As his son says in his biography: "In thi s successful canvass he had to cover a vast extent, and address himself to a constituency which varied from the c ultured society of St. Augustine and Tallahassee , to gatherings of cow-boys and woodsmen, so primitive that once, at a barbecue, he won the entire vote of a solid whig precinct by a lucky bull's-eye shot." . "Unknown himself, a delegate from a newly-formed, remote and sparsely settled territory, he appeared in the House of Representative s at a time when it contained, perhaps, more brilliant debaters than ever before in its history; and he might have remained long without being able to command attention but for a malignant attack by some personal enemies. These individuals petitioned the House to declare him ineligible on the ground that his father, having remained a British citizen , he himself remained one although residing for twenty years in Florida. "The committee on elections which consisted of six whigs to three republicans (democrats) were inclined to report adversely upon him, and, from his constitutional want of punctuality he had not been in hi s place when the day for discussing his eligibility was fixed, and was not fully prepared. But in moving a postponement of the case he showed that by the treaty with Spain all inhabitants of Florida, at the time of the transfer. were entitled to United States citizenship; that his father had claimed to be a citizen, and the cla im had been allowed, both by the attorney-general of the United States, and by the United States District Court; and while admitting that Congress had legal right to repudiate the action of the executive and judicial departments, he asked if they had a moral right to do so. Deprecating the bringing of political feeling into 0 Biography of David L. Yulee by his son, C. Wickliffe Yulee.

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DAvrn L. YuLEE U. S. Senator from Florida 1845-51, 1855-61. Pioneer m railroad an . d other development work.

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126 HISTORY OF FLORIDA such matter he said if the whigs, who had a majority on the floor as well as in committee, sought a victim he stood ready; for, 'I am a republican.' "That speech settled the matter, not only of his right to a seat, but also to be heard, and although in the various debates in which he pres ently shared he was opposed by such men as Adams, Filmore, Giddings, Everett, Roosevelt, Cushing, etc., they showed plainly that this newcomer seemed to them worth answering. For a beginner, he showed also re markable knowledge of parliamentary law; indeed, the only occasions when he showed ignorance of it were when he wished to make some re marks which were out of order; and it was generally too late when his opponents awoke to the fact.'' Throughout his two congressional terms, or until Florida became a State in March, r845, David Levy was among the foremost delegates in the advocacy of Federal aid to railroads and other public works which promised to benefit the territory which he represented. As noted, the first Legislature of the State elected former Congressman Levy to the United States Senate, and he took his seat in the body on the 1st of December , 1845. In conformity with an act of the Legislature, the Senate ordered the surname Yulee to be added to David Levy, on January 12, 1846 , and ever afterward he became known in public and private life as David L. Yulee. He drew the long term as senator, which expired March 3, 185r. During this, his first term in the Senate, Mr. Yulee stood by Calhoun and , other statesmen of the South in opposing northern aggression into slave laoor and slave territory, at the same time never losing sight of Florida's practical demand upon his time and abilities . It is a matter of record that he was one of the leaders in the upper house of Congress which passed the Internal Improvement act and enabled Florida:fan'd . other states to create a fund for the construction of railroads and othe ' public works. Duri1ig the period covered by the expiration of Senator Yulee'.s first term in 18511 and the commencement of his second, in 1855, he devoted much of his time to his pet scheme of constructing a railroad diagonally across Florida from the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. In line with his ' efforts, on January 8, 1853 , was incorporated the Florida Rail road which was authorized to build from the Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf, through a country south of the Suwannee River. The act of 1853 was amended by the Legislature, on December 14, 1855, empowering the rail road to build from Amelia Island (Fernandina) to the waters of Tampa Bay. What became known as "Yulee's Road" was the infant of the Seaboard Air Line, or the Great Plant system, which, with the passage of forty years or so, and the best work of half a dozen railroad geniuses, n et ted large sec tions of Florida from the Atlantic to the Gulf. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS AGAIN PUSHED The democrats carried Florida in 1852, and James E. Broome was elected governor, by a majority of less than three hundred over the whig candidate, Major George T. Ward. During the Broome adminis tration F. L. Villepigue served as secretary of state; Theodore W. Bre vard, as comptroller; Charles H. Austin, treasurer, and Mariano D. Papy, attorney-general. Governor Broome went into office in October, 1853, and the first session of the Legislature convened in November, 1854. Under the Constitutional amendment, that body now met biennially, and it responded promptly to the recommendations of David L. Yulee, James T. Archer, Richard H. Long, A. S. Baldwin and John C. Pelot to apply the actual and potential proceeds derived , and to be realized , within reason , from the sale of lands donated by Congress at various times . The swamp lands pi:omised especially to swell the internal improvement fund . The governor, comptroller of public accounts, state treasurer, attorney--g-eneral and register of public lands were made trustees of the fund. To aid in the construction of works which under-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 127 took to build authority was given to issue bonds-the interest on which was guaranteed by the internal improvement fund-to the extent of $ro,ooo per mile. The state was also to donate the right-of-way, as well as alternate sections of swamp lands within six miles of it. The enter prises especially designated as beneficiaries under the act of January 6, 1855, which offered all these inducements to the progress of internal im provements in Florida were railroads from Jacksonville to Pensacola Bay and from Amelia Island to Tampa Bay, with minor branches, and a canal connecting St. Johns and Indian rivers. Under the impetus of the measure, a railroad system commenced to evolve. The Tallahassee & St. Marks road was reconstructed; the Florida, Atlantic & Gulf Central Company located its line from Jacksonville to Ali gator (Lake City) ; the Pensacola & Georgia railroad was surveyed from the latter point to Talla hassee, and the Florida railroad was under contract from Fernandina to . the Gulf by the fall of 1855 . The last named was under the presidency of David L. Yulee. Indirectly, it was a realization of the value of the so-called swamp lands of Florida to the scheme of intemal improvements which brought about the Indian troubles of 1856 -57. Some lives were lost, as Billy Bowlegs and his Indians objected to having their gardens ruined by the railroad surveyors; and the State was put to considerable expense in raising and supporting troops. Most of the offending Indians went West, and the Billy Bowlegs war was the last waged against the Florida Indians to force them out of the State. FIRST BANK OF THE STATE During Governor Broome's administration, in December, 1855, the Bank of the State of Florida was chartered, with headquarters at Talla hassee. Heretofore the people of the State had been obliged to depend upon the banks of other states for their financial accommodations. The expansive times of the late '30s, followed by the panic and long season of depression, were still ghastly memories; but the late revival of pros perity and hope induced a spirit of independence and the first bank under the State government was the result. Some of the stockholders in the old Union Bank were interested in the new institution created under State auspices. MADISON S. PERRY GOVERNOR Madison S. Perry was elected governor by the democrats in the fall of 1856, his majority being less than four hundred over David S. Walker, the nominee of the new American party and a very popular man. The executive-elect was a South Carolinan and a prominent planter of Ala chua County, as well as a leader in both houses of the Legislature. He made no change in the State offices, except that Hugh A. Corley suc ceeded David S. Walker as register of the land office and superintendent of public instruction. GEORGIA-FLORIDA BOUNDARY DISPUTE The Perry administration was noteworthy not only for the determina tion of several long-pending issues of State concern, but the final action of Florida in seceding from the Union and joining the Confederacy. After Florida and Georgia had been arguing and disagreeing since 1818 over their common boundary line , the latter, in 1859, consented to accept Ellicott's mound, at Okefenokee swamp into which drained the head waters of the St. Mary's River, as the locality from which the boundary line should be run west to the Chattahoochee River. In the winter of r859-6o Benjamin F. Whitner. for Florida, and Gustavus A. Orr, for Georgia, surveyed the line which was accepted by Florida in February,

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128 HISTORY OF FLORIDA 1861, and by Georgia in 1866 . The so-called Whitner-Orr boundary has remained undisputed. IRREPRESSIBLE CONFLI T APPROACHES The proposition, periodically revived, to attach West Florida to Ala bama, would have been submitted to popular vote in 1859, had not the grim struggle between the North and the South absorbed all local and State issues. Florida's part in the secession movement and the outbreak of the Civil war also buried other issues, which , in normal times would have been deemed of grave import. By the close of Governor Perry's administration, railroads were in operation from Jacksonville to Tallahassee, and from Fernandina to Cedar Keys . Senator Yulee's road had realized its initial triumph. The formal suspension of specie payments by the Florida banks at Fernandina, Jacks o nville , and Tallahassee, pro Gov. MADISON S. PERRY, 1857-61 posed in 1859-6o, was made unnecessary by the paralyzing and de vastating effects of the war, which not only closed the banks, but obliter ated whatever evidences of railroad building were in the state. Governor Perry's message of 1859 recognized the "irrepressible con flict," and the election of 186o made more evident the division between the North and the South. In Florida the cleavage between the voters was mainly determined by the support accorded John C. Breckinridge, candidate of the southern democrats, and John Bell, who represented the old southern whigs on the platform of Constitutional Union. Soon after the election of Lincoln, the Legislature met and Governor Perry said, in his message to the Legislature: "The crisis long expected by . men of observation and reflection, has at length come . A series of aggressions and insults commencing forty years ago by the northern states against the southern, and increasing in audacity as time rolled on and the South forebore, has been pushed to a point at which further forbearance of the South would justify the allegation that we are afraid to resist. The election of Lincoln and Hamlin * * * ought to extinguish any desire of the southern people to prolong their connection with those who show such utter disregard of covenanted rights

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 129 and plighted faith." The proposed in-evocable stand which Governor Perry urged upon Florida, through its Legislature , was firmly supported by enator Yulee in Washington, who wrote as follows: "Upon learning at any time between this and the 4th of March next of the determination of Florida to dissolve her union with the northern states, I shall promptly and joyously return home to support the banner of the State to which my allegiance is owing and in which my family altar is established." Before the act of secession had been formally passed, there were not a few of the old Florida leaders, who had been generally affiliated with the whig party and were now Unionists and who, at this period , were bitterly opposed to secession. Among the foremost was General and former-Governor Call, who declared that the secessionists "had opened the gates of hell." When the war began, he withdrew from all participa tion in public affairs, and died a broken, embittered man, on the 14th of Sept e mber, 1862. But the sentiment for secession rapidly gathered such force that on November 28, r86o, the lower house of the Legislature called a conven tion, with but one dissenting voice, to consider the question, and when it met on January 3, 1861, it was evident that the secessionists were in the saddle. An account of the convention by which Florida so closely followed South Carolina as the second of the States to secede from the nion, marks such a clear-cut division in her hi tory a to warrant the beginninrr of a distinct section in this work. Vol . 1 -!J

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CHAPTER VIII U IDER THE CONFEDERACY From the first, the disposition of Governor Perry as to the action of the State was never in doubt, and, in the rugged phraseology of the mechanic , he "spiked it down" in his message to the Legislature, from which extracts have already been quoted. "The only hope that the oufhern states have for domestic peace, or for future respect or pros perity, is dependent on t h eir action now, and that action is secession from faithless, perjured confederates. B u t some southern men object to secession until some overt act of constitutional power shall have been committed. If we wait for such an overt act, our fate will be that of the whites in San Domingo. I recommend that a convention of the people be called at an early date to take such acts as are necessary. I further recommend that the militia laws be revised and that $rno,CXlO b e appropriated as a military fund for the ens uin g year to be expended as the public necessity may require ." FORMER GovERNOR CALL's Pos1TION The leader of the s mall minority, . fighting against such sentiments and proposed action, was o ld Governor Richard Keith Call, so long a union and whig leader in Florida politics . About a month before the assembling of the con'Vention, he issued a pamphlet in which hi position was thus defined: "On Monday last, your Legislature met. Secession was the watchword and reply. and on Thursday, before the hour of twelve, was consmnmated an act amid rapt app l ause which may produce the most fatal consequences. This act provides for a . convention of the people to be chosen with the same rushing haste to assemble in your capital on January 3d next. And for what purpose? Secession of the State of Florida from the Union! I proclaim that when that deed shall be done it will be treason high treason against our constitutional gov ernment. Is the e l ect i on of a sectiona l president by a sectional party, consisting of less than one-third of the political strength of the nation, sufficient cause for justifying rebellion and revolution against your guvernment? Is it not a fact that the present disunion movement in Florida is not because of the e l ection of Mr. Lincoln, but from a long cherished hatred of the union by the leading politician s of the State? \i\Tait. then, I pray you, wait." THE SECESSION CONVE TION It is no place here to revive the discussions of the constitutionality. or expediency or moral right of sece sion . But the convention met, as called, on January 3, 1861, and committed that deed against which the former governor .of the territory warned it s delegates. There were sixty members of. that historic body. which, through public meetings and the press, was generally s upported in its sece sion sentiment. As all the delegates were not present. most of the absentees being from Vvestern Florida, an adjournment was effected until aturday, January 5th , when John C. McGehee. of Madison County. was e l ected president. After the e l ection of W. H. Harriso n, of Marion. as sec r etary, George W. Parkhill. a prominent planter of I eon, presented the first resolution pro-130



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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 131 posing that the convention vote immediately on secession, but submit such action to the people after awaiting the results of the Georgia and Alabama conventions . His resolution was immediately voted down. Then McQueen Mcintosh, late Federal judge of Franklin, offered a resolution expressing the sense of the convention that "existing causes compelled the State of Florida to proceed to exercise her prerogative of withdrawing from the Union of sovereign states known as the United States of America." General Jackson Morton, of Santa Rosa , propo ed to substitute for "proceed" the words "at a proper time without harmful delay," which was rejected by a vote of forty-five to twenty-four. The Mcintosh resolution was then ordered printed and an adjournment taken to Monday, January 7th. "At the Monday session," writes Benjamin Harrison, in his series of historical articles published in the "the convention was addressed by commissioners from Alabama, South Carolina, and Virginia. Governor Perry had recently returned from a visit to outh Carolina, and he now introduced the commissioners, S. C. Bullock, of Alabama, S. C. Spratt, of South Carolina , and Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia. Mr. Spratt read the secession ordinance of South Carolina and the address on the ' Relations of the Slave-Holding States.' South Carolina had seceded on December 20th. Major Anderson had withdrawn the Federal troops into Fort Sumter and the Star of the West was on the sea with supplies for the garrison. The speaker declared that South Carolina would open fire on her as soon as she came in range of the batteries. Mr. Bullock, of Alabama, spoke of the necessity of immediate action, that all the southern states might act together. Mr. Ruffin said little, be cause Virginia still spoke of the possibility of compromi e. Senator Yulee wrote that he and his . colleague had joined other southern senators in advising secession for their states; a telegram had been received from Senator Mallory on Sunday advising the convention of this action. Governor Perry had requested joint action from the governor of Ala bama in seizing Federal property within their respective states, and Senator Yulee had conferred with Toombs, of Georgia , to the same end." At this Monday session (January 7th), John P. Sanderson, A. K. llison, McQueen Mcintosh. James Getti , A aF. Tift. Jame B. Owen , J. B. Dawkins. A. J. T. Wright, Jackson Morton, George T. Ward. ]. Patton Anderson, Daniel Ladd and Simmons J. Baker, were appointed as a Committee on Ordinances. Two days later they reported Florida's Ordinance of Secession. It was referred to the Committee on Judiciary, whose chairman, W. G. M. Davi , promptly reported it to the convention, and, in spite of attempted de l ays by the de l egates who opposed precipitate action, the ordinance was rushed through on the 10th of January. The vote was 62 to 7. The negative votes represented delegates from non cotton planting counties. Says Judge Harri on, in one of the graphic articles al ready noted: "With every member present and the galleries crowded, the convention opened on Thursday, January IO, 1861. The Star of the West had been fired upon the clay before, and Governor Perry submitted to the con vention a telegram from Florida's senators in Was11ington saying: 'Federal troops are said to be moving, or about to move on Pensacola forts . Every hour i important.' For two hour committees reported and desultory debate continued. It was almost noon when the secretary rose to read the ordinance of . ecession, and the audience bent to catch every word of the momentous document." Like the South Carolina ordinance. adopted on the 20th of the pre ceding December, that of Florida was a model of dignity and precision. Tt read: "We. the people of the tate of Florida, in convention assembled. do solemnly ordain , publi h and declare, that the tate of Florida hereby withdraws herself from the Confederacy of States existing under the name of the nited State of America. a11d from the existing government of the said states; and that all political connection between her and the

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132 HISTORY OF FLORIDA government of said states ought to be and the same is hereby annulled, and said union of states dissolved; and the State of Flo1;da is hereby declared a sovereign and independent nation; and that all ordinances heretofore adopted , insofar as they create or recognize said union, are rescinded; and all laws or parts of laws in force in that State, so far as they recognize or assent to said union, be and the same are hereby re pealed." Florida's only predecessor in thus seceding from the Union was South Carolina. Alabama and Mississippi adopted ordinances of secession simultaneously with Florida. OTHER PRELIMINARY WAR MOVES On the 21st of January, Senators Mallory and Y ulee, having just received the news of the Florida convention, resigned their seats in the upper house. George S. Hawkins, of Pensacola, at the same time re signed his seat in the House of Representatives. They were the first southern congressmen to take that action, although their seats were not STEPHEN R. MALLORY declared vacant until March 14, 1861, nearly two months after their resignations had been submitted. The Legislature had authorized Governor Perry to apply all avail able funds to such purposes as the emergency called for, the amount named for the purchase of arms and munitions of war being $100,000. An act was also passed for the reorganization of the militia. Before its adjournment, the secession convention authorized four counselors of State to assist the chief executive, and Governor Perry appointed J. C. McGehee, Jackson Morton, Major John Beard ahd Colonel Joseph Finegan. Delegates chosen to the Montgomery convention, called for th"' formation of a general southern Confederacy, were General Morton, Col. J. Patton Anderson and Col. James B. Owens. Their official title was "delegates to the Provisional Congress." Colonel Anderson resigned to accept a place in the Confederate army. and on May 2, 1861, George T . vVard was named to fill the vacancy. In line with the general policy followed by the seceding states, and at the special suggestion of Senator Yulee made several days before the adoption of the ordinance, and under the orders of Governor Perry. Florida at once proceedea to seize the military points within her domain. In fact, the urgency of such bold action was so apparent that the United States arsenal at Chattahoochee, and Fort Marion, at St. Augustine, were seized by Florida troops before the ordinance of secession was passed.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 133 It was generally conceded that the center of first importance to be occu pied by the State authorities was Pensacol a Bay-th e Navy Yard; Fort Barrancas, with forty-four cannon and a battery of field artillery; Fort McRee, with 125 cannon, and Fort Pickens, with 201 cannon. Some 120 miles southwest of Cape Sable, the southernmost point of the peninsula of Florida, were the Dry Tortugas, strategically guarding the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico. Through the foresight and ambition of Jefferson Davis, both as secretary of war and United States senator, on Garden Key, one of the group, Fort Jefferson was already under way. The works were to cover nearly fourteen acres and mount 300 guns and were designed as the fortress which should command the Gulf of Mexico. But Fort Jefferson was only in embryo. Between the Dry Tortugas and Cape Sable was Key West, then an island, upon which were Fort Taylor and the barracks. On the Atlantic coast, besides Fort Marion at St. Augustine, was only the uncompleted Fort Clinch, on Amelia Island, fronting Fernandina. There were certainly no fortifications on the Florida coasts of great importance to an enemy except those along the coasts of Pensacola Bay. The most important military operations in Florida, therefore, in which the State participated during the Civil war were those connected with the occupancy of that district by the Federal forces. Fort Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, became headquarters for the United States troops in Florida, both naval and land forces, and thus continued. The operations centering in Fort McRee, Fort Pickens, the Navy Yard and Fort Barrancas, up to the time of the abandonment and burning of the Pensacola defenses by the Confederates, in May, 1862, are fully described in the section de voted to that city and section. In June, l86I, the port of Key West was blockaded by United States vessels, and the commencement of 1862, as the bulk of Florida troops were ordered to Tennessee, all the coast fortifications were thrown open to Federal occupancy. In March, of that year, Fort Marion and St. Augustine, as well as Jacksonville, were surrendered. About that time, there was considerab l e blockade running by the Confederates in the vicinity of Mosquito Inlet, Indian River and the East Florida coast. Two Federal gunboat commanders and a number of their men were killed while the Union men were making investigations along the Inlet. . The main course of military events from the summer of 1862 until February, 1864, or the engagement known as the battle of Olustee, is marked by the Federal raids into West Florida, from Pensacola, com mencing with the attack on Milton. Santa Rosa County; the stationing of negro troops by the Federals at Jacksonville (see history of that city), and, upon the organization of General Finegan's Confederates, the evacuation of the city and the burning of a large portion of it; in March, 1863, the destruction of the Confederate salt works, private industrial plants and two hundred houses, at a loss of $3,000,000, in the same year. BATTLE OF OLUSTEE In 1864. the Federal Government made a general effort to regain possession of Florida and organize a civil government, under President Lincoln's proclamation of amnesty. Accordingl y, a naval expedition embracing a force of about 7,000 men, under command of Gen. Truman Seymour, arrived at Jacksonville, on February 7, 1864, with the idea of first occupying that city and then marching westward for Tallahassee. On the Confederate side were about 4,6oo infantry, 6oo cavalry and twelve guns, in command of Gen. Joseph Finegan, with little experience in the field, but a man of action and good judgment. Under him was a force of 2,000 Floridians, with a reenforcement of troops from Charles ton, commanded by Brig.-Gen. A. H. Colquitt and Col. G. Harrison. The Confederates were intrenched at Olustee, near Lake City. The following account of the battle is taken from Fleming's "Mem-

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134 HISTORY OF FLORIDA oirs of Florida": "On the 20th, General Seymour moved out from hi s position at the St. Mary's with the intention , he afterward reported, of meeting the enemy at or near Lake City, and of then pushing his cavalry on to destroy the railroad bridge over the Suwannee River. With something over 5,000 men, Hawley, Barton and Scammon leading the three columns, Henry in advance with the cavalry and Montgomery' negro regiment bringing up the rear, the Federal army marched on without resistance until, in the afternoon, about ix miles west of Sanderson; Henry's cavalry encountered the Georgia and Florida troopers, under command of Col. Caraway Smi ' th, three or four miles ea s t of the Con federate intrenchments. "Seymour at once hurried up his main body and Smith, sending a courier to Finegan with news of the enemy' approach, fell back skirmish ing toward the intrenched line. A Georgia regiment had already been sent to support the cavalry, and fearing, as he said, that the Federals could not be enticed to attack the works, Finegan next hastened toward the greater part of Colquitt's brigade and a section of Gamble's battery. Co l quitt selected the battl efield where he met the enemy, near the cro s ing of the Jacksonville wagon road and the railroad, two miles east of Olustee station. 'Perceiving,' said General in his report, 'that in this movement the force under General Colquitt's command might be come too heavily engaged to withdraw without a large supporting force, and intending that if the enemy should prove to be in not too great strength to engage them, I ordered in quick succession, within the space of an hour, the whole command to advance to the front, and myself went upon the field.' Thus the intrenchment had no part in the battle , and without any plan or attempt at strategy the opposing forces met in the pine woods as they were hurried up on either side to plunge into the fight. "Colquitt, the first of the Confederate commanders on the field, formed his line of battle under fire of the Federal advance guard. Gamble's guns, coming up with galloping horses , were soon in action, and Colquitt began pushing forward. But the Federal infantry was arriving in double quick time and deploying in a strong line. and the four Federal batteries, hastening into position began hurling canister at short range and drowning the roar of the Florida guns. In this emergency, General Harrison brought two regiments into line with Colquitt, and Wheaton's Chatham artillery relieved a section of Gamble's battery which had been disabled by the Federal fire . Thus strengthened, Colquitt advanced again, with the Sixth Florida Battalion on the right flank, and drove the Federals back. capturing five pieces of artillery. Then there was a pause, the animunition being exhausted, and in the wait Hopkins .and Bonaud and Zachary's Georgia regiment reinforced the Confederate line, which stood firm under a heavy fire. With cartridge boxes filled again, the troops in gray pushed forward the third time about dusk of the evening, and while Harrison tutned the Federal flank Colquitt charged in front, an irresist ible attack before which the Federal line melted away. The victorious Confederates pursued, dispersing the successive lines of defense formed by Seymour's men , until night put an end to the conflict. The first halt of the Federal troops was made at Sanderson, seven miles away. Thence for ten miles, during the night, they hurried on to the St. Mary's River, 'the wounded filling the night air with lamentations, the crippled horses neighing in pain, and a full moon kissing the cold, clammy lips of the dying.' briefly told, is the story of the battle of Olustee, the mo s t san guinary ever waged on Florida soil. The opposing forces were nearly equal in numbers , but the Floridians and Georgians were fighting in de fense of their homes , and the Federals were embarrassed, rather than aided, by a large body of colored troops. General Finegan showed him self a fearless commander in his first battle , and those veteran officers,

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HISTOR 'i OF FLORIDA 135 Colquitt and Harrison, gained new laurels in the successful combat car ried on under their immediate orders." The total Confederate loss was seven officers and eighty-six men killed, forty-nine officers and 798 wounded, and six missing; total loss, 946. Colonel Hopkins, First Florida Battalion, was among the killed. The Federal loss was reported as eleven officers and 192 men killed; forty-two officers and 1,1 IO wounded, and 5o6 missing; total 1,861. Ac cording to General Finegan's account, the Confederates captured 200 of the enemy, as we.11 as five cannon, 1 ,6oo stand of arms and 130,000 rounds of cartridges. . It is said that the battle of Olustee "was assuredly one of the bloodiest of the war, in proportion to the numbers engaged, and an incontest . able victory." General Finegan and his command were at once congratulated by General Beauregard, and in May were voted thanks by the Confederate States Congress. It involved four and a half hours of furious fighting, and the Federal army retreated to Jacksonville, after destroying $6o,ooo worth of stores collected at Baldwin, enroute. In the spring of 1864, Florida was nearly drained of both Federal and Confederate troops, those that remained engaging in a series of lively raids, mostly from the Gulf coasts. The Federals raided the interior from Cedar Key and Pensacola, as far east as Marianna, and in August, the Confederates, under Capt. J. J. Dickinson , overtook a band of Federal raiders at Gainesville, and, after an engagement of two hours, killed twenty-eight, wounded five and took 188 prisoners. DEFE rsE OF MARIAN N A A fierce engagement occurred at Marianna, the headquarters of Col onel Montgomery's Confederate cavalry (three companies), on September 27, 1864. It was on the direct route to Pensacola, from the west , then held by the Federals, and Tallahassee, from the east. Marianna's nearest . railway station at that time was Quincy, about fifty miles ea s t and twenty-four miles from Tallahassee. It was the key to the possession of Northwest Florida. Consequently a battalion of Union cavalry and several companies of infantry, including two of colored troops from Louisiana, in command of General Asboth, the raider from Pensacola. moved agaist the place on the date mentioned. Colonel Montgomery's force had received an accession in the shape of an inexperienced collec tion of men and boys, but bravely met the Federal advance at a barri caded cross-roads in the center of the town. The engagement raged for half an hour around a church and boarding house at that point , until the buildings were burned and the Confederates qutflanked with the over whelming force of Federals. Colonel Montgomery and IOO other prison ers were taken by Asboth's command, and sent to northern military prisons. Marianna, however, was not occupied. by the Federal forces. The latter had twelve killed. including one captain, and twenty-five wounded. General Asboth was among the Federal wounded. The Con federates lo t sixty killed and wounded. On the day following the en gagement, a battalion of Confederates under G. W. Scott occupied Mari anna. LAST FLORIDA BATTLE, AT N A T URAL BRIDGE In February, 1865, small Confederate forces made attacks upon vari ous raiding parties , which had been sent out from Federal stations along the west coast, and made especial headway against the colored troops still held in western and southern Florida. About the middle of the month a lively demonstration was made against Fort Myers, held by colored soldiers. It therefore occurred to Gen. John Newton. in com-

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136 HISTORY OF FLORIDA mand at Key West, that while remnants of the Confederate forces were e mployed in various portions of the State, he might steal a march o n Tallahassee. His naval force included nine steamers and three schooners and severa l hundred seamen. It arrived off St. Marks, Apalachee Bay, February 28th, and on March 4th General Newton landed at the light house with 900 co lor ed troops. It was his purpose to capture St. Marks as the first step in his advance from the coast, but while attempting to cross the river at atural Bridge, the Federal column was intercepted by a miscellaneous force of Confederate troops under Col. J. J. Daniel. It arrived early in the morning of March 6th. Later, the Confederates received some reenforcements. The fighting continued intermittently thro ughou t day, and finally the Federals were obliged to retire to their transports. On the Confederate side three were killed, including Capt. H. H. Simmons, of the Second Cavalry, and twenty-two wounded, Colonel Daniel seriou ly; while the Federal loss was twenty-one killed and eighty-nine wounded-of the latter being three officers. Two Con federate deserters, who had acted as guides for the enemy, were capGov. JOHN M1LTOr , 1861-65 tured, tried by a drum-head court martial, sentenced to death and shot the next morning at Newport. The engagem ent at Natural Bridge was the last battle of the war fo ught on Florida soil. Soon afterward Pensacola was evacuated by the Federal troops, _ who were transferred to Mobile to participate in the siege. Nothing remained to be done, in order to formally proclaim the ces ation of hostilitie , except the occupation of the State capital by the J
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 137 who had served the Confederacy in the battlefields of Virginia, the Carolinas and the Southwest. FLORIDA UNDER MILITARY RuLE • ven after the war was over, it was difficult for the old time planters to comprehend the changed status of the slaves, and not a few of their former owners requested General McCook, the military commander, to order the blacks back to work. The general therefore issued a proclama tion , on the 19th of May, 1865, stating "for the information of those who eem to be ignorant of the fact, that the President of the United States, on the first day of January, 1863, issued a proclamation changing the status of persons held as slaves." On the following day the United State flaa was raised over the capitol at Tallahassee, and received the cu tomary salute, and on May 29th the military authorities took formal po ses ion of the State house, excluding the civil officials from all participation in the government of the commonwealth, and making Acting Governor Allison and ex-Senators Mallory and Yulee, prisoners of war. For a con iderable period afterward, Florida remained under martial law, and in June, 1865, Maj.-Gen. John G. Foster was placed in command of the United tates Military Department of Florida. FLORIDA'S SOLDIERS AT LARGE This military narrative has not ventured outside of Florida, and even the sketches of the movements of the war therein have been fragmentary, a they had no such vital effect upon the general course and ultimate conclu ion of the great conflict as was caused by the stupendous battles fought on the soil of other southern states. In these historic engage ments, however, Florida soldiers bravely participated and some of the great leaders of the war were Floridians. How true that statement is, finds proof in scores of military histories written since the fall of the Confederacy. The facts are well condensed in the fragments of Florida history compiled by the late W. M. Bauskett, who died in 1915 while his labors, conducted under authority of the Legislature, were incomplete. Florida's contribution to the cau e was eleven regiments of infantry, consisting of 108 companies, the First and Second Regiments of Florida Cavalry of twenty companies, the Fifteenth Florida Cavalry of five companies, the Fifth Florida Battalion Cavalry of nine com panie , five batteries of artillery, one company which formed a part of the Fortieth Tennessee Regiment, the Florida Reserves of fourteen com panies organized in 1864, and four companies of independent cavalry, making a total of more than 10,000 men. In the early days of the war, military organizations were effected in all parts of the State, ome at the call of the authoritie and others the sporadic productions of the war fever then in its intensity. There were eighteen of these provisional companies, but,_ upon the perfection of the military organization by the general Confederate Government, they disbanded and their members enlisted in other commands. The Florida troops were assigned to three fields of action-Florida. Virginia and the West. The First Florida Infantry men were at Shiloh and Perryville, where their gallant services won them a mention in general orders and the privilege of inscribing the names of these battles on their colors. In the Kentucky campaign the regiment suffered so severe ly that it wa con!)olidated with the Third Florida, and, as a consolidated . command, participated in the battle of Murfreesboro, the siege of Jack son, the battle of Missionary Ridge and the toils and hardships of the Iona march to Atlanta, and finally to Greensborough. North Carolina, where the regiment urrendered. The Fourth Florida was at Stone R.iver; was ent to the relief of Vicksburg. fought at Chickamauga and

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138 HISTORY OF FLORIDA was in all tht! campaigns from Chattanooga to Greensborough, where .the command surrendered, a total of 23 men. The Sixth Florida was in the pursuit of Buell, and also, after he had been heavily reinforced, in the long retreat to escape from him. The regiment fought at Chicka mauga, was in the main line of battle at Missionary Ridge and fought at Rocky Ford and in the march to Atlanta and North Carolina. The Seventh was under General Bragg in the Army of the Tennessee, partici pated in many battles and finally surrendered at Greensborough. The Second Florida participated in the Virginia campaign. At Yorktown the regiment lost Maj. George W. Call and four of ten captains. It fought at Cold Harbor, Gaines Mill. Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, • Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and in the battles in defense of Richmond. The Eighth was at Manassas , Harpers Ferry. Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Cold Harbor, Gettysburg and Richmond . After Gettysburg the Perry brigade, then under Colonel Lang, commanding in the place of General Perry who had been wounded and was ill . with typhoid fever , consisted of twenty-two line officers and 233 men . The brigade lost from its original complement by death, disability and capture, 455 men. At Fredericksburg its colors were captured and all of the color bearers left dead on the field. The Eighth Regiment was a part of Finegan's Brigade. It • was sent to Virginia in 1864 in response to an emergenc;y call for rein forcements. Here it was placed in Anderson's Division of Hill's famous corps, and fought at Petersburg, Reams Station, Hatcher's Run, Farmville and in numerous skirmishes. The Ninth and Eleventh were also a part of the Finegan Brigade and the history of the is practically the same. The First Florida Cavalry se rved in Florida until the spring of 1862, when seven of the companies voluntarily dismounted and continued so throughout the war. These seven companies were early participants in the western campaign . The other three companies remained mounted in Florida for awhile. but were subsequently dismounted and sent west to join the regiment . They fouRht at Perryville, Missionary Ridge and numerous minor engagements. Of 200 of their men sent into the storm of fire at Missionary Ridge , only thirty-three came back, the others being killed, wounded or made prisoners of war. TALL.\HASSEE NEVER CAPTURED The Second Florida Cavalry were organized in 1862 and perfom1ecl se rvice , principally in Florida. It was at the Battle of Olustee, but held aloof from a real bapti ' sm and lost so few men that its commander, Carraway Smith, was made a subject of much criticism. Indeed, he was blamed for the fruitlessness of the victory, which might have been turned into a rout if the cavalry had gone into an earnest pursuit. The work of the regiment after the battle of Olustee, however , was of a brilliant character, especially that of the companies assigned to the command of Captain Dickinson. They were effective in guarding the railroad from being torn up, in haras s ing the enemy, in watching his movements, and in preventing raids upon plantations and communities for the purpose of running away negroes and seizing cotton and other property. The ob jective of the Federals after Olustee. in fact even before it, was a raid through Middle arid West Florida. the capture of the capital, and the establishment of a Federal State in the South. But Tallahassee never fell. The city of the reel hills of Leon flew the flag of the Confederacy until the encl-the one capital of the whole south having that distinction. Her defense was due largely to the work of the Second Cavalry and that of the Florida Reserves which were made up "veritably from the . cradle to the grave." Five attempts were made upon Tallahassee but all of them were defeated, the last in the battle of Natural Bridge, sixteen miles south of the city. The history of the Fifteenth Florida Cava:lry and the Fifth Florida Cavalry Battalion is interwoven with that of the Second

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 139 Florida Cavalry and the operations in Florida until the close of the war. These organizations were divided into everal detachments and were watchful, alert and prompt in throwing down the gage of battle whenever the odd seemed not overwhelming. The Florida Artillery consisted of Milton's Artillery, which was at Olu stee and Natural Bridge and aided in the capture of the Federal gunboat Columbine on the St. Johns River; Abell's Light Artillery, which rendered effective service in Florida; the Marion Light Artillery, which was at Richmond, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Mo bile; Gamble's Artillery, which served at Johns Island in South Carolina and in sev ral engagements in Florida, and Dyke's Light Artillery which did good work at Olustee. OF HIGH MILITARY RANK Florida's soldiers achieved high distinction during the Civil war. E. Kirby-mith was one of the ix full generals of the Confederate army; William W. Loring, William H. Chase, and James Patton Anderson were major generals and the following rose to the rank of brigadier gen eral : Joseph Finegan. Edward A. Perry, Franci A. Shoup, Willianv S. Walker, W. G. M. Davis, Theo. W. Brevard, Jesse J. Finley, Robert Bullock and William Miller. Brig.-Gen. M. I. Smith, who was in charge of the engineering department of the Florida rai l road for several years and had made a survey of a route for a canal across the peninsula of Florida, is credited to Florida as a brigadier-general in the Journal of the Confederate Senate, but was subsequently credited to Louisiana. He was not identified in any way with any military organization of the State. Neither indeed, was Loring or Kirby-Smith, but they were claimed by the state because they had lived in Florida, had been born in Florida or had called Florida their home. EDMUND KIRBY-S 1lTH was born at St. Augustine in I824 and died at Sewannee, Tennessee, in 1893. He graduated from West Point in I84I and was breveted first lieutenant for gallant conduct in Mexico and s ubsequently car tain for soldierly conduct at Cherubusco. When Texas seceded, Kirby-Smith was in command of a cavalry post in that State. A commissioner of Texas, backed by a troop of mounted men , demanded the surrender of the post with all its horses, arms and muni ti0ns of war. Captain Smith declined to surrender unless with the honors of war; his men were to march out with their arm and horses-otherwise he would order them to cut their way out. This was finally agreed to and Captain Smith delivered the men and property to the United States, resigned his commission and tendered his service to the Confederacy. He was commissioned as major of cavalry and very soon as lieutenant colonel. While enrolling troops in Virginia. General Johnston made him adjutant general, and, while acting as such, he was commissioned as brigadier general and as igned to the command of a brigade in Johnston's army. He and General Kershaw struck the Federals at Bull Run when victory hung in the balance, General Smith was severely wounded here and was on leave for several weeks. Upon recovering his strength . he was sent to East Tennessee. where hei had command of the right de tached wing of Bragg's army a major general and aided Bragg in making his escape from Buell. vVhile in command here, he conceived and carried out the idea of captnring Richmond, Kentucky, where the garrison and Federal force within easy call numbered 15,000 men . Crossing the mountains with a force of 5,000 he surprised the Union army and attacked and defeated their overwhelming force, killed nearly as many Federals as he had men , captured 5,000 killed one brigadier general, wounded another, received the surrender of a third and fell into possession of a vast quantity of stores and valuable munitions of war. It was one of the most complete pieces of work of the whole war, and

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140 HISTORY OF FLORIDA made the name of Kirby-Smith famous throughout the outh. Owing to the sore need of organization west of the Mississippi. General mith was placed in charge of the Trans-Mississippi department of which he was commander. He was commissioned as lieutenant general and, after the fall of Vicksburg, as a full general, being one of six, viz :-Cooper, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg. WILLIAM H. CHASE was a native of Massachusetts but removed to Florida in his early clays and became a citizen of Pensacola where he was a man of influence who wa held in high esteem. He was a graduate from West Point in 1836 but, after he had attained the rank of major, resigned. In 1861 he was appointee\ colonel of the Florida state troops and was promoted to be a major general thereof in the same year. He commanded the Florida and Alabama troops in their attack upon the defenses of Pensacola and was in charge of that post in the first year of the war. Being a very old man and unfit for active service he did not participate further during the war. WILLIAM W. LORING was a native of North Carolina, but, in his early youth removed with his parents and settled on the East Coast frontier of Florida. At fourteen he joined the volunteers in their war against the Seminoles, was appointee\ second lieutenant in 1837 and subsequently made captain of a volunteer company of mounted riflemen in the service of the territory. His ability was so pronounced that he was commissioned major commanding. He served with Scott in Mexico, lost hi left arm in the assault upon tlie City of Mexico and received the thanks of the State in a memorial of the Legislature for gallant conduct in the service of his country. After the Mexican War he was commissioned in the regular army and placed in charge of the Department of Oregon, with its gold-fever problems, until l8ST, subsequently being assig-ned to duty against the western Indians. By permission he studied military tactics and organization in Europe, and, upon his return to the United States. was placed in command of the Department of Mexico. On the breaking out of the Civil war he promptly joined the Confederacy and was com missioned brigadier general and assignee\ to duty in West Virginia. At Cheat Mountain he commanded one wing of Lee's army. In l86r he united with Stonewall Jackson at Winche ter; in r862 he was com missioned major general and a signed . to Southwest Virginia. In December he was placed in command of the First corps of the Army of the Mississippi and successfully defended Fort Pemberton from the Federal attack. He was later placed under Johnston and then in command of a division of Stewart's corps. After the war he served in the army of the Khedive of Egypt. was named a pasha, was commander-in-chief of the war against the Abyssinians. and enjoyed the high esteem of the Egyptians.1 In 1879 he returned to the United States, in 1886 died in the city of ew York and was buried in St. Augustine. which city he was pleased to call "home." There is a monument erected in honor of General Loring in the St. Augu tine memorial room. University of Florida. JAMES PATTON ANDERSON was a native of Tennessee. but moved to Florida when a young man. In 186o he was captain of the Jefferson Rifles and in the following year was commissioned as colonel of the First Florida Regiment of Infantry. He commanded one of the columns in the fruitless attack on Santa Rosa Island. In 1862 he was transferred to Corinth, Mississippi, and soon won a promotion to brigadier general. He was warmly commended by General Bragg for his gallant and soldier ly conduct at Shiloh. t Perryville he commanded a division of Hardee's corps in charge of the extreme right. At Murfreesboro his brigade was 1 General Loring attained the highest military rank known in the Egyptian Army.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 141 ordered to take three batteries at any cost and executed the order in gallant style. At M1ssionary Ridge he commanded Hindman's division and was commended by General Longstreet for distinguished conduct and ability in the campaign. In February, 1864, he was promoted to major general and assigned to the command of the Confederate forces in Florida. After several months service here he reported to General Hood in Atlanta and was assigned to his old division until wounded at Jonesboro. In 1865, after everal months of di ability, he returned to the front and was placed in command of Taliaferro's division and surrendered with it at Greensborough . JAMES M QUEEN McINTOSH was a cadet at large from Florida to the United States Military Academy at West Point from which he graduated in 1849. In 1861 he had risen to the rank of captain of infantry. At the breaking out of the war he resigned his commission and tendered his services to the governor of Florida. They accepted, and in 1861 he was commissioned as colonel and very shortly thereafter was appointed brigadier general. He was killed at Pea Ridge , Arkansas. March 7, 1862. JosEPI I FINEGAN was placed at the head of military affairs in Florida early in the administration of Governor Milton. He was comniissioned brigadier general and assigned to the command of the department of Middle and East Florida. There were no serious operations in this State until the Gillmore expedition invaded the state with a view to bringing Florida back into the Union and the battle of Olustee was the conse quence . General Finegan was technically in command at Olustee, but the battle was actually fought under the direction of General Colquitt of Georgia who was in command on the field. General Finegan was suc ceeded in Florida by General Gardner and wa sent to Virginia in re sponse to urgent orders growing out of a demand for reinforcements to protect Richmond; at the head of which was Finegan's brigade, made up in part of the Olustee veterans and Perry's old but decimated brigade . At Cold Harbor the Finegan brigade was in the thick of the battle and acquitted itself with courage and ability. When Grant broke through Dreckinridge's line, Finegan's brigade drove the assailants bad<" after desperate fighting and closed the breach. In 1865 General Finegan was again assigned to command the forces in Florida and occupied that post when the war ended. EDWARD A. PERRY was a native of Massachusett but in his early manhood removed to Pensacola where he practiced law. When war seemed inevitable he raised a company which became a part of the Second Florida Infantry. In 1862 he was commi sioned as colonel of the regiment and went with it to Virginia where it became a part of Longstreet's division. Cofone! Perry commanded the regiment at Seven Pines and in the battles around Richmond. He was badly wounded at Frazier's Farm and incapacitated for a service for several months. In the fall of 1862 he was commissioned brigadier general and commanded the Florida brigade at Chancellorsville. After this battle General Perry was stricken with typhoid fever and invalided home. Later, however , he returned to the front and commanded the brigade in the Wildernes where he wa wounded a econd time and again sent home. In 1884 General Perry was elected Governor of Florida. He died October 15, 1889. WILLIAM . WALKER was a native of Pennsylvania. His first military service wa as a lieutenant of infantry in the regular army in the war with Mexico and was breveted captain for gallant conduct. In 1861 he was appointed co l onel of the Florida State troops, colonel of the Con federate Army in 1862 and brigadier general in the fall of that year. He

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142 HISTORY OF FLORIDA defeated the Federals at Pocotaligo, South Carolina, and was in command of the Third South Carolina district. In I864 he was ordered to Virginia. In a skirmish before the battle of Petersburg he was badly wounded, his horse was shot from beneath him and he fell into the hands of the Federals. In the fall he was exchanged and placed in command at Weldon, North Carolina, where he was stationed when the war ended. After the war he was elected governor of Florida but was dispossessed by Federal troops and Harrison Reed installed. Vv. M. G. DAVIS gave up his law business in 1861 and raised the First Florida regiment of cavalry, of which he was made colonel and assigned to the duty of watching the Federals along the Florida coast. In I86z he was assigned to duty in East Tennessee, and, later in the year was commissioned as brigadier general in command of the Department of East Tennessee. His brigade was composed of the First Florida Cavalry, dismounted, and the Sixth and Seventh Florida regiments of In I862 he resigned his commission and retired from the service. FRANCIS A. SHOUP was a native of Indiana, graduate from West Pbint as lieutenant in the army. In 1856-58 he served against the Semi noles. Afterward he resigned his commission, located at St. Augustine and began the practice of law. His sympathies were with the South and he was comniissioned by the governor of Florida as lieutenant of artillery and later promoted to major. In Kentucky he commanded a battery of twelve guns, and General Hardee appointed him chief of artillery, in which rank he served at Shiloh. Here he conceived the idea of massing the fire of the artillery against the command of Prentiss. Subsequently he was appointed inspector of artillery under Beauregard and was later sent to Arkansas where he participated in the battle of Prairie Grove . In I86z he was commissioned brigadier general and in the year following was ordered to Mobile. At Vicksburg he . was captured, and, upon being exchanged, served as chief of artillery under Johnston. It is said of General Shoup that in the retreat of the Army of Tennessee to Atlanta no t a gun was lost. At the fall of Atlanta he was relieved at his own re quest. After the war General Shoup studied for the ministry, took orders in the Episcopal church and contributed to literature many excellent books. JESSE J. FINLEY, native of Tennessee, removed to Florida in 1846 . In I862 he resigned his position as Confederate States judge of one of the Florida districts and entered the army as a private. He was very quickly promoted to captain and colonel, and assigned to the command of the Sixth Florida Infantry. He fought with his regiment at Chicka mauga with signal ability. .In I863 he was promoted to brigadier-general and assigned to the command of the Florida Brigade which look valorous part in the battle of Missionary Ridge. He participated in the battle of Resaca where he was badly wounded and invalided home. Upon recover ing he returned to the front and at Jonesboro was severely wounded by an exploding shell which killed his horse. General Finley represented Florida in Congress, and was ad interim United States senator a few weeks under the administration of Governor Perry. \N"ILLIAM MILLER was major of the First Florida Infantry . in I862. He commanded a battalion at Perryville where Gen. John C. Brown was wounded and led the brigade through the remainder of the battle. At Murfreesboro his command formed a part of the brigade under General Breckinridge. In the charge on the Union line he was severely wounded, notwithstanding which he continued to lead his men. While recovering from his disability he was placed in charge of the conscript bureau at Mobile and subsequently was made commandant of conscripts

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 143 in Florida. In August, 1864, he was commissioned as brigadier-general and placed in command of the Florida Reserves which aided in achiev ing the victory at atural Bridge. In the fall of 1864 he was assigned to the command of the district of Florida. ROBERT BULLOCK entered the service as captain of Company G, Seventh Florida Infantry. He was soon promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and, in 1865, to the rank of brigadier-general. In 1862 his regiment be-GEN. ROBERT BULLOCK, c. s. A. Member of Congress. came a part of the brigade of General Davis, and participated in the battle of Franklin and the Tennessee campaign. At Missionary Ridge, Colonel Bullock fought in the brigade of General Finley of Bate's division and was also in the Atlanta campaign. General Bate, in his official report of the Battle of Missionary Ridge. said: "Colonel Bullock. com manding Finley's brigade, bore himself with heroic courage through good and evil fortune." After the war General Bullock represented Florida in Congress for several years. THEO. W. BREVARD was captain of Company D. Second Florida Infantry. In 1862 he was appointed major and subsequently Iieutenant colonel of the Fifth Florida Battalion. colonel of the Fifth Florida

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144 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Battalion and colonel of the Eleventh Regiment. In 1865 he was commissioned brigadier-general. He organized the Florida Partisan Rangers in 1862 and served in : Florida at the head of that command until 1864. In his Florida service his troops were engaged in a num ber of sharp sk irmi shes with the Federal s in the vicinity of Jackson ville and along the coast. In 1863 the battalion was increased to five companies, and, in 1864 participated in the' battle of Olustee. In that year the battalion . was merged into Finegan's brigade and fought in all the battles of the command before Sailor's Creek. At that battle Col one l Brevard and his entire battalion fell into the hands of the Federals. In March, 1865, he was commiss ion ed brigadier -general, but the war closed before the commission reached him. He died at Tallahassee 111 1882. DAVID LANG entered the Confederate service as a private, became capta in of Company C, Eighth Florida Infantry and later colonel of the regiment. He served at Pensacola as a private and at the end of his enlistrne11t raised a company of which he was e l ected captain. He served at Manassas, and at Sharp sburg was severe l y wounded. At Fredericksburg he prevented the Federals from crossing the Rappahannock, but here was wounded again. He was commissioned colonel, to date from Sharpsburg and led his regiment at Chancellorsville. Owing to the disability of General Perry he commanded the Perry brigade at Gettysburg and in the retreat to Virginia. He was also in the battle of Spottsy l vania Court House, Cold Harbor and other stirring conflicts. After Genera l Finegan was again assigned to Florida, Genera l Lang was again placed in command of the Florida brigade and surrendered with it at Appomattox. In 1885 he was appointed adjutant-general of the state, and, from 1893 to l9QI, served as private secretary to Governors Mitchell and Bloxham. He died at Tallahassee in 1917. IN THE COUNCILS OF THE CONFEDERACY Florida's military l eadership in the Civil war was noticeable and the State was well represented in the Provisional Cong r ess of the Con federacy. As has been stated, Governor Perry appointed three P'lorida delegates to that body. The Provisional Congress was not divided into a Senate and House, but was simply an executive co uncil with legislative authority. It elected Jefferson Davis provisional president of the Confederacy, drafting a constitut i on wh ich the seceding states ratified, made provision for raising revenue, issued commissions and carried on the l egis l ative business of the embryonic government. This conve nti on met in Montgomery, Alabama, in February, 1861, and continued its labors until February 17, 1862, when it adjourned sine die. On the day following, the provisional gov ernment gave WC\Y to the Confederate Government, and on that day the Confederate Congress began its first session at Richmond, the capital. The F lorid a senators were A ugu st u s E. Maxwell, native of Georgia and lawyer of Tallahassee, who had served in the Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth United States Congresses, and, in 1848, as secretary of the State of Florida; and James M. Baker, a native of North Carolina, an able lawyer and a citizen of Fernandina. After the war he moved to Jacksonville, where he served with distinction as judge of the circuit em bracing county. All the States senators drew lots in open sess10n for the lon g and short terms. Senator Maxwell drew the long term of four years and Senator Baker the short term of two years, but on Februar y r6, 1864, Senator Baker was re-elected for the six year term to succeed him elf. The Florida members of the House of Representatives were James B. Dawkins, of Gainesville. and R. B. Hilton of Pensacola, both lawyers of ability and men of high character and standing. After the war Mr.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 145 Dawkins was appointed judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit, and served for several years. On December 8, 1862 , he resigned and John M. Martin, of Ocala, succeeded him, and, on May 3, 1864, was himself suc ..:eeded by amuel St. George Rogers, also of Ocala. Colonel Martin, who acquired his title in the Confederate service, died in 1921-the last survivor of the Confederate Congress. Florida was represented in the Confederate cabinet . by ex-United States Senator Stephen R. Mallory as secretary of the navy. He wa s nominated by President Davis on February 25, 1861, and served at the head of the Navy Department throughout the entire war. After the war he was arrested by the United tates and was confined for several month s as a prisoner of "State" for alleged complicity in the "Rebellion." His • JAMES M. BAKER Confederate States Senator, Circuit Judge, Jus tic e of Supreme Court. son, Stephen Ru sell Mallory, Jr.. served ten years in the United States Senate-from 1897 until his death in 1907. LAST YEARS OF DA\'ID L. YULEE After the war, Senator Yulee's position was especially embarrassing. as he had been among the most radical of the outhern leaders, and, realiz ing that war was a foregone conclus ion, had made recommendations as to the seizure of military point s in the State by the Confederates even before the ordinance of sece sion had been adopted. At the beginning of the war, Senator Yulee and his family resided at Fernandina on the Atlantic Coast, but his wife and children were subsequently sent for safety to a sugar plantation called Homosass a (Indian-"Little Pepper"), on a small river of the same name flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Thither he also went, when Fernandina was captured by the Federal , who shelled the train in which he was escaping and killed the man at hi ide. For nearly two years now his life was the tranquil one of a southern planter, except for an occasional trip to Gainesville, a drive of eighty miles, where were located the offices of the Florida Railroad, of which he was president.

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146 HISTORY OF FLORIDA 2 "It was upon one of these trips that the first of several atte1'npts to capture him was made. one which would have been successful but for what his wife regarded as a palpable interference of Providence. A small expedition from a gunboat led by a native spy, lay in ambush to seize him as he passed a lonely spot. But they were looking for a large car riage drawn by a pair of magnificent Kentucky bays, one of which having been suddenly ill, a barouche and a pair of mules were substituted, so that the intended victim wa allowed to pass unmolested. For some time a couple of companies of infantry were, at Senator Yulee's expense, kept on the river to guard again!?t the destruction of the sugar mill, but they were soon withdrawn, leaving nothing to tell of a great war, ex cept the news brought by the post which toiled slowly in twice a week. * * * "When Grant completed his great sum in arithmetic at Appomattox, and the Confederacy vanished into hi tory, the governor of Florida appointed Senator Yulee one of a commission to go on to Washington and confer with the President as to Florida's re-establ ishment in the Union. While at Tallahassee he expressed himself both to the governor and to General McCook, the commandant, as being in favor of a frank and loyal acceptance of the results of the war. The commission, how ever, was not allowed to proceed, but on the contrary, about the middle of May, 1865, Senator Yulee was arrested at Gainesville, and sent to Jacksonville. He found in command there, General Vodges, who, be ing an officer of the regular army, treated him most considerately and allowed him to go about the city on parole, until countermanded from Washington, and ordered to send his prisoner under guard, to Fort Pulaski, near Savannah. "Several nights before his arrest, there had arrived at Cottonwood , Senator Yulee's plantation, a small cavalcade which proved to consist of some officers belonging to the escort of the Confederate president, in his attempted escape, but who had been diverted, in Georgia, with the double purpose of making the party less conspicuous, and puzzling the pur uers. This intended to reach the south coast of Florida, and cross over in small open boats to Nassau, into British projection, as
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 147 a moment's reftection she said they were the private effects Mr. Davis and s he had received them that she might deliver them to Mrs. Davis, who was an esteemed friend . That Mr. Yulee had given them in charge to Mr. Meader * * ':' to deliver to Mr. vVilliams * ':' * who had no suspicion of the nature of the property. * * * I found the property in a storeroom, adjoining the house , not even locked. * * * I also have to deliver a French musket, a most murderous weapon, which I received from Mrs. Yul ee as the private property of ]. Davis.' "Upon General Vodges' suggestion, Senator Yulee made a statement as to this matter in which he said that when he learned the boxes were the property of Mr. Davis, he had continued to retain them because Mr. Davis had been a warm personal friend whose ' many noble qualities' he admired, and also because there had been some estrangement between ' them, and for him to deliver these private effects would have the appear ance both of petty ill-nature and an effort to curry favor with his captors." Followed a year of anxiety and suspense, as to the final disposition of Senator Yulee. The only prisoners, among the leaders of the South, then remaining in the keeping of the North, were the former Confederate president, Senator Clay, of Alabama, and Senator Yulee, of Florida. The tide was turned by Ge neral rant, who interceded at the request of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston , and Senator Yulee was finally liberated. "In r88o, enator Y ulee went again to reside in Washington, drawn by many reasons: a married daughter lived there; his wife could see more of her own paternal family; and he wished his unmarried daughters to see some thing of that soc iety in which their mother had passed so many year of her lif e . There were, too, many of his former friend , and by none was he greeted more cordially than by those who were the leading lights in the councils of the republican party, like Fish, of ew York, Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey, Curtin of Pennsylvania, or Hamlin, the vice president un !er Lincoln. Four years after moving to Washington, the family had only been installed a few months in thei1 new h ome, on Connecticut Avenue. now the Austrian embassy, when the prophetic Spani h proverb, 'The house is built and the hear se stands before the door,' was fulfilled by the death of the idolized wife and mother . The central motive of his life was gone, and when, nineteen months later, the ame shadowy messenger knocked at. the door of the bereft man, there was little to aid the great physicians in barring his e ntrance. "Senator Yulee died in the Clarendon Hotel, New York, the roth of October, r886, of a bronchial cold, contracted on a Fall River boat , upon which, there being an insufficiency of b l ankets, he had taken part of hi s own covering to put over his grandchild. His heart, too, which wa functionally unsound, had been weakened by going into the mountains; urged by his children who did not know of the trouble . Side by side, undivided even in death, the two lie in the beautiful Georgetown Cemetery at Washington. where the murmuring stream sings perpetually its gentle requiem."

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CHAPTER IX FLORIDA FROM 1865 TO 1885 Florida was not admitted to representation in Congress until June 25, 1868, which may be said to mark her complete reestablishment of con stitutional relations with the Federal Government. As to the State Gov ernment, it was provisional. or temporary in its nature, from the time of the appointment of William Marvin governor, by proclamation of President Andrew Johnson, June 13, 1865, to the time of the election of David S. Walker and a representative Legislature, by popular vote, in the following November. As is now well known, President Johnson was but carrying out the wishes and policy of the martyred Lincoln in his pronounciamentos through Governor Marvin. ' THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT The provisional governor established a number of military posts throughout the State, enabling prospective citizens to take the prescribed oath of amnesty and loyalty, to apply to the chief executive of the nation for pardons in case the applicant was in any of the excepted classes and to swear to support the freedom of the former slave and his protection as a citizen of the United States-the question of his voting being an open one. Pending the organization of a civil government, the incum bent judges of Probate and clerks of Circuit courts were to continue in the performance of their former duties. In Octob.er, 1865, the election for delegates to the constitutional con vention resulted in the casting of 6,707 votes. Nearly 9,000 men had taken the oath of amnesty either before the military authorities or at the polls. The character of those selected was of the highest, their personnel embracing leading lawyers and other professional men, planters and Unionists, as well as former Confederates . mong those who received the honor of election, but were not present to sign the constitution, was Samuel L. Burritt, of Jacksonville, a leading lawyer and Unionist, who was lost on the ill-fated steamer, D. H. Mount, bound from New York to the Florida port. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTJON OF 1865 The constitutional convention met at Tallahassee, on the 25th of October, 1865, and elected E. D. Tracy, of Nassau County, permanent chairman. Governor Marvin's message to that body was confined to the nature and scope of the freedmen's rights, as the thirteenth amendment had been all but adopted by the necessary number of state legi latures. He thought that protection of their per ons and property would be sufficient for the colored people. "I recommend," he says, "that the con vention shall, by some suitable provision, to be inserted in the constitu tion, protect the colored, in common with the white race, in their liberty and in their rights of person and property and guard the two races against discriminations to be made between them in the courts or Legislature, in any matter touching these rights. I think a clause may be so drawn as to accomplish this object, and at the same time exclude the colored people from any participation in the affairs of the government. I recom mend also the passage of an ordinance declaring that no person shall be 148

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 149 incompetent as a witness, on account of his color, in any matter, civil or criminal, wherein the state, or the life, liberty, or rights of person or property of any colored person is concerned." In accord with the recommendation of the governor, the convention adopted the guarantee of personal and property rights to all citizens of the State without distinction of color. Colored persons were made competent as witnesses in cases affecting colored people, but jurors must be white men. But the first ordinance of the convention, passed on the 28th of October, was to annul the ordinance of secession, and the con stitution was signed on the 7th of November. Under the new state instrument, the governor of the State must have been a resident of Florida for five years. His term was to be four years in duration, as was that of the lieutenant-governor (president of the Senate), secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller and attorney general; all to be chosen by popular election, on the 29th of November, 1865. Two-thirds of the members of the Legislature could override the governor's veto. Senators and representatives of the General Assembly were to be elected biennially. The judicial power was vested in a Supreme Court, composed of a chief justice and two associate justices, to be ap pointed for six years by the governor. Circuit courts were continued. and the Legislature might create a Court of Chancery. The right of suffrage was restricted to free white male person at least twenty one years of aae, a citizen of the United State , and a resident of Florida for one year and of his residence county, for six months. Persons guilty of infamous crimes, duelling, defalcation of trust or bribery, were dis franchised. Aside from the annulment of the ordinance of secession passed by the con titutional convention, perhap the most important ordinance adopted by that body was that regarding vagrancy. Any able-bodied and competent person, leading an idle or immoral life . was liable to arrest and to be bound over by a magistrate for good behavior and industry covering a period of a year. hould he not be able to give bond in a sum not exceeding $500, with approved security, he was to be tried as a vagrant, and, upon conviction, punished by a fine not exceeding $500, or by imprisonment not exceeding twelve months, "or by being sold for a term not exceeding twelve months. at the discretion of the court." The ' quoted clause aroused the suspicion of some of the northern people as being a subterfuge to sell free negroes into slavery. Yet the chief cham pion of the vagrant laws, the governor himself, was an old-time Unionist, opposed to the Confederacy. former judge of the nited States District Court for the southern district of Florida, and a firm supporter of the Federal Government. Governor Marvin congratulated the members of the convention for its satisfactory work, and immediately notified President Johnson of the proceedings. The president, thereupon, notified the governor that the ratification by the Legislature of the Thirteenth Amendment was indis pen able to the complete restoration of harmony between the Federal Government and the State. T'c-rn FREEDMEN'S BUREAU IN FLORIDA Immediately after the surrender of Gen. J. E. Johnston, Maj.-Gen. Oliver 0. Howard, then in command of the Federal Army of the Tennessee, was made head of the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees and Abandoned Lands to care for colored people dependent upon the United tates Government for support. General Howard appointed as his assistant in Florida, Col. Thoma W. Osborn, his chief of artillery, then stationed at Tallahassee. The "abandoned lands" were tracts and planta tions in South Carolina and Georgia. Florida and other southern states which had been deseri:ed by their Confederate owners . during the progress of the war, and temporarily occupied by refugee freedmen. The bureau

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150 HISTORY OF FLORID issued ration to freedmen unable to support them s elves, furni hed tran portation and schooling, and the more ignorant of the negroes were obsessed with the idea that the lands which they occupied would be permanently divided among them. In the fall of 1865, General Howard visited Fernandina and other places in which negro colonists had been established, endeavoring to adjust matters so that neither the former slaves nor planters should be unjustly treated. GoVERNOR WALKER'S ADMTNISTRJ\TTON With the new relations between former and slave wholly disorganizing labor and industry, the negroes as a race, an idle cla s , and the planters powerless to conduct their estates, with an empty treasury and a worthless currency, it was a sorry condition of affairs which intro duced the administration of David S. Walker, who, at the election in November, 1865, was chosen governor of Florida without opposition. W. W. J. Kelley was elected lieutenant governor; Benjamin W. Allen , secretary of state; John B. Galbraith, attorney-general; Lewis G. Pyles , comptroller; Charles H. Austin, treasurer, and Ferdinand McLeod, repre sentative in Congress. Governor Walker was an urbane and generous Kentuckian and an <.>. ble lawyer of Tallahassee before he assumed the consolidated offices of register of public lands and superintendent of public instruction , in T 853. He was the father of Florida's school system. A popular whig , long con nected with the local government of Tallahassee and both hou e of the Legislature, he opposed the war, but while it was raging he continued quietly and faithfully in the performance of his duties as associate justic e of the State Supreme Court, under the chief justiceship of Charles H. DuPont. His associate on the bench was William A. Forward. When elected to the governorsh]p in 1865, Mr. Walker was in health, but assumed his duties with energy and performed faithfully and ably. The Legislature that met in November, 1865, was a representative body, numbering among its senators Gen. Joseph Finegan, Col. Theodore W. Brevard and John L. Crawford, afld among the member of the lower house, Col. George T. Maxwell , Capt. J. J. Dickinson and John A. Henderson. In his address to the Legislature, Governor Walker declared his determined stand against negro uffrage. The also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, "Provided it does not confer upon Congress the power to legislate upon the political status of the freedmen in the States." The provisional governor and constitutional convention had appointed a commission, headed by Chief Justice DuPont. to recommend to the Legis lature changes in the laws with special reference to foe freed men problem. The bills reported by the commission were adopted by the Legislature and comprised the following measures: Whipping, not to exceed thirty-nine lashes to be made punishments, alternate with fine and imprisonment; failure to fulfill contracts of labor by a colored person brought punishment as a vagrant, his services could be controlled by the sheriff and his children apprenticed; insurrection or sedition, or burglary under certain conditions, was punishable by death; a negro could not carry arms without a license; all colored persons living together as husband and wife must be married within nine months from assuming such and negroes and whites were forbidden to intrude upon the meetings of either race. S USPENSION OF PHOVISIONAL GOVERNMENT On the 17th of January, 1866, Governor Marvin relinquished his office to Governor-elect Walker, who was inaugurated on the follow ing day, it having been declared from Washington that, "in the judg ment of the Pre ident, the care and conduct of the proper affairs of the State of Florida may be remitted to the authorities chosen

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 151 by the people thereof, without clanger to the peace and afety of the United States." But this declaration did not satisfy the ultra republicans in Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, of Pennsylvania, and Florida was without representation in either house for eighteen months longer. The first appointments made by Governor Walker were promptly ratified by the Legislature, viz., Charles H. DuPont, as chief justice of the tate Supreme Court, ahd Augustus E. Maxwell and James M. Baker, as his as ociates. In the spring following the inauguration of Governor Walker, there was a clash of authority between Gen. John G . . Foster, commanding the United States Military Department of Florida and the sheriff of Nassau County over the tenure of lands in the Fernandina distri'ct. The general claimed that a civil proce s about to be served by the sheriff should be stayed pending the adjudication of such tenure by the United States court , and ordered his subordinate at Fernandina to arrest the civil o fficer should he attempt to carry out the order of the state court. The final result was that General Foster, under instructions from Secretary of War Stanton, recognized the civil courts and authorities and pro c laimed that "all persons under military arrest should be turned over to the civil authorities and the military should, when requested, assist the officers of the law." Governor Walker's proclamation, immediately issued , congratulated the people on the ascension of the civil over the military rule in Florida, but a short season of uncertainties and trials was yet to ensue before the state was admitted to representation in Congres FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT REJECTED The obstacle against a renewed cooperation between the Federal and the State governments was the proposed Fourteenth Amendment to the national constitution, and the combined southern opposition to it was massed against the third section, which barred out of office all who had been connected, directly or indirectly, with the late rebellion. Such disability could only be removed by a two-thirds vote of each House of Congress. As Governor Walker and the chief executives of the other southern s tates pointed out, the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment would destroy this state government, place the South under military rule and disqualify from participation in every official function, the best men in the land. Not only did the Legislature of Florida reject the proposed amendment, but all the other southern states , with Maryland and Delaware. "CONGRESSMAN" OATS In the meantime, the freedmen themselves had become much excited over their prospective right of suffrage, an expectation much encouraged by political adventurers. It was but natural that they should desire a close connection with the Federal Government through the Florida repre sentation in Congress.1 So that early in 1866, the freedmen held I meeting at the African Methodist church, in Tallahassee, and Joseph Oats, formerly a slave of Governor Walker, was unanimously elected. The next step was to rai e money to send the newly-elected congressman to Washington. The money was forthcoming, as plenty of old men and women gave their last dollar to send one of their race to the National Congress. Several hundred dollars was thus raised and given to Oats, who shortly afterward was "off to Congress." He remained away from Tallahas ee until , his money was gone, when he wrote back designating 1 See "Carpet Bag Rule in Florida," by John Wallace, a North Carolina slave until 1862, a soldier in the United States Colored Infantry for 2 )/, years , dis charged from the service at Key West, in January, 1866, and afterward a resident of Tallahassee. After the adoption of the constitution of 1868, served two years as constable for Leon County and four years in the lower branch of the Legislature and eight in the Senate. Self-educated .

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152 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the time when he would return. The freedmen prepared to picnic at Houston's Spring, about a mile from Tallahassee. Oats notified them that if they desired to know what he had done for them while in Congress , they must prepare to protect him, as the whites would kill him when they should learn what he had accomplished against them. The 20th of May, the day on which General McCook marched his troops into Tallahassee and declared all the inhabitants to be free, was the clay set apart for Oats to tell the freedmen the great work he had accomplished in Congress. At nine o'clock on that memorable 20th of May 2 the drums commenced beatin
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/ HISTORY OF FLORIDA 158 0 born, the Florida commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, had been organizirjg it for a year. At the outset of his campaign he had called a meeting at Tallahassee 3 through his servant, a freedman, and informed them that it was the desire of the government that they should form a secret league to prevent their being again returned to slavery. This was sufficient to bring out the old and young, the bait ari.d the blind. In order to allay any apprehension in regard to the purpose of the gathering they were instructed to answer any questions by saying that the assembly was for the purpose of forming a benevolent society. At the time appointed several hundred freedmen assembled, but only seventy-five or eighty were initiated the first night, as it was deemed wise to impress them with an air of deep solemnity and great formality. This secret league was named the Lincoln Brotherhood, and T. W. Osborn made himself its president, and he became the grand head-center of all the leagues and subordinate lodges subsequently formed throughout the country and state. Each member had to pay an initiation fee of from one to two dollars, and 50 cents per month thereafter. The subordinate lodges were organized by a deputy appointed by President Osborn. They were required to pay five or six dollars for their charter, which money went to swell the revenue of the parent lodge at Tallahassee. The lodge at Tallahassee became so large it wa necessary to remove from the private house where it was first organized to the lower co l ored Baptist Church, in a part of the town seldom visited by the white . The freedmen considered this league a great thing, and their meetings at the church were carefully guarded by armed sentinels who halted anyone who came into the vicinity of the church, requiring t h e countersign under pena l ty of the contents of the old musket. Auxiliary lodges were formed in every part of the county and throughout the state. TIIE CONSTITUTION OF 1868 0 barn's chief rivals in the organization of secret leagues among the colored voters were William M. Saunde1: , a Maryland negro, and Daniel Richards, an Illinois white, both members of the Repub l ican National Committee. The negro voters were still suspicious of old resident leaders, who had endeavored to form a political alliance with the most intelligent and honorable representatives of the race. When the convention met at Tallahassee , on January 20, 1868, it was found that of the forty-six delegates present seventeen were negroes; and of those who participated in the proceedings there was no more brilliant speaker than Jonathan C. Gibbs, a graduate of Dartmouth College and a conservative in po l itics. The temporary president was C. I-I. Pearce, a Tallaha see clergyman, and the permanent president of the original convention, was the Daniel Richards already mentioned, a resident of Illinois. Other leading delegates, who had sprung into notice, were W. J. Purman, an Osborn supporter and temporary resident, and. Colonel Billings, of Fernandina, an associate of Richards and Saunders (the colored member) and opposed to the Osborn faction. After an unsuccessful effort had been made to unseat Saunders, Billings, Richards and Pearce, as non-residents, the Osborn delegation of fifteen member adjourned to Monticello where they went into conven tion, on the first of February, 1868. The remaininrr members continued their proceedings in Tallahassee, and within five days had adopted a constitution and nominated a state ticket. They made their report to Gen. Geprge G. Meade, who had succeeded Gen. John Pope in command of the Third Military District. comprising Georgia, Florida and Alabama. Immediately after the adjournment of the Tallahassee convention, the Osborn crowd strengthened by nine more delegates, with the coopera tion of Governor Walker and Colonel Sprague, reassembled at the capitol. a Wallace's "Carpet-Bag Rule in Florida."

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" 154 HISTORY OF FLORIDA' It. required the presence of General Meade to reunite the contending factions. The reunited convention was temporarily presided over by Colonel Sprague, Horatio Jenkins, a new "carpet-bagger" attached to the Osborn clique, being elected its permanent officer. Then the four alleged non-resident delegates were unseated. and on February 25, 1868, a constitution was adopted differing little from the one in force before the war. It served the state well for seventeen years. Of course, its radical change was the conference of the right of suffrage upon all men of legal majority, without regard to race or color , and the solemn and unequivocal declaration of permanent attachment to the American Union. Under the new constitution the governor, lieutenant-governor, members of the Legislature and constables, were the only officials to be chosen by popular vote, thus making the responsibilities light for the newly enfranchised freedmen. The sessions of the Legislature were annual and limited to sixty days. The governor and Senate had the appointment of the State Supreme Court, a chief justice and two associates to hold office for life, or during good behavior; seven circuit judges, to hold office for eight years; a county judge for each county, term for four years; a state attorney in each circuit for a term of four years; and the customary court officials and county officers. The office of commissioner of immi gration was created for fifteen years. The basi s of the present educa tional system was incorporated into the constitution. The variou so urce s of school revenue were defined, and the State Board of Education was to comprise the superintendent of public instruction, secretary of state and the attorney general. All public acts of the secession period inconsistent with the status of the state, as established by the constitution of 1868, were annulled, although judicial proceedings and judgments were pre served in force, and all indebtedness contracted during the Confederate period of January IO, 1861, to October 25, 1865, except the liabilities as to the seminary or school fund, were repudiated. After the convention had adopted the constitution, it formed itself into a nominating committee, and put forward the following ticket : Harrison Reed , for governor; William C. Gleason, lieutenant-governor and C. M. Hamilton, member of Congress. The ticket named was sup . ported by the conservative republicans and was elected. against the radical republicans headed by Colonel Billings, and the democrats , whose candi date for governor was Col. George W. Scott, formerly a Confederate officer. FIRST LEGISLATURE UNDER 1868 CONSTITUTION The first Legislature under the new constitution convened at Tallahassee, on the 8th1 of June, 1868, and after ratifying the Thirteenth and Fourteenth amendments adjourned on request of Colonel Flint, the commandant at Tallahassee, who was advised that General Meade could not recognize the Legislature until Congress had acted. A week afterward, however, the Legislature reconvened and pro ceeded to the election of United States senators. Adonijah S. Welch, of Jacksonville, was chosen for the term ending March 3, 1869. Prior to becoming a resident of Florida, in 1865. he had been prominent in the educational affairs of Michigan. Abijah Gilbert, of St. Augustine, elected as Senator Welch's successor for a full term of six years, was a New York merchant before coming to Florida. Thomas W. Osborn, a native of New Jersey and a New York University man, had abandoned the study of law to become an officer of artillery in the Union service, and had been several times wounded when he entered Florida politics as an agent of the Freedmen's Bureau. Senator Osborn was chosen by the Legislature for the term ending 1873. Charles H. Hamilton, the con gressman-elect, was a resident of Marianna. The Legislature which selected Senators Welch, Gilbert and Osborn were several of the old whigs and democrats, now united as conservatives. Among the most

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 155 prominent of that party was Dr. John L. Crawford, of Wakulla, who called the State Senate to order. FLORIDA FULLY RESTORED TO THE UNION On June 25, I868, Congress readmitted Florida to representation; on July 2d, upon orders from General Meade, Governor Walker, the provisional head of the sfate government, surrendered his office to Harrison Reed, the governor-elect, and on the 4th of July, Colonel Sprague, in the presence of the Legislature, surrendered his position of "military cjvil governor" to the chief executive elected by popular vote. So that the several links by which the transfer of Florida from the military to the civil control was accomplished, were fitted together with legal and constitutional completeness. Senator Osborn took his seat June 30, I868, his term to expire March 3, I873; Senator Welch, June 30, I868 , for the term ending March 3, 1869. Representative Hamilton took his seat July I, I868. REED'S TURBULENT ADMINISTRATION When Governor Reed assumed office. the state treasury was empty, . the finances were in a chaotic state, the freedmen were being manipulated by designing politicians into a state of perplexity and helplessness, the older c itizens and resident s of the state had little confidence in a man lately arrived from Wisconsin, and the faction of republicans led by Senator Osborn was determined to oust him from office. A large part of his administration was therefore spent in defending his acts in a period of great distress and perplexity. Among his appointments were those of Col. Robert H. Gamble, an old whig who had served in the Confederate army, as comptroller of revenues, and James D. Westcott, a democrat, on of the United tates senator who was sent to Washington during the Mexican war, as attorney general and later, as associate justice of the tate Supreme Court. He named as chief justice. Edwin M. Randall, recently from Wi consin, an able lawyer and an h " onorable gentleman. Jonathan C. Gibbs, the negro leader , who at fir t failed of confirmation as secretary of state, finally retained the office. Three attempts were made to impeach Governor Reed on various complicated charges, but they failed. On the other hand, he had so many political enemie that all his attempts at financial improvements were frustrated. The details of these quarrels and complications may be sifted, if desired, from the state records, the files of newspapers and printed volumes, but will serve no practical purpose in this history. It may be stated as a general proposition, however, that most of his act and appointments, which were called in question by various factions of the Legislature, were sustained by the Supreme Court of the state. STATE SEAL AND STATE FLAG It was during the early portion of Governor Reed 's administration that the Legislature adopted a state seal and a state flag. The former is described by a joint resolution approved August 6, I868, thus: Resolved , That a seal of the size of the American silver dollar, having in the center thereof a view of the sun's rays, over a highland, in the distance a cocoa tree, a steamboat on water and an Indian female scattering flowers in the foreground, encircled by the words "Great Seal of the State of Florida, in God we trust," be and the same is hereby adopted as the Great Seal of the State of Florida. The symbols of the great seal are thus described in an official publica tion is ued from the State Department of Agriculture: "The sun is the emb lem of glory and plendor; in heraldry, its meaning is absolute authority. The highland and water are typical of the state, and the

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156 HISTORY OF FLORIDA steamboat of its commerce and progre s. Flowers are the symbol of hope and joy, and the Indian scattering them shows the influence of the Indian nation over the state. The cocoa or palm tree, is the emblem of victory, justice and royal honor." In the constitution of 1868, the state flag is described as "having the design of the great seal of the state impressed upon a white ground of six feet six inches fly, and six feet deep." This continued to be the emblem of the commonwealth until 1900 , when the proportions of the flag were changed to its manifest improvement. Officially it is described thus: "The State flag shall be of the following proportions and descriptions: depth to be three-fourths length of flag; the seal of the state, of diameter one-third of the flag, in the center of a white ground; red bars, in width one-eighth the length of flag , extending from each corner toward the center to the outer rim of the seal." FREE Punuc SqrnoL SYSTEM ESTABLISHED The last part of Governor Reed's administration was marked by the establishment of the present educational system of the state. It was founded on the famous Akron school law, and its basis was laid by Charles Thurston Chase, an Ohio educator. In 1869, he had adopted the northern system of free public schools to the needs of Florida. The new state system was sustained, as far as possible, by the Peabody fund and the Freedmen's Bureau, and there was a notable progress in school matters both in the country districts and such cities as Jacksonville, Tallahassee and St. Augustine. In the midst of his good work, Mr. Chase died, and in March, 1871, he was succeeded by Rev. Charles Beecher, brother of the more famous Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, of Brooklyn, New York. At the close of Reed's administration, in 1872, there were 444 public schools in the state, and one-fourth of those of school age had been enrolled, while the system of higher education had been further developed by the incorporation of the Florida State Agricultural College. The last two years of Governor Reed's term were largely devoted to political conflicts between republicans and democrats , which revolved around the rival candidates for the lieutenant -governorship and Congress. Without going into the merits of the contests, it is sufficient to state that Samuel T . Day, of Columbia County, was declared elected lieutenant governor by the returning board , and Josiah T. Walls (colored), of Gainesville, for Congres . William D. Bloxham, the democratic candi date for lieutenant-governor , afterward held the governorship for two terms. The Supreme Court declared him elected toward the close of his term, and Congress pronounced Silas L. Niblack, of Lake City, the opponent of his colored townsman, Walls, entitled to a seat in the House of Representatives. These decision s, in favor of the democratic candi dates, were made too late to be of any practical advantage to them or their party. LAST ATTEMPT TO IMPEACH GOVERNOR REED The attempt to impeach Governor Reed nearly succeeded during the regular session of 1872, and in February, when he retired to Jacksonville, Lieutenant-Governor Day assumed hi office. s the Legislature had adjourned without definite action on the articles of impeachment presented, Reed took the ground that he had been acquitted. In that position he was sustained by Chief Justice Randall, the associate justices dis senting. In the meantime, during the absence of Day from the capitol, Governor Reed, with the assistance of Secretary of State Gibbs, his colored friend, had i sued a proclamation, under the great sea l of the state, excluding Day from the usurped office. The latter at once called a special session of the Legislature to resume impeachment proceedings, but as they had gone no further than the presentation of the sixteen articles, it was decided by the Senate, on May 2cl, that the case be dropped •

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 157 and the governor be acquitted and discharged. Thus ended the last attempt to expel Governor '.Reed from office. OSSIAN B. HART AS GOVERNOR In January, 1872, Governor Reed delivered his last message to the Legi lature, and in the fall of the year his successor was elected in the person of Ossian B. Hart of. Jacksonville, a prominent republican, whose father was one of the original proprietors of that city. Governor Hart, who was born in Jacksonville, was the first native Floridian to be elected as the executive head of the state. He had practiced law at Tampa, Key West and Jacksonville, and for four years previous to his election as governor had served as associate justice of the' State Supreme Court. William D . Bloxham was Governor Hart's democratic opponent. Marcellus B. Stearns was the republican candidate for lieutenant governor, and the democrats selected Col. Robert Bullock for that office. In accord with Florida's congressional apportionment, as based on the 1870 census, the state was entitled to two congressmen. The republicans nominated Josiah T. Walls (colored), of Gainesville, and William J. Purman of Marianna (congressman-at-large) , and the democrats named S. L. Niblack, of Lake City and Charles W. Jones, of Pensacola (congressmen-at-large). The entire republican ticket was elected. The contest in the Legislature to elect a United States senator to succeed Thomas W. Osborn, of Pensacola, was spirited, but resulted in the final elimination of all the candidates except James D. Westcott (compromise candidate of the Osborn faction), Dr. Simon B. Conover of Tallahassee, and Gen. S. H. Sanford, founder of the town by that name. Dr. Conover was finally selected by a majority of one republican vote. The United States senator-elect had come to Florida from New Jersey when a young man, ranked high in his profession and was at one time United States Army surgeon, a delegate to the constitutional con vention of r868 and subsequently state treasurer and member of the Legislature from Leon County. After serving six years in the United States Senate, he resumed the practice of medicine at Tallahassee and was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1885. Much of Governor Hart's short administration, which was terminated by his untimely death, was devoted to efforts to reform and establish the finances of the state on a secure basis. The passage of the funding bill involved the isstfe of state bonds to the amount of $1,000,000. They met with a ready sale, despite the fact that the country was passing through the disastrous panic and depression of 1873 . No increase of indebtedness was incurred, and for the first time in reconstruction times the interest on the state debt wa paid and the expenses of the government fully met. Though the expenditures were heavy , they fell within the income of the state, and there was a reduction of $so,ooo in the floating debt. In the financial statements issued by public officials, the compli cated matters involving the payment of the Jacksonville, Pensacola & Mobile railroad bonds and the sale of internal improvement land were not considered. The most important measures passed by the Legislature of 1874 was the amendment to the constitution changing the session of that body from annual to biennial; a general law for the incorporation of railroad and canal companies, and the apportionment of the state into districts for the election of two representatives in Congress. Governor Hart, who was in feeble health when he assumed office, died at Jacksonville , his home, March 18, 1874, and his colored secretary of state, Jonathan C. Gibbs, died in the following August. MARCELLUS L. STEARNS, GOVERNOR The lieutenant-governor, Marcellus L. Stearns, succeeded Governor Hart, continuing in office until the expiration of his term and serving

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• 158 HISTORY OF FLORIDA another four years by election. Governor Stearns first came into notice in Florida politics as an official of the Freedmen's Bureau in Gadsden County. After a fierce contest fo the convention of I874, one faction of the republicans nominated William J. Purman. of Marianna, to represent the First or Western district in Congress, and Jo iah T. Walls, the Gaines ville negro, was again nominated by that party for the Second congres sional district. The democrats named Gen. Jesse J. Finley, of Lake City, to oppose Walls. The republican candidates were declared elected, at the casting of the ballots in the fall, and Walls served in Congress until January 29, I873, when he was succeeded by General Finley, who had contested the election of the negro representative. When the Legislature met in January, I875, the Senate was a tie politically, and the House stood democrats, 28, and republicans, 24. The equal division in the upper hou e continued when John L. Crawford took his seat as temporary president of the Senate, as he ruled that he retained his right to cast his vote. In was not until twenty-five ballots had been cast that the choice fell upon Charles W. Jones, a southern democrat, a successful lawer of Escambia County and a man of rugged character. In I872 he had served as a member of the National Demo cratic Convention. Although in his early manhood he was a carpenter and was self-educated, when he entered the Senate he w.as recognized as a powerful speaker, and, during the electoral contest of I876, became a recognized constitutional authority among the leaders of the upper house of Congress. TILDEN-HAYES Co TEST IN FLORIDA The general election of I876 and the far-reaching results in national politics dependent on the final choice of Florida's presidential electors made the event most noteworthy in the history of the state. The follow ing ticket was placed in nomination by the republican : Presidential electors, F. C. Humphries, C. H. Pearce, W. H. Holden and T. W. Long; for governor, M. L. Stearns; lieutenant-governor, David Montgomery; congressmen, Horatio Bisbee and V\T . J. Burman. Electors on the demo cratic ticket: Wilkinson Call, James E. Yonge, Robert B. Hilton and Robert Bullock; nominee for governor, George F. Drew; lieutenant governor, oble A. Hull; congressmen, Col. Robert H. M. Davidson and Gen. Jesse J. Finley. The face of the county returns. made November 7, I876, indicated the election of the democratic state ticket, its presi dential electors and the democratic congre sman from the Second district. But Florida was one of the pivotal states which must be carried by the republicans t . o insure Hayes a majority of at least one vote in the electoral college. The contest between Tilden and Hayes for the presi dency is historical. It was notorious at the time of the election that the ballots were manipulated so as to indicate a majority for the republican electors. One of the boldest and most ingenious substitution of republican for democratic ballots occurred in Archer Precinct No. 2, Alachua County, about sixteen miles from Gainesville. Fortunately there are a few citizens of Florida still living therein who have met the participants in some of the irregularities of 1876, and the writer has the story direct from Justice Robert F. Taylor of how the arrangements were made to overturn the normal figures of the Archer Precinct No. 2, o as to show an over whelming majority in favor of the republican presidential electors. It appears that the storekeeper in whose place the ballots were cast was in collusion with Moore, one of the three inspectors of election and the only white man on the board. Several weeks before the election, the room in the back of the store where the ballots were to be cast was partitioned off, and just before the eventful day after the ballot box had been placed in position one of the upright planks behind it was skilfully

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 159 sawed out and placed on leather hinges. Access was thus obtained to the ballot box from the outside. It was dark when the polls were closed and the room was only lighted by a smoky kerosense lamp. While Moore was entertaining the negro inspectors and clerk of election in another part of the store, his two confederates, one inside the ballot room and the other outside, were exchanging democratic ballots for republican, so that when the votes were counted, on the face of the returns the republicans had a majority of six hundred or seven hundred. The normal democratic majority was about five hundred. Years afterward Moore narrated the incident to Judge Taylor, and as all directly concerned in the manipula tion have passed away, none will be injured by the telling of the tale. The Board of State Canvassers was composed of S. B. McLin, secretary of state, a lawyer and an editor of Tallahassee; Dr. Clayton A. Cowgill, state comptroller and formerly a United States army surgeon, and " William A. Cocke, attorney general, who had practiced law in Monti cello and served as judge of the Second circuit, until appointed to the office he then held in 1873. The board met on November 27th, and, after throwing out the vote of Manatee County and various precincts in Jackson, Hamilton and Monroe counties, on account of alleged fraud, made the announcement, on December 6th, that Stearns, the republican, had been elected governor by about four hundred majority and that the Hayes electors had been chosen over the Tilden electors by a majority of more than nine hundred. Attorney-General Cocke protested against the pro nouncement, and George F. Drew, the democratic candidate for governor , brought mandamus proceedings before the State Supreme Court to compel the Board of Canvassers to count the gubernatorial vote as it was returned, without assuming to act as judges of the legality of any election matters. The court sustained the governor's position and, after a recanvass of the vote as actually cast, on January l, 1877, the board made a return showing that Drew had received 24,179 votes and Stearns 23,984. Further, after prolonged litigation, the Circuit Court of Leon County, on January 25, 1877, decided that the democratic electors were entitled to the office. About a week before, the Legislature had passed an act designating Secretary of State W. D. Bloxham, Comptroller Co lumbus Drew and Treasurer \i\Talter Gwynn, as a board to canvass . the returns on the presidential electors, and the result showed a democratic vote of 24,440 and a republican of 24,330 . By an act passed on January 26th, the day after the Circuit Court had decided in favor of the demo cratic electors, the Legislature recognized the latter figures as the true return. As is well known, the Joint High Commission at Washington recognized only the original returns on the vote for electors, and Florida was declared carried for the republican president, while the democratic state officers were recognized as elected. GOVERNOR DREW' S BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION The four years' administration of George F. Drew, , of Madison County, was what might be expected from a man of his substantial character. A New Hampshire man, brought up to be thrifty and prac tical, he had come South when a young man and machinist , _and for twelve years before his election to the governorship had been engaged in lumber ing and the saw-mill industry on the Suwannee River. After his public service, the years of his Ji fe were mainly devoted to the development of Jacksonville. Governor Drew was a conservative democrat, who endeavored to unite all the political factions of the state, but his reputation as a public man rests chiefly upon his well directed efforts to reduce taxation and bring more stability to the finances. During the first year of his adminis tration, he was able to lower the tax by two and a half mills and in the following year, still more . Th,' property of the state was at that time valued at about thirty million doilars. At same time , he realized the

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160 HISTORY OF FLORIDA undesirability of going too far in that direction, and said in his last me s sage to the Legislature: "At the present valuation of property and rate of taxation, the state cannot be kept on a cash basis and the interest on the public debt paid." In I879, the Legislature created the Bureau of Immigration, com posed of Governor Drew, Comptroller Columbus Drew and Commissioner of Lands Hugh A. Corley. Seth French, commissioner of the board, with headquarters at Jacksonville, was the active advertiser of Flori la's advantages, and the entire body was an effective agent in bringing useful settlers to the state. STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY INCORPORATED An event of the year I879, which may be called public in its character, was the incorporation of the State Historical Society of Florida, by David S. Walker, Columbus Drew, Harrison Reed, C. C. Yonge, Samuel Fairbanks, A. S. Baldwin, Ellen Call Long, Robert Bullock, J. J. Finley, P. P. Bishop, John \i\Testcott , W . D. Barnes and E. M. Randall. CONGRESSIONAL CONTESTS In the meantime, the congressional caldron had been seething, if not boiling, chiefly around the campaigns and contests in which figured Horatio Bisbee, Jr., of Jacksonville . Mr. Bisbee had hung to his seat in the Forty-fifth Congress until February, I879, when he was succeed .eel by Gen. J. J. Finley, of Lake City, who had been vigorously contesting the seat of his republican opponent. In the election for representatives of the Forty-sixth Congress, fall of I878, there was only about a dozen votes difference between the rival candidates, as originally returned from the Second district. Noble A. Hull, democrat, took his seat and retained it until January, I88r, when Mr. Bisbee who had been contesting it, succeeded him and had the questionable satisfaction of serving the balance of the term, about six weeks. BtJt as he himself had served until within two weeks of the conclusion of the previous Congress, in face of the contest of General Finley , his short term of service in the Forty-sixth Congress seemed to be a measure of politic<.! justice, if there is such in the world. WILKINSON (ALL, UNITED STATES SENATOR Wilkinson Call, nephew of the old territorial governor, son of Dr. John Call, of Tallahassee, and brother of Maj. George W. Call, a brave Confederate officer who had fallen in Virginia, was elected to the United States senatorship by the Legislature of I879. This was his second elec tion to the upper house of Congress, but the reconstruction policy of the Senate had previou ly denied him a seat therein. As the Legislature was strongly democratic, his election over Dr. Simon B. Conover, of Tallahassee, the sitting senator , was a foregone conclusion. In the fall of I88o, Dr. Conover was a candidate for governor, but was decisively defeated by William D. Bloxham. who resigned his office as secretary of state to make the canvass. Col. Robert H. M. Davidson, of Quincy, was reelected to Congress in the First district, and Gen. Jesse J. Finley defeated his old rival in the Second district. The proposition for a constitutional convention was rejected by a large majority and Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, democrat, received the presidential electoral vote. WILLIAM D. BLOXHAM, GOVERNOR Governor Bloxham was of the highly-educated , popular, honorable planter type of Florida. He was a native of Leon County and, for a number of years before entering state politics and public life. lived quietly and industriously upon hi fine estate near Tallahassee . He was

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 161 an officer in the Civil war. In I872 (twice) he had been a candidate for governor, before his election in 188o, and had been cho en lieutenantgovcrnor in I870. As tated, he was serving as secretary of state when he resigned to lead the canvass for the governorship. His first adminis tration, now commencing, marked a period of remarkable progress for Florida, and his was the steadying and guiding hand in its development of four years. Twelve years after its close, he was honored a second time-a unique record in the political annals of Florida, to be twice elected to the governorship. Governor Bloxham's first cabinet was as follows: Secretary of State, Dr. John L. Crawford, a Georgian, but from territorial days a resident and honored physician of Wakulla County, south of Leon (Crawfordville, the county seat of Wakttlla, still bears his name) ; William D. Barnes, comptroller; Henry . L'Engle, treasurer; George P. Raney. attorney-general; H. A. Corley, commissioner of lands and immigration; Eleazer K. Foster, superintendent of public instruction, and J. E. Yonge, adjutant general. REMARKABLE RECORD OF CoNTINuous Punuc SERVICE The term of Dr. Crawford as secretary of state commenced on January 2I, I881, and inaugurated a remarkable family record of con tinuous public service in the governmental affairs of Florida. He held the office until January 25, I902, when he was succeeded by his son, H. Clay Crawford, the present incumbent. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT FUND AVAILABLE It seems as if nearly all the problems and enterprises which had agitated Florida since the Civil war and even before, came to some kind of a head, or assumed a definite direction forward during Governor Bloxham's first administration. The greatest and the most sudden step taken toward the introduction of general prosperity to the state was the lifting of the crushing debt from the internal improvement fund. Nearly a million dollars was pressing down upon the fund and making it un available to either the proposed railroads, canals or other public improve ments. ot only had the sale of the internal improvement lands been made piecemeal but much of the $272,000 thus realized had been con sumed in the expenses of litigation to collect taxes from the railroads. which were still largely built on paper. At the opening of the administration, John H. Fry, the promoter of the proposed trans-peninsular canal, offered to buy 6,000,000 acres of the fund for the privilege of building a canal. or ship railway across Florida, and another similar offer was under consideration when Hamilton Disston and other Philadelphia capitalists came upon the cene of financial nego tiations. His proposition was to undertake the drainage of lands from the upper Kissimmee River to the Everglades and from Lake Okeechobee westward to the Gulf, and to receive as compensation half the reclaimed lands. Negotiation with the governor and his cabinet resulted in an agreement to sell Mr. Disston and his associates 4,000,000 acres of swamp and overflowed lands at 25 cents per acre. Without going into details as to how the lands were selected, the material results were that the eastern capitalists soon after the agreement of May, I881, made a first payment to the state of $500,000, nearly all in currency , and that the remainder of the $1, 000 ,000 was covered into the public treasury by the close of 1882. CANAL AND RAILROAD BuILDJNG Mr. Disston. through his active man in Florida, Col. Isaac Coreyell. put his steam dredges to work in the region of I ake Okeechobee, in December. r882, and Dr. John \i\Testcott. of St. Johns County, began hi Vol. 1 l . 1

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162 HISTORY OF FLORIDA work on a system of canals between the St. Johns River and Biscayne Bay, or Miami. The latter enterprise had been chartered under the name of the Florida Coast Line Canal and Transportation Company, and work was begun in 1882 . Thirty years thereafter the line , as originally planned, completed. But it was the railroads which felt the most immediate and greatest implse from the availability of the internal improvement fund for their purposes . This feature of the Bloxham administration, as well as the financial improvement during that period, is told in Dr. Edwin L. Green's history of Florida thus : "In spite of the many railroads that had been planned there were only 500 miles in operation in 1882. In th e next four years, however, over sev en hundred and fifty additional miles of road were constructed. * * * Owing to the rapid advance in the wealth of Florida during the four years of Governor Bloxham's administration, her taxable property was doubled in value and in 1885 was put down as over sixty million dollars . The last message of the governor says: 'Florida has never occupied the high position that she does today in the financial world. * * * She has no floating debt, and cash in the treasury to meet all legitimate expenses.' " The later period of Governor Bloxham's term de ve loped several advances along educational lines. The Legislature of 1883 commenced to make appropriations for teachers' institutes, and in 1884 the State Agricul tural College was opened at Lake City. Two months lat er, the Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb was established at St. Augustine . DEMOCRATS IN POWER In the general election of 1884 , the democrat s not only carried the state for their nominees, but cast their electoral vote for Grover Cleve land , and for the first time since 1856, had the satisfaction of having their presidential candidate inaugurated at the White House, Floridians also voted for a constitutional convention. The governor-elect , Gen. Edward A. Perry, was northern by birth, and southern by experience. He was a Yale graduate, but when a young man in 1856 commenced the practice of the law at Pensacola. At the outbreak of the war, he was called to Virginia as captain of the Pensacola Rifle Rangers, the first Florida command to be sent to that state. He rose to the rank of one of Lee's brigadier-generals, and returned to his profession a badly wounded and much admired soldier of the Con federacy. General Perry became a leading lawyer , but avoided public office until he entered the gubernatorial race in 1884. Colonel Davidson was again elected to Congress from the First dis trict. and Charles Dougherty, of Port Orange, was chosen to represent the Second district. The new members of Governor Perry's cabinet were C. M . Cooper, attorney general; C. L. Mitchell, commi ssi oner of lands and immigration, and Col. David Lang, adjutant general. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION OF 1885 The Legislature of 1885 cast an overwhelming vote for Wilkinson Call to succeed himself as United States senator, and ordered a special e l ection for May to se l ect delegates to the constitutional convention to assemble on the second Tuesday of June following. Most of the leading men of the state were thus honored . Samuel Pasco . of Jefferson county. was chosen permanent chairman, and William H. Reynolds was elected secretary . Dr. John Westcott , long surveyor general, was the oldest delegate of the convention . J . C. Richards. of Bradford County, Alexander Bell, of Brevard County (or Thomas N. Bell of Hamilton County), S. E. Hope, of Hillsborough County, and J. M. Landrum, of Santa Rosa County, had been members of the convention of 1865. and Dr. Simon B . Conover, of Tallahassee, former Uriited States senator, had sat in the

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 163 convention of 1868 . One also recognizes among the names R. F. Taylor for over thirty-two years a justice of the State Supreme Court. The convention continued in session from June 9th to August 3d, and the new state instrument which it adopted is known as the Constitution of 1885. It is still, with amendments, the fundamental law of the state. The most radical change was made to eliminate the office of lieutenant governor and to make the administrative officials elected by direct vote and not appointed by the governor. Representation in the Legislature was limited to 100 members, 32 senators and 68 representatives. The sessions were to commence in April and be held biennially. The appointive power of the governor was limited to the adjutant general , and, with the consent of the Senate, to the circuit judges and state attorneys . Representation in the Legislature was limited to 100 members, 32 senators and the 68 members of the lower house. The article on education (XII) established the state tax of one mill on the dollar, the county tax ranging from three to five mills, and the district tax not to exceed three mills. The Constitution of 1885 was ratified by the people in November, 1886, and by its own provisions, went into operation on January 1, 1887 .

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CHAPTER X UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF r885 The fundamental law of Florida is sl1ill the Constitution of r885, which was formed in the first year of Governor Perry's term. Provision wa made therein that, commencing with the Legislature which should meet in r887, an apportionment of the representation in the two houses of that body should be made every ten years. The representation in the House of Representatives should be apportioned among the several coun ties, as nearly as possible, according to the popu lation; "provided each county shall have one representative and no county shall have more than three." The constitution provided for a state census in 1895 and every ten years thereafter. Fm T LEGISLATURE UNDER 1885 CONSTITUTION The Legislature of 1887, the first to meet under the new constitution, created the counties of Osceola, Lee, DeSoto, Lake, Pasco and Citrus; a general election law was passed providing for a supervisor of registration, appointed by the governor, and county boards of health were established. Governor Perry also appointed Col. J. J. Daniel, of Duval County, and Col. John Bradford, of Leon County, as a commission to ascertain the approximate area drained by the Florida Coast Line Canal Company, the board of trnstees having already deeded I ,174,942 acres of land to the canal company , or one-half the amount claimed to have been reclaimed. At the receipt of the commission's report, the Legislature authorized the board to compromise with the canal company, by which the area of land conveyed wa s reduced and the latter wa allowed one acre for each twenty-five cents expended on bona fide drainage and reclamation. The Legi lature also establi heel a permanent railroad commission, the original members of which were George G. McWhorter, of Santa Ro a County; Enoch J. Vann, of Madison, and William Himes, of Sumter. Florida's era of prosperity not only continued, but gathered force. Its assessment of property had increased from $6o,ooo,ooo in r886 to $76,000,000 in 1887, and, within the following two years, reached $90,000,000. The state revenue advanced correspondingly and railroad enterprises were pushed so rapidly that by r888 there were 2 , 336 miles of lines in operation within the bounds of Florida. Gen. Jesse ]. Finley was appointed by the governor to serve a United States senator from the expiration of the term of Charles W. Jones until the election could be held by the Legislature. The ensuing contest between Governor Perry, ex-Governor Bloxham and Samuel Pasco, of Monticello, was exciting, and the balloting continued from April 5th to May r8th. Messrs. Perry and Bloxham finally withdrew, and Mr. Pasco, a lawyer of broad education, a Confederate soldier with a good record, and, for more than a decade the acknowledged head of the demo cratic parity in Florida, was elected senator by more than the necessary two-thirds vote. E ESSITY FOR STATE BOARD OF HEALTH Under the new constitution, various county boards of health had been formed. Those bodie had been useful in the fight against yellow fever 164

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 165 at Key 'vVest and in the Tampa region, as well as later in the more serious epidemic at Jacksonville and in Northern Florida. The experience of the health authoritie in these local contests against yellow fever had brought the conviction that a central body was necessary . to stamp out such epidemics. As the new constitution directed the Legislature to establish a State Board of Health, there was every public reason to hasten its formation in order to cooperate with the United States health authori ties shou • ld yellow fever reappear as an epidemic in the summer of I889; That, however, is a slight forecast of events. FRANCIS P. FLEMING, GOVERNOR The political campaign and the election of I888 were among the most exciting in the history of the state. Action commenced in the demo cratic nominating convention held at St. Augustine, in May, and which resulted in the gubernatorial choice of Francis P. Fleming of Jacksonville, on the fortieth ballot. His election by 40,255 votes, the greatest number (up to that time) cast for a governor of Florida1 was an indication of his widespread popularity and the general confidence reposed in him. Both his individual character and his . family traditions were conducive to such a standing. He himself was a native of Duval County, in the prime of middle life, and had served with honor in the armies of orthern Virginia and Tennessee. t his return from Confederate service he studied law, and in I868 was admitted to the Florida bar, practicing law and participating in politics as a leading citizen of Jack sonville. The firm of Fleming & Daniel, of which he was one of the members, became one of the most prominent in the lega'1 annals of Florida; but sad inroads were made upon its personnel by the death of his elder brother, Louis I. Fleming, and another member of the firm, Col. James J. Daniel, both of whom were carried off by the yellow fever epidemic of I888. . Governor Fleming was the son of Col. Lewis Fleming, distinguished in the Indian wars and the grandson of Capt. George F l eming, an owner of a large landed estate granted by the Spanish government in recogni tion of valuable personal services; so that he came of an old and honored Florida family. One of his brothers, Capt. Charles Seton Fleming, was also a distinguished Confederate oldier. The people of Florida, especially those who knew anything about its history, looked upon the Fleming family as peculiarly their own ; and acted accordingly when called upon to cast their votes for one of its able members as executive head of their state. STATE BOARD OF HEALTH CREATED The most pressing matter before the governor when he entered office was the creation of a State Board of Health, in conformity with the demand of the state constitution and the pressure brought to bear by the yellow fever epidemic. At an extraordinary session of the Legi lature, called by Governor Fleming under the act of February 20, I889, that body was organized by the appointment of Dr. Richard P. Daniel, of Jacksonville,; William B. Henderson of Tampa, and William K. Hyer, of Pensacola, as members; the board selected Dr. Joseph Y. Porter, of Key West, as state health officer. Thu was established the first board of health of the state. THE FLEMING AoMINISTHATION The revenues of the state also required adjustment, as many increased expenditures were demanded to carry out the provisions of the new constitution and the taxes levied were only based on an assessment of about $5)<>,000,000. The governor recommended a closer approximation

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166 HISTORY OF FLORIDA to the actual value of the property assessed. During the first year of his administration, the normal schools for both whites and blacks took a step forward-the former being provided with an independent building and the latter commenced to receive the benefits of the Morrill bill in its annual appropriations for the succeeding decade. In 1891, the colored school at Tallahassee obtained as i . ts permanent site, "I-iighwood," tlie former estate of William P. Duval (territorial governor, 1822-34), and on the beautiful highlands overlooking the state capital, soon into a college. The Legislature in 1889 created a Board of Immigration, but it was abolished in 1891, and the work of promoting immigration to Florida, through the literary publication of its advantages, has since been assigned to the commissioner of agriculture . The phosphate industry, which was developed to commercial importance during Governor Fleming's admin istration, attracted many settlers to Florida. In 1887, the Legislature had made the famous contract with H. S. Greeno and others, granting them unlimited privileges in the interior waters of the state in return for a payment of $r.oo per ton royalty. Hard rock phosphates were discovered in the Ocala neighborhood, and further explorations demohstrated a rich belt parallel to the Gulf coast, north and south. Companies and syndicates were formed everywhere and land s bordering the water courses of Western and Central Florida were purchased by spec ulatcirs from poor arni excited owners. Many tracts which were partially devel oped refused to pay any royalty to the state, which had appointed its own analyzing chemist. In 1891 Governor Fleming brought many sqits for the collection of such royalties, and while much of the litigation was still pending the phosphate boom collapsed. That old and substantial, if slow-growing, industry founded on the fisheries was recognized in public legi s lation during 1889, by the creation of a board to look after its interests. The first Commission of Fisheries was composed of L. C. Sellers, Pensacola; Matthew Moseley, Cedar Key, and J . H. Smith, Titusville . DEATH OF FORMER GOVERNOR PERRY "In 1889," says Governor Fleming in his "Memoirs," "the state was called upon to mourn the death of Governor E. A. Perry, who passed away in Texas, October 15th, and was buried with great honors at Pensacola. On December 6th following, occurred the death of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate states, in whose memory serv ices were held throughout the state, as appointed by proclamation of the governor, December nth. His funeral at New Orleans was attended by Governor Fleming and nearly a ll of the southern governors. The next Legislature made the birthday of the departed statesman (June 3d) a legal holiday. On June 17, 1891, there was unveiled at Pensacola the monument to the Confederate dead, the movement for which had been begun by General Perry ten years before." At the general election in 1890, William D. Bloxham was elected comptroller of state, he having been appointed to that office by Governor Fleming, to succeed Hon. W. D. Barnes, who resigned to become circuit judge, vice Hon. J. F. McClellan, deceased, in 189<>. The members of Congress elected in 1890 were Stephen R. Mallory, of Pensacoia, for the First district, and Gen. Robert Bullock, of Ocala, who was his own suc cessor in the Second district. Mr. Mallory was the son of the statesman by the same name, who was serving in the United States Senate at the time of the secession of the South and had resigned in January, 1861, with other members of the Florida delegation. Soon afterward he became secretary of the navy under the Confederacy. Congressman Stephen R. Mallory died December 23, 1907. Among the amendments in the constitution adopted at the general

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 167 election of 189<> was that which changed the election of state and local office r s from November to October. THE OCALA PLATFORM By the fall of I890, the various political movements among the farmers of the West and Northwest were sweeping over the South. Among the most important of them was the National Farmers' Alliance, and Florida had gained such a standing as an agricultural state, as well as a demo cratic stronghold, that Ocala was selected as the convention city of that organization in December, I89o. The Alliance adopted what became known throughout the United States as the Ocala Platform, which figured in several campaigns of succeeding years. It was the means of widely advertising the little city of Central Florida. Although Governor Fleming refused to certify to the election of Wilkinson Call to the United States Senate, on the ground that there was no quorum of the upper house of the Legislature present when the vote was taken, Mr. Call was seated when the Congress convened. The democratic caucus had refused to nominate Mr. Call in the spring of I89I, and there was therefore some hard feeling within the party, fif teen members of the State Senate having withdrawn in consequence of what they claimed was "a violation of the party pledge" not to elect without having made a regular caucus nomination. As Senator Call, who was about to enter his third six-year term, was a relative of the old territorial governor, R. K. Call, several historic famihes were represented in the state and national governments. PROVISION FOR SEMINOLE INDIANS In I89I the Legislature assumed the care of the Seminole Indians who remained within the borders of Florida. Since I884 Congress had appropriated a few thousand dollars annually to enable them to obtain homesteads on the public lands of the state, and as stated, in I89I the Legislature took up the work. Five thousand acres were set aside from the internal improvement lands, to be held for the use of the Seminoles by a board of trustees, the members of which were James E. Ingraham, Capt. Francis A. Hendry and Garibaldi Niles. Captain Hendry com menced the purchase of the land, as the Seminole agent, and missionary work was begun under the auspices of the Women's National Intl ian Association. THE NEW CAPITOL In December, I92I, and January, I922, the initiatory steps were taken in the rebuilding and extension of the state capitol that the center of government at Tallahassee might in some fitting degree represent the advanced standing of Florida as one of the most prosperous of the southern commonwealths. The new additions will be eastern and western extensions, will involve an expenditure of $250,000 and, when completed , will transform the capitol into the general shape of a cross. When worked out, the plan will provide about eighty per cent increase in floor space, so that the State Road Department, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the State Geological Department , which are now accommo dated in outside office buildings, will be housed in the new capitol building. The body which has the construction of the extension in charge, as well as the remodeling of the other sections of the capitol, is known as the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions and is composed of the following members: Chairman, C. A. Hardee, governor; secretary of state, H. Clay Crawford; attorney-general, R. H. Buford; comptroller, Ernest Amos; state treasurer, J. C. Luning; superintendent of public

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168 HISTORY OF FLORIDA instruction. William N. Sheats; commissioner of agriculture, William A. McRae. The board selected H. J. Klutho, of Jacksonville, one oE the most prominent architects of the state, to have absolute supervision of the work under way, and Parker & Yaeger, of Tallahassee, obtained the building contract , on the 14th of December, 1921. The plan now being practically evolved contemplates an extension from the present rotunda eastward fifty-eight feet, with a facsimile of the portico of the present eastern entrance, except that there will be an automobile driveway underneath, so that in rainy weather entrance to the building may be gained under shelter. The western extension will be similar and will lead from the present rotunda ninety-seven feet, with an entrance from the sidewalks. Both extensions will correspond in height with the older structure. The basement of the eastern extension will contain the offices of the comptroller. state equalizer of taxes and the commissioner of agriculture , while that of the western extension will be occupied by the engineering department of the Everglades Drainage Board and the state geologist. The main floor of the eastern extension will also have accommodations for the comptroller and the commissioner of agriculture, and the corre sponding floor of the western extension will be headquarters for the department of education, the attorney-general and the State Board of Control. On the upper, or second floor of the eastern extension will be located the Senate chamber, while in the opposite extension will be found the hall of the House of Representati . ves, both with ample visitors ' galleries. Adjacent to the meeting places of both houses of the Legis lature are to be handsome accommodations for their officials. The old Senate chamber will be converted into offices to be used by the Hotel Commission, tJ1e State Shell Fish Commission and the Live Stock Sanitary Board . The State Road Department will have the use of the space now occupied by the Everglades Drainage Board, and the space now used for the heating plant will be converted into a library. It is to be hoped when finis is written in the rearranging of the state departments that the miscellaneous and unclassified collection of books, docu ments and pamphlets now lumbering so large an area of the capitol basement will be catalogued and made acces ible to students of Florida history. The plan for the remodeling of the interior of the tate house also provides for the installation of a modern steam heating plant , and the substitution of the old wooden wainscoting by marble. In a word, the writer reverts to the introduction of this article and repeats that it is the ambition of the builders of the new capitol to make its interior, as well as its exterior, representative of "the advanced standing of Florida a s one of the most prosperous of the southern commonwealths." GoVERNOR HENRY L. MITCHELL The election for state officers in October, 1892. showed that the democratic party was in firm possession of Florida. The people's party, backed by the farmers' alliance movement, as well as the prohibition party. had its state and national tickets, but made little impression on the outcome. Henry L. Mitchell, of Tampa, who was elected governor by over 23,000 majority, was a native of Alabama. He had resided . in that city since his young manhood, was a lawyer and served as state's attorney of his district before he made another record as Confederate captain and member of the Legislature. The fifteen years, from 1877 to 1892, covered the judicial period of his career, during which he served the people on the benches of the Circuit and State Supreme courts. The state officials elected with Governor Mitchell included those veterans of the public service, John L. Crawford and William D. Blox ham, William Sheats, of Gainesville, was chosen superintendent of public instruction.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 169 STATE FI ANCES STAnJLTZED The Mitchell administration was chiefly to be commended for its reform of the state finances under the guidance of Comptroller W. D. Bloxham, a radical change in the election laws and decided progress in the system of public education, under the superintendency of Professor Sheats. The income of the state for 1892 was $582,000 and its estimated expenditures $641 ,ooo. Instead of issuing scrip to meet a threatened increase of indebtedness. a constitutional amendment was proposed (and finally adopted) by which the costs in criminal prosecutions, where the defendant was insolvent or acquitted, instead of being borne by the state should be assumed by the county in which the cases were tried, and that all fines and forfeitures should be applied to such county purposes instead of going to the state school fund. This Fhange did more than any other reform to stablize the finances of Florida, notwithstand ing the hard times of the period. The state stanchly weathered the gen eral depression, in the face of such special disasters as the light cotton crop, with the lowest prices known; the ruin of the citrus crop by the unprecedented succession of cold waves which swept over the belt from December, 1894, to February, 1895, and the great stotm of September 29, 1896, which ruined Cedar Key and caused the Joss of some forty lives, and destroyed crops, timber and homesteads to the extent of $10,000,000 lying in the northern section of the penjnsula , from the Suwannee to the St. Johns River. On account of the wide-spread suffering caused by these visitations of nature, special laws were enacted for the remission of tax penalties. AUSTRALIAN BALLOT SYSTEM ADOPTED Pursuant to the recommendations of the democratic convention held in 1894, the Legislature of the following year passed an election law embodying the main features of the Australian system by which the voter may indicate his choice of candidates by secret and unobstructed ballot. Beyond a decrease in the salaries of teachers and a shortening of the school term in certain counties, the system of ' public education in Florida was little affected by the financial depressions of the period. On the other hand, Superintendent Sheats at the commencement of the Mitchell administration ( 1893) introduced a new school law providing that teachers' certificates be divided into six classes, obtainable only after thorough examinations. The examinations were made uniform throughout the state. FLORIDA FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS This period of the state's history was signalized by the creation of a force which has done a great work in the elevation of Florida and of the entire standard of public and private life in the commonwealth. On February 21. 1895, at Green Cove Springs, Clay County, was organized the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. It was admitted to the Gen eral Federation of Women's Clubs January 25, 1898, and incorporated April 12, 1915. The presidents of the State Federation have been: 1895-97, Mrs. P. A. Borden Hamilton, deceased. Green Cove Springs; 1897-99, Mrs. N. C. Wamboldt, Fairfield, Jacksonville; 1899-1901, Mrs. J. C. Beekman, Tarpon Springs; 1901-03, Mrs. W. W. Cummer, Jacksonville; 1903-05, Mrs. Lawrence Haynes, Jacksonville; 1905-o6, Mrs. Richard F. Adams. Palatka; 19o6-08, Mrs. Charles H. Raynor, Daytona; 1908-ro, Mrs. Thomas M. Shackleford, Tallahassee; 1910-12, Mrs. A. E. Frederick, Miami; 1912-14, Mrs. William Hocker, Ocala; 1914-17, Mrs. VI/. S. Jennings, Jacksonville; 1917-19. Mrs. Edgar Lewis, Fort Pierce; 1919-2r. Mrs. J. vV. McCollum. Gainesville; r921-23, Mis Elizabeth Skinner, Dunedin.

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• 170 HISTORY OF FLORIDA For purposes of close union the state is divided into eleven sections, over each of which is a vice president. Iri common with the organiza tion of all state federations, the work is divided into departments, so well known as not to require repetition. There are also sta nding com mittees on Florida History and the Royal Palm State Park, the property a nd special pride of the Federation. As classified by the Federation , the sections of the state are arranged from west to east and from north to south. Section I includes such points as DeFuniak Springs, Lynn Haven, Marianna, Milton, and Pensacola-twenty-four clubs with a membership of 876; Section 2; Apalachi cola, Tallahassee, etc., five clubs with a total membership of 279; Section 3, Lake City, Live Oak, etc., with seven clubs and a membership of 312; Section 4, Gainesville, Ocala , etc. , twelve clubs and 667 members; Sec tion 5, Jacksonville, Green Cove Springs (where the Federation origin ated) and other towns, fourteen clubs with a membership of 977; Sec tion 6, DeLand, Daytona , New Smyrna, Palatka, St. Augustine, etc., fifteen clubs carrying 1,278 members; Section 7, Eustis, Ki ssimmee, Lees burg, Orlando, Sanford, Tavares, Winter Park, etc., fourteen clubs and 1 ,082 members; Section 8, Bartow, Dade City, Lakeland, St. Petersburg, Tampa, etc., forty-two clubs with a membership of 2,701 ; Section 9, Arcadia, Bradentown, Fort Myers, Moore Haven, Punta Gorda, etc., twenty clubs which include a membership of 1,371; Section IO, Fort Pierce, Melbourne, Titusville, West Palm Beach, etc., eighteen clubs and 1,456 members; Section II, Fort Lauderdale , Homestead, Key West, Miami, etc., seventeen clubs with a membership of 1,262. According to these latest figures, the 168 women's clubs in Florida affiliated with the Federation have a total membership of 12,261. The statistics themseTves form only a faint indication of the influence wielded by this large and compactly organized body of intelligent, ambitious and moral women. The Federation motto well epitomizes the spirit of the Union: "In great things, Unity; in small things , Lib e rty ; in all things, Charity." The Federation colors are green and gold and its emb lem , the orange and leaf. FILIBUSTERING EXPEDITIONS TO CUBA The revolution against Spanish rule in Cuba was formally proclaimed in February, 1895, and the last two years of Governor Mitchell's admin istration were stirred with the filibustering events cau sed by th e open sympathy and covert actions of thousands of sympathizing Floridians. There was a large migration from Cuba to the Key West and the Tampa districts, but these sections of the state were by no means most active iq the efforts of the people to give comfort and assistance to the strug gling patriots across the Straits of Florida. Antonia Maceo, who shared the insurgent honors with Gomez in the early campaigns against the Spanish army under Campos, was a leader in the first filibustering ex pedifion from Florida which sailed from Fernandina. It was broken up by the United States authorities. In July and September, Cuba de clared her independence of Spain and adopted a constitution. After which the Florida filibusters were even more anxious to assist, and not a few of them, led by native exiles, made safe landings on the island and placed men, arms and ammunition where they would do the most good. A Spanish warship was stationed at Key West, and American revenu e cutters and gunboats guarded Tampa Bay, Cedar Key, Fernandina, the mouth of the St. Johns, Palm Beach and other points on the Gulf and the Ocean , from which the elusive filibusters might put out for Cuban shores. Notwithstanding which, many escaped the water police, and in 1896, when General Campos was replaced by the cruel General Weyler , such expediditions were increased in frequency. The Stephen R. Mal. Jory from Cedar Key, finally reached Cuba with its war cargo, assisted

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 171 by the tug, Three Friends. On the whole the most successful expeditions were made by the Dauntless and the Three Friends from the St. Johns region, although they had their "ups and downs" in their ventures. GovERNOR BLOXHAM's SECOND TERM The political situation in I896 was the same in Florida as in other states. The popular vote was divided between several parties , with the straight derpocratic party predominating in the South, and the republican. in the North. A small wing of the Florida democrats took a firm stand against the free coinage of silver and joined the gold democrats, and the republicans, populists and prohibitionists all had tickets . But the election in October resulted in a crushing victory for the regular democracy , and William D. Bloxham was again elected governor by a vote of 27,I72 against his nearest competitor , Edward R. Gunby, the republican candi date, who polled 8,290 votes. At this election, a constitutional amend ment was adopted by which a return was made to November, as the time for holding the state election . The vote in November for the electoral ticket was even more pronounced for the democratic candidates than that cast in the preceding month for the state officials, and the same was true regarding the election of the democratic congressmen, Stephen M. Spark man, of Tampa for the First district, and Robert W. Davis, of Palatka , for the second. Since the conclusion of his first term as governor , in I885, Mr. Blox ham had served as United States surveyor-general of Florida and as state comptroller, so that his experience had further reenforced him in his broad character as a public man. On March 4. I897, the term of Wilkinson Call, as United States senator from Florida expired. Governor Bloxham appointed Col. John A. Henderson, of Leon County, to succeed him until the convening of the Legislature, in April, I897, but the appointee was not seated before the election of Stephen R. Mallory as successor to Senator Call. When the time again approached for tl)e election of a United States senator at the legislative session in April , I897, Wilkinson Call was a candidate for reelection as United States senator, but he was about nearing his third term and there was a strong general sentiment to confer the honor upon some other leading democrat. After the withdrawal of the names of Mr. Call and W. D. Chipley of Pensacola, there were four candidates in the field, but the Legislature finally elected (their old favorite) Stephen R. Mallory, of Pensacola who had be ' en a congressman, and who was a son of Stephen R. Mallory , a United States senator from Florida before the Civil war. The Legislature of 1897 also created a new railroad commission to regulate and pass upon prevailing tariffs and alleged discriminations, and amended the election law of I895 The law regulating Confederate pensions was also so revised as to provide an unreasonable roll, which had to be again amenaed in I899 so as to bring it within the capacity of the state treasury. SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Notwithstanding that filibustering had largely ceased by the summer of I897, General Weyler was recalled from Cuba and Marshal Blanco attempted to put in force a milder policy of Cuban autonomy, frict ion continued to develop between the United $tates and Spain. Finally, at the request of Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, the American consul at Havana, the battleship Maine was sent thither on "a friendly visit," to protect the interests of the United States should they be placed in jeopardy. An American squadron was assembled at Key West and the Dry Tortugas, and relief boats to the starving and suffering Cubans were sent by the Government. This openly expressed sympathy with the struggling patriots was a constant source of aggravation to Spain, and the rising •

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172 HISTORY OF FLORIDA t id e of indignation in t h e United States swept away all bounds with t h e m ys teriou s destruction o f the Maine, and the wholesale l oss of A m erica n lives . War, h oweve r , was not declared until a ca reful inv est i gat ion of the wree k proved .conclu s i ve l y that the exp l os i on which caused the cas ualty was from without the battleship and brought about by so me e n e my contrivance. In the meantime , a l so, President McKinley had made eve r y effort to induce the panish Government to treat the Cuban . at lea st the non-combatants, with some me asure of humanity. By the middle of April , both governmen t s had made their preparations for hostilities an d o n th e 20 th of that mon t h the President sig n ed the war resolutions of Cong re ss. F l o rid a r espo nd ed promptly to s uppl y it s quota of one regiment in the call for 125,000 vo lunteers. Its five battalions were commanded by Majors J. W. Sac k ett, C. P. Lovell, W. F. Williams , Irving E. Webster and Dougla s F. Cono l ey, and the First F lorid a Volunteers were mu ste red into th e service of the U nited States, at Tampa , o n the 23rd of May, 18g8. T he first col o n e l of the r eg im ent was W. F. Williams, a nd, at his r es igna tion, he was s ucceeded by Major C. P. Lovell, present adjutant-ge n e ral of the sta te. The F irst was ready and eage r at all times t o get int o t h e ST. \TE ARMOR\' battle line , but, with the g reat maj o rity of troops raised fo r act ive se r v i ce, was denied that privilege. The regiment was in camp at Tampa and Fernandina , Florida, and Huntsville, A l abama, up o n severa l occas ion s under orders for C uba or Porto Rico, but as many times disappointed. O n December 4. 1898, e ight o f the com panie s were mustered out of the service at Tallahassee, and on January 28, 1899, the remaining four com panie were discharged at Huntsville. F lorida furni s hed Co mpany C, Third Unit ed States Infantry, or Ray' Immunes, consisting of 104 men, which erved for a time in C uba . It was orga niz ed by Capt. William H. Cobb, who was succeede d by Capt. John E. Conden . The only officer who served in C uba was Maj. John W. Sackett, who commanded th e Third Battalio n , F ir st Regiment of F lorida Infantry. Co lon e l Sack et t was an e ngin eer and was d etac hed to command a battalion from ot h e r states. F ir st h e was order ed to C uba , and thence to Porto Ri co. The center o f naval activity in th e F l o rida zone was Key West, a t which was assembled the fleet commanded by ct ing Rear-Admiral Sa mp son . Late in April , when it became kno w n that the Spanis h fleet whic h had rendezvoused at the Cape Verde Islands, had sa il e d west ward, the America n commander left the Florida coast and sa iled int o the hi<>'h seas to me et the enemy. Mea nwhile , Commodore Schley had been orde r ed from Hampton Roads. V ir g inia , to Key West, but le a rnin g of the sa iling of the Spani sh fleet also set o u t in search of it. As hi story •

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 173 knows, Schley discovered it at Santiago de Cuba, Sampson arrived soon afterward, the combined America fleet blockaded the harbor, and when the Spanish ships attempted to escape they were wrecked by the traightshooting gunners of the United States. The effect of the war upon Florida was to place in circ ul ation large urn s of money expended by the Government and the thousands of in dividual soldiers concentrated at Tampa. They comprised two corps under Gen. William R. Shafter and Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (later ordered. to Jacksonville) and one cavalry division, under General Joseph Wheel er. W hil e the Spani s h fleet was at l arge, the coasts of F lorida were closely guarded, and the grand result of all these military act i vities was to make Florida more prosperous than at any other period of equal length, and to advertise her more widely than could ever be done by her most enerO'etic commissioner of immigration or agriculture. While the Spanish-American war was being fought to a conclusion , during the last eight month of 1898, F l orida, under the civil administra tion of Governor Bloxham, wa continuin g her advance as an enterprising southern state. In January of that year the fisheries convention, at Tampa, and the military convention , in the same city, assumed the proportions of international events. and forcibly drew the attention of Europe, anada and Mexico to her wealth of the seas and the magnificence of her physical features. At the general e l ection of 1898 , tephen M. Sparkman, pf Tampa, and Robert Vv. Davis, of Palatka, were reelected to Congress, and R. Fenwick Taylor and Francis B. Carter were elected to the State Supreme Court. James B. Whitefie ld having been appointed state treasurer in June, 1897, was e l ected to that office in 1898 and again in 1900. ince 1904 he has been a justice of the Supreme Court. In April, 1899, t}le Legislature selected James P. Taliaferro, one of Lee's veterans and a resident of Jacksonville for more than thirty years, as United States senator. Late in Governor Bloxham' term, the state troops were reorgan ized into two regiments of infantry and a battalion of artillery. The First Regiment, w i th headquarters at Jack onville, was commanded by Col. C. P. Lovell; the Second at Gainesville, by ol. I. E. Webster; the artill ery battalion, comprising the Jacksonville and Pensaco la bat teries, by Maj. J. Gumbinger, of Jac!_
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• 174 HISTORY OF FLORIDA beginning of a gradual improvement in the condition and treatment of convicts leased as workmen, resulting finally in the appointment by the Legislature of state supervisors to investigate the condition of the camps and report to the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Board of Com missioners of State Institutions . The establishment of the prison farm, and the abolition of the lease system entirely, are late phases in the evolu tion of Florida's state prison system, which are fully treated in another chapter. Governor Jennings was the last governor of Florida nominated by a political convention, as the Legislature, early in his administration, passed the first law to introduce the primary system into the body poli tic of the state. It was crude, but a beginning, and an improvement over the convention plan, which could be so easily manipulated by a few skilful politicians. Um:ler this first primary system the State Demo cratic Executive Committee met early in each election year and fixed dates for the primaries. The first primary, in May, was for the purpose of eliminating all but the two high candidates for the offices, and the second primary, usually held in June, was to make the final nomina tion. On the face of it, the original system was cumbersome and expensive for those with political and public ambitions. A number of questions of general interest were submitted to the voters at the general election of 1898. A l though the matter was dis cussed during the campaign, it did not come to a test vote-the proposi tion to annex West Florida to Alabama. That ghost is probably downed. ATTEMPT TO RELOCATE STATE CAPITAL The voters decisively rejected the suggestion of calling a constitutional convention, and the proposal to change the seat of the state government was voted down as determined ly. The census of 1900 indicated that the population of the state was still overwhelmingly in its northern cities and counties, and the contestants for the state capital were Jacksonville , Ocala, St. Augustine and Tallahassee . As stated by the Jacksonville Times-Union, in considering the vote ca s t in this last attempt to relocate the capital: "No real South Florida town contested, for there were so few people then in that part of the state, it was supposed that the capital would be in an out-of-the-way place if south of Ocala." The vote for location resulted as follows: Tallahassee, l 6,7 42 votes; Jacksonville, 7 ,67 S ; Ocala, 4,917; St. Augustine, 2,881. Continuing the Times-Union comments on the election: "The pre dominance of population in this state is rapidly shifting to South Florida and some day, maybe near, maybe far, if the people of South Florida can unite on a spot for the location of the capital, it will be located there. * * * If we may be permitted to make a guess without throwing anybody into a rage, we will guess Tallahassee will remain the capital until the overwhelming majority of the people of Florida live on the peninsula, for the rapidly growing cities of South Florida are jealous of each other, but not of Tallahassee . Would the people of Tampa vote to locate the capital at Jacksonville or Miami? Not so as to at tract much attention. Would Miami support Tampa?. ot to any . astounding extent. Would either Lakeland or Orlando vote for each other? No; each would prefer Tallahassee to the other. These South Florida cities are rivals, but neither looks on Tallahassee as a rival." The decisive vote favor ing Tallahassee as the state capital called emphatic attention to the needs of the state for increased accommoda tions in the conduct of its public affairs . In l9Ql the Legislature passed an appropriation of $75,000 to add wings to the body of the capitol which . had been completed in 1842. Governor Jennings headed a build ing commission, the other members of which (appointed by the governor) were A. C. Croom (comptroller), Herbert J. Drane, C. M. Brown

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 175 and W. A. Blount. This much needed addition to the state hou e was completed in .i902. Governor Jennings' administration brought about a marked improve. ment of the finances of the state.1 The bonded debt was reduced from $1,032,500 to $6oI,667, and the inter.est $40,000 per annum. In the settle ment of the Seminole Indian war claims of the state against the United States, which the Congress of I902 authorized to be paid, Florida was enabled to make not only the reduction in her debt noted, but paid off $132,000 of state bonds issued in I857. The latter had been held by the United States in the Indian trust fund, with interest thereon for twehty nine years, amounting to $396,000. The proceeds from the leasing of state convicts had increased to more than $I6o,ooo. During the first two years of Governor Jennings' term, the receipts of the state treasury from other sources than direct taxation had in creased more than $500,000, or about IOO per cent. Such sources of rev enue included the general license tax, insurance company taxes, interest on deposits of state moneys in banks, fertilizer stamps, corporation charter taxes, tax sale certificates, sale of public lands and income from the leased convicts. This improvement in the condition of the state treasury was ac companied by liberal expenditures in support of the public system of education, both higher and common school. Half a million dollars was appropriated during the administration to the higher institutions of learn ing, which is said to have equaled the total amount spent upon them for the preceding twenty-five years. The most radical measure passed was that known as the Buckman law, which went into effect in I905 Under its provisions all the state educational institutions then existing were displaced by the University of the State of Florida for male students, the Florida State College for Women, the Colored Normal and Indus trial College and the Institution for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb. In I903 the Legislature appropriated $450,000 annually to be used for the encouragement of high schools and rural graded schools. As a result about I40 high and graded schools were aided and improved. Under the same act, a state course of study was established. o that the improvement in the status of the state finances resulted in a marked improvement in Florida's entire system of public education. REORGANIZATION OF STATE MILITIA The Philippine war ended during the second year of Governor Jennings' administration. The United States had been engaged in hostili ties in Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines for a period of four years, and the experience of the Government in preparing for military opera tions and conducting them, emphasized the necessity for a reorganiza tion of the militia of the states. In I902-3 Congress passed a measure toward that end, and the Florida Legislature of 19031 enacted a, new militia law along the lines suggested by the national law. Its provisions made the years of military service range from I8 to 45. The exemptions were those who were not citizens of the United States, or those other wise exempted by the Federal laws, and officers of the state government, judges, legislators, county officers, teachers and clergymen. The organ ized militia of volunteer companies, called the Florida state troops, were placed in two regiments, a battalion of artillery and a medical depart ment, their officers commissioned by the governor. All others subject to military duty constituted the Reserve Militia. FOUNDER OF THE EVERGLADES DRAINAGE Governor Jennings built the foundation for the drainage of the Everglades. The great dredges did not commence their actual work during 1 Caroline M. Brevard's "History of Florida." '

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176 HISTOI Y OF FLORIDA his administration, but through his thorough investigations as to the l ega l relation of the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund to the swamp and overflow land granted to the state by Congress in 1850; his s uccessful application to the general government for a patent to the Everglades, in behalf of the state, thus wholly confirming the title to the same, an(:I his work by which the Legislature passed the first drain age law and created the Everglades Drainage District, confirm Governor Jennings as the founder of the great industrial and engineering enter prise. As the practical work of drainage and reclamation of the land s could not commence without the drafting of the engineer's plans, so the construction companies and engineers could not commence their work without the assurance that there was a clear title to the million of acres of land which they proposed to improve and that the fund was being handled by the legaJly constituted body of control. All uch bed-rock formalities and determinations fell to the ability, patience and deter mination of Gov .ernor Jennings; not a stroke of work could be done until he had accomplished that difficult and complicated ta k. Late in the year 1902 Governor Jennings commenced to collect data as to the feasibility of the enterprise and the powers and duties of the trustees of the Internal Improvement F und to proceed with the work of draining and reclaiming the public land , under Section 16, Chapter 610, Acts of 1855. The other trustees, A. C. Croom, W. B. Lamar, J. B. Whitfield and B. E. McLin, cooperated with the governor. In February of 1903 the governor wrote to Col. R. W. \IVil\iams, counsel for the trustees, to obtain data on the latter point. In his message to the Legislature, delivered in April of that year, the governor submitted much data in regard to the feasibility of the public work, with profile drawings, tending to prove that the normal elevation of Lake Okeecho bee was sufficiently above tidewater to ensure the drainage of the Everglades by cutting, at intervals, the rim of land which confined it and leading the waters of that body either to the gulf or the ocean. But that phase of the matter was an engineer's problem, the fina l so lution of which might be years in the so lving . The first great step made by Governor Jennings in the basic work which fell to him was to obtain for the State of Florida letters patent from the U nited States Gove rnment to the entire Everglade . This title direct from the Govern ment was obtained April 29, 1903, about three weeks after the delivery of his legi s lative message. But both the courts and the best legal talent of the state upheld the contention of the trustees of the fund that they had the right to use lands of the fund for drainage purposes. On the other hand, the railroad land claimant s, according to the published re ports, would absorb the entire fund. While the s uit was pending of the Louisville & NashviJle Company against the trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund to force its land claim at the expense of the drainage enterprise, Governor Jennings' term expired (January 3, 1905). The scope and importance of the accomplishments of Governor Jennings in inaugurating the drainage of the Everglades are thus de scribe d by F. C. Elliot, who has served as c hief drainage engineer of the Everglades Drainage District since 1913: "Prior to the Jennings administration the land s comp ri sing the Everglades were in an undetermined , unsettled and con fused stat us. Statu tory grants to railroad-, canal companies and other disposition of the swamp and overflow land s of the fund had already absorbed n ot on l y . nearly all of the land s in the Everglades, but nearly all of the land s in the state which had come to it under the act of Cong re ss aforesaid ( 1850). These amounted to some 20,000,000 acres in round numbers. Statutory laQcl grants were so numerou s and so conAicting that frequently several tracts overlapped, or lands were caJled for which did not eve n exist. A cloud rested upon the title of practically all the land s in the Everglades through conAicting claims of various kinds. Such was the

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HISTORY OF I•LORID 177 completely tangled, muddled and involved condition of the public lands of the state in the Everglades up to eighteen years ago. No wonder then that the final clearing up of this deplorable chaotic condition of affairs required the whole of the Jennings administration and extended even into subsequent ones. "The work of salvaging these lands from the wreck of confusion of involved title and of questionable status was absolutely essential before the actual physical work of draining them could be undertaken. This was no small task, especially in view of the fact that the assertion of the rights of the state with respect to these lands was opposed by power ful interests who had gotten these millions of acres supposedly within their grasp. It is not here due to describe the great work merely alluded to in the foregoing. Suffice to say that the result of such work was to secure to the State of Florida title in fee simple to the great tract of land known as the Everglades, and to clear up the title by the courts of the tate and fix the status of said lands with respect to drainage. For on this question of drainage rested the saving of these lands to the state, as against the confirmation of the numerous statutory grants to the rail roads. * * * "The foregoing work paved the way for all that was to follow. Had not all this preliminary work been carried to a successful conclusion, the accomplishments of Broward in the subsequent administration would not have been possible, nor would .there have followed the physical work of digging canals, which through its very nature itmnediately made popular appeal to the public and gave to the Broward term the name of 'The Drainage Administration.' " TnE DRAINAGE AoMINlSTHATlON The drainage project had assumed so much prominence that Napo leon B. Broward was elected governor to succeed Mr. Jennings on a platform pledged to the energetic prosecution of the Everglades enter prise. The former governor was retained by the trustees as their legal counsel, and the result was that most of the suits brought by the railroad companies and other litigants, designed to wreck the fund of swamp lands to be drained, culminated favorably to the state. In January, 1905, oon after Governor Broward had assumed office. Mr. Jennings prepared a drainage tax law which defined the Drainage District and provided for the annual tax of S cents per acre to be assessed against all lands in said district irrespective of ownership. The law was de clared unconstitutional by the United States Court, but the judicial ob jections against it were met by an amendment, also formulated by Mr. Jennings, and in that form was passed by the Legislature and approved by Governor Broward on May 28, 1907 The amended act was sustained in the higher courts and all litigation was settled, so that the sale of re claimed lands could proceed without delay. The first State Board of Drainage Commissioners appointed under the drainage tax law, who were also members of the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, were N. B. Broward, . governor; A. C Croom, comptrolle-:; V./. V. Knott, treasurer; W. H. Ellis, attorney-general, and B. E. McLin, commissioner of agriculture. Their terms covered the gubernatorial administration, 1905-9. As stated, the actual work of construction in the drainage of the Everglades was put under way by Governor Broward and the trustees, and during the entire administration was pushed along as rapidly as funds would permit. On the 4th of July, 1906, the first of the dredges, the Everglades, was launched at Fort Lauderdale, north of Miami, and in October of that year, the Okeechobee commenced work in the same vicinity. In. 1908 and r909, two other dredges were constructed and operated under contracts let by the Broward administration. Thus com-

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/ 178 HISTORY OF FLORIDA menced the work of drainage and reclamation of the great tract of lands which was once consi . dered as waste barrens and which is still being redeemed. As the story of that work spells a great Florida topic, its consecutive and final treatment is reserved for a special article; all that has been attempted at this point is to indicate the special parts played in the redemption of the Everglades by W. S. Jennings and N. B. Broward. Governor Broward's administration is largely known for the practi cal progress it made in the Everglades project. According to a sketch of the work made by F. C. Elliot, chief drainage engineer for about a decade, the actual construction work during the Broward administration was as follows : North New River Canal-Length opened, 6.52 miles; total excava tion, 915,000 cubic yards of earth and rock. South New River Canal-Length opened, 6. 7 miles ; total excavation, 759,900 cubic yards of earth and rock. Total: 13.22 miles of canal; 1,674,900 cubic yards of excavation. The governor's mansion was completed in 1909, during the last year of the Broward administration. The building, with grounds, cost about $45,000, and the mansion and improvements in the outskirts of Talla hassee make a beautiful and stately picture . Governor Cali's old family home is within a stone's throw of the modern residence of the chief executive. DEATH OF STEPHEN R. MALLORY Stephen R. Mallory, of Pensacola, United States senator since 1897, died, as stated, on December 23, 1907, and William J. Bryan, of Jack sonville, was appointed to fill the vacancy. Senator Bryan took his seat on January 9, 1908, but only lived until the following 22d of March. William H. Milton, of Marianna, was appointed to fill the vacancy in the term commencing March 4, 1908, caused by the decease of Messrs. Mal lory and Bryan, and took his seat April 6, 1908. THE GILCHRIST ADMINISTRATION Albert W. Gilchrist, of Punta Gorda, who served as governor of Florida from 1909 to 1913, is a native of South Carolina and received a military and engineering education in North Carolina. Afterward he became an orange grower, and got into Florida politics in 1893, when he entered the House of Representatives. He served in that body for four terms, being speaker in 1905. In June, 1898, he resigned as briga dier-general of the Florida militia and enlisted as a private in Company C, Third United States Infantry, which was the only state unit which saw service in Cuba. He was at Santiago and was mustered out of the service as a captain in 1899. It was during the Gilchrist administration, in 1911, that the commis sion form of government for towns and cities was introduced to the body of state laws. Green Cove Springs, Clay County, was the first town to make the change. It went into effect at Pensacola, the first city in Florida to adopt it, in June, 1913. St. Petersburg, Orlando, Lakeland, St. Augus tine, Daytona, Jacksonville and other towns and cities have assumed the commission form, wholly or in part. The year 1912, toward the last of the Gilchrist administration, marked the completion of two enterprises of great benefit to the people of Florida. On the morning of January 22d, of that year, the first through train arrived at Key West over the Florida East Coast Railroad, thus bring ing to a successful conclusion the great work of Henry M. Flagler and his splendid body of associates. Mr. Flagler died in 1913, and twenty seven of his eighty-three years had been spent in the completion of that enterprise. Mr. Flagler's colaborer in this great public work was Joseph

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 179 R. Parrott, who died in 1914. Although a creditable work, the comple tion of the Florida Coast Line Canal, from St. Johns River on the north to Biscayne Bay, Miami, on the south, was not comparable in its broad benefits to the opening of the Florida East Coas t system of railroads. The completion of the canal provided a navigable waterway for light draft boats 36o miles in length . UNITED STATES SENATORS FLETCHER AND BRYAN In the summer of 1908, Duncan U. Fletcher, of Jacksonville, was nominate4 in the primaries, and by the Legislature of 1909 was elected United States senator. He took his seat on the following April for the term 1909-15 and was reelected for two other terms of six years. Senator Fletcher is a Georgian and a thoroughly educated lawyer, who had practiced in Jacksonville for about twenty-s<:;_ven years before he entered the upper house . He had also previously served in the Legislature and as mayor of his home city, and was highly honored . He had been promi nent in educationa l and charitab l e management, had been president of the Atlantic & Mississippi Inland Water Way Association and was an ac cepted leader in many practical movements. In the Senate he served as chairman of the committee on commerce and is a stalwart democrat of the South. Nathan P. Bryan, also a Jacksonville lawyer, was elected to the United States Senate by the Legislature of 1910 and served his six years' term with his fellow-townsman. N. B. Broward had been nominated United States senator, but died before his election, and Mr. Bryan was nominated in the primaries as the successor to ex-Governor Broward as the party nominee. Senator Bryan is a Florida man, born in Lake County and educated in Georgia. He had been practicing in Jacksonville since 1895, but aside from serving for several years as chairman of the Board of Con trol for the State Institutions of Higher Education he had come little into public notice . As a member of the leading firm of Bryan & Bryan he had attained a high standing at the Southern bar, and it was no s urprise to the profession when, at the conclusion of his senator ial term that his name was repeatedly mentioned in connection with the Federal judiciary. In April, 1920, he was appointed United States judge of the Fifth Circuit, embracing Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisi ana, Texas and the Canal Zone. In the performance of his judicial duties, he spends much of his time in New Orleans, although he still considers Jacksonville as his home. It was during Judge Bryan's senatorial term, in 1913, that the Seven teenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States went into effect, empowering the people to choose their United States senators; so the judge was the last of the Florida senators to be chosen by the Legislature. THE TRAMMELL ADMINISTRATION Park Trammell, of Lakeland, succeeded Governor G ilchri st, and served from 1913 to 1917. Although a native of Alabama, he had come fo Florida in his infancy, studied law in Tennessee and commenced its practice at Lakeland. He served as mayor of that city for two terms; was a member of both house s of the Legislature for several years and attorney-general of the sta te from 1909 to I9I3. In I9I6 he was elected to the United States Senate for the term I923. He was nominated for second term in June, I92I. In December, I9I3-the first year of Governor Trammell's administration-was completed the magnificent Supreme Court building, on the capitol grounds, at a cost of less than $100,000 . The commission in charge of its construction was composed of the governor, the comptroller, W. V. Knott, and Messrs. R. F. Taylor, W. B. Young, D. A. Finlay-

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180 HISTORY OF FLORIDA son, George Lewis and A. L. Wilson, who were acting under the Board of Commissioners of State Institutions. One of the important legislative feature of the Trammell adminis tration was the promulgation of the law authorizing the enforcement of compulsory school attendance, if so directed by popular vote of the county. In other words (to introduce a rather ponderous compound phrase), it was a local-option-compulsory-school-attendance law. Hills borough County, with its large foreign _ population, was the first to adopt the law, at a special election held in 1918, and by the following year the measure had been adopted by every county in the state. Much progress was also made during Park Trammell's administra tion in organizing preventive measures to stay the ravages of pests and di ea es in the fields of horticulture and live stock.2 The Legislature of 1915 created a State Plant Board to have direction of the work of stamping out insect and disease pests harmful to plants and citrus trees. An adequate appropriation wa placed at the command of the board, which maintains an expert in charge of a large force of inspectors in carrying out this important work. The members of the state board of control, in charge of the institutions of higher learning, are by virtue of appointment, members of, and constitute the state plant board. The Legislature of 1917 created a state live stock san itary board, which has charge of the work of eradicating ticks and other pests and diseases that afflict live stock. ROYAL PALM STATE PARK The Legislature of 1915 was the means of securing to Florida , the Royal Palm State Park, owned anp operated by the Federation of \Vom en's Clubs, and unique in the United States as a scenic, scientific and pleasure grounds. Through grant and purchase that organization se cured a tract of l,920 acres in Dade County, forty-five mil es south of Miami, containing scores of royal palms and other tropical plants, with more than a hundred species of birds of the South. Botanists , ornitholo gists, forestry experts and scientists and authors in other fields have come to look upon the Royal Palm State Park as one of the most prolific he l ds for res u lts in their investigations to be found in the United States. TuRnULENT CAMP.\IC r OF 1916 The general election of 1916 was exciting, turbul ent and bitter. The anti-Roman Catholic issue and the controversies growing from the opera tions of the new primary law were ma i nly responsib l e for these disturb ing forces. Nathan P. Bryan, United States senator, had championed a bill in the Florida Legislature, during 1913, which bore his name after it became law , and which was ubstituted for the primary law of 1900. Instead of providing for two separate primaries, the second calling for the final vote on .the two high candidates, the Bryan law made provision for only one primary, at which the voters should express their preference for both first and second choice candidates fou the same office. The cam paign of 1916 was for the first general election under the new law, and the result of the primaries was to establish the fact that the nominations depended on the second choice votes. The candidates for governor were Sidney J. Catts, of DeFuniak Springs, a minister of the Baptist faith, who had moved into Florida from Alabama during the year l9IO; Ion L. Farris, of Jacksonville , a lawyer, who had served several terms as a member of the Legislature. two terms as speaker; Fred M. Hudson, of Miami. lawyer, "Yho had served as member and president of the State Senate, and as special counsel for the Florida Railroad commission; William V. Knott, of 2 "Florida Flashlights," by J. H. Reese.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 181 Tallahassee, ' comptroller of the State and who had served for a long time as tate treasurer and in other public positions, and Frank A. Wood, of St. Petersburg. banker, who had been a member of the Florida House of Representatives. The primary was held June 6, 1916. The face of the returns bowed that Mr. Catts had received 30,092 first choice and 3,337 second choice votes. a total of 33.429; that Mr. Knott had received 24,720 first choice and 8,449 second choice votes, a total of 33,16g. From which it appeared that Mr. Catts had received a majority over Mr. Knott of 26o votes. From June until October, the Circuit and the Supreme courts were busy with proceedings authorizing or denying the legality of counts and re counts of second choice votes in Hamilton, Madison, Suwannee, Duval , Leon, Putnam, Bradford, Holmes, Jackson, Nassau, Okaloosa, Orange, Polk. St. Johns and other counties. uch incessant and complicated movements by the courts. lawyers and politicians, had resulted on September 2 1st in the declaration by the State Canvassing Board that Mr. Knott had a majority over Mr. Catts of twenty-one. Then there was a brisk fight over Alachua County which gave Mr. Catts a majority of fifty three, but the recount in other counties which had been progressing again brought Mr. Knott to the front with a majority of forty-three, instead 'of twenty-one. as declared by the State Canvassing Board on September 21st. On October 7th, the tate Democratic Executive Committee, in session at Jacksonville, recognized Mr. Knott as the lawful nominee of the party and accordingly placed his name on the ticket. Mr. Catts entered the canvass as an independent candidate, indorsed by the prohibitionists, and was elected governor by a vote qf 39,546 against 30,343 cast for Mr. Knott. The republicans and socialists, who supported Allen, polled 12,8o3 votes. Governor Catts. who had secured his bachelor's degree from the Cumberland University Law chool. Tennessee, in 1882, did. not follow that profession, permanently , but three years after his graduation was licensed as a Baptist clergyman. He preached in Alabama for nearly ten years. but resigned his pastorate in 1904 and made an unsuccessful canvass for Congress. Soon afterward he moved to Florida. His admin istration as governor extended from 19r7 to 192 r , and covered the period of th World's war. FLORIDA IN THE WORLD'S WAR As in the Spanish American war, Florida was ready and anxious to serve the interests of the United States, in the way of raising men and funds at home and sending her soldiers into the field.3 There were., ap proximately 46,000 men from Florida in the late war. It furnished two regiments of National Guard. The Second Regiment was under the command of Col. Albert H. Blanding and the First Regiment. of Col. Samuel C. Harrison. Later, Colonel Blanding was made a brigadier general and served in command of a brigade of troops from New York. Colonel Harrison was transferred to a regiment of field artillery and reached France just before the armistice . The First Regiment was split up and assigned to other commands, and its units acquitted themselves with credit to their state and commanders. The officers of the two regiments of Flo.rida troops which wete mustered into the &ervice of the United States on August 5, 1917, were as follows: First Florida Infantry, Col. Samuel C. Harrison, Jr.; adjutant, Capt. Harry F. Conley; supply company, Capt. John L. Crary; Captains A. Wright Ellis (A), Sidney J. Catts, Jr., (B), William L. Carbine (C), George R. Seavy (D), Joe Hinely (E), George J. Garcia (F), Arthur Register ( G), Gorton T. Crozier (H}, James F. Phillips (I), Pinkney McD. Bruner (K), William J. Glasgow (L) and F. Marion Turner (M). s Personal communication from Charles P. Lovell , adjutant general of the sta te.

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182 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Second Florida Infantry-Col. Albert H . Blanding; adjutant, Capt. Caleb R. Layton; Captains Edward Drake (A), Lee Jarrett (first lieutenant) (B), Preston Ayres (C), William Steitz (D), Edgar D . Vestel (E), Frank H. Simmons (F), Hamilton R. Horsey (G), Sumter L. Lowry, Jr. (H), Arthur H. Shepperd (I), Rupert Smith (K), David F. Dunkle (L) and Junius T . Wigginton (M). Aw ARDED DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS The Florida men who received unusual marks of honor for bravery in the field were as follows , their record being taken from the Govern ment publication issued after the war, entitled "Heroe s All:" Spe s sard L. Holland, first lieutenant. Bartow C. A. C. observer, Twenty-fourth Aero Squadron. For extraordinary heroism in action near Bois de Bantheville, France, October IS, I9I8. Flying at an alti tude of 400 meters , five kilometers within the enemy's lines, Lieutenant Holland and his pilot, Lieut. George A. Goldwaite, continued on their mission in spite of being harassed by anti-aircraft, securing information of great military value . Distinguished service cross. Rexford H. Dettre, corporal, Bradentown . Headquarters company , Sixth Field Artillery , at Villers Tournelle , Cantigny Sector , France, on May I, I9I8, he displayed distinguished bravery in twice leaving his shelter during a heavy bombardment and going to the assistance of wounded men lying exposed in the open . Distinguished service cross . Kirby P. Stewart, second lieutenant , Bradentown. Deceased. Three Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action near Chatel Chehery, France, October 8, I9I8. Leading his platoon in an attack through an open valley, which was swept by enemy machine gun fire from both flanks, he displayed marked heroism in continuing in command of his men after being himself severely wounded, inspiring them by his courage till he fell mortally wounded by a second machine gun bullet. :Qistinguished service cross. Luther W. Pilcher, sergeant, Chipley. Deceased. Twentieth Com pany, Fifth Regiment, U. S. M. C. Killed in action at Chateau-Thierry, France, June 6 , 19I8. He gave the supreme proof of that extraordinary heroism which will serve as an example to untried troops . Distinguished service cross. Richard C. M. Page, captain, Fort Myers. Pilot Air service. John I. Rancourt , first lieutenant , observer, Eighty-eighth Aero Squadron, One Hundred and Third Field Artillery. For extraordinary heroism in action near Fismes, France, August 9, I9I8. E. C. Desassure , first lieutenant, Tacksonville. Deceased. Three Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action near Sommerance, France, October I4, I9I8. Lieutenant Desassure was painfully wounded by shrapnel while in command of his company . Con tinuing to direct its operations while he was having his wound attended at the dressing station, he insisted upon returning to his command im mediately thereafter, and, in attempting to do so was killed by a bursting s hell. His conspicuous devotion to duty and self-sacrificing spirit furnished an inspiration to his men, which contributed materially to the ultimate success of the attack. Distinguished service cross. Fred L. Glassbrenner, first class private . Jacksonville . Deceased. Headquarters company , One Hundred and Nineteenth Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action near Bellicourt, France, September 29 , 19I8. Private Glassbrenner was advancing with the one-pounder gun section when he was wounded in the leg by a machine gun bullet and was urged to go to the rear. Nevertheless , he continued to advance, and was later killed upon leaving a sheltered position to go to the assistance of another wounded soldier. Distinguished service cross. Roy Harris, private, Jacksonville. Company F, Fourth Engineers . For extraordinary heroism in action west of Fismes, France, August 5,

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 183 1918. Private Harris was a member of a small detachment of engineers which went out in advance qf the front line of infantry through an enemy barrage from seventy seven millimeters and one-pounder guns to con struct a foot bridge over the River V esle. As soon as their operations were discovered, machine gun fire was opened up upon them, but, un daunted, the party continued to work, removing the German wire en tangl e ments and completing a bridge which was of great value in subse quent operations . Distinguished service cross. Charles V. Abernathy, second lieutenant, Key West. Sixth Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action near Thiancourt , France, September 14, 1918 . Commanding the regimental pioneer platoon , Lieutenant Aber nathy l e d it and the Stokes Mortar Platoon as infantry, and overcame a machin e gun nest, capturing several machine guns and disposing of the crew . He continued to advance under heavy shell and machine gun fire until he fell wounded in the head, hip and leg. Distinguished service cross. Fred P . Mendenhall, first lieutenant, Seventh Engineers , Lakeland : For extraordinary heroism in action near Cunel, France, October 20, 1918. Although his platoon was constantly under heavy shell and machine gun fire , Lieutenant Mendenhall courageously directed the wiring of an extreme northern outpost line of infantry on October 20, 1918. On the night of October roth he skilfully directed the construction of a pontoon bridge over the Loison River. So close to the enemy was his platoon that it was necessary to lash the bridge together, because the hammering of the nails drew instant machine fire from the enemy. Distinguished s ervice cross. William Z. Bell, private, Company C, One Hundred and Eighth Infantry, Marianna. Deceased. For extraordinary heroism in action east of Grandpre , France, October 15. 1918, Private Bell, serving as stretcher bearer during two attacks, with exceptional bravery and disregard of danger, exposed himself during an intense artillery bombard ment to assist a wounded soldier in imminent need of first aid and was killed at his work by an enemy shell. Distinguished service cross. George E. Parker, Jr., first lieutenant. Ninth Infantry, Plant City. For extraordinary heroism in action near Medeah Ferme, France. October 8 , 1918. Gassed several times and his gas mask and pistol clip shot from his belt while going through a barrage, Lieutenant Parker con tinued to lead his company forward to its objective. He continually took and held first-line positions and repulsed several counter-attacks. When the commanding officer of his battalion was cut off by the enemy, he organized the battalion, and held off repeated counter-attacks, the while greatly outnumbered and fighting on three sides. Distinguished service c ross . il • 1 , .. Leroy Morningstar, sergeant, Medical Department , Twenty-third Infantry, St. Petersburg. Sick, gassed and stunned by shells, he re mained at his post on duty under heavy fire and bravely assisted in the succoring of soldiers who had been injured near Vaux,.France, July l, 1918. Distinguished service cross. Henry G . Hubbard, private , Company L , Sixteenth Infantry, Talla hassee. For extraordinary heroism near Cantigny, France, June 2 , 1918. Private Hubbard went forward, under intense machine-gun and artillery fire , and assisted in the removal of a wounded soldier over a distance of one kilometer. Distinguished service cross . Henry H. Stroman, sergeant, Company K, Three Hundred and Sixtyfourth Infantry. For extraordinary heroism in action near Bois de Baulny, France, September 28, 1918. Responding to a call for volunteers, Sergeant Stroman, with five others, advanced 400 yards beyond their front to bring in wounded comrades. They succeeded in rescuing seven of their men, also bringing in the dead body of a lieutenant , while exposed to terrific machine-gun fire. Distinguished service cross. Tod Ford Gillett, first class private. U. S . Ambulance Service , Tampa.

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184 HISTORY OF l'LORIDA Deceased. On June r9, r918, near Beaumont, France, he volunteered to proceed with his ambulance under heavy bombardment to bring wounded men to a place of safety. Whil e returning on this perilous trip he was killed by a shell. Distinguished service cros . Frank M. Williams, captain. Three Hundred and Twenty-fifth Infantry, Tampa. For extraordinary heroism in action near St. J uvin. France. October 12 and r6, 1918 . During the operations near St. Juvin this officer demonstrated the highest personal bravery and leadership. On October r2th , although he wa wounded, he organized a provisional combat group and led it to a ridge , repulsing an enemy counter-attack which threatened our left flank. On October r6th, while he was recon noitering a position for machine guns, he rescued an American oldier from five armed Germans. four of whom he killed with his pistol. Later on the ame day, he saw a hostile skirmish line advancing toward hilt 182. He rushed a machine gun . forward with which the attack wa broken. Distinguished service cross. Henry W. Neil, second lieutenant, Fifteenth Machine Gun Battalion. White Springs. For extraordinary heroism in action at Frapelle, France. August r9, l9I8. He displayed great courage, tenacity , and devotion to duty when, althotwh severely wounded early in the attack and . uffering great pain, he retained command of his platoon and directed its mo..ve ment s until its objective was attained. Distinguished service cross. ON TTIE HONOR Rou, The Citizens Memorial Committee of Jacksonville was organized to prepare as correct a list as is possible of the men from Florida who died in serv ice during the World's war. It was largely compiled from the official government lists of the Army, avy and Marines, and no more correct or complete list of the honor men of the state is available. The names preceded by * represent men of the Marine. by ** tho se of the Navy. The list follows: Abraham. Ed., Johnson (Putnam Co.). Adams, Jenkins. Morriston. ddison, Claude ... Lawtey. Adkinson, Kniche D., DeFuniak 1wings. Alderman, C. R., Okeechobee. Alderman, Edw., Ft. Green (DeSoto). Alderman, W. R.. Marianna. **Alford, C. H., Grand Ridge. Allen, Daniel I., Cottondale. Allen, T. F., Sumner (Levy Co.). Alston, Alex., Orlando. **Altman, Jebtha Le., Wauchula. Anderson, James L., Fort Drum. Anderson, J. R. , Jr., DeFuniak Springs. Anderson, Carl Q., Miami. **Altman, Jebtha L., Wauchula. Appleyard, Wm. T., Tallahassee. Assidy, Mos ta fa , Jacksonville. Atkinson, Emory. Midway (Gadsden). Atkinson, Robt. E., Miami. Arrant, Wm. D., Darlington (Walton). Au tin, Frederick C., Umatilla. ** veritt, Walter H., Tallahassee . **Ayers, William E., Altha. Bailey, Fred A, Palatka. Barclay, Horace J., Ojus. Barker, John D., Plant City. **Barrett, John Williarn, Jacksonville. Bates, Geo. W., Arcadia.

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HISTORY OF FLOHIDA T'eck, Leroy W., Catawba. Beilling, Sidney F., Providence . Bell, James H., Jackso nville. Bell, John W., Oxford. *Belcher, Burton Elias, Lieut. **Belyeu, Osben Capers, Chipley. **Bigelman, Harry C., ensign. Boome, Cornelius H., Dale. Bost, Berry B., Bartow. Brack, Dalton C., Mayo (Lafayette). Bradford, Wm. H., Bartow. Bradley, Robt. L., Ybor City. *Brandon, Ian, Clearwater. **Brantley, Lewis F., St. Petersburg. Brannon, C. ., Gainesville. Brannan, Marvin W., Lakeland. Brannan, Richard H., Shady Grove. Brittain, James, Jacksonville . **Brock, Emlon J., Graceville. Brown, Franklin L., Titusville . Browning, August 0., Trenton. Broxson, Joseph A., Harold. *Bryant, Malcome E., Groveland. **Bryan . David S .. Mandarin. Bryant, Luther, Oak Knoll. Buhler, Charles, Artesia. Buhler, Fritz Al., Canaveral. Bunnells, Wm. L., Punta Gorda. Burke, Elzie, Graceville. Burnsed, Henry, Macclenny (Baker). Burns, Charles S., Wakulla. Butler, John T., Mayo. Butts, Sam Barney, Dundine. Baker, Ral ph M., St. Petersburg. Barnes, Bryan I., Lecanto (Citrus). Barnes, Laurence B., Orlando . Barrs, Henry F., Dowling Park. Barrett, Ivan H., Plant City. Bates, Sydney M., Lochloosa.' Baxter, Ludden E., Lake Helen. Bedenbaugh, Amon L., Lake City. Bell, Wm. Z., Malone (Jackson). Bellah, John M., Dunnellon. Bennett, Leroy M., Naples (Lee Co.). Bentz, Newton C., Fort Pierce. Blackman, B. C., Pomona. Bleight, John C., Mayport. Bragg, Geo. G., Fort Meade . Brantley, Jack L., East Tampa. Branning, James M., Marianna. Braswell. Carradine B., Ebb. Brown, Ben B., Orlando. Brown, Stephen L., Fort Christmas. Browning, Homer F., Lovett. Bryan, John F., Riverview. Bryant, James C., Miami. Buhler, George W., Artesia. Bullard, Mack, Fort Meade . Bussey, Allen G., Jacksonville . Butler, Arthur, Jacksonville. Butler. Charles, Campville. ]8!)

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186 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Byrd, Wm. E . , Ponce de Leon . Cain, Wm. Robert, Calliver. Caldwell, Clinton C., New Berlin . Caraway, Frank A., Marianna. **Cady, Ralph G . , Miami. **Cameron, Bonar C., New Berlin . **Carver, Robt. Maxwell, White Springs. Carnlee, Chas . R., Bonifay . Carnley, Wm. J . , Chip l ey . *Carson, Nathan B., Jr., Kissimmee. Carrison, Wilton V., Apalachicola. Cartmel , Arthur, Jr., Jacksonville . Carter, Thos . J . , Green Cove Springs . * *Christie, John Hayden, Pensacola . Cason, Berry A., Cross City. Clark , James G., Miami. Clayton, Henry P., West Tampa. Clayton, John W., Ocala. Clayton, Walter J., Boynton . Clayton, Thomas S., Ocala. **Cochrane, Jesse D., Dade City. **Cox, George W., Bow l ing Green . Coleman, Coke P., Tampa. Cone, John P., White Springs. Coon, Wm, Laurel Hill. Cowart, Walter M., Myakka City . Crews, John C., Pine Mountain. Cutts , Wm. C., Laurel Hill. Cabrera, Joseph R., Tampa. Cain, John G., Fort White. Caine, John S., Jacksonville. Calhoun , James P . , Panama Park. Calton , James, Chiefland . Campbell, Frank A., Sanford. Carter, Charles, Starke. Cason, Joseph S., Wellborn . Ceruti , James D. S., Pensacola. Cheshire, James 0., Live Oak. Clarke, Misseldine, Betts. Clifton, Leary, Red Bay. Coarsey, James C., Sumner. Cobb, Thomas J., Nema. Collier , Leslie E., Sebring . Cook , Willie W . , Carr. Copeland, William, Niceville . Council, McSwain, Milton . Cox, Robt . L., Orlando . Cox, Percy F., Nichols . Cozart, John A., Esto. Crews, Warren G., Fort Denand. Crosby, Herman, Starke. Crow, Chas. C., Jacksonvill,e. Culbreath, Erick J., Tampa. Davidson, Albert, Chipley. Daniels, Hampton, Denaud . Daniels, Martin R., Groveland. Davis, Henry, Tampa. Davis, Jesse P., Laurel Hill. Daws, James, Houston. DeSteuben , Thos. J., West Palm Beach . Dickinson, Richard H., Crawfordsville .

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Dickson, Evander C., Orlando. Dillon, George, Key West. Dixon, Walter, Jacksonville. Douglass, Eurie W., Arch Creek. Dregors, Robt. F., Miami. Durrance, Martin L., Fort Meade. Durham, Dallas M., Blountstown. **Dudley, Joe C., Grand Ridge. **Dunlap, Wade, Lake City. **Dyer, Cutler, Key West. Davis, Aaron, Anthony. Davis, Leon A., Miami. Davis, Patrick H., Hilliard. DeSaussure, Ed. Canty, Jacksonville. Davidson, John P., Trilby. Decker, Peter J., Tampa. Degarmo, Lindley H., Cocoanut Grove . . Delaney, John 0., Miami. Denmark, Gordon H., Lake City. Dickson, Samuel B., Bascom . Dingley, Geo. P., Woodrow. Dodrill, Sampson D., Winter Park. Dorr, Nathan D., Jacksonville. Duckworth, Rovert Lee, Live Oak. Duggar, Robert H . , Crawfordsville. Edeker, Robt. F., Jay. **Eldridge, Chester 0., Jacksonville. Elmore, Allie J., Millville. Elmore, Cassie, Camelton. Evans, Riley, Mcintyre. **Evans, Joel L., Vernon. **Evans, Wilbern L., Vernon. Edgar, Jim F., DeFuniak Springs. Edwards, Albert A., Quincy. Emerson, Clyde A., Ocala. **Ferguson, Joshua, Key West. Fish, Harry T., Delray. Foote, George B., Jacksonville. **Fletcher, George D., Gainesville. Fonseca, Maurice, Jacksonville. Roy, Rol., Live Oak. Frost, George W., Palmetto. Fussell, Thos. L., Chipley . Faulkner, Wm. Edgar, Alton . Ferrand, Wm. E., Lakeland. Forsythe, Wm. 0., Providence. Fowler, Ira J., Fort Ogden. Franzon, Herbert, Miami. Frierson, Rhea P. , Winter Haven. Fuller, Elis F., Hildreth. Gathleny, John F ., Warrington. Gerakios, John, Leesburg. Gerrell, Ira 0., Woodville . **Girardeau, Hamlin T., Jacksonville . **Graddy, Clive Dewey, Bartow . Gladwin, Stephen N., Fort Pierce. Gover, George W., Milton. Gonie, Charlie A., Tampa. Green, Robt. H., Brooder . Grier, Thomas W., Wawahitchka . Griffis, Lester, Starke. 187

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188 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Gainey, Walker A., DeFuniak Springs. Garcia , John M., Tampa. Gay , Ernest M., Fort Pierce. Gayle, Robt. L. , Greenville. Gerakios, John, Leesburg. Giddeons, Bury B., Paxton. Giles, Pete, Jacksonville. Gillett, Tod F., Tampa. Glisson , John B. , Oldtown. Godwin, Erb., Laurel Hill. Gonzalez , Marcelo, Tampa. Gornto, Ira E. , Williston. Grant, Clarence S., Bushnell. Green, Jacob A., Titusville. Grice, Alton, Wauchula. Griffing, Geo. D., St. Petersburg. **Hall, John, Jacksonville. **Hamilton , James H., Fernandina . **Hart, Bret, Mascotta. Halley, Chas. L., Clearwater. Hamilton , Andrew D., Aucilla. Hancock, Oscar F., Loughman. Harden, Othellow, Providence. Harnage, Alex P., Palestine. Harrell, Silas T. , Wellborn. Hart, Ralph , Pleecjpnee. Harvey, Lewis 0., Sanderson. Hay, John 0 . , Tampa. Helm, Arthur, Bulow. Henderson, A. L., Jasper. **Hill, Raynor M., Jacksonville. Henderson, Frank L., Okeechobee City. Henry, John P., Miami. Hernandez, Theo. H., Jacksonville . Hickman , Jim , Carryville. Hillhouse, Robt. H., Genoa . Hines , Joseph S., Live Oak. Hires , Ezekiel, Chipola. Hires , Laban B. , Seffner. Hodge, Sam H., Newberry. Hodges, Cullie D. , J uglis. Holland, Wallace, Lakeland. Holloway , Harvey, Thonotossa. Holmon, Joe, Odessa. Holton , Randal C., Orange Bend. **Hooten, Ralph E., Laurel Hill. Hopkins , Andres Lee, Bloxham. Hudson, James H., Nocatee. **Howell, William M., Jennings. **Hubbard, Kenneth , Terra Ceia. **Hunter, William j., Winter Park. Hurn, Edward P. Tampa. Hyatt, Reuben C., Oxford. **Hyman, Frank, Leesburg. Hall, Robert, Warsaw. Hall , Worthington, Ponce de Leon. Harris, Geo. C., Hilton. Harvey, Essie L., Tampa. Hawkins , Orza, Dowling Park. Henn, Harris N., Lakeland. Heisler, Ralph E., Largo.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA H e nderson, Horace J ., Laurel Hill. Herring, Jody L., Wauchula . Hicks, Clifton R .. Caryville. Hic kman, Chas. F., Daytona. Hill, Thomas L., Dunnedin. Hinson, Paul T . , Hinson. Hodge, Henry G . , Palatka. Holland, Fred, Wauchula. Hon, Paul L. , DeLand. Hopkins , Frank J., Catawba. Houston, Donald. Zellwood . Howard, Oscar V. , Carbur. Hubbard, Wade H . , Lake Welch. Huddleston , Frank B., Melbourne. Hunter, James E., Tampa. Hutchinson, Neil F . , Tallahassee. Ingram, John W., Quincy. Jenkins, John E . , Dowling Park. Jefferson, Arthur T., Jacksonville . Jernigan, Roger F., Wellborn . Johns, Nick, Starke. Johns, Henry C. , Kissimmee . Johnson, William H., Shelton . Johnson, Wm. H., Miami. Jones, John, N ocatee. Jones, Johnnie , Jacksonville. Jackson, Willie Clarence. Mayo . Jamerson, Charlie E., Balk. Janes, Burton, Live Oak. Jochumsen, Edmond C., Ybor City. Johns, Andrew, Plant City. Johns, Freddie, Tampa. Johns, Harold R. , Stuart. Johnson , Alvin M., Wei . aka. Johnson, Thomas. Chipley . Johnson, Worth, Largo. Jones, Arthur S., Tampa. Jones, Bennie A., Grand Ridge . Jones, Chester R. , Pensacola. Jones, Eugene Lee, Grand Crossing . Jones, Walter E., Fort Myer s . Jones, Willie J., Starke. **Kemp, Aaron Wilson Quay. **Kirkland, C . Lee, Bradley Junction. **Knighton, Harvey B., Homestead. Kelly, Dave J., Milton. Keen, Wesley, Taylor. Knight, Herbert J., Okhumpka . Koehn, Fred, Big Pine. Kemp, Peter, White Springs. Kennedy, Dewey W .. Ponce de Leon . Kenninger, William, Ojus. Kigt , David A. , Oldtown. Kinard, Perry E. , Fort White. King, Sidney N . , Denaud. Kirby, Tom W., Fenholloway. Knight, Carl W., Jacksonville. Knight, Thomas F . , Reddick. Knowles , Charles. Key West. Knowles, Harry R. , Key W e st. Lacy, Frank A. , Jr .. A u c illa. 189

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190 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Lamartin , John H., Indian Town. Lamb, Wiley , Branford. Lanier, Leonidas J., Branford . Lestinger , Joseph C., Bell. Lawton, Carl W. , Safet y Harbor. Lee, Andrew, Day. Lee , Robert E. , Bartow. Lee , Wm. A. , Branford. Little, Frank, Lakeland. Livingston, Oren, Campbellton . **Lockey, Herbert T., Grand Ridg e . * * Lovell , Myron W., Jr., Sanford . Lumsden, Wm. M., Jacksonville . Lyles, Robert C., Tampa. Langford, Neal, Lake B u t ler. Lee , William T., Tallahassee. Leggett , Capus L., Loughridge . Leggett, John , Tampa . Lemieux , Lewis T., South Port. Leonardy , Charles C., Osteen . Lewter, Robert D., Orlando. Liles , Archie B., Sanford. Lindland , Telle, Titusville . Lloyd, Lee Roy , Jacksonville . Lockey, Addinell H., Jack s on v ille. Lopez, Archie , Ocala . Lopez, Charles L., West Palm B e a c h . Losco, Marion J., South J acksonvi11e. Lossing , Arthur D., Sanford . Lowe, Henry , Bradentown. Lynn , Simon P., Englewood. Lynch , Wm. H., Gainesville. Lyons, Henry N., Macclenny . McClelland , Ernest, Lakeland . McClure , Fred L., Jacksonville. McCormick, James P., Jacksonville . McCormick , Thos. W., Fort White. McCormick , Robt. L., Oak. McCranie , John W., Sumatra. * *McAnulty , Brannon , Malone . * *McCarthy , John H., Gainesville . McCraven , James C., St. Petersburg . McKinney, Ira, Starke. McLaulin , Robt. M . , Quincy. McLoughlin , Patrick W., Tampa. McMillan , John P., Eau Gallie . Madden, Arthur, Lime s tone. **McDougall, Abram C., Tallahassee. **McDou g le , Benj . H., Orlando . * * McLeod , Oscar E., DeFuniak Springs. * * Marsh , Frank, Pensacola . *Mathis , Arthur F., Callway . Marchbanks , David L. , Miami. Marine, John , address not given . Mathews , Bacile M., Day. May, Leander W., Norum . Mayo , John J., Marianna . Mercer, Barrell E., Telogia . Miley , Harry, Sanford . **Miller, Dancy M., Bunnell. **Mill e r , Willie P., Dorca s .

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA **Mitchell , Albee L. , Jacksonville. Millas, Athenasio ; Tarpon Springs. Mills, Cody F., Henson. Mimms , Wike, Tallahassee. Mink, Horace W., Sarasota . Minton, Erving, Starke. Mitchell, Erwin, Sneads. Mitchell, George, Live Oak. Mitchell, Homer E., Oak Knoll . Mitchell, Wm. E., Jr., Wauchul a. Moore , Berrie A., Bell. Moore, Lester L., Grand Crossing. **Monroe, Townsend L., White Springs. **Morgan , Moses L., Gulf Point . Morgan, Edward, Wellborn. Morris , Alva H., Quincy. Mortensen, Morten, Jacksonville. Muers, Joseph L., Delray. **Muterspaugh, Lee, Pensacola . McGraw, Mathew C., DeFuniak Springs . McKnight, James H., Noma. ' McLean, Oscar R., Catawba . McLeod, Norman E., Plant City . McMenomy, Allen L., Gary. McNeill , Archie , Laurel Hill. Mackay, George L., Ocala. Mahony , Grover C., Leesburg. Mahoney, James G., Graceville . Malm , Carl V., Sanford. Martin, Dewey G., Melton. Mew, J. William, Barberville. Meyer, Fernando P., Palatka. Middleton, Chas. W., Hillsboro . Miller , Charlie, Esto. Mills, Edward C., Stephensville. Milton , Marvin W., Delray. Mobley , Paul D., Punta Gorda . Monath, Walter A., Miami. Montgomery , Cecil E., Brownville . Moody, Enoch L., Venice. Mooney , John L., Sanford . . Moore, Harold A., Berkshire. Moore, Wilbur E., Tampa. Morgan, James E., Okeechobee . Morris. Wm. C., Fort Lauderdale. Mott, Thomas S. C., Jacksonville. Mozingo, Wesley E., Ebb. Neel , Henry, Grand Ridge. Nelson , Lee H., Dady. Nettles , Wm. F., Lake City , Nettles, Wm. F., Holder. Newman, bavid C., Gainesville. Norris, Joe, Jacksonville. Nowling, Veria , DeFuniak Springs. Nelson , Lee , Fort Ogden . Norris, Wm. A. , Benton. **Newton, Bert A., Miami . Orr, James R., Bowling Green . Osteen, Josie, Nomeo. Owens , Millard L. , Tampa. Pace tti, Burke M., Mill Creek. 191

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192 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Packard, Robt. L.. Miami. Page, Ceaman 0., \i\Tebster . Patte rson , Fred R. , Riverland. P e aco ck, Niven L., Eugene. Peacock , '\i\Tm. A., Laurel Hill. Pellicer, Stewart, Moultrie. Perry, Virgil, Jacksonville . Peterson, John A., Darlington. Phillips, Henry L .. Pensacola. Pinkston , Rus sell S. , Lake Wales. Pitzer, Lee W., ew Smyrna. Pollock, Ralph P., Thonotasassa. **Parsons, Joseph B., New Berlin. **Peake, Henry L., DeFuniak Springs . * *Pollard. Dewey 0., Lemon City. **Pope, George E., Plummers. Pilcher, Luther W .. Marianna. Pope, Ike, Orlando. Pratt, Joseph C., Leesburg. Price, Solomon N., Esto. , Pridgeon, Wm. W., Tallahassee. Proctor, Gilbert J., Fort McCoy . Pumarega; Louis, Tampa. Pumphrey, James W., Marianna. Pantzar, Gunner. Hollandale . Parker, Lewis H., Arcadia. Peacock, Lawrence S .. DeLand. Pent, Norman, Key '\i\Test. Perkins, Clarence E., Jacksonville . Perritt, Marion L., Havana. Perry, Paul E., Oxford. Peters, Joseph A., Pensacola. Phillips , Harry C.. Sanford. Phillips, Wm. 0., Graceville . Pinsett, Dock , Alachua . Pittman, Patent. Round Lake. Pitts, John H., Frink. Powell, James R., Jacksonville. Quinn, Walter T., V\T ard. Raulerson , Cyral A., West Palm Beach. Raulerson , James I-I.. New Smyrna. Reed, Martin L.. DeLand. Reed. Ralph, Robinson Point. Revell , Wm. B., Tallahassee . Rice, Earlie D., Lakeland. Riley, Ramon, Graceville. R oberts , Chester W., Winfield. Roberts , Claude J., Apalachicola . Roberts, Olney P .. Lulu. **Richards . Charles E., Chipley. **Rogers , James E .. Pensacola. *Rehbaum, Gilbert H., Anona. *Rosenfeld, Emil, Miami. Robinson, Edwin J., Orlando. Rodriquez, Frank T., South Jacksonville . Romaguere. Francisco , Key West. Ross , Charlie. Snead. Rothwell. Gerald E .. Miami. Rowan , Ben , Arcadia. Rowell. Thomas. Carbur. Rndd, Abner, Watumpka.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Raborn, Homer G., Gainesville. Ramsaur, Stewart D., St. Petersburg. Randall, Virgil J., Conner. Raulerson, Porter, West Palm Beach . Reese, Cummings C., Pompano. Rawls, Elisha W., Crystal River. Rehberg, Wiley T., Bell. Reynolds, James C., Lynne. Ridgdill, Rufus W., Me l bourne. Riggins, Charles, City Point. Roberts, John H., Blountstown. Robison, Claude L. , Titusville. Roland, Grover L., Clarksville . Rooney , Allen, Miami. Royal, Clifford B., Sorrento. Rundell, Frank, Fort Lauderdale. Sandlin, Houston, Lake City. Sands, Ramond F., Miami. Scarborough, Alexander, Tallahassee. **Simpson, Franklin D., Jacksonville . **Simms, William H., Lakeland. **Sistrunk, Simon L., Ocala. **Skellenger, Samuel A., Boynton . **Smallwood, Ben. B., Safety Harbor. *Saunders. Geo. R., address not given. Shaller , Forest A., Lake Butler. Sheffield, Thomas I., Trenton. Simmons, Lester Maxwell , Bascom . Simpson, Archibald L., Grove l and . Singletary, Culley S., Fort Meade. Smedley, Frank C., Santos. Smith, Thomas B., Jacksonville. Soper, Rollin S., Miami. Sparkman, Simeon B., Hawthorne. Spears, James M., Dady . Sphinx, Albert H., Arran. Sprots, Nicki, Permedobeach. Stephens, George L., Apalachiola. Stonebrakes , Jacob F., Jr., Arcadia. **Spence, Albert, Miami. **Stanley, Shirley W., Dadeco. **Syfree, Daniel W., Ashmore. Stribling, Roy A., Jacksonville. Strickland, Edward H., Hallendale . Stricklane, Eugene, Bradford. Stringfellow, Joseph H., Tampa. Sullivan, Homer D., Mims. Sweeting-, Joseph W., Key West. Salley, John G., Homestead. Salvino, Marco , Fort Lauderdale . Sands , Howard J .. Key West. Sancfs, John K. , Miami. Sanford, Dan, Portland. Sanfour, Anthony, Miami. Sauls, Claude, Tallahasse$. Searle , Fred F., Buckingham. Seeds, Harvey W., Miami. Sellars, Coley L. , DeFuniak Springs. Sessions, Samuel C., Nocatee. Simmons, Clarence, Groveland. Simmons, Emmett L., Bartow. Vol. 1-13 193

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194 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Simmons, Wm. C., Orlando. Smith, Harold V., Fruitland Park. Smith, Paul F., Pensacola. Smith, Wm. W., Croom. Starling, Marion W., Terra Ceia. Stewart, Velpo M., Tarpon Springs . Stokes, Norris G., LaCrosse . Strobles, Charles I., Newberry . Sutcliffe, Clarence T., Miami. Sutton, Josiah W., Clearwater . Tanner, John C., Nassau. **Tate, Lawrence M., St. Petersburg . **Taylor, Roderick P. , Orlando . Thomas, Charles C., Miami. Thomas, Henry, Jacksonville. Thompson, Christopher F., Key West. Tillis, Wilbur K. , Lakeland. Tison, Rassie E., Eagle Lake. Tomlinson, Cecil, Dowling Park. Traylor, Wm. E., Sumterville. Tucker, Eugene b., Richland . Turner, John H., Fort White. Tuttle, Wm. C., Carrabelle. Tyson, Clement M., Jacksonville. **Touart, Willis, Pensacola . **Turner, Edward C., Clearwater. **Tyree, John Q., Millview . Taylor, Fay Rosco, Fellsmere . Taylor, Walter E., Winter Haven. Taylor, W. S., Jr., Tampa. Thomas, Archie T., Ritte . Thomas, Cassie R., Lacoochee. Thompson, Clifford H., Jackson ville. Tillis, Stanley V., Tampa. Tillis, Walter D., Plant City. Tounsley, Rufus M., Tampa. Trapp, Charles, Fort Myers. Turner, Ernest, Pensacola. Turner, Fred E., Tampa. Vansickle, Daniel H., Jacksonville . **Ulm, Tom W., Falmouth . Vinson, Wm. G., Oak. Vandevelde, Louis, Lake Port. Vogel , Carl F., Lake Worth. Waldron , Robt. H., West Palm Beach. Walton, Wm. E., Miami. Weathersbee, Preston H., Ocala . Weeks, Bryan. Tampa. Welch, Peter W. , Orlando. Wester, Elmer, Jacksonville. White, James 0., Sanford. White, Emilio R., Tampa. Whitlock, Fred. Jacksonville. Wiggins, Earl E., Hawthorne. Wiggins, George C., Munson. Wiggins . . Leo J., Tampa. Wilder, Jerome E., Lake City. Wilcox, Harvey A., Jacksonville . Williams, Ernest C., Whitehouse . Williams, Hoseq, Bareah. Williams , Rastus A., Shady Grove.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Willis, Charles C., Arcadia. **Ward, Stephen B., Ybor City. **Ward, William D., Jennings. **White, Robert L., Jacksonville. **Wilson, Cecil F., Cantonment. Willoughby, Paul L., Gainesville. Wilson, Henry S., Stuart. Wofford, Howard M., Lockhart. Wood, John J., Chi'efland. Waldron, Harold E., Ormond. Waldron. Ira B., Bay Lake. Walker, Otto M., Aucilla. Ward, Emanuel L., Bonifay. Ward, Lorand S., Hawthorne. Watkins, James E., Arcadia. Watkins, John D., Dunedin. Watson, Elmer T., Brooksville . Webb, Joseph M., Wauchula. Weeks, Nathaniel, Gardner. Welch, Rolla G., Winter Haven. Wells, Jacob L., Ybor City . Weston, Josei, Crescent City. Westbrook, James E., Eustis. White, Patrick C., West Tampa. Whitehurst, John W., Ellaville. Wiedman, Emil, Port Orange. Wilkinson, Rabe 0., Immokalee . Williams, Herger, Wauchula. Williams, Horace, Avon Park. Williamson, Leo E., \Vest Palm Beach. Wilson , John T., Oneco. Wright, Walton W., Orlando. Warbrough, Herman B., Fort Myers. Yon, Joseph J., Altha. Yongue, Marion H., Reddick. Youells, Ely B., Green Cove Spring . Young, Pasco S., Loughridge. Yale, Hugh A., Haines City. COLORED Allen, John, Quincy. Allen, Rufus, Lake City. Armstrong, Wm., Jacksonville . Aytes, Junius, DeLand. Adams, John, Lake City . Anderson, Albert, Milton . Anderson, Mannie, Live Oak. Argo, V., Arcadie. Badgett, Jimmie, Pensacola . Baker, Will A., Watertown. Baker, Chester, Marianna. Bailey, Joe , Bartow. Barnwell, Isaac. St. Augustine . Bethel, Robert, Fort Lauderdale. Boone, David , Leesburg. Bowie, Joe, Monticello. Bradshaw, Atlas, Jacksonville. Braswell, Elijah. Daytona. Brensen, Joe, Millville. Broadnax, Love , New Smyrna. 195

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196 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Brown, Edward, Lake City. Brown, General, Jacksonville. Brown, James A., Martel. Brown, John, Tampa. Brown, John, Marianna. Brown, Mose, Jacksonville. Broughton, R. A., Fruitland Park. Bucklin, Ernest, Waldo. Bullock, Lewis. Lake City. Byrd, Gus, Brooksville. Badger, Norman, Tampa. Baker, Charlie, Bradentown . Baker, Golias, Marianna. Baker, Reuben, Tampa. Baldwin, Raymond, Pormdeil. Bellamy, Sandy, Geneva. Benhoe. Herman T., Pensacola . Birch, Roman S., Jennings . Blye, Harry, Ocala. Bradley, Lee, Rochelle. Bradley, Ed, Jennings. Bradley, Daniel, Milton . Brezel, Lee, Tampa. Brooks, Allen, Tampa. Brown, Alex. Lakeland. Brown, Chester, Lakeland. Brown, Doll, Jacksonville. Brown, Nathan, Jacksonville. Brown, Shelly, Salem . Brunson, John. Milton . Butler, Hallie, Manatee. Butler, Thomas A .. Jacksom ille. Calhoun , Calvin, Hastings. Calhoun, Geo. W., Jacksonville. Campbell, Elmer. Archer. Carnes, Lawson T., Tampa. Clark. Theodore D., Jacksonville . Clay, Henry, Paxon. Cobb, Beal, Bradentown. Cobb, Frank, Sneads. Coleman, Willie. Plant City. Cook, Cleveland , Jacksonville. Cooper, Alfred, Gretna. Copeland . Ernest, Nicefield. Counts, Clinard, Manatee. Crawford, Warren, Marianna. Crooms, Alex, Montevista . Croxton, Clarence R., Palmetto. Cummings. Jack, Monticello . Campbell, Lucius, Palatka. Campbell, True, Argyle. Carrington, Dudley, Moline. Cato, Horace L., Cokesbur;,r. Chandler, Harry C., Wewahitchka. Cook, Leroy, Winter Haven. Cornell, Englebert W., St. P ugustine . Cromartie, Jas. T .. Bartow. Cunningham, L., Fort Meade . Curtis, Wm. 0., Clearwater. Daniels. Samuel R .. Panama. Davis, Elder, Port Tampa .

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Dickerson, John, Chipley. Deveaux, Leon, Miami. Dillard, Ho rice, Well born. Dixon, Raiford, Lake City. Dixon, Walter, Jacksonville . Dryer, John L., Fairbanks. Dade, Henry, Geneva. Davis, Bodse, Pensacola. Davis, Isaac, Wauchula. Davis, Lowry, Monticello. Egcomb, Falcon, Miami. Elmore, Fred, Madison. Epps, Sam, Orlando. Eady, Elliott, Jasper. Eaton, Robert, Micanopy . Edward, James, Green Cove Spring s . Epps, James, Eustis . Evans, Ernest, Micanopy. Fairly, l:ampbell, Jacksonville. Fayson, Joe, Sebring. Favors, James, Port St. Joe. Fields, Preston , Ybor City. Flin, Fred, Gainesville. Francis, Britton, Tampa. Francis, Ephraim, Perrine . Friall, Isaiah, Miami. Fulford, Leonard P . , Punta Gorda. Gibson, Henry, Pensacola. Gibson, Lee, Sanderson. Gordon, Henry, Ojus. Gore, Eddie J., Centralia . Grant, Rufus, Jacksonville. Green, Henry, Chattahoochee. Green, William, Clearwater. Griffin, Essa, Rodman. Griffin , John, Miami. Gammons, Douglass, Tampa. Gelsey, Adolphus, St. Augustine . George, Willie, Pomona. Gordon, Andy, Fort White. Gray, Mervin, Jacksonville . Green, Isaiah, Appachooba. Grei!n, Willie, Bradentown. Hall, Shady Grove. Hamlet, Melyvin, Montevista. Hampton, Brad, Perry. Hampton, John, Mount Creek Springs. Hampton, Markus, Lawtey. Harrell, Robert, Marianna. Harris, Raywood, Cokesberry . Harris, Joe, Montbrook. Hart, Alfred A., South Jacksotn-ill e . Hart, George, Centralia. Hayes, Cary, Greenwood. Haywood, Louis, Milton. Henderson, Monroe, Gracevjlle. Herriott, Cary, St. Petersburg. Hicks, Richard, Phillips. Hines, Charles, Sopchoppy. Holden Sylvanus, Lake Weir. Holmes, Willie, St. Johns Park. 197

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198 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Hopkins, Joe, Kendrick. Howard, Henry, Tampa. Hunt, Charlie, Tampa. Hunt, Jordan, Arcadia. Hagler, Jesse, Marianna. Harrington, Geo., Inverness. Harris, David, Waukulla. Harris, Walter, Hildreth. Haywood, Arthur, Wilma. Heath, Elder, Palmdale. Henderson, Dan, Leesburg. Henry, George, Bartow. Hester, James, Branford. Hickey, Albert, Carbur. Hightower, Adolphus, Jacksonville. --Vaden, Odessa. Jackson, James E., Crawfordville. James, David, Kissimmee. James, Tom, Gainesville. James, Shelly, Lisbon. Jenkins, George, Fort Pierce. Jenkins, Matthew, Jacksonville . Johnson, Nathan, Manatee. Johnson, Oliver, Gainesville . Johnson, Willie, Ocala. Johnson, Willie, West Palm Beach . Jones, Alexander, Pensacola. Jones, Edward, Miami. Jones, Joe, Lemont. Jackson, Dan, Dade City. Jackson, David, Jacksonville. James, Arthur, Carabelle. Jeffries, Lawrence L., Ft. Lauderdale. Jennings, Handy, Kolokee. Johnson, John, Arredona. Johnson, Will, Oakland. Johnson, William, Hampton. Jones, Edward, Miami. Jones, Jack, Tampa. Jones, Jenkins, Bessemer. Jones, John, Wauchula. Jones, Thomas J., Perry. Joyner, Howard, Sopp. Kelly, James, Jacksonville. Kinsler, Arthur A., Fort Myer . Kay, Charlie, Hospital. Kelley, John, Wildwood. Kelly, Isaiah, Teloga. King, Eddie A., Milton. King, John, Waukeenah, Knight, Moses S., Hinernia . Larkin, Thomas H., Miami. Lee; Willie 0., Raiford. Lewis, Johnnie, Campbellton . Littles, Solomon, Wilcox . Lofton, Joseph, Lake City. Lott, Hezekiah, Quincy. Lamb, August, St. Marks. Leggett, John, Tampa. Levain, John D., Palatka. Long, Hamon, Cottondale.

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HISTOf.Y OF FLORIDA McCarthy, King P., Laurel Hill. McCoy, George, Louisa. McCullens, Rodger, Sanford. McDaniel, Ariton, Brooksville. McKiney, Edgar, Daytona. McLain, Surry, Southport. Martin, Daniel W., Newbury. Martin, Harry, Lake City. Martin, Thomas, Patterson. Martin, Wm., Jacksonville. Mashburn , Clinton, Chattahoochee . Mickson, Robert, Ocala . Miller, Albert, Jacksonville. Miller, Clarence, W. Palm Beach. Miller, Joe, Williston. Mitchell, Henry, Springdale. Mitchell, Zedekiah, Archer . Mobley, Lenman, Fort Myers . Moore, Jack, Lake City. Moore, Philip, Orange Hill. Moreland, Ernest, Grandville. Morgan, Eddie L., High Spring s . Mosley, Edis, Jerry. Mosely, Ellis, St. Augustine. McCombs, Alexander , Miami . McCray, Herman, Pansaso:ffhee . McLeod, Neal, Tampa. McNish, Henry, Lake City. McRah, Wallace, Midway. McWhite, Blether, Deer Park. Mack, Amos, Palatka. Madra, John, Greensboro . Madrey, Henry, Juniper . Major, Newton, Madison. Martin, Charlie, Lawtey. Martin, Dave L., Orlando. Martin, Elliston, Lakeland. Mathis, Arthur, Cocoa. May, Albert, Jacksonville . Middleton , Sam W. , Tampa. Mitchell, Oscar, Starke . Morris, John, Vero. Moultrie, Frank P., Jasper. Murray, Henry, Martel. Murray, Nathaniel, Perry. Murry, Harry, Bartow. Muers, Isaiah, Sanford. Natill, Walter A., Archer. Nelson, Archie, Homestead . Nesby, Clifford, Huntington P. 0 . Neil, Charlie, Bartow. Nelson, DeLoss, Florahome. Nelson, Moses, Brooker. Norton, Wm., Jacksonville. Owens, James, Pensacola. Page, Herbert, Plant City. Parish, Resmous, J., Benhaden . Pompey, Kayles, Bryceville. Porter, Leroy, Bonifay . Powell, Walter L., Quincy. Price, Quill, Wimauma. 199

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200 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Pruden, Arthur, Jacksonville . Paines, Frank, Calhoun . Payne , Benj. H., Tallahassee. Peoples , Charles, Tampa. Petteway, Will, Brooksville. Pierce, Tom, Jacksonville. Pinder, Paul, Miami. Powell, Willie, Kissimmee . Pryor, Will, Panama Bay. Pugh , Shad , Crestview. Randolph, Phillip , Tallahas see. Reed, Arthur, Orlando. Reid, Andrew, East Palatka . Rivers, Michael E., Mulberry. Roberts, Joseph, Fenholloway. Robertson , Harris, Live Oak. Robinson , Clemon, Palatka. Robinson, Lucius G . , Youngstown . Robinson, Wm., Palmetto. Robinson, Willie A., Jacksonville. Roundtree , Sam, Gainesville. Russell, Eugene E., East Palatka . Rutledge, Will, Gainesville . Rizer, Comelus, Apalachicola . Sampson , George, Jacksonville. Sampson, Josh J., Bradentown . Sanders, Willie , Lake Cit y. Scott, Charlie, Bell. Serna, Charles L., Palm Beach. Shakespeare , James, Gainesville. Shell, Cleveland, Jacksonville. Sheppard , Napoleon. Lake City. Shuman, Frank, Palatka. Siles, James, Mulberry . Simmons, Emmett , Apalachicola. Simmons, Robert, Oakland . Sims, Joe , Bartow. Smith, Connie C . , Tallaha ssee . Smith , David, Marianna . Smith, Hupper, Miami. Smith, Willie, Kendrick. Stanley, Lewis, Bellville. Starke, Douglas, Starke. Starke, Geo. W . , Jacksonville. Starling , Isaac P .. Jacksonvill e . Sweat, Henry, Jena . Scott, Hatley T . , Lakeland . Scott , James M. , Tampa. Sheffield, Philips , Vernon . Shellman , George, Mocote e . Slater , Clarence, Tampa . Smith, Olar, Zellwood. Snelling , Emanuel, Jr., Marianna . Sturks, Willie, Barton. Tanner, J-0hn F., Marianna. Taylor, George, Warrington. Thomas, Alex, Jacksonville. Thomas, Calvin, Ocala . Thomas , Charlie, Inverness . Thomas , Henry, Gardner. Thomas, Spencer, Reddick.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Thomas, Wm. H., Daytona. Thomas, Julius, St. Augustine. Thomas, Paul, Quincy. Tillman, Harley, Wellborn . Tomling, Pete, Croom. Traylor, John W., Tallahassee . Tucker, Ruben, Attcilla. Turner, Ruben, Perry. Turner, Willie, Orange Lake. Turner, Willis, Pineboro. Thomas, Condry, Chipley. Todd, Will, Panama City. Turner. Wm. L., Tampa. Van, Robert, Brewster. Vaughn, Harrison, Lake City . Wade, Alonza, Bushnell. Warren, Jeff, DeLand. Warren, Wm., Jacksonville. Washington, Solomon, Leesburg . Wesley, Eugene, Noram. Wesley, Wm. L., Micanopy. Weston, Fred, Palatka. Williams, Andrew, Live Oak. Williams, Chancy, DeLand. Williams, Eldridge, Tavares. Williams, Henry, Pleasant City. Williams, Herbert, Palatka. Williams, James, Climax. Williams, Lorenzo, Centralia . Williams, Beal, Benhaden . Williams, Robert, Pompano. Williams , Will, Lakeland . Wooden, John, Century. Woods, William, Greenland . Wright, Mo e, Jacksonville. Wynn, Ike, Campbellton. Wynn, Zobable J., Carabell. Walker, Walice, Alachua. White, Fred, Marianna. Wideman. Charles, High Springs. Williams, Charley, Clearwater. Williams, Jam es,' Live Oak. Wolsen, Napoleon B., Bartow. Wright, Riley, Falmouth. Young, Joseph W., Largo. Young, Walter B .. Baldwin . Young, William, Deerfield. 201

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CHAPTER XI CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES Following are lists of delegates to Congress, members of the House of Representatives and United States Senators from 1821 to 1921, in clusive: DELEGATES TO CONGRESS. 17th Congress, March 4, 1821-March 3 , 1823-J oseph M. Hernandez, took his seat January 3, 1823. 18th Congress, March 4, 1823-March 3, 1825 Richard Keith Call. 19th Congress, March 4, 1825-March 3, 1827-Joseph M. White, Pensacola. 20th Congress, March 4, 1827-March 3, 18251-Joseph M. White, Pensacola. 21st Congress, March 4, 1829-March 3, 1831-Joseph M. White, Monticello. 22nd Congress, March 4, 1831-March 3, 1833-Joseph M. White, Monticello. 23rd Congress, March 4, 1833-March 3, 1835-J oseph M. White, Mon.ti cello. 24th Congress , March 4, 1835-March 3, 1837-J oseph M. White, Monticello. 25th Congress, March 4, 1837-March 3, 18351-Charles Downing , St. Augustine . 26th Congress, March 4, 1839-March 3, Downing. St. Augustine. 27th Congress, March 4, 1841-March 3, 1843-David Levy, St. Augustine. 28th Congress; March 4 , 1843-March 3, 1845-David Levy, St. Augustine. UNITED STATES SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES 29th Congress, March 4, 1845-March 3 , 1847-Florida was raised to statehood by act of March 3, 1845-Senators, David Levy, (Yulee) St. Augustine. James D. Westcott, Jr., Tallahassee. Senator Yulee took his seat December 1, 1845; term to expire March 3, 185i. Senator Westcott took his seat December 1, 1845 , term to expire March 3, 1849. Representatives: Edward C. Cabell, Tallahassee . (Representative Brockenbrough successfully contested the election of Edward C. Cabell, and took his seat January 24, 1846.) William H. Brockenbrough, Talla hassee. 30th Congress, March 4, 1847-March 3, 18451-Senators: David L. Yulee, St. Augustine; James D. Westscott, Jr., Tallahassee. Representa tive: Edward C. Cabell, Tallahassee. 31st Congress, March 4, 1849-March 3, 1851-Senators: Jackson Morton, Pensacola; David L. Yulee, St. Augustine. Representative: Edward C. Cabell, Tallahassee. 32nd Congress, March 4, 1851-March 3, 1853-Senators: Jackson Morton, Pensacola; Stephen R. Mallory, Jacksonville . (Election un-202

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 203 succes fully contested by David L. Yttlee.) Representative: Edward C. Cabell, Tallahassee. 33rd Congress, March 4, 1853-March 3, 1855-Senators: Jackson Morton, Pensacola; Stephen R. Mallory, Jacksonville. Representative: Augustus E. Maxwell, Tallahassee. 34th Congress, March 4, 1857-March 3, 1859--Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Key West; David L. Yulee, Homosassa. Representative: Augustus E. Maxwell, Tallahassee. 35th Congress, March 4, 1857-March 3, 1859--Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; David L. Yulee, Homosassa. Representative: George S. Hawkins, Pensacola. (Florida seceded from the Union Jan. JO, 1861, and the Florida senators and representative withdrew from Congress, Jan. 21, 1861, being the first Southern Congressmen to take this action.) 36th Congress, March 4, 1859-March 3, 1861-Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Key West; David L. Yulee, Homosassa. Representative: George S. Hawkins, Pensacola. 37th Congress, March 4, 1861-March 3, 1863-Florida seats in both houses vacant. Seat of Senator Mallory declared vacant by resolution of March 14, 1861. (Special session of the senate.) 38th Congress, March 4, 1863-March 3, 1865-Florida seats vacant. 39th Congress, March 4, 1865-March 3, 1867-Florida seats vacant. 4oth Congress, March 4, 1867-March 3. 1869-----Senators: Thomas W. Osborn, Pensacola; Adonijah S. Wel'ch, Jacksonville. Representative: Charles M. Hamilton, Marianna. Florida was readmitted to representation June 25, 1868. Senator Osborn took his seat June 30, 1868, term to expire March 3, 1873; Sen ator Welch took his seat July 2, 1868, term to expire March 3, 1869. Representative Hamilton took his seat July 1, 1868. 41st Congress, March 4, 1869-March 3, 1871-Senators: Thomas W. Osborn, Pensacola; Abijah Gilbert, St. Augustine. Representatives, Charles M. Hamilton, Jacksonville. 42nd Congress, March 4, 1871-March 3, 1873-Senators: Thomas W. Osborn, Pensacola; Abijah Gilbert, St. Augustine. Representatives: Josiah T. Walls, Gainesville; Silas L. Niblack, Gainesville. (Niblack successfully contested the seat of Walls and served from January 29, I 873 to the end of the Congress.) 43rd Congress, March 4, 1873-March 3, 1875-Senators: Abijah Gilbert, St. Augustine; Simon B. Conover, Tallahassee. Representa tives: William J. Furman, Tallahassee; Josiah T. Walls, Gainesville. Under the apportionment following the census of 1870, Florida had . two representatives. Representative Furman resigned February 16, 1875. 44th Congress, March 4, 1875-March 3, 1877-Senators: Simon B. Conover, Tallahassee; Charles W. Jones, Pensacola. Representatives: William J. Furman, Tallahassee; Josiah T. Walls, Gainesville; Jesse J. Finley, Jacksonville. Walls served until April 19, 1876, when he was succeeded by Finley, who successfully contested his election. 45th Congress, March 4, 1877-March 3, 1879--Senators: Simon B. Conover, Tallahassee; Charles W. Jones, Pensacola. Representatives: Horatio Bisbee, Jr., Jacksonville; Jesse J. Finley, Jacksonville; Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy. Bisbee was succeeded Feb. 20, 1879, by Finley, who contested his election. 46th Congress, March 4, 1879-March 3, 1881-Senators: Charles W. Jones, Pensacola; Wilkinson Call, J acksonvi'lle. Representatives: Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy; Noble A. Hull, Sanford, Horatio Bisbee, Jr., Jacksonville. Hull served until Jan. 22, 1881, when he was succeeded by Bisbee, who contested his election. 47th Congress, March 4, 1881-March 3, 1883-Senators: Charles W. Jones, Pensacola; Wilkinson Call, Jacksonville. Representatives: Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy; Horatio Bisbee, Jr., Jacksonville; Jesse J. •

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204 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Finley, Jacksonville. Finley served until June I, 1882, when he was s ucceeded by Bisbee, who contested his election. 48th Congress, March 4, 1883-March 3, 1885-Senators: Charles W . Jones. Pensacola; Wilkinson Call, Jacksonville. Representatives: Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy; Horatio Bfsbee, Jr .. Jacksonville . 49th Congress, March 4, 1885-March 3, 1887-Senators: Charles W. Jones, Pensacola, Wilkinson Call, Jacksonville. Representatives Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy, Charles Dougherty , Port Orange. 5oth Congress, March 4, 1887-March 3, 1889-Senators Wilkinson Call. Samuel Pasco, Monticello. Representatives Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy; Charles Dougherty, Port Orange. 51st Congress, March 4, 1889-March 3, 1891-Senators: Wilkinson Ca ll. Jacksonville; Samuel Pasco. Monticello. Representatives Robert H. M. Davidson, Quincy; Robert Bullock, Ocala. 52nd Congress, March 4, 1891-March 3, 1893-Senators: Wilkinson Call, Jacksonville who was appointed United States Senator by Gov e rnor Fleming, upon the proposition that Senator Call had not been e lected by a majority vote of the members of each house of the Florida Legislature of 1891; Samuel Pasco, Monticello. Representatives: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; Robert Bullock, Ocala. Senator Cali's election was unsuccessfully contested by Robert H. M. Davidson. 53rd Congress, March 4. 1893-March 3, 1895-Senators: Wilkinson . Call, Jacksonville; Samuel Pasco. Monticello. Representatives: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; Charles M. Cooper, Jacksonville . 54th Congress, March 4. 1895-March 3, 1897-Senators: Wilkinson Call, Jacksonville; Samuel Pasco, Monticello. Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Charles M. Cooper, Jacksonville. 55th Congress, March 4, 1897-March 3, 1899----Senators: Samuel Pasco, Monticello; Stephen R. Mallory. Pensacola. Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Robert W. Davis, Palatka. 56th Congress, March 4. 1899-March 3, 1901-Senators: Stephen R. Mallory. Pensacola; James P. Taliaferro. Jacksonville . Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Robert W. Davis, Palatka. 57th Congress, March 4, 19cn-March 3, 1903-Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; Jam es P. Taliaferro, Jacksonville . Representa tives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Robert W. Davis , Palatka. 58th Congress, March 4. 1903-March 3, 1905-Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; James P. Taliaferro, Jacksonville. Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman. Tampa; Robert W. Davis, Palatka; \V. B. Lamar. Tallahassee. 59th Congress, March 4, 1905-March 3. 1907-Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; James P. Taliaferro, Jacksonville. Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Frank Clark, Lake City; "William B. Lamar, Monticello. (Lamar was the first representative from the Third Congressional district of Florida created under the new apportion ment following the census of 1900.) 6oth Congress, March 4, 1907-March 3, 1909-Senators: Stephen R. Mallory, Pensacola; William James Bryan, Jacksonville; William H . Milton, Marianna; James Taliaferro. Jackson:ville. Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Frank Clark, Gainesville; William B. Lamar, Montic . ello. (Senator Mallory died Dec . 23, 1907. Senator Bryan was appointed to fill the vacancy. and took his seat Jan. 9, 1908. and died March 22, 1908. Senator Milton was appointed to fill the vacancy in the term commencing March 4, 1908 , caused by the deaths of Mallory and Bryan, and took his seat April 6, 1908. 61st Congress, March 4, 1909-March 3, 191 I-Senators: James P. Taliaferro, Jacksonville; Duncan U. Fletcher, Jacksonville. Representa tives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Frank Clark, Gainesville, Dannitte H. Mays, Monticello. 62nd Congress, March 4. 1911-March 3, 1913-Senators: Duncan U. Fletcher, Jacksonville; Nathan P. Bryan, Jacksonville. Representa -'

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 205 tives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Frank Clark, Gainesville; Dannitte H. Mays, Monticello. 63rd Congress, March 4, 1913-March 3, 1915-Senators: Dunc.an U. Fletcher, Jacksonville; Nathan P. Bryan, Jacksonville. Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Frank Clark, Gainesville; Emmett Wilson, Pensacola; Claude L'Engle, elected congressman for the state at large under the apportionment following the censtts of 1910. 64th Congress, March 4, 1915-March 3, 1917-Senators Duncan U. Fletcher, Jacksonville; Nathan P. Bryan, Jacksonville . Representatives: Stephen M. Sparkman, Tampa; Frank Clark, Gainesville; Emmett Wilson, Pensacola; William J. Sears, Kissimmee. 65th Congress, March 4, 1917-March 3, 1919-Senators: Duncan U. Fletcher, Jacksonville; Park Trammell , Lakeland . Representatives: Herbert J. Drane, Lakeland; Frank Clark, Gainesville; Walter Kehoe, Pensacola; William J. Sears, Kissimmee. 66th Congress, March 4, 1919-March 3, 1921-Senators: Duncan U. Fletcher, Jacksonville; Park Trammell, Lakeland. Representatives : Herbert J. Drane, Lakeland; Frank Clark , Gainesville ; J. H . Smithwick, . Pensacola; William J. Sears, Kissimmeee.

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CHAPTER XII THE FOUNDATION OF THE ST A TE The con s titution and laws of a state are the very corner stones of its being . They regulate and protect the lives of its people. Although their broad principles are founded upon other constitutions and laws tested and improved by the ages, many of the details laid upon the basic struc ture of each commonwealth are evolutions from the individual and col lective experiences of its citizens. This is especially true of Florida, and the sweeping outlines of its history which have been etched in fore going chapters a natural introduction , creation and expansion of the body of the laws in which the state now moves and thrives and has its being . The courts and the lawyers, and the men who compose them a nd who operate through them , from the greatest agencies through which the body politic of Florida has been brought to its present state. The laws and the courts and the government were founded s imul taneously with the promulgation of the law of March 3, 1821, under which Andrew Jackson was appointed provisional governor and Eligiu s Fromentin of New Orleans and William P. Duval, of Kentucky, were named as judges of ea s t and west Florida, respectively. Pensacola and St. Augustine were the judicial centers . Alexander Anderson, of Tennes see, was appointed attorney-general for the western district and James G. Bird, of Georgia, for the eastern. James Grant Forbes, of New York, was commissioned marshal for Florida, as a whole, which was und e r the jurisdiction of Governor Jackson. . The clash between Judge Fromentin, Jackson and the former Spani s h governor, Don Jose Callava , has already been described. Naturally, the case was taken to Washington , and the general outcome of the matter eems to have been that both the judge and the general exceeded th e ir authority. But Judge Fromentin s oon resigned from the bench and in 1822 died of yellow fever at New Orleans . No man had more to do with the formulation of the first laws or ordinances, promulgated by Governor Jackson and which constituted th e initial attempts to found a then Henry M. Brackenridge, a southern lawyer, a profound scholar on all subjects connected with the international affairs of Louisiana and the great Southwest, an authority on Spanish and English law and for a number of years before coming to Florida a s the legal adviser and close friend of Jackson, he had held the offices of attorney-general of the Territory of Orleans and district judge. The Jackson ordinances, published on July 21, 1821, were to all intents and purposes, the brain-work of Judge Brackenridge, and con sisted of an application of American and Spanish law to the conditions then prevailing in Florida. The alcaldes were not disturbed in their old-time functions; continued to act a s judges of probate, registers of wills, notaries public and justices of the peace, and constituted the domi nant local judiciary. Judge Brackenridge had been appointed as alcalde of Pensacola by Governor Jackson and was acting in that capacity when the trouble arose as to the possession of certain papers in possession of the Spanish governor. THE JACKSONIAN ORDINANCES Under the ordinances, ca s es brought before the alcaldes c ould be appealed to the county courts and from them, to the governor . Each 206

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 207 county (then Escambia and St. Johns) was entitled to ten justices of the peace, five of whom-the senior presiding-to constitute a county court. Sessions of the court were to be held quarterly, at Pensacola and St. Augustine, "with jurisdiction in all civil cases originating in the county, where the matter in controversy $20 in value, and of all criminal cases; reserving the right of appeal to the governor in cases involving more than $500, and prohibiting executions for capital offenses except upon warrant of the governor. * * * These county courts were clothed with the powers of imposing taxes to defray their expenses, of summoning grand and petit juries, of granting licenses for liquor saloons and billiard tables, and of policing the roads and bridges outside of Pensacola and St. Augustine. In regard to practice, it was declared to be the duty of the court to confine parties strictly to the merits of the cause at issue, and expunge all useless matter from the pleadings, 'so that justice may be administered in the most simple, cheap and speedy manner.'" On July 26th, Governor Jackson issued an explanatory ordinance, laying down the rules more in detail as to the legal means to commence suits in court, the notation of judgments, etc. Records were required to be made in English, but filings permitted to be made in Spanish. Examinations, orders, decrees and other preliminary steps were permitted to be taken according to Spanish practice, but the final judgment was required to be rendered in open court and the records, as stated, to be in English. In those days, Florida was decidedly of a Spanish-American type and the basis of its laws was formulated accordingly. FIRST TERRITORIAL COURTS AND JUDGES Under the act establishing the Territory of Florida, approved on March 30, I822, the judiciary comprised two superior courts, with such inferior courts and justices of the peace as the Legislative Council, might create. The judicial districts of East and West Florida were divided by the Apalachicola, and the seats of justice for the superior courts were to be, unless otherwise directed, Pensacola and St. Augustine, still the only considerable centers of population in Florida. Criminal cases and all civil litigation involving $IOO or more were under the jurisdiction of the courts and appeal was to the Supreme Court of the United States. The first Federal appointments of Superior Court judges in Florida were Henry M. Brackenridge for the Western district and Joseph L. Smith, of Connecticut, for the Eastern. Judge Smith was a Yale College graduate, a lawyer before he was a soldier, a man of rugged physique and mentality, as well as of high temper, and remained on the bench fo r some ten years. He was the father of the famous Confederate, Genera l Edmund Kirby Smith. Both Judges Brackenridge and Smith wer e Superior Court judges for a decade. The latter died at St. Augustine, o n May 27, I841. The Superior Court, or Federal judges, acted also as commissioners to adjudicate the claims of Spanish Officers and citizens against the United States Government, on account of losses sustained by them from "the late operations of the American army in Florida.'' It was some years before Congress decided the limitation of the claims covered by the phrase, "late operations," and when its significance was decided as applying to the operations of I8I2 and I8I4 the Federal judiciary was burdened more heavily than anticipated; for not only was that class of litigation loaded upon it, but it was obliged to attend to its constitutional docket of criminal and civil cases. The first Territorial Council met at Pensacola late in the summer of I822 , and established two Circuit courts, the jurisdiction of which corre sponded to that of the District courts of East and West Florida. In the following year, the council sitting at St. Augustine, displaced them by the establishment of county courts. Again, in December, I824, the law

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208 HISTORY OF FLORIDA was so amended as to provide for county judges, who were to be appointed by the governor and Legislative Council. Of the three judges comprising a County Court, one was to preside. Individually, they were to have the functions of justices of the peace and had jurisdiction over probate matters, over the police of their respective counties and, after the disposition of litigation, could perform the acts of the modern county commissioners or supervisors. The first presiding judges appointed by Governor Duval, on De cember 30, 1824, were: Thomas Reynolds, Nassau County; John B. Strong, St. Johns County; George Anderson, Musquito County; Francis P. Sanchez. Alachua County; John L. Doggett, Duval County; Cary Nicholson, Leon County; Pavid L. White, Gadsden County; Jacob Robin son, Jackson County; Jaines Bright, Walton County, and Timothy Twitchell, Escambia County. The Legislative Council of the year named enacted both criminal and civ'il codes of procedure. Mur4er and rape were crimes punishable by capital punishment-hanging-and such minor crimes as vagrancy, theft, etc., called for whipping or the pillory. The criminal code provided that "the punishment of whipping shall be inflicted on the bare back or posteriors of the culprit with a cowhide, or other instrument of the like flexibility; that when the punishment of exposure on a pillory shall be inflicted, the pillory shall be placed in a square, street, road or other exposed and public With the survey and establishment of Tallahassee as the permanent capital of Florida in 1824, it became evident that a leading center of population and logical litigation would be created in that section of the territory. Consequently, during that year, Congress divided Florida into three judicial districts, which were defined by the Apalachicola and the Suwannee rivers. Judge Brackenridge was appointed to preside over the court of West Florida, Judge Smith over that of East Florida, and Augustus B. Woodward over the Middle Florida district. JUDGE AUGUSTUS B. WOODWARD Judge Woodward was an interesting scientific character and a theorist, more identified with the early judicial and political history of Michigan than with the formative period of Florida as a territory. He was appointed district judge of Middle Florida in August, 1824, and in the following November assembled the first Legislative Council to meet at Tallahassee . Says Fleming in his "Memoirs of Florida": "Judge Woodward was called upon by act of the council to hold a special session of court at Tallahassee in 1824, to determine a conflict which had arisen regarding construction of the org0:nic law. At the first session of the council at Tallal}assee, bills to charter banks at Pensacola a,nd St. A\lgustine, whi . ch Governor Duval yetoed. The vote to pass the bills over his veto w;;i.s six to three, and it was assumed by the friends of the measures that, having received a two-thirds vote of the members of the council present, _ they became law. But Secretary of State Walton declined to record ' them, on the ground that the requirement of the law was the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the entire council of thirteen. Court was convened at the home of Charles Pindar, and Benjamin D. Wright, representing the action, asked a mandamus against the secretary, requiring him to record the acts. This Judge Woodward refused, sus taining Walton in his construction of law, and thereby postponing the establishment of banks in the territory for several years." NEW ADMIRALTY COURT AT KEY WEST A peculiar situation developed regarding the disposition of the wreckage scattered along the coasts of Southern Florida, which made necessary the establishment of another judicial district and a new Supe-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 209 rior Court, with headquarters at Key West. Under the law of 1823, the quantity of salvage was allotted to the wreckers by a jury of five persons selected by a notary or justice of the peace. Such summary proceedings often resulted in exorbitant quantities being given to the discoverers of wrecks and the Superior Court at St. Augustine decided that these so-called "wreckers" courts were illegal, or at least incompetent. In 1826, the Superior courts were given jurisdiction over maritime matters, including the disposal of wreckage, and much of the litigation was transferred to St. Augustine. Key West, however, was the more convenient and logical seat for such trials, and the Congress of 1827-28 created a southern judicial district, with that city as the place for holding court. As the population of that section of the state was then very sparse, the Superior Court of the new district could devote most of its time to admiralty proceedings. A great advance in the civil code of Florida was made in 1826, when the council abolished imprisonment for debt, and accorded the debtor the privilege of making a schedule of his property, to be assigned to the creditor with the exceptions of clothing and household goods. During the first few years of the county courts, their usefulness was called in question, as the judges were not required to be lawyers and there were hardly enough suits to "go 'round. " There was some talk of abolishing them and reestablishing the Circuit courts, but in 1829 the County Court system was changed so that one of the justices of the peace should preside over the court. The business of the county was delegated to the justices at their biennial sessions, while the County Court was mainly a court of record, with original jurisdiction in probate matters and in the trial of suits involving sums of more than $50 and less than $100. In 1829, also, the stealing of horses, mules and slaves was included in the list of capital crimes, but that feature of the criminal code was abolished in the following year. DISTRICT AND SUPERIOR JUDGES James Webb, of Georgia, was the first judge of the southern district, and he opened court at Key West, on November 3, 1828. About that time a local newspaper notes the arrival of a vessel at the new seat of justice with "an assorted cargo and seven lawyers." Judge Webb re mained upon the bench for ten years, when he resigned to go to the Texan Republic, of which he became secretary of state. Judge Woodward served as judge of the Middle Florida district from the time of his appointment in August, 1824, to the time of his death in 1826, when he was succeeded by Thomas Randall, of Maryland, who had already acquitted himself with credit in a confidential mission as a repre sentative of the United States at Havana. Judge Randall continued on the United States district bench for fifteen years. With Brackenridge, Smith and Webb, he sat annually at Tallahassee as a member of the Court of Appeals, in 1828-32, that body being the forerunner of the Supreme Court of the state. Joseph L. Smith, Superior judge for East Florida, was succeeded by Robert Raymond Reid, in 1832. Judge Reid was one of the ablest men of early Florida, and had served Georgia in Congress and in other public positions before coming to the sister state under the shadow of a great personal bereavement, the loss of his wife. His honorable participation in the public affairs of Florida, both as president of its first constitutional convention and the fourth governor of the territory, have already become a portion of this history, as well as the fact of his sad and untimely death in July, l84I. When the Court of Appeals met in January, 1833, it adopted a code of practice for the Superior courts, which was very necessary because of the overcrowded condition of their dockets. The business of the Superior courts had been increasing in every county, while that of the

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210 HISTORY OF FLORIDA County courts had been diminishing. In I834, the Superior Court judge s were holding sessions in sixteen seats of justice throughout Florida, the regular terms in their respective districts and the annual meeting at Talla hassee, where they collectively sat as the Court of Appeals. Such widely extended business entailed not only much arduous travel through the wilderness and along vast stretches of coast, but was often attended with danger from warlike savages. Congress was petitioned by the Legislative Council to relieve the situation and in I838 created the district of Apa lachicola, which embraced the counties of Franklin, Washington and Jackson, with Apalachicola and St. Joseph as the seats of justice. Richard C. Allen, of South Carolina, the first judge of the new district, was confirmed by the United States Senate in July, I838, and occupied the bench until I84I, when Samuel W. Carmack, of Tennessee, succeeded him. LITIGATION OvER LAND AND vVAR CLAIMs The adjudication of Spanish and French land claims continued to occupy the attention of the higher courts throughout the territorial period. As a young state, the dockets were crowded with suits, handled by such experts as Col. Joseph M. White, of Pensacola; in fact, such suits have never ceased to be brought into the courts of Florida, and as late as 192I, old Spanish documents were being dug from the archives of the state to be used as evidence in a case being tried in Jacksonville. The title to much of the most valuable business property in Pensacola brought years of litigation, which has not been entirely quieted, and any of the lands adjacent to St. Augustine, such as those covering Anastasia Island, are still held under clouded titles. The judges and lawyers of Florida have also found a fertile field for the cultivation of their talents in the trial of the war damage claims by descendants of the old Spanish residents. They were finally paid to the amount of over one million dollars; but the Federal secretary of the treasury held out the interest, which, in the case of old East Florida, has overtaken the principal. So that the interest claim is still an international subject to be considered by Congress. THE FIRST STATE JUDICIARY Under the Constitution of 1839, which went into force when Florida was admitted as a state six years later , Florida was divided into four judicial circuits, as formerly, the judges thereof to be elected by the Legislature. The first term of office was fixed by the constitution as five years, the judges of the Circuit courts to constitute the Supreme Court of the state. At the expiration of the five-years' term, the judges of the Circuit courts and the justices of the Supreme Court were to be elected by the Legislature and serve during good behavior. At least once a year, the judges were to meet at Tallahassee for the purpose of con sidering appeals from the judgments rendered by them in the different counties of their circuits. Provision was also made for judges of probate to be appointed by the governor for a term of four years. FIRST STATE SUPREME COURT In July, I845, the following circuit judges were elected: Western, George S. Hawkins,. Apalachicola; Southern, William Marvin, Key West; Eastern, Isaac H. Bronson, St. Augustine; Middle, Thomas Baltzell, Tallahassee. As Judges Marvin and Bronson declined to serve, George W. Macrae was appointed for the Southern district and Thomas Douglas for the Eastern. When the first Supreme Court of the state met in the unfinished capitol at Tallahassee, Thomas Douglas was selected as chief justice. A

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 211 special committee of the Legislature had furnished the chambers with a judge's stand, fourteen feet wide and six feet deep; a clerk's table six feet long; a small desk with pigeon holes on the clerk's table; one circular table fronting the bench, fourteen feet long, for the convenience of the bar, six arm chairs, and two benches, twenty feet each, for spec tators. At first, the State Supreme Court used the seal of the old Territorial Court of Appeals, but in January, 1847, the State Legislature adopted a distinctive seal. Chief Justice Douglas was a Connecticut Yankee, who had had a long business experience in the Territory of Indiana, before he studied and practiced law . He did not become a lawyer until he was well along in years, but advanced rapidly and in 1829 settled in St. Augustine as United States attorney for the Eastern district of Florida. In that office he made a fine record in his handling of the intricate Spanish land grants and claims, and, after nineteen years of such service, resigned to accept his appointment as judge of the Eastern circuit of Florida, and, as stated, his associates elected him chief justice of the state . At the next meet ing of the Legislature he was elected for a term of fiv.e years, and by subsequent appointment and election he continued on the Circuit bench until 1853, when he was elected a justice of the reorganized Supreme Court. Thus he continued until his death, in May, 1855. Judge Douglas died while returning from court at Tallahassee to his home in Jackson ville . Both his judicial career and his private life were highly commendable . In January, 1851, the State Legislature created a distinctive Supreme Court, composed of a chief justice and two associate justices to hold office for eight years, and in the same month the Legislature made its selection in the persons of Walter Anderson (chief justice), and Leslie A. Thompson and Albert G. Semmes (associates) . Joseph B. Lancaster was elected judge of the Southern circuit; Thomas Douglas , of the Eastern circuit; J. Wales Baker, of the Middle, and George S. Hawkins, of the Western. Chief Justice Anderson, a highly educated North Carolina gentleman, had been practicing law and holding public office at Pensacola since 1835. He resigned from the bench in May, 1853, and was succeeded, as stated, by Thomas Douglas. Justice Anderson died in his home city in 1857. Pensacola was also the home of the next chief justice, Benjamin D. Wright, who had served both as United States attorney and judge of the Superior Court for the Western district of Florida in the early territorial period. Leslie A. Thompson, one of the associate justices who served with Chief Justices Anderson and Wright, in 1851-54, is most favorably known to the bench and bar of Florida for his careful, and therefore valuable, digest of the general laws of the territory and states, as weU as the collection and classification of all the British statutes in force. The digest wa5 published, but the collection of the statutes of Great Britain which had been embodied into the state laws was not printed, although passed upon favorably by a special committee of the bar appointed to examine them. SUPREME JUDGES ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE In 1850; a constitutional amendment was adopted fixing the term of members of the State Supreme Court at six years, and changing the elec tion from the joint assembly to the people. The judges could be impeached for certain offenses, as weU as for neglect of duty, not speci fied in the impeachable list, and could be removed by the governor upon the address or petition of two-thirds of the members of the Legislature. CHIEF JUSTICES BALTZELL AND DUPONT As stated by Fleming in his "Memoirs of Florida": "At the general election of 1853, the people selected a Supreme bench of remarkable

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212 HISTORY OF FLORIDA strength-Thomas Baltzell, chief justice, and Thomas Douglas and Charles H. Dupont, associates. Judge Baltzell was one of the pioneers of the profession in Middle Florida, who came to that region a penniless young man and, for a time, followed the sessions of the court, carrying his belongings in a pack upon his back. Ile was one of the first Circuit judges and members of the State upreme Court, the first chief justice elected by the people, and ably represented his constituents in the legis lative councils and the constitutional conventions of I838-39. Taking the place of honor assianed him at the head of the state judiciary, after thirty years' itlentification with the public life of Florida, he served throughout his term of six years as chief justice with added credit to his reputation as a learned lawyer and honest gentleman. As wa s said by one of the most distinguished men of the country, 'All admired him for his integrity, firmness, public spirit and unconquerable industry.' At the end of his career, when resolutions were adopted by the Legislature in recog nition of his valuable public services, it wa declared that 'he was admitted to be the first jurist of the state and stood at the head of his profession.' Personally, he was a lovable man, carrying into his profession much of the tenderness of heart that characterized his family relations. He left no fortune behind him when he quit the world , for he had been kind and generous to the poor. After witnessing the terrible ravages of the Civil war, he took part in the Constitutional Convention of I865, and exhausted his failing energies in this unselfi h service. His death followed in January, I865.'' Charles H. Dupont, who had been elected chief justice in I859, was of South Carolina Huguenot descent, with an Ohio training upon a farm. Soon after graduating from a Georgia college, in I826, he purchased land near Quincy, Gadsden County, and was there planter, lawyer, county judge, legislator and soldier. The panic of I837 crippled him, but he was again upon his feet when called to the State Supreme Court, com mencing his service of nearly nine years in I86o, before the Civil war. He remained steadfast at his judicial po t (with a short interim) throughout the war and well into reconstruction times. At the expiration of his service, in I868, he was a man over sixty years of age, and retired to his plantation involved in debt and in really straitened circum tances. He bravely returned to the struggle, however, and was endeavoring to restore his shattered fortunes when he died at Quincy, in October, I877. UNSETTLED J UDICIAL PERIOD From May, I865, when Florida pas se d under military rule, until January, I866, when Governor-elect David S. Walker (associate under Chief Justice Dupont) reappointed Judge Dupont to his former position , the State Supreme Court of I866-69 was composed of Chief Justice Dupont, and his as ociates, James M. Baker and Samuel J. Douglas. The amended Constitution of I865 threw open the courts to the colored race, with certain restrictions, and created a system of county criminal courts which had jurisdiction over cases not capital. As the petty cases brought before them chiefly related to offenses committed by the colored element. the courts were abolished in a few years, as tending to discriminate against the enfranchised race. The third Constitution of I868 made no change in the number of justices, but provided for their appointment by the governor for life terms; which threatened to stamp the State Supteme Court as a self perpetuating political machine. The Constitution of I885 abrogated the life term, making the justices of the Supreme Court popularly elective and judges of the Circuit courts appointive. CHANGES IN CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CODES In the first Legi s lature, under the Constitution of I868, a civil and criminal code of practice was reported by a committee composed of C. R .

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 213 Mobley, John L. Crawford and A. A. Knight. It was based on the codes of Iew York, Ohio and Wisconsin. In 1870, another code based more particularly on the New York statutes was recommended by John A. Henderson and John A. Furman. It went into effect on the first of July, but from the following preamble it appeared to be too radical in its scope: "It is expedient that the present forms of action and pleadings in cases at common law should be abolished, and that the distinction between legal and equitable remedies should no longer continue, and that a uniform course of proceeding in all ca es should be established." The code was amended in l 71 and in 1873, repealed; the pleadings, practice and proceedings being restored as they had existed. A distinguished lawyer concludes: "The changes made since then have been conservative in scope, and Florida to the present day adheres with remarkable fidelity to the common-law practice." JUSTICE RANDALL'S CAREER Edwin M. Randall , the successor o E Charles H. Dupont as chief justice, was the great judicial figure of Florida history while the affairs of the state were conducted under the Constitution of 1868. His brother, Alexander W. Randall, was one of the great men of Wisconsin and postmaster general in Andrew Johnson's cabinet. In r864, Justice Randall was appointed United States district tax commissioner for Louisiana, and two years later, while his brother was in the cabinet, made his home at Jacksonville to practice law. In view of his pronounced republican connections. Justice Randall's position on the bench was an extremely delicate one, but he soon earned the confidence of the bench and bar as to the unwaveringrectitude of his decisions and course of procedure. The absolute justice which guided him was put to the supreme test in the Hayes-Tilden conflict of 1876, when he decided against the capvassing board of his own political and personal friends. The commission of Judge Randall as chief justice of the State Supreme Court was dated July IO, 1868, and he remained at the head of the bench until his resignation, January 7, 1885. He then returned to his home in Jacksonville to resume the practice of the law, and in the following June appeared as a leader in the constitutional con vention. In the formulation of the fourth and last constitution of the state he played a leading part, and in the decade of life which remained to him was prominent in the public affairs of Jacksonville. He died in that city on July 12. 1895. seventy-three years of age. Chief Justice Randall's associate throughout the long period of his service was James D. ' \i\Testcott, Jr., a young Tallahassee lawyer of twenty-nine, whose father had been one of the two United States senators to first represent the state. Notwithstanding his age, Justice Westcott had already served as a member of the Legislature and attorney-general before being elevated to the bench of the State Supreme Court. He resigned a few days after Governor Perry's inauguration, in January, 1885. and died in April, r887 , at the age of forty-eight years. CnrnF JusTrCES McW1 -roRTER AND MAXWELL George G. McWhorter, of Milton, an Alabaman and a lawyer of liberal education, before . • rnoving to Florida in his young manhood, had acquired prominence as a democratic leader before being honored with the chief justiceship, in succession to Judge Randall. After two years' service he retired from the bench to become president of the State Railroad Commission and died at his home town in May, Augustus E . Maxwell, of Pensacola, succeeded Chief Justice McWhorter, upon the resignation of the latter in July, 1887, and continued as such until January, 1889, when the new members of the State Supreme Court came into office who had been elected during the preceding year

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2J4 HISTORY OF FLORIDA under the Constitution of 1885. Since coming to Florida, in 1845, Chief Justice Maxwell had been a prominent public character. He had held many important state offices, served two terms in Congress (Thirtythird and Thirty-fourth) and was a member of the Confederate State Senate. He served under Governor Walker as a member of the Supreme Court and was judge of the First Circuit, under appointment of Governor Drew, for eight years. He was temporary president of the 1885 Constitutional Convention, and continued on the Supreme bench for two years as a member of the reorganized court. Robert B. VanValkenburgh, who had made a record in New York as a lawyer, a le"gislator and a congressman, as well as a general in the Union service, and a minister to Japan, established his residence in Florida in 1871. He acquired a valuable estate opposite Jacksonville, where the last years of his life were pa sed. He served as associate justice of the Florida Supreme Court for fourteen years, from 1874 to 1888, and his career on the bench covered portions of the service credited to Chief Justices Randall, McWhorter and Maxwell. FIRST ELECTION OF UPREME COURT JUDGES By the Constitution of 1885, as stated, the three members of the State Supreme Court were chosen by popular election. As the instru ment had to be ratified by the vote of the people in the fall of 1886, the first biennial election for member of the court to serve six-year terms did not occur until 1888. It was provided that each justice should be elected biennially, so at the first election the term of office was chosen by lot, being two, four or six years. Under that plan Augustus E. Maxwell was chosen for two years, Henry L. Mitchell, for four, and George P. Raney, for six years from January, 1889. The drawing of lots decided that Judge Raney should be chief justice. Chief Ju tice Raney , a native of Apalachicola, was educated in Virginia, served as a youth in the Confederate army, and afterward returned to his Florida birthplace to practice law. In reconstruction times he was a democratic leader in the Legislature; was on the state committee in the 1876 campaign, as well as presidential elector on the party ticket , and was attorney general in both the Drew and the Bloxham administrations. He served as chief justice from January, 1889, until his resignation in May, 1894, and he had already been associate justice in 1885-88. After his retirement from the Supreme bench, he engaged in practice and political activities at Tallahassee. Benjamin S. Liddon , successor to Judge Raney, as chief justice, in 1894, was a Marianna lawyer, who, afterward served for two years as associate justice and practiced in Pensacola. Milton H. Mabry, of Lees burg, followed Chief Justice Liddon, and was associate justice both before and after his two years' service as chief justice. JUSTICE ROBERT F. TAYLOR Robert Fenwick Taylor, who will complete his thirty-two years of service on the bench of Florida at the expiration of his present term as associate justice. on January 1, 1923, is one of the oldest members of either the bench or bar in the state. He was born in the Beaufort district of South Carolina, in 1849, and is a son of John M. Taylor, who brought his family to Florida in 1852. He read law with his brother-in law, Judge James B. Dawkins, of Gainesville, and was admitted to the bar in 1870. In 1885, Judge Taylor was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1885 from Alachua County, was appointed as associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1891, and served by election, in 1894-96 and 1905-15. He succeeded Judge Mabry as chief justice in 18<)7 and served as head of the bench until 1905

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 215 CHIEF JUSTICES 1905-22. The succeeding chief justices have been as follows: Thomas M. Shackleford, 1905-09; James B. Whitfield, 1909-12; Thomas M. Shackle ford (second term), 1913-15; Robert F. Taylor (second term), 1915-17; Jefferson B. Browne, 1917-term expires in January, 1923. The great growth of the state in population and wealth between 188o and 1900 multiplied litigation and caused such a congestion of the docket that a Constitutional Amendment in November, 1902, by which three more justices of the Supreme Court were appointed. The Legislature of 1905 made permanent provision for them. At the session of 1911, the number was reduced to five. Besides R. F. Taylor, the other associates with Chief Justice Browne on the Supreme bench, are as follows: W. H. Ellis, reelected for six years from January 4, 1921; Thomas F. West, reelected for six years from January 4, 1921; James B. Whitfield, term expires in January, 1925. CIRCUIT, COUNTY AND INFERIOR COURTS The Constitution of 1885 divided the state into fifteen judicial circuits, to which have since been added the Duval County circuit and the Seven teenth. The judges are appointed by the governor. The constitution defines their jurisdiction, which does not differ from that prevalent in other states. Appeals from the judgments of the county and other inferior courts are taken to the Circuit courts. There is a state attorney for each judicial circuit. The judicial term of office is six years. County courts are established at the discretion of the Legislature and a prosecuting attorney is elected in each county in which they are in operatfon. The county commissioners establish the justice districts, the justices of the peace being elected by the people for terms of four years. Criminal courts of record are also established by the Legislature, and in counties where they exist the County Court has no criminal jurisdiction.1 The Criminal Court has its own prosecuting attorney, who is appointed by the governor. Besides those named, the Legislature may establish, in incorporated towns or cities, courts for the punishment of offenses against municipal ordinances. Early in the summer of 1892 what has since been known as "The Revised Statutes of the State of Florida," went into effect. In 1889, Governor Fleming had recommended to the Legislature such revision and consolidation, and, upon authority from that body, had appointed the following commissioners: C. M. Cooper, Jacksonville; W. A. Blount, Pensacola, and L. C. Massey, Orlando. Their able and thorough work was adopted with few changes, and went into effect ' a month after the governor's proclamation announcing publication, which was May 14, 1892. Another measure of far-reaching importance to the profession in Florida was that passed in 1897 providing for a State Board of Legal Examiners. It consisted of five members to be appointed by the Supreme Court, for the purpose of examining applicants for admission to the bar of Florida. It was a step in the right direction, but went so far as to be declared unconstitutional, and was displaced by the act of 1899, by which such applicant must pass examination by two members of the bar in open court, "satisfy the judge of the Circuit Court that he is twenty one years of age and of good moral character, and take oath to support the constitutions of the state and the United States." THE FLORIDA BAR Ex-Governor Francis P. Fleming thus mentions the pioneer members of the Florida bar :2 "From early territorial days, Florida has had an 1 Criminal courts were first established in Duval, Escambia and Orange coun ties in 1887. 2 Written in 1902.

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216 HISTORY OF FLORIDA able bar. It would be impossible to give the names of all who have adorned the profession, nor would it be expedient to select from the roll of the living for special mention. Among those who have passed away are such prominent and able lawyers as Richard K. Call, James D. Westcott, Thomas H. Hagner, John Rodman, W. H. Brockenbrough, John Drysdale, Gregory Yale, Samuel L. Burritt, James T. Archer, Medicus A. Long. Charles Downing, Chandler C. Yonge, Richard L. Campbell, John P. Sanderson, George W . Call, W. G. M. Davis, D. P. Holland, David P. Hogue, Hunter Pope, James Gettis, T. J. Epps, Allen H. Bush, Samuel Stephens, Mariano D. Papy, A. C. Blount. S. St. George Rogers, Edward A. Perry, Louis I. Fleming, James J. Daniel, Edward M. L'Engle. Charles P. Cooper, Aristides Doggett, Anderson J. Peeler and R. B. Hilton. In 1885, the leading members of the Florida bar attempted to organ ize an association at Gainesville, but did not find the time or circumstances propitious, for they never convened after the first meeting and the effort dropped into oblivion. It is said that Hon. W. A. Williams, of St. Augustine, was among those present, although an attempt to learn some of the details of the gathering was futile. The movement which led to the formation of the strong association of the present originated with the Jacksonville Bar Association. through which a meeting was called in that city on February 5, 1907 Then and there was formed the Florida State Bar Association. Among the prominent attorneys attending the me e ting were Hon. William H. Baker, Hon. John L. Doggett, Hon. D. U. Fletcher (pre ent U. . Senator), Hon. C. M. Cooper, Hon. John E. Hartridge, Hon. C. D. Rinehart, Hon. W. B. Clarkson, Hon. W. B. Young, Hon. W. A. Carter. Hon. William Hunter, Hon. Jefferson B. Browne , (present chief justice of the State Supreme Court), Hon. 0. K. Reaves, Hon. Vv. H. Cheney, Hon. James E. Calkins, Hon. Cary A. Hardee (governor), Hon. William A. Hocker (former associate ju stice of the State Supreme Court). Hon. R. L. Anderson. Hon. W. W. Dewhurst and Hon. W. A. MacWilliams. Hon. F. P. Fleming. former governor of the state, was elected temporary chairman, and Hon. George Couper Gibbs, present judge of the Duval County Circuit Court, temporary secretary. Since its organization. the Florida State Bar Association has met regularly once a year, with the exception of 1918, when war conditions, with the absence of so many of its members made it impossible. There are now approximately l,000 practicing attorneys in the state, and of that number 56o are members of the association. Since its formation, it has been the only representative body of State-wide membership . The presidents of the State organization have been: 1907-08, Robert L. Anderson. Ocala; 1908-09 , Fred T. Myer , Tallahassee; 1909-10, E. B. Gunby, Tampa; l9IO-II, Jefferson B. Bro'wne, Key West; l9II-l2, W. A. Blount, Pensacola; 1912-13. George C. Bedell, Jacksonville; 1913-14, W. A. Mac Williams, St. Auaustine; 1914-15, W. H. Price, Miami; 1915-16, Thomas F. West, Tallahassee; 1916-17, Nathan P. Bryan, Jackson; 1917-19, William Hunter, Tampa; 1919-20, W. H. Ellis, Tallahassee; 1920-21, 0. K. Reave , Bradentown; 1921-22, C. 0. Andrews, Orlando. The secretaries have been Fred T. Barnett, George Couper Gibbs (1907-14), J. C. Cooper, Jr., H. P. Osborne, William K. Jackson and Herman Ulmer; the treasurers, John W. Burton ( 1907-14), F. B. Winthrop, C. E. Pelote, L. W. Baldwin and Phil S. May. The association has met at Jacksonville in 1907 , 1912, 1917, 1920 and 1921; at Atlantic Beach, in 1908, 1915, 1916 and 1919; at St. Augustine, in 1909; at Tampa, in l9IO; at Pensacola, in 191 l; at Miami, in 1913; at Tallahassee, in 1914, and at Orlando, in 1922. ROSTER OF SUPREME COURT JUSTICES AND ATTOR EYS-GENERAL Although the changing personnel of the various members of the State Supreme Court has been given in narrative form, as a matter of

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 217 concise reference there is now appended to this chapter lists of the chief justices and associates of the highest judicial body in Florida, with a roster of the attorneys-general, who, by the constitution, are the legal advisers of the governor and his cabinet. The first Supreme Court of Florida, organized in 1845, was variously called the Peripatetic court, the Wandering court and the Combination court. It was composed of George S. Hawkins, Thomas Baltzell, Isaac H. Bronson and William Marvin, who were also iudi:!es of the western, middle, eastern and southern circuits respectively, as has been explained more in detail. . The chief justices of the court, after its permanent organization, were: Thomas Douglas, r846-5r ; •Walker Anderson, r85r-53; Benjamin D. Wright, 1853; Thomas Baltzell, r854-6o; Charles H. DuPont, r86o-67; Edwin M. Randall, 1868-85; George B. McWhorter, 1885-87; Augustus E. Maxwell, 1887-88; George P. Raney, 1888-94; Benjamin S. Liddon, 1894; Milton H. Mabry, 1895-96; R. Fenwick Taylor, 18971905; James B. Whitfield, 1905; Thomas M. Shackleford, 1905-09; James B. Whitfield, r909-r2; Thomas M. Shackleford, r9r3-r5; R. Fenwick Taylor, r915-r7; Jefferson B. Browne, r9r7-term expires in January, 1923. The associate justices of the Supreme Court in the order of their service were as follows: George S. Hawkins, 1845-50; Isaac Bronson, 1845; William Marvin, 1845; Thomas Baltzell, 1845-50; George W. Macrae, 1847; Joseph B. Lancaster, 1848-50; Leslie A. Thompson, r85r-53; Albert G. Semmes, r85 r-53; Charles H. DuPont, r854-6o; Bird M. Pearson, 1856-59 William A. Forward, r86o-65; David S. Walker, r86o-65; Augustus E. Maxwell, 1865-66; James M. Baker, 1865-68; Samuel J. Douglas, r866-68; Ossian B. Hart, 1868-72; James D. Westcott, Jr., 1868-85; Franklin Fraser, 1873-74; Robert B. Van Valkenburgh, 1874-88; Henry L. Mitchell, 1889-90; Robert Fenwick Taylor, r89r-96; Ben jamin S. Liddon, r895-g6; Milton H. Mabry, r897-r903; Francis B. Carter, 1897-1905; Evelyn C. Maxwell, 1902-04; Thomas S. Shackleford. 1902-05; Robert S. Cockrell, 1902-17; Thomas M. Shackleford, r909-r3; William A. Hocker, 1903-15; Robert F. Taylor, r905-r5; James B. Whit field, 1905-09 and 1913-present term expires, January, 1923; Charles B. Parkhill, 1905-rr; Robert F. Taylor, 1905-15, r9r7-present term ex pires in January, 1923; William H. Ellis, r9r 5-reelected for six years from January 4, l92I; Thomas F. West, reelected for six years from January 4, l92I. List of attorneys-general of the state: Joseph Branch, 1845-48; James T. Archer (ad interim); David P. Hogue, 1848-53; Mariano D. Papy, l853-6o; John B. Galbraith, l86o-68; A. Meek, r868; James B. C. Drew, 1868-70; William Archer Cocke, 1870-76; George P. Raney, 1877-85; Charles M. Cooper, 1885-89; William B. Lamar, 1889-1903; James B. Whitfield, 1903; William H. Ellis, 1903-07; Park M. Trammell, 190713; Thomas F. West, 1913-17; Van C. Swearingen, r917-2r. MEDICAL MATTERS AND PERSONS The practice of medicine and surgery deals so largely in the persol1al equation that it is extremely difficult to consider the subject along general line& and speak of it in broad terms. Especially was that the case in the early upbuilding of Florida communities, when the pioneer doctor and the surgeon-then one and the same-relied substantially on his individual efforts, and the medicines and instruments which he carried with him, without the cooperation of hospitals and sanatoriums and often without the aid of professional consultation. Scattered everywhere through this history will be found references to the individual work of these brave and hardy men, mostly in reference to their participation in the effo1is of the territorial and state governments to conserve the public health by creating various boards of health. By consulting the public records relating to such legislation the most prom-

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218 HISTORY OF FLORIDA inent members of the profession for a given period are often listed. For instance, the first Medical Board of the territory of Florida was created in January, 1828, and in November it appears of record that the per sonnel of that body was as follows : Drs. Richard Weightman, William H. Simmons and Alfred Guthrie, of St. Augustine; Drs. Waterhouse and Robert A. Lacy, of Key West; Drs. William D. Price, Lewis Willis and Thomas Munroe, of Tallahassee; Drs. Malcolm Nicholson and John T. Wilson, of Gadsden County; Drs. William P. Hart, John P. Lockhart and Harris B. Crews, of Jackson County, and Drs. C. Y. Fonda and John Brosnahan, of Pensacola. In 1831, an act was passed by the Legis lative Council making it obligatory for would-be practitioners to file certificates in the office of the county court to prove that they were • MONUMENT ERECTED IN MEMORY OF DR. JoHN GoRRIE graduates of some medical college and were endorsed by at least two practicing physicians of Florida. In 1849, the Medical Board of the State of Florida was incorporated, one of its duties being to act as an examining board. Its members were James H. Randolph, John S. Bond, George W. Call, J. L. Shields, D. L. White, John Verdier, John L. Call, B. J. J. Mitchell, B. J. Scriven and John L. Crawford. In 1869, an act was passed regulating quarantine, and providing for boards of health at each port, and in 1879 a state measure went into effect, providing for local boards of health in every incorporated town of less than 300 registered voters. Two years later, a law went into effect requiring the governor to appoint a board of health for each incorporated town or city having more than 300 voters. The constitution of 1885 empowered the Legislature to establish a State Board of Health, as well as county boards of health, and four years later ( 1889) acts were passed providing for board of medical examiners for both the regular and home opathic schools, and a State Board of Pharmacy. A State Board of Dental Examiners was created at a later date. Such legislation was

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 219 earnestly urged by Governor Francis P. Fleming, and its necessity had been made apparent by the yellow fever epidemics of 1887-88. As stated, the personnel of the first State Board of Health, under the law approved February 20, 1889, comprised Dr. Richard P. Daniel, of Jacksonville; Dr. William B. Henderson, of Tampa, and Dr. William K. Hyer of Pensacola. During the succeeding March, Dr. Joseph T. Porter, of Key West, was appointed state health officer, so that the representatives of the board which had oversight of the public hygiene of Florida, were selected from the ports which were most likely to introduce epidemics from abroad. Inspection stations were established all along the Florida coasts, and infected vessels were either isolated or sent to Government refuge stations. In 1893, the Legislature abolished all county boards except those in Franklin and Escambia counties and the ports of Pensa cola and Apalachicola, and within the succeeding four years all health matters throughout the state were under the management of the State Board. Sanitary agents in each county were then appointed to report matters to the State Board of Health which needed its attention. Urider the administration of that body, from 1889 to 1899, the medical authorities excluded yellow fever from Florida altogether. In that work, Doctor Porter was the leader. In the fall of 1899, however, the epidemic was introduced from Havana and prevailed to some extent at Key West and Miami, with a few cases at Tampa and Port Tampa. But since the establishment of the State Board of Health, in 1889, no disease has occurred to really menace the health of any Florida community. Dr. Abel S. Baldwin founded the Duval County Medical Society, the pioneer organization of its kind in the state, in 1853, He was also one of the founders of the State Medical Association in 1874, and was not only a leader in his profession but one of the most prominent citizens of Jacksonville and the state. The name of Dr. John Westcott, a brother of the United States enator, is found in connection with military matters, railroad and canal developments of the east coast, and the industrial development of the pioneer times, and his activities were so varied and noteworthy. as to far transcend the fact that he was a leading citizen of St. Augustine. Dr. John Gorrie, the father of artificial ice-making, was a citizen of the world, although he resided for some years at Apalachicola.3 Dr. Alavan W. Chapman, a friend and fellow citizen of Doctor Gorrie, was the famous botanist. The foregoing are a few examples of the members of the medical profession who have achieved standing and fame outside of their pro fessional fields. Medical and surgical activities have so expanded along scientific and institutional channels, within recent years, that the most ambitious members of the profession now find abundant scope for their talents, and even their executive and public abilities, without going far abroad. Every city, town and county in Florida bear witness to their broad worth and noble stamp. s See history of Apalachicola for biography of Doctor Gorrie.

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CHAPTER XIII HI TORY OF PUBLIC EDUCATION Until Florida ass u med statehood in 1845, l ittle advance was made in the organization of a system for the education of the people under the guidance of the commonwea l th. Previous to that time, the organiza tion of either an educational system, or of educational institutions, rested chiefly on the iniative of private citizens, or public officials, working under local and territorial l aws which were experimental and largely inoperati ve. The insecurity of property and residence, largely caused by Indian disturbances and wars was the chief obstacle in the way of the found i n g of either public or private schools, especially outside the larger and safer centers of population. THE FLORIDA EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY About a decade after Florida had become American territory, arose the first noteworthy movement toward the establishment of a system of general education. It originated in the territorial capital and before 1840 had spread to other sections where there were considerable centers of popu l ation. In January, 1831, the Florida Educational Society was organized at Tallahassee for the avowed purpose of encouraging such a system. Governor Duval was one of the chief movers in its establish ment and in his official capacity also appointed a commission to investi gate and recommend a plan. In the following year, attempts were made to establish an agricultural and manual labor school near Tallahassee, founded after a similar institution at Fellenberg, Switzerland, and a free school at St. Augustine, the latter under the auspices of the Florida Educational Society. From 1832 to 1839, inclusive, were incorporated such institutions as the Quincy and Jefferson county academies, the Marianna Academy, the College of Pensaco l a, the Southern College of St. Augustine, the Dade Institute and the Alachua Academy. The proposition to found an institute of learning on the site of the Dade massacre of 1835, in what is now Sumter County, was urged by the Legislative Council and a memorial sent to Congress for the grant of a township of land at that loca l ity to further the enterprise. The trustees of Dade Institute were to be composed of citizens of the Territory and regular and volunteer generals of the army. The congressional committee on public . land recommended the township grant, but the scheme collapsed, in common with most of the other incorporated academies and colleges. GENERAL EDUCATION PRIOR TO THE CIVIL w AR In 1839, the first general school law was passed. It provided for thr ee trustees in each township to care for the school land sections (the s1xteenth) of the Territory. They had been placed in the hands of vari o u s pub l ic officials, but there was so little to collect (and the laws were u sually ignored) that by 1842, the public school fund faced a deficit of $ 350. • The development1 of the educational effort prior to 1836 was checked 1 From unpublished historical manuscript of W . M. Bauskett, decease
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 221 in that year by the Florida war, which opened with the "Dade Massacre" in December, 1835, and lasted until 1842. It rendered a system of rural schools impossible, but in the protected communities small schools were established and, fo some extent flourished . After the Indian war more interest was taken in the matter and to the sheriffs was assigned the duty of giving special attention to "the education of the poor." In 1845 , county judges were required to perform some of the duties of the present county superintendents of schools. In 1849 an act was passed to increase the school fund by adding to the sale of school lands donated by the general government the net proceeds of five per cent of other public lands , and of all escheated property, and of all wreckage and flotsam found on the coast. This act established in a crude form the common school system of the state. In 1850 county taxation for education was authorized and the regi ter of public lands was made ex-officio state superintendent of education. In that year the register was the Hon. David S. Walker. afterwards governor of the state, who took vigorous steps to promote the educational cause. Two years later he established at Tallahassee, the first efficient public school in the history of the state. This was supported in part by the state and in part by the city of Talla hassee. In 1853, through the same influence, a common school law was enacted which provided for the support of the public schools by taxation, but all of the counties, except Monroe and Franklin. disre garded the law and made no contributions to the educational fund much to the disgust of Mr. Walker, who proceeded to read to the people a well-de erved lecture upon the importance of education. Said he: "Certainly, under our free government, nothing whatever can be of more im portance than the general education of the people, since upon their in telligence and virtue, depends the very existence of our institutions. * * * The wealth we may bequeath our children in lands, slaves or money , will be comparatively but a worthless boon, if it be not accom panied by the far richer legacy of intellectual treasures, and high moral cultivation. 'Knowledge is power,' and I will add, when the child has been properly educated. knowledge is virtue and wealth also." Mr. Walker found liis path beset with many difficulties, and it was years before the people were brought to a realization of his wisdom. In 1858 some slightly improved interest was manife ted, a few counties re porting schools for a term of three months. Hon. W. N. Sheats, reviewing the history of education in Florida,2 says: "It is evident that just prior to the Civil war, public sentiment was rapidly inclining towards a free school system; but the conditions during that period and the darker days of reconstruction were not favor able to foster in the hearts of the people the idea of free public schools supported by taxation, when after the war, all the taxes were to come from one class, and the general government at Washington was threaten ing to force upon them the odious doctrine of of the races. "It was owing to this fear, the period being so turbulent, that the Constitutional Convention of 1865 took no advance steps in the direction of free school system. To be a just and impartial historian, it must be admitted that no effective legislation contemplating the establishment of a uniform system of public schools upported by taxation, was secured until the adoption of the Con titution of 1868. and the enactment of the school law compiled by tate Superintendent C. Thurston Chase, by the Legislature in 186g, which is practically the statutory provision for public schools of the state at the present time." FROM 1884-1905 After reconstruction the public schools increased rapidly in attend ance and efficiency, the institutions concerned in higher education showing 2 "History of the Origin and Growth of Public School s in Florida," report of 1895.

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222 HISTORY OF FLORIDA a marked development in the early '8os. In 1884, the DeLand Academy, forerunner of Stetson University, and in the following year Rollins College at Winter Park, opened their doors. Although not conducted under state auspices, they have become so much a part of the educational system of Florida that they are mentioned in this sketch of its history. Industrial education in the state was especially encouraged and ad vanced under the state superintendency of Albert J. Russell, 1884-93. He took great interest in the mechanical and industrial departments of the Agricultural College, the State Normal School for Negroes (at Tallahassee) and the Jacksonville Colored Graded School, and pithily said: "Let every school obtain a plane, a saw, a hatchet, an auger and a chisel. . Let the teachers, whether men or women, acquaint themselves with the theory of the use of them, and then interest and instruct the pupils." In 1883, on the other hand, the Legislature established the Institute for the Blind, Deaf and Dumb, at St. Augustine, and in the same year the Florida Agricultural College commenced to attain vigor when moved from Eau Gallie to Lake City. Under the Constitution of 1885, two normal schools were established-that for white teachers at DeFuniak Springs, and that for colored students at Tallahassee. TIIE BUCKMAN LAW OF 1905 The most important step in the cause of higher education in Florida was the passage of the Buckman law, in 1905, under which the state institutions within the system were located and arranged as at presentthe University at Gainesville; the Florida State College for Women and the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for N" egroes, at Talla hassee, and the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind at St. Augustine-all under the management of the State Board of Control. During and since the reconstruction period, the state superintendents of public instruction were as follows: The state superintendents of education in the order of their service were as follows: C. Thurston Chase, 1868-71; Rev. Charles Beecher, 1871-73; Samuel B. McLin, acting superintendent, 1874; William Watkin Hicks, 1875-77; William P. Haisley, 1877-81; Eleazer K. Foster, 1881-84; Albert J. Russell, 1884-93; William N. Sheats, 1893-1905; Wil liam M. Holloway, 1905-1913; William N. Sheats, 1913 (present incumbent). Among the men not heretofore mentioned who devoted their time and energy and best intelligence to the cause of education in Florida are the following: H. N. Felkel, State Normal at DeFuniak Springs and inventor of the Tellurian; Dr. A. A. Murphree, West Florida Seminary and Florida State College; Edward Conradi and Jerry M. Pound, Col lege for Women; J. H. Roper, Edwin P. Cater and Fredk. Pasco, East Florida Seminary; Drs. W. F. Yocum and T. H. Taliaferro, Florida Agricultural College; Gen. E. M. Law, South Florida Military Institute; Drs. W. E. Baker and W. F. Blackman, Rollins College; and Dr. J. F. Forbes, and Lincoln Hulley, Stetson University. Some of these men have died, but their memories are recalled with affection and grati tude in every community of the state where their old pupils have won high and sometimes distinguished places in the business and professional walks of life. In March, 1921, there issued from the press the "History of Public School Education in Florida," written by Professor Thomas E. Cochrane, for several years identified with higher education in the state. It was prepared as a thesis and presented to the faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Penn ylvania in application for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. From the volume mentioned, the following extracts are taken, giving a clear and concise synopsis of the develop ment of Florida's public system of education:

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 223 "Prior to 1845, while Florida was still a territory, there were several efforts toward public education, the most important perhaps being the enactment of legislation in 1839 looking to the establishment of public schools. However, no centralized control was provided. There was _ also practically no provision for their support other than the income accruing from the federal land grants, and in most instances this was "shamefully neglected or criminally squandered" by those authorized and directed to care for and control the same. Consequently, very few schools were established, the principal result being to arouse the people to a slight appreciation at least of the value of public education . "During the period 1845-6o, a number of attempts were made in the direction of providing a system of schools for the entire State, the chief ones being as follows: the creation of a state school-fund; the authoriza tion of a county school-tax, the maximum amount levied being four dollars for each child of school age; the provision for an ex officio s tate superintendent of schools, also an ex officio superintendent and board of education for each county, and for three trustees in each school district; the establishment of two s eminaries, which had as their main object the training of teachers. As a result, considerable progress was made, especially in establishing free public schools, in getting the children to attend, and in awakening popular interest in education. Had it not been for the Civil war, this progress would doubtless have con tinued. As it was, practically all public-school efforts were brought to an end. "The present educational system of Florida was inaugurated under the constitution of 1868 and the school law of 1869, the principal pro visions of which being the following: the creation of a permanent state s chool-fund; the provision for an annual state school-tax of one mill on the dollar of all taxable property; the requirement that each county s hould raise for the support of schools not less than half the amount apportioned to it from the state school-fund; the appointment, by the governor, of a state superintendent of public instruction; the provision for a state board of education, consisting of the superintendent, secretary of state, and attorney general; the appointment, by the governor and the state board of education, respectively, of a superintendent and board of public instruction for each of the counties; the appointment , by the different county boards, of not more than five trustees for each school district , the examination of teachers by the county boards of public instruction, the certification of them by the county boards and the state superintendent, and the appointment of the same by the county boards on the approval of the local trustees; the requirement that negro children should be given educational advantages equal to those of the white, and that every county should maintain a school or schools for not less than three months in each year in order to receive its part of the state revenue for the support of free public schools. "Considering the inimical conditions under which the present public school system was created, the chief ones being the apathy and poverty of the people and the lack of competent teachers and suitable school plants, the progress thereof from the very first was rather encouraging . By 1884 all the educational hindrances had been partially overcome; a county school-tax ranging from two and one-half to four mills on the dollar of all taxable property had been required by law; a few high s chools and 1,504 common schools had been established; the average length of the school term had been increased to eighty-two days, and the average daily attendance to about forty-three per cent of the s chool population; county teachers' institutes of one or more days in length, courses in most of the secondary and some of the best elementary schools, a normal department in both the seminaries, and a colored normal school of one month's duration had been organ ized; a state college , and also a school for the blind and deaf-mutes , had been inaugurated . In other words, Florida had laid the foundation at for a real system of universal education.

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224 HISTORY OF FLORIDA "During the years from 1884 to 1892, inclusive, there were several changes in the public-school system, the chief of which being as follows: the addition of the governor and state treasurer to the state board of education; the election of the state and county superintendents of public instruction by the qualified voters; the reduction in the number of mem bers in the several county boards of education, the limit being reduced from five to three; the adoption of the county unit of organization for the administration of schools; the appointment, by the various county boards, of one supervisor for each school to take the place of the old local school-board of five members; the provision for special-tax school districts, and for the election of three school trustees for each district; the authorization of a district school-tax of three mills, and also the requirement of a county school-tax of from three to five mills, on the dollar of all taxable property; the requirement that the county boards of education should prepare the elementary courses of study in their respective counties; the delegation 1.o them of the sole authority in the appointment of teachers; and the provision for county high schools and two state normals. "During this period there was also considerable advancement in public education. For example, the annual free-school expenditure was nearly doubled, this increase being much greater than that of the total popu lation or the wealth of the State; a few additional high schools and 270 common schools were instituted; the average length of the school term was increased to approximately 100 days, and the average daily attend ance to about forty-six per cent of the school population; better and more adequate school plants were provided, the total value of the school property being increased more than 1 _so per cent; more suitable curricula were offered; a larger and more efficient teaching force was secured; two state normals-one for white and one for negro students-were inaugurated; and the four state educational institutions already established-the two seminaries, the state college, and the school for the blind and deaf -mutes-were considerably improved. "But since 1892 there have been some very important changes in the school system of the State, the principal ones being; the appointment, by the state board of education, of a state board of examiners, which has almost complete control in the matter of examining and certificating teachers; the election of the county school-board members by popular vote; the fixing of the maximum courtty school-tax at ten instead of seven mills on the dollar; the authorization of an additional district school-tax of five mills on the dollar whenever bonds have been issued for the exclusive use of public schools; the apportionment of the state free-school revenue to the different counties on the school-attendance rather than the school-population basis ; the provision of compulsory school attendance for all children of the State between seven and sixteen years of age; the adoption of uniform textbooks for the elementary and high schools; the furnishing of free textbooks, by the county boards of education, to indigent children of their respective counties; the adoption of the uniform elementary and high-school courses of study formulated by the state department of education; the provision for medical inspection of school children; the providing of better facilities for the training of teachers; the inauguration of state elementaryand high-school supervision; the promotion of the teaching of vocational education; the provision for two state reform schools-one for boys and one for girls; the authorization of the county boards to establish and maintain kindergartens; the merging of all the institutions of higher learning into two,-one for men and one for women-and placing them under the direction of a state board of five members. "Since then there has also taken place a remarkably rapid advance along all educational lines. More efficient school officers and teachers have been secured ; the annual free-school expenditure has been increased I, 192 per cent, this increase being more than ten times as fast as that

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 225 o f the school population; the number of common school s has been considerably augmented, and one or more good high schools have been established in every county; the average length of the schoo l term has been increased to 133 days; more suitable school plants have been provided; .the elementary-and high-school curricula have been made much broader and richer; and all the state educational institutions-the school for the blind and deaf-mutes, the two reform schools, and the three inof higher been greatly improved." STA T U S ILLUSTRATE D B Y FIGURES A s to the general status of the public school system of Florida and it5 progress during the past two decades, it is best told by figures selected from the last biennial report of Superintendent Sheats for biennium end ing June 30, 1920. The exhibit is as follows: Total Population -1900 Both Race s . . . . .......... . . . 3 528,542 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297,333 Negro .................... 230,730 School Population (6 to 21)-Both Races ................ . White ......... . . . . ...... . Negro ... .......... ..... . Number of Schools TaughtBoth Races .... . ........... . White ...... ............ . . Negro .... .............. . S chool Enrollment Both Races . ............. . . . White .................. . Negro .................. . White Male s ...... . .... . White Female . . . .... . . . Negro Male s .......... . . Negro Females ...... . . . . Av erage Daily Attenclance -161,428 93,351 68,077 108,874 67,077 41,797 34,249 32,828 19,716 22,081 Both Races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75,003 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 , 267 Negro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28,736 White Male s . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,16o White Female s . . . . . . . . . . 23,107 Negro Male s . .......... . • I3A92 Negro Female s . . . . . . . . . . 15,244 Number of Teacher s ' Pos ition Filled-Both Races .......... . . .... . White . . ....... . ....... . . Negro .................. . Taxation for Schools-1900 3,191 2 , 375 816 State assessment ........ . $93,527,353 Polls Asses eel . . . . . . . . . 65,053 State One Mill Levy . . . . 93 , 527 County Taxes Levied. . . 454,909 District Taxes Levied. . . 4 Number Special Tax Di st. 4 s United States Cen s us. 4 Not reported . Vol. 1 -15 l9IO 3751,139 443,172 307,967 2n,530 125,343' 86,187 2 , 562 1,848 714 148,089 92,834 55,255 46,863 45,971 25,543 29,712 103 , 892 63,243 40,649 3IA73 31, 770 18,577 22,072 1910 4A6 9 3,338 l,13 . 1 $16 5,649,406 66,350 165,649 1,143,186 243,228 481 1920 3966,210 6o5,356 36o,854 284,223 186,143 98,08o 2,609 l,876 733 225,100 157,666 67,494 79,011 78,655 32,020 35A74 165,720 n5,919 49,8o1 57,745 58,174 23,571 26,230 1920 6,651 5,218 l,433 $356,88o,287 85,357 356,88o 3,468,814 l,525,839 883

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226 HISTORY OF FLORIDA School Fund Receipts and Sources( Including Back Taxes .) 1900 Cash on Hand .......... $ 74,6o8 Poll Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36,432 Back Polls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l I ,396 One Mill Apportionment. . 88,892 County Taxes .... ...... . 371,539 Back County Taxes...... . 68,4I8 District Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . 40,23 I Back District Taxes ..... . Interest on State Fund. . . . 35,557 Tuiticm Non-Resident Pu-pils ................. . Examination Fees ...... . Borrowed Mone y ...... . . Sale of Bonds ........... . All Other Sources. . . . . . . . 24,627 $ 19ro 275,077 6!,642 I5A56 158,669 926,oro 149,645 200,o88 34,893 37,393 12,227 2,044 32,616 1920 $ 1,786,584 102, 002 43A3I 359,169 2,967,978 283, 358 1,300,164 I18,966 68,338 l,509 1,726,187 936,330 I,OI0,386 Totals ............. $754,072 $r,905,76o Total School Expenditure for Both Races-For Buildings and Equipment .... $ 35,790 For Schools Proper ............. 561,613 For Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ,818 Total ..................... $667,22 ' 1 Expenditure for White Schoois-For Buildings and Equipment. .... $ 30,045 For Schools Proper . ............ 456,746 For Administration, Prorated. . . . . 46,545 Total ..................... $533,336 Expenditure for Negro Schools-F or Buildings and Equipment. . ... $ 5 ,745 For Schools Proper .......... ... ro4,867 F0r Administration, Prorated. . . . . 23,273 $ 281,375 $1,042,249 l,256,882 4,396,240 226,023 l ,564,690 $1,764,28o $7,003,179 $ 236,355 $ 940,402 l,096,028 4,013,970 150,682 l,385,921 $1 ,483,065 $6,340,293 $ 45,020 16o,854 75,341 $ror,847 382,279 178,768 Total ...................... $133 .885 $281,215 $662,894 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA As in other states, the ambition and need of a system embracing sev eral institutions controlled by the commonwealth were early realized and expressed in Florida . In 1824, the Legi s lative Council discussed the ad visability of founding a state university, and twelve years later Congress made a similar proposition, authorized the sa le of lands for its s upp ort, and named Joseph M . White, Richard K. Call , Thomas Randall, J. G. Gamble and others, a s trustees to carry the act into effect . The. act by which Florida was admitted into the Union, on March 3, 1845, granted the new s tate 92,000 acre s of land for the founding of two seminaries. to be l o cated re s pectively east and west of the Suwannee River. Accordingly, in 1848, the governor of th e state, William D . Mose ley, requested the citizens of each county east of that stream to make offers of sites, buildings or funds for one of the proposed seminaries. Marion County came forward with an offer of s ixteen building lot s at Ocala, upon which one structure had already been erected, and $r,6oo in money. By legislative act of 1852, the Eas t Florida Seminar y was there fore established at Ocala , and in 1866 moved t o Gainesville. 6 Now applied . to ex p e n ses of State Board of Examiners.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 227 TUE \iVEST FLORIDA SEMINARY According to the circular of information (No. 7) issued by the Nation Bureau of Education in 1888, the Florida history being contributed by Dr. George Gary Bush, the Board of Trustees of the Florida Insti tute, then owned by the City of Tallahassee, resolved that the intendant address a letter to the presiding officers of the State Senate and House of Representatives offering to the Legislature $10,000 for the location of the West Florida Seminary at the state capital. That sum was to include the appraised valuation of the institute edifice, with its appliances. The city also agreed to pay $2.000 annually to meet the tuition of the scholars drawn from Tallahassee. The offer was accepted and the semi nary west of the Suwannee was opened for students in February, 1857, although the board of managers did not take charge until March 27, 1858. The original plan was to provide for the instruction of males only, but on June 14, 1858, the manag-ement resolved "that the board provide for the instruction of females after the first day of October next." On the 28th of August, 1858, the board accepted a deed of conveyance from BIRD's-EYE Vmw OF THE C.\Mrus OF TIIE UNIVERSITY OF FLORID. \ the president of Leon Female Academy of two lots in the North Addition to the City of Tallahassee. The woman's department was conducted in that buildinguntil October, I882. when the two were merged. The so called Florida State College was in continuous operation until 1905, ex cept that the male department was suspended for about a year during the Civil war (I862-63). But the details of the evolution of the West Florida Seminary are related to the Florida State College for Women and will be presented in connection with the history of that institution. UNIVERSITY PLAN MATURING The state constitution of I868 provided (Art. VIII, Sec. 2) for the liberal maintenance of a university, as well as a "uniform system of common schools." Section II of the same article went into details as to the University plan, which embraced instruction in teaching, medicine, law, the natural sciences, agriculture, horticulture, mining, engineering, the mechanic arts, ancient and modern languages, higher mathematics, literature, and the useful and ornamental branches not taught in the com mon schools. The various departments were to be established at such place or places as should offer the best inducements, their support to be derived from "the available income and appropriations to the University or Seminary Fund."

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228 HISTORY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE The Congressional act of July 2, 1862, made provision for the dona tion of public lands in the several states and territories, the proceeds of which were to be used in the establishment and support of "colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." In accord with that act, the Florida Legislature of 1870 passed a measure to establish the Florida Agricultural College. The act of Congress provided a landgrant equal to 30,000 acres for each senator and representative in Congress apportioned under the census of 1860, "provided that no mineral lands shall be selected or purchased under the provisions of this act." The moneys derived from the sale of lands were to be invested in National or State bonds, or some other safe security yielding at least five per cent interest, the same to constitute a perpetual fund; the capital to remain intact, and the interest only to be applied to the endowment and maintenance of the college, but not to the purchase, erection, preserva tion or repair of any building or buildings. In 1872, an act supplementary to the act of 1870 was passed by the Legislature, and the state having availed herself of the act of 1862, received 90,000 acres of land. The proceeds from the sale thereof were invested in the Agricultural College Fund bonds, the par value of which i S (I 922) $I 58,800. In 1873, a site for the Florida Agricultural College was selected in Alachua County, but no further step was taken in that direction. Eau Gallie, Eastern Florida, was also chosen as its site in 1875, and, although a temporary college building was erected at that place, no educational work was accomplished there. It was not until 1883 that the institution was established at Lake City. In March, 1877, according to the report of the United States Bureau of Education for 1888, the act establishing the Agricultural College was so amended that a new board of trustees with corporate powers was created. The reconstructed body was to consist of nine members, of which the superintendent of public instruction and the state treasurer were to be president and treasurer. Besides these, the board was to elect a vice president and secretary and an executive committee of five mem bers, who were to make all needful rules for the management of the college. The trustees could fill vacancies in their board, "subject to the approval of the judges of the Supreme Court." When the new board was created, authority was given to move the college from Eau Gallie to any more desirable point, the change of location being dependent upon the inducements offered. Without detailing all the steps of the transfer, it is sufficient to note that Lake City, nearly sixty miles west of Jackson ville, a central point of population, wealth and railroad facilities. was selected. One hundred and twelve acres of land, "suitable for agricul tural, horticultural and ornamental purposes," were secured as a site, within and near the city limits. In addition to that fine, healthful site, citizens contributed $r 5,000 toward the erection of the college build ings, and during 1883-84 the first of the structures for the Agricultural College was completed. THE TALLAHASSEE COLLEGES During that year ( 1883) the State Board of Education formulated a plan for coordinating the educational institutions already established in the state, with the nucleus of the university at Tallahassee. In that plan the West Florida Seminary was denominated "The Literary College of the University of Florida." In February, 1883, the educational institutions of higher learning centering at Tallahassee were organized under a state charter, in the form of five college : Tallahassee College of Medicine and Surgery; College of Literature and Science; Law College; Theological Institute; Polytechnic

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 229 and Normal Institute. Under that charter only the Literary and the Medical colleges were operated. The medical college, which was afterward located at Jacksonville, had only eight students and of these only two resided in the state. This was a period of small things, but the University of Florida was already taking form, although it was not until the early I9CJO's that the more comprehensive name was attached to the institutions at the state capital. The first annual announcement of Florida University was issued from the state capital in I883, and published a medical department (Tallahassee College of Medicine and Surgery) and Literary Department. The uni versity regents comprised: Ex-Governor D. S. Walker, chancellor; Governor W. D. Bloxham; comptroller of state. General W. D. Barnes; Judges J. T. Bernard and W. P. Byrd; Rev. J. Kost, A. M., M. D., LL. D.; Rev. Charles Beecher, A. M., D. D. The literary faculty consisted of the following: Maj. E. R. Rivers, C. E., president; Rev. W. H. Carter, D. D., LL. D., Ph. D., professor of ancient languages; E. L. Bythewood, professor of English literature and history; F. Wespy, Ph. D., M. D., professor of modern languages; W. F. Dickerman, professor of chemistry; A. H. Lowrie, A. M., Professor Emeritus, political economy. This information is conveyed in the first annual announcement of the Tallahassee University, regarding the two colleges of the system which actually went into operation: "The literary college is endowed by act of Congress. The medical is founded on the capital of an incorporated stock company, with a capital of $6o,ooo, and authority to increase to the amount of $8o,ooo. Ten per cent and over, as provided by law, has been paid in ($6,I8o) and has been expended for appliances; and thus the medical college has a fine anatomical museum; a museum of natural his tory and comparative osteology, besides chemical apparatus . "By compact with the literary department (West Florida Seminary), one of its two buildings has been appropriated to the medical college . This is a commodious brick edifice, situated on an elevated site in the western part of Tallahassee, with ample grounds, shaded by a grove of native pines. The building is of fine architectural appearance, with a frontistyle of stately white columns supporting an entablature and gable above the second story. The building contains two large lecture halls, and eight additional rooms of convenient sizes, well suited for the medical depart ment, with its museums and apparatus. "The literary department retains its other building, situated more centrally in the city, and reposing behind a grove of Jive-oaks. It is of ample capacity for all the necessities of the college." Very little of the I883 announcement is devoted to the literary department; the fortunes of the medical college seemed to be uppermost in the minds of the university regents. THE EAST FLORIDA SEMINARY Until I883, the building of the East Florida Seminary consisted of a wooden structure, badly designed and poorly constructed. But within the following few years a handsome brick edifice was erected, and another of wood for a barracks and dormitory. The latter was I97 feet long and 92 feet wide, built in the form of a quadrangle enclosing an open court. LEGISLATURE RECOGNIZES "UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA" On February I6, I885, the Legislature passed an act, recognizing the University of Florida, thus approving of the action of the State Board of Education in I883. The act reads as follows: "Section I. That the Florida University, as organized at the City of Tallahassee, be recognized as the University of the State , and be known as the University of Florida; provided, there shall be no expense incurred by the state by reason of this act.

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230 HISTORY OF FLORIDA "Section 2. That the university continue under its present organization and officers until further action be taken by the State Legislature as the case may require." EAST FLORIDA SEM,INARY (STATE MILITARY INSTITUTE) As yet, the two colleges at Tallahassee and the Agricultural College at Lake City were virtually unrelated units in the state system of higher edu cation, and the East Florida Seminary, which had been moved from Ocala to Gainesville in I866, had, 188I, been conducted as a military school. Although that was the predominating feature of the seminary, it also propared boys and young men for admission into uniyersity classes, or for entrance at once into the active duties of life. As a diversion from the main trend of the narrative-which is to trace the development of the University of Florida as finally centered at Gainesville-it may be stated that years before the consolidation was effected, the East Florida Seminary had attained a high standing both as a military and a preparatory school for the university. In I889, a pamphlet issued by the State Teachers Association made note of the fact that the exhibits of the seminary at the World's Exposition, New Orleans, received the "first certificate of merit," and those in the educational department of the Paris Exposition, a "diploma of honorary mention." At that time, the State Military Institute (its official and incorporated title) was under the superintendency of Col. E. P. Cater. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE SUGGESTS CONSOLIDATION The first positive step toward the consolidation of the collegialc interests centered at Tallahassee and Lake City was made at the annual meeting of the board of trustees of the Agricultural College, on June I7, I886, in the form of the following resolution: "Resolved, That the Board of Trustees of the Florida Agricultural College believe that the educa tional interests of this state would be advanced and furthered by the consolidation of the Agricultural College and the Florida University under the name of the University of Florida and Agricultural College, and we recommend the same." In the catalogue of the Agricultural College for the following year, the statement that Doctor Kost is "Chancellor of the University" is dropped; but the resolution quoted above is again printed. The follow ing year the resolution also disappears. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE BECOMES "UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA" Under the Hatch act of 1887, the Florida Agricultural Experimenl Station was established as a department of the State Agricultural College, and three years later the Lake City institution became a beneficiary of the Morrill act. It had become the most vigorous college in the universily system, as faintly projected up to this point , and in 1903 obtained a legislative recognition of the fact. The Tallahassee institution had never taken advantage of the legislative act of 1885 bestowing upon it the name of the University of Florida, and in the year named the friends of the Florida Agricultural College secured the repeal of that act and the sub stitution of another changing the name of their college to the University of Florida. The measure was approved on April 30, I903 . NORMAL ScHooLs FOR Boni RACES The training of teachers is one of the great features of the University of In taking the initiatory steps in that field, Florida was greatly assisted by the Peabody fund. Through aid from that fund, provision was made for three Florida scholarships in the normal depart-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 231 ment of the Nashville University. Five scholarships were added two years later, and in 188o the number was increased to ten, each scholar ship drawing an annual income of $200. These were for the benefit of white students. The first normal class for whites in Florida appears to have been formed in the East Florida Seminary at the close of 1879, or beginning of 1880. In the latter year, the seminary was organized as a state normal school, and offered free tuition to one student from each legisla tive district. Forty students were enrolled in the normal course of the East Florida Seminary in 1881-82, and in the following year there were normal departments in both seminaries. At the session of the 1887 legislative provision was made for the organization of a normal college for each race-one for white students at DeFuniak Springs and the other • for colored pupils at Tallahassee. Both were opened in October, the latter afterward developing into the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes. MILITARY SCHOOLS . In 1895, the South Florida Military College was established at Bartow, to balance the northern military school at Gainesville. SCATTERED INSTITUTIONS FINALLY CONSOLIDATED As stated, in 1903 the name University of Florida had been attached to the Agricultural College at Lake City, while the institutions at Talla hassee were content to be known as the Florida State College, but in I905 the Buckman Act of the Legislature made the first serious and effective attempt to consolidate the existing higher institutions of learn ing into a state university. Its effect was to merge the Florida State College at Tallahassee, the Normal School at DeFuniak Springs, the East Florida Seminary at Gainesville, the South Florida College at Bartow, the Agricultural Institute in Osceola County and the University of Florida (formerly Agricultural College) into two closely coordinated institutions to be known as the University of the State of Florida and the Florida Female College, the fatter located at Tallahassee. The management of these institutions was provided for, in the Buck man Act, as follows: "Section I3. That there is hereby created a board of control, which shall consist of five citizens of this state, who shall be appointed by the Governor, and their terms of office shall be four years, except that of the first board appointed under this act; two members thereof shall be appointed for the term of two years and three members thereof shall be appointed for the term of four years." GAINESVILLE MADE UNIVERSITY SEAT Acting under the powers conferred by the measure, the State Board of Education and the Board of Control in joint session, on the 6th of July, 1905, selected the City of Gainesville as the location of the Uni versity, and in the following month its scholastic work, as well as that of the Florida Female College, at Tallahassee, was under way. Until suit able buildings could be erected at Gainesville, however, the work of the University was conducted at Lake City. Since the summer of I906, the functions of the University have been continuously performed at Gaines ville. FORMATION OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION At the close of the commencement exercises, in 1906, the graduating class organized an Alumni Association. The preamble to its contitu tion states: "We, the members of the Class of 1906, the first graduates

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232 HISTORY OF FLORIDA of the University of Florida, in order to keep alive a sentiment of affec tion for our Alma Mater, unite the graduates of successive years by a common tie of fellowship, foster the feelings of friendship and love toward each other, promote the welfare of the university, and encourage education, do ordain and establish this constitution for our government." As to membership, the Constitution provided: "The members of the Alumni Association shall be persons as have received degrees or diplomas from the University of Florida as established by Chapter 5384 , Acts of 1905, Laws of Florida. "Honorary members shall be such persons as have received honorary degrees from the university. Honorary members shall not have the rights and powers to vote and hold office." As stated, prior to 1905 there were five state-supported colleges in Florida. The Buckman bill merged them into the State College for Women and the University of Florida. By proper action, the board of control accepted all diplomas granted by the old schools, so that all men who gradua.ted from any of thes e in s titutions become full-fledged alumni of the University. PROMINENT ALUMNI A s shown by the Alumni record, graduate s of the University of Florida have filled numerous positions of trust and prominence in the state and elsewhere. They have become teachers, principals of schools and not a few of them professors in their Alma Mater; they have entered and adorned the field of journalism, the pulpit, the engineering and legal professions , have become judges and state officers , and have clone their good share in furthering the great agricultural possibilities of Florida as farmers, fruit growers and county agents. Several of them became prominent in military matters, the World's war demonstrating their abilities and bravery. As illustrations of what the University Alumni have a c complished in various fields, it is learned from the record that-C. P. Lovell, a graduate of the East Florida Seminary in 1887 , was a retired brigadier-general at the outbreak of the World's war and had long been identified with the Guard of the State. He served as captain in the late war, after which he returned to his occupation as an orange grower at Lisbon, Florida. H. I. Cone, who graduated from the Florida Agricultu.ral College in 1889, is a captain in the aval War College , at Newport, Rhode Island . W. S. Cawthon, a graduate of the State Normal School, class of 1890, afterward held the professorship of Secondary Education on the univer sity faculty and was also state . high school inspector. Roy E. Huffman, a member of the class of 1891 which graduated from the East Florida Seminary, i s now United States timber and land inspector at Salt Lake City, Utah. E. C. Love, who obtained his A. B. degree from the Florida State . College in 1891, is Circuit Judge of the Second Judicial Circuit of Florida, and resides at Quincy . The class of 1893 from the Florida Agricultural College sent out R. L. Borger, A. B., who holds the chair of mathematics at Ohio University, Athens, and A. B. Quaintance, B. S. , now entomologist in the United States Department of Agriculture , Washington, D. C. A. H. Blanding, of the East Florida Seminary class of 1894, served as brigadier-general in the United States army during the World's war, and at last reports was with the Consolidated Naval Stores Company at Bartow, Florida. W. J. Sears, serving as the member of Congress from the Fourth Florida district and residing at Kissimmee, when he is at home, graduated from the Florida Agricultural College in the class of 1895, with the degree of A. B.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 233 Joe B. Lockey, a graduate of the State Normal School in 1897, is a professor in Peabody College. J. M. Young obtained his Bachelor of Science degree from the Florida Agricultural College, class of 1898, and is professor of electrical engineer ing in the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Charles 0. Andrews was a member of the graduating class of 1901, State Normal School, but became a lawyer and a judge and is now on the bencli of the Sixteenth Judicial Circuit, with his residence at Orlando. F. A. Hathaway, present superintendent of the Jacksonville public schools, is a graduate of the Florida State College, class of 1902. Virgin S. Lowe, a graduate of the South Florida Military College, also in 1902. is serving as county superintendent of public instruction at Key West, Florida. J. Will Yon, state auditor, is a graduate of the State Normal School, class of 1904 F. C. Reimer, who graduated as M. S. from the University of Florida in 1905, is superintendent of the Southern Oregon Branch Experiment Station, at Talent, that state. Herbert L. Taylor, a graduate of the 1905 class of the East Florida Seminary, is a captain in the nited States Army, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The University class of 1906 graduated: A. C. Evans, B. A., and from W. S. Military Academy in 1911, now a major in the United States Army; W. L. Floyd, M. S., assistant dean College of Agriculture and professor of Botany and horticulture; and Hunter S. Woodberry, B. A., afterward a graduate in medicine and surgery from the University of Virginia, captain in Medical Corps in France during World's war, and now in practice at Capitola, Florida. Herman Gunter, the state geologist , is a university graduate in the class of 1907. J. E. Gammon received his B. S. degree in 1908, in 1912 graduated in medicine from Johns Hopkins University, served as a captain in the Medical Corps during the World's war, and is engaged in practice at Jacksonville. E. Terrell Barco, who graduated in the class of 1910, is a major in the United States Field Artillery, with headquarters at Washington, D.C. amuel S . Holden, B. S., also a graduate of the 1910 class, is an inspector in the War Department, M. A. M. E. section, and R. D. Rader, of the same class, is a captain of engineers in charge of building road!' and draining swamps, with headquarters at Jonesborough, Arkansas. E. B. Donnell graduated from the College of Law in 1912, and is judge of the Fifteenth Circuit Court, with residence at West Palm Beach. Roswell King, also a graduate in law in the class of 1912, served in France, during the World's war, as first lieutenant of infantry, and on April 28, 1918, was decorated with the French War Cross for unusual bravery. E. F. Householder, a graduate in law, class of 1913, is county judge of Seminole County, living at Sanford. R. R. White, of the same class, was both an A. B. and LL. B. ( 1915) and was killed in action, during the World's war, while leading his men in a charge in the St. Mihiel drive, November 2, 1918. Prof. W. S. Cawthon, who had graduated from the State Normal School in 1890, received his M. A. degree from the university in 1914, and afterward became high school inspector for the state and professor of education in the university. W. H. Crom graduated from the College of Engineering in two courses and obtained, in 1914, both degrees of B. S. M. E. and B. S. E. E., receiving the appointment of captain in the Thirty-first Infantry, United States Army, at Fort Kelley, Manila, Philippine Islands. C. C. LaRoche, a graduate of the same class in mechanical engineer-

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234 HISTORY OF FLORIDA ing, was appointed to the constabulary of the Philippine Islands and while thus sening was killed by the natives, in October, I9I8. J. B. Stewart, Jr., who graduated from the Law College in l9I5, has since been mayor of Fernandina, a representative from Nassau County to the Legislature a:nd county judge. J. M . Tillman, who graduated as B. S. A. in the class of I9I7, and served as major in the World's war, is county agent at Arcadia. MODERN UNIVERSITY DATES FROM I909-l0 In I909, an act of the Legislature changed the name of the Gainesville institution to that of the University of Florida and of the Tallahassee Female College to the Florida State College for Women. At the same time, the institution for the education of colored men and women at the state capital assumed its present name, the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College. The year I909 really marks the creation of the University of Florida on the basis of a broad modern institution of higher learning. It also marks the coming of Dr. Albert A. Murphree to the presidency, the two events being largel y correlated facts. The main features of the reor ganized university, as it is recognized today, dates from 1910. The College of Law was added in 1909, and the departments offering instruc tion mainly to normal students were organized into a college in 1912 . In 1913, the present entrance requirements went into effect. During the same year a summer school was e tablished at the university by legisla tive enactment, and the Farmers' Institute work of the university and the cooperative demonstrative work for Florida of the United States Department of Agriculture were combined. On July l, 1915, all the agricultural activities of the university were placed under the direction of the dean of the College of Agriculture. THE COLLEGE OF LA w In I891, the American Bar Association declared that in its opinion it was a part of the highest duty and interest of every civilized state to make provision for maintaining schools of law for the thorough educa tion of those designing to enter into the practice of the profession. Recognizing the soundness of this statement and desiring to discharge this duty, the State Board of Education and the Board of Control pro vided for the opening of the College of Law in September, I909. From the first, the college has aimed at a thorough and systematic course of instruction in the common law, with special consideration of the pecu liarities and exceptions applicable to Florida. THE UNIVERSITY SUMMER SCHOOL This worthy institution of the university was established by the passage of the Summer School Act, which became law . in I9I3. It is coeducational and maintained primarily for the benefit of the teachers of the state, but other courses are offered. All the work conducted entitles the students to certain credits which may be app1ied toward making a degree. To carry out fully the objects of the school, the entire equip ment of the university is at the service of the faculty and students. Ample provision is made for intellectual recreation and physical exercise. The Peabody Literary Society meets weekly; lectures or concerts are given frequently; the gymnasium, swimming pool, baseball grounds and tennis courts are at the disposition of the students, and instructors are at hand to direct athletic activities . One of the wise regulations of the school is its restriction in the time devoted to purely academic subjects. CooPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK In accordance with the terms of the Smith-Lever Act, which became effective on July I, 19r4 , agricultural extension work is carried on co-

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HISTORY OF l
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236 HISTORY OF FLORIDA HOME OF STATE MusEUM Jn I9I6-17, by legislative enactment, the University of Florida became the home of the state museum. The act further provided for a natural history and ethnological survey of the state ; for scientific investigations looking toward the further development of its natural resources; for the collection of material and scientific, economic and civic value, whether pertaining to the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms, or to the aboriginal tribes and the early explorations and settlements; for a library; and for traveling exhibits to be kept in circulation among the schools of the state. Adequate funds were not provided by the state to carry out all the provisions of the act, but through private donations of flora, birds, fossils, mollusca and reptiles, insects, minerals, archreological specimens FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, UNIVERSITY OF FLORID. \ and historic curios, sufficient material was collected for the opening of the Florida State Museum in Science Hall. MILITARY INSTRUCTI01 The Division of Military Instruction of the university assumed unusual importance during the period of the World's war. The authority for the maintenance of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps was derived from the National Defense Act of June 3, I9I6, as amended by the Act of June 4, I920. These measures provided for the maintenance at the colleges of the country of units of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and authorized the secretary of war to furnish the necessary supplies and provide a standard course of instruction. The units thus created were to constitute a corps of reserve officers to lead the augmented armies of the United States in time of war; and the experiment conclusively proved the wisdom of the general faith of the country in the intelligence, adaptability, spirit and bravery of college men as military leaders. The War Department has projected a standard course of military instruction covering a period of four years. This is divided into a basic course and an advanced course. The basic course covers two years, usually the freshman and sophomore. Those who qualify for the advanced course of four years are entitled to commutation of rations, use of uniform, and •

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 237 payments while in camp, such allowances amounting to over four hundred dollars yearly. All who enter the university take military training except graduate students, . law students, juniors and seniors who have completed the basic training course, vocational training students (disabled soldiers), citizens of foreign countries, students who are taking the four months' course in agriculture, and the physically disqualified. Immediately after the United States entered the World's war, the equipment of the university was placed at the disposal of the Govern ment. During the summer of I9I8, the College of Engineering was operated as the University of Florida Army School, for the vocational training of soldiers. At the opening of the session of I9I8-I9, all the regular activities of the university were subordinated to the task of training men for the armed forces of the United States. On December I4, I9I8, upon the mustering out of the Student Army Training Corps, the university again took up its regular work, although it made liberal allowance in credits to students for the interruption of their studies caused by military service. During the summer of i919, the General Extension Division was established. The university also entered into contract with the United States Government to as ist in the work of rehabilitating men disabled while in the armed forces of the country. BROAD UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATION Along the broadest divisions, the University of Florida comprises: I. The Graduate School, which offers courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, Master of Arts in Education, Master of Science, Master of Science in Agriculture and Master of Science in Education. The school is under the direction of the committee on graduate studies, of which Dr. James N. Anderson is chairman, and all applicants for the Master's degree mu t possess the Bachelor's degree of the Florida University or other institution of like standing. II. The College 'of Arts and Sciences, of which Dr. James N. Anderson, professor of ancient languages, is dean. It offers the degrees of Bachelor of Arts (A. B.) and Bachelor of Science (B. S.). The studies are divided into four groups and the majors selected depend upon the degrees for which the students are working. This college strikingly illustrates the modern tendency of higher education to combine liberal training with studies of a practical nature. Military science is a com pulsory study for two years; Greek, Latin, French, English (language and rhetoric) and Spanish are in the second group; the Bible, economics, education, English literature, history, philosophy, political science, psy chology and sociology, in the third; and agriculture, astronomy, bacteri ology, biology, botany, chemistry, drawing, descriptive geometry, geology, mathematics , mechanics, physics, physiology, surveying and zoology, in the fourth group. When the sub-divisions of these general subjects are examined the practical application of modern liberal education is made manifest. A two-year pre-medical course is offered; also a two-year pre commercial course. Chemical engineering is added to the scholastic training in chemistry and in English language and literature, in truction is given in short-story writing. III. College of Agriculture, of which Dr. Wilmon Newell is dean, has three divisions: (a) Instructional division, or college proper; (b) re search division, or experjrnent station, and ( c) extension division. The aim of the college is to train the student both technically and practically, so that he may become an effective and scientific agriculturist or a leader in such educational work as is conducted by county agents or home demonstrators. Agricultural hall provides space for offices, class rooms and laboratories. The college farm of 225 acres is used for the object lessons conveyed by the growing crops and herds of live stock; IOO acres are devoted to pasture and field crops; fifteen acres, for soiling purposes and

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238 lllSTOH. Y OF FLORIDA stock lots; ten acres to truck farming; five acres to orchards, and five acres lo buildings and grounds. The college is divided into agronomy, horticultural, ammal husbandry and veterinary departments, with a full corps of instructors for each. Agricultural journalism is also taught. .Professor Newell is also director of the experiment station and the agricultural extension division. An important feature of the cooperative extension work is the development of the Boys' Agricultural Clubs. I umerous clubs have also been organized among the colored people, boys, girls and adults, for demonstration work, canning and gardening. IV. College of Engineering, the dean of which is Dr. John R Ben ton, profe sor of physics and electrical engineering, is divided into courses (a) in the sciences fundamental to the practice o engineering, of which mathematics, chemistry and physics are the most important; ( b) in various branches of engineering practice in which these sciences are applied, such as structural, steam or electrical engineering; ( c) in practical work, such as mechanical arts, drafting, or surveying; and ( d) courses contributing primarily to general culture, such as those in English. Four curricula, each requiring four years, are offered, and lead to the degrees of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering ( B. S. C. E.), in Electrical Engineering (B. S. E. E.), in Mechanical hng1neer ing ( B. S. M. E.), and in Chemical Engineering ( B. S. Ch. E.). The bachelor degree indicates the completion of a course of study in the theory of engineering, while the later degrees ( C. E., Ch. E., E. E. and M. E.) indicates demonstrated proficiency in the practice o some branch of engineering. V. College of Law, with Professor I-farry R. Tru !er as dean, con fers the degrees of LL. B. (Bachelor of Laws) and J. D. (Juris Doctor). The latter degree is conferred upon students who have maintained an average standing of ten per cent above the passing mark for the LL. B. degrye, and have obtained an A. B. degree, or its equivalent, from an approved college or university, or who have secured such degree during the year the law course was completed. Upon prelsenting their diplomas, properly issued, and upon furnishing evidence that they arc twenty-one years of age and of good moral character, the graduates of the College of Law are licensed by the State Supreme Court, without examination, to practice in the courts of Florida. They are also admitted without examination to the United States District Court for the Northern Dis trict of Florida. VI. The Teachers College and Normal School is under the deanship of Dr. James W. Norman, professor of education, and its main purpose is to furnish theoretical and executive training which shall fit students for positions as teachers, principals, supervisors and county or city superin tendents of public instruction. Following are the general divisions of this department of the university: (1) Teacher College; (2) Normal School including Normal Training School; (3) University Summer School; (4) High School visitation; (S) Teachers' Employment Bureau. Through Dr. Joseph Roemer, professor of secondary education, lhe uni versity strives to keep in close touch with the high schools of the state. V lI. There are several general divi ions, the activities of which are connected with at least four colleges. The Division of Military Instruction has already been noted. Its head is Maj. J. A. Van Fleet who, in 1921, succeeded Maj. Bloxham vVard, as commandant of cadets and professor of military science and tactics. The director of the Department of Hygiene is Dr. Albert \V. Sweet. his division being in cooperation with the Federal Inter-Departmental Hygiene Board. Not only are students educated in individual hygiene of every nature and in the proper use of sports and phy ical exercises, but are given medical treatment and nursing. Ludwig Vv. Buchholz, head of the Division of Rehabilita tion, bears the faculty title of professor of education and school manage ment and counsellor for the school of disabled soldiers. It is the aim of the instructors in this school to discoycr and to cultivate the talents

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 239 of the rehabilitation men and thus to prepare them to fill successfully their stations in life. Special courses in arithmetic, reading, writing and elementary agriculture are given to those who have not finished the common-school grades. Provision is made even for those who can neither read nor write. VIII. The popular adjunct to the University of Florida known as the Extension Service is a marked illustration of the breadth of its work and influence. The aim of the modern institution of higher learning is to serve not only a group of qualified resident students, but all the people in the commonwealth supporting it. Consequently, in order to reach people living at a distance, an extension service has been established by the university. It consists of an agricultural and a general extension service representing the university, and the State College for Women at Tallahassee. The work of the General Extension Division is carried on through the office of the director, at Gainesville, Prof. Bert C. Riley. Correspondence, class and club are the chief mediums through which these activities are conducted. Conferences, commercial clubs, churches, women's clubs, parent-teachers' associations, and other organizations are reached, and their members instructed along the lines of public and indi vidual welfare by the members of Professor Riley's staff, and designated members of the faculty of the State College for Women. Connected with the General Extension Service are also bureaus of educational and public information open to any resident of Florida who wishes to apply to them. The Extension Service of the University of Florida is the most pro nounced democratic feature of the system. GROUNDS AND BUILDINGS The history and development of the university have been broadly . defined, and, incidentally, its buildings and equipment have beeri described. As a whole, it may be added that the plant occupies a beautiful and stately tract of 6!3 acres in the western extremity of Gainesville. Ninety acres are devoted to campus, drillgrounds and athletic fields; the re mainder is used by the College of Agriculture. The University of Florida is one of the few institutions in the United States that made plans before laying the foundation of a single building for the future development of the campus. Consequently its appearance is unusually harmonious. The liberality of the state has permitted the erection of the buildings as fast as they were needed, and they are lighted with electricity, supplied with city water and furnished with modern improvements. These buildings are as follows: Two dormitories, Thomas Hall and Buckman Hall, three-story brick and concrete structures. The Mechanic Arts shop, a one-story brick building. Science Hall, a brick and concrete building, two stories and base ment, containing the University Museum, and class rooms and laboratories of the departments of chemistry, biology and geology. Agricultural Experiment Station, a three-story building of brick and concrete construction, containing offices and laboratories. Engineering Hall, a brick and terra-cotta structure, the main building three stories high, with two one-story wings, containing machine and blacksmith shops, foundry, and offices, classrooms and laboratories de voted to all branches of engineering and physics . Agricultural College building, a brick and concrete structure three stories high, providing classrooms, laboratories and offices for regular instruction and extension work. The University a brick one-story building, with wooden annex, providing a large dining hall and Y. M. C. A. quarters. Language Hall, a brick and stone structure of three stories, the home of the College of Arts and Sciences, with offices and classrooms, as well as the administrative offices of the university. In the basement are the

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240 HISTORY OF FLORIDA bookstore and the printing plant of the university publication, the Alligator. George Peabody Hall, a brick building three stories in height, erected at a cost of $40,000, represents the gift of the Peabody Board of Trust. It provides for the departments of education and philosophy and for teacher-training work, and also contains the general library of the university. The College of Law building, a brick and stone structure of two stories, contai ns an auditorium, model courtroom, lecture-rooms and offices, library, reading, consultation and cataloguing rooms, and quarters for the Marshall Debating Society. Auditorium and gymnasium housed in a two-story brick and stone structure. The main floor is thus utilized, with a gallery extending around the entire space, and the basement contains rooms for the director and for university and visiting teams, as well as lockers, shower baths and toilets. The' University Hospital occupies one of the wooden barracks orig inally erected by the vocational unit. It is estimated that the entire property u sed in the furtherance of the university work has a value of $1,000,000. THE FACULTY AND STUDENT Bony The General Faculty includes all persons, except laboratory and undergraduate assistants, engaged in the work of instruction in the univ ersity. Under the lead ership of the president, it forms the governing body in all general matters of instruction and discipline. The faculty of a college consists of those members of the General Faculty who give instruction in it. Under the leadership of its dean, it forms the governing body in matters of instruction and discipline in its college. The faculty and officers of the university comprise about forty-five full professors, ten assistants, a number of specialists, some twenty instructors and student assistants, special teachers for the summer school. a staff of some twenty lecturers and demonstrators for the General Extension Division and a large corps of executives, such as librari ans, secretaries and curators. The military organization is headed by a major of the United States Army, who ranks on the faculty as professor of military science and tactics. He has four assistants who are captains in the Regular army. The student soldiery is divided into four companies, with the usual officers, and the band of over thirty musicians has a director, drum major and several executive officers. The students take a just and lively pride in their military band, which makes several excursio n s during the year to neighboring towns and takes an annual trip of about a week with the University Minstrels. The strength of the student body as shown by statistics indicates a total enrollment of 997 for the first semester. In common with all other modern universities, that of Florida has numerous student organizations to meet the diverse tastes and future occupations of those passing through its various colleges and courses. Although organized by the students. such bodies are under the general supervision of the faculty. Some of them are athletic, some religious, some purely literary, others social, others professional and others military. The Young Men's Christian Association promotes its customary activities, healthful to body, mind and spirit. The honor system has been in force for years, each class electing one of its members to represent it on the Student Honor Committee. In cases of deviation from the moral code, the trials of students are conducted secretly and the verdicts only known to those concerned. The Debating Council, composed of one representative from each of the literary societies, has general charge of both intersociety and intercollegiate debates. Under its direction a debating contest is held annually

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 241 between members of each of the five colleges of the university, and te(,lms s elected to represent it, debate annually against teams from the universi ties of South Carolina and Tennessee. In 1920 and 1921 debates were held with the Louisiana State University. The students of foreign nationality, with a few Americans, organized ( in 1918) a club for the purpose of cultivating international understand ing and friendship. Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, the Philippines, Italy, Serbia, Russia and British Africa are all represented in its membership . Two publications materially assist in bringing together the students of the university-the Seminole-which has been issued since the session of 1909-10, as an illustrated annual, by each junior or senior class, and the Florida Alligator, a weekly and a much older journal. FLORID:A STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN "The Florida State College for Women and the University of Florida at Gainesville are sister institutions, on the same basis. The two main tain equivalent entrance standards, offer exactly the same academic ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN work, and are working together to make the diploma of the one equal in value and dignity to the diploma of the other. The professional and technical departments of the two institutions, of course, differ. But the two are, in fact, merely two parts or branches of one great state insti'tu tion for the higher education of the young people of Florida. Between the university and the coTiege exists the warmest sympathy and co operation." When the several institutions were consolidated by the Buckman Act of 1905, the Florida Female College, as it was then known, passed from the direct management of the State Board of Education to that of the State Board of Control, appointed by the governor, although the newer body is still subject to the action of the old . (See Section 615, Revised General Statutes.) It required many efforts to accomplish these results. The first was a legislative enactment, approved January 24, 1851, by which two semi naries were authorized to be established on either side of the Suwannee River. As Tallahassee already owned a school of higher learning, known as the Florida Institute, her citizens put in a bid for the location of the seminary west of the river. On November 24, 1855, it assumed definite

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242 HISTORY OF FLORIDA form as an off.er from the city of Tallahassee to guarantee $10,000 for such purpose, that sum to include the property of the Florida Institute at a fair appraised value. That offer was accepted by the Legislature on New Year's day of 1857 and the seminary west of the Suwannee was opened to students in the following month. At first the school was opened to men only, but in October, 1858, women were admitted, and under the Buckman Bill of June 5, 1905, with the assumption of the name Florida Female College, it became an institution for the higher education of women alone . By act of the Legislature, approved May 22, 1909, it assumed the corporate title of Florida State College for Women, by which it has since been known and admired. The management of the institutions of higher learning consolidated by the Buckman Act was vested in a Board of Control, consisting of five members who were appointees of the governor. In joint session with the State Board of Education, the Board of Control located the university at Gainesville and the Female College (afterward the Florida State College for Women) at Tallahassee. The doors of the two sister institutions were opened in the autumn of 1905. Dr. A. A. Murphree was the first president of the college, and in 1909, when he was called to the presidency of the University of Florida, Dr. Edward Conradi succeeded him and has been the president since that date. The development of both institutions has been such that succeeding legislatures have dealt generously with them, and they, in turn, have rendered full service to the state. GROUNDS AND BUILDINGS The Florida State College for Women occupies an elevated, commanding and healthful site of 270 acres, comprising the campus proper and the college farm. The approach to the college is on the east, through an imposing gateway. The grounds, besides being naturally beautiful with pine groves, have been improved by the planting of a large variety of trees, and the construction of winding walks. The buildings include eleven brick structures, most of which are three stories in height, and architecturally harmonious; there are also four frame buildings which, in time, will be replaced by brick. The administration building, the center of the academic departments as well as headquarters for the business offices, has splendid appointments, and contains a large auditorium which is soon to be fur nished with a pipe organ. Bryan Hall is the center of the home life. It contains chiefly, dormitory accommodations, reception hall, and parlors, but has also convenient offices for the dean of the Home Department and her assistants. Bryan Hall is connected by arcades with Broward, Reynolds and Jennie Murphree halls, each of which is handsome ly built and furnished with comfort and convenience. The dining hall is con nected with the living quarters by arcades. It is a handsome structure that seats 8oo people. The infirmary i s in close connection with the dormitories and, with its isolation ward and its offices, nurses' quarters, and numerous rooms, is equipped equal to a fine little city hospital. In addition , it has what is always u sa ble in the Florida climate-two immense open air pavilions, that are most valuable. Besides the administration building there are two large academic halls on the front campus-the Education and the Science halls . The former is headquarters for the activities of the School of Education and Normal School, and furnishes accommodations for the practice kinder garten, the practice high school, and the department of industrial arts. The latter is headquarters for the departments of chemistry, home economics, and college extension. One unit of the Training School build ings is complete; to it other units will be connected in time. The gymnasium contains extensive floor space, a swimming pool, and offices for the

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 243 physical director. The entire set of buildings is heated by a central heating plant. The structural equipment of the college includes numerous labora tories for the demonstrations of scientific and physical subjects and investigations, as well as studios and practice rooms used in the musical and art departments. The moving picture room above the entrance to the auditorium is mainly called into service as an adjunct to the educa tional work of the college. Outdoor sports and exercises are conducted in an extensive athletic field, which has been made possible by various legislative appropriations. The library, of IS,000 carefully selected volumes, has been well de scribed as "the center and heart of the college." The building also includes a pleasant reading room stocked with over one hundred and twenty-five standard periodicals. SCHOLARSHIPS, MEDALS AND LOAN FUNDS Through the generosity of various organizations and individuals, a number of scholarships are offered scholars of the college as a reward for scholastic proficiency and assistance in continuing desired studies and careers. The Daughters of the Confederacy offers five scholarships, as follows : The Florida division of the organization, the children of the Florida Daughters, the Jacksonville Chapter, the Martha Reid Chapter No. I9 of Jacksonville and the Annie Coleman Chapter of Orlando. Then there are the Home Economics scholarships donated by the Woman's Club, of Jacksonville; the Kindergarten scholarship by the Florida E deration of Women's Clubs; the l-'anhellenic scholarships by the associations of Jacksonville, Miami and Orlando, and the scholar ships offered by the Southern Association of College Women, the Tampa Woman's Club, the Y. W. C. A. of Duval High School, the Trinity Methodist Missionary Society of Miami, the Board of Commissioners of Hillsborough County (Home Demonstration), and the Dade County Federation of Women's Organizations. Mrs. A. J. Knight, of Tampa, offers a scholarship for any prospective physical instructor, the class of 'I9 established a loan scholarship, and by Act of the Legislature each county is entitled to one scholarship which pays the registration and library fees of the holder. The Alumnae Association of the college has established a fund from which loans are made to worthy students who are in need of financial assistance. Students of the college may compete with the other colleges of Florida for a gold medal offered by the Society of the Daughters of the Con federacy of Florida for the best essay on some subject connected with the history of the Confederacy. The Board of Control also offers two gold medals for oratory, members of the junior and senior classes being eligible. COLLEGE ORGANIZATIONS The Alumnae Association of the Florida State College for Women is composed of more than seven hundred members. The Athletic Associ ation, which is under the supervision of a committee of the faculty, is also strong, and promotes all the forms o ' f athletics, whether indoors or outdoors. Both the gymnasium of the college and its athletic field meet every requirement. The Classical Club, the Dramatic Club , the History and Social Science Club and the Kindergarten Club have special objects and membership clearly indicated by their titles. As in the case of the university, with its male membership, the College for Women has the tudent-Government Association in full operation. During the past eight years, the system of student self-government has been in thorough and successful operation. The Young Women's Christian Association,

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244 HISTORY OF FLORIDA with its large membership, represents a compact and pos1t1ve influence for good. lts general activities need not be explained. As to its work in the student body, it may be said that the new students are at once taken under its protection, irrespective of whether they are enrolled in its membership. The college has a resident Y. W. C. A. secretary who gives all her time to the special problems which arise in the prosecution of the work among the students, her basic aim being to cultivate a healthy Christian life among them. UNITS OF THE COLLEGE Naturally, the college organization is devised with special reference to the task of meeting the broad requirements accorded the woman of today. Graduate work is offered only in the College of Arts and Sciences. It is under the supervision of the Committee on Graduate Work, but the details of instruction are determined independently by each school or department of the college. The courses of study offered lead to the degrees of Master of Arts and Master of Science. Students not candi dates for a degree, if properly qualified, may be admitted to the Graduate School. The College of Arts and Sciences leads to the A. B. and the B. S. degrees. Dr. William G. Dodd is dean of this department and is assisted by seventeen faculty members . The School of Education and ormal School Organization is divided into (a) a four-year course based on senior high school graduation and which leads to the degree Bachelor of Science in Education; (b) the Normal School, subdivided into the Junior High School professional course, the Grammar School professional course, the Primary professional course and the Kindergarten professional course-each two years, and leading to the L. I. degree; ( c) the Demonstration School, subdivided as in the Normal School, and ( d) the State Summer School. There are fourteen members of the faculty, of which Prof. Nathaniel M. Salley is dean and professor of education. The School of Home Economics is under the leadership of a dean, with a faculty of five assistants. All students in this department are supposed to major in home economics. They may, however, take a general course in home-making, in institutional management, or the teachers' training course which is planned to meet the requirements of the Smith-Hughes Act. The satisfactory completion of the course of study entitles the student to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Home Economics. Students in other schools who elect art as one of their subjects take such courses as are assigned by the dean or director of the School of Art, a position now held by Beatrice A. Beyer. Students who complete the prescribed course of study secure a certificate of proficiency in art. The School of Expression and Physical Education, of which Prof. Mary Hollings':Vorth is director, with two assistants, also confers a certifi cate in expression, and a certificate in physical education. The School of Music has a faculty of eleven members, of which Prof. Ella Scoble Opperman i dean. Students entering this school must have a minimum of six hours a week in the College of Arts and Science . The usual courses in instrumental and vocal instruction are given, with theo retical, technical and historic studies relating to music, as well as a super visor's course in public school music. A diploma and a certificate of "musical proficiency" are given to students who cannot meet the require ments for a teacher's certificate in regard to work done in the College of Arts and Sciences, and various rules are laid down for obtaining the last named. Even higher requirements are demanded in order to earn the degree of Bachelor of Music, and the degree of Licentiate of Instruction ( L. I.) in public school music is conferred upon students completing the supervisor's course in public school music. A post-gr . aduate diploma

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 245 is conferred upon graduates in piano, who continue study in the School of Music for one or more years, until giving artistic and authoritative public performances of standard programs and giving evidence of the capacity to interpret musical compositions successfully without the aid of a teacher . The candidate must also be a successful accompanist. The Department of Business, in which there are two instructors, i s intended to prepare stenographers, secretaries, bookkeepers and teachers of commercial subjects. A diploma is granted for the successful com pletion of the two-year course. and a certificate for those who show special ability at the end of the first year. The Extension Service has been subdivided into (a) Home Demon stration Work, (b) General Extension Division, ( c) Lecture Section, and ( d) High School Service. The active head of the Home Demon stration Work is Sarah W. Partridge, state home demonstration agent, and, in addition to her staff of eleven centered at the college, she has general charge of the work of more than thirty county agents demon strating to white girls and women, and of seven home demonstration agents laboring among the negro women of the state. As elsewhere stated. the Florida State College for Women , in co operation with the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Colleo-e of Agriculture (University of Florida), conducts extension work for the girls and women of the state. The director of the General Extension Division is Prof. Bert C. Riley, the university representative . For the College for Women, Prof. Clara L. Fisher is in charge of the Department of Extension Teaching, the faculty of a dozen being repre sented by both sexes, with a corps of half a dozen special lecturers and instructors. The work of the division has been divided into the depart ments of extension teaching . public welfare. instruction by lectures and public discu sion and general informati . on. As in the university, the last named division embraces bureaus for the dissemination of all kinds of information , as well as for matters relating specificallv to education. There are also clearing houses for furnishing information and g-iving instruction in the work of developing community musi c and drama. Plays. recitations and pageants are lent to dramatic societies, clubs and schools. and talking machine records are furnished to farmers' clubs. women's organizations, churches and schools in sets making-up complete programs, which are accompanied by lecture material. The Visual Instruction Bureau cooperates with the Agricultural Department of the United States Government and supplies such organizations with slides and motion picture reels for instruction and entertainment. Lecture out lines accompany the apparatus, the combination forming one of the most effective agencies in the extension service. The and speakers employed in the spread of domestic , agricultural and economic informa tion are often in demand at teachers' institutes, farmers' institutes, commencement exercises and women's club and food conservation meetings. EXECUTIVE OFFICIALS Edward Conradi, A. M .. Ph. D., is president of the faculty; Arthur Williams, A. M. , vice president; Elmer R. Smith, M . A.. secretary; John G. Kellum, treasurer and business manae-er; Jessie M cN eill, secretary to the president and registrar; Margaret White, B. A . . Y. W . C. A. secre tary. Mrs. S. D. Cawthon is clean of the College Home. FACTS ABOUT STUDENT Bonv From the last register of the college, it is evident that Florida fur nishes most of the students who take advantage of its fine courses of instruction, and that the prime aim of the institution has been accomplished-to furnish to the women of Florida such a school of higher

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246 HISTORY OF FLORIDA learning, training and real culture as shall keep the great majority of them at home and retain for the state their elevating influences. Of the 423 who attended the Summer School in 399 were drafted from Florida, and of the 665 who attended the regular tenn the state furnished 629. Seventeen students from Georgia atte n ded the Summer School and fifteen the regular courses. Excludi n g from the total of 1088, the names of those which were duplicated and the short-course students of 1921, the net enrollment for the year was r 126. The departments which showed the largest attendance were the College of Arts and Sciences, 296; the School of Music, 209 , and the Normal School 133 • THE FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE This college was established 1887 by constitutional provision, and by legislative enactment was located at Tal lahassee, and opened October 5, 1887, as a State Normal School for Training Negro Teachers. It is co-educational. The charter principal was Thomas De S. Tucker who, with assistance of Thomas V. Gibbs, developed an efficient institution of learning. Dr. N. B. Young, president of the college, succeeded Mr. Tucker in August, 1901. In 1891 the school became a Land-Grant College, and was moved to its present site overlooking the town of Tallahassee . In 1905, by legislative enactment, it became one of the state institu tions of higher learning, managed by the State Board of Control. In 1909 the official style became "Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College" by legislative enactment. Since then it has grown along the lines indicated by its new style without neglecting the work prescribed for it by the State Constitution-that of training teachers. The plant has gradually grown from two buildings (a frame cottage and an old manse) and twenty acres of land to twenty buildings, large and small, and 250 acres of land; the faculty from three to forty; the enrollment from fifteen to over four hundred. For purposes of discipline, the college is divided into two departments-the men's department, and women's department; each department managed by a dean and a staff of assistants. The executive and fiscal affairs of the college are looked after by the president and the auditor. For purposes of instruction it is organized into academic and voca tional departments. The work of the academic (or literary) department is carried through junior and senior high school, a normal school and a college . In connec,tion with the Normal School there is a modernly equipped observation and practice school for intending teachers. The usual requirements in the form of units are necessary for gradu ation from the High School, and for admission to and graduation from the Normal School and colle ge. Diplomas are given the graduates from the High School and the Normal School and the first degree in science to the graduates from the college. The vocational activities of the college center in four schools-agricultural, mechanical arts, home economics and nurse-training. There is also the nucleus of a school of music. Each vocational school has a building, a dean and a teaching staff, and each offers long and short courses leading to certificates or degrees. For the biennium closing June 30, 1920, $r75,o65.2r were used for all purposes in operating the college, collected from State and Federal funds, and from the patrons of the college. The aim of the college is to serve the group for which it was estab lished as an institution of higher vocational and academic learning, stressing mainly those things that make for efficient service, upright conduct, and good citizenship.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 247 FLORlDA SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF A D THE BLIND In I884. the Legislature of Florida established the school as a state institution and since the opening of the first building in the following year it has continued to improve in its methods and expand in facilities and attendance. The site of the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind is still about a mile and a half from St. Augustine, on the ocean front, and, includingI922, the sum of $500,000 has been expended on the grounds and buildings of the institution. It is one of the leading institutions of the state, although, as will be seen before the close of this article, the school management presents several crying needs. PROBLEMS IN EDUCATING DEAF AND BLIND This institution is intended to supplement the public school system of the state, in that it admits residents of Florida. between the ages of six and twenty-one, who from defective hearing or sight cannot be taught in the public schools. In other words. to be admitted the pupil must be unable to make progress in the public sd1ools on account of serious defects in these senses. Naturally, the students who are totally deaf or blind do not come under that class. Although the management stresses the fact that the purposes of the Florida school are strictly educational. and not at all custodial, it also notes that "many parents of deaf and blind children are sentimental to a degree that borders on criminality and, under a false conception of kindness. deprive them of an education by keeping them from school." To meet this situation, it is suggested that a law should be passed requiring parents or guardians of these unfortunates to end their children to the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind, or to provide otherwise for their education. The colored chool is distinct and separate from the white school, but under the same management. The development of the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind has been effected under the superintendency of five head executives or presi dents. Park Terrel served from I885 to I890; William A. Caldwell. from I890 to Henry A. Felkel. I8g3-q7; Rev. Frederick Pasco, r891-1900: W. B. Hare. 1qoo-o6; and Dr. A. H. Walker, since 1906. Dr. Walker was principal of the Educational Department for four years before being placed at the head of the school, and during the sixteen years that he has been honored with such responsibilities the progress of the insti1:ution ha been great. He thus sets forth, in striking phrase, the various problems and solutions which have come to him in the years of his work at the Florida school: "While the education of the blind child presents many varied and vexatious problems, his education is not fraught with so many difficulties as that of the deaf child. The blind child enters school with a medium of communication already established; he knows the cause of his new surrounding-s; he has an idea of the import ance of an education. Upon entering school his first lessons are directed toward the education of his tactile sense. This sense must be educated before he can take up the regular course of study prescribed by the school. The time necessary to educate this sense of touch depends largely upon the individual pupil-with some a month only may be required. with others a much longer period, and with a few it becomes impossible. When he. is ready to take up the prescribed course of study, his advancement is necessarily slow. much slower than a normal child of the same mental development. This is obvious when it is remembered that he is substituting an improvised sense to do the work of the eye. Though slow, his progress is steady and sure, and on account of an introspective view of life, brain impressions are generalty retained and ready for use. A completed education to a blind student means that his general knowledg-e of things and his ability to handle facts and figures make him mentally outshine and tower above his normal brother. The educated blind boy

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248 HISTORY OF FLORIDA or girl is entitled to genuine respect from hi more fortunate brother or s ister for his superabundance of patience and for the long sustained effort exerted to successfully prosecute the school's educational requirements to a termination. "The problem of educating deaf children is still more intricate. These chi ldren come to us at a very tender age, with heart and mind in practi ca lly an infantile condition. It is the raw material of humanity, bruised and torn, and given over to the school to shape and fashion according to the highest ideals known to humanity. Here we have a deaf childa wee little tot of six or seven-torn from the arms of a weeping, trembling, heart-broken mother, her very life. it seems, given over to the protection and training of the school. Thus begins the lon g and tedious task of moulding and fashioning the tender and bruised plant and nurturing it to a ' wholesome and sweet growth. The child naturally comes to u s spoiled, factious. stubborn and unruly , caused by overindulgence at home on account of his affliction. These habits have to be carefully and gradually changed. His morals and manners must be given careful attention. "As to his education, a deaf child when he first enters school comes to us without any means of communication, except for his few personal wants, and these are generally made known by pointing, or with crude gestures or signs; he knows not that he has a name; he knows not that there is a language. He lives in a little world wholly circumscribed by his own few necessities. His first lessons in the school are the writing by the teacher of the names of a few domestic animals on the blackboard, and pointing to the ame, and then to the animal in the yard, or to the picture of the animal. A slow process! This may be kept up for a week. a month, or perhaps longer, until child realizes and recognizes the connection. He is now gradually led further and further into the intrica cies of the English language. "Under the system of oral instruction, the conditions are yet more intricate. Without sound he has no standard by which he can determine his own proficiency in his effort to modulate his voice and must depend upon the approving nod of the instructor . Various and complex problems are constantly arising in the public schools of the country, but there are none to exceed the difficulties of teaching speech to the deaf. And it is only through the utmost patience and skill of faithful teachers that the deaf child can ever hope to be even partially restored to the place in soc iety that is his rightful heritage." PRESSING NEEDS OF THE SCHOOL The problems mentioned by Doctor Walker are especially serious because of the large proportion of children between six and sixteen years of age who are in attendance at the school. Even of that class not a few are of very tender ages; so much so that an appropriation of $r ro,ooo was asked in the last biennial report for the erection of two primary cot tages, and $45,000 was granted by the Legislature of 1919 for the construction of one of the two primary cottages requested. The one has been completed and when the other is built, the girls' dormitories in the Administration building and those for the boys in the Industrial building will be moved to the cottages, and the vacated areas used for more appropriate purposes. Besides the needs already mentioned, the sc hool management is calling (a) for a gymnasium and playground apparatus, as it is ' especially desir able to tone up the system of those who are physically defective; (b) addition to the dairy herd and barn accommodations, to insure an adequate supply of fresh milk for the largely juvenile population of the students; ( c) two libraries-one in ink print for the deaf department, and another. in point, for the blind department; and ( d) the construction of hard-surfaced roads throughout the school grounds as a means of fire

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 249 protection, in addition to an ample supply of hose and direct water connection with the city. MAIN FEATURES OF OPERATION As the school is also practically the home of the pupil, sanitary condi tions are of t he utmost importance . The healthy condition of those in attendance is due to severa l causes-the splendid location of the school, wholesome food, regular habits, proper division of work and play and, when necessary, the good care of the nurse and physician regularly assigned to the school. At the same time, effective discipline is main tained and when occasional cases arise requiring correction, the punish ment generally constitutes the denial of some privilege to the child. The cottage plan of the school is conducive to the aim of emphasizing the home environment. As a compensation to the blind pupils for the loss of sight, their training in music is a leading feature of instruction. Voice culture and instruction the piano, pipe-organ and violin, each have a part in this endeavor to bring them pleasure and profit, despite the wonderful sense of which they are bereft. Not all blind pupils can receive musical train ing sufficient to enable them to follow it as a vocation, after leaving school, although there are exceptions to the rule. The industrial or manual training department is fulfilling, in many ways, the object for which it was created. The printing office and cabinet shop are especially proving their us . efulness in turning out boys who can easily find employment at good wages. Further, the domestic science classes are developing among the girls, home-makers, as well as cooks, domestics and housekeepers. An extension department is contemplated by which a representative of the school could visit the parents or guardians of defective children in their homes, explain to them the plans and objects of the institution, and, if the children could not then attend the school, make a beginning in its courses of instruction. Even to those who have lost their sight or hearing after maturity, this representative might be of benefit. A most pitiful sight is the mother when she first discovers that her baby is either deaf or blind. The school representative would seek out such homes and instruct the mother how to properly train and prepare the child for his school life when he reaches the age of six. The structural media through which are conducted the activities of the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind are the Administration, the Industrial, the Service and the Hospital buildings and the cottages. Brought within its present scope, the operating expenses of the institution amount to about $80,000 annually, although to raise it to the standard of modern requirements of similar schools various improvements, or "needs," are suggested, which total nearly 400,000.

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CHAPTER XIV REFORMATORY AND CHARITABLE The spmt of the modern Christian family has in no more striking manner pervaded state policies than in the treatment of criminals by various commonwealths of the United States. The ideal home is that in which the children are influenced by respect and affection for their parents, realizing at the same time that they are amenable to certain rules of the household and regulations of personal conduct. That is the very basis of Florida's State Prison System, one of the most admirable features of its government. If the state had nothing else to offer as a model, the methods of reform which have finally been introduced in the handling of state prisoners would stamp it as a wise and progressive public parent. But it has been only within the past few years that the foregoing could have been truthfully written. A long period of aimless experiments was followed by thirty years of the deplorable "lease system," little more elevating that cruel and shameless slavery. But the leaven of the better idea was working-the thought, which strengthened into the conviction in many minds and consciences, that the state should endeavor to improve the characters of those committed to its protection, as well as to discipline and punish them. In the spread of that reformatory spirit, the American Prison Association was a constant force, and among the Florida delegates who absorbed it year by year and, conse quently, bitterly fought the convict lease system, was Governor Gilchrist. Others less prominent as public men were alive with indignation against its evils, and were to do much in a practical way to further its death. One of the most effective of such workers and who, within four years has accomplished wonders in reforming the Florida system, or better, in creating an entirely new one, is I. S. Blitch, superintendent of the Florida State Farm, near Raiford, Bradford County, midway between Jacksonville and Gainesville. At the locality named, on a tract of 20,000 acres, nearly a quarter of which has been reclaimed from swamps, lakes and woods, is the eightyear old state farm and plant of convenient and handsome buildings, and a colony of some 400 men and women, many of them defective in body and mind, but all animated by their fatherly superintendent to make themselves useful and improve to the extent of their capacities. The most able-bodied convicts are not retained at Raiford, but placed on road work in various parts of the state. For many years, Chattahoochee, near the northern state line, between Marianna and Tallahassee, was the site of the State Prison, under the crude dispensation of blind and heartless punishment, and the employment of the prisoners as chattels and beasts of burden. The facts of that disgraceful period are briefly stated by Superintendent Blitch to this effect: Soon after the acquisition of Florida by the United States, in 1821, an American outpost, with a fairly good fort, was established at Chattahoochee. Not long after the close of the Civil war, the United States deeded the property to Florida, and, for some time, it was used as a State Prison. Prior to that period, the state prisoners were confined in county jails throughout Florida. It happens that Chattahoochee is located in a rolling section of clay hills and the region is well adopted to the growing of grapes. So the superintendent of the State Prison 250

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 251 put in quite an acreage of vines ; and it is said that his friends, political and otherwise, enjoyed not a few pleasant feasts there, in which the prison wines played a leading part. . As the population of the State of Florida increased, however, the population of the prison, with its official management, expanded pro portionately, and the prison vineyard at Chattahoochee developed into a losing enterprise. So, in 1881 the prisoners were leased to the farmers of the state for a term of two years, and released at the expiration of that period. In 1889, phosphate was discovered in Florida and the development of the deposits called for much extra labor . At about the same time, the turpentine people from North Carolina came into the state and opened up farms for the expansion of that industry . Then came the cross-tie and sawmill business, with another demand for labor. Altogether, the demand became so acute that frequently the man who worked the prisoners did so at a cost of from $3 to $5 per day, whereas free labor was commanding only $1 to $r.50 daily. At that time, Florida lea sed her prisoners to one individual, firm or corporation, \\'.hich, in turn, subleased. Consequently, the party who finally worked the prisoner was so far removed from the State Govern ment that he looked upon the prisoner more as a chattel than a human being, and treated him accordingly . It was during this period that Florida was deemed a hell hole for state prisoners. Neither was that con clusion reached haphazard, for various legislative committees which examined 'the condition of the convict camps, particularly . those in the phosphate and turpentine districts, found numerous instances of crim inal neglect of sanitary precautions and inhuman evidences of corporal punishment. Later, four supervisors of state convicts were created by the Legislature, the governor to appoint them for regular terms of four years. They were to act under the immediate direction of the com. missioner of agriculture and the board of commissioners of state institu tions. The supervisors were not only to visit the various camps at least once every forty days for the purpose of investigating as . to their proper conduct, but ascertain if any of the convicts seemed deserving of an application for pardon to the state board of pardons. Whatever the causes, there came a gradual improvement in the conditions of the con vict camps, although, to the last, the leasing system was pregnant of many evils. In 191 l, an appropriation was made by the Legislature to establish a prison farm. The power for such action was vested in the board of commissioners of state institutions composed of the governor and his cabinet. A law was also passed providing that only the physically per fect colored males should be leased, and that all of the women, white men and all those not physically fit of the colored males, should be re tained at the farm. Under this arrangement, about 6oo colored males were leased, and it was from the revenue derived therefrom that this farm was developed. Two years afterward, Mr. Blitch came into con siderable notice, while a member of the State Senate, by introducing a bill in that body providing that a portion of the prisoner's earnings be devoted to the upkeep of his family and dependents; but the proposed measure was then considered too radical, and it was held that the state should have all such revenues for its own needs. Until January, 1914, the lessees of state prisoners were under contract to care for the women prisoners and the infirm of both races the state owning nothing in the way of buildings and equipment. To carve out a great farm in the wilderness and jungle, erect stockades and other buildings, furnish and equip the farm and the structures to house the convicts, was no ordinary undertaking. But the board of commissioners of state institutions did this, and by the end of the year 1914 had virtu ally completed the great work. The Legislature of 1919 abolished the lease system entirely. By the act approved on May 24th of that year, the measure became effective

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252 HISTORY OF FLORIDA on the last day of the year 1919. Seventy-five able-bodied convicts were to be retained at the State Farm, to assist in its proper conduct, . the bulk of its population to be the disabled of both races and sexes. The other able-bodied convicts were to be employed on the public roads of the state, or at other state institutions. Rules and regulations for the working of the state convicts were to be provided by the board of commissioners of state institutions and enforced by the governor and the commissioner of agriculture. In the state prison system, the physically fit came to known as No. i's and those who were imperfect as No. 2's. In 1921, the Legislature reduced the No. i's who were to be retained at the farm to thirty-five, and passed a law giving the governor authority to have the two state physicians examine all of the No. 2 male prisoners, and all of those able to do a reasonable day's work on the road under certain conditions were to be sent to the state road department. They were known as the state convict road force. Under the law of 1921, about 100 of the No. 2's kept at the farm were assigned to road work, reducing the population under Superintendent Blitch to a little over 400. Florida is believed to be the only state in the Union which has one receiving prison to which all the state prisoners are sent and there graded by a competent board of physicians, who practically decide, from their physical condition, when and where they shall work. The first superintendent of the State Farm, who commenced the work of reclaiming the land and erecting the buildings of the plant, was Capt. D. W. Purvis. In 1914, when such rough, rugged work was being accomplished, the 20,000 acres had been purchased for less than $5 an acre. He was just the man to put through the physical part of the under taking, and Superintendent Blitch to mold the human material as he found it at hand on the 1st of July, 1918. But let Mr. Blitch tell his own story, as he did in the Tampa Tribune: "On an;iving here and taking charge of this institution, I was surprised to note an absence of cooperation between the management and the prisoners, and yet I should not have been surprised, as under the old regime this was neither asked or sought on the part of the officials. I reached here Monday evening and spent the week 'Looking on.' Three men . escaped from under the gun the first day I was here and one, the second day. "Sunday morning following my arrival I went into all four dormi tories and had a heart-to-heart talk with the inmates and begged and urged their cooperation, assuring them of better conditions and fair treat ment. Quite a few of the guards and foremen attended these meetings out of curiosity, and practically all of them and many of the prisoner did not take to me seriously thinking I was an idle dreamer , or that I was trifling with them. But as time passed and my Sunday morning heart-to-heart talks to the inmates began to have effect, I could feel the organization growing stronger. A number of the under-officials and fore men, including the captain of the camp, commenced to see the justice and fairness of my proposition and to be willing to assist me in putting it into force. So far as the bulk of the prisoners was concerned, their response was almost instantaneous , or as soon as they could see that justice and fairness were dealt out to them without partiality. I began to cut down the whipping and many of the guards would complain that they could not get the work done unless they could have the men whipped, and some complained that the prisoners were getting insolent and talk ing back, etc. Right at this juncture, I let the guards know that only such men as could get the work done without whipping and friction would be retained. Some quit and others did not quit soon enough, and their pay was stopped. The organization among the inmates had become so strong in ninety days after taking charge that the guns were taken off. As soon as this was done, the doubting Thomases saw I was in earnest, and inmates and foremen rallied to the standard, and our honor system was well launched. The inmates by this time began to

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 253 feel that he or she was participating in a spirit of helpfulness , and saw that the former brutal, overbearing attitude of keepers and officials had ceased." The work accomplished at the State Farm by Superintendent Blitch is especially noteworthy when it is remembered how large a proportion of its population is of the black race and of a low mentality and mo rality . Of the 422 inmates in 1921, 280 were black males and 37, black females'. Most of the convictions had been for burglary or larceny, or for occasional crimes, and an explanation of the good results obtained at the State Farm is largely founded on the typical negro character. So that, after all, Commissioner of Agriculture McRae explains why Mr. Blitch's :work is logical in its results. He says: "The negio con stitutes a very large percentage of Florida criminals, and the same is true of other southern states. The negro as a class has a dull or poorly developed moral sense, and lacks mental activity, but, as a rule, he is a more docile prisoner than the white man." The inmates of the institution known as the State Farm are classi fied as are pupils in a modern chool according to their accomplishment and mental capacity. As in the vocational systems of public education their training is directed and determined by individual aptitudes, but the State Farm furnishes the practical means by which may be developed all grades of ability. "Needless to say," remarks Mr. Blitch, "that in every prison a large proportion of the inmates will be found to be of a low mental grade, known as 'defectives,' while the remainder are either of fair average ability or quite bright. It will, therefore, be apparent that it is not quite fair to the normal person, nor can we expect satis factory results, when we mix them together indiscriminately. Either one class will be held back on account of the other, or else the other cla ss will be groping around beyond their mental capacity. Men with deep seated weaknesses are by nature unable to be of much use in cooperat ing with officials. Then it is not fair nor right to the morale of the institution that these men should be charged with responsibility beyond their understanding or capability. I therefore sincerely hope some day to see Florida with two institutions like this farm , so that entire separa tion can be had without injustice to anyone." To the person, even of low mentality, comparative contentment, not to say happiness . comes with congenial employment. The old saying about Satan finding his best supporters among those whose hands are idle has a firm basis of truth. At the State Farm a close and successful study has been made of the problem to give everyone of the 400 black and white men and women , of various temperaments, the tasks to which he is best adapted. The office force and minor help comprise only about a dozen men and women . Nearly 150 are employed in such domestic service as is connected with the dining rooms, bakery and kitchen, the laundry, dormitories and hospitals, and in sewing. and patching. Those who have mechanical aptitude are assigned to the maintenance and up keep of the buildings, as well as their construction, and some fifty men work in the lumber mill, shoe shop and logging yard. By far the greater ntunber. however, give their time to the cultivation of the fine 4.000-acre farm and the raising of live stock, which are such character-builders. as well as sources of profit. The average areas devoted to the various crops are as follows : 2,500 acres of corn, velvet beans and peanuts; 500 acres of upland rice; 250 acres of sweet potatoes; 100 acres of sugar cane; 200 acres of sorghum and Texan ribbon cane; 100 acres of rape (for poultry), feed and pasture; twenty-five acres of Irish potatoes; ten acres of cabbage and other garden truck. There are 500 standard hens and roosters in the poultry house , and sixty full-blooded Jerseys in the series of building s which shelter the dairy herd. The appliances for the care of both the poultry and milch cows are first class . The beef cattle of the farm com prise 125 Polled Angus and 300 native cattle, valued at more than

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254 HISTORY OF FLORIDA $30,000; poultry (chickens and turkeys) listed at nearly $10,000; hogs , $14,000; horses and mules, $27,000. A mere inventory of such properties indicates the advantages placed before these unfortunates of the s tate to upbuild their physical, mental and moral constitutions. Herman B . Walker, writing in the Florida Times-Union of a com paratively recent date, covers some substantial gaps in the story as follows: "A sawmill with a capacity of 15,000 feet of lumber a day, and a planing mill that can turn out 20,000 feet, manufacture all the lumber needed for u s e on the farm, from timber cut on the 16,000 a c r e s of un cleared land included in the State farm tract. A power house. completely e quipped and up-to-date, supplies lights for all buildings and power for various industrial plants on the place. The engineers and electricians, like all other workmen on the place, are prisoners . A shoe shop, woodworking shop, blacksmith shop and machine shop, not only give em ploym ent to prisoners trained in these trades, but also furnish instructions in vocational work for men who lack trades. All the buildings on the farm are built by prisoners, as are the many miles of and ditches which extend in every direction through the farm. A suggestion of how many roads and ditches are needed , and how much work it takes to cultivate this 4,000 acres may be gained from the statement that it i s five miles across the farm in one direction and eight miles the other way. Every field is fenced with wire, every building is painted, and there is hardly a field that cannot be reached over a good automobile highway." Although the practical things are those which count most in the educa tion and training at the State Farm, Mr. Walker has not forgotten to note the fact that the system has not failed to provide for the cultivation of the esthetic tastes . That phase is set forth to this effect: "It would be hard to find more attractive flower gardens than those around the superintendent's house, tended by convict _gardeners, nor is the effort to make the prison surroundings as little unattractive as possible confined to this spot. There are flower beds everywhere about the grounds and offices not elaborate, but suggestive of color and beauty. In the rear of the office and working shops is set apart a tract of land where any prisoner who wishes may be allotted a plot of ground to plant in any way his fancy dictates , and here are flowers in profusion and many efforts at vegetable growing. Within the stockades the prison build ings-plain and ugly frame structures-formerly stood in the midst of burning, glaring stretches of white sand. Now these sands are gradually beingcovered with green carpets of lawn grass, which take away much of the prison appearance and make the building-s look almost homelike . " Upon these stockades, which have such a prison-like suggestion. light i s thus thrown by a late visitor to the farm: "We were pleasantly re lieved to find that the 'stockade' was, in fact, no such thing. The state tract is surrounded by a wire fence, but one that almost anyone could scale . There were no towers, no armed guards, no barred gates. In fact , the gates were not even closed. and from the highway we drove down a long avenue to where th. e prison proper is situated. We could s ee the warden's home. the dormitories, the cattle barns. office buildings, s awmill, workshops. Men were walking around on the roads with women and children , and we later learned that these men were prisoners and that the women with them were their wives, and that they were free to come there on Sundays and holidays and spend the day with the unfortunates of their families who were for the time being deprived of liberty. "The despondency and sullenness which we had looked for on the faces of the prisoners were lacking. They did not look like prisoners in a penal institution, more like inmates of some community home, for one of the rules of this institution is that on these Sundays and holidays the prisoners are permitted to wear shirts, collars, neckties, coats and hats, such as they would wear if they were free. The only part of their garb that savors of the prison is the trousers. These are striped black

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 255 and white, but repeated washings and bleachings have made the dark stripes almost indistinguishable from a distance." In the last biennial report issued by the prison division of the department of agriculture, it is stated that the general movement of prisoners at the State Farm for the year 1920 covered 1,052 individuals. Of that number, JOI were discharged by expiration of sentence; seventy-five, by conditional pardon; twenty-four paroled; seven dieci from natural causes; 321 were sent to the state road department; and forty were discharged for various caus_ es, leaving 484 prisoners on hand during the year. As stated, the lease of state convicts was abolished by legislative enactment in 1919, and in order to maintain the State Farm and the prison system in general a tax of three-eights of a mill on the dollar was authorized. Its proceeds are known as the state prison fund and, with the sale of produce from the State Farm, constitute the source of support for the entire system. In 1920, the proceeds of the tax levy amounted to over $130,000, and from the sales of produce, to nearly $46,ooo. The total receipts amounted to over $2ro,ooo. For the year 1920, the distribution of state prisoners was as follows: At state prison farms, 484: at state road camps, 628; at asylum as patients, ten; at Chattahoochee as laborers, two; at Boys' Industrial School, one. FLORIDA STATE HOSPITAL, CHATTAHOOCHEE What was formerly known as the Hospital for the Insane, at Chattahoochee , is now designated as the Florida State Hospital. In 1868, the United States Government donated to the State of Florida the Chattahoochee Arsenal and grounds, but in 1872 the property was put to use as a penitentiary. Shortly afterward was introduced the system of leasing convicts to contractors, and the state prison buildings were converted into the Hospital for the Insane. For fifty years the State Hospital has expanded in structural improvements for the care and treatment of those unfortunates committed to it. Within the past decade, the wards became much overcrowded, especially in the case of the colored population. No additional room had been provided either for its insane or sick since 1914. A more noticeable cause of this distressing congestion was the increasing number of patients sent for treatment who were classed as the epileptic and feeble minded. In view of the large proportion of children received this was an especially pressing matter which cried for a remedy. It was not until 1915, however, that it took the form of a legislative in vestigation to detennine the needs of establishing a state institution to receive the epileptic and feeble minded from the State Hospital and enable the management of the latter to conduct its own institution to advantage. But delay followed delay, and it was not until the fall of r92r that the first patients of that character were received in the farm colony for the epileptic and feeble minded near Gainesville. At the time fully 300, or about one-half, were epileptic, feeble minded, of both. These patients were gradually transferred to the new institution, as the necessary buildings for their reception were completed, and the overcrowded condition of the State Hospital was relieved, if not entirely remedied. Other steps were taken to eliminate patients. During the two years, 1919 anp 1920, 200 were discharged from the hospital as restored, seventy as improved and harmless, thirty-three as transfers to another state, fourteen as not insane and 410 as furloughed to their guardians or relatives. Of these cases, 227 discharged and 302 furloughed. were patients who had been admitted during those years. Such facts indicate that the most satisfactory results are obtained among the newly-admitted patients, and emphasize the necessity of early treatment. This weeding-out process was largely accomplished through the efforts of the Red Cross, Women's Clubs and other social organiza-

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256 HISTORY OF FLORIDA tions, "where," as stated by the superintendent, "the individual cases of a borderline type could make the proper social adjustments , and also by getting the relatives and friends of the patients to cooperate with us in this endeavor; but, in spite of the work in this respect our population has gradually increased, the average population for 1920 being about 100 more than for 1919." As previously noted, the material decrease in population occurred, with the gradual erection of the constructive units at Gainesville, for the reception of the epileptic and feeble minded . Several noteworthy improvements have been brought about within the past. few years at the State Hospital, both in its plant and administra tion. In 1921, a power house was completed as well as an employees home. These were the largest buildings ever undertaken by the hospital construction department. An industrial building is also under way. In October, 1919, was founded a training school for nurses, the graduates of which have greatly added to the efficiency of the medical and surgical staff. A special feature of the treatment of the insane , which has been in force for a number of years and upon which a strong empha sis is placed in the application of music as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of the insane or mentally defective. An orchestra, a phono graph, an electric player piano, and vocal music are all employed, and moving pictures, dances and other amusements and recreations tend to sooth and revive the minds of the inmates, or divert them from their hallucinations to the normal phases of life. Dr. H. Mason Smith resumed the superintendency of the State Hospital, after his return from the service in March, 1919. Two of his assistants, Drs. W. H. Spiers and J. D. Gable, also resumed their duties on the hospital staff, under like circumstances. Doctor Spiers was made clinical director when that office was created in October, 1920. There are also a resident dentist and pharmacist; four specialists on the visiting staff of surgeons and physicians, an office force and various heads of departments, such as chief engineer, superintendent of construction, chief nurse; supervisors of the tuberculosis colony and of the white and colored departments for males and females; farm director and matron. The hospital farm now comprises 450 acres under cultivation. Most of the area is devoted to the raising of crops and pasture grasses, although there is a 6oo-acre pasture fenced and reserved for the raising of swine, and a dairy is in operation. Outdoor and healthy work is thus provided for many of the patients, and not a few of the women are kept busy in the industrial department making and repairing clothing . Shoes, chairs and bedsteads are also repaired, and brooms and rugs made. The cura tive influences of mind and hand employment are thus recognized at the State Hospital, in common with all other institutions founded for the care and improvement of mental defectives. From Superintendent Smith's last biennial report, it is learned that $421,268.23 was expended for the maintenance and improv e ment of the State Hospital in 1919, and $467,348.22 in 1920 . FARM COLONY FOR THE EPILEPTIC AND FEEBLE MINDED The intelligence of the Legislature of Florida, backed by the public sentiment of the state, fully realized the necessity of providing an insti tution for the epileptic and feeble minded children that they might be separated from the insane, and segregated for special training and treat ment. The movement toward that end did not reach an official stage until I9I5, when the Legislature of that year provided that the governor should appoint a commission to investigate and report upon the needs of a state institution for the purpose indicated. It was not until I919 that the commission was ready to report and as a result, early in the session, the Legislature adopted the following preamble to the act which was signed by the governor in May of the year named: "The said report indicates that the survey made by said

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HISTORY OF FLORID" \ 257 comm1ss1on ha been searching and exhau tive and shows an alarming tate of facts, and from the findings of said commission there can be no doubt that there should be e tablished and created in this state an institution for the care of the epileptic and feeble-minded. where they can be segregated and more economically cared for than through the numerous charitable organizations now burdened with these unfortunates." Under the creating act, the board of commissioners of state institutions examined the various site offered for the e tablishment of the farm colony, and finally accepted 3,000 acres about a mile from Gainesville , the tract being donated by the citizens of Alachua County. It is cut-over pine land, not extra in quality, but containing areas from which may be raised food for the colony and, in time. perhaps a surplus for sale. The eastern border of the tract runs into Newman's Lake, which pro vides good fishing ground and also acids to the food supply. It appears that $50,000 of the appropriation made by the 1919 Legislature for that year wa lost to the colony and reverted to the tate treasury. becau e the work was not commenced until r920. This left $100.000 available for the use of the board, but the additional $50.000 nece sary to complete the first unit of the projected plant was reappropriated by the Legislature of i920. In 1920-2r was completed the first unit, consi ting of administration 1 uilding and dormitory, kitchen and dining hall and assistant physician's bungalow. The 1nstitution was opened for the reception of patient. on November I, i921, and. under the law, these are restricted to feeble-minded children and girls of "childbearing ao-e." Up to the early part of 1922, more than 100 children had been admitted, which number was to be gradually increased as rapidly as additional facilities were made available. The superintendent of the Florida farm colony for the epileptic and feeble minded i Dr. James H. Hodges. As set forth in the act of establishment . the purposes of the institution are as follows: (a) To serve as an asylum for the care and protec tion of the epileptic and feeble-minded; (b) as a school for their educa tion and training; ( c) as a colony for their segregation and employment. It is planned that the last-named purpose shall be largely forwarded through the cultivation of the land, which will not only afford many of the patients healthful out-of-door employment, but the means of being taught such practical occupations as truck farming, dairying, etc. With the beautifying of the grounds, another avenue of educational employment will be thrown open. To further realize the aims of the institution, Superintendent Hodges further urges that there should be erected a chool building, an infirmary or receiving ho pita!, and separate bungalows for the nurses and pay patients. The immediate plans of the board of managers call for the eventual care of some 350 patients. t the present time, the colony can only admit white patients. Ynl. 1 1 7

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CHAPTER XV JACKSONVILLE PRECEDING MUNICIPALITY Lapped in the beautiful waters of the St. Johns River, not more than twenty miles from its mouth, the handsome and enterprising metrop olis of Florida is the home of over 100,000 typical Americans. Named after an intensely practical American soldier and president, who aGcom plished much in cementing the far South to the United States, at the same time Jacksonville stands in the midst of a region of romance and tragedy, which were featured more than two centuries before the nation commenced to evolve from the movements of history. The River May, as the St. John was christened by Jean Ribault, leader of the Huguenot colonists, who landed at the mouth of the stately stream on the first of the month indicated, year of I 562, has the unique distinction, among the great rivers of the country, of flowing in a northerly direction. Had the days of railroads not dawned. it would have developed into an artery of commerce with a city near its mouth as its entrepot. As it happened, Jacksonville became the metropolis it is, not by reason of the River May, or any other interior waterway, but because of the railroad . , of which it was the natural gateway to the great peninsula of Florida. and because il was developed into a splendid sheltered port of the South tlantic Ocean. HISTORIC BEGINNINGS OF LOWER ST. JOHNS It is scarcely a tradition even, that Ponce de Leon. with his romantic adventurers, once camped on the site of what is now South Jacksonville, but on account of his wide wanderings in Southeastern United States, it is comparatively easy for the well-read student of history, who is am bitious for his home locality, to make a good case for the foot-fall of Ponce thereon. Really authentic history of the lower St. Johns region commences with the Ribault discovery and christening of the river. The Huguenot leader first landed on the northern side of the river and, after a friendly conference with the Indians of the locality. crossed to the southern side and there erected a stone column bearing the arms of France and thus recording a royal claim for that part of the land. The French colonists then sailed away for what is now outh Carolina. Two years thereafter. in I564. Laudor,miere. one of Ribault's lieutenants. returned to the River May, with another colony of Huguenots, and after re-locating the monument already planted on the outh shore and coasting north along the Atlantic to near the mouth of t . Mary's River. finally returned and built Fort Caroline near a high bluff not far from the original landing. This event occurred in the summer of I 564. FORTS CAROLI E AND SA MATEO Says T. Frederick Davis in his History of Early Jacksonville: "The French at once began to fortify the place, by building a fort of logs and staves.1 It was in the form of a triangle and was of good size, since the colonists all lived within its walls. Soon after their arrival, a party of these Frenchmen sailed up the river twenty leagues (sixty miles), and 1 Probably small timbers. 258

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 259 it is safe to assume that these were tlie first white men to behold the site upon which Jacksonville now stands. * * * * * * * * "All traces of old Fort Caroline have long since disappeared, but its location seems certainly to have been at St. Johns Bluff, on the south side of the river a few mil es below Jacksonville. lts location was described precisely by Laudonniere and others of his time; and Bucking ham Smith, who did a great deal toward clearing up the misty early history of the Spaniards in Florida, after a careful study of the archives in Spain came to the conclusion that the fort was at St. Johns Bluff. It was not on top of the bluff, but at its base near the water's edge-a curious selection of a site for a fortification." The details of the brief, but tragic life of the Fort Caroline Colony, 111 which Laudonniere, Ribault, Sir John Hawkins, the famous Engli h BRYANT OAK, E .\R }ACKSOX\'ILLE One of the largest trees in Florida, covering a circle of 220 feet in diameter. The Poet Bryant is said to be the author of a verse on bronze tablet attached to the tree. navigator, and finally, Menendez, the Spaniard, played their various roles leading to the destruction of the Huguenots, would be out of place in this chapter. What facts have been given serve only a a background or introduction to the Jacksonville region. when Menendez took posses sion of Fort Caroline he changed its name to San Mateo, and after garrisoning it returned to St. Augustine. The revenge of the Frenchman, De Gourgues, which was the extinction. in turn1 of the Spanish garrison at Fort San Mateo (formerly Fort Caroline). has also been described in the general history of Florida. CLOSING AHOUND FORT ST. NICIIOLAS More definitely related to what long afterward became the site of Jacksonville, was old Fort St. Nicholas, one of a chain of fortification maintained by the Spaniards along the t. Johns River for years after the fall of Port San Mateo. The latter fortification had received its name from the fact that the Huauenot Fort aroline had been captured by the Spaniards near the patron day of San Mateo, or Saint Matthew, and

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260 HISTORY OF FLORIDA eve n the Riv e r May was g i ven the nam e of th e San Mateo. T h e l ocat i on of For t St. K i c h o l as was abo u t a mil e cast o( t h e pre e n t o uth Jac k so n ville ferry. a s h o rt dis tance from t h e San Mateo, o r River t. J ohns, as it was afte rward called. Around t h e fo r t was a m oat, or exc avation , o n e hundred f eet square, a n d surro undin g thi s wa s a canto nm e nt or se ttl e m en t , together wit h offices, quarters and barracks for the men. About the time that friction b etwee n t h e A meri ca n s a nd Spania rd s ove r the J.7lorida territory was a t its h e ight a n d Ge n e r a l nclr ew J ack o n wa sta nding out a s the d o minan t military figure in t h e r eg i o n of w es tern Florida , t h e pioneers of Jackso n v ille were closing around the lands at and n ea r Fort St. l icholas. In i818, a large trac t o f land on the north bank of the St. Johns River, nearly oppos it e Fort St. Nicholas a nd eas t of Hogan' cree k , wa co n veyed to E. Hudnall b y Daniel Hogans. Ea t J ackso n ville was afterward l aid out on it. S ub se qu e ntly, Mr. H udn all acquired t h e l a nd across the river upon which th e fort stood, even while a part of th e old fort was in exi s tence, a nd h e l eve l ed the timbers for u s e on hi s farm. He built his h o u se directly o n the east s id e o f the m oat, and while excavating fo und man y Spanis h co in s . Toward the encl o f the Spanish rul e ( 1820-21), Fort St. N i c h o la s was maintained principally as a post to prevent s mu gg ling. The foregoing i s l a r ge l y g i ve n up on the t esti11Jony of Co lumbu s Drew, in a paper contribute d to th e F l o rid a Times-Union, in January, 1890. Cow FORD AND THE KING's ROAD B ut the writer is getting ahead of the chrono l og i ca l development of his story of J ac k s onville. In hi s desire to trace o ld Fort St. N i c h o l as through th e period of the second Spanis h occupancy of Florida, h e . fa iled to adv an ce the facts co nn ected with the l ega l Em.{lis h t itl e to the pre se n t site o f th e c ity. In when Spain ce d e d Florida to G reat Britain. th e l oca lit y of Jacksonville was called by t h e India n s Wacca Pi latk a, o r the place where cows crosse d the St. Johns River; the Spani a rd s calle d th e ford t h e Passage of Sa n N i c h o l as, a nd the E n glis h tra n s l a t ed it , Cow Forcl.2 The trail m ade b y t h e Indians and their cattl e . by the traders a n d their pack ponies, s u ggested to the practical E n glis h a m o re improved road as a m eans of g iving eas ier access to the country w hi c h th ey h ad acquired. But the crude l y beaten patlnvay t o the west and the town s of the Apalacl)ees, including Tallahassee , did not appeal to them as t h e b est route for the Kino-'s Road. T he sett l e m ent at Pen s acola. forty huts and a small pine barracks t h en ( 1763) representing the third effo r t to found the place. lik ew i se had n o attract i o n s for a n improve d r oad through n o rth e rn F l o rid a . from ea t to west. Therefore , a bout 1765. th e King's Road was l a id out from St. Mar y's Ri ve r. opposite Cole r ain. Geo rgia , to the Cow Ford, thence to St. A ugu s tin e a nd. soo n afterward. with the founding o f Dr. Andre w Turnbull's co lon y at New S m y rn a . w as built an extensio n to that point. It m et the St. Johns River at the foot of what i s n ow Liberty Stre et and co ntinu e d from the op p os it e shore. Nearly all trave l b e twe e n St. A ugustine a nd the co l onies pa sse d over this hi g hwa y a nd therefore throug h t h e s it e of J ackso n ville. LANDS AcQuIRED AT THE Cow FoRD In 1763, soo n after G reat Britai n took ove r Spani h Florida. the Marquis of Hastings obtai n ed a gra nt of 20,000 acres between McGirt's 2 Judge Benj amin H a1Tison furnis h es the followi n g illum inati n g pa ragraph: "At l o n g dis tanc es o n the river the Indians calle d crossi n gs b y the s am e name a nd thi s was only one of ma n y Cow Fords. The India n m o th e r ha s a baby nam e for th e pap oose, t h e n th e c hild nam e a nd fin ally the n a m e as w e und e r s tand it-so J ac k so nvill e was Wacca Pilatka, th e n th e Pass age of St. Nic h o l as (not pass) a nd finally Jackso nvill e."

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H ISTOR Y OF FLORlDA 261 a nd Trout c r ee k a nd embracing th e p r ese n t s it e o f Jack o n v ille, and t h e Marqui s of Water fo r d, a t r ac t o f th e sa m e a r ea, o n th e o pp os it e s i de o f S t. J o hns. J o hn Bart r a m. the b o t anist , v i s ite d Cow Ford in th e spring of 1774 , a nd in his Trave l m e n t i o n s t h e ex i s t e nce o f a p ubli c f erry a t th a t point. J o hn H. Mcint os h , a eo r g ian , occ upi e d l a nd s o n th e n orth side o f t h e S t . J o hn s Ri ve r n ea r t h e Cow Ford . He a pp ea r to h ave b e en a p o liti c ian a nd a r es tl ess a d venture r a n d . a lth o u g h a min o r S p a ni s h offic i a l , w a s arres t e d in 179 4 a nd spe n t so m e t im e in Morro Cas tle, Havan a . 1\ft e r his r e l ease, h e l e d a ban d o f m e n agains t the garriso n a t Fort St. N i c h o las, whi c h h e i s sa id t o h a v e de st ro ye d , with so m e of th e S pani s h b oats o n th e riv e r . Mcintos h n ex t a pp ea r s as th e r e cipi ent o f Spani s h l a nd s g r a nt e d in th e v i c init y o f th e Co w F o rd . a nd as a pros perou s and l o rdl y lumb e rm an. He a l o d ealt in seai s l a nd cotto n , much o f whi c h h e i s sai d t o h ave sent a bro a d duty-free b y paying a ge n ero u s brib e t o th e co mm andant o f th e p os t at For t St. N i c h o l as. A numb e r oE yea r s afte rw ard "Gen e r a l " Mcintos h was one of th e l ea d e r s in th e Patri o t war, whi c h w as d es i g n e d t o divide East F l o rid a int o a r e publi c . " PANI S H LAND GRANTS The titl e to t h e t r act o f l a nd up o n whi c h w as e r ec t e d t h e fir s t p e rm a n ent r es id e n ce o n th e s it e o f J ac k so n ville i s thus traced: "Und e r date o f January 3 , 179 1 , Rob ert P ri tc h ard o bt aine d a g r a nt from G o ve rn o r Q u ese d a, fo r 450 ac re s o f l a nd o n th e n orth s id e o f th e St. J o hns, o pp oite Fort S t. N i c h o l as. A r e gul a r survey w as m a d e, a nd Pritc h a rd took p ossess i o n imm e di a t e l y, e r ecte d buildin gs a n d p l a nt e d cro ps. H e die d a f e w yea r s l a t e r . but his h e ir s, th ro u g h th e ir a u t h orize d a ge nts, c ontinu e d t o cultivat e th e trac t , un til drive n a w ay b y th e t ro ub l es o f 1 8 1 2 (Patri o t r evo luti o n .) O n e o f th ese age n ts w a s J o hn J ose ph Lain , wh o cultiv a t e d a nd lived o n th e l a nd later grante d to M r . Puma \ T ay l o r , a nd a f te r w ard includ e d in the pla t of J ac k so n ville. "During th e Patrio t troubl es, a S p anis h s ub ject b y th e n a m e of Purna l T ay l o r was ki l l e d in a s kirmi s h wi t h . a sco utin g par ty o f t h e Patri o t Army, in t h e inl a nd pass a ge t o Fern a ndin a . T.-:Ti s wid o w , Mr . Maria T ay l o r , p e tition e d th e S p anis h Gove rnm e n t a nd w as g r a nt e d 2 0 0 ac r es o f l a nd o n th e n orth ide o f th e t. J o hn s Ri ve r , o pp os i te Fort a n N i c h o l as. Lewis Z ac h aria h Hogan s m a rri e d M rs. Tayl o r , a nd l a t e in th e yea r l8r6, th ey m ove d ac ro ss th e river fro m th e o u t h side, w h e r e s ub se qu e ntl y M r . H o gan s h a d b ee n living, a nd sett l e d up o n th e l a nd that h a d b ee n grante d t o M r s . T ay l or. Inas mu c h as t h e h o u ses that forme rl y stoo d o n thi s s ite w e r e all d estroye d b y t h e "Patri o t s," 1\'lr. H o ga n s m ay b e said t o h ave built th e firs t h o u se in the future m e trop olis of F l o rid a. H i buildinCT too d p a rtl y in wh a t i s n o w For sy th Str ee t a n d partly n o r t h of i t, imm e di a t e l y t o t h e outhwest a nd west o f th e Duva l Hotel,. n orth w es t corne r o f For syt h a nd Hogan stree t s . He clea r e d up l a nd a n d f e n ce d it , a nd in th e follo win g s prin g, 18 17, pl a nt e d a crop fro m whi c h h e CTathe r e d in g r ea t a bund a n ce." 3 Tm;: MAESTRE TRACT AND DELL, s BLUFF A b o u t t h e t im e th a t Zac h a riah Hogan s m a rri e d M rs. Maria T ay l o r a nd m ove d fro m th e south side o f t h e St. J o hn s to th e large l a nd e d es t a t e o f his brid e, Jua n M aest r e ( M as t e rs), a S p anis h sa i l o r. wa s grante d fift y ac r es in th a t l oca l it y, o p pos it e th e b a tt e r y o f l
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Vrnw IN PARK

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HISTORY OF FLORID\ 263 been s u rveyed, h e b uilt his h o u se u po n w hat i s n ow t h e center o f northea t qu arte r o f the sq u a re b o unded by F o r syth, Liberty, Bay a nd Market streets. H i s dwe llin g was surrounded b y l a rge oaks a nd t he proprietor had oon cleared a fiel d a nd plan te d it. B ut h e d i d n o t long r emain in possession, for in tl-Je sp rin g of 1818, wh e n Fernandina was occ upi e d by t h e Venezu e l a n patriots a n d t h e S pani a rd s withdre w their garri so n a nd boats from the For t St. N ich o l as district to St. A ugu st in e , Maestre aba n do n e d hi s property, and in 1 820 co n veyed it to John B r a dy. Three yea r s afterw a rd , Mr. B rad y passed it ove r to Johi1 Bella my. I. D. Hart, who h ad l aid out J ac k so nvill e in 1822 , so m e years afterward ( 1836) obtained tit l e to w hat h ad become known as th e Maestre tract. and he, in turn, co n veyed it to William J. M ills, in trus t fo r M r s . Maria Doggett, wif e of J o hn L. Doggett. vVhat i s n ow k n ow n as Brooklyn and most of o ld River s id e, fo r many years went under th e name o f Dell's B luff , fo r t h e r easo n that t h e origina l concession of 800 acres from t h e Spanis h governor w as g r a nted , i n 1 801. to P hili p Dell. It was in p ossess i o n of J ohn H . Mcinto s h from r805 to 1 823. a nd F r a n c i s J. Ros ow n e d it for th e s u ccee din g d ec ad e , Mr. Ho ss deeded th e tract to J osep h H. Lancaster in 1833 . who, after selling a mill s i te o f s i x ac r es to B l a n c hard and R i de r , at the mouth of McCoy's C r ee k , co n veye d the r e m a ind e r of the tract to M r. Ross. In 1845, t h e latter p assed ove r his tit l e to William B. Ross; f m him it ca m e to J a m es vVint e r and his es tate , and finall y t o U riah Bowden Miles ] rice a nd E . M. C h e n ey. M r. C h e ne y . who w as th e n ( 1868) ed itor o f t h e F l o rid a Unio n , of Jacksonvil)e, was actin g as th e age nt for John M. For bes, a Bo t o n millio n a ire. In 1869 h e p l atted t h e tract into l ots for M r . Forb e , provision being mad e fo r p ubli c ground s of fourtee n acres, n ow kn ow n a R i verside Park. Orn SPRT GFIELD The l a r ge t r act n o r t h o f H oga n s' r ee k st ill popularly kn ow n as O ld Spri n gfield. w i t h th e min o r p l atti n g o f H a n sonto wn a nd Franklin to wn , resulted fro m the s qu a r e mil e o f l a nd which J o hn R. Hogan s r ece i ved from the Span i h autho riti es und e r the Donati o n Ac t in 1820. A mong the be t know n Jacksonians w h o h eld titl e t o it were v Villia m G. Dawson , who with Steph e n E . B u ckles. ope n e d th e first sto r e at Cow Ford near t h e K in g's Road; I sa i ah D. Hart. ge n e r ally co n s id e r ed th e fou nder of Jacksonville, a nd Eliza J o n es, afterw ard J\rr s . vV. M. Bost wi ck. The 6 40 acres ori g in ally acquired b y Mr. Hogans, with the except ion of th e fifty-four acres cove ring Han ontow n and F ranklint o wn , was n a m ed Sprin gfield by . L. Robi n so n , in 1870. SETTLEMENT AT THE Co w Form I•ouNnrn For evera l years pri o r to the co rnin g of I sa iah D . Hart a nd his p latting of J ackso nville, J o hn B rady , the hot e l man, and Dawson & B u ck l es, th e m e r chants, w e r e promin e n t se ttler s at the Cow For d, and their establis hm e nt s did muc h to attract othe r s to t h e l ocality. In th ose days-gi ve n a p l ace t o s l eep, omething to eat and a lit t l e to wear-th e problem of livina was a l most so l ved. As s tated , M r . Brady, was th e third sett l e r to occ up y the Maestr e t r act, o n th e north s id e of the St. Johns. in 1818. He p l ante d c r ops , starte d a f erry a t th e Ford, a n d, w ith the assura nc e that Florida wo uld b eco m e a pe rm a nent possess i o n of th e U ni ted tates , a nd the co n seq u e nt incr ea e of t r ave l a l o ng t h e King's Road, Mr. Brady's h o u se (originally built by Maestre) was . o ft e n fille d t o overflow ing , an d h e was o blig e d to e rect s tab l es to furthe r acco mm odate his h orseme n a u es ts. In 1821, afte r the sa l e of both F l o rid as to the Unit ed tates, this travel and patronage greatl y in c r eased. The overflbw fro m th e Brady Hotel wa s c h eerfully gathered either into L. Z. Hoaans' residence, or Davvson & B u ckles ' sto r e . The latter

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264 H ISTORY OF FLORIDA was a large l og hou se n ea r th e K ing' s R oa d , th e loca lity b eing what i s n ow th e south s id e of A dam s Str eet, b etwee n Market and Newnan. The m e rcantil e venture was a . g reat s u ccess a nd s uppli e d th e d e m a nd for general goo d s for mil es around. It was good business poli cy t o accommodate travellers wh o co uld n o t b e c rowd ed into e ith e r Mr. Hogans ' hou se or Mr. Brady' s hotel, a nd Mess r s . D awso n & B u ck l es did n o t h esitate to provid e s l ee ping quarte r s in their s t o r e, or t o furni s h bla nket s . and other b e dding from their stoc k of goods. F inally , the thrifty pair built a boa rding h o u se east of th e ir sto r e, at what would now b e th e southwest corn e r of Market and A dam s streets, it being the first frame stru cture in Jac k so nville. ISAIAH D . HART ARRIVES Such evid e n ces of prosperity at the Cow Ford h a d r eac h e d Jsaiah D. Hart at his plantation o n the St. Marys Rive r . He had b ee n o n e of Tim FrnsT RESIDEK CE OF . \ vVnrrn F , \MILY lN JACKSONVILLE the Patriot s of n o rth eastern Florida and had previously visited the l oca lit y when it w as only an Indian ford, and was therefore familiar with it s natural advantages. In the spring of 1821, Mr. Hart therefore has t e n e d thither, a nd o n May 1 2 . 1821, bought e ight ee n ac r es of land fro m L. Z. Hogans, in the so utheast co rn e r of th e T
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HISTORY F FLORIDA 265 PLAT'.IT\TG OF J.\CKSONVILl.E The treaty by whic h Spain a g r ee d t o s ell Flor ida t o the United States w as ratifie d at \!Vash in gton in Febru a ry, 182r; in t h e following sp rin g, Mr. 1-Iart settled at t h e Cow Ford , a nd about a year a fterward , a nd a m o n t h before E a s t a n d West F l orida w e r e form ally transferred to the U nit e d S t ates, M r . Hart was l ayi n g o ul hi. t ow n at t h e Ford. T. F red e ri c k Davi i n his Flisto r y o f Earl y Jac k son ville. to which t h e writer i s oth e rwi se muc h ind e bt e d. h a thi to say a b o u l th e p latting of J ackso n v ill e a nd i t founder: " I. D. Hart now co n ce i ve d th e ide a o f l aying off a t ow n s i te at t h e Co w For e!. He see m s to have had so m e difficu lt y in co n v in ci n g Messrs. L. Z. Hogan a nd J o hn B rady o f t h e fea sib.ility of the pl an. but fin ally , t h ey co n se n ted to d o n a t e a po r tio n of l h e i r l a nd s fo r st r eets. T h e town wa s laid off in June, i822, un de r t h e supe r v i s i o n o f three com m i ss i o n ers, r es id e nt s of t h e n e i g hb o rh oo d , n a m e l y , F ranci s J. Ross, Benj amin C h a ir es, a nd John Bella m y . The site \\'a s surv e yed by D. S. H. ill e r , BAY ,ST Fhf?ST /'LAT o/ d ACK'SONl/li.1.. 1822 FIRST PLAT OF J A KSONVILLE, 1822 who formerly was connec t e d with th e S pani s h post at St. N ichol as . w ith t h e t itl e of 'Captain of th e Rural Iviilit i a o f t h e t. J o hn s River , D i stric t of St. i c h o l as, a nd D eputy Surveyo r .' J ohn W. Robe r ts acte d as Cler l c O n t h e clay t h e t o wn w as l a id off a co n side ra b l e di sp u te aro e b e tw ee n B rady and Har t as to th e dividing lin e b et w ee n th e ir lands. l t was at l a t agree d betw ee n th e m that a tree, claimed by L. Z. Hogan s to be a co rn e r tree, standing o n the rive r bank at t h e foot o f the pres en t -:'lfarket Street , s h o uld b e th e startin g point. T h e survey b ega n h e r e a nd th e n ce north a stree t was laid o u t e i ghty f ee t in width , th e property o wn e r s o n eac h s id e donating forty f eet. Thi was J ac k so nville's fir st street, and correspo nd ed t o th e present Market Str e e t but i t was n ot g i ve n that name. It i s impos ible to dete rmin e w hat name the co mmi s s i o n e r s gave to th e first street. "It wa s d ec i ded t hat th e r e s hould be s i x l ots, eac h ro5 f eet q uare, in eac h b l ock, two l o t s a !j o inin g n o rth a nd o u th, beino-zro feet; and th r ee lots eas t and w es t, 315 Jeet. T h e next str eet l a i d off was Bay .Str eet, with a width o f se v enty f eet. T h e fir t square d es ignated and numbered was east of Mark et a nd north of Bay Str eet, and in co mpli ment to B rady a the first se ttl e r p r esent of t h e part now to be urveye d ,

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266 HISTORY OF FLORIDA it was designated Square No. I. The next square surveyed was across Market Street, west of No. 1, and it was designated No. 2. The square north of it was numbered 3, and east of that, 4. Brady's buildings, it was found when the survey was being made, would be in the street on the east of Square No. I. if but three lots from west to east were in it. To avoid this difficulty, another tier of lots was added on the east side of Square No. I, making this square eight lots, instead of six, which saved Mr. Brady from living in the middl e of the street. Thus the range . of blocks betw een Liberty and Market streets is composed of eight lots. "The commissioners now surveyed Square No. 5, east of Square No. I, the King's road leading north from the river being between. This they named Liberty Street, although it was ofte n called Ferry Street, also. The s quare north of No. 5 was de signated o. 6, north of that, No. 8, CORNER OCEAN AND BAY STREETS, JACKSONVILLE west of that, No. 7 , and west of that, No. 9. This was the surveyor's wrong marking and was never corrected on the original map. "From the s urvey of Square No. 9, the commissioners came back to Bay Street and ran off Square No. IO west of No. 2; and north of No. IO, they ran I I and 12. respectively. Again they came back to Bay Street, this time east of \i\Tashington Street, and laid off No. 13, east of No. 5, and north of No. 13, they surveyed Nos. 14, 15 and 16 in the order named. They then turned west and surveyed Nos. 17, 18, 19, and 20. Here they stayed their work and never re s umed it. "The original survey comprised the squares between Cat herine and Ocean Streets, and Duval Street and the river. The naming of Liberty and washington streets indicates the patriotism of the commissioners. Newman Street received its name from Col. Daniel Newman, Inspector General of Georgia, but who came here with the "Patriots" as a volun teer. Forsyth Street was named for General Forsyth. of Georgia; Adams Street, for John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State in President Monroe's cabinet. and who was largely instrumental in bringing about the cession of Florida; Monroe Street, for President Monroe, and Duval Street, for Governor Duval , of Florida. Three of Jacksonville's streets

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 267 bear the name s of I. D. Hart's children, namely, Laura, Julia, and Ocean -Ocean was formerly Ossian. "By unanimou s agreement, the newl y laid out town was called Jacksonville, in hon o r of Gen. A ndrew Jackson, the name being suggested by John Warren, who had se rv ed as a vol un teer in General Jackson's army during the Indian troubles. Some accounts have stated that General Jackson was present when the town was laid out; but the author has failed to find any authentic record of the General's eve r having visited the Cow Ford, and certainly not in 1822. * * * * * * * * "The distinction of being the founder of Jacksonville unquestionably belongs to Isaiah D. Hart, and he lived to see the town develop into a place of more than 2,000 people. At one time or another, he owned nearly all the land now known as old Jacksonville. and also the most of Hogans' Donation (Springfield ) . He outlived all the early sett lers, and died in l86r. He vvas buried in a vau l t on a plot of ground near the northea st corner of State and Laura st r eets. and his resting place was marked with this queer inscr iption: " 'When I am dead and in my grave , And these bones are all rotten, When this you see, remember me, That I may not be forgotten . ' " "After the fire of May 3, 1901, his remains were removed to Ever green Cemetery and the old vault in the city was destroyed." FIRST COUNTY BUILDINGS AND COURTS Messrs. Hart and Brady so ld many l ots on the day that Jacksonville was surveyed. Not long afterward, the conveyed to Benjamin Chaires and Francis J. Ross, two of the commissioners, the lot at the northeast corner of Forsyth and Market streets, and they, in turn, do nated it to Duval County (created in August, 1822), as a site for the county court hou se. As the building was not ready for partial occupancy until the winter of 1825-26 . the entire upper story of John \ i\Tarren's large store, northwest corner of Bay and Newman streets, was used, until that time, for the judi cial and official purposes of the county. The first County Court convened at Jacksonville on the 16th of December, 1822, the presiding justice being Thomas Reynolds. Laying off the county into road districts was the most important business transacted at this initial session. James Dell was the first sheriff, but within two years moved to Alachua County, and was s ucc eeded by Daniel C. Hart, who held the office until his death in l83r. On Monday, December l, 1823, was convened the first regular court ever held in Jacksonville. It was presided over by Judge Joseph L. Smith. father of General E. Kirby Smith. a fap1ous military leader of the Confederacy. The first local lawyer was Abraham Bellamy, so n of John Bellamy, who was one of the comm i ssione r s named in the platting of the town. Most of the early legal papers were drawn by him. and his office near Mr. Brady's house was one of the busiest places in Jacksonville. . In October, 1823, Duval County contracted with John L. Doggett, for the erection of a court house on the lot donated by Messrs. Chaires and Ross, at the northeast corner of Forsyth and Market streets. The frame work was raised in the summer of 1825, and, as eventually constructed, the building was supported by large brick pillars. For Forsyth Street, a long broad portico gave access to the main entrance. The first court house was not entirely completed until some years after it was occupied, in 1825-26. As late as 1834, the territorial legi s lati ve council was record ing a measure which "authorized Joseph B. Lancaster, I. D. Hart and William J. Mills to raise $6,ooo by means of lott eries to complete the

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268 H ISTORY OF F I ORIDA court h o u e at Jacksonville." vVh e n t h e finis hin g t o u h es wer e placed t:1po n it, t h e cou r t ho u e was co n side r e d o n e of th e most s ub sta nti ally co n . tructe d publi c buildin gs in that sectio n o f the South . T t was burne d b y Fed e r a l troops o n March 29, i 863. In 1 827, a co unt y j ail was e r ecte d at th e so u t hwest c orner of D u va l a nd Market streets. So m e yea r l a t e r , a f te r it was burne d. a noth e r w as e rect e d in t h e court h o u se grounds. a nd b o th buildinrrs w e r e d estroye d in 1 863. Tern Tow N OF J .\CKSONv1r. u ' H1 :.\TED The decad e foll owing the plattin g o f Jack so n ville w a on e o f som e g r o wth. a l t h o u g h in this d ay a nd age it co uld n o t b e co n idered rapid ; C rT Y TL\LL, },\CKSO ' ''lLLE since, as l ate as 1830, i ts populati o n was n o t estimate d as above 100. U nd e r v V illi arn P . Duva l , th e first gove rn o r o f F l o rid a a 1 pointe d un de r t h e congre s i o n a l act of Marc h 3, 1 922,, h a d asse mbl e d the Lerri s l ative Co un c i l , a t P e n saco l a, in June of th a t yea r , a nd th e same m o n t h a nd year witn e se d th e l aying o u t o f Jack on v ill e as a town . Two m o n t h s lat e r th e n ew co un ty was c r ea t e d whi c h r ea dil y t oo k hi s n ame, a nd i ts seat o f ju tice stea dil y b eca m e o n e o f t h e s m art little town s o f n orth e a stern Flo rid a. As Gove rn o r Duva l's l o n g a n d s u ccess ful a dmini tra t i o n approac h e d it s close, th e peop l e o f Jack so n ville and th e g rowin g country whi c h w as t ribu ta r y t o it, urge d incorp o r a ti o n , a nd in February, T 8 3 2 . t h e Legi l a t i Ye o un c il m et this r eq uest b y t h e passage o f a n act c r e a ti n g th e " T o wn of J ackso n v ille, w ith a ll th e ri ght , lib e r t i es, privileges, pow e r s and a uth o riti es in cident t o a n d appe rtainin g t o a co rp orat i o n , b o d y p o liti c , o r a natura l pe r so n ," Its limi ts we r e defin e d as w i thin a lin e "comm e n cing a t a point o n th e so u t h b a n k of th e Ri ve r St. J ohns, o p po it e lfoga ns' c r ee k , o n t h e n o r t h s id e, running n o rth h alf a mil e u p aid

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HISTORY OF I•LORIDA 269 c r eek, t h e n ce west o n e mil e and a half to McCoy's c r eek, t h e n ce so uth to a p o in t o n th e south s id e o f the R iver t . J olms oppos ite McCoy's c r ee k , then ce ea t to th e po in t of b eg inning." The mayo r and four a ld e r m e n , who were e l ec t e d annually on th e fir t Monday in April , co n stitute d t h e Town Co un cil, whi c h was endowed with t h e u s u a l fun ctio n s t o r egulate t h e p ubli c m o r a l s, finances a n d ge n e r a l wellb e in g o f the community. Vot e r were d efined as "all wh i te mal e inhabitants of the age o f twenty-one year s a n d ove r. who hall h ave r es id e d with in sa i d town a t least o n e m onth imm ediate l y preced in g t h e day of e l ect ion. " Isaiah D. Hart, J o hn L. Doggett and H enry H. Burritt were name d as in s p ectors of t h e e l ectio n , wh i c h was h e ld o n th e first Monday of April, 183 2 . Jac k so n ville wa s th e ninth town in Florida lo be in corporate d , il predecesso r s having been St. A ugu s tine. Pensacola, J •ernandina, Key \ i\fest, Q uin cy, Magn olia,. A p a l achicola a nd Ochesee.4 The r esult o f th e INTER E TION o.F CED.\R AND 13. w REETS, L ooKil'\G NoRT1 r, 1 8 70 18 80, J.' Kso;-..rv1LLE e l ectio n h e l d in April , 1832, was to make \i\filliam J. Mills t h e first mayo r of Jac k so nville. The growth o { Jacksonville fo r a numbe r o f yea r s afte r it s c reation in 1832 was s l ow, o n accou n t of the outbreak and deterren t operations of t h e e rninol e \ i\far and t h e panic o f T837, wh i c h d i co u raged th e norm a l fiow o f se ttl e r s fro m t h e Nor t h to t h e gateway of Florid a. But, by th e ea rl y '40s, t h e d readed India n s had b ee n s ubdu e d a nd , a lth o ugh th e Bank of Jackso n ville vvent unde r . the d i s h ea rt e nin g co ndi t i o n of t h e prev iou s few year s wer e in proces of adjustment.. T h e Jacksonville Co uri e r , which had bee n establis h ed in 1835, continu ed a p lu c k y fig h t for t h e prog r ess of the littl e town, a l beit the paper it self was in dire extrem ities. R elig i o u s de n o minati o n s a l so had e nt e r e d t h e fie ld to stay a nd were ce m enting forces l o k ee p the community toO"eth e r and inspire it with faith f o r b ette r tim es. It wa es timated that the popu lati o n of Jacksonvi ll e in i 840 was 350. a nd a l t h ough that see m s small in t h e lio-h t of the pre se nt, the figures r ep r ese n t a 250 pe r ce n t gain ove r th ose of the precedin g cl'ec-• Oche see, in M u scogee . mean s "Th e People.'" It was ituated on a bluff of th e same n a m e o n t h e Apalac hi co l a River whe r e t here had been a Semino l e tow n , in J ackso n Co unty, Florida. In 1 822, it had a p opulati on of 200.

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270 HISTOR Y OF FLORIDA a de. Columbu s Drew, r. , th e founder of the w ell known Dre w Press, State comptrolle r during r ec on struct ion time s, and one of Jac ksonville's l ea ding citizens, ta tes t h a t the population o f hi hom e town in 1842 was 450. But an addition of o ne hundre d pe pie in two yea r s was a lar ge gain in the earl y '40 . The e r ect i o n of new bui l dings and the a mbiti o n of the townsm e n in du ce d the Leai slature to extend the corporate limi ts of J ac k o n ville from tim e to time, and finally in February, i84 T , a new c h a rt e r repla ce d the o l d in strume nt , it s approval elating from the roth o f that month. T h e origi n al bound of 1832 were r esto r e d, but the nam e of the chief lo c al executive was changed fro m that of mayor t o int e nd a n t, a nd th e origina l four coun c ilm e n were incr ea eel to s ix. Chester B i s b ee. Jacob Gutter o n and Rodney Dorman were nam e d as in s p ectors o f e l ec ti o n , which w a to be h eld on th e seco nd l\fonday in March, r84I. The re s ul t o f the e l ect i on was to mak e th e follo wing as the personnel o f th e govern i ng body o f the town o f Jacksonville in 184 I : Dr. J ohn S. Murdoch, intendant; A. A. Canova, H . N . Gookin, H. E. Holm es, I I. }-I. I-foeg, H. W. Biggs and C. S. Emery, m e mber of the Co uncil; . A . a nova , treasure r ; F. B. Pappy, clerk ; C harl e H. Dibble, mars hal. Of tho se th u s m e nti o ned in th e re-ch artering of the town of J ac k so n ville, Rodney Dorman and H. H. Hoeg ub se quently became mayor s ( the nam e intendant was dropp e d s hortly before the opening of the C ivil war p e riod). Other incumb e n ts of the p os ition pri o r to l86 r w e r e F. C. Barrett, Oli ve r Wood. William G rothe, I I. D. Holland ( 185 2 -53), P hilip Frase r , ( 1855 56), an! F. I. Whea ton ( 1 856 -57).

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CHAPTER XVI JACKSO I VJLLE AS A MUNICIPALITY Jacksonville was tran formed fro m a town to a city, by legi s lative act approv e d January I3 , I859, and the h ead of the loca l gove rnm ent again b eca m e a m ayo r. T h e alderm an i c body was to cons i st of e ight m e mb e r , a nd may o r , a lderm e n , c it y m a rshal , city treasurer a nd clerk of t h e Co un cil were to be e l ec ted a nnuall y according to the regulations specifie d in th e tow n c h arte r of I84I . In the act o f r859 , und e r which Jac ksonville wa s first d es ign ated as a c ity, t h e follow in g appeare d as Section 5 : "Be it further enacted , That it s hall b e lawful for the owners, or pers o ns, h aving the lawful co ntrol o f n egroes, to permit and allow them to hire their own time, to r e nd e r labor and se r vice in sa id c ity, s ubj ect to s u ch rules and regula tions as m ay b e presc rib e d by th e mayor a nd a ld e rmen of s aid c ity; and wh e n any n eg ro h all b e permitted and allowed to hire his or her ow n time as aforesaid, it shall b e lawful fo r any person to hire s u ch negro." BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR A year of great r ev iv a l was I859. Not o nly was Jackso n v ill e incor po rated as a city. but gas works were built on East Bay Street near Hogans' C r eek; the fir st tel egraph lin e was co nstructed t o Ba ldwin , near the w este rn lin e o f Duva l o unty. wh e r e it co nne c t e d with th e C ub an a nd the n orthern sys t e ms, and the F l orida, Atl a ntic and G ulf Ce ntral Rai l road, was well unde r way to Lake C ity a nd we stern F l o rid a. In i854 , th e bu in e s portion o f Jackso nville had been swept by fire, and a lthough two years later the town had b ee n visited by anothe r de s tructive conAagration , th e c ity of I859 was still hopeful and growi ng. The o ld buildings co n ume d by th e fire s were r e placed with others of a more substantial c h a racter, a nd th e popu l atio n increased from I,045 in I850, to 2,0I8 in I86o . The Jac k so nville of r859-6o i s t hu d esc ribed by Judge Benjamin Harri so n , in an article c ontributed to th e Times-Union: "Fr o m an ea rly map o f th e t own b elie v e d to have be e n publi h eel about I859, Jacksonville. th e n in what wa known as East Florida. was bounded on the north a nd east by H og an s' Creek, on the we s t by a lin e drawn parallel to what i s n ow C lay Street a n d o n the south by the St. Johns River. With the excep tion of Pine Street. which was later changed to Main, n o n e of th e stree t s running approximat e ly