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National Speleological Society (Iowa Grotto)
National Speleological Society (Iowa Grotto)
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Intercom is a publication of the Iowa Grotto of the National Speleological Society, Inc., an internal organization of the National Speleological Society (NSS). The Iowa Grotto, is dedicated to the exploration, study, and conservation of caves.
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Volume 51, Number 6 (November - December 2015).
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I N T E R C O M Volume 51, Issue 6 November December 2015 Iowa Grotto P.O. Box 228 Iowa City, IA 52244 Grotto Website: Coldwater Cave Project website: Membership Dues : due January 1, $15.00 per year, includes INTERCOM and Hotline subscriptions. INTERCOM subscriptions only are $13.00 per year. The Iowa Grotto reserves the right to decline membership during or after a probationary period. Due Dates : for submission of material for publication in the next INTERCOM is February 1st. Send material for publication, e mail, disk or hard copy to: Editor and Typist: Scott Dankof 515 986 3219 410 SW Hickory Circle Grimes IA. 50111 E mail Coordinate photographs for publication in the INTERCOM with Scott Dankof, the INTERCOM editor. Cave Rescue : Contact the Kentucky Disaster and Emergency Services Central Dispatch at 502 564 7815 for cave emergencies only in the NCRC Central Region of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Iowa Grotto Meetings : are the fourth Wednesday of each month, third Wednesday in December at 7:30 p.m. in Room 125 or thereabouts of Trowbridge Hall on the campus of the University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Cover Photo: Formations in an unnamed Arkansas cave. Photo by Scott Dankof. National Speleological Society P. O. Box 228 Iowa City, Iowa 52244 Chairman Ed Klausner Vice Chairman/Treasurer John Donahue Secretary Elizabeth Miller Volume 51 Issue 6 ______________C O N T E N T S _____________ Meeting Minutes 104 Trip reports: Mud Spring Cave 104 Twin Sinks 105 Skull Cave 107 Huffman Cave 108 Mark Twain Natl. Forest 109 Ozark Natl. Scenic Riverways 110 Thanksgiving At Mammoth Cave 110 A Short Trip To Arkansas 111 Photo Gallery 112 103


__________CALENDAR___________ January Grotto Meeting Jan. 27nd Room 125, 7:30 pm, Trowbridge Hall. February Grotto Meeting Feb. 24th Room 125, 7:30 pm, Trowbridge Hall. March Grotto Meeting March 23rd Room 125, 7:30 pm, Trowbridge Hall. (slideshow at March meeting) April Grotto Meeting April 27th Room 125, 7:30 pm, Trowbridge Hall. Minutes of the Iowa Grotto Regular Meeting November 18, 2015 The regular meeting was called to order by Chairman Ed Klausner at 8:05 PM with 5 members present. Prior to the meeting, Elizabeth Miller presented an idea for an Iowa grotto Wiki for collecting information on Biology and geology of Iowa Caves. Ed Klausner showed slides from recent trips of grotto members. The minutes of the October meeting were approved as corrected. Trip reports: Peter Crocker visited house in the Eden Valley area. Signage indicated that visitation was not permitted due to vandalism. Discussion followed on whether or not Cedar County conservation would like anyone to do cleanup of the cave. Mike Lace reported on his trip to Arkansas with Mark Jones and Scott Dankof. They met former grotto member Mike Nelson there. Their trip included cave photography. Peter suggested a visit to the St. Louis City Museum which had good cave exhibits. Old Business: Ed reported on his presentation to the Iowa Association of Naturalists. The current slate of grotto officers were nominated and no other nominations were received so the current officers are to be retained in office. Ed also informed the meeting that he has reapplied for tax exempt status for the Grotto. New Business: None The meeting was adjourned at 8:30 PM. No December Grotto meeting _________Announcement_________ There will be a photo presentation at like to participate please send up to 10 of your best cave pictures in electronic form (JPG file) to Ed Klausner. Mud Spring Cave Mark Twain National Forest Howell County, Missouri October 31, 2015 By Mark Jones Scott House had invited a group of cavers to return to southern Missouri for the 2 nd Annual Lost Cabins Resort Cave Survey in the Mark Twain National Forest over the Halloween weekend. Arriving at Lost Cabins Resort on Friday evening were Scott, Matt Bumgardner, Jonathan Beard, Don Dunham, Rick Haley, Richard Young and me. The overcast skies and spitting rain limited our options for Saturday with Mud Spring Cave being the most desirable. This cave was surveyed years ago but lacked the detail that We hiked down the Ozark Trail a short distance from the parking area before angling off to the left to the dry streambed at the base of a bluffline. cated the five foot high by thirty feet wide opening of Mud Spring Cave perched five feet above Dry Creek. This obvious entrance quickly funneled down to an eight foot wide muddy stoopwalk over a carpet of twigs and branches. Scott, Don, Rick and Richard began surveying from the entrance while Jonathan led Matt and me to the very back of the cave with the intention of meeting in the middle. The ceiling was coated in an organic mud indicating that when the creek floods the water backs deep into the cave. Sloshing through the passage we stirred up the mud which emitted an odoriferous organic smell which made 104


section. The sewer passage dropped down to a hands and knees crawl before opening back into a stoopwalk. much hope for the roominess deeper in the cave but we were soon surprised to be walking. Almost immediately we found pipistrelles or tri colored bats ( Perimyotis subflavus ) scattered on the ceiling. On the floor were five pickerel frogs ( Rana palustris ) although three of them were dead. A hybrid long tailed salamander ( Eurycea longicauda longicauda )/cave salamander ( Eurycea lucifuga ) was seen on a mudbank that we photographed. Reaching a pile of breakdown we crawled over extensive raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) scat to a room that terminated at a wall of breakdown slabs. For our survey Jonathan kept book, Matt set stations, read backsights and took photographs and I read foresights and also took pictures. It was here that Matt pointed the spathite. This is an aragonite and calcite formation that resembles with a flared opening similar to a trumpet. this out than Jonathan found a corkscrew spathite. dozens of spathites interspersed with the soda straws. Numerous photos were taken of these rare formations. This last room was also loaded with cave fauna such as pipistrelle bats, long tailed salamanders, cave salamanders and larval salamanders. Peering into a rimstone pool I with a meal in his mouth! Several other rimstone pools harbored larval salamanders of varying size. From the back of the cave we worked team. The biggest challenge that we faced was a short bellycrawl over a breakdown pile. into the other survey party we had tallied 250 feet of cave while they had 580 feet for a total of 830 feet. Total cave time was five hours. With all of the cave fauna present in this cave continued monitoring would be very beneficial. A PowerPoint slide show was compiled from some of the photographs from this trip. Twin Sinks Mark Twain National Forest Howell County, Missouri November 1, 2015 By Mark Jones Scott House had Rick Haley, Brandon Vandalsem, Richard Young and me go to The Sinks in the Mark Twain National Forest in Howell County to locate and survey a couple of known caves within the westerly sink. These prominent high ridge separating the two. We had expected to be finished in the morning with plenty of time left to monitor other caves in the area, how wrong we were. From the road we hiked three hundred yards to the rim of the smaller of the two sinkholes to the west where the two caves were reportedly located. four hundred feet wide while the bigger sinkhole is eight hundred feet in diameter. According to the topographical map both sinks are between We staggered ourselves down the slope to comb a wider swath and pick up any other caves along the way. Camel Cricket Cave The first cave Rick Haley found was a small cave in a rocky outcropping just below the north rim of the sink. While Richard Young and I surveyed the cave Rick and Brandon Vandalsem continued to scout for other caves in the Mark Twain National Forest. For this survey Richard read instruments and took photographs and I kept book. A single shot from the dripline completed this shelter cave. The floor was covered in a layer of forest detritus that appeared to serve as bedding for some woodland creatures. Two camel crickets ( Ceuthophilus gracilipes ) on the ceiling gave the cave its name. 105


Thirty minutes was required to survey the twelve foot length of this karst feature. Door To Door Cave Thirty feet down and over from Camel Cricket Cave Rick Haley found another shelter cave. Rick and Brandon Vandalsem continued to scout for caves in the Mark Twain National Forest while Richard Young and I surveyed. For this survey Richard read instruments and took photographs and I kept book. A single shot from the dripline completed this shelter cave. The most notable feature of this cave was the two entrances separated by a four foot pillar. The floor was covered in a layer of forest detritus that appeared to serve as bedding for some woodland creatures. Several flies ( Diptera sp.) were seen buzzing around the entrance area. Thirty minutes was required to survey the thirteen foot length of this karst feature. Twin Sinks Cave #2 (HWL022) To Door Cave than Brandon Vandalsem had found another cave deeper in the sinkhole. Sliding down a steep slope eighty feet we reached a ten foot wide by thirteen foot high entrance that sloped up to a hands and knees crawl that disappeared around a corner. For this survey Brandon was on point and read backsights, Richard Young read foresights and I kept book and took photographs. Beyond an easy pinch the passage opened back into an easy hands and knees crawl until we reached a mud choke terminus. A swarm of mosquitoes greeted us in this crawlway and continued to bother us as we moved deeper into the cave. A lone pipistrelle or tri colored bat ( Perimyotis subflavus ) watched us from a ceiling perch. C amel crickets ( Ceuthophilus gracilipes ) and flies ( Diptera sp.) were found throughout the cave. Two hours were required to survey this ninety four foot cave. We had intended to call this cave Mosquito Cave but it was already named Twin Sinks Cave #2, one of the two known caves in the sink. Twin Sinks Cave #1 (HWL021) A forty feet climb above Twin Sinks Cave #2 took Brandon Vandalsem to a rock outcropping that hid Twin Sinks Cave #1. Brandon and Rick Haley decided to scout for caves in the larger sink over the ridge to the east while Richard Young and took photographs and I surveyed this small cave. For this survey Richard read instruments and I kept book. A single shot from the dripline completed this shelter cave. Thirty minutes was required to survey the seventeen foot length of this karst feature. This was the other known cave in the sink, Twin Sinks Cave #1. Walkingstick Cave Just as Richard White and I finished surveying Twin Sinks Cave #1 Rick Haley relayed to us over the walkie talkie that Brandon Vandalsem had a cave in the easterly sinkhole. Thirty feet down from the northern ridge top a small entrance in a rock outcropping opened into Walking Stick Cave in the Mark Twain National Forest. Brandon and Rick Haley continued to scout for more caves while Richard Young and I surveyed. For this survey Richard read instruments and took photographs and I kept book. A single shot from the dripline completed this shelter cave. Thirty minutes was required to survey the twelve foot length of this karst feature. We named this cave for a northern walkingstick ( Diapheromera femorata ) we saw on our hike. Omega Cave Forty feet down and over from Walkingstick Cave Brandon Vandalsem found another unknown cave. Brandon and Rick Haley continued to scout for caves while Richard Young and I surveyed. For this survey Richard read instruments and took photographs and 106


I kept book. A single shot from the dripline completed this cave. Popcorn formations covered the ceiling near the entrance area as well as several inactive soda straws and stalactites under a low, wide ledge off to the right. The most memorable aspect of this cave was the extensive Eastern woodrat ( Neotoma floridana ) scat in the back of the cave. Forty five minutes was required to survey this twenty five foot cave. Brandon named this cave after the omega shape of the passage. Cartridge Cave As we finished surveying Omega Cave Rick Haley called us on the walkie talkie informing us that Brandon Vandalsem had found yet another cave on the southern ridge! Brandon and Rick Haley continued to scout for caves while Richard Young and I surveyed. For this survey Richard read instruments and took photographs and I kept book. Richard found a 32 caliber brass cartridge near the entrance Numerous camel crickets ( Ceuthophilus gracilipes ) and flies ( Diptera sp.) were observed in this cave. Thirty minutes was required to survey the seventeen foot length of this karst feature. Octo Cave To complete our survey in the Twin Sinks in the Mark Twain National Forest, Brandon Vandalsem found the most interesting cave of the day just above Cartridge Cave. A line of entrances in rocky outcropping proved to be our most challenging survey of the day. For this survey Brandon set stations and read backsights, Richard Young read foresights and took photographs and I kept book. Rick Haley continued to scour the sinkhole for additional caves. A total of eight openings were found with five being humanly enterable and connected, one was a critter crawl and two were blind. All of the entrances were in a three foot band of rock and about three foot wide. A tight hands and knee crawl connected most of the entrances. Cave fauna observed included camel crickets ( Ceuthophilus gracilipes ) and flies ( Diptera sp.). The floors in the entrance areas were covered in forest detritus and animal scat indicating that the cave is used frequently by numerous woodland creatures. Two hours was required to survey this ninety one foot cave. Skull Cave Mark Twain National Forest Douglas County, Missouri November 2, 2015 By Mark Jones Since we had a big day planned on the river we left Lost Cabins Resort at 7:30 a.m. in the campground van with the canoes and kayaks loaded on a trailer bound for Hebron Landing. We were on the river just after 8:00 a.m. with great expectations of cave surveying. In the kayaks were Richard Young and Brandon Vandalsem, in a single man canoe Scott House and in the canoes were Sue Hagan and Mick Sutton, Don Dunham and Rick Haley and Jonathan Beard and me. We paddled down the North Fork River for two miles passing numerous enticing rock outcroppings in the high bluffs before passing into the Mark Twain National Forest. likely entrance to one of three known, but unsurveyed, caves. While Brandon and I scouted the upper bluffline for more caves Scott, Richard and Mick started to survey the shallow multiple entrance cave we first noticed. The others continued down the river in search of more caves. returned to assist with the survey. By this time Mick had completed his bio inventory and was off to the next cave leaving Scott to keep book, Richard to read instruments, and me to set stations. This cave had four entrances in less than forty feet that had a skull like appearance name. Unfortunately the cave was only ten feet deep with the only forma107


tions being a bit of popcorn scattered along the ceiling and walls and some long dead flowstone. Total cave time was forty five minutes. Huffman Cave (DOU092) Mark Twain National Forest Douglas County, Missouri November 2, 2015 By Mark Jones While Scott House, Richard Young and I were surveying Skull Cave the rest of the party (Jonathan Beard, Don Dunham, Sue Hagan, Rick Haley, Mick Sutton and Brandon Vandalsem) had bushwhacked downstream to Huffland Cave, our primary goal for the trip on our canoe trip down the North Fork River in the Mark Twain National Forest. The only information that was available indicated that it had a fifty foot wide mouth and went back at least forty feet. Everyone seemed long to knock this one off and be back on the water in search of bigger caves. Little did anyone realize what awaited us. Mick had taken Sue and Rick in to do a bio inventory while Jonathan led Don and Brandon to the back of the cave to survey out. the entrance in to tie into JonaOnce again Scott took notes and sketched, Richard read instruments and I set stations and reconnoitered. The first shot defined the entrance width at forty feet. With a why this cave would be impossible to miss from the river. The next shot took us thirty feet into the cave before taking a 90° turn to the right for another thirty feet. A hole overhead led to an upper level that would main passage. (or so we thought.) Sue joined us for a while and then opted to make her way out. The next shot transformed from easy walking to a thirty foot wide cherty crawl. A hundred feet of cherty crawl later we station. About this time Brandon returned to tell us that they were going to continue following the watercrawl and that we should take the upper level! It was at this point that we figured out that this was a substantial cave At station S1 we shot into the overhead passage through a four foot wide hole to begin mapping this section. Instead of dealing with a low, rocky watercrawl we would now be sliding along in an easy crawlway on slippery red mud. With seven miles of canoeing left after the survey we decided to finish off the short left hand passage before meeting up with the others. Numerous popcorn coated formations covered the ceiling in this area. Several peepholes in the floor connected to the watercrawl Off to the left were several bear beds wallowed out many years ago. Although the other survey team was ready to call it a day neither party had seen Mick and Rick who were still conducting a bio inventory. I volunteered to crawl down the other upper passage to find them while the rest of the group exited the cave and pack their gear. I had assumed they would Six hundred feet of crawling later I finally made contact. They had pushed another three hundred feet into a mudcrawl back down to the watercrawl in search of cave life. This cave is full of surprises that will require a lot more work in order to understand it. Total cave time was three hours. The bio vealed over twenty species present but I had only seen a pickerel frog ( Rana palustris ), a grotto salamander ( Eurycea spelaus ) and numerous aquatic isopods ( Caecidotea sp.). With the sun shining and temperatrip for the next three hours down the North Fork River. During one stretch of the river we counted six to tackle Huffman Cave. A PowerPoint 108


slide show was compiled from some of the photographs from this trip. Mark Twain National Forest Douglas County, Missouri November 3, 2015 By Mark Jones For our final trip of the 2 nd Annual Lost Cabins Resort Cave Survey in the Mark Twain National Forest we chose to survey and confirm some caves off the upper North Fork River. The highest priority was to survey and inventory two known caves so Scott House led the survey team of Don Dunham and Richard Young while Mick Sutton led Sue Hagan and Rick Haley on the bio inventory of Grassy Falls Cave and Robinson Hollow Cave. Meanwhile I would reconnoiter the bluffline toward Turnbull Cave to verify three cave locations. No Bull Cave From the valley floor I walked easterly hugging the southern ridge in search of No Bull Cave, a small cave that was marked on the topography map in the Mark Twain National Forest. Twenty feet up the hillside I followed a broken rock outcropping for a hundred feet finding only a few narrow overhangs before reaching a hole that ran back ten feet. I assumed that this critter shelter was No Bull Cave, a rather poor start to my assignment. Soon the entire ridge leveled off down to stream level. Crossing a shallow creek I turned my attention to the northern bluff that paralleled a well worn horse trail. I investigated numerous shadows in the rock outcroppings that produced nothing but disappointment until I found two foot wide by four foot high boxy entrance that offered some potential. I surprised an Eastern woodrat ( Neotoma floridana ) that scurried off into a crack. Unfortunately that was was only a small room created by a rockslide. Natural Bridge Cave Further down the trail in the Mark Twain National Forest I spied an opening fifteen feet up the hillside that proved to be Natural Bridge Cave. A three diameter tube curved around twenty five feet to pop out around the other side of the bluff. Eastern woodrat ( Neotoma floridana ) scat indicated that this cave is popular with these rodents. Popcorn formations scattered along the ceiling proved to be the only speleothems present. Photographs of the cave and the bluff were taken for the cave files. Turnbull Annex Cave A hundred feet down from Natural Bridge Cave in the Mark Twain National Forest I saw the ten foot diameter entrance to Turnbull Annex Cave just ten feet above the streambed. dent in the entrance area although it appears that the extensive tree roots foiled several digs. The passage soon degrades into a winding easy hands and knees crawl with an undulating ceiling over a sticky mud floor. I crawled for two hundred feet before turning around although the passage continued. This should be a fun cave to survey. Cave fauna noted included camel crickets ( Ceuthophilus gracilipes ) and flies ( Diptera sp.). Once again photographs were taken both inside and outside the cave. Total cave time was twenty minutes. Turnbull Cave Just around the corner I found to find since it has a significant stream flowing from a hundred foot wide by six foot high entrance. Guarding the door in the middle of the entrance stood a huge sentinel boulder. I stoopwalked a hundred feet before being stymied by wall to wall water. prepared to submerge my boots I re109


treated to the entrance where I took several photographs. With a survey length of over 2,700 feet this would be an interesting cave to explore. Total cave time was fifteen minutes. Ozark National Scenic Riverways Wallace Cave (SHN032) Shannon County, Missouri November 5, 6 & 7, 2015 By Mark Jones Before heading back to Illinois I assisted Jim Cooley in gating Wallace Cave (SHN032) in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways just uphill from The first task was to conduct an archeological study of the entrance area before the gating could commence. The roomy entrance area served as a cellar for the previous owner and may have been used before that. Scott House was in charge of this activity with Don Dunham, Rick Haley, Joe Williams, Richard Young and me assisting along with Allison Young, an archeologist from the National Park Service. Allison and Richard scanned the tailings while the rest of us excavated the site. Three hours were spent preparmetal anti digging screen. Scott and I wandered upstream to the concrete dam to do a quick bio inventory. We found eight pickerel frogs ( Rana palustris ) and four cave salamanders ( Eurycea lucifuga ). Once the archeological study was completed everyone left except Joe and me who stayed behind for the actual gating. Meanwhile the weather had turned sour with an intermittent rain falling. In the middle of the afternoon Jim Cooley, Brenda Goodnight and Dennis Novicky showed up with the gating gear. During a break in the precipitation we were able to set up the oxy acetylene cutting station and begin fabricating the steel for the frame. By evening we had installed the screen and clamped the uprights in place. Brenda had prepared a delicious meal for us and continued to feed us for next three days. We started strong on the second day with Jay Bridgewater joining us. I worked at the oxy acetylene station while Jay, Joe and Dennis welded. Several times Jay returned to cut special pieces needed for the gate. After eight hours we were closing in on completing the gate but it would require a couple of hours in the morning to finish the project. The final day started at 8:00 a.m. when Ken Grush and I loaded several sheets of expanded metal needed to repair the gate at Medlock Cave (SHN006). By the time we had arrived at Wallace Cave several additional cavers had us to help with the project. It required two hours to finish cleaning up and loading the trucks for our final project for the weekend. Joe, Jay and I took the opportunity the rest of the party packed the remaining gear. I was excited to gaze down a hundred feet to the massive lake below that was explored by a Cave Research Foundation (C.R.F.) exploration led by Dan Lamping earlier this fall. Everyone should take the opportunity to stroll down the boardwalk to catch a glimpse from the overlook. By early afternoon we had arrived at a sandbar on the Current River downstream of Medlock Cave. To shuttle the gear up to the cave we paddled two canoes back and forth with the generator, welder, tools, expanded metal and all the rest of the steel. A total of four hours was spent retrofitting the gate to protect this important gray bat ( Myotis grisescens ) maternity colony. Thanksgiving at Mammoth Cave By Ed Klausner tended the Thanksgiving CRF expedition at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. I always like this expedition as there are three days of caving, although caving on Thanksgiving day is short 110


111 so everyone could be back for the feast. On the first day, I took my daughter, Hannah, plus Fred Wilkinson (Canada) and Keely Owens (Maryland) to Roppel Cave. We went down the ladder series at the Weller Entrance, then south to Roppel Junction, east along Arlie Way, backtracked at a lower level (Lower Level Arlie Way) to Roberta Pass then down the climb to Black Canyon and finally to Goblin Trail. Goblin is the drain for Boston Domes at the east end of Goblin (we were at the west end.) Keely had sketched in West Virginia and other areas in the east, but not at Mammoth. I worked with her to get the sketching to the local standards. Hannah read instrument and Fred was Keely was quite a good sketcher. Actually, I got pretty bored but fortunately, it was Thanksgiving and therefore a short day. On the way out, we went to the upper level of Boston Domes and climbed down to the west end of Goblin Trail. The next day, I took Elizabeth Miller, Mary Schubert (Kentucky works for the park) and Fred Wilkinson to Seven Sisters Trail. This is reached by following the same route as yesterday, except that just before Roberta Pass, we turned left, through a dome called the Pleiades, and then climbed down to the beginning of Seven Sisters Trail. There were several leads along Seven Sisters Trail and we surveyed a few very tight ones. We still had time, so we went to the end of what was surveyed yesterday in Goblin and continued that until we ran out of time. On the last day of the expedition, I took a break from surveying to take my grandson, Jose, to Dogwood Cave in the morning. Dogwood is quite close to where we stay at the CRF property in Hamilton Valley and we walked there. Dogwood is a section of trunk passage belonging to a CRF member and neighbor of the CRF property. In the afternoon, we went to Adwell Cave on the CRF property. It is also a section of trunk passage with breakdown blocking each end and a sinkhole entrance near one of the ends. The weather was mostly beautiful and very mild for late November. Hopefully, Hannah and Jose will join us for more trips to Mammoth. A Short Trip to Arkansas December 13 17, 2015 By Ed Klausner Arkansas that was planned, but did manage to get in part of it. We had cave monitoring and cave survey to do in some of the caves in Buffalo National River. Our first objective was a cave near the Little Buffalo that needed both survey and monitoring. Dave West, Karen Willmes, Mark Jones, Blake Stone and I set off the day after a fairly heavy rain. We expected the cave to be wet (it was), but the trails were also wet. We encountered streams across the trail that were not on the map as they were just runoff from the heavy rain. It took about 2 hours to hike to and locate the objective. Blake did inventory while the rest of us started the survey. After a while, Blake informed us that he ran into a large number of bats. There were pips along with a Northern Long Eared bat. We stopped the survey and did a quick count of bats in the room we almost had the survey to and found 120 pips. The hike back was much quicker as we knew the route. The next day, Mike Nelson, Blake and I headed off to an area east of Compton to survey a cluster of three caves. Two were shelters and the other a talus cave that was a large boulder that was cracked in several places creating passages. The talus cave was unusual in that it had far more life than expected. We found rat droppings, bones (probably wood rat), mushrooms, snails, crickets, a millipede and a long and unusual looking


112 caved in a rock with as many passages. Larval salamander in Mud Spring Cave with a meal in his mouth. Photo by Mark Jones. Water drops and formations in Arkansas. Photo by Ed Klausner. Photo Gallery


113 Formations in an unnamed Arkansas cave. Photo by Scott Dankof. Mark Jones backlighting a waterfall in a cave near the Little Buffalo River, Arkansas. Photo by Ed Klausner.


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