Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and implications for the context of ornaments and human remains within the Châtelperronian


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Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and implications for the context of ornaments and human remains within the Châtelperronian
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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Creator:
Higham, Thomas
Jacobi, Roger
Julien, Michèle
David, Francine
Basell, Laura
Wood, Rachel
Davies, William
Ramsey, Christopher Bronk
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National Academy of Sciences
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Neanderthals ( lcsh )
Chatelperronien culture ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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Europe -- France -- Arcy-sur-Cure

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There is extensive debate concerning the cognitive and behavioral adaptation of Neanderthals, especially in the period when the earliest anatomically modern humans dispersed into Western Europe, around 35,000–40,000 B.P. The site of the Grotte du Renne (at Arcy-sur-Cure) is of great importance because it provides the most persuasive evidence for behavioral complexity among Neanderthals. A range of ornaments and tools usually associated with modern human industries, such as the Aurignacian, were excavated from three of the Châtelperronian levels at the site, along with Neanderthal fossil remains (mainly teeth). This extremely rare occurrence has been taken to suggest that Neanderthals were the creators of these items. Whether Neanderthals independently achieved this level of behavioral complexity and whether this was culturally transmitted or mimicked via incoming modern humans has been contentious. At the heart of this discussion lies an assumption regarding the integrity of the excavated remains. One means of testing this is by radiocarbon dating; however, until recently, our ability to generate both accurate and precise results for this period has been compromised. A series of 31 accelerator mass spectrometry ultrafiltered dates on bones, antlers, artifacts, and teeth from six key archaeological levels shows an unexpected degree of variation. This suggests that some mixing of material may have occurred, which implies a more complex depositional history at the site and makes it difficult to be confident about the association of artifacts with human remains in the Châtelperronian levels.
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Volume 107, Issue 47
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6 p.

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ChronologyoftheGrotteduRenne(France)and implicationsforthecontextofornamentsand humanremainswithintheChâtelperronian ThomasHigham a,1 ,RogerJacobi b,c,2 ,MichèleJulien d ,FrancineDavid d ,LauraBasell a ,RachelWood a ,WilliamDavies e , andChristopherBronkRamsey a a OxfordRadiocarbonAcceleratorUnit,ResearchLaboratoryforArchaeologyandtheHistoryofArt,UniversityofOxford,OxfordOX13QY,UnitedKingd om; b BritishMuseum,FranksHouse,LondonN15QJ,UnitedKingdom; c NaturalHistoryMuseum,LondonSW75BD,UnitedKindom; d ArchéologiesetSciencesde L ’ Antiquité,UnitéMixtedeRecherche7041,CentreNationaldelaRechercheScienti que,92023Nanterre,France;and e CentrefortheArchaeologyofHuman Origins,DepartmentofArchaeology,UniversityofSouthampton,SouthamptonSO171BF,UnitedKingdom EditedbyRichardG.Klein,StanfordUniversity,Stanford,CA,andapprovedSeptember13,2010(receivedforreviewJune12,2010) Thereisextensivedebateconcerningthecognitiveandbehavioral adaptationofNeanderthals,especiallyintheperiodwhenthe earliestanatomicallymodernhumansdispersedintoWestern Europe,around35,000 – 40,000B.P.ThesiteoftheGrotteduRenne (atArcy-sur-Cure)isofgreatimportancebecauseitprovidesthe mostpersuasiveevidenceforbehavioralcomplexityamongNeanderthals.Arangeofornamentsandtoolsusuallyassociatedwith modernhumanindustries,suchastheAurignacian,wereexcavated fromthreeoftheChâtelperronianlevelsatthesite,alongwith Neanderthalfossilremains(mainlyteeth).ThisextremelyrareoccurrencehasbeentakentosuggestthatNeanderthalswerethecreatorsoftheseitems.WhetherNeanderthalsindependentlyachieved thislevelofbehavioralcomplexityandwhetherthiswasculturally transmittedormimickedviaincomingmodernhumanshasbeen contentious.Attheheartofthisdiscussionliesanassumptionregardingtheintegrityoftheexcavatedremains.Onemeansoftestingthisisbyradiocarbondating;however,untilrecently,ourability togeneratebothaccurateandpreciseresultsforthisperiodhas beencompromised.Aseriesof31acceleratormassspectrometry ultra ltereddatesonbones,antlers,artifacts,andteethfromsix keyarchaeologicallevelsshowsanunexpecteddegreeofvariation. Thissuggeststhatsomemixingofmaterialmayhaveoccurred, whichimpliesamorecomplexdepositionalhistoryatthesiteand makesitdif culttobecon dentabouttheassociationofartifacts withhumanremainsintheChâtelperronianlevels. Aurignacian | radiocarbondating | ultra ltration | Neandertal | Mousterian T heFrenchsiteoftheGrotteduRenneatArcy-sur-Cure (Yonne)iscriticaltodiscussionsregardingthenatureofthe transitionfromtheMiddletoUpperPaleolithicinEuropeandthe interactionbetweenNeanderthalsandanatomicallymodern humans(AMH)intheperiodleadinguptoNeanderthalextinction.Theremainsofpersonalornaments,rings,piercedanimal teeth,andivorypendantshavebeenexcavatedfromtheChâtelperronianlevelsatthissite(1)(Fig.1).Thisis,withtheexceptionofthepoorlydocumentedsiteofQuinçay,aunique association.Thepresenceof29Neanderthalteethandatemporal bonehasaddedsupporttotheassociationoftheChâtelperronian withNeanderthals(1 – 4),alinkalsodocumentedattheFrenchsite ofSt.Césaire(Charente-Maritime)in1979(5). Personalornamentshaveoftenbeenassociatedwiththe beginningsofsymbolic “ modern ” humanbehavior(6,7).The earliestevidenceforsuchactivityhasbeenlinkedwithAMHin southernAfrica,theLevant,andnorthwesternAfricafrom 75,000 – 90,000B.P.(7,8)orolder,despitefewassociatedfossil hominidremains.InEurope,thepresenceofpersonalornaments isdocumentedlaterinAurignacianhorizons(9).Thisindustryis oftenlinkedwiththeinitialdispersalofAMHintoEuropearound 35,000 – 40,000B.P.,albeit,again,withscanthumanfossilevidence (6).ThediscoveryofornamentsinNeanderthalcontextsatthe GrotteduRenne(Fig.1)hasbeenexplainedasre ectingaphase ofacculturation,whenNeanderthalsinFrancecopiedormimickedthebehaviorofincomingAMHduringaperiodofcontemporaneitybeforetheirextinction(10).Analternativemodel, however,positstheindependentlocalizeddevelopmentofcomplexsymbolicbehaviorbyNeanderthalsinWesternEuropebefore thearrivalofAMH(2,11).MaterialfromtheGrotteduRenneis attheverycenterofthesemodels. TwoimportantvariablescontributetoestablishingtherelationshipbetweentheChâtelperronianandAurignacian:stratigraphic contextandareliablechronometricframework.Althoughthesecondvariablehasbeenalmostcompletelylacking,stratigraphicevidencesuggeststhattheChâtelperronianisalwaysfoundbeneath Proto-orEarlyAurignacianarchaeologicalhorizons(albeitwith somedebatedinstancesofpurported “ interstrati cation ” between thetwo)(12 – 14).Establishingasubstantiallyearlierdateforthe Châtelperronianwouldprovidestrongsupportforindependent NeanderthaldevelopmentofsomeaspectsofmodernbehaviorbeforethearrivalofmodernhumansinWesternEurope.Thereverse, oramoreorlesscontemporaneousoccurrenceofthetwo,would favoranacculturationmodelonthebasisofparsimony,becausethe appearanceofsymbolicbehavioramongNeanderthalsatprecisely thesametimeasthearrivalofmodernhumanswouldamountto whatMellars(6,10)hastermed “ animpossiblecoincidence. ” TheGrotteduRenneSite TheGrotteduRennesequencecomprises15archaeologicallevels (labeledItoXV,fromtoptobase),whichcoveradepthofabout 4m(15).LevelsVandVIcontainaGravettiantechnology,and belowthis,inlevelVII,isaProto-Aurignacianindustrysimilarto thatfoundatsitesontheMediterraneancoastsuchasRiparo Mochi(Italy)andthesouthernFrancesitesofIsturitz,EsquichoGrapaou,andLaLaouza(16).DirectlybelowtheProto-AurignacianlevelarethreeChâtelperronianlevels(VIII,IX,andX)and beneaththeseareMousterianhorizons.OftheChâtelperronian levels,levelXassumesgreatestimportance,becausethemajority (25of40)oftheornamentsandNeanderthalhumanremains co-occurinthislevel(17).Previousradiocarbondatingatthesite Authorcontributions:T.H.,R.J.,M.J.,F.D.,andC.B.R.designedresearch;T.H.,R.J.,M.J.,F.D., L.B.,R.W.,andW.D.performedresearch;R.W.contributednewreagents/analytictools; T.H.,R.J.,L.B.,R.W.,W.D.,andC.B.R.analyzeddata;andT.H.andR.J.wrotethepaper. Theauthorsdeclarenocon ictofinterest. ThisarticleisaPNASDirectSubmission. SeeCommentaryonpage20147. 1 Towhomcorrespondenceshouldbeaddressed.E-mail:thomas.higham@rlaha.ox.ac.uk. 2 DeceasedDecember9,2009. Thisarticlecontainssupportinginformationonlineat www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10. 1073/pnas.1007963107/-/DCSupplemental . 20234 – 20239 | PNAS | November23,2010 | vol.107 | no.47www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1007963107

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hasresultedinawiderangeofagescovering28,000 – 45,000B.P., withlittlestratigraphicconsistency(ref.15, Fig.S1 ,and TablesS1 and S2 ).Questionsremainoverwhichofthesedatesareaccurate, andwhetherthosethatappearaberrantaresoforreasonsof samplecontaminationorpostdepositionalmixingofmaterial(a briefanalysisofthesedeterminationsisofferedin SIText ).Thishas resultedinconfusionoverthepreciseageoftheChâtelperronianat thissite. Methods Clearly,itisimportanttodemonstratestratigraphicintegrityinanyarchaeologicalcontext.Oneusefulwaytodothisiswithaseriesofwell-selected radiocarbondatesfromthroughoutasuccessionofarchaeologicalstrata. Variationintheresultsoutsidethatexpectedstatisticallymightbeheldto heraldproblemswiththesequence,whereasthereversewouldimprove con denceinitsintegrity.Experiencehasshownthattoinvestigatethe chronologyofsitesdatingtothePaleolithicproperly,onerequiresalarge seriesofsamples.Wethereforetooksamplesforradiocarbondatingfrom59 piecesofhumanlymodi edmaterialfromtheGrotteduRenne,includingcutmarkedbones,horseteethsmashedbyhumans,bonepointsorawls,ornamentsmadeofanimalteeth,andmammothivorytusksinterpretedaselementsofstructures(Table1and TableS3 ).ThesecamefromlevelsVtoXIIand wereselectedasfaraspossibletoavoidareasofsuspecteddisturbanceand tofocusonareaswherethearchaeologicaldepositswereattheirthickest. Sampleswerescreened.Thoseacceptableonthebasisof%Nmeasurements (indicatingthepresenceofprotein)werepreparedforacceleratormass spectrometrydatingusingacollagenextractionmethodincorporatingthe Oxfordultra ltrationprotocol(18,19)( SIMethods and TableS3 ). Thesamplesproducedawiderangeofages(Table2and Fig.S2 ).We haveusedBayesianmodelingtoidentifyoutliersandanalyzetheoverall sequence(Fig.2)employingOxCal4.1software(20)andtheINTCAL09calibrationcurve(21).ThebasisoftheBayesianmethodisoutlinedinseveral publicationstowhichthereaderisreferred(22 – 25).Itallowsarchaeological information,intheformofstratigraphicdata,tobecombinedwithradiocarbonlikelihooddata.Thisso-called “ prior ” information,whenincorporatedmathematicallywiththeradiocarbonlikelihoodsandanalyzedusing MarkovChainMonteCarlo(MCMC)simulationmethods,actstoproduce probabilitydistributionsknownasposteriors.Highposteriorprobabilities mathematicallysupportthefactthatsetsofcalibrateddatesagreewiththe priordataandconstraintsimposed.TheBayesianmodelingwasundertaken ontheassumptionthatthedatedartifactscamefromthearchaeological levelsidenti edatthetimeofexcavationandhadnotbeensubjectto movementortaphonomicin uences.Thisrelativeinformationformsthe basisofthepriorsintheBayesianmodel.Thepriorscanhaveasigni cant effectontheposteriordistributions;thus,theymustbeusedjudiciously. We rsttestedthe tofindividualradiocarbonlikelihoodsthroughusing overallagreementindicesforeachofaseriesofBayesianmodels(24).Thiswas appliedtoenableanobjectiveassessmentoftheprobabilityassociatedwith individualmeasurementsbeingoutliersinthestratigraphicsequence.Potentiallyerroneousdeterminationswithinthesequencecanbeexplicitlyquanti ed, ratherthanremaininghidden.Iftheposteriorprobability(termedanagreementindex)is > 60%,thereisagoodagreementbetweenthepriorandposterior distributions,butvalues < 60%implythereverseistrueandinviteustoconsider potentialproblemswithradiocarbonlikelihoodsorpriorsinthemodel. Fig.1. Theremainsofsomeofthepersonalornaments, awls,piercedanimalteeth,andivorypendantsthathave beenexcavatedfromtheChâtelperronianlevelsatthissite. Xa/cB9no.3657( A );XIIA12sn,datedOxA-21594:37 ± 1 kaBP( B );Xb2W9sn,datedOxA-21592:36,200 ± 1,100B.P. ( C );XaZ12no.1421,datedOxA-21557:38,100 ± 1,300B.P. ( D );Xb1Z11no.720,datedOxA-21590:21,150 ± 160B.P.( E ); XaY11no.5102(foxcaninewithgroove)( F );XbZ14no.96 (perforatedfoxcanine)( G );Xa/cA/Z11(bovidincisorwith groove)( H );XaA11no.3805(marmotincisorwithgroove) ( I );XaZ13sn(perforatedreindeerphalange)( J );andXbY13 no.3899( Rhynchonella sp.fossilwithgroove)( K ).[Image courtesyofM.Vanhaeren(CentreNationaldelaRecherche Scienti que,Nanterre,France).] Highametal. PNAS | November23,2010 | vol.107 | no.47 | 20235 ANTHROPOLOGY SEECOMMENTARY

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The rstmodelfailedtoyieldanyresultsbecauseofthewidedegreeof variationintheradiocarbonlikelihoods;therefore,itwasnotpossibleto assessagreement.Anulldistributionwasproduced.Thetwoobviousoutliers inlevelXwerethereforeremoved(OxA-21590andOxA-X-2222-21).Subsequently,themodelproducedposteriorresultsbutanoverallagreement indexofonly0.2%.Again,thisisattributabletothesubstantialvariationinthe dataset.Twodeterminationsyieldedagreementindicesofabout0%;OxA21683andOxA-21575.OxA-21594producedanagreementindexof3.9%,and OxA-21574producedanagreementindexof3.0%.Thesedeterminationswere thereforeremovedinthesubsequentanalysis.Inaddition,therewereseveral otherresultswithlowindices:OxA-21573,OxA-X-2279-45,OxA-X-2279-44, OxA-21591,OxA-21595,andOxA-21577.Thesewereall < 60%.(Itshouldtobe notedthatOxA-X-2279-44wascloseenoughtothelimitoftheINTCAL09 curvetobealmostoutofrange).Thethirditerationofthemodelwasthen runwithoutthe rstfourdeterminationsinit,andthisproducedanotherlow overallagreementmodelof4.8%,withOxA-21683(0.3%),OxA-21593 (39.7%),OxA-21591(12.8%),OxA-21577(13.1%),andOxA-21595(13.9%)all yieldingindices < 60%again.WiththeexceptionofOxA-21593,thesewere removedinthenextanalysis.Thisresultedinamodelwithacceptable agreementof85.3%.Takentogether,therefore,approximatelyone-thirdof thedeterminationsusingthismethodareinpooroverallagreementwith themodeling. Wealsotestedthesequenceandmodelusinganoutlierdetectionapproach (25).Thisproducedsimilarresults.Theadvantageofoutlierdetectionisthat allthedatacanbeincluded;however,forcertainvaluesthoughttobe problematic,ahigherprioroutlierprobabilitycanbeassigned.Signi cant outliersareeffectivelydown-weightedinthesubsequentmodel.Toavoid biasinthemodel,weusedat-typeoutliermodelwithaprobabilityof0.05 foreachvalue(withtheexceptionofoneoftheawlsdatedfromlevelXII, whichhasbeensuspectedofbeingintrusivetothatlevel)inthemodel.This outliermodelisthebestsuited,becauseaproportionofthesampleswere expectedtobeoutofcontext,giventheageoftheexcavationandpossible cryoturbation/depositionalin uences.Theseanalysesshowedthatnineof thedeterminationswereoutliers( SIMethods and TableS4 )andessentially con rmtheresultsoftheagreementindicesdescribedabove.The nalage modelgeneratedusingoutlieranalysismethodsisshowninFig.2. Discussion Our vedatesfromtheAurignacianlevelVIIprovideameanage of34,800 ± 300B.P.andarebroadlyconsistentwithotherdateswe haveobtainedfromEuropeansiteswithasimilarlithicindustry. Therefore,materialfrombelowlevelVIIoughttobeolderthanor contemporarywiththeagedeterminedforthislevelandnot younger.ManyofthedatesfrombelowlevelVIIare,however,too youngfortheirexpectedrelativechronostratigraphicposition. WithintheChâtelperronianlevels,theradiocarbonagesrange from 21,000 – 49,000B.P..ThemostseriousproblemsareassociatedwiththelowestChâtelperronianlevel(X),wheremorethan one-thirdoftheradiocarbonagesarestatisticaloutliers.Thereare threedatesoncut-markedbonesfromthislevelthataredirectly comparableinagetothosefromtheProto-Aurignacianlevel (OxA-21577,OxA-21591,andOxA-21593,andprobablyalsoOxA21592,adatefromanawl;Fig.1 C and TableS3 ).Thisimpliesthe presenceofAurignacian-agedmaterialintheChâtelperronian levels.IntheuppermostChâtelperronianlevel(VIII),thereare twodatesthatareclosetotheagesobtainedfromlevelVII.Inlevel IX,aresultof32,100 ± 550B.P.wasobtainedonacut-marked reindeerastragalus.Thisisclearlytooyoungforitscontext.Two artifacts(OxA-21590,aboneawl,andOxA-X-2222-21,a retouchoir )fromlevelXproducedsigni cantlyyoungerdates,consistentwithProto-SolutreanandGravettianages,bothofwhichare Table1.SamplesfromtheGrotteduRennethatfailedtoproduceradiocarbonresults Lab.P.no.MaterialSpeciesSamplecode,context,anddescriptionStatus 18989BoneIndeter.Arcy58RVIID12106 retouchoir onmetapodialfragmentNocollagen 18992Bone Equusferus Arcy61RXb1bD91166ribwithochresurface andregularincisions* Lowcollagen 19739BoneIndeter.largecarnivore withcutmarks Arcy58RVID10585,speciesindeter.Lowcollagen NATooth Crocutacrocuta RVIIIC6448y59pendantmadefromhyaena caninewith ” rainurage ” Failedon%N(0.5%) NABoneIndeter.Arcy58VIIB8889bone lissoir (16, gure16.5)Failedon%N(0.16%) NABone E.ferus Arcy1961RXb1Z1172943awlofhorse lateralmetapodial Nocollagendespite1.45%N 19740BoneIndeter.Arcy58RVIIC5,re ttingbasalfragmentof anawl,1.6%N,nocollagen Nocollagendespite1.6%N 19745Bone Rangifertarandus ArcyRVIIcB14607awlmadefromfragment ofanteriorfaceofmetatarsal(ref.33, gure134:2) Lowcollagen 19746Bone E.ferus ArcyRVIIIB1220(42)awlmadeonlateral metapodial(1.7%N). Lowcollagen 19754Ivory Mammuthus primigenius RXb1c/D11mammothtuskfragmentNocollagen 19756Ivory R.tarandus Arcy61RXb1cC9(463)rightscaphoidwithcutmarksLowcollagen 19759Ivory M.primigenius Arcy61RXb2Z11tuskfragmentNocollagen 19763Bone R.tarandus Arcy1963RXcC81822awlmadefromportionof areindeermetapodial Toolowcollagendespite1.76%N 19766Bone R.tarandus ArcyR56XIIC8proximalfemur(right?)withcutmarksNocollagen 22143Tooth E.ferus ArcyIXsmashedhorsetoothC/Natomicratio=3.9,failed 22145Tooth E.ferus ArcyIXsmashedhorsetoothC/Natomicratio=6.3,failed NABone C.crocuta ArcyRxaA13(4)hyaenacut rstphalange3.1%Nbutnotdatedbecause toosmall NABone C.crocuta ArcyRx(Xb)Z13hyaenacut rstphalangeFailedon%N(0.16%) NABone C.crocuta Arcy62XB2A11437hyaenacut rstphalange3.0%N,notdatedbecause sampleofbonetoosmall For%Nsamples,weconsideredabonetobeworthpretreatingifits%Nwas > 0.76%.Ifthevalueislowerthanthis,theboneisfailed.Sampleswithnoorlow collageninthestatuscolumnweretreatedattheOxfordRadiocarbonAcceleratorUnitbutproducedaninsuf cient,orno,yieldofcollagen.Twosamplesthat hadC/Natomicratiossigni cantlyover > 3.5,ourusualcutoffforacceptability,producedresultsandwerefailed.Indet.,indeterminate;NA,notapplicable. *Treatedwithparaf nand/orRhodopasM60and/orpolymul. 20236 | www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1007963107 Highametal.

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knownfromtheArcy-sur-Curecomplexofsites,albeit,forthe former,fromearlierexcavations(26).TheageforOxA-X-2222-21 isidenticaltothetwoavailabledeterminationsfromlevelV,the GravettianlevelatArcy.Thesetwosampleshadlowcollagen yieldsandsurfaceconsolidationvisibleatthetimetheywere sampled,butFouriertransforminfraredanalysisshowsthatthisis Poly-VinylAcetate(PVA)inthecaseoftheveryyoungsample (OxA-21590),whichissolubleinthepretreatmentchemistrieswe appliedand,asa 14 C-freematerial,wouldnotacttomaketheages youngerthanexpectedwereittoremainunremoved.Ourconclusionisthatitwasavoidedandremovedby( i )carefulsampling ofthebonebeforedatingand( ii )theapplicationofasolventextractionsequencedesignedtomobilizethismaterialbeforedating. AnothersamplefromtheChâtelperronianlevelsproduced amucholderagethanexpected.Asmashedhorsetoothfrom levelXgavearesultof48,700 ± 3,600B.P.(OxA-X-2279-44) Table2.RadiocarbondeterminationsfromtheGrotteduRenne,Arcy-sur-Cure OxAno. 14 CageB.P.Used,mgYield,mg%Yield%C 13 C, ‰ C/Natomic ratio LevelV OxA-21567*23,070 ± 210456.44.71.041.6 Š 20.13.3 OxA-21568*23,180 ± 210572.74.50.842.5 Š 18.73.4 LevelVI OxA-X-2279-1234,850 ± 6001,0106.10.644.6 Š 21.03.3 LevelVII OxA-2168235,000 ± 6501,1307.20.644.1 Š 21.13.3 OxA-21569*36,500 ± 1,300479.54.30.941.3 Š 19.73.2 OxA-21570*34,600 ± 800236.53.41.442.4 Š 19.13.2 OxA-21571*34,050 ± 750491.66.61.341.1 Š 18.73.2 OxA-21572*34,600 ± 750528.910.82.042.7 Š 18.63.3 LevelVIII OxA-X-2279-1435,450 ± 7501,3104.10.342.2 Š 20.23.3 OxA-2168340,000 ± 1,2009907.30.744.5 Š 21.03.3 OxA-21573*36,800 ± 1,000507.16.91.441.6 Š 19.23.2 LevelIX OxA-21574*38,800 ± 1,300551.213.22.442.1 Š 19.03.2 OxA-21575*32,100 ± 550664.311.61.742.5 Š 19.03.2 LevelX OxA-21565*37,900 ± 90060012.32.140.0 Š 20.73.2 OxA-21557*38,100 ± 1,3002402.71.141.1 Š 20.63.3 OxA-21576*40,800 ± 1,700529.15.61.142.2 Š 18.43.2 OxA-X-2222-21*23,120 ± 1905063.80.843.4 Š 20.23.6 OxA-21577*34,650 ± 800636.25.40.841.8 Š 19.43.2 OxA-X-2226-7*38,500 ± 1,300620.13.20.544.3 Š 19.53.7 OxA-21590*21,150 ± 160470.35.71.245.2 Š 20.73.2 OxA-21591*34,750 ± 750620.29.91.644.4 Š 18.93.3 OxA-21592*36,200 ± 1,100213.52.31.143.1 Š 19.43.4 OxA-21593*35,300 ± 900440.37.91.842.1 Š 18.83.3 OxA-X-2226-12*41,500 ± 1,900458.33.00.743.1 Š 18.33.3 OxA-X-2226-13*39,000 ± 1,400451.23.40.844.2 Š 18.63.3 OxA-X-2279-1840,600 ± 1,3001,1005.30.543.7 Š 21.23.2 OxA-X-2279-44*48,700 ± 3,6009705.10.537.3 Š 20.93.3 OxA-X-2279-45*40,900 ± 1,3001,0206.80.737.4 Š 20.43.3 OxA-X-2279-46*38,700 ± 1,0001,0006.50.741.6 Š 20.43.3 LevelXII OxA-21594*37,000 ± 1,000399.66.91.744.6 Š 19.03.3 OxA-21595*38,200 ± 1,200418.75.91.442.5 Š 20.73.3 Allareultra lteredgelatindeterminations.Stableisotoperatiosareexpressedin ‰ relativetoViennaPee-Dee Belemnite(vPDB).Massspectrometricprecisionis ± 0.2 ‰ .Theweightusedistheamountofbonepretreated,and theyieldrepresentstheweightofgelatinorultra lteredgelatininmilligrams.%Yieldisthewt%collagen,which, ideally,shouldnotbe < 1wt%attheOxfordRadiocarbonAcceleratorUnit(ORAU).Thisistheamountofcollagen extractedasapercentageofthestartingweight.Collagenisnotwellpreservedatthesite.%Cisthecarbon presentinthecombustedgelatin.Forultra lteredgelatin,thisaverages41.0 ± 2%.C/Nistheatomicratioof carbontonitrogen.AttheORAU,thisisconsideredacceptableifitrangesbetween2.9and3.5.Inonecase, asample(OxA-X-2226-7)yieldedaC/Nof3.7,whichindicatestheadditionofcarbon;therefore,oneshouldview thisresultwithcaution.Initially,wecalculatedthisasaratiogreaterthanage,andweacceptedtheresultinour modeling.Itwasnot aggedasanoutlier.Subsequentrecalculationsusingmorerecentlyobtainedbackground measurementsresultedina niteage.Weincludeitbutacknowledgethepotentialforacontaminationsignal. OxA-X-pre xesaregivenwherethechemistryisnon-routineorexperimental,orwheretheyieldsof%wt collagenorextractedcollagenarelowerthan,orapproaching,thethresholdssetattheORAU.Detailsofthe samplematerialsdatedareprovidedin TableS3 ( SIMethods ). *Boneswerepretreatedbeforecollagenextractionwithasolventsequenceasaprecautionbeforeaccelerator massspectrometrydating.Thisisdesignedtoremoveanyconsolidantsorglue-basedcontaminants.Careful observationandsamplingmitigatedagainstthepresenceofthis,withtheexceptionsdescribedinthepaper. Highametal. PNAS | November23,2010 | vol.107 | no.47 | 20237 ANTHROPOLOGY SEECOMMENTARY

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(Table2).Thissuggeststhatsomematerialisprobablyderived fromthelowerMousterianlevels.Thiscouldhaveoccurredwhen the rstChâtelperronianoccupationbegan,assuggestedpreviously(15).Thereisevidencefordiggingandlevelingatthesite duringthisperiod.Olderthanexpectedradiocarbonresultsare unlikelytobecausedbycontaminationwithexogenouscarbon, becausetheproportionofoldcontaminatingcarbonrequiredis unrealisticallyhigh( > 50%).Moderncontaminationismuchmore signi cantatagesgreaterthan 30 14 CkaBP,buttheanalytical chemistryassociatedwitheachsamplewasassessed,andwith theexceptionoftwocases,thesamplesyieldedacceptable values(Table2).Takentogether,theevidencesuggeststhatthe radiocarbonresultsfromthesitearereliable,despitelowrecoverablecollagenlevelsinsomeinstances. Amongtheotherresultsobtainedisadateforaboneawlthat isamongtheearliestdirectagesforthisartifacttypeinEurope, at38,100 ± 1,300 14 CB.P.(OxA-21557;Table2).Theartifactis culturallynondiagnostic,butitsageappearstoprovideevidence forlateNeanderthalboneworkingbeforethearrivalofAMH,if oneacceptsitscontextassecure.Anotherawldatedto37,000 ± Fig.2. BayesianmodelfortheradiocarbondatesobtainedattheGrottedu Rennesequence.ThismodelwasgeneratedusingOxCal4.1(24)andthe INTCAL09calibrationcurve(21).The modelisbuiltbasedontheknown stratigraphicsequenceforthesite,and thedataaredividedintophases.There arealargenumberofoutliersinthe Châtelperronianlevels( TableS4 ).Lightershadeddistributionsarecalibrated radiocarbonlikelihoods,whereasdarker outlinedistributionsareposteriorprobabilitiesaftermodelingthesequence. Theoutlierposteriorandpriorprobabilitiesaregiveninbracketsnexttothe OxA-andOxA-Xnumbers.Thedataare comparedwiththeNorthGReenland IcecoreProject(NGRIP) 18Oclimate record(31,32). 20238 | www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1007963107 Highametal.

PAGE 6

1,000B.P.isfromtheMousterianlevelXIIbutwaslocatedin anareainwhichtherehadbeenextensivedisturbanceby Châtelperronianhearthsandpitdigging.Previousworkershave suggestedthattheseawlsarederivedfromtheChâtelperronian, asdiscussedpreviously(27). Conclusions Someresearchershavearguedthatmixingislikelytobeaserious problemattheGrotteduRenne(28,29),whereasothershavearguedstronglyfortheintegrityoftheChâtelperronianlevelsatthis siteandthealmostuniqueassociationbetweenhumanremainsand artifactsthatthisimplies(2,3,17).Nolithicorbonere ttingstudies ormicromorphologicalanalyseswerepresented,however,insupportoftheseassertions,despitethewidelyacknowledgedimportanceofsuchworkinassessingstratigraphicintegritywithin Paleolithicarchaeologicalsequences(30).Ourresultscon rmthat materialfromseveralcontextshasmovedbothupanddownthe stratigraphicsequenceintotheChâtelperronianlevels.Wehave identi edmaterialidenticalinagetothatdeterminedforlevelVII inlevelslowerthanthis.Theevidencethereforenecessarilyraises questionsregardingthecon denceweascribetothecontextof materialwithinthissiteand,importantly,thewidelyacceptedassociationbetweentheChâtelperronianandtheNeanderthal remains.WeconcludethattheevidencefromtheGrotteduRenne oughttobeviewedwithextremecautionintermsofmodelsof Neanderthalacculturationoroftheirindependentdevelopmentof symbolicbehavioruntilfurtherevidenceisbroughttobearonthis issue.Ithasnotyetbeenpossibletodateanyornamentsdirectly, despiteourbestefforts.Directdatescouldcon rmorrefutetheir stratigraphicpositionwithinthesequence.Similarly,directdateson theNeanderthalteeththemselvesarerequiredtodemonstratethat theyarenotofanageexpectedfortheMousterianandtoexclude thepossibilitythattheyderivefromearlieroccupationsthanthe Châtelperronian.Permissionfordatingthehumanteeth,however, couldnotbeobtainedbyus.Thepreservationstateoftheotherbone andteethsuggeststhatwewillprobablyhavetowaitforfurther developmentsintheradiocarbondatingofverysmallamountsof remainingproteinforthistobeundertaken.Stratigraphicintegrity isavitalprerequisiteatanyarchaeologicalsiteandmustbedemonstratedbeforecompetinghypothesesregardingtheassociation betweentheChâtelperronianandhominidremainsandartifacts fromtheGrotteduRennecanbeevaluatedfurther. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. WearegratefultoallourcolleaguesattheOxford RadiocarbonAcceleratorUnit,UniversityofOxford.Thispaperisdedicated tothememoryofourcolleague,Dr.RogerM.Jacobi,aPrincipalInvestigator onthegrant,whodiedinDecember2009.Thisresearchwasfundedby NaturalEnvironmentResearchCouncilGrantNE/H004491/1. 1.Leroi-GourhanA(1959)ÉtudedesresteshumainesfossilesprovenantdesGrottes d ’ Arcy-sur-Cure. AnnPaleontol 44:87 – 148. 2.D ’ ErricoF,etal.(1998)NeanderthalacculturationinwesternEurope?Acriticalreview oftheevidenceanditsinterpretation. CurrAnthropol 39:S1 – S44. 3.BaileySE,HublinJ-J(2006)DentalremainsfromtheGrotteduRenneatArcy-sur-Cure (Yonne). JHumEvol 50:485 – 508. 4.HublinJ-J,SpoorF,BraunM,ZonneveldF,CondemiS(1996)AlateNeanderthal associatedwithUpperPalaeolithicartefacts. Nature 381:224 – 226. 5.LévequeF,BackerAM,GuilbaudM,eds(1993) ContextofaLateNeandertal:ImplicationsofMultidisciplinaryResearchfortheTransitiontoUpperPaleolithicAdaptations atSaint-Césaire,Charente-Maritime,France.MonographsinWorldArchaeology16 (PrehistoryPress,Madison,WI). 6.MellarsP(2006)Theimpossiblecoincidence:Asinglespeciesmodelfortheoriginsof modernhumanbehaviourinEurope. EvolAnthropol 14:12 – 27. 7.BouzouggarA,etal.(2007)82,000-year-oldshellbeadsfromNorthAfricaand implicationsfortheoriginsofmodernhumanbehavior. ProcNatlAcadSciUSA 104: 9964 – 9969. 8.d ’ ErricoF,HenshilwoodC,VanhaerenM,vanNiekerkK(2005) Nassariuskraussianus shellbeadsfromBlombosCave:EvidenceforsymbolicbehaviourintheMiddleStone Age. JHumEvol 48:3 – 24. 9.VanhaerenM,D ’ ErricoF(2006)Aurignacianethno-linguisticgeographyofEurope revealedbypersonalornaments. JArchaeolSci 33:1105 – 1128. 10.MellarsP(1999)TheNeanderthalproblemcontinued. CurrAnthropol 40:341 – 364. 11.ZilhãoJ,D ’ ErricoF(1999)ThechronologyandtaphonomyoftheearliestAurignacian anditsimplicationsfortheunderstandingofNeandertalextinction. JWorldPrehist 13:1 – 68. 12.GravinaB,MellarsP,RamseyCB(2005)Radiocarbondatingofinterstrati edNeanderthal andearlymodernhumanoccupationsattheChatelperroniantype-site. Nature 438:51 – 56. 13.ZilhãoJ,etal.(2006)AnalysisofAurignacianinterstrati cationattheChatelperroniantypesiteandimplicationsforthebehavioralmodernityofNeandertals. ProcNatlAcad SciUSA 103:12643 – 12648. 14.ZilhãoJ,etal.(2008)Theinterstrati cationdelusion:Excavationhistory,taphonomy, stratigraphyanddatingoftheGrottedesFées(Châtelperron). Paleoanthropology 6: 1 – 42. 15.DavidF,etal.(2001)LeChâtelperroniendelaGrotteduRenneàArcy-sur-Cure (Yonne).Donnéessédimentologiquesetchronostratigraphiques. Bulletindela SociétéPréhistoriqueFrançaise 98:207 – 230. 16.SchmiderB,ed(2002) L ’ AurignaciendelaGrotteduRenne:Lesfouillesd ’ André Leroi-GourhanàArcy-sur-Cure(Yonne). XXXIVesupplémentà GalliaPréhistoire (CNRSeditions,Paris). 17.ZilhãoJ(2006)Neandertalsandmodernsmixed,anditmatters. EvolAnthropol 15: 183 – 195. 18.BronkRamseyC,HighamT,BowlesA,HedgesR(2004)Improvementstothe pretreatmentofboneatOxford. Radiocarbon 46:155 – 163. 19.HighamTFG,JacobiRM,BronkRamseyC(2006)AMSradiocarbondatingofancient boneusingultra ltration. Radiocarbon 48:179 – 195. 20.BronkRamseyC(1995)Radiocarboncalibrationandanalysisofstratigraphy:The OxCalprogram. Radiocarbon 37:425 – 430. 21.ReimerPJ,etal.(2009)INTCAL09andMarine09radiocarbonagecalibrationcurves, 0 – 50,000yearscalBP. Radiocarbon 51:1111 – 1150. 22.BuckCE,CavanaghWG,LittonCD(1996) BayesianApproachtoInterpreting ArchaeologicalData (Wiley,Chichester,UK). 23.BronkRamseyC(1998)Probabilityanddating. Radiocarbon 40:461 – 474. 24.BronkRamseyC(2009)Bayesiananalysisofradiocarbondates. Radiocarbon 51: 337 – 360. 25.BronkRamseyC(2009)Dealingwithoutliersandoffsetsinradiocarbondating. Radiocarbon 51:1023 – 1045. 26.SchmiderB(1990)LeSolutréendansleBassinParisien. FeuillesdePierre.Les IndustriesàPointesfoliacéesduPaléolithiquesupérieureuropéen ,edKozlowskiJK, pp321 – 333.ActesduColloquedeCracovie,1989.Liège(UniversityofLiège,Liège, Belgium),ÉtudesetRecherchesArchéologiquesdel ’ UniversitédeLiège(ERAUL)42. 27.D ’ ErricoF,etal.(2003)Manyawlsinourargument.Bonetoolmanufactureandusein theChâtelperronianandAurignacianlevelsoftheGrotteduRenneatArcy-sur-Cure. TheChronologyoftheAurignacianandoftheTransitionalTechnocomplexes. TrabalhosdeArqueologia33 ,edsZilhãoJ,D ’ ErricoF(AmericanSchoolofPrehistoric Research/InstitutoPortuguêsdeArqueologia,Lisbon,Portugal),pp247 – 270. 28.WhiteR(2001)PersonalornamentsfromtheGrotteduRenneatArcy-sur-Cure. AthenaRev 2:41 – 46. 29.BarYosefO(2006)Neanderthalsandmodernhumans:Adifferentinterpretation. WhenNeanderthalsandModernHumansMet ,edConardNJ(Kerns-Verlag, Tübingen,Germany),pp467 – 482. 30.VillaP(1982)Conjoinablepiecesandsiteformationprocesses. AmAntiq 47:276 – 290. 31.AndersenKK,etal.(2006)TheGreenlandicecorechronology2005,15-42ka.Part1: Constructingthetimescale. QuatSciRev 25:3246 – 3257. 32.SvenssonA,etal.(2006)TheGreenlandicecorechronology2005,15-42ka.Part2: Comparisontootherrecords. QuatSciRev 25:3258 – 3326. 33.JulienM,Baf erD,LioliosD(2002)L ’ industrieosseusedesniveauxaurignaciensdela grotteduRenne. L ’ AurignaciendelagrotteduRenne.Lesfouillesd ’ AndréLeroiGourhanàArcy-sur-Cure(Yonne) ,edSchmiderB(CNRSEditions,Paris),pp215 – 250 (XXIVesupplémentà GalliaPréhistoire ). Highametal. PNAS | November23,2010 | vol.107 | no.47 | 20239 ANTHROPOLOGY SEECOMMENTARY


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