Newsletter. Number 28


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International Union of Speleology PSEUDOKARST COMMISSION NEWSLETTER Nachrichtenbrief No . /Nr . : 2 8 . December , 201 8 Editor / Redakteur: Jan Urban Associates / Mitarbeiter: Rudolf Pavuza, Christa Pfarr Mail address / Postadresse: In stitute of Nature Conservation PAS, Al. A. Mickiewicza 33, 31 Homepage address: http://www.pseudokarst.de.vu/ W ien

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FRONT COVER : Tronceda System, located Spain): The largest pigotite flowstone located in north western part of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). The cave river is located about 4 m below the caver (Photo M. Vaqueiro ). V ORDERE UM SCHLAGSEITE: B ACK COVER : Gallery of Dziura w Polu (Hole in the Field) cave, Beskid Wyspowy Mountains, Polish Outer Carpathians (Photo A. Kapturkiewicz). HINTERE UMSCHLAGSEITE : n abschnitt der Dziura w Polu (Loch im Feld) , Beskid Wyspowy Gebirge, e Polnischen Ka rpaten . Correspondence addresses / Kontaktadresse : Jan Urban , Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, al. A Mickiewicza 33, 31 Poland; e mail: urban@iop.krakow.pl Rudolf Pavuza , Kar st & Caves Research Unit, Museum of Natural History , Vienna, Museumsplatz 1/10, 1070 Vienna, e mail: rudolf.pavuza@nhm wien.ac.at

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Contents: page Inhalt: Seite PAPERS / M . Vaqu e iro Rodrigue z Cavities in magmatic rocks the caves in plutonic rocks .. .. . 1 . . .. . 8 P. Crossley, G. Szentes Study of pseudokarst caves in New Zealand 1 1 Untersuchungen vo ........ . 1 5 W . History of cave exploration in the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains, Polish Outer Carpathians .................................................. .............. . .. . ..... . ... ...... 1 8 ....... . ...... . ..... . ... ........ 24 J . Rowling Sandstone caves in the Capertee Valley region of New South Wales, Australia: a brief introduction . ....... ................ .. ...... ... ............ ........... ........ . .... . .. 28 Tales in New South Wales, Australien ................................ ................ . ....... . ... 33 EVENT ANNOUNCEMENTS AND REPORTS , MESSAGES / VERANSTALTUNGSHINWEISE UND KURZBERICHTE G . Szentes 17 th International Congress of Speleology, Sydney, Australia 23 29 July, 2017 ......................................... ............................ ............... ...................... . .. . ........ 36 17. 29 July 2017 ...... 3 9 ........ .. . .................................. 40 J feier zum 100. G eburtstag der ......... ....... .... 41 R. P. EuroSpeleo 2018/2019 ....................................................................................... 43 EuroSpeleo 2018/2019 ...................................... .................................................. 43 R. P. Carbidimites .. ................................................................................... ................. . 44 Karbidimit .. ............................................................ .................... . ................... .. . . . 44 REVIEWS, OBITUARIES , OTHERS / BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN, NACHRUFE, VESCHIEDENES R . P . New approach to a cave classification ....... .. ........ 4 5 . .... .. ..... 45 In Memoriam: A. Afrasiabian (194 7 201 7 ) 4 6 In Memoriam: J. D unkley (19 4 3 201 8 ) .. .. ..... .. . 47

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EDITORIAL NOTE First of all , we not only as e ditors, but also as friends would like to express our congratulations to Marcos Vaqueiro Rodriguez , a member of the Pseudokarst Commission, for his Philosophy Doctor degree. We highly appreciate the very modern methods applied in his study of non karst caves and their environment, as well as results of his work that included the most recent stage of knowledge development. The brief recapitulation of his PhD thesis is the first paper in this issue of the Pseudokarst Newsletter. As usually, the other papers concern explorations of non karst caves and cavities situated in different parts of the Earth: from central Europe to Australia and New Zealand. Among the other materials, the most important seems to be the report from the 17 th International Congress of Speleology in Sydney , dedicated main to publish two obituaries of members of our Commission: A. Afrasiabian and J. Dunkley. Th e last mentioned was the representative of our Commission during the Congress i n Sydney. Again, t his issue is evidently delayed in relation to previous ones. The reason is ordinary the lack of spare time for the edition. Nevertheless, we ( the editors) hope to publish the next issue (no. 29) in the course of the 2019. Therefore, everybody i s kindly asked to send to the editors (the addresses see the first pages of This issue is published both in the digital and paper versions and again in two languages: English and German. The paper version will be sent to the most important world libraries collecting the karst and cave literature. We hope that the next issue will be also published in these two versions. udokarst Kommission Marcos Vaqueiro Rodrig uez zur Erlangung seines Doktors der Philosophie gratulieren. Marcos ist seit lang em Mitglied unserer Kommission und wir seine innovativen Methoden bei der Untersuchung von Nichtkarst Dissertation findet sich in der vorliegenden Ausgabe des Nachrichtenbriefes. Die anderen Artikel betreffen traditionell Untersuchungen in Nichtkarstgebieten und in verschiedenen Teilen den 17. 2017 die das Able ben unserer beiden Kommissionsmitglieder A. Afrasiabian und J. Dunkley. derzeit besonders gravierende n . Trotzdem sin d wir sich wie immer am Anfang des Heftes. Diese Ausgabe erscheint digital, auf Papier und nach wie vor zweisprachig (englisch deutsch). relevante Literatur. Wir hoffen, dieses Proced ere auch .

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1 CAVITIES IN MAGMATIC ROCKS T HE CAVES IN PLUTONIC ROCKS A brief summary of my doctoral thesis Marcos Vaqueiro 1,2 1 Doctoral Program of Environmental Science and Technology , , Spain 2 Speleological Association CETRA, Club of Speleology A Trapa , Spain; e mail: mvaqueiro@frioya.es In troduction My speleological life, both scientific and sporting, happened mainly in the pseudokarst and especially in the lar ge cavities and systems formed by the accumulation of granite boulders (see Front Cover). Much of my work in these caves has focused on the exploration, morphological and geomorphological mapping of the caves, in the study of the morphology of passages, th eir evolution and relationship to the massif where the cave is developed, and also in the study of local superposition of microforms and traceable events . And when I had almost completed 25 years dedicated to the caves in plutonic rocks, my teacher and goo me t o do my Doctoral Thesis in these types of caves a Thesis that I defended at the beginning of June 2017. The Thesis is divided into two major parts. One is focused on morphological t ypes of these caves, and on the genesis an d evolution of the large structural cave systems in blocks, located in the northwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (Fig. 1). The second part is focused on the microclimate of the caves in blocks and its relation ship to the underground heritage. biominerals and speleothemes (Front Cover and Figs. 3 and 4), erosion forms (Fig. 5) and others; and also archaeological paleont ological heritage. This paper focuses mainly on this second part of the Thesis, because I believe it is a new and interesting topic and that it could lead to new projects in the future . Fig. 1. The studied area the Galicia Tras os Montes Unit of the Iberian massif. Location of studied sites/caves: yellow circle deep fissure caves; gray circle systems of caves formed by accumulations of blocks; and blue circle structural and erosion systems of caves formed by rock canyons buried by blocks. Abb. 1 . Das Untersuchungsgebiet: Dir Galicia Tras os Montes Einheit de s Iberischen Massivs. Die blauen Kreisen (struktur und Canyons, gekennzeichnet

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2 Fig. 2. Root stalagmite located in Cave Fig. 3. Details of biospeleothems , A Laghoa, palaeo System, near Vigo (province of Pontevedra, shore cave located i n Silleiro Cape (province Galicia Spain) (Photo M. Vaqueiro of Pontevedra, Galicia , Spain) (Photo M. Vaqueiro 2012) Abb. 2. Wurzelstal Abb.3. Detailaufnahme der Bios , A Laghoa, in der von Vigo (Provinz Ponteve d ra, Galicien) Galicien) Fig. 4. Opal A biospeleothems developing from a (province of Pontevedra, Galicia Spain): (Photo M. Vaqueiro Abb. 4. Opal heme, gebildet aus Feldspat Galicien) Fig. 5. A Trapa system, located near Ribadelouro (province of Pontevedra, Galicia Spain): granite potholes covered by eroded pigotite speleothems. Currently, pigotite speleothems are being destroyed by subterranean river. Note that potholes are genetically related to turbulent flows, while the development of bio speleothems is stimulated by very slow laminar flows. This shows us a sequence of different events that affec t the circulation of underg round water in this cave. From speleothem datings: main cessation event fell on 3.76 kyr cal BP, while the main reactivation event occurred at 2.96 kyr cal BP (Photo M. Vaqueiro Abb. 5. Kolk im Granit, bedeckt m it erodierten Pigotit rweise am selben Ort zu unterschiedlicher Zeit, was die Hauptstillstandsphase um 3,76 kyr cal BP, die Reaktiv ierung erfolgte 2,96 kyr cal BP.

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3 Microclimatic nonlinear dynamical models for granite caves For more than 3 years we have recorded temperature, humidity and dew temperature data in four large granite cavities and in a pristine karst tube. For some monitor ing stations we have registered more than 17,000 hours of continuous climate data (Vaqueiro -Rodriguez 2017) . Some times we also have measured the temperature of the cave water, the IR temperature of rocks that form the cave passages, the velocity of under ground air flow, the superficial velocity of cave water streams, and other variables. First the causality relationship between the external and underground temperature, humidity and dew temperature time series were analyzed using cross and coherence wavele t transformations. And when the significant variables were determined, I tried to use linear white models of thermal diffusivity to predict the underground temperatures of the cavities. But the solutions obtained only worked well with short time series. Th erefore I decided to consider the caves as nonlinear dynamical systems, and then we used artificial neural networks specialized on time series identification to build the final models. Neural models were optimized using multi objective heuristic algorithms . I programmed all algorithms with GNU Octave Scientific Programming Language. Taking the day or DOY (Day of Year) as a basis of time, microclimatic models have been constructed for the three basic morphological cave types: a cave with continuous limits, l ike a lava tube or a karstic tube; a cave with semi continuous boundaries, like a deep fissure cave partially roofed; and a cave with non continuous limits, like a cave whose passages were formed by the accumulation of blocks at the bottom of a valley. On ce the models of different morphological cave types had been obtained, I could stimulate them with the same thermal series (used as a pattern) to be able to compare their differences under homogeneous conditions. The explanation is presented on Fig. 6. Fi g. 6. Mean year temperature in time: I have used the database of daily climatic records from 1882 2007 (Brunnet et al, 2006; Meteogalicia: www.meteogalicia.gal) to construct the models corresponding to three different morphological types of caves: A tube (to the lef t), B deep roofed fissure (at the center), and C big accumulation of blocks (to the right). The recorded time serie s used as model stimulus is the mean daily temperature. From it AAT external mean year temperature is calculated. From the predicted daily time series are calculated: GAT ground ( 0.1 m) mean year temperature; CATe cave entrance (first chamber) mean year temperature; and CATd cave deep station (deep chamber) mean year temperature. The more discontinuous are the limits o f the passages, less stable are the temperatures in deep stations, and the thermal vertical amplitudes readily tend to equalize. The abrupt fall of the temperature near 1920 is the transient response of the model due to the lack of records during the First World War. Abb. 6. Jahresdurchschnittstemperatur Serien aus Klimaaufzeichnungen 1882 2007 (Brunner et al.,2006 B tiefreichende Kluft (Mitte), C B lockansammlungen (rechts). Verwendet als Modellinput wurde das externe Tagestemperaturmittel, woraus das Jahresmittel AAT ermittelt wurde. Vom Modell errechnet wurden: GAT Bodentemperatur Jahresmittel ( 0,1 m), CATe r Raum) sowie CATd zeigen einen Trend zur Angleichung. Die Anomalie Ersten Weltkrieges bedingt.

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4 A travel in time Once the correlation between surface and underground climate series was demonstrated and known, it was decided to develop a regressive model that used isotopi c series (d 18 O and d 13 C) (Kaufman et al. 2009; Martin Chivelet et al. 2011) as system stimulus. The response of the model reflects similar oscillations to those of some palaeo climatic reconstructions carried out in Galicia and Asturias. However, the absol ute value of subterranean thermal variation is not calibrated because I do not have real temperature data to guide the optimization of the model. But what is really important, is that if the underground climate of caves in plutonic rocks is a quasi synchr onous reflection of the external climate, we can also assume that many of the deposits present in these caves could be related specifically to certain climatic conditions. So, if we compare the datings obtained from stalagmites with the sequences of palaeo climatic events in north western part of the Iberian Peninsula along the Holocene ( Railsback et al. 2011) , we can observe how the rhythmic and biomineral deposits: pigotite, evansite and opal A ( Sanjurjo Sanchez et al. 2014, 201 8 ; Vidal Romani et al. 2013 ) have been mainly related to wet and probably cold events in the past. And also we can see how the prehistoric colonization and other activities (Vidal Romani et al. 2010; Sanjurjo Sanchez et al. 2012) were mainly related to dry and probably warm periods (Fig. 7). Fig. 7. Taking as reference the palaeo climatic recon struction of Railsback et al. (2011 data from Galician stalagmite ESP03 in the context of data from other palaeo environmental records) for the Galician Holocene, and in order to evaluate their possible climatic dependencies, I superimpose the available datings for opal A (blue), evansite (yellow) and pigotite (red) speleothems from five granite caves of the north western part of the Iberian Peninsula, as well as the datings of pottery (gra y) fragments found in two of the caves. This figure indicates that the rhythmic biomineral deposits are mainly related to wet and probably cold events, whereas the prehistoric colonization and activities are mainly related to dry and probably warm events. A. Plot of abundance of ice rafted debris in the North Atlantic (Bond et al. 2001). B. Plot of stable isotope data from Greenland ice cores from Johnsen et al. 2001. C & D. Stable isotope data from ESP03. Small numerals next to symbols for stable isotope d ata indicate numbers of specific samples. E. Qualitative interpretation of changing climatic conditions. das Galicien im Kontext mit anderen Daten verwendete, wurden mit Daten von Opal A (blau), Evansit (gelb) und Pigotit (rot) verglichen, um klimatische Tonscherben aus zwe A Au ftreten von eistransportiertem Material im Nordatlantik (Bond et al. 2001), B Stabile Isotopen eines Eiskerns aus Stabiles Isotopen des Stalagmiten ESP03, die kleingeschriebenen Zahlen verweisen auf spezielle Pr oben, E Qualitative Interpretation der Klimavariationen

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5 B io speleothems and cave microclimate In granite caves a no n uniform distribution of opal A speleothems is observed. The opal A speleothems are not related to the fissure water circulation or other very slow water fluxes. Therefore, I hypothesized the relation between these opal A formations and the condensation of water vapor. To study this problem, I selected a deep chamber inside A Furna A speleothems are abundant and disconnected from water flow. For a cross section of this granite chamber and the rock that host it, I constructed, by finite elements, the Fourier equation of transient heat conduction. To do it the cross section was previously divided into e lementary nodes with a size of 0.1 m x 0.1 m, which were characterized by its spatial orientation (left wall, right wall, over slope to the left, surface inclined to the left, floor, sky, etc.). So any node is a vector whose components are: x, y, z, node t ype. Transient heat equations included the estimated radiogenic heat production based on the contents of uranium (7.7%), thorium (18.5%) and potassium (7.9%) measured in the cave. Microclimatic time series and neural models were used to define the thermal vertical gradient in the cave chamber. In each iteration (t) of the model I constructed the thermal map constituted by nodes of rock which are located at the contact of air by X skin. Condensation may occur in a node (p) of Xskin, if dew temperature Tdew(p,t) is equal or less than the cave air, a condensation index Cnd(p,t) = (Tdew(p,t) Trs(p,t))/Trs(p,t) was defined. Note, that condensation may occur if Cnd(p,t)>0. For each type of node (TIPO) I calculated the X TIPO subset of Xskin in which condensation is possible (Cnd>0). And for the X TIPO subset two ratios were defined to characterize the type of node (TIPO): the first value is a measure of the extension of the condensation phenomena inside this type of node, and it is calculated as the percent of the nodes in which condensation may occur; whereas the second one, is a measu re of the average intensity of the phenomena in this type of node, and it is calculated as the average of Cnd in the X TIPO subset. From these concepts , I determined the preferred condensation type of node in each time that node which has the high or bes t intensity and extension ratios in this time. T hus, the preference of condensation is a fuzzy logic relation employed to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between completely true (is the best node/type of node where cond ensation may occur) and completely false (is the worst node where condensation never occurs) (Fig. 8). The model of A Furna Cave shows how the preference of condensation is different in each type of node. The variations along the time of this index also s how the occurrence of seasonal cycles: the humidification and drying alternates in some types of nodes with a rapid growth of the index in the end of autumn, and its slow and progressive descent during the time from winter to spring season (Fig. 9). And th e most important result is that the opal A formations seem to be related to these preferred condensation types of nodes. Discussion and conclusions An important part of my work combined and applied different strategies provided by various engineering tool s to the study of natural phenomena. The advantage of these techniques is due to the fact that, in the field of study, the cave is really a rock water air heat exchanger. And due to the impossibility of characterizing such system directly, I proceeded to "identify" the dynamics of cave (as a system) using very powerful tools such as artificial neural networks. For example, exploiting the capabilities of generalization and abstraction of artificial neural networks, I reconstructed discontinuities and breaks in the thermal registers so that they can be used in the study of our caves. And when the models of different caves were constructed, I compared their response under homogeneous con ditions in order to carry out a general characterization of the different morphological types. As long as the climatic time series that I use as a stimulus are within the domain covered by the records made in cave, the predictions of the models will be consistent with the dynamics learned by the neural networks. This is what all owed me to use historical series and other sources of palaeoclimatic data to project our models into the past. Unfortunately, lacking local isotopic data from speleothems in our granite caves, we can only compare the trend of our forecast with the successi on of climatic events described by other authors

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6 Fig. 8. A Furna Cave : Thermal simulation done by combining of two dimensonal transient heat conduction equations with my multi variable dynamic neuromodels. A. Local climatic series (average daily variabl es) used as stimulus for neuromodels. They are only represe nted as climatic reference. B. of thermal map formed by the temperature of the nodes of rock which are located in the contact of air rock surface . Colors indicates average daily temperature of the node in each time. C. Some dia g rams showing the t hermal map of cross section of the cave and its host rocks in different moments (indicated by arrows); size of nodes: 0.5 m x 0.5 m. D. Some diagrams showing the thermal map of cros s section centered in the deep chamber where opal A deposits are located in different moments; size of nodes: 0.1 m x 0.1 m. leichungen mit den multivariaten dynamischen neuralen Modellen. A als Referenz, B len des Lu den Tagesdurchschnitt an den jeweiligen Knoten, C an darstellen, wo Opal A significant innovation of my study is the recommen dation of biominerals and rhythmic deposits occurring in the caves in plutonic rocks as potential proxies, contributing at least to the study of palaeo environment of the Holocene and the Holocene Pleistocene transition in areas traditionally considered as Another important aspect of my study is the indication that many speleothems of caves in plutonic rocks are, in fact, biominerals. And its growth and morphology seem to be induced by the microbiota included in the deposit. There are also deposits not directly connected with the circulation of water, and which we believe could be related to preferential humidity condensation zones. It is important to note that although condensation on a macroscopic scale may pretend to be a scarce source of water, at the micro

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7 or nano scale its presence controls very significant processes. Furthermore, in these biominerals it is difficult to determine that speleothems are flowstone or dripstone formations. Usually we find elongated f orms associated with filamentous algae, but they are not stalagmites, or nodular forms that are terrestrial microstromatolites (Wright 1989) , but that they are not "coraloids". Therefore, we believe it is necessary to break with the old terms inherited fro m the karst and look for a different terminology. Fig . 9. Preferential condensation index represented for each type of node. At the top, the external average daily temperature (magenta) is superimposed on the preferential condensation index for the ceili ng. In the other three subplots the left (blue) and rig ht (red) preferential condensation index for vertical walls, over sloped walls, and inclined surfaces are given. In A Furna Cave a seasonal oscillatory cycle for preferential condensation index is cl early visible on the vertical walls of right side of the section and also on the inclined surfaces located in the right side of the section. Tagesdurchschnittstemperatur (viol Die reszeitlicher Zyklus uf der rechten Seite, ebenso an den

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8 References Brunet M., Saladi O., Jones P., Sigro J., Aguilar E., Moberg A., Lister D., Walther A. , Lopez D., Almarza C. 2006. The development of a new dataset of Spanish daily adjusted temperature series (SDATS) (1850 2003), Int. J. Climatol. 26: 1777 1802 . Kaufman D.S., Schneider D.P., McKay N.P., Ammann C.M., Bradley R.S., Briffa K.R., Miller G.H., Otto Bliesner B.L., Overpeck J.T., Vinther B.M. 2009. High resolution stable isotope data. Arctic Lakes 2k Project Members Recent warming reverses long term Arctic cooling. Science 325, 1236 1239. o M.J., ORTEGA A.I. 2011. Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based on d13C of speleothems. Global and Planetary Change 77, 1 2: 1 12. Railsback L.B., Liang F., Vidal Romani J.R., Grandal D'angl ade A., Vaqueiro M., Santos Mosquera D., Cheng H., Edward L. 2011. Petrogra phic and isotopic evidence for H olocene long term climate change and shorter term environmental shifts from a stalagmite from the Serra Do Cour el of northwestern Spain, and i m plications for climatic history across Europe and the Mediterranean. Palaeoeography Palaeo climatology Palaeo ecology , 305, 1 4: 172 184. Sanjurjo Sanchez J., Vidal Rodriguez M., Costas Chamorro C. 2014. Lumin e scence 12 s eptiembre 2014 : 470 473 Sanjurjo Romani J.R., Vaqueiro Rodriguez M., Grandal 280. Sanjurjo , Arce Chamorro C., Vidal R V., Kaal J. 201 8 . Al bearing organic speleothems in granite caves of NW Iberia: characterization and genesis. Intern. Journal of Speleology (in print) . Vaqueiro Rodriguez M. 2017. Las Cuevas DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30080.33289 ( http://hdl.handle.net/2183/19154 ) Vaqueiro Rodriguez M., Vidal 12 septiembre 2014 : 482 485. Vidal D'anglade A., Vaqueiro Mosquera D. 2010. Geocaracte Vilalba, Vilalba (Lugo) : 7 19 Vidal Sanchez J., Vaqueiro Galindo M.J. 2013. Speleothems in th International Congress of Speleology, July 21 28, vol. 3: 479 482. Wright V.P. 1989. Terrestrial stromatolites and laminar calcretes: a review. Sedimentary Geology, 65: 1 13. IN MAGMATITEN DER PLUTONITE eine kurze Zusammenfassung meiner Dissertation Meine Gesteine abgespielt (siehe Titelbild). Fokussiert waren die Untersuchungen auf die Exploration, die Gebirge sowie de n Zusammenhang der beobachteten Mikroformen und datierbarer Ereignisse mit der , eine Dissertation dieses Themas zu verfassen, deren Defensio Anfang 2017 stattgefunden hat. Die Dissertation ist in zwei Teile gegliedert.Der erste ist auf die morphologische Typologie dieser in den das Mikroklima u die verstanden, ferner Erosionsformen und Formen, die mit der Wirkung des Menschen ver bunden sind. und

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9 in einer zustande (Vaqueiro Rodriguez 2017). Mitunter wurde auc h die Wassertemperatur, mittels IR die Temperatur Parameter gemessen. unkt mittels Wavelet die ings nur bei kurzen Sequenzen von Erfolg Netze Zeitserien identifiziert, mit denen die Modelle letztlich arbeiten konnten. Die neurale n Modelle wurde n mittels multi objektiver heuristischer Algorithmen optimiert. Die Programmierung erfolgte mittels der Modelle f (wie kontinuierlichen Begrenzungen, wie tiefreichende hen Begrenzungen, wie Ansammlungen von Blockwerk. Die verschiedenen Typen wurden mit den selben thermischen Zeitreihen im Rahmen des Modellings getestet und die Unterschiede unter diesen homogenen Bedingungen verglichen (Abb. 6). Eine Zeitreise War erst e ein regressives Modell unter Verwendung von Isotopenserien (d 18 O und d 13 C, siehe Kaufmann et al. 2009, Martin Chivelet et al. 2011) als Systemstimulus zur Anwendung gebr acht. Die Reaktion des Systems zeigt bislan das der Ablagerungen und Minerale spez dem nen wir beobachten, dass die Schichten der Biominerale Pigotit, Evansit und Opal A (Sanjuro Sanchez et al. 2014, 2017, Vidal der Vergangenheit zuzurechnen sind. Auch sehen wir und Sanchez et al. 2012) meist trockenen und A zu beobachten. Sie sind nicht an Kluftwasser oder andere Wasservorkommen gebunden. Daher vermutete ich einen Zusammenhang mit A Furna einen Querschnitt der Kammer konstruierte ich einen Querschnitt mittels der Methode der finiten Elemente und brachte die Fouriergleichung (linke/rechte Wand, Boden , Decke z und seinen durch den Zerfall von Uran (7,7%), Thorium (18,5 %) und Kalium (7,9 %) entsteht und deren Gehalte in der che Zeitserien und neurale Modelle wurden zur Ermittlung des Bei jeder Iteration (t) des Modells wurde eine thermale Karte unter Verwendung der Knoten, die an der stattfinden, wenn der Taupunkt Tdew(p,t) ist gleich hoch oder niedriger als die Felstemperatur Trs(p,t).

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10 Um diese Wechselwirkung von Luft und Wand zu untersuchen, wurde ein Kondensationsindex Cnd(p,t) = ((Tdew(p,t) Trs(p,t)/Trs(p,t) definiert, Kondensation tritt ein bei Cnd(p,t) > 0. TIPO aus Xskin bere TIPO wurden zwei Quotienten definiert, um den Typ des Knoten zu und ist der Prozentsatz jene ein TIPO. itintervall ten eine Kondensation ist demnach ein Fuzzy Logic Problem mit Wahrscheinlichkeiten, wobei der Wert auftritt) liegt (Abb. 8). A Furna in jedem Node Die Befeuchtung und Austrocknung variiert in einigen Node Typen mit einem steilen Gradienten im Herbst und mit einem A an jene Zonen bevorzugter Kondensation gebunden sind. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen Ein wesentlicher Teil meiner Arbeit kombinierte und applizierte verschiedenste wissenschaftlich Ein Vorteil ist durch die Tatsache gegeben, Wasser Luft) ist. Nachdem dieses System auf direkte Weise nicht einfach charakterisierbar ist, wurde seine Dynamik mittels neuraler Netze analysiert. Durch die die Bedingungen zur Charakterisieru Zeitserien, die als Input verwendet werden, innerhalb des Zeitrahmens der Dies erla eine aus unseren Granit Auf der anderen Seite ist die Empfehlung, Biominerale un d geschichtete Ablagerungen aus den der Eine weitere bedeutende Erkenntnis ist die, dass viele der angetroffenen Biominerale darstellen, deren Wachstum und Ausbildung durch Mikroorganismen beeinflusst wurde. Es gibt im entsprechend dem Schema im Karst (dripstone/flowstone) meist schwierig. Obgleich es elongierte Formen, geb de facto Mikrostromatolithen (Wright, 1989) sind auf der anderen Seite keine koralloiden Sinterformen. Eine angebracht. Literatur: siehe englischer Text .

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11 STUDY OF PSEUDOKARST CAVES IN NEW ZEALAND Peter Crossley 1 , George Szentes 2 1 UIS Pseudokarst Com mission, Auckland Speleo Group, Auckland, New Zealand ; e mail: p .crossley@auckland.ac.nz 2 UIS Pseudokarst Commission, Auckland Speleo Group, Auckland, New Zealand ; e mail : georgeszentes@yahooo.de Introduction After the successful pseudokarst presentations during the 17 th International Congress of Speleology the authors have decided to study pseudokarst caves in New Zealand. The lava tubes and sea caves can be considered as pseudokarst originated caves and they have been studied and described for a long time. The aim of this study is to list, survey and investigate such non karst caves which are not the mentioned sea caves and lava tubes. In the study of the caves we will put together the existing data and field survey of such caves. The present paper is an initial study which describes some significant pseudokarst caves of the North Island (Fig. 1). In the future we intend to continue the exploration of pseudokarst caves in New Zealand with cooperation of the Pseudokarst Commission of UIS. Fig. 1. Location of pseudoka rst cave described in the text: 1 Rain bow Falls, 2 Waiere Boulders, 3 Rangiahua basalt proto karst, 4 Titoki Natural Bridge, 5 Okere Cave, 6 Ruatapu Cave Abb. 1. Lage der Pseudokars t (Objekte: siehe englische Bildunterschrift ) Rainbow Falls There is a cave under the waterfall. The waterfall cascading over the edge of an eroded basalt lava flow on the Kerikeri River, 3 km upstream from Old Stone Store in Kerikeri settlement (Fig . 1). The 27 m high waterfall over basalt flow eroded the softer mudstone underlying the basalt lava and formed a voluminous erosion cave (Fig. 2). The cave is gradually lowering and the moss covered muddy floor is scattered with basalt blocks (Fig 3.) Wairere Boulders Near Horeke settlement between a head of the Wairere Estuary and the end of Mc Donnel Road a valley filled with gigantic basalt boulders extends (Fig . 1). The boulders are relics from a former lava flow that extended over the valley and they are the best examples in New Zealand and proba bly in the world of solution of basalt (protokarst) that has produced deep flutings and basins on their surfaces. The large

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12 Fig. 2. Rainbow Fall and an erosion cave Fig. 3. Inside the Rainbow Fall cave (Photo G. behind the fa ll (Photo G. Szentes) Szentes) Abb. 2. Rainbow Wasserfall samt Erosions Abb. 3. In der Rainbow Wasserfal l H hle dahinter fluted boulders of basalt derived from the Horeke Basalt flow on top of ridge that used to extend across valley (Fig. 4). Boulders in stream bed are tilted at many different angles which is reflected by the orientation of the flutings, whereas most of the fluted boulders above the stream have vertical flutings and solutions basins and s omewhere flats on tops. There are large number of cavities among the boulders and some of them range a lengths from a few meters to several ten meters. There are two principal types of caves: boulder caves and leaning pseudo caves (cavities between large b oulder and smaller boulder leaning to the large one). Detailed future mapping and list of holes will prove which cavities reach the cave size. Two significant caves are to be mentioned along the Boulder Loop. The footpath leads through an unnamed cave of a length of cave of the boulder area. The length of the steep cave is nearly 40 m (Fig. 5). Both caves have formed among enormous basalt blocks. Fig. 4 . Wairere Boulders (Photo.:G. Szentes) Fig. 5. Abb. Rangiahua basalt protokarst Scattered karstified basalt boulders are also visible from S1 highway near Okahiau settleme nt (Fig. 1). B asalt has been dissolved, probably for a long time interval, by weak humic acids produced in the leaf litter collected around the roots of plants that grow on tops of the boulders. Humic acid seeping down the boulder sides has, for thousands of years, dissolved deep, near vertical flutes on faces of hard basalt. In some places the flutings are no longer vertical as the boulders have rolled over or tilted since they were formed (Kenny, Hayward 2009). Such well developed flutes on sides of basal t boulders (protokarst) are rare landforms in the global scale. T he basalt protokarst is the result of solution and from the point of view of speleology can be considered as pseudokarst (Fig. 6). Boulder caves probably also exist among the boulders.

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13 Tit oki Natural Bridge One lava tongue pushed northward along the eastern side of the Mangakahia Valley (Fig. 1). A s mall tributary stream of the Waitomotomo river cuts the northern extremity of this basalt tongue. Above this stream, there is an impressive exa mple of a natural bridge formed of an olivine basalt flow called Titoki (Heming 1979). The natural bridge forms a broad arch over the stream about 10 12 m in width; the basis of the arch is 4 m above the stream at its highest point. The arch has a maximum estimated thickness of 8 m and consists of a lower zone of columnar jointed basalt grading upwards into a zone of irregularly jointed basalt. Some spherical jointing, and also some large vug like cavities appears in the upper, irregularly jointed zone. Tit oki could represent the eroded remnants of small lava tubes (Figs. 7 and 8), however, no signs of chilled zones, lava driblets, or any of other morphological features associated with lava tubes can be found. A stream could have flowed into the tube through a roof collapse and by further erosion, and then removed all traces of internal morphology of a tube. Erosion and opening of joints also seems to occur subsequently to the collapse. The present stage of the bridge can be considered as a pseudokarst cave o riginated due to the erosion . Fig. 6. Etched surfaces of basalt boulders (Photo Fig. 7 . Titoki Natural Bridge (Photo R. F. Heming ) G. Szentes) Abb. 7. Fig. 8 . Map of the Titoki natural bridge (after Heming 1979) Abb. 8 . Plan/ / Grun d riss d er Titoki (n a ch Heming 1979 )

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14 Cave Okere Falls marks the springs of the Kaituna river. U nder the waterfalls, there is a 30 m long erosion cave in volcanic pumice and ignimbrite (Figs. 9 and 10) (Crossley 2014). The falls and the cave are located 21 km from Rotorua on Trout Pool road from Rotorua to Tauranga highway (Fig. 1). A well formed bus hwalk, which gives walkers excellent viewpoints to watch from elevated positions, leads to the waterfalls. Steps were carved into a rock face in 1907 and bring people closer to the thundering waterfalls. The cave is named after one of the local chiefs, Tue ta and was used by local Maori women and children to hide during times of war. Fig. 9 . P hoto P. Crossley) Fig. 10 . ) Abb. 9 . Abb. 10 . (nach Crossley 2014 ) Ruatapu C ave Ruatapu or "Alum" Cave has developed beneath a block of hydrothermally altered Quaternary vitric tuff in the Orakei Korako thermal field (Fig. 1) . Ruatapu Cave is one of a few caves known to develop within an active geo thermal field. The Orakei Korako thermal area is predominated by alkali chloride alteration but the cave hosts a steaming acid, sulphate pool and a series of efflorescences and other minerals produced due to the alteration of the host tuff rocks by sulphuric acid (Rodgers et al. 2000). The cave extends 45 m, with a vertical drop of 23 m (Fig. 13) , descending to a pool of clear, sulphate rich, warm acidic water (Figs. 11 and 12). The water temperature varies betw ion concentration is 450 mg/l and the pH ranges 3.0. Steam, accompanied by H 2 S, rises from the pool surface and from a nearby fumaroles and joints in the ignimbrite, and condenses on wall surfaces within the cave. Oxidation of H 2 S to H 2 SO 4 produces acid fluids which react with the surficial rocks to generate secondary minerals such as: kaolinite, opal A, cristobalite, alunite, gypsum, melanterite, and thenardite . Fig. 11. Ruatapu Cave (Photo G. Szentes) Fig . 12. Hot water lake in the bottom of the Ruatapu Abb. 11. Ruatapu Cave (Photo G. Szentes) Abb. 12 . Warmwassersee am Grund der Ruatapu

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15 Fig. 13 . Map of Ruatapu Cave (after Cody 1978) Abb. 13. Grundriss der Ruat apu (nach Cody 1978) References Cody A. D. 1978. Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako. New Zealand Speleological Bulletin 6: 184 187. Crossley P. 2014. New Zealand Cave Atlas. North Island . N ew Zealand Speleo logical Society inc., pp. 280 Heming R.F. 1979. Natural b ridges in basalt lavas, Northland, New Zealand. Journal of Geology and Geophysics 22, 2: 239 243. Kenny J.A., Hayward B.W. 2009. Karst in stone. Karst landscap es in New Zealand: a case for protection. Geological Society of New Zealand guidebook 15 , pp. 40 ( 5, 10, 32 33 ) . Rodgers K.A., Hamlin K.A., Browne P.R.L. Campbell K.A., Martin R. 2000. The steam condensate mineralogy of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako geot hermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine 64, 1: 125 142. UNTERSUCHUNGEN VON IN NEUSEELAND Nach den interessanten Pseudokarst langer Zeit untersucht und beschrieben. Ziel der vorliegenden St udie ist jedoch die Erfassung, Vermessung und Untersuchung der anderen T y und Feldbefunde in einer initialen Studie zusammen, die einige der bemerkenswertesten Pseudokarstobjekte der Nordinse ploration in Zusammenarbeit mit der Pseudokarstkommission der UIS. Rainbow Falls (Rainbow Unterhalb der Rainbow hat Stores im Dorf Kerikeri (Abb.1) gelegen, hat den unterlagernden weicheren Tonstein ausgewaschen und eine bedeckt (Abb.3).

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16 Wairere Boulders der McDonnel cken an dessen man kann dies an der Orientierung der Rinnen sehen Rinnen an den Flanken und Becken an der Oberseite aufweisen. Innerhalb des Blockwerks gibt es zahlreiche gt. Rangiahua basalt protokarst (Der Protokarst des Rangiahua Basaltes) (Abb. 1) sichtbar. Basalt wurde hier durch sch sind. Die an tiefe, nahezu vertikale Rinnen in den ha An sich Titoki Natural Bridge (Titoki Eine Tales (Abb. 1). Ein kleiner Seitenbach des Waitomotomo des ke aus Olivinbasalt, genannt Titoki (Heming 1979). Sie formt einen 10 irregu en einen erodierte und die des Einsturzes kann. Cave on Rotorua entfernt an der Trout Pool der Tauranga (Abb. 1). Frauen und kindern Ruatapu C ave Die Ruatapu

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17 der n NaCl wird (Rodgers et al. 2000). 45 m lang, mit einer Tiefe von 23 m (Abb. 13) und sie endet steil abfallend an Die 450 mg/l und der pH bei 3,0. Mit H 2 erale wie Kaolinit, Opal A, Cristobalit, Alunit, Gips, Melanterit und Thenardit reagieren. Literatur : s i ehe englis c her T ext

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18 HISTORY OF CAVE EXPLORATION IN THE BESKID WYSPOWY MOUNTAINS, POLISH OUTER CARPATHIANS Adam Kapturkiewicz 1 2 1 Beskidy Caving Club (SBB), Tymbark, Poland; e mail: adamv0@poczta.on et.pl 2 Chiropterological Information Centre, Cracow , Poland; e mail: wojtekjgubala@gmail.com The Beskid Wyspowy Mountains are a part of the Beskidy Mountains, which comprise, in turn, the western segment of the Polish Outer Carpathians, formed of flysch , siliciclastic clayey rocks. Therefore all caves that occur in this region are of non karst, mainly gravitational origin (Margielewski, Urban 2017). The history of exploration of caves in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. is very similar to the history of recogniti on of this mountain group, which was distinguished relatively late (Kapturkiewicz 2014). The beginning of tourism in Poland reaches back to the first half of the 19 th century. Therefore, the situation is quite normal that the first data about caves in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. were gathered by travellers and naturalists which Mts.) crossed the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. in that time (Fig. 1). These voyagers probabl y appreciated the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. as an alpinist thinks about the necessity to cross plains before reaching rocky slope and starting climbing. Fig. 1. General situation of the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. within the Carpathians Abb. 1. Lage der Inselbeskiden innerhalb der Karpaten Not all of the travellers noticed the data about such phenomena as caves. Even (1755 1826), of the 19 th century (Staszic 1815 p. 74) did not mention numerous caves and cavities that occurred in the landslide zone close to its summi t. The excursions in the Carpathians were considered to be dangerous due to robbers in that time (Tripplin 1856 p. 3). Consequently, these first tourists and naturalists followed the main roads, such as: imperial road through Nowy p. 2), Radzikowski 1870 p. 211; Sulimierski et al. 1885 p. 87), Bochnia Limanowa road (Steczkowska 1858 p. 188), a nd did not take paths crossing the inner parts of the Beskid Wyspowy M ountains (Fig. 1). town in 14 th century (Kutrzeba 1900 p. 9). However, the type of min e s is not known. Possibly the notice according to the legend (Witalis Zdrzenicka 2003). Currently, such topographic names as Szachta (shaft) and Rudnik (ore site) exist there. Starowolski (in the 16 th century) and th century)

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19 th mined (Sulimierski et al. 1885 p. 830), which was absolutely impossible in the light of present day geological kn the (Przezdziecki 1864 nobleman, contained detailed guides for a gold search, which kindled the imagination of prospectors (Morawski 1865 pp. 8, 31 9). The Jazowsko Annals (manuscripts written from 1680 to 1744) informed about the cavities in p. 51). The famous robbers in these cavities (Pauli 1835a). However , side of the Dunajec river. The first authentic cave in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. mentioned in historical sources, was Jaskinia w th century by 14 years old boy Galicia (Carpathians and their foreland which belonged to Austrian Empire in that time) after the Russian invasion in Central Poland. In this way he got to Dobra village ( a property of his uncle ) , situated in the foothill of Mt is located. Other brief notices from the 19 th century on th e occurrence of caves p. 479; Janota 1860 p. 12; Sulimierski et al. 1884 p. 14, 1851) (Fig. 2) (Gruszecki 1878) did not mention any cave in the area of the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. The more detailed description of Zimna Dziura w Strzeblu (Cold Hole in Mt Strzebel, currentl y 25 m long and 5 m deep) was given by Gotfryd Ossowski, who visit ed this cave during his trip to the Tatra Mts. (Ossowski 1882 p. 49).This cave, called by Ossowski (1882) Jaskinia w Lubniu (Cave in Dziura w Szczeblu by Leszczycki (1931), who argued that this is original its name used by local people, and this second name has been ultimately accepted. Fig. 2. Schematic map of the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. with distribution o f caves and cave agglomerations Abb. 2 . In the first half of the 20 th century much more notices on caves in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. were published due to the more intensive tourism in the Carpathians. Nevertheless, there was no significant progress in the exploration of new caves. The first Polish touristic guidebook of the Beskidy Mts. shortly mentioned only two caves (Robber Grotto) (Sosnowski 1914 pp. 19, 241). In the subsequent issue of this guidebook no new data

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20 about caves were included (Sosnowski 1926), whereas in the issue pub lished in in Mt pp. grotto, which suggested that the cave en trance was inaccessible probably due to rock breakdown (Sosnowski 1924 p. 126). Short notices about Zimna Dziura w Strzeblu were frequently published in that time p. 394; Dunin Borkowski 1933 p. 11; Reychman 193 7 p. 36). This cave is also most likely the first one in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. whose map (ground plan), documentary description and photographs were published (Leszczycki 1931). Among new cave and cave related objects recorded in that time, were as fol p. 4; Reychman 1937 Borkowski 1933 p. 21), grottos in Wielki (Dunin Borkowski 1933 Fleszarowa 1933) was the other trial to record objects of this type in Poland. It mentioned several caves in the Beskidy Mts. among which onl y Zimna Dziura w Strzeblu represented the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. After the 2 nd World War, despite the increase of public interest in speleology, the state of exploration of caves in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. did not change for a long time. In the first modern inventory of caves in w Jaworzu, Zimna Dziura w Strzeblu and Jaskinia w Luboniu Wielkim Wielki, currently 8 m long) (Kowalski 1954). The author of this inventory ( na He focussed his expl oration on karst areas, neglecting area of the Outer Carpathians built of siliciclastic clayey rocks as less attractive for speleological exploration. At the beginning of the second half of 20 th cessible due to the rock breakdown (Krygowski 1965 p. 59; Wielek 1987 the novelty in tha t time. completely described and mapped in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. (Bubula 2001a). Therefore, the activeness of cavers from Limanowa town, situated within the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. and proximity ir first finding in this region done in autumn 1994 (Bubula 2001a; Pulina 1997). In June 1995, owing to the former experience, they discovered legendary caves in Mt currently 165 m long and 14 m deep) and six other ones in the large landslide trench and scarp called Czartorysko (Devil Place) (Lesiecki 2001; Bubula 2001b) (Fig. 2). . Unfortunately, the editor of speleological issues t worth a publication. Mleczek 1996). This fact brought about close contacts between the Caver Club in Limanowa and the D bica Speleoclub, older and more experienced in the exploration of caves in the Beskidy Mts. ation and mapping of described (as is mentioned above) and the only cave wi exploration and documentation works were recapitulated by the publication of cave descriptions and m aps in the second volume of the cave inventory in the Outer Flysch Carpathians (Pulina 1997). In the third volume five other recently explored caves were documented (Pulina 1998). In last years of 20 th century and first years of the next century the cavers from Limanowa discovered seven new caves (Bubula 1999, 2001b). The activity of the first members (founders) of the Caver Club in Limanowa motivated younger people to the speleological exploration. In 1999 twelve new caves in ma 2001 2001a). Furthermore, in 2001 the members of the Caver Club discovered sev

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21 currently 150 m 2001b). Fig. 3. covered with roots and mildew ( left ) and tree roots ( right ) (Photo A. Kapturkiewicz) ne): ei a) vor einer Wand mit Wurzeln und Schimmel ( linke Seite) und Baumwurzeln ( rechte Seite) The Bielsko other caver group active in the Beskid W yspowy Mts. Its members documented Okap w Diablim Kamieniu (Shelter in Devil Stone) (Ganszer 1998) and Jaskinia w Modyni (Cave in Mt and 3 m deep) (Ganszer 2001) formerly known by local people from Zbludza village (Fig. 2). Using ground ue 2004 the next eight caves 2006) (Fig. 2). In 2006 A. Kapturkiewicz discov Subsequently, in 2009 2012, he explored many new caves. In January 2009 he found the 27 th cave in Mt everal could have been identified with the legendary buried well in Mt Mogielica (Kapturkiewicz 2004b). In September 2011 Dariusz Gacek informed about a large cave in Mt Mogielica. Thi s information derived from J. Oleksy, forester in Tymbark. In this way Borsucza Dziura (Badger Hole, currently 300 m long and 10 m deep; Fig. 4) and Szczelina w Borsuczej Skale (Crack in Badger Rock) were discovered. Subsequently, in November, Borsucza Stu dnia (Badger Well) was explored. In October Mariusz Bukowiec informed about an interesting cave, which was called Dziura w Polu (Hole in Field, Fig. 5 and back cover information Rysia Dziura na Mogielicy (Lynx Hole i cave objects in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. to the official Polish Cave Database (Grodzicki 2016) is an inglorious fact that has happened recently. One of such objects is a cavity 0.35 m long (theoretically, in the database 2 m long, Fig. 6), the second one is a cavity 0.9 m long (in the database 1.5 m) (Grodzicki 2016 pp. 116, 122). Both objects do not meet the definition of cave, the more that one is an artificial excavation. Both objects have been earlier known , but not identified as caves due to evident reasons (Kapturkiewicz 2001b, 2002).

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22 Fig. 4. Passages of Borsucza Dziura (Badger Hole) (Photo A. Kapturkiewicz) Abb. 4 . Fig. 5. Passage of Dziura w Polu (Hole in Field) (Photo M. Bukowiec) Abb.5 . w Polu (Loch im Fel d) Fig. 6. Comparison of cave object described in the Polish Cave Database with the real state of cavity (after Kapturkiewicz 2016) Abb. 6. Vergleich eines objektes im polnischen heiten (nach Kapturkiewicz 2016)

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23 Th e exploration of caves in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts. has been still continued. Recently, A. Mt ective for the cave buried during the road construction. The most recent discovery occurred on 11 th February 2018. Currently , in database, there are 70 caves in the Beskid Wyspowy Mts., excluding caves that are destroyed, inaccessible and hypothetical. References manuscript: http://bes kidwyspowy.prv.pl/www/jk.bw.02.33n.html Bubula B. 1997. Nowe jaskinie Beskidu Wyspowego, tajemnice podziemi. Echo Limanowskie 49: 5 7. 10. Bu 2001, Limanowa: 3 5. 200 1, Limanowa: 14. Danysz 146. Dunin Borkowski S. 1933. Rabka pp. 31. Eljasz Radzikowski W. 1870. Illustrowany przewodnik do Tatr , pp. 264. Ganszer J. 1998. Okap w Diablim Kamieniu K.Bw 04.01. Zacisk (Bulletin of Bielsko 02.26. Zacisk (Bull etin of Bielsko Limanowa 1995 2001, Limanowa: 35 37. Grodzicki J. (Ed.) 2016. Jaskinie polskich Karpat fliszowych. Uzu PIB, Warszawa, pp. 246. 381. owej (Powiatowa Komisja Letniskowo pp. 12. pp. 92. os Tymbarku 46: 24 25. Kapturkiewicz A. 2001b. Sprawozdanie klubowe SSB 2001 03 04; manuscript: http://www.speleoklub.cba.pl/aktualnosci2001.html#20010304 . Kapturkiewicz A. 2002. Caving Club) 5: 43 51. Kapturkiewicz A. 2004b. O eksploracji na Mogielicy. Jaskinie Beskidzkie (B ulletin of Beskidy Caving Club ) 5: 23. (Bulletin of Beskidy Caving Club) 6: 37 52. Kapturkiewicz A. 2014. Wprowadzenie nazwy Beskid Wyspowy do lite ratury polskiej cz. 1. Echo Limanowskie 240 241: 16 17, 31. Kapturkiewicz A. 2016. Jaskinie Polskich Karpat Fliszowych Jaskinie 83 84: 60 61. 10. Muzeum Archeologiczne, Warszawa: 25 67. Krygowski W. 1965. Beskidy, Wyspowy pp. 347. pp. 152. 2001, Limanowa: 6 7. Leszczycki S. 1931. Grota Lodowa na Strzeblu, w Beskidzie Wyspowym. Wierchy 9: 183 185. 33. i pp. 70. Margielewski W., Urban J. 2017. Gravitationally induced non karst caves: tectonic and morphological constrains, classification, and dating; Polish Flysch Carpathians case study. Geomorphology 296: 160 181. Matuszczyk A. 1986b. Beskid Wyspowy

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24 pp. 79. Matuszczyk A. 1986a. Beskid Wyspowy 80 pp. pp. 422. pp. 510. Ossowski G. 1882. Trzecie Sprawozdanie z bada archeologicznych w jaskiniach okolic Krakowa w r. Krakowie 6: 28 51. 418 420. 411. Przezdziecki A. 1864. Joannis Dlugossii Senioris Canonici Cracoviensis Opera omnia, vol. 9, T. 3. Ex TypographiaKirchmajeriana ,Cra coviae, pp. 480. pp. 228. pp. 261. Warszawa, pp 258. Rostworow skiS. J. 2004. Jan Nepomucen Rostworowski 191. 9. Sosn pp. 352. pp. 248. pp. 442. Sosnowski K. 1930. Prz pp. 234. Staszic S. 1815. O ziemiorodztwie Karpatow i innych gor i rownin Polski. W Drukarni pp. 390. pp. 192. 255. pp. 156. pp. 960. Sulimierski F. pp. 960. 200 1, Limanowa: 6. pp. 257. pp. 6 7 . 9. Witalis Witryna Wydawnicza Strona. Trzebunia, pp. 216. Sanu. Biblioteka Warszawska 3: 476 531. IM BESKID WYSPOW Die Inselbeskiden (das Beskid Wyspowy Gebirge) umfassen als Teil der Beskiden den Westteil der siliziklastisch tonigen Gesteinen aufg ebaut.

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25 Bekanntheitsgrad des Gebietes und setzte so mit erst relativ sp t ein (Kapturkiewicz 2014). Die Entwicklung des Tourismus in Polen reicht bis in die Naturforschern kamen, die durch das der wie eine vergleichsweise flache Gegend vorgekommen sein, die es notwendigerweise zu durchwandern galt , um die Felsregionen zu erreichen . oge, der den Berg am Beginn des 19.Jh. bestiegen hat (Staszic 1815 S. 74) , der Hangrutschung nahe des Gipfels nicht . Radzikowski 1870 S. 211; Sulimierski et al. 1885 S. 8 Flusstales S. 87), der Strasse Bochnia Limanowa (Steczkowska 1858 S. 188) und haben keine Wege benutzt, die die inneren Teile der Inselbeskiden durchquert haben (Abb.1). Die ersten, wenig eindeutigen im Besitz Gebirgszug (auch Dalin genannt) , wo nach einer Legende Eise nerz abgebaut wurde (Witalis . ) vermuteten aufgrund der Berichte von ga, der Goldminen im Beskid Sadecki Gebirge und den Pieniny in S.n 353, 356) abbauen wollte. die auf jenen hinweisen , enthielten S. 8, 319). Die Annalen von Jazowsko (1680 Felsen g ihren Ufer des Dunajec Flusses. n einem 14 98). Dieser floh mit seiner Familie aus Warschau nach Galizien Strzebel (Zejszner 1848 S. 479; Janota 1860 S. 12; Sulimierski et al. 1884 S. 405) und im Diabelski S. 14, 1851) (Abb. 2). Das erste tes 5 m tief) erfolgte durch Gotfryd Ossowski, der dieses Objekt auf seiner Fahrt ins Tatragebirge besuchte (Ossowski 1882 (1931) umbenannt, der sagte, d der auch heute verwendet wird. in den nicht. Der S. 19, 241). In der

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26 war (Sosnowski 1924 S. 126). S. 394; Dunin Borkowski 1933 S. 19; S. 11; Reychman 1937 in den Inselbeskiden, deren Plan ein Grundriss und deren Beschreibung inklusive Fotos publiziert wurde dieser Zeit sind zu nennen: Jawor Jaworz, S. 4; Reychman 1937 S. 41), die Hangrutschung am Berg Borkowski 1933 Borkowski 1933 Nach dem zweiten Welt des gestiegenen allgemeinen aus unserer Region, die kartiert und beschrieben waren: Jaskinia w Jaworzu, Zimna Dziura w Strzeblu u nd Jaskinia w Luboniu Er konzentrierte sich auf Karstgebiete und ignorierte die tonigen Am Beginn der zweiten (Krygowski 1965 S. 59; Wielek 1987 S. (Matuszczyk 1995) waren die einzigen Neuerungen damals. den Inselbeskiden mitten in den Inselbeskiden, Polen erforscht und wandte sich nun der Erfahr ungen die und 14 Czartorysko (Teufelsplatz) (Lesiecki 2001; Bubula 2001b) (Abb . 2). Berg . in weit utlich die Speleoclub fand drei neu Dokumentation wurde zusammengefa ss t mit Karten und Beschreibungen im zweiten den In den letzen Jahre n des 20 . Jh. und den ersten des 21.Jh. entdeckten die Forscher des Limanowa Mitglieder dieses Klubs. In den Jahren 1999 2001 fand 2001a). Weiterhin entdeckten die Mitglieder d

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27 Berg ca (Bubula 2001b). Der Bielsko en westlichen Beskiden) ist die andere Kamieniu (Schutzdach im Teufelsstein) bekannt war (Abb. 2). Mit Hilfe von Bodenradar Messungen (wieder)entdeckten sie auch Jaskinia M 2004 wurden die erforscht (Kapturkiewicz 2006) (Abb. 2). 2006 entdeckte A. (Abb. 3). Auch nachher (2009 27. eigenartige Zeichen in den Felsen oberhalb des Einganges aufweist. Im Juni 2011 grub er nach etlichen ka (Oberer Brunnen) aus, ein n verschwundene Brunnen im Berg Mogielica ident war (Kapturkiewicz 2004b). Im September 2011 berichtete Oleksy aus Tymbark. Auf diese Weise wurden Borsucza Dziura (Dachsloch, derzeit 300 m lang und 10 m tief; Abb. 4) und Szczelina w Borsuczej Skale (Spalt im Dachsfelsen) entdeckt. Danach, im November, wurde Borsucza Studnia (Dachsbrunnen) erforscht. Im O eine sowie auf der hintere n U mschlagseite) Mogielicy (Luchsloch im den ind 2 m angegeben, Abb. 6), das andere ist 0.9 m lang (in der Datenbank 1,5 m) (Grodzicki 2016 S. 116, 122). Beide erreichen nicht die Kriterie angesprochen (Kapturkiewicz 2001b, 2002). kurzem hat A. Jaworz Gebirge lokalisiert. Er registrierte auch einige neue Perspektiven in den Bergsturzgebieten von a. Im letztgenannten wurde ein en und apokryphischen Objekte. Literatur : s i ehe englis c her T ext

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28 SANDSTONE CAVES IN THE CAPERTEE VALLEY REGION OF NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION Jill Rowling 2 Derribong Place, Thornleigh NSW 2120 , Australia; email: jillr @speleonics.com.au Abstract: Small caves in sandstone occur in the Capertee Valley region of New South Wales (NSW), including Dunns Swamp, Mt Marsden, Mt Airly and Clandulla. Several types of sandstone cave are introduced: simple boulder piles, slot canyo ns, eroded overhangs and small caves suggesting a complex speleogenesis reminiscent of caves developed in porous limestone. Introduction The Capertee Valley is a large canyon shaped valley approximately 30 km wide by about 1.2 km deep, lying about 165 km north west of Sydney, Australia. The Capertee River and its ephemeral tributaries such as Crown Creek, Coco Creek and others meander across the valley an d form part of the catchment of the Sydney Basin (Fig. 1) . The annual average rainfall is about 650 mm . Temperatures are within the temperate zone from about the high sediment load, coupled with meandering and occasional f lash flooding events. The sand grains may have originated from several sources: erosion of the nearby cliffs, erosion of cleared agricultural land and erosion of particularly friable sandy soils in the valley. The valley is almost completely surrounded by high sandstone cliffs, at the edge of a sandstone plateau (Fig. 2 ) of mainly Triassic quartz sandstone. This is underlain by Permian conglomerate and coal deposits which generally crop out at the base of the cliffs and are the source of most of the black coal mined in NSW. Fig. 1. Map of study area with main topographic features. Key: A Mt Airly, C small caves near Clandulla, CT overhangs near Cherry Tree Hill, CV Capertee Valley, D Dunns Swamp, M Mt Marsden. Image from Landsat and Google. I nset map from Geosciences Australia . Abb. 1. Karte des Untersuchungs gebietes mit den wichtigsten topographischen Merkmalen: A Mt Airly, C Clandulla, CT Cherry Tree Hill, CV Capertee Tal , D Dunn Sumpf , M Mt Marsde n. Luftbild: Landsat und Google, To the north of the Capertee Valley is Dunns Swamp, a recreation area in a canyon shaped valley, flooded by a concrete dam and surrounded by picturesque quartz sandstone outcrops includ ing pinnacles and pagodas (Fig. 3 ). Although there are small limestone caves in the Capertee Valley, this article is concerned with caves and cavernous features in the sandstones . Caves vary from simple overhangs associated with slots and pagodas (Fig. 4 ) to boulder piles. These appear to have different origins leading to different morphologies.

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29 Fig. 2. Typical pagoda landscape, Mt Marsden (Photo J. Rowling) Abb . 2. Typische Landschaft mit , Mt Marsden Fig. 3. Pinnacles at Dunn s Swamp (Photo M. Lake) Abb . 3. Zinnen beim Dunns S umpf Fig. 4. A small pagoda, slot and overhang on Mt Marsden (Photo J. Rowling) Abb. 4. Mt Marsden Cave types In the region generally, the simplest caves are formed under large boulders which appear to have toppled from the cliffs. Some of these are large enough to have been used as rock shelters by people, both contemporary and aboriginal, and can be seen at Dunns Swamp. Another type o f simple cave is the overhang, such as the Long Cave at Dunns Swamp (Fig. 5). These occur typically along creek lines, and may be the result of physical enlargement by running water along pre weakened zones of groundwater seepage. Slot canyons occur around the edges of the cliffs, typically along

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30 joints or faults, and appear to have been enlarged by water carried grains due to corrasion. As the slot increases over time, more water can be carried and elegant sinuous structures are formed by the power of sedi ment laden water during rain storms. Some of the more accessible canyons are popular in the warmer months. Small sinuous caves occur near the base of the talus slope on the south cliff of Mt Marsden, and similar sinuous half tubes on the top of the south c liff of Mt Airly can be seen from the road. These may have once been part of an active canyon. The Capertee area and Dunns Swamp have many features known as Pagodas (Figs. 4, 6) which are eroded, case hardened sandstone outcrops. Exposed sandstone on the p lateau is often case hardened with quartz (presumed to be opal A and chalcedony after Young et al. 2009). It is suggested that the sclerophyll vegetation may play a part in this process by lowering the pH of the soil in swampy areas and increasing the solu bility of quartz. Fig. 5. The Long Cave at Dunns Swamp (Photo M. Lake) Abb. 5. am Dunns Sumpf Fig . 6. Small cave at Dunns Swamp (Photo M . Lake) Abb. 6. Kleine Sumpf Sandstone overhangs in the Sydney basin are interesting because they appear to require several things to happen before they form, typically in the lower parts of pagodas: they may be formed near a swamp notch, the roof is case hardened, small speleothems occur, typ ically goethite and silica, there may be two different sources of groundwater, one anoxic and one oxygenated, there may be aquicludes, e.g. iron banding, which constrain the groundwater ( e.g. Figs . 7, 8 ) , often partial removal of soil valleyside of the cave is observed, removal of the loose quartz grains inside the cave may be caused by several processes such as animal excavations, water, wind and insect burrowing.

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31 Fig. 7. Iron banding in the small cave on Mt Marsden (Photo J. Rowling) Abb. 7. Eise Mt Marsden Fig. 8. Kamenitza style iron banding at Dunns Swamp (Photo M. Lake) Abb . 8. Kamenitzas und eisenhaltige Sumpf Interestingly many of the sandstone over hangs resemble caves formed in porous limestones such as described by Mylroie et al. (2017). Numerous small caves (overhangs) in the cliffs surrounding the Capertee Valley may form an important shelter for microbats and some birds. A sandstone overhang on Mt Marsden, at the top of the talus slope, is interesting in that the lower part of the cave is in a very white rock resembling a cherty claystone, and the ceiling of the cave has yellow iron coloured honeycomb patterns. The cave has a roughly wedge shaped cros s section with the small end of the wedge at the back of the cave, a fairly flat ceiling, a sloping floor, and vertical joints filled with reddish coloured iron minerals. It is about 2 m high, about 3 m deep and about 10 m wide (Figs. 7, 9) There is another form of overhang near Clandulla to the west of Capertee Valley which appears to be formed at an unconformity between an earlier igneous deposit and a later fluvial deposit (Fig. 10). Dozens of small caves and one large overhang occur in this area. The caves are relatively small (4m x 4m typically) and about 1 2 m high at the entrance. They are formed in conglomerate, possibly by salt wedging the pebbles and grains, and later fluvial removal. A similar form but with less overhang occurs on the south side of Cherry Tree Hill to the west of the Capertee Valley, in an outcrop about 2 m high over a few hundred metres of exposure. The overhang is possibly only about 0.5 m and is not particularly cavernous. Salt is a significant component of groundwater in the Capertee Valley. In cleared areas, salt erosion (loss of topsoil during wet weather) results in cavernous development and piping within particular light soil horizons. For example, one site in farmland had metre deep gullies and small soil piping caves . During rehabilitation work, heavy machinery was used to fill and contour the gullies. Salt tolerant plants were chosen to assist with slope stabilisation. During planting, it was noted that t he soil resembled quicksand and salt was actively precipitating on the sides of planting holes.

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32 Fig. 9 . Cave on Mt Marsden (Photo J. Rowling) Abb. 9. Mt Marsden Fig. 10. One of many small caves in conglomerate near Clandulla (Photo J. Rowling) Abb. 10. Clandul la Discussion Washington and Wray (2011) discussed possible mechanisms for the formation of banded iron pagodas in this region and noted the need for further conclusive studies. There appears to be a connection between iron banding aquicludes in the (Tr iassic) sandstones and the development of caves, an association which needs further work. It is unclear as to whether the long sandstone caves have the same mechanism of development compared with the smaller caves typically associated with pagodas. The cav ernous development of the (Permian) conglomerates appears to be a different process, although restricted to these rock types and may be assisted by salt. be interesting comparisons and contrasts between the sandy rivers in the a gricultural Capertee Valley and the natural sandy rivers in nearby national parks. Conclusions Further work is needed to elaborate on these structures and their origin. In particul ar, mapping of the cavernous outcrops is needed, the types of caves, their geometry compared with those of porous limestones, their association with groundwater, salt, vegetation communities, relationship (if any) with underlying coal seams, joints, faults , and even the small speleothems found in these caves. Modelling, chemistry and microbiological studies may all be helpful. Modelling of the slot canyons could also be possible. Acknowledgements: Many thanks to the Capertee Valley Landcare group for orga nising the trip to Mt Marsden. Thanks to the enthusiastic members of Highland Caving Group for helping with the trip to Clandulla. References: Young R.W., Wray R.A.L., Young A.R. 2009. Sandstone Landforms. Cambridge University Press, pp. 314. Washington H.G. , Wray R.A.L. 2011. The geoheritage and geomorphology of the sandstone pagodas of the north western Blue Mountains region (NSW). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 132: 131 143. Mylroie J.E., Mylroie J., Humphreys W.F, Brooks D., Mid dleton G. 2017. Flank Margin Cave Development and Tectonic Uplift, Cape Range, Australia, 17 th International Congress of Speleology, Sydney, 2017. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 79, 1: 35 47. DOI 10.4311/2015ES0142

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33 PERTEE TALES IN NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIEN Zusammenfassung. Im Gebiet des Capertee Tales in New South Wales (Australien), eingeschlossen Dunns Swamp, verschiedene Typen hier vorgestellt Das Capertee Tal ist ein ausgedehntes, canyonart iges Tal von 30 km Breite und einer Tiefe von ca. 1,2 des Beckens von Syd ney in New South Wales (NSW) (Abb. 1) 650 mm, die Temperaturen liegen zwischen Wirtschaftszweig. Hochwasserereignissen verursacht. Die Sandpartikel entstammen verschiedenen Bereichen: Erosion der Klippen, Erosion von landwir t schaftlichen in den Talbereichen. Das Tal ist fast komplett von hohen Sandsteinklippen umgeben, die den Rand eines Sandsteinplateaus Konglomeraten und Kohle unterlagert, die zumeist an der Basis der Klippen ausstreichen und die Basis des Steinkohlenabbaues in NSW darstellen. Im Norden des Capertee Tales liegt das Feuchtgebiet von Dunns Swa m p (=Sumpf) , ein Erholungsgebiet in einem canyo nartigen Tal, das unterhalb eines Dammes geflutet wurde und von ur mit den Sandstein. und Entstehung aufweis in Dunns Swamp (Abb. 5 ). Dieser Typ komm t entlang der B der Canyons , und erwecken den Eindru ck der Erweiterung durch sedimentbeladenes Wasser (Korrasion, bzw. wasserbasierter mit Kleine, Klippen von Mt. Marsden vor und ebensolche als Halbformen, di e einst Teil eines aktiven Canyons war en aus am Das Capertee genannt werde n (Abb. 4 und 6 ) und die erodie A nach Young, Wray & Yong, 2009). Man nimmt an, dass die Hartlaubwald Vegetation den Prozess durch pH Becken sind speziell interessant, da offenbar verschiedene

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34 sie bil den sich gerne in der Nachbarschaft sumpfiger Einschnitte , , , zwei unterschiedliche Grundwassertypen (anoxisch und sauersto ffreich) kommen vor , es kann Grundwasserstauer geben , 8 ) , , tierische Grabunge n, Wasser, Wind und Insektenbauten verfrachtet . Interessanterweise gleichen viele der Sandstein bei Mylroie et al., 2017 beschrieben werden. pertee Tales sind wichtige Refugien Ein Sandstein Felsdach am Mount Marsden am Oberrand der Schutthalde ist insoferne interessant, als verkieselter Tonstein, liegt, der Boden abfallend und vert ist ca. 2 m hoch, 3 m tief und 10 m breit (Abb. 7 und 9 ). 10 2 m im obei die des Cherry Tree Hills im Westen des Capertee Tales in einem 2 m hohen und mehrere hundert Meter breiten die Bodenbildungen). Beispielsweise gab es an einer Stelle in agrarischen Ab schnitten metertiefe Rinnen und und salzresistente Pflanzen gesetzt. Dabei wurde die Ausbildung von Treibsand unter aktiver Beteiligung des Salzes beobachtet. Disku ssion Washington und in einen Zusammenhang zwischen diesen als Stauer wirkenden Schich den Konglomeraten schei sein senen in den nahen Nationalparks ergeben Schlussfolgerungen Weitere Untersuchungen sind erforderlich um diese Strukturen und ihre Genese zu erforschen. Im en im sowie vielleicht ikrobiologische Untersuchungen hilfreich

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35 Danksagung Unser Dank gilt der Caperteetal des Autoren sind extra angegeben. Literatur: s iehe englischer Text

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36 17. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA 23 29 JULY , 2017 George Szentes UIS Pseudokarst Commission, Auckland Speleo Group, Auckland, New Zealand ; e mail : georgeszentes@yahooo.de Th e Congress took place in Penrith, the suburb of Sydney at the bank of the Nepan River near the Blue Mountains. The Congress venue was located in the Club House of the famous rugby team of Penrith, the Penrith Panthers (Fig. 1). In the Club House five diffe rently sized conference rooms and a large foreground were at service. There were many catering and resting possibilities. Nearby a tent like room was made for the book and equipment sales and for the poster exhibition (Fig. 2). Fig. 1. The venue of the C ongress in Penrith ( P hoto G. Szentes ) Abb. 1. Der Tagungsort in Penrith F our hundred forty seven attendants from 46 countries have been registered. The sixteen topics of the lectures embraced all fields of the speleology. On Sunday, 23 rd July the major part of the registration On 24 th July the opening ceremony took place. The president of the Australian Speleological Society and the representative of the New South Wales Federal State held inauguration (Fig. 2 ). After the inauguration scientific lectures on the Quaternary Australian megafauna records, on the c ave d iving in Australasia and on the Australian k arst and c aves were presented (Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2. The audience of the opening ceremony Fig. 3. Professor presentation afte r ( P hoto G. Szentes ) the opening speeches ( P hoto G. Szentes ) Abb. 2. szeremonie Abb.

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37 The Session on Non Karst Caves was executed on the same day, afternoon. During t his session 9 presentations from different parts of the world were shown (Fig. 4 and 5 ). In the opening a commemoration on the recently deceased Dr Robert A. L. Wray was held. Thereafter the following lectures have been presented: Francesco Sauro, Robert A.L. Wray : Scientific research and explorations in quartzite and quartz sandstone caves ; John Dunkley, Terry Bolger : An unusual maze cave in sandstone, NE Thailand ; : Historical notes and research history of the non kar st caves in Hungary (Fig. 5 ) ; Bulat R. Mavlyudov : Origin of caves in glaciers and glacial sheets ; Douglas M. Medville : Piping cave development in a high gradient setting: Kutz Canyon, New Mexico, USA ; Claude Mouret : Types of caves present in the Kali mantan Barat Province, Borneo, Indonesia ; Claude Mouret : Speleogenesis underneath basaltic lava flows in Niut Mountains, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia ; Claude Mouret : Some fundamental features of speleogenesis in sandstone, Claude Mouret : Caves and other features in glaciers and icebergs, Graham Land, Antarctica . Fig. 4. The audience of the Pseudokarst Session Fig. 5. George Szentes gives his presentation on ( P hoto G. Szentes) the Pseudokarst Session ( P Abb. 4. Session Abb. 5. Georg Szentes bei seiner der Pseudokarst Session After the lectures t he UIS Pseudokarst Comm ission meeting was executed. About 10 people participated in the meeting, including George Veni (during the Congress he was elected to the position of President of the UIS) as well as the members of the Commission: George Szentes, Peter Crossley and John D unkley. George Szentes red and introduced the Report on the past activity ( 2013 2017) and the future plans of the Commission. George Veni mentioned the Commission was one of the most active in the UIS. G. Szentes introduced the recent issue of the Pseudo ka rst Commission Newsletter and the respective web addresses. According to G. Szentes, there is huge number of non karst cave studies and explorations all over the world, like the enormous sandstone regions of Australia, New Mexico in the USA, Indonesia etc . He suggested to extend the Commission activity and the membership to the other regions and continents. The new persons are supposed to contribute the Newsletter and keep in contact via e mail with the Commission executive and its other members. On 25 th July the lectures were presented throughout the day. In the evening the French delegation held a reception. They displayed Lyon and its surroundings as the proposed location of the next Congress in 2021. An all day trip was to the Jenolan Caves on 26 th Ju ly. The participants were taken by four coaches to the caves via Katoomba city and the Blue Mountains (Fig. 6 ). There we re various possibilities for th e participants to visit the show caves, for touring on the surface or to listen an underground cello conc ert. Lucas Cave, Baal Temple Cave and Di a mond Cave were the show caves visited during this trip (Figs . 7, 8, 9). Returning to the Penrith Club House nearby we got into the usual Wednesday night market, where we ate wearily the delicious food. The lecture s were presented t hroughout the days of 27 th and 28 th July. The closing banquet with the reward and price giving ceremonies was held in the evening of 28 th July (Fig. 1 0 ).

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38 In the General Assembly and full UIS Bureau Meeting on Saturday, 29 th ,July, the ne w following leadership was elected for the next four years: President: George Veni (USA) ; Vice president: Czech Republic ) ; Secretary General: Fadi Nader (Lebanon) ; Assembly decided unanimously to establish Lyon in France as the venue of the next Congress in 2021. On the account of the Pseudokarst Commissions, G. Szentes summarized the main points of the Commission meeting and the plans, which were accepted by the vote of the Assembly. I can say that 1 7. International Congress of Speleology was successful from point of scientific and organizational view. Thank you Down Under! Fig. 6 . The Three Sisters rock formation in the Blue Mountains ( P hoto G. Szentes) Abb. 6 . Die Felsbildungen der Three Sisters in de n Blue Mountains Fig. 7 . Lucas Cave ( P hoto G. Szentes) Abb. 7 . Fig. 8 . The Baal Temple ( P hoto G. Szentes) Abb. 8 . The Baal Tempel Fig. 9 . Diamond Cave ( P hoto G. Szentes) Abb. 9 . Diamond Fig. 1 0 . Closing banquet ( P hoto G. Szent es) Abb. 1 0

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39 SYDNEY, 23 29 . JULY 2017 itzung Flusses nahe der Blue Mountains im Klubhaus de Team statt (Abb. 1 ). Hier g ibt und Ruhebereiche zur stand ein zeltartig er und und die Posterausstellung Teilbereiche der der Hauptteil der Registrierungen a bgeschlossen und eine abendliche Ice Breaker Party begann, die eigentliche lo gischen Gesellschaft fiziell (Abb. 2 ). a sien und 3 ). Die Pseudokarst der Welt statt. Die dort gehaltenen Pseudokarst Bericht aufgelistet (siehe dort und auch in Abb. 4, 5 der Pseudokarst Kommission. Sie begann mit einer Gede nkminute an Dr. Robert Wray, einem Mitglied unserer Kommission. der UIS, George Veni sowie John Dunkley teil. Seitens der Kommission nahmen Teil: George Szentes, P eter Crossley und John Dunkley (neu) vor Adresse kurz. George Veni bezeichnete unsere Kommission als eine der aktivsten in der UIS. G. Szentes h ob Karst Studien weltweit gibt und verweist auf ahl eine Erweiterung und auch der Mitarbeiter aus anderen Regionen und Kontinenten, vor allem in Hinblick auf den Nachrichtenbrief und e mail Kontakte. g ige Vortragsserien, am Abend veranstaltete die Delegation Frankreichs einen Empfang und stellte die Mounta i ns mittels 4 Bussen veranstaltet (Abb. 6 ). Hier gab es verschiedene Varianten des Besuches, ein Cellokonzert im 7, 8, 9 House benachbarten Mittwochnachts Markt, womit auch die Kulinarik nicht z u kurz kam. Der 27. und 28.Juli waren wiederum Vortragstage, am Abend des zweiten Tages folgte dan ach das Bankett und verschiedene Preisverleihungen (Abb. 1 0 ). Bei der Generalversammlung und einem UIS Treffen wurde das folgende UIS Pr sident: George Veni (USA); Vi z e P r sident: ( Tschechische Republi k ); General : Fadi Nader (L i banon); Kom mission stellte G. Szentes deren aktuelle die von der Generalversammlung per Abstimmung genehmigt wurden. Aus Sicht des Berichterstatters in wissenschaftlicher und organisatorische r Hinsicht

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40 mail: eszterhas.istvan@gmai l.com with a basalt top. In the sandstone a coal seam occurs, which had been mined in the past. In May 1917 a massive landslide shook the surroundings of one meter, and consequently, a 600 m long crevice opened. In some parts the crevice ha s a ceiling and thus 32 caves were formed. They are so called consequence caves, meaning that an artificial mine galler ie s were enlarged by a natural process thus equilibrating the growing tension in the rocks. The very special fact that we know the exact date of the origin of these caves prompted us to introduce the history and exploration of the caves to the intere sted public. The 100 th anniversary was celebrated by a conference offering presentations and discussions in the clubhouse of the Novohrad Geopark as well as an excursion to the surface and into some caves of Mt The event took place on 7 th of the Novohrad Geopark (Fig. 1) . The morning session comprised five opening speeches given by the mayors of o f the Hungarian Caving Society. Representative of the Novohrad Park as well as several following presentations: Fig. 1. Clubhouse of the Geopark Novohrad Abb. 1. Verein s haus des Nov ohrad Csaba Egri : Survey of Hungarian and international caves : Non karstic caves in the Karancs : Tree Guerhiu Mountains (Romania) : Surveying the caves in Mt S In the afternoon the area and some caves of Mt (Figs. 2 6) . In between we la i d down a wreath on the commemorative plate of was the first who did a scientific exploration of years ago. After the trip all participants were Fig. 2. View from Mt Szilv Abb. 2. Berg

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41 Fig. 3. Some participants Abb. 3. Einige der Teilnehmer Berg Fig. 5. Most caves are narrow Abb. 5. umeist eng Fig. 6. A consequence cave ZUM 100. GEBURTSTAG DER IM mit einem Basal einen Meter verschoben wurde und sich eine 600 m lange Spalte bildete. an

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42 dass ein ein Ausgleich der angewachsenen Spannung im Ge stein stattfand. Die besondere Tatsache, dass das genaue die Jahr eine r des Novohrad Geoparks statt (Abb. 1) die Geoparks und die Direk Csaba Egri Gebirge Guerhiu Berg : Die Geburt Berg Berg Berg (Abb. 2 6) . wissenschaftlich erforschte und vor 120 Jahren geboren wurde. Nach der Tour wurden die Teilnehmer von

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43 EUROSPELEO 2018/2019 Eurospeleo 2018 , the 12 th Eu roSpeleo Forum of the FSE took part in August 2018 in the township of and the EU. It did not include a specific pseudokarst event (in fact, by far the most cave s that could be visited during the event are karst caves) but at least there was one excursion to a huge artificial subsurface tunnel, which had been described in the previous issue of the Newsletter (No. 27, p p . 45 in the town of Linz which hosts ample peculiar speleothems perfectly resembling karst features , but with a most likely diverse genesis. This excursion included a visit to another exotic and unique manmade tunnel nearby, full of art s and oddities. Another pseudokarst rela ted excursion led to the largest boulder caves in Austria, the so called Saubachl Caves in the western part of lower Austria in the granites of the Southern Bohemian Massif, some 500 m long. Eurospeleo 2019 will be organized in Bulgaria (26. 29.September) https://esf2019.speleo bg.org/wp content/uploads/2018/11/1st circular 13th EuroSpeleoForum.pdf R.P. EUROSPELEO 2018/2019 Eurospeleo 2018 , d as 12.EuroSpeleo Forum der FSE wurde von lokalen Organisationen im August in und auch der EU liegen. Es gab zwar keinen e in Linz , der im vorigen Mitteilungsblatt (Nr. 27. Seite 45 47) bereits kurz vorgestellt wurde. Hier finden sich ausgedehnte Tropfsteinfo rmen, die jenen in werken des Erbauers und anderen Besonderheiten ist. Im die in den Graniten des Eurospeleo 2019 wird in Bulgarien stattfinden (26. 29.September) https://esf2019.speleo bg.org/wp content/up loads/2018/11/1st circular 13th EuroSpeleoForum.pdf

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44 CARBIDIMITES to Carbimites, a semi natural mineralogical phenomena recently observed also in his ho me country, the Netherlands. Nevertheless it was already mentioned by Hill and Forti (1997) in their fundamental book: Cave Minerals of the Carbidimites may form after the deposition of carbide dump due to natural weathering and subsequent alterat ion into calcite that sometimes form s s peleothems. Jan Paul furthermore reported that some Dutch caving groups (like http://www.vanschaikstichting.nl/ ) are currently performing even deeper research on that m atter in subterranean chalk quarries in the Netherlands, e.g. in the Mergelgrotten in Limburg. Some of such studies ha ve been published in their newsletter unfortunately only in Dutch. As most of us may not have seen such features in nat ure, yet, Fig. 1 shows an example from France. We encourage our readers to look for these true pseudokarst, although calcareous speleothems in their areas and just in case to prepare a short report for future issues of our Newsletter as some remnants o f carbide and perhaps carbidimites may still be present even ages in the LED era. Reference Hill C., Forti P. 1997. Cave minerals of the World. Nat. Spel. Soc., Huntsville, 463 pp. R.P. from Auvers sur Oise, France ( P hoto H . courtesy by CC BY ND 2.0), no scale. Abb. 1. K a r bidimit Auvers dur K ARBIDIMIT Unser Kommissionsmitglied Jan Paul von der Pas hat uns auf anthropogen induzierte mineralogische Erscheinungen in Holland aufmerksam gemacht, die auch bereits im grundlegenden Werk von Hill und Forti of the K di http://www.vanschaikstichting.nl / ) eingehende Untersuchungen und Tests zum Beispiel in den Mergelgrotten in Limburg angestellt haben. Leider ist die entsprechende Arbeit in ihrer Zeitschrift aum derartige Formen bisher zu Gesicht bekommen haben, zeigt Abb. 1 eine solche Bildung dieser Art Ausgaben unseres Nachrichtenbriefs/Newsletters kurz zu berichten. Es kann durchaus sein, dass auch noch im LED Zeitalter Reste von Karbid vorhanden sind, aus Voraus setzungen auch in anderen Gebieten der Welt K .

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45 NEW APPROACH TO A CAVE CLASSIFICATION A new publication concerning a classification scheme based on 6000 caves in eastern Austria came to our a ttention, appearing in Geological Society of London Special Publication, 466 (see abstract below). It is of particular significance for the Pseudokarst Commission as several papers of our (former) Commission members have been taken into account (like Bella ; Margielewski and Urban 201 7 ). co editor of the Newsletter ( rudolf.pavuza@nhm wien.ac.at ) Refer ences solution caves. In: Filippi M., Bosak P. (ed.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Speleology, 21 18.07., Brno, v. 3: 237 242. \ Margielewski W., Urban J. 2017. Gravitationally induced non ka rst caves: tectonic and morphological constrains, classification, and dating; Polish Flysch Carpathians case study. Geomorphology 296: 160 181. Laic 40:31 52. R. P. EINE NEUE PUBLIKATION EIN KLASSIFIKATIONSSCHEMA F R H HLEN Eine neue Publikation (erschienen in: Geol. , erreichte die Redaktion des Nachrichtenbriefs (siehe Zusammenfassung). Die Arbeit ist von besonderem Interesse, da sie und Bella, 2013; Striebel, 2005 ; Marg ielewski und Urban 201 7 ). Der gesamte englischsprachige Text kann bei Bedarf als PDF vom Co oder vom Co Editor des Nachrichtenbriefs ( rudolf.pavuza@nhm wien.ac.at ) angefordert werden. A genet ic classification of caves and it s application in eastern Austria Pauline Oberender and Lukas Plan* *lukas.plan@univie.ac.at Abstract Based on existing classifications of caves that often involve descriptive terms, a classification is presented that is b ased purely on genetic processes. An attribute key is developed that allows the classification of caves by means of cave maps, photographs and reports. This method is applied to a dataset of 6007 caves in a study area in eastern Austria. The area comprises diverse geological units of the Eastern Alps and the southern Bohemian Massif. A total of 94% of the caves could be classified with the surprising result that mechanical weathering and erosion caves are almost as common as solution caves even though the v ast majority of caves are developed in carbonate rocks. Field checks confirmed the result and showed that the error is acceptable. The classified caves can also be used as indicator of natural phenomena like gravitational mass movements or vulnerable karst areas by decision makers non specialized in cave genesis. Zusammenfassung der der der Objekte in Karstgebieten liegt. Feldaufnahmen verifizierten die erhaltenen Ergebnisse und zeigten, dass nomene wie Massenbewegungen die

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46 IN MEMORIAM AHMAD AFRASIABIAN 1947 2017 Ahmad Afrasiabian (Tehran, Iran) c onducted his PhD studies in Graz University of T echnology in of to Iran and established the Iran karst research cent r e with over 40 experts employed . He was involved in several cave explorations and mapping in Iran and he was also a co ublished several articles in a field of karst hydrogeology. Dr Afrasiabian was a member of the UIS Pseudokarst Commission since 2008. spezialisierte sich dabei auf Karsth des waren. Er und vermessungen beteiligt und auch Co des Themen verfasst. Dr. Afras iabian war seit 2008 Mitglied der UIS Pseudokarst Kommission.

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47 IN MEMORIAM JOHN DUNKLEY 1943 2018 John Dunkley was a prominent Australian geologist, speleologist and cave r , w ho studied numerous cave regions in Northern Austra lia and Asia and authored many books and papers on caves, their management currently and in the past, and their conservation . Among these publications are books that concern the J enolan Caves, caves in Thailand, as well as the . He was also an active member ( or lea der ) of some organisations and foundations dedicated to cave research, management and protection , as well as an organizer (co organizer) of many conferences and other meetings on caves , show caves and speleology . In 19 83 1986 John Dunkley was a president of the Australian Speleological Foundation. He participated in the International Congresses of Speleology in Brno (2013) and Sydney (2017); in this last one he participated as a representative member of the UIS Pseudoka rst Commission . In the anterior issue of the Pseudokarst Newsletter (no. 27 , 2017 ) he wrote an obituary notice o f Ken Grimes ... . Er war auch aktives management und schutz, daneben (Co Kongressen 2013 (Brno) und 2017 (Sydney) teil, beim letztgenannten auch als Mitglied der Pseudokarst Kommission. In der letzten Ausgabe des Nachrichtenbriefes (Nr. 27 , 2017 noch den Nachruf an seinen Landsmann Ken Grimes ...

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