The French turpentining system applied to longleaf pine

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The French turpentining system applied to longleaf pine

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The French turpentining system applied to longleaf pine
McKee, E. R.
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Washington, D.C.
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
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Longleaf pine -- Turpentining ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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029189908 ( ALEPH )
16821566 ( OCLC )
F68-00011 ( USFLDC DOI )
f68.11 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Florida Studies

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• • UNITED STATES DEPARTMENToFAGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT CIRCULAR 327 Was h ingt o n, D. C. O cto b er, 1924 THE FRENCH TURPENTINING SYSTEM APPLIED TO LONGLEAF PINE E. R. McKEE Deputy Forest Supervisor, Florida National ForesL, Forest Service Gre a t and irr e parabl e damag e i1 b ei n g done to the 1 e condg row t h long leaf pine in parts o f the South by de1 t r act i11e turpen ti n i ng method,. This c ircular 1ets for th ex p erime n ts car ri ed on for six year , i n the Flor ida National For est . The results of these exper iments indicat e that the sec o nd-g row t h long leaf p i n e can be worked profit abl y u nder the French 1 y 1tem of turp enti n ing, a n d that , fo r the permanent welfa r e of the na11al-1 tor e 1 indus try of the South , operator s i n s econd growth forest s would do well to adopt the g o verning pri n c i ples of the French s y stem. INTRO D UCTION The naval-stores industry of the Southern States dates back to colonial times, and subseq_uent to the Civil War it has held a place among the industries of the South inferior only to agriculture and lumbering . Since 1820, or, in fact, since statistics of any value became available, American production of naval stores has l ed the world, and even now is nearly 70 per cent of the total world production. So pronounced, however, is the depletion of the timber upon which our naval-stores industry depends that the industry is commonly regarded as a dying one. Steps should be taken in the immediate future to work conservatively the remaining supp l y of virgin timber and to adopt a method of turpentining the second-growth trmber that will insure a p rofitable yield over a l ong period of years while it is maturing. Otherwise, we can look forward only to a steady decline in production with d efinite indications that another decade will see the gum navJ.-stores industry in the South forced to seek new fields for its supply of timber. Contrast this situation with that of the industry in France, where the output of naval stores has been growing steadily for more than 80 years and where it is still increasing yearly in amount and value, with little or no reduction in the timber supply. The answer is the use in France, both by private owners and by the Government, of a 8ystem of turpentining based upon the scientific development of the idea that a pine tree can be J?rofitably worked for turpentine over the major portion of the tim~ it 1s growing to saw-timber size. 1911-24t-l


2 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture The approaching shortage in the South of longleaf and slash pine available for naval-stores operations makes of great interest the possibility of using ' this French system or some modification of it in our ow_n pineries and thus giving a new lease on life to our gum navalstores mdustry. Under the French system, a forest area is profitably worked for turpentine during a _period of from 30 to 50 years (fig. 1), with short intervals of rest, without materially reducing the saw-timber value of the trees. An American operation, on the contrary, is very shortliv ed, by far the great~ fart of the timber being worked not more than 5 or 6 years and much o it only 3 years before 1t is cut for saw timber. Prior to 1915 the French method of cupping and chipping had not been tried on longleaf pine on a commercial scale . As a possibility to be considered for application to Government timber, now or in the F-42053A FIG. 1.-A turpentine orchard in the Landes, France. Maritime pine future, the Forest Service of the United States Department of Agri culture desired to try it out careful ly,, under commercial conditions. Accordingly, arrangements were mad.e in 1915 for the experiment, the results and history of which are set forth in this circular. The original experiment was undertaken not as a part of the strictly scientific research activities of the Forest Service, but rather as a feature of the administrative plan for the w~stern division of the Florida National Forest, where the extensive Government holdings of longleaf pine timber lands made essential the development of a commercially soun d and yet conservative standard practice in turpentining. The plan was conceived and inaugurated by Forest Inspector I. F. Efdredge, at that time supervisor of the Florida Forest. The writer has been continuously in direct charge of the operations from their initiation in 1915.


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pine 3 OBJECTS OF THE EXPERIMENT It was desired to ascertain (1) by actual operation over a period of years long enough to give a reasonably safe average, what flow of gum1 as compared with that under the reO'ular Government method, would result from the French method; (2) what effect the French system would have upon the trees; and (3) by a practical commercial opera tion on a small scale, whether or not the French method could be applied profitably by a typical American naval-stores operator with an average plant and the ordinary grade of turpentine labor using French tools. PLAN OF OPERATION A coo pcrativ-e agreement was entered into by the Forest Service with the Garniers Turpentine Co., of Garniers, Fla., to operate for naval stores the Government timber in section 28, township 1 south, range 23 west, Tallahassee base and meridian (fig. 2), according to F--02135A Fm. 2.-Best Government timber in Florida National Forest. Near East Bay Ranger Station. Longleaf Pine s1;>ecifications to be laid down by forest officers. The company fur rushed and directed the labor in putting up the cups, chipping the faces, dipping and hauling the gum, and raking the trees. A forest officer insp ecte d the work each week during tlie season and weighed and recorded the dip and scrape. The 640-acre tract contains a pure open stand of longleaf pine, typical of the timber in this division of the Florida National Forest. The ground is level, without streams or swamps. The trees average 12 inches in diameter breast high and run 26 trees per acre over 8 inches in diameter. The stand is old and is consider ably below the average quality of longleaf pine stands in the South. The soil is a deep white sand with no hard-pan or clay subsoil. The area lies about 3 miles north of the north shore of Choctawhatchee Bay. The section was divided, as shown by the sketch map (fig. 3),


4 D e p artment Circ ular 327 , U . S. D e p t . of Agri cu lt u r e i nto four 160 -ac re " driits . " T he age, size, and quality of the tim b e r i s pract i c all y t h e sa m e in the four drif ts. 181 Approx I rnat-e Locat-ion of Ex perl rnenta I Area C N '+-U o 0 QI 0 .: "O cc 0 ~o 00 .c "O -"O • C ,~C t (\J t C 2 o o G>E w~ Ql I-Q) C ... 1-E.C>-LL E LL OE IJ.. .c IJ.. +x -C -: -0 -Q) IIJ1-er: L 0::: I C a:: C a: o~,t 0 Q) 0 0 Q) O~.c'+-> o> rt ~oo 0 c& (!) -o'u ., 'I--Q) C zos ~t Q) Layout--01" Drfft5 I n Section ZB Town:shl p I .South, R enge 2:, We:sr FIG. 3 .-The experimen tal area Drift No. 1 was cupped and chipped according to the regular Government method prescr ibed in the l eases to commercia l turpen t in e operators throughout the F l orida National Forest . No trees F -2668A FIG. 4.-Drift No . 1. Gove rnm ent m et hod during first season. Eleven streaks on faee s 9 inc h es w i de be low 10 inches i n dia m ete r 4 feet above the ground were cupped; not more than one c u p was pl aced o n trees 10 to 16 inches in diameter; •


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pine 5 not more than two cups on trees 17 to 24 inches in diameter, and not more than three cups on any tree . The McCoy metal cup and horizontal apron were used. The cup was placed as near the ground as possible, the first streak being chipped at the time the apron was installed and placed within 3 inches of the apron. Cups were so placed on the two cup trees that an 8 -in ch bar of uncut wood was left between faces . Chipping and pulling was done with No. 0 hacks and pull e rs; depth and height of streak did not exceed one-F 24647A FIG. 5.-Dri!t No, 2 , Narrow-f a c e d modification of Goverv_ment m e thod a t e nd of first season. Faces a v e r a g e d 6 inc hes wide half inch. During the si..-x years' operations 20 streaks were lost. Faces averaged 8.9 inches wide (fig. 4). Drift No. 2 differed from the regular Government method in that smaller trees were cupped and the faces were narrower. No trees below 8 inches in diameter 4 feet from the ground were cupped; not more than one cup was placed on trees 8 to 12 inches in diameter; not more than two cups on trees 13 to 17 inches in diameter, and not more than three cups on any tree. On two-cup trees the cups were placed on opposite sides of the tree, and on three-cup trees


6 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture they were equidistant around the tree. All other conditions of cupping and chipping were the same as under the regular Government method, except that the faces were only 6 inches wide. During the six years 24 streaks were lost (fig. 5). Dr ift No. 3 was cupped and chipped strictly' in accordance with the :French speci:6.cat10ns. No tree s below 8 inches in diameter 4 feet from the ground were cupped; not more than one cup was placed on trees 8 to 12 inches in diameter ; not more than two cups F -24648A FIG. 6.-Drift No. 3. Fre n c h m e thod a t end of first seas on. Scrape not r e mov e d . F aces av e ra g e d 3 inc hes wid e on trees 13 to 17 inches in diameter , and not more than three cups on any tree. On two-cup trees cups were placed on opposite sides of the tree, and on three-cup trees they were equidistant around the tree. All tools used in this drift were the regulation French turpentine tools imported for the purpose: The first operation in cupping was to thin the bark for the fust season ' s work. A groove like face 3 inches wide and 7 inches up the tree was then chipped, a circular gutter inserted, and a Herty clay cup hung undel' the


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pine 7 gutter. In regular chipping the streak was one-half inch deep in the center, tapering to a feather edge, and was frequently five eighths inch high. During the six years' experiment 26 streaks were lost (fig. 6). Drift No. 4 was cup:ped and chipped somewhat according to the French system, but with wider faces. The same diameter limits were observed in determining the number of cups to be placed on a tree, and French tools were employed. The regular French method F-24649A FIG. 7.-Drift No. 4 . Wide-f a c e modification of Fre nch m e thod at e nd of fir s t seaso n . Scrnp e n o t r e mov e d . F aces 8 inches wid e of operation, however, was departed from to the extent that the faces were made 6, 8, and 10 inches wide instead of the 3 -inch width commonly used. In addition, the first faces were chipped 10 inches high to start with, and a horizontal cup and apron were used. Owing to the difficulty in chif ping the high, wide faces with the French tools, this modification o the French method was aban doned at the end of the fourth year. During the four years 25 streaks were lost (fig. 7).


8 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture HISTORY OF THE EXPERIMENT The cupping on the experimental area was begun on March 8, 1915, in drift No. 1, under the Government method. The drifts were cupfed in regular seq_uence, the work being completed on April 7 in drift No. 4, under the wide-face modification of the French method. Drifts Nos. 1 and 2 were cupped with the regular American tools; French tools employed in commercial operations in France were used in drifts Nos. 3 and 4. The first streak was chipped in all drifts at the time cups were installed, and an interval of three weeks elapsed before regular chipping was begun. When the first French drift was reached it was necessary to re organize the cup crew according to their aptness in mastering the use of the French tools. However, after a short time had been spent in working out the assignments to the men to the parts of the work for which they were best fitted, the cupl)ing proceeded satisfactorily. It was found that the French method of placing cups was easier than the regular Government method; the number of cups installed and the cost per cup were practically the same. In drift No. 4 cupping proceeded somewhat slowly on account of the necessity of chipping a much lar~er surf ace for the first face. The cups were moved up twice cturing the operations in all the drifts-at the end of the first, and again at tlie end of the third season's work. During the first four years of the experiment labor was scarce and unstable, and it was frequently necessary to break in new chippers. This materially a:ff ected the work in the two French drifts, where a new man usually had to chip two streaks before he became adept in the method and in the u se of the French tools. In chipping under the French method approximately one half inch of new wood is taken from the upper side of the face and the old face is renewed, center and edge, downward 3 inches. The tendency of an untrained chipper is to square, more or less, the oval peak. This means that the desired f eatherlike edge of the streak can not be obtained without exceeding the width limit of the face. Unless overcom~, this tendency results in a lower yield from the new streak on account of the small area of freshly chipped surface . . Three severe West Indian hurricanes occurred during the life of the operations-two in 1916 (in July and October) and the third in October, 1918. The duration and severity of these hurricanes caused a considerable reduction in yield during the years 1916, 1917, and 1918, and about the time the timber regained its productive powers in 1920 a heavy mast crop caused another falling off. In order that a correct record of the yield from the experimental area might be kept, 24 dip barrels were set aside and used exclusively for the experiment. Six oarrels were allotted to each drift, the barrels being numbered and painted a different color for each drift. The operations were inspected at least once each week by a forest officer, who saw that the specifications of the experiment were com plied with, recorded each streak chipped, and weighed and recorded the dip and scrape after it reached the still.


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pine 9 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Table 1 shows the number of faces that can be worked on a given area under the different methods employed in the experiment, and the yield of crude turpentine gum that can be obtained on an area basi s . Of chi e f interes t is the comparision of yield obtained by the r egular Government method with that obtamed by the French method. The m ethods employed on drifts Nos. 2 and 4 are m e rely modifications of the two methods around which the experiment was centered. Drift No. 4 was abandoned at the end of the fourth season's work because the method was not adapted to high faces. The age, size, and quality of the timber is practically the same on all four of the drifts. The average number of faces per tree is about the same, and the difference in number of faces per drift is largely due to the different cupping diamete r limits imposed. Total heights of French faces are greater because 7-inch faces were chipped at the beginning of the operation, and also because, in chipping, a little in excess of one half mch of new wood was frequently taken from the upper side of the face. Table 1 shows that six more streaks :r>er face were chipped on the Government drift than on the French, but that the actual yield of the French chift is 46 :per cent (approximately 30 barrels of spirits) greater. The increase 1s due to the fact that 1t was possible to work more faces on an equal acreage under the French method. TABLE 1.-Summary of the experiment and its results Drift No. DriftNo.4, Drift No. 2, narr ow• f a ce modi-Drift No. wid e-face 1, Gove rn-cati o n of 3, French modift ca m ent Go ve rnm ethod tion of metho d ment Fre nch m ethod m ethod Area in drift.. _______ ___________________________ a cr es _ _ 160 160 160 160 Numbe r of tre es cuppe d ________________________________ 2 , 1 8 4 3,622 5 ,341 3 ,640 Numbe r of cups place d _ ____ ___________________________ _ 2 , 395 4,675 6,385 4,024 Average numbe r of f aces per tree _______________________ 1. 2 1. 3 1 . 2 1.1 Ave rag e w idth offaces _________________________ in c hes __ 9 6 3--4 8 H e ight effaces at end of sixth y car _____________ in c h es._ 79 80 104 ( 1 ) Total numbe r of streaks per face.---------------------172 168 166 107 Number of seasons work e d _____________ _ ______________ _ 6 6 6 4 Actual total yield: Pounds of dip _________________________________ _____ 87, 745 120,.657 117,980 74,255 Pounds of s crape ___ _____________________________ ___ 20,670 29,620 40,530 20,460 Total_ -_________ __________________ _______________ 108,415 1 50,27 7 158, 510 94, 715 Tota l yield per crop I in pounds of dij> and sc r a pe on b asis of32 streaks r:r season on all drifts ______________ 508,300 366,800 288,800 286,600 Average annua l yie l of spirits of tury::ntin e p e r c r op o n b as i s of 32 s t reaks per s eason on al drifts ______ cas k s __ 40. 5 29. 3 22. 4 (1) 1 Abando n e d a t e n d o f fourth y ear. ' A 41 c rop" i s 10,000 c up s . As may be seen from Table 1 , the percentage of scrape from drift No. 3, French method, was considerably higher than from either drifts No. 1 or No. 2. This was larg ely due to the higher faces over which the gum had to flow to reach the cups, particularly during the last two years of working, and to a less extent to the heavy ramfall in the same two years.


10 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture The number of casks of spirits given at the bottom of Table 1 does not represent the actual yield from the different drifts, but is an estimate of yield from a crop of 10,000 faces based on the same rate of production as was actually secured on the experimental areas. On the basis of yield per crop the Government method (drift No. 1) shows better results on account of the working of a larger surface of F-174721 FIG. 8.-Drilt No. l. Government method . Height at end ol sLxth sea son indicated by caliper. Faces averaged 79 inches high and 9 inches wide face, and on a crop basis the yield is 76 per cent greater than by the French method. However, this seemingly large increase is more than offset by the increase of 168 per cent in acreage necessary to obtain it. These faces can be worked for 2 years more, which will exhaust


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pin e 11 their productive valu e, and the n the timber can b e back-cupped and worked under the Gov e rnm ent system 6 or 7 additional years (ficr. 8). The turpentine value of the timber will then have been extausted and a new crop of timber will have to be grown before the area can again be turpe ntined. F -174722 FIG. 9.-Drift No. 3. F r e n c h m e thod a t e n d of s ixth seaso n . F aces averaged 104 inc hes hi g h and 3 inc hes wide. Note face g rowin g o ve r at botto m On the basis of yi e ld per acre the French system shows better results, with an increase of 52 per cent in production over the Govern m ent system. (See Table 2.) This is due to the fact that trees of smaller diameter can be worked without damage and with profit, thus incr e asing considerably the number of producing faces. On timber of practically the same density of stand the French method


12 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agric ulture gave 39.90 cups per acre and the Governm ent method 14.95 At this rate 250 acre s will cup a crop of French face s , as against 670 acres under the regular Government method. In contrast to the Government drift, the French drift can be worked over several additional period s , each being as productive, or more so, than the first, and during all this time the smaller trees will maintain their growth. Nature's processes of healing over the first faces will be well under way (fig . 9). TABLE 2.-Y ield per acre in pounds of dip and scrape . On basis o f 32 streaks e~ch y e a r on each drift Season Drift N o. 1, Govern• m ent m ethod Drift No. 2 , n a r r owf a c e modi flcation of Govern• m ent m ethod Drift No. 3, French m ethod DriftN o .4, wide.face modifies• tion of Fre n c h m ethod 1915 .................................................... 228. 61 143. 27 170. 94 269. 39 mt:::::::::::::: ::::::::::.: .. ::::::::::::::::::::: m: 125. 73 173. 86 140. 88 127. 82 219. 73 153. 25 1918 . . • .•.• •••••• ...... ........ ......•. .. .. . •. ..•.. .. 188. 88 115. 11 138. 21 177. 60 1919 ..•...•••••. --• . . ----. . ...... .......• --. . . . . . . . . . . . . (1 ) 130. 51 213. 89 237. 46 1920 ••• -------------------------------(1) 116. 46 155. 16 174. 01 l----t----+------1----T o tal, 6 years____________________________________ I 719. 79 Average , 6 years__________________________________ 1179. 95 758. 90 1,071.79 1,152. 59 126. 48 178. 63 192. 10 Average number of cups per a.e re_____________ __________ 25. 15 14. 95 29,22 39.90 I Abandoned. 1 Four years. 1 0 r------,----....... ---------........ ----.. G O VERNMENT METh'OL> 9 {j 7 6 ' ~ 5 Alod1r"/ca//on o r , Go~nme/JT Ne/hod 4 --rHEND't METHOO .3 1 9 /S" 1917 /9/{J /9/9 /920 Fm. 10.-Graphi c presentation o f y iel d in pounds of dip and scrape per cup on b asis of d ata. in Tabl e 3 Table 3 shows that the seasons of 1916 and 1917 were the lowes t in point of production for the French drift. (See also fig. 10 . ) This is attribute d to natural causes, such as are en c ountered in all opera tions, and not to the method employed. The hurricanes in 1916, before mentioned, with an unusual amount of rainfall, interfered with the regularity of chipping; and the scarcity of labor, irregular chipJ;>ing, and breaking-in of new chippers had its influence on p r o duct10n in the 1917 season. H o wever, with more r egularity in chipping the following season showed an i ncrease in production . A F r ench face is chipped with a slab streak and is, therefore, respons i ve to regular work.


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pine 13 By referring to Table 4 it will be seen that, on the basis of yield per square inch of surface worked, the difference between the yields is small. But this would not hold true had wide faces been chipped under the small diameter limits used in the French drift. Had this been done the Government system would have shown a decrease in yield. The most important lesson learned from the French method is that the chipping surface should not be increased in order to procure a greater yield, which is certain to be only temporary, and which will mvolve early exhaustion of the tree. The experiment demonstrated clearly that, because trees of small diameter can be used without injury under the French method, the yield on an acre basis is considerably greater than under the Government method. The tryout of the French system of cupping, while carried on for only 6 years, gave every reason to believe that our longl eaf and slash pine second-growth timber can be profitably worked for fully as long a time as the French work their maritime pine-30 to 40 yearswithout materially reducing its vigor and growth. TABLE 3.-Yield per cup in pounds of dip and scrape. Reduced to basis of 32 streaks each year on each drift S eason Drift No. 1, Governm ent method Drift No. 2, narrowf ace modification of Govern m ent method Drift No. 3, Frenc h m ethod 1915..... ..... ..................... ..•...............•.• 9. 65 5 . BS 6. 75 1916............... ........ ............................. 8. 41 5. 95 3. 53 1917......... ................ ..................... ...... 8 . 55 7. 52 3. 84 1918..................... . . . ......... ................... 7. 70 4. 73 4. 45 1919....... . ......... . . ................................. 8. 73 7. 32 5. 95 1920........................................ . ......... . . 7. 79 5. 31 4 . 36 DriftNo.4, wide•face modifica• tion of French method 9 .09 5 . 56 6. 46 7. 55 (1) 1-----+----+-----1----T o t al............... . . . . ........... . . ....... . . ... 50. 83 36. 68 28. 88 Avera g e , 6 y ears........ . . ... ... .................. 8. 47 6.11 4 . 81 1 Abandoned. • Average, 4 years. 28. 66 I 7.17 TABLE 4.-Actual yield per square inch of face exposed, in pounds of dip and scrape Season 1915 .•.......................... ..................... ..• 1916 ................... . . . ................ • 1917 . .............. ........................•..........•• 1918 .•.•.•...•..•..•..••...........................•.••• 1919 ................................................•••• 1920 ..... ..••••••.•.......... . ....... ........•. . . •.•• • • • Total, 6 years ..........•.....•••...•••••..... .... Average , 6 years .......... . . ...•. •...••..•.•...... 1 Abandoned. Drift No. 1, Govern• ment method o. 0715 .0624 .0664 .0616 .0109 .0539 .3867 .0644 Drift No. 2, narrowface modi• cation of Govern• ment method o . 0631 .0669 . 0846 . 0515 .08 3 .0552 . 4036 .0673 1 Four years. Drift No. 3, Franch m ethod 0 . 0599 . 0544 . 0591 . 0653 .0829 .0599 .3815 .0636 Drift No. 4, wide.face modifl ca • tion of French method o. 0328 .0364 .0506 .0543 fl I) • .1741 ' 0435


14 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture The loss of cups under Government methods of chipping, as shown in Table 51 is very low as compared with private operat10ns. This was brought out vividly on a section adjoining the experimental area, where the loss on a private operation exceeded 50 per cent and so lowered the productivity of the remaining trees that the operation had to be abandoned during the fourth season's work on account of the unprofitable yield. A further study of Table 5 shows considerably smaller loss under the French method than that under the regular Government method. Of the methods under consideration, the wider faces show a higher rate of loss in proportion to the exposed surf ace than do the narrow ~m. . Final analysis will show that the loss in the French drift, where the greater part of the timber is overmature, decadent, and not the class of timber best suited for the method, is not appreciably greater than should be expected from natural causes, such as lightning , wind, disease and insects. The French system is better adapted to young second-growth timber, and on s uch an operation death caused from chipping would be practically eliminated. Owing to the narrowness and smooth featherlike edge of the French face, the process of healing over takes place very rapidly. (See fig. 9.) Considering the manner in which the old, slow-growing timber on the experimental area healed, it is believed that with young, thrifty timber complete healing over would take place in 10 or 12 years. TABLE 5._.:._Shrinkage or loss in number o/ cups in five y e ar s' working Drift No. I, Government method Drift No. 2, narrowface modication of Govern-ment method Cups placed in 1915____________________________________ 2,395 4,675 Cups counted in 1920___________________________________ 2, 2W 4,442 Drift No. 3, Franch method 6,385 6,0 : 3 DriftNo.4, wide-face modifica-tion of French method 4,024 (') t----1-----t---+----Lo ss __ ------------------------------------------_ 155 233 302 ------------Per cent of loss___________________________________ 6. 5 5. 0 4. 7 ------------'Abandoned at end of fourth year. COMMON LABOR AND THE FRENCH SYSTEM Six years' trial of the French system of turpentining has demonstrated conclusively that expertness in chipping is much more quickly and easily acg_uired than under the American system, as the freehand stroke with which the American streak has to be chipped is not used (fig. 11). Ordinary labor can become proficient in French chipping in a very few days, whereas under the American system it generally takes a season or more to acquire ability to chip a smooth streak at a specified dei>th and height. A chipper can chip practically the same number of French faces in a working day as he can under the American system. On an extensive . operat10n laborers would readily adapt t!1,e_rnselves to the different phases of the French method of turpentmmg.


French Turpentining System Applied to Longleaf Pine 15 CONCLUSIONS From the experience gained on this operation it may be concluded that mature longleaf pme and slash pine can best be turpentined FIG. 11.-Turpentining in France. Chipping during tbe second sea.son, show ing tbe shape of tbe French back and the relative size of tbe face. Note size and shape or chips on tbe ground under the }?resent Government method of cupping and chipping, which pernnts profitable working for 14 years without damage, ~nd that second-growth longleaf and slash pine under saw-timoer size can be more profitably worked under the French system, because


16 Department Circular 327, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture this system allows a much longer operating period, during which the tree continues to thrive and grow until 1t becomes ready for saw timber. The yield per face under the French method on this experimental area shows a considerably lower production than under the regular Government method, but on the acre basis the yield of the French system is much higher. On timber suited to the system, and on an extensive operation where labor would be familiar with the method and would carry on chipping with reaularity, there is reason to be lieve that the yield per face under the ~rench method would compare more favorably witli that under the Government system and produce . a greater yield per square inch of exposed surface. The chief virtues of the French system lie in the long period over which the operation can be conducted and in the fact tliat it may be applied to young growth and continued until the trees reach a size at which it is more _profitable to cut them for saw timber. The time is rapidly approaching when the American gum naval-stores industry must depend to an ever increasing extent upon second-growth timber for its source of supply. In view of this fact, consideration of the French system is timely. The experiments on the Florida National Forest indicate that our second-gr owth longleaf pine can be profitably worked under this system. For the sake of the permanent welfare of the industry it would seem more than worth while for American oferators in second-growth forests to adopt the governing principles o the French method. u. s . llBRARY ADDITIONAL COPIES O F THIS P U BLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM THE S UPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OHICE WASHINGTON, D . C. AT 5 CENTS PER COPY "


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Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.


Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.