A relation of the invasion and conquest of Florida by the Spaniards, under the command of Fernando de Soto.

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A relation of the invasion and conquest of Florida by the Spaniards, under the command of Fernando de Soto.

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A relation of the invasion and conquest of Florida by the Spaniards, under the command of Fernando de Soto. Written in Portuguese by a gentleman of the town of Elvas. Now Englished. To which is subjoyned Two journeys of the present emperour of China into Tartary in the years 1682, and 1683. With some discoveries made by the Spaniards in the island of California, in the year 1683.
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History -- Florida -- To 1565 ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- China ( lcsh )
History -- Sources -- California -- To 1846 ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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027579347 ( ALEPH )
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F68-00014 ( USFLDC DOI )
f68.14 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Florida Studies

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L ENS ED, 'R..o. L' Eflrange, : : ( . I


A RELATIO.N OF THE Invafion and Conqueft OF BY THE SPA.NI A R D S, U ndcr the Command c..f F E R. N A N o o de S o T o. Written in.Portuguefe by a Gentleman of the Town of ELVA S. Now ENG D I S H E D. I To \vhich is Subjoy;tied Two Journeys of the pre.lent Emperom iof CH IN .A. into Tartary in the Years ' 1 6 8 2., and 1 6 8 3. Witl1 fume Difcoveries ma



THE F T is not without reafon that men admire thofe firft C~nquerours, who boldly ventut~d their'Lives to . difcover to us a New World ; and the Obligation that _ . Mankind has tq thelJ} upon that account, is ac~nowleqg,. ed -on aU hands. We owe no Ids, how ever, to tho[ e who have taken the pai~s to preferve the memory of their Con-. quefts ; and without expofing us to the fatigues and dangers, 'Yhich thofe. g r eat 1nen fo bravely fu~mounted, make us by their Writings refiih that pure and unal , 1ayed pleafure wherewith the firfi 9ifcove~y of things common~y ti~k1es ~nd flat ... ters the Imagination , no Iefs for their Novelty than Ren own. Now this be. ing a plea~ure 11:1~ngled with g reat dea~ A 3 9 ~


'Ihe Prefaceo of inftrultion , fince according to thefe Models men are to take their meaf ures for the like Enterprizes } it mufi be gran-. ted that the pu blick cannot have too ma-. . ny Hifiories of Expeditions of that nature. This is apparent enough by the many Relations of the Conquefi of Peru and New-Spain,wbich have been all genera11y approved of abroad: For according to the diverfity of humours , men eye things curioufly, and give the publick the view they have had of them. Some love Fights and Battds, and defcribe them . very well in general ; others who are pleafed with the fame fubjecr, apply themfelves to the relation of lingular .,. Actions : One man makes it his bufinefs to write the Natural Hifiory of the Plants and Animals of a Country ; another again, the Cuftoms and Inclination s of the Inhabitants. In a word, it may be faid hat this diverfity of humours produces different Relations, which ferve rec::ipro ... caJJy as Commentaries one for anoth~r ; a1 d


'The Preface. and from whence the Curious who read with difcretion , draw th~ compleat . knowledge of the Hifiory of a Country ' ~ or Nation. The truth is, there are not fo n1any Relations extant of Florida ( which is/. the name the Spaniards gave to all that part of America:, that lies to the Northward of Mexico or New-Spain, before the En_glii11 and other Nations fet led Plantations there) as there is pf Peru and New-Spain: h6\vever, they are no Jefs curiou s , efpecial1y this Relation now publifhed, which pas the preferepce in Spain not onely for its Rarity , but for the Merit of its Author alfo. As to its Rarity, there wa s but one Manufcript of it in Spain, which wa s taken out of the Libra.ry of the Duke of Sejfa ~o be prin" ted, and but few Copies of the Impref ~ fion in aily other Country befidesa I t hath the advantage to be an Original,and to come frprn the fidt hand, whe reas that of the Ynca. Gartilla.ffo de la Veg a , cat~<; abroad but fince ; an9. how p om-A 4 , pous


_ Cf he Preface~ pous foever it may appear in Language has no greater Authority than the ba1e Report of a private . Trooper , and by confequent cannot be compared to this ; fince the Trooper who ferved Fernando de Soto in that Expedition, might for want of good intelligence have in many hings een mifiaken, a s well a s Garcifla.JJo, for w nt of memory and applica-tr th o t is feems m _ ore t ban p ob be, feeing Gauillaffe n the begin -ing of his f lorida , affirms confidently hat Soto went thither accompanied with thirteen hundred men, whereas our Author fays, and that upon better ground, that he h( d but Bx hu dred ; w hereu pot it is to be obferved , that a G0ntleman, _ as he was, hath commonly more , knowledge and a greater ref pelt for Truth, than a private Souldier. The Title of the Relation informs us , that our Aut or ,as a Port;~guefe Gentleman of the _ ovvn of Ef,v:.:5 1 a .1d that he ac


C'f he Preface • . ompanied Soto in all that Expedition. He is ceirtainly one~of thofe'-who are na. , med in the fecond Chapter , though he cannot be particularly known , fince he has been unwil1ing to name or . any other way diftinguii11 himfelf from the refi; and that infiance of a. modefiy which is not to be found but amongfi: 1nen of the befi.breeding, is a very good voucher for his fincerity. It is. very pro-.. hable that his Birth and Qgality made him to be admitted into the mo'fl: impor• . tant Councils and Deliberations ; and the particular account he gives of them, is fufficient to confirm this Opiniono It is not at all to be doubted tnen, but that his Information -was good ; and they . , who take the pains to examine his Book, ' mll be convinced of it by his way of writing. His fiile is natural, plain, and wirho~lt any Ornaments, f uch as the fiile . of a Difcorfe ought to be , which hath Truth onely for its objecr. / tJe never I wanders fro n his fubjecr into ufelefs di-g reG


erbe Preface • . greffions, as GarcillajJo de la Vega doth :; who feems to have had no other fc9pe, but to relate the Exploits of Gonfales Sylvefter, ~ whom, in a manner, he makes , the Heroe of his Romance ; and who, Heverthelefs, is not f o much as named by ur Author. In !hort , he engages no farther in clefcriptions than _ is neceffary to i!lu ftrate what i s fit to be known ; and t h erefore he h4th referred to the end of the Book, aU that he fays q:mcerning the , Nature of t~e Country, and its Inh~bi"": tants. ' As to the Difcovery, he-traces it wicn fo much exacrnefs and perf picuity ., that , nothing can be. compleater in its kind ; n~r is he lefs happy in his manner of de fcribing to us the two Generals, Soto and r !ofaofa , when it romes in his way_ ; w here i n without giving h imfelf the .tro u h 1 e of d r a vving their P i ctures ~ike an An = .fao r of Romance, he paints the1~1 out w ith fuc h lively touches, as vifibJy fhew U$ the Qyalitics of their Perfm:is ~.~1d lncJi .. natJ.OilSo


tf'he Preface. 1ations. He lays open fo plainly the reafon5 that moved Soto to purfoe that , Expedition, contrary.to the Opinions of a11 that were with him, and the motives which obliged Mofco{o to quit the defign, uotwithfianding the oppofition he met with ; that the Judgment of the Au~ tbor is therein no lefs remarkable than his Integrity. So that this Hifiory is not then to be confidered barely as a , curious piec e, but as a Work that may afford good infiruction s for the conduct of thofe who undertake the like Expedi . tions , and for the know ledge of the Countries that border upon, or may be ufefol to the Eng1iili Plantations on that Continent, which perh~ ps have never been heud of as yet by thofe who onely 1 :nhabit the Coafi J\


A QFTHE . J .:.ontained in this BOO K,, to mej hap oza , hap inti hap . He ant hap. car CHap. J • . 1he Birth of Don Fernando de oto ; Jy;11, ancl how he oblained tl e Government of Flo hin rid:.i. on. Chap. U. ab fa \..e Vaca comes to the Court 1Chao. Spain with a Relation of Florida : The A/fem• td!t l; hell at Sevil e for the Conquefl of that Coun• int try. . . . Chap Chap, HI. 1he Portugu fe f!O to S rille, and fro1,1 in ) thence to St . ......,ucar. Captc1 ins are namecl for thi . /Jej Ships anti Souldiers who were to mak_ e the Voy ie,Chap. h . IV. 7he General parts from Sp-1in; he ar, off ri ve s at the Car. ar es, ancl from thence at the An bi.s • i les~ Chap. hap. V. Of the lnha6.itants of the Lown of St. Jago, qui _ and o ther l7ill ag,es o f the !/luu! o f Cuba : Cf tht mm iquality of the grouni( ancl the Fruit's it produces. Chap. t h, p . VI. The Govenour fends h :S FVife ancl 0 hipJ . h


The TAB L E.tl to the Havana , whither he with the refl of his men go f;y land. hap. VIL Our cleparture from the Havana, and ,mr arrival in Florida. hap. VIII. Of /ncurjions made into the Country, and hfJ. W a Chriflian WaJ found, !who for a long time had /Jeen in the Indians hands. Chap. IX. Who that Chrdiia n was ; how he went into Florida ; and what he told the General. hap. X. The Gene ral (ends th'e Ships to Cuba . : He leaves an hundred men .at the Pf}rf ef Ucita, and enters into the Country. hap. XL The Gene ral _comes to Caliquen, and . carries the Cacique thereof to Napetaca with );im : 1he Indians are refolved to take him from him 6y force ; many .are killed upon that occaft-:_ on. Chap. XII. The Governour comes to Palache, he u ff)lcl that there i.s a great deal of Gold farther up ' in the Country. Chap. xrn. The Governottr leaves Palache to go 1 in fearch of the Province of Yupaha, and what l -6efel him in that Exp~dititm . Chap. XIV. The Governour leaving the ProviJwe of Patofa, rtz.eets with a Defart, where he ad all his me12 were reduced to extream mifery. , Chap. XV. TheGoverno.ur departs from Cutifachi .. I qui to goto Cofa ; what hapn ed to him during, hit, 1 march. Chap. XVL Fernando de Soto efcapes a great dan1,er


The TABLE. Janger in the 1own of Acofie /;_y his prudence . ftVhat hapned to him upon the way, and his arrival at Cofa. Chap. XVII. The Governour leaves Cofa, and g,oes to Tafcaluca. Chap. XVIII. ,he Indians rife ag,ainfl the Gover .. nour, ,md what hapned upon it. Chap. XIX. The Governour draws up his men and enters Maville. Chap. XX. The Governou_r leaves Mavilie to go to Chicafa ; what hapned to him in that Journey. Chap . XXL The Indians return to attack the ~paniards, and are beat off The Go vernour goeth to Alimamu, and the Indians in Arms expefl , him on the way. Chap. XXII. The Governour goes to ~zquiz, and th~n to Riogrande. Chap. XXIII. The Governour goes from thence to Cafqui, and from thence to Pacal1a, where he finds ,n Cuuntry dtfferent from the other part of Flo• rida. Chap. XXIV. The Cacique of P _acaha comes and offers his fervice ; Cafqui withdr:rws, but come:, again to excufe himfe!f: The Governour makes them friends. . Chap. XXV. Soto goes infearch~f the Province of ~)gate, from whence he goes to Coligoa, and thence to Cayas. Chap. XXVI. The Go'"'Jernour goes to fee the Province of Tulla; what hapned to htm upon the zvay. Ghap.


The TABLE. ' Chap. XXVII. The Governour goes from Tulla t<> Autiamque, where he fjends the Winter-Q'!llrter. Chap. XXVIII. Soto leaves Autiamque and goes. to N ilco, and jr~m thence to Guachoya. Chap. XXIX. Which treats of the Meffege the Go-7.Jernour Jent to ~igaltan; of the Anfwer hi received, and of what hapned thereupon. Chap. XXX. 1he Deaih of the General Den Fer nando de Soto: Louis Mofcofo de d' Alvarado is chofen in his place. Chap. XXXI. The Governour Louis de Mofcofo leaves Guachoya, and goes to Chaguate, and from thence to Aguacay. _ Chap. XXXII. The Governour goes from.Aguacay to Naguatex: What hapned to him. Chap. XXXIII. The Cacique of Naguatex comes to Wt-tit on the Gti'uernour: He parts from Naguatex, and arrives at Mondacao. Chap. XXXIV. The Governour let1'Ves Mondacao,, and goes tq Socatino and Guafco. The Army marches through a defartCounhy, and retttrns to Nilco, _for fault of an Interpreter and Guide. ~hap. XXXV. The Army returns to Niko, and a?: Minoya Pej{els are made to carry them out of Florida. Chap. XXXVI. Seven Brigantines are liuilt: 7he Army departs from Minoya. Chap. XXXVII. The'Indians of ~galtan attack the"


The TABLE. the Spaniards upon the River; and the faccefs i that Engagement. Chap. XXXVIII. Of the head}Jrongnefs of the In. dians in purfuing us d urin g our courfe in the Ri .. "Ver. Chap. XXXIX. The Fleet comes to the Sea; what hefel the Spaniards /Jefore they put out into it, and _ in the /Jeginning, of their Voyage. Chap. XL. A Storm elifperfes the Brigantines; , they joyn again at a rock or little I.fland. Cnap. XLI. The Spaniards arrive at the 7own of Panico.. . CI ap. XLII. The Spaniards go to anic, , anrl in -what manner the Inhabitants recei-vecl them. Chap .. XLIII. Of the civil and generous manner how we were treated /Jy the Viceroy r:znd Inhabi-tants .of Mexico. . , Chap. XLIV. Offome Jing,ularitie s of Florida, of Fruits, Fowl, and Beajfs which that Country pro• duces. ERRATA. • ,Age 2. line 2 2. read Officers. p . 2 3. 1. Io. r . Danhi.fco. P 26, I. 1o. r. Narvaez,_. p. 50. I. 10. r. T1tpaha. p. 90. I. 14. r thruft. p. n2. I. ult. r. t e ll. p . 122. I. 5 . r. Paraha. P 151. J._2 3.r.rlrn was. p. T 93 l. 26 . the ir tWO p. 22 S I. 16 . r . l'tfa>tda~w_s, and ( Q nhroughouc, p. 227. l. u!c. r: By what : p -242 l. _ 7 , r. tlmtie:h year of his Age. p. 265.1. 3 . r. [

A .EL T ION . OF THE Invafion and Con' queft OF I FLORIDJA:. CHAP. I. The Birth of Don Fernando de Soto, and how he obtained the Government of Florida. Aptain Fernando de Soto was the Son of ail ordinary Gentleman of Xeres de Badajos , and went to the Indies that are fubject to the Crown of Caflille, when P edrarias .d' A1Jila was Governour of them. All the Efiate , Soto then ' had, was no more but a Sword and Buckler ; . B. nevet: 1


2 A R.elation of the lnvajion neverthele!shis Merit and Valour obliged Pedra-C riaJ to give him the Command of a Troop' of o l Horfe and to fend him w ith Ferdinand or 1 Francis Pizarre to the Conquefr of Peru. He ren-~" dred himfe~f very re~arkable in th~t Expe?ition, . iA not onely m the takmg of Atabaltpa , Kmg of fo Peru,. but alfo of Cufco, and in all occafions where t~ Honour was to be gained. He got there alfo a . d' great deal of Wealth, and had fp good a iliare in m ; the Treafure of Ata'1alipa, that in a fl10rt time ve he made a hundred and fourfcore Crowns of Gold, Gt of the pieces that feH to his Dividend. He brought wl them into Spain, where the Emperour took part ' of.them, which he payed with threefcore thoufand Reals, to be raifed out of the Cuftoms of the Silk of Granada. The refi was remitted h i m by the Chamber of Seville, efiablifhed for the pay-C, ment of the Kings. Duties, which they c all La Cafa Je co12tratation. Soto then put himfelf int o magnificent ~quipage, and entertained a Steward, a Majordomo, Pages, a Gentleman of t h e Horfe, Lackeys, and all the ether Offices of a great Lord. In this fi:at e he came to Court , accom-s pani~d with John d' Antifco of Seville, LoufJ Mof l~ cofo Alvarado,Nunho,Touar,and Joh n Rodriguez Lo.. can /;ilho: All thefe Gentlemen, except John d' Anufco, had came urith him from Peru, wh ere they h a d got Flo; fourteen or fifteen thoufand Crown s o f Gold a Go1 piece:: They ere m a gnificent in Cloaths,Horfes, wra and A r m s , becaufe Soto upon his firfl: appearing at ped Court


and Conqueft of Florida. 3 Court, refolved to make himfelf be taken notice o f by a fumptuousexpence, rhoughotherwife he had n o inclination to Liberality. The Gentlemen wh m I have named, attended him in all p1~ces, befides his Servants, an~ fame others who followed his Fortune. At that time he made lov~ to Jfa/;ella de Boda'Villa, Daughter to Pedrariai . J' A'Vila Count of Punho in Roflro ; and being married to her, the Emperour gave him the Go~ vernrnent of the H1e of Cuha, with the Title of General of .Florida, and Matquefs of the Lands which he might Conquer. . ' CH AP. II. Cabe fa de Vaca comei to the Coiirt llf Spaii1, witb a Relation of Florida. The Af fembly held at Seville,far the Conqueft of that Country. , SOto being _thus appoirired Governour c:1nd. Gel_.. neral, a Gent~eman named Cahefa de J7aca, came from the Indies to the Court of Spain: He had accompanied Narvaez in the Expedition of Florida, and gave an account of the Iofs of that Governou r and of all his men, who were fl1ip~, wrackt, he with ~hree others onely having efca ped upon the Coafis of Nei'v~Spah-1. Ca/;efa B 2, b rough t


4 A Relat i o n of the Invafton brought w ith h i m a relation of what I . ad ~ e n in Fl o rid a , and i t w a ~ -vri u e n : n fo...,J. . ~11ner , rhat in fome places he faid, I h rrue fe e n thi,, and more alfo, w hich I referv e t o be .eclared to hi& i11a .. j efty. He e nlar g e d much upon the mifo y o f the Cou n t ry, and the fatigues t h at he h a d endured : But when fome o f his Relations, w h o h a d a defign to go to t he lnclies, pre!Ted him to tell th e m , i f he had found any Rich sin Fl o rida; h e made them anf wer that he woul Lot fa t i s fie them as t o tha ~ , becaufe he refolve d to retu rn int o tha t C ountry with Orantes, one of his o mpanio ns, w hom he had left beL.iod i n New0S pain : T hat he was com e o n defig to beg that Government of the Emperour ; a n d that t hey had taken an Oa t h not t o difcover w h at they had feen , left the y might b e p revented i their defign of obtaini n g tha t favour of his Majeft y . T hat ma e it be bel ieved t hat Florida was one of the richefi Co u ntries in thr, W 6rld . Fernanclo de Soto had a d efig n to engager:ahefa w i t h him,and offere d him c onfiderable advan tag es; b u t ~ter their agreement m a de, they clafhed , upon account tha t Soto had refufed h i m fome mone y t o buy a Ship with. In t h e m0a n t i me, Ba l th aza r d e G11llegos , and Chriftopher d 'Efpindola, C a/;efa' s kinfrnen , bei n g refolve d to g o with Soto o Florie/a, one day pray .. ed thei r Coufin to advife them what they had be!l: t o do? tc which h e anfwered, that if le followed not Soto~ it was becaufe he was in hopes o f obtain ..


and C~nqueft of Florida. 5 obtaining another Government , and that he would not march uncle the Command of another: That his intention was to have beg'd the Govern ment of Florida, but t hat Soto being already provi• ded to it, the Oath he had t aken hindred him from difcovering what they d F fir' d to learn of him. However, that he confelL them to fell their Efiates and follow Soto, that they would have no c:aufe to repent of the defign. Ar length C a/Jefa had AudiD ence of the Emperm r , whom he fully informed of what had hapned i n the Expedition of Narvaez; fo. that the Marquefs d' Aflor.ga, who knew the _ particulars of that Audience, refol ved to fend with Soto his own . Brother Don Antonio Oforio, who was. accompanied with two kinfmen, Francis and Garcias Oforio. Don Antonio difpofed of fixty thoufand Reals a year which he ha9 in Benefices, and Franci.s Oforio fold a Man nor of which feveral Gentlemen held: Having done fo, they went to the General at Se,vi lle, where he was, attended by Nunho, Touar, Louis Mofcofo, /and John R~dri"g,ues Lo!Jilho, who had engaged for that Expedi-tion all the profit they had made 'in Peru. Mof cqfo carried with .him two Brothers alfo; and that Compan: w a encreafed by the coming of Don Carlos, w 10 bad arried a_,Coufin of the Governours: He cartied tl1e Eady along with him ; and his ernmple brought from Badajos, Peter CalderanoJ w;r.h three of the Generals kinfmen, Ayres Jinoco, Alonfo Romo, and Diego Tinoco. Soto B 3 came ,,


6 A Relation of the lntz1ajion came to Elva.1, where Andrew de Vafconcelos had _occafion to difcourfe Mofcofo. He prayed him to fpeak to Don Fernando de Soto, and to {hew him th e Commiilion he had from the Marquefs of l7illareal, for the Cap tains p!ace of Ceita: The General having feen it, wrote t o Vafconcelos, that he might expect all favour from him, and that he1 would give him an honourable Employment i n Florida. So Vafconcelos engaged. to follow I1im, with Fernando Peg,ado, Antonio Martin .ez Segwad o , Roi& Pereyra, John Cordeiro, Stephen Pegado, Bennet and Alvaro Fernandez, all Portuguefe of th e City of Elva, . This gave fo much reputation to the Enterpr ize , that a gre at many Gentlemen• came to Sevillef: om Salamanca, Jaen, Al!Juquer': 9.ue, and o ther Tow s of Spain; fo that many honefr men, who had fold their Efiates in prof peer of this Voyage, were left behind at St. Lucar; and the reafon was, becaufe ihips were wanting for tranfportation of m.._n ; which are many time s want ing to go int C9untries even whereof the Riches i~ I nown. The Confer~nces that Ca/;efa ha

and Conqueft of Florida" 7 ,,,es, Vineya1 ' .s, and Corn-land, beftdes_fourfcore and ten Acres of ground planted w ith Olivetrees,, in the Territory of Seville. H e had the d1arge of Serj eant l Major 9 and c~rried his ,vife with him. Many other Cavaliers of ~ality fol0 lowed Soto,and obtained confiderable Places from him, t o thedifappoin t m entoffeveral Competitors that earneflly defired them. So Antonio Piedma had the Office of I ntend ant, John d'Anht,fco was made Comptroller, arfd john G aytan, . Gaufin to the Cardinal of Ciguenca, 7reafarer. CHAPe!I. The P ortieguefe go to SeviUe , and from thenc e t o St.Lucar '3 Captains are named for the S hips and Souldiers, who were to ma"! the Voyage .. V.A.fconcelos, and the othe r P ortuguefe Ge ntle men, parted from Elvas the 1 rth o f Ja ... nuary, and a rrived at Seville on St. 0ehaflian s Eve. Tl efe Cavaliers went to the General's Lodgings, and a s they entred his Cou rt,Sitv per-ceived them out o f a Galler y wher e h e was, and immed:, :-dv came down to receive them a t the foot of thf' ft airs which led up i nto tha Gal ery .. When th y w ere come up, he caufed '""hairs to . B 4 !be


8 A R e l a ti o n of the ln'Vajion be fet for them all : Then Vafconcelos told him, thlt h e was come with th efe Portuguefe Gentle .. men, to offer him their Campa l}7 and Services in the Voyage he had undertaken: For which Sf)to th a nked them , tefiifying a ' great deal of joy and fatisfaB:ion at t heir arrival, and for their obliging Offers. Seei n g th e C loath was alr e a d y laid, he ivited t hem to fup with him; and durir g Supper-time, he ordered his Steward to find o ut Lodgings for hem near his own. The Go~ v ernour, w ith all thofe who were to accompany him, went from Sev ille o St. Lucar , where he efolve.d to Mufier liis Men. The Portuguefe a ppeared there in the Equipage of S ould i ers, i n n eat Armour, and the C aftillians g allantl y appa relled i n Doublets and Cauo~ks of S ilk pinckt and embroid red : But tl at ,unfeafonable gallantr y did not pleafe the General ; and therefore heapp inted another review, where a ll fuould appear in Armour. The P ortuguefe appeared again v ery well arr;.1ed, and the General placed them near his Standard, carried by his Enfign, where s the CafriHians fo the moft p art had no more but old rufly Coats o f Mail, and aH Head -pieces with Spears or n aughty Lances. S ome endeavoured to Atfs Mt1fier w ith the Portuguefe ; and a s they filed off, they were all reckoned one by one, ac .. ____ cording as S oto had ordered , and fet dovvn ~n a Roll to the number of fix h undred men , who w ent with him to Floridtt. The General bought feven


and Conqueft of Florida. 9 feyen Ships well provided with all fort of Am munition, and well Rigg'd: He named the Captains, and g a _ to each a Lift of the men they were to take on Board. CHAP. IV. The General parts from Spain : He arrives at the C anaries, _ and from thence at the A ntilles. N the M onth o f A pril, 1 'S 3 8. the Gen~ral a ... figned Ships t o the feveral Captains, who were to Command them : For h mfelf he chofe one that was newly built, and an excellent Sailer : H e gave another t o Vafconcelos for he Portuguefe who had followed him.. And fo they fet fai l from the Road of St. Lu car, on St. Lazarzu's S unday-morning, in th e IV[onth of Apri l, with extream fatifaB:ion of all t1 e Fleer,-found of Trump ets, and difcharges of Artillery. After four days failing with a fair Wind, th~ y were ... calmed, and met wi h Tides from the Levant that hindred them for eight days from makin0 any way ; at l ength the Wind frefl ned again, and they arrived at Gomere , 01 e of the Cmwny Hlands, on Palm-Sunday .. Morning; fift en days after they fet out from St. Lucar. The Lord of that


! O A Relation of the Inroafion that Ifland , who bear s the Title of Cou nt , was doathed in whit~ from head to foot, Hat, Cloak, Doublet, Breeches, and Shooes ; fo that he Jookt like a Ca ptain of Bohemians : He joyfully recei. ved our General, and provided '1im with a very good Lodging : AH the ..,:1 val iers of t'1 Flett were alfo very well received and lodged, and for their Money, had what refreitrnents they fioo d in nee. d of, as Bread, Wine, ]\1eat, and all that was wa nting in tl e Equipage o f the Shipso In fine, the Count gave one of hi5 natural Daughters t o Dona lfa/Jella the General's Lady, to ferve her in quality of a Vvaiting-Maid. Sunday following the Fleet parted from Gomere, having aid there jufi eight days, and came to the An tilles on Whit-. funday, wl~ere it e ntred the P ort of St. Jag,o, in the H1and o f Cu!Ja. ,vhen the Governo .r came on i110ar, he foun d a handfome Horfe ricLly fur .. nifi1ed, which a Gentlei an of the Town had fent him, with a Mule for Dona lfabella, and all the Burghers, fame on fo t, fom0 on 1 orfe-back, who came to rec eive him at the Port . They waited on him to his Lodgings , which ;vere very com ~ modious, wher e he was vifited by all the chief Inhabitants;who came t o offe1 him their Services. A ll the Officers and Souldiers Y ere lodged, and they who had a mind to go o ut of the Town,vvere received and well t reated in Country ... Houfes, where their Landlords did what lay in their power , to. provide all forts of refreihment for them. . . CHAP.


and Conqneft 'of Florida. 1 CH AP. Ve Of the-Inhabitants of the Town of St. Jago, and other Villages of th e Ifland of Cuba : Of the quality of t ~e ground, and the Fruits it produces. He Town of St.Jago contains fourfcoreiarge _ Houfes, commodious for Lodging,though moil part of them be built but of boards and thatched ; fome are built of frone and lime , and covered with tile. The Inhabitants have large Gardens, w here there are many Trees far diffo ... rent from thofe of Spain; there are fome that bear Figs a s big as ones fifi, but bitter and unfavou y" They have a Fruit there which th ey call A1Jt1J7dl, of the firnpe and bigoef o f a Pine-apple ~ v\:h; ch hath a very good tafte : In the. fielos. here a "e other fruits of th e fame figure, but rim ch big--• b e r, that grow upon very l ow trees, or ra her fhrubs , and refemble thofe o ther Fruits wh1 h have a very pleafant fineH and agreeable tafie: Other Trees bear a fruit caUied fl16lmr:jas, o f th(, .bignefs of a ~1ince , wbic. the I ~.lwbit-fit s pr e fer before aH others. Th r e are ',i,:'.~, G t : .. r.,•c, ... r; there as big as Figs, and f1 ,ped like a FiPe:ird : b ut the mofr extraordi .rary ree they have,-is a-bout


2 A Relation of the lnvaji o n bout the height of a Lance, w ith one fingle fie111 and no branches; its l eaves are of the length o [ the head of a P ike, and it s fruit of the figure and bignef s o f a C u c u m ber ; they gr o w i n clufiers of tvve nty or t h i rt y at a time; according a s the fruit r ipens , t h e t ree bends with i : This fru it i s calle d BananaJ, has an excellent good t~fie, . a n d ripens af1 er i t is g a thered ; but thofe t h at ripen o n the tree are the beft. Thefe trees n e v e r b ear b 1t onc e , for then they are cu _ vn~ and another fj)ro uts fro m t h e fro ck, which the ) ear followin g yields fruit. T here is alfo another k i n d of frui t o f gre at ufe for many of the Inhabitants , a d ef pecially for the S laves, and thefe a e Pot ato's, wl ich grow alfo i n the 1erceras depending on the King dom o f Portugal; they grow in the Earth, and refemble CheH:nuts i taHe. The Bread of that Hhnd i s made of Roots alfo, like to tato's : The . Timber that gro s 1rom thefe Ro ts, co mes nea r t o t hat o f the Elder-tree. They make little beds of E arth, and in each of them plant five or fix ~origs ; the Roots wherea t are not p!uc kt up till eighteen Months afrer. f any on . e mifl:a~ing 1 them for Potato's, v hich they refemble, o but eat the leafl: b i t of t hem, it wi.l endar ger his life, and this experien c e made out upon a S ulr ier who died upon the fpo , thoug h be had but hard~ I y tafied of them. T 1efe Roots are pr epared bj ra f ping them; and the rafpiogs . being preffed and feparated from the juyce, vhich is mortal , an' hath


and Conqueft of Florida. I 3 hath a {hong f mell , there remains a dry flour ; but the Bread that's made ofit hath but very little tafie, and far lefs fubfiance. As to the fruits of Spain, they have Fig-trees , and Orange-trees,, which bear all the year round, becaufe of the heat, :and the fertility of the Soil. This Hland breeds a great many Hodes, and fl:ore of Cattel, which never want green grafs : It hath abundance of Cows and wild Hogs alfo ; fo that the Inhabitants are in no want of meat for food ; nor of Fruit of feveral forts, which grow wild in the Woods and Fields; infomuch, that Spaniards who have wand red in the Woods for a fort-, night together~, becaufe of the different tracts which the wild Cows make in the Forefis, have had no~hing to live on but thefe fruits , and the Marrow which grows in the heart of a kind of Palm-tree, that abound all over the H1and, and bears no. other fruit. The H1and of Cuba is three hundred Leagues in length from Eafi to Weft, an

14 A Relation of the lnvajion there be but a few Friers, yet they _have gooo ftore of Charity , by reafon of the riches of the Country ; nay, the Church of St. Jag,o hath alfo good Revenues, and is ferved by a Curate, fame Beneficiaries, and feveral Clerks, as being the Parifh of the Capital Town. There is a great de~l of Gold in this Ifland, but few Slaves, becaufe ma-. ny have hanged themfelves to be rid of the miferies that they were forced to fuffer in the l\1ines: An Overfeer belonging to Vafco Porcalho, who was one of the chief Inhabitants, knowing that the Indians under his charge had refol ved to g o hang themfelves, went and {\:aid for them at the place where the y intended to put this difmal ref a,.; 1 lution intoexecution,with a Rope in his hand; he told them that they muil: not imagine that any of their defigns were hid from him , and that he was come to hang himfelf with them) that he might torment them in the other world, an hundred times more than he had done in this. This difcourfe made them quit the refolution which they had taken, and came back with him ready to do whatever he fhould command them. CHAP.


and Conqueft of Florida. 1; CHAP. VI. Tbe Governo u r fends hh Wife and Sbipl' to the Havana, whither he with the reji of bu men go by Lane!. FRom St. :Jago the ~overoour fent his Cou~,a Don Carlos,to wait on D ona Jfa!Jella on fiup ... board, to the Ha7.Ja.na, which i s a Port at the head o f the Hland on the North Weft-fide,difiant from r1 t Jago an hundred and fourfcore Leagues: As for himfelf, having bought Horfes? as all the reft o f his company did, he refolved to go by Land. The firfl: habit a tion they found was Baya me. where his men were well received, and lodged four and four, or fix and fix together, according as they had a{fociated themfelves: They had all charges born, except for the Mah which they gave their Horfes; and that alfo, becaufe -Soto in vi~ting that Country, impofed fome Duties upon the Tribute and Services which they drew from the Indians. Bayamo is twenty five Leagues from St. Jago, and near it runs a great River. called 1anto, larger than the Guadiana; it feeds great and furious C rocodiles,'tha t fometime carry away the IHdians t h a t venture to foard it over: Thefe arc the mofi dangerous Animals of the Ifland; for


J 6 A Relation of the Invafion for it breeds neither Wolves, Foxes, Bears, Lyons, nor Tygers. There are indeed wild Dogs there which run away from the Houfes into the Woods, where they live upon wild Hogs. There are Snakes alfo bigger than a mans thigh, but very , unwildy and harmlefs. Frorri Bayamo to-Princes Port they reckon fifty Leagues of way cleared with a great deal of labour attd care; and which when it is not kept clear, fills fo full of buf11es, that no tract appears; fo that it is impoffible to travel it without Indian guides, becaufe of the paths which the Cows make in feveral parts. TheGovernourtook a Canoeat Princes Fort to go by Sea to the habitation of P-afco Porcalho, 1 , and to learn news of his Wife, who at that time was in extream danger, (as was found afterwards) for her Ships were fcattered in a furious Storm,-fo that two of them were dri verr in fight of the Coafi of Florida, and all put into great il:reights for want of frdh water and provifions. When the fl.:orm was over, they gathered together again, and made Cape St. Antoni() in a place of the IOand of Cu!Ja, which was not at ail peopled :1 There they took in freih water , and after forty ' days failing from the time they fet out from St. Jag,o, they arrived at the Havana: The Gov~rnour had intelligence of it, and immediately parted to go meet his Wife, They whom he left to the number of an hundred and fifty Horfe , ,divided themfelves into two bodies,that they might. not


and Conquefl of Florida. I 7 not incommode the Inhabitants of the Ifland by ~artering. Their way was by the Holy Ghoft, about fixty Leagues from Princes Port, and their , Provifion was the Caffadoe-bread that I mentioned, which diifolves in Breath fo foon as it is put , into itSo many of that Troop were reduced to eat . flefh without bread. They had Dogs with them and an Huntfman of the H1and; and when they came a~ night to their Q2,arters, they killed wil~ Hogs, proportionably to the number of meh ; for they had no want of Hogs and Cows during the whole march; but they were horribly tor0 mented _ with Muskettoes, ef pecially in a Marifh which they call La Ceneg,a do Pia : They f pent from noon till night in paifing that Mari{h with a great deal of pains ; for it was at leafi half a League in length, and a good Bow-iliot over, which was to be pail: f wimming. In the reft there was water up to the middle , , amJ mud to ' the knees ; but the ground was fo peil:ered with brambles and bullies which tore the feet, that neither_ boots nor fhooes could hold out whole one h alf 6f the way. The Baggage and Saddles were conveyed over on rafts made of the bark of Palm-trees: Thefe fatigues were encreafed by the perfecution of the Muskettoes, who rifing in all parts of the Marifh, fell upon the men that were 11:ript ; and fo footf as they had priclld in a~y place , a great knob prefen_ tly fa elled up W1.th an intolerable itching ; immediately the C ' 1 naftlVi


18 A Relation of the Invajion hand went to the place, and fcratched at fo prodi-, gious a rate, that the bloud trickled down arms and legs like a little brook; fo the who]e night was fpent without any repofe, which hapned alfo in other places. F ron1 thence t hey went to the ' . Holy Ghofl, which is a lit tle Town Handing upon a Rivulet, containing about thirty Houfes : It is a very plcafanr and fertile place , abounding in Fruits both in thofe of the Country , and in excellent Oranges and Citrons. One half of the Governours Cavaliers lodged there,and the other advanced as far as the Trinity , which is another little Town ' twenty Leagues from this: in it there is an Hofpital, the fole that's to be found in the H1and; and that habitation is faid to have been the befi peopled of any in thofe quarters, and that befo~e the Chrifiians fetled there, a fllip w~ich failed along the Coaft, left a man very fic.k on f110ar, who had earnefil y beg' d of the Captain to do him that kindnefs: The fick perfon lying there, was found by the Indians, who carried him away, and took fo great care of him that he recovered., and married a Daughter of the Captain of thefe Indians. He was in War with all his Neighbours, whom he overcome by the skill and valour of that Chrifl:ian, fo that he became very powerful. Long after Diego Velafquez undertook the Conquefi of that H1and, from whence h~ went tlpon the difcovery of New-Spain, after he had reduced under his Obedience all the Indians of Cuba,


and Conqueft of Florida. ~9 . Cu!Ja, by the ailiil:ance of that man who had a great deal of authority over-them. There remains threefcore Leagues from the 1rinity to the Havana, and no habitation to be found in all the at length all the Cavaliers arrived in this T own, where they found Fernanclo de-Soto , and th~ reft who came from Spain with him ; from that place he fent Danhufco and fifty men, in. a Caravel,and two Brigantines,to find out a Port on t h e Coafi of Florida;who brought back with him two Indians wliom he t o ok on that Coafr. This exceedingly rejoyced the Governour ; not onely becaufe thefe Indians were to ferve for Guides and Interpreters, but alfo becaufe by their figns they had.given to underfrand, that there was a great deal of Gold in that Country : All the Fleet fhared in his joy, and thought the hour of departure would never come, fo fu!l y were they po. f effed that Fl orida was the richeft Country as yet difcovered in the Indies. CHAP. VII. Our departure from the Havana , and o-ut arrival in Florida! BEfore our departure froni the Port o f the Ha--'Vana, the Governou.r gave to VafctJ Port.alhd C i dt


20 A Relation of the Invafton de Figueroa the charge of Captain-General, whicn ] he had gran.ted to Nuno de Touar. He preferr e o J7afco to that Office to reward him for the can , .he .had taken in providing the Fleet with a l ' things neceffary ; and he peprived Nuno of it1 • becaufe of an intrigue of love which he had ma, naged with the Daughter of the Count of G _omere1 Waiting-maid to Dona /fabella. Nuno durfi n o t 1hew any refentment for the lofs of his place ; on the contrary 9 feeing he thought it beil: to enter• tain the Governours favour , and that the Maia was; with Child9 he married her, and went wit h Soto into Florida. The Governour left Dona /fa !Jellaat the Havana, accompanied by the Wife of Don Carlos, and the Wives of Gallegos and Touar; and appointed for his Lieutenant in the Ifland, a Gentleman of the Havana, called John de RoiaJ , Having fo ordered all matters, the General par, ted from the l-Iavana with his Fleet, confifiing of-five Ships, two Caravels, and two Brigantines, on Sunday the Eighteenth of 'May, 15 3 9. The .weather being very fair, and the wind in poop, we difcovered the Coafi of Florida on Whitfunday the five and twent1eth day of May, and came to an Anchor within a League of the fhoar, becaufe of the banks. Five days after the General put on ilioar two hundred and thirteen Horfe which he had, to the end that the Ships being lightned,they might draw lefs water. This defcent was made within two Leagues of the habitation of an Indian . Lord,


and Conqueft of Florida. '2 1 Lord, named Veit a ; th e n all the Army landedll and none remained on b o ard but the S eam en, who advancing frill by little and little w i th the ' Tides, came at _ leng th , in e ight days time, to an Anchor near the habi tation of the I ndians. So foon as the Souldiers landed , they entrenched themfelves on tbe Sea-fhore, near the Bay that adjoyned the Village. After that, the Captain Genera l -Vafco Porcalho took feven horfemen to go a n d difcover the ground farther in about half a League from the Camp ; they met fix Indians, who fiood up on their defence with their Arrows , which are the Weapons they make .ufe of in fighting ; but . the Horfe-men rufhing upon them , killed two, and the other four betook themfelves to flight i n t o a Marifl1 full of bullies\} where th e Horfes wear ied, and, in a manner, feafick, ftuck and fell down w ith their Riders. The night following the Gen e ral , with an hundred men in the Brigantine~, at t acked a Village,which' he found aba ndoned, becaufe the Indians had qifcovered t h e C hrifrians fo foon as they appear• ed upon th e Coafi, an d had given the fignal all over b y fires and thi c k fmoak. At b r eak of day, Loui5 de Mofcofo Camp-Mafter .. General, drew the Army u p in Battalia, and formed them into th ree bodies, the Van-guard, Mai n body, and Reerguard, affigning a Squadron of Horfe _to every body. In this O rder we ma rched that whole day and t h e next, and fetching a great compaf, C 3 about


2 2 A Relation of the~ lnevajion about the Marifl1 which made tha~ Bay, we came to the habitation of Vcita on Trinity-Sunday the firil of June . that Village confifl:ed of feven or eight . Houfes ; the Lords , Houfe was near the fh ar, n porb:n eminen c e 11\ade purpofel y to ferve :D• r a Fortrds; the Temple was at • the other end of the Village, where, over the entry-door th~re was a wooden-fowl \\1ith th e eyes gilt; and fome Pearls were found inthait place, b ut fpoil'd an d of fmaJI value; . for Hiey pierce them ia th e fire, that they may thread ' them into Chains a n d Bracelets , which they . carry abbut their necks -and arms, and is the Ornament they mofi dl:eem . . Their Houfes were of W 00d1 , c overed w ith the leaves of Palm-trees. , The ,Gen_ eral lodged in the Lord's houfe , with Porcallio and Mofcofo ; the Ser .. jeant• Major Balthazar de Gallegos. took his quar rer s in the houfes in the middJe ef the Village, where all the Provifionf. that were brought from the Veifels were laid up in fibre ; the re,fr ofthe houfes and Temple wer demoli{hed, and the Souldiers made baraks df them: wfa~re they lodged thre e o r four together . . ':(h e Country ab out that Vil ag~\vas'ful! oFv~ ery thiGfr bufhe~, which Soto caufed to be ckared a:erofa-bO\v-fhot' round, fo t{ er:o.n enience 1an is-Horfe, and that the /n-1 dians aifo _might no't-approach without being clifcovctedJ if they . had a mind to..fall upon him i n the night,time. He placed double Sentinels at all the Avenues, ftnd at other places of danger: They


and Conqueft of Florida. 2 3 They were relieved every quarter of an hour ; the Horfe vifited them, and went upon thefcout a condition of fighting if any allarm hapned. In this place the Ge~eral made Captains; four of Horfe, who were Andrew de Vafconcelos, Peter Caldeiran of Badaios, and his own two Couftns Ayres Tinoco, and Alfonfe Romo ; and two of Foot, to wit, FranciJ Mald011ado of Sr11lamanca, and John Rodriguez. Lohilho. . Whilft we were frill in that Pofi of Veit a, the two lntli.ans whom Don Hufco had taken upon that Coarc, and whom the General defigned for Guides and Interpre , ters, made their efcape one night by the fault of thofe that . had them in keeping; the General and whole Camp were extreamly afflicted at that lofs, be-caufe we had already made feveral inrocles without being able to take one Indian, by reafon that the Country was fenny, and covered with very high and thick bufi1es. CH AP. VII. Of Incur.ftons made into the Country , and how a Chriftian WM found who for a .long time had been in thel 1dians hands. , N that , place of Veit a the General comm anded out Balthazar de Gallegos with forty H orfe C 4 and


2 4 A Rel at ion of tbe In'll a Jion and fourfcore. F o ot , to ~nter into the Country, and try if he couldtake fome Indian$. Lo/Jilho was alfo comm-anded t o go out another way with fifty foot, mofi of which had no other arms but a Swor d and Buck r, flOd the reft Harquebufes and Crofs-bows. T,. ey rnard~ed by Marifhes where the horfescould not ente , and about half a League from the Camp they found fame Cottages near a little River , into which the Indians t hrew themfelves fo fo9n as they perceived us : Four Indian women were taken, which obliged twenty Indian men to turn upon us, who pre!fed us fo hard, that we were forced to retreat toward s the Camp ; for thefe people are fo dexterous, fierce, and nimble, that Foot can gain no advan tage upon them. The reafon is, becaufe they. fly when men march ugainfi them ; but fo foon as ever the enemy retreat , they are at . heir heel. They never fly farther than out of reach of Arrow-fhot, and when they advance,.., towards the eqemy, they are always in motion, running from one hand to the other, that they may not give. aim to the Mufq ieti;e~ and Crofs-bow-men ; befides that, one Indian wilJ fhoot four i\rrmys, before a Crofs-bow~man-can m _ake one d'fcharge; and they fhoot fo ju t, that feldom they mifs~ An Arrow that meets with no Armour, pierces as deep as a Grofs-bmiV .. fhot. Their Bows are {hong, ~nd thf r Arrows of hard heavy Canes Jo fharp, ' that they'll pierce Buckler : Sometimes tqey head


and Conqueft of Florida. ~ ; t head -them with the bone of a fi{h as fharp as an awl ; others .do it with a fione as hard as a Diamond : thefe many times pierce Armour when they light upon the joynts; but thofe made of Canes, are the moft d a ngerous,bec a ufe t hey break or enter through the Coats of Mail. Lo/Jilho returned to the Gamp with fix men wounded, of whom one died , and brought wi t h him the four Indian women whom he h a d t aken in the Cottages. As for Gallegos, about two Leagues from the Camp he found a plain, where he efpied ten or eleven Indians, a m ongfi whom there was a Chrifiian fiark naked, and all fcorched with the Sun, having his arms p a inted with feveral colours after the manner of the Indians, from whom it was impoffible to difiingui{h him. Thefe Indians difperfed and fled, fome threw themfelves into a yVood, but two that were wounded were taken. A Hor!e-man run full tilt with his Lance againfr the Chrifiian,who cried out,Sirs,I am a Chrifli1111, do not kill me nor thefe poor men who 'ha ve given me my life. He called to the Indians to come, alfuring them that they fhould have no hurt done them, fo that they cam e out of the W oocl. Thus the Horfe-men having taken them all up behind them, returned to the Camp, where they were 1 received with extreamjoy by all the Army, and many complements from the GenernJ. C HAPo


26 A Relation of tbe Iwvafion CH AP. IX . . fJ7ho that Chriftian was : How he went in~ t o Florida ; and what he tol d tbe General. THat man was born in Se-ville of a Noble Family, and called John Ortiz; he had been twelve years in the hands of the Indians of Florida, whither having gon e w ith the Gover9our Narvaez, he came back to Cuba, from whence he ' was fent a g ain by Nartae z his Wife to Florida, ' with twenty or thirty more in a Brigantine. Wi1en they cam e i n view of an habit a t ion of Indians, they perceive d a Cane fixed in th e ground,, an d clo ven at the end, wherein t here \Va s a Letter, which Ortiz. imagined t o have been left by the' G o v-::.rnour to give intelligence o f him, w hen he t o o k t 1e .refol 1tion of e ntring int o the CotJntry. He ,informed himfelf of four or five ;1dians o n the f h oar , \ ,ho made a fign to him t o b n d and take the Lett -r ; \i 1hich he and anoth e r did, not• withft:anding aU the refifi nee that thofe who were on boar d the Briga tine could make. So foon as they w ere c ome aC10ar, a multitude of I n dians carne run n ~ n g out of the VilJag e , ar d b ef et the m ; fo that it ~7as im pofliblc for th e m to e -fcape =


and Conqueft of Florida. 2.7 fcape : Ortiz h1s Companion, who offered to make a defence, was killed upon the f pot, ';rnd he himfelf carried away to V c ita, thofe on board the .Br.igantine not daring to come aihoar to his re''Iief: immediately by Vcita's orders, the poor Ortiz was tied to four poles fupported by flakes, under which they kindled a fire to burn him alive; but a Daughter of Vcita's told him, that that Chriilian being alone could attern pt nothing againft him, and that it would be far more honourable for h'm to keep him in Irons. In fine, foe beg' d his life, which Vcita granted her . . Ortiz had his wounds dre!fed, and being cured, was put , to guard the Temple, whither the \Valve s came often, and carried away t.he Bodies that were laid there: The poor Spaniarcl recommended himfelf to God, and undertook his Office of keep ng the Temple. It hapnedone night, that the Wolv e s carried away from him the body of the Son of"an Indian of great note ; Ortiz ran after the ,v olves, armed with r1 long fiatf, and by good luck overt ook the Beafi that carried t 1e body , which he , made it let fall, having with all his force given the Wolf a blow, of which it died not far from the p lace ; Ortiz did not know fo much , becaufe it Was night , onely about daybreak he perceived that he wanted the body of th e . young Indian, which e xtre amly affiiB:ed him, as\ 'ell as Vcita, who refolved to h ave the Chriffoms life for it. Some Indians were fct t o trace the Wolves, w 10 fou d


2S A Relation of t h e lnrvafton found the body, and a litt l e beyond it the dead Wolf; this pacified V c ita, wh o was very well fatisfied with the vigilance of the Spaniard, and began to treat him more kindly . . Thu s h e fpen t three years; at th e end o f whi _ch, another India n Lord, called Mocofo, who had his habitation tw o days Journey from the Port, came and attacke d the habi t a t ion o f ?Jcita,and burnt it to the ground , whilfl: ?ic i ta faved hirnfelf in a Village that peJonged to him al[ o upon the Sea : By this means O rtiz lofr his place, and therewith the favour of Vcita . Seeing the Devil holds there people in deplo r able bondage, they are accufiomed to offer t o him th e life and bloud even of their Subje8:s, or o f a n y body elfe that falls into their hands. T hry fay that when the Devil would have fuch Vicl:ims, he f peaks to them, and tells t h em, that he thirfis after Sacrifices; and for that ufe Veit a defigned hi~ Chrifiian flave: Ortiz. learn'd it from the fame Daughter who h;id fa ved him from the fire, and who advifed him to flie towards Mocofo, who would ufe him we!I, feeing i11e had heard it faid, that he often enquired about h. m, and paffi .. onate1y defired to fee him :But feeing he Irnevv n o t t h e w ay, fl1e brought him going half a League out of th e Viliage; and having given him good infirucl:-i o n s , returned witl out being taken notice o{ Ortiz. m arched all that nigl t , and fo 1nd himfelf next m orning upon the bank fa lit Je. River , which divided the Territory of Veit.a from that of


and Conqu~fi of Florida. '2 9 of Mocofo: There he fa w two Jndians fifhing ; and feeing they had Wars with thofe of Vcita, that he underftood not their Language, and that fo he could not tell them the cau[e of his coming, he was afraid they might kill him as an enemy ; therefore he ran to the place where their Arms were, and feized them: The Indians betook themfelves fl:reight to the Village, though he called to them and afiured them they were in no danger ; but they not undedl:andiog him, ran on' frill. Their cries allarmed the Village , fo that feveral Indians fallied out, and furrounded Ortiz., ready to kill him witn their Arrow~, whilfi: he fheltred himfelf under fame trees , and cried as loud as he could, that he was the Chrifiian of Veit a, whom he had left, that he might come and ferve his Lord Mocofo. By the providence of God, an Indian came who underfiood the Lan• guag~ of Vcita ; he knew what the Spaniard faid, and pacifying his Companions, told them # what he had heard : Four Indians went to carry the news to Mocofo , who. came a quarter of a League to meet Ortiz., and expreifed a great deal " of joy for his arrival; fo that afte'r he had made . him take an Oath after the manner of Chrifiians, that he would not run ~way to look for 8nother Mafl:er, he promifed to ufe him kindly ; and that if the Chrifrians came into that Country, he fhould give him his liberty and leave to go to them ; which pn his part he alfo f wore after the man.


3 o A Kelati~n of the lnvajion manner of the Indians. Three years after, fome of his Subjects who were a fifhing out at Sea, came to inform Mocofo that they had feen Ships; wherewith he acquainted Ortiz, giving him permiilion to go and look after them ; which he did with much earnefinefs • But when he found no Veffels upon the Coaft, he thought that the Cacique or King had put a trick upon him, to difcover his intentions : however , he came back to him again ; and continued fo in all nine years, with little hopes of ever feeing any of his own Re-. ligion again. At length Don Fernando de Soto arrived in Florida, which prefently came to Mocofo's ears, who told Ortiz. that the Chrifiians had made a defcent at the Village of Veit a: Whereupon the Spaniard, who believed it to be another , fnare laid for him, made him anfwer,That neither Chrifiians, nor any woridly thing elfe went fo near his Heart, as the defire he had to ferve him .. 1 But tlie Cacique ferioufly confirmed the news, and permitted him to go to them; adding tQat if he did not do fo, and that the Chrifiians retur .. ned back, he would . not be to be blamed, feeing he performed what he had promifed on his part. The news was fo pleafant to Ortiz;. , that he could not perf wade himfelf they were true; neverthelefs he thanked the Cacique, and took his leave of him : Mocofo appointed ten or twelve Indians of befr note to accompany him; and with them it Was that he met Gallegos. So foon as he was , : come


and Conqueft of Florida~ 3 1 com e unto the Camp, the General ordered a Suit of Cl oaths, Arms, and a good Horfe to be given him ; and ?sked him if he. knew of no Country where there was Gold or Silver. Orth anf wered, No ; becaufe he had never been farther up in the Country, than ten Leagues beyond the habitation of Mocofo = But that thirty Leagues from that Village, P aracopci, the mo!1:. powerful Cacique of all that Country, held his Refidence; . that Mocofo, Vcita, and all the other Lords of that Coafi paid him 1)ibute; and that that Cacique might give them intelligen~e of what they fought after: befides, that his Country was far more abundant in Maez, and other Provifions, than thofe of the Coafi. This extreaml y fatisfied our General,; fo that he had no other thoughts but of making Provifions for entring into the . Continent; and the rather, becaufe he imagined . " that Florida being of fo vafi: an extent, on one fide or other there mufl: needs be fame very rich 'Coun.try. Some days after Mocofo came to fee the General, -and made him this Difcourfe. , Mofl Hig,hand Potent Lore!, the mofl incon(ideraUe in my jucfgment~ of all that are uncler your 0/Jetlience, and yet the moj.l z.ealour to ferve you, cloes here prefent hirnfelf to your .Lordjhip, with as great confidence of obtaining,fome fervour from you, as if I had teflifiul my &fire 6y effells : For t~e (mall fer .. 7;ice that I ~a-ve done you, in giving liberty to that Chrlflian whom I had in my power, is no rMre /;ut a eon-,


32 A Relation of the Invafion confequ.ence of the oUig,ation that lay upon me of per. forming my promife. But (lJ it iJ the cujlom of great men to-foew their generofity b_J great favours, I am perfwaded, that as you are a!Jove other men in the , extraordinary ~alitus of your Perfon, and in the Command you have over fo many gallant men; Jo alfo youfurpafi them in Li/Jerality, and in all other Yirtues .e And this gives me hopes that I may Ob• tain the favour which I /Jeg of-your Lordjhip, that you would believe me to /Je wholly at your devotion, and thi1:1k of me when you have any occajion of Ser-'Vices. The General made him an(wer, that though he had given Ortiz. his liberty, to comply with the promife he had made , yet he was very .1 mu~h obliged to him for it, and efieemed it a greater kindnefs than any could be imagined ; , that therefore he would ever lo~k upon him as his Brother, and tefiifie to him his gratitude on all occafi.ons. He thereupon caufed a fhirt and other prefents to be given him , with which the Cacique was wonderfully well fatisfied; and having taken leave of Soto, returned to his habira. tion .. CHAP.


nnd Conq~eft of Florida. 3 3' CHAP. X. The General fend.r: ihe Sbip1 to Cuba ; ht:, l~a'l/eS an hundred_ men at_ the port of Ucita, and enters into the Country. THe p!ac~ ~here d~, e Veffels were-near the habitation of V cit a , was named by the Generah the Port of the Holy Ghofl; and from thence he fent Balthaz.ar de Gallegos with fifty _ Horfe, and fame Foot into the Prov inc e of Para .. ,~xi, to view that Country, and to inform himfelf of the nature of thofe that lay farther up in FlorMa, with orders to give him advice of everyi' thing he difcovered. Soto took a refoli.ition alro bffending his Shi~s to Cu!Ja, to bring from thence Ammunition and Provifions. Vafco Porcalh't>,. who was preferred to be Captain-General, had no other defign in accepting of that charge , but to get Slaves from Florida, which he might fend to Cu/;a where all his iuate Jay: But . paving made many incurfions to no purpof~, becaufe of , the thick bullies and fwamps with which that c;:oumry is naturally fortified ; he !hewed a dif.. like to the Service, and a great deftre tt> return back to C u!Ja. So that although he had had fame mif underfianding with the General~ which made D -=--them


34 • A Relation of the lnvajion ' them live together with a drynefs; yet he asked him leave to be gone, and received it with great demonfirations of friendiliip. In the mean time Gallegos being arrived at P aracoxi, found the ca .. ci1_ite ,wa9 removed ; but he fent him thirty Indians, who told him that the Cadque, whofe Vaffals they were, had fent them to know what he fought for in his Country, and wherein he could ferve him. Galleg/s made anf wer , That he was obliged to their Lord for his Offers ; that they 1 fhould entreat him to r~tum to his habitation, where they might difcourfe together, and confirm a fincere peace and friendibip, which he defi~ed to enter into with him. The Indians carried thefe words to the Cacique, who fent them back to acquaint Gallegos that he was indifpofed, which hindred him from coming, The Serjeant Major ' asked them if they knew of any Province where there was Gold or Silver : They affured him thatthere was one to the Wefiward, called Cale; the Inhabitants whereof were in War with the people of another Province, where the Spring lafied all the year long, and where Gold was to be found in abundance , beca ufe they make War againfl: thofe of Cale with Head-pieces of Gold. So Gallegos finding that the Cacique did not come, and that he only fed him with thefe falfe hopes, that he might have time to provide for his own fecurity ; and fearing 'befid<3s that if he let thefe Indians go, he would fee them no more, , he


and Conqueft of Florida.. . 3 5 he caufed them to be put in Irons, and .rent eight Troopers to acquaint the General with wh a t he hgd done. :Soto aod all the Camp w ere overjoy'J , at this, thiAking that the repo rt of the Indians might be true. The Generai I , e ft for the Guar d of the Port, Captain Calcleiran with thirty Horfe, and threefcore and ten Foot-fouldiers, and marched with all the refi to joyn Gallegos at P araco.xi, from whence without making any Hop, he took his march to Cale. He found two ftnall Villages upon the rode, Acela and Jocafle, from whence he marchedbefore height to Cale, with fifty Foot and thirty Horfe: Some Indians having retreated into Marifh or Swamp, near to a place unpeopled that lay upon the rode; Soto fent his Interia preter to them, who perfwade~ them t o come ba-ck and give a Guide, who led the . General to a River that ran with a rnoft rapid firearn: We were obliged to make a lit de Bridge u _ p en t he trunk of a tree which fiood in the middle of the River, to pafs over the Foot. The H orfe fwam over by the help of a Ca~le t hat led the _ m from ,the one.fide t o the other; becaufe one who had taken the1 water firft, was drowned for want of that invention. F rom thence the General fent two Troopers to the r efi of his men, who were coming afte\ , t o -bid them make hafie; becaufe the way was longer than h _ad been believed, and that they wanted Ptovifions . When he came to C-ale, he found the Town abandoned by all, D 2 excep


36 A Ke{ation of the Invajion except three or four Indian Spies who were ta: ken., In this place Soto flayed for the reft of the Army, who were extreamly tired out by fa. fling, and the ba.dnefs of the way ; for the Couu .. i try was poor; and not mu_ch cultivated, by reafon that the Land is low, and in many places over. : flow'd, or covered with very thick Woods. And' all thf,! Provifions that were taken out of the Ships were f pent; fo that they ran to the habita tions of the Indians , where they found fame leaves of Beers, which the more diligent pluckt and eat with water and falt : Such as could get none of them , went to the fields of Mies; and feeing the Corn was not as yet ripe, they pulled up fialks and eat and fed on all together. The . flalks of Palm-f prouts were a great relief unto them; and they found a great many when they came to the River which the General had pa!fed with fo much trouble : Thefe f prouts grow upon the Palm-trees as low as thofe of Andaloufia. In this place two other Troopers met them from the General, and aifured them that there was plenty , of Maes at Cale : this news put life into them again ; and whili1: they were upon their march , to Cale, Soto c~ufed all the Maes which was ripe in the fields, to be cut down, and laid up a fiore . of it for three months. When the Chrifiians were a reaping, the Indians killed three of them ; but one of thofe who were taken, told the Geneml that feven Leagues from that Town, there ,. ~vas .


and Conqueft of Florida. 3 7 .was a very large Province fruitful in Maes, which 11 was called Pa/ache. Whereupon he immediately parted from Cale with fixty Foot , and fifty . Horfe; he left the Camp-Mafter ... General Louis de Mofcofo with the refi of his men? an exprefs orders not to decamp from thence without a warrant untjer his hand. Seeing no body bad any Servants or Slaves, every one pilled the Mae! his own felf, which they pounded in a Mortar or _ _ Trough of hollowed wood, with a pefile or pounder made of the end of a beam ; and fome brmlt~d the flour through their Coats of Mail. They baked the bread in pot .. Iids which they fet -qpon the fire, in the fame manner as they pracl:ife in Cuva : That way of grinding was fo tirefome, thet feveral Souldiers chafe r.ather to eat no r bread , than to grind in that manner ; but they roafred or boyled the Ma.es, ~nd eat it in the grain. D3


? 8 A Relation. o-f the ln'llajion . . . C H A P~-: w u Tile" Gi:ne~-a! co_,me.r t f ,..Calicjuell ;: ttnd car' , _ riu the~, C.a~ique tl~ereof t o Napetac.:a wit.b 'hint~ , ~The Jnq,ians r efalve to ta~ him fr~m hini hyforce ; many are kJ:lled , upon that occa(ion, .:. • ) ,.,.;•J\ -.. bn•) !Fefncmcfrl de, Soto'j)arted fro~" Cale the 1 Eh~ th of A14g,u.fl, 1 5 40. and came t o lodge at !Mra; frorp ~he~tc at Potano; the third day at tftimaina J ; and -rt1en at. an h~bitation, w 1irh the Spaniards caUJe:Mala paz, nail Pea ce; they ,caIJed if foibe-caufe an Indian came who called hia1feW:th~1Cacique; :and offered himfelfand .a11 his Subjelts to the Generals fervice, provide d h e would be pleafed to fet at liberty twenty India ans men and women, who had been taken the night b~fore ; that as an acknowledgment for 1 that favour, he would furnifh him with Provifi .. ens and good Guides. The General caufed the m to be fat at liberty, and put the Indian under guard. Next day feveral Indians appeared, and drew up round a little Village near to a Wood; th~ Indian defired to be had near ~o them, that he would fpeak to them and re-affure them, and that they would d o whatever he fhould command them.


and Conqueft of Florida. . . 39 them. When he was got pretty neat , he made his efcape out of. the hands ofthofe that guarded , him; and ran a.way fo f wiftly , that no man . was: able to overtake him ; and at the fame l:ime . all .. the Indians fled into the Wood. .The . General let flip a Hound Which had already flefned upon fome Indians ; and that Dog paffing tllrough all the .refl:, went and feized the counterfeit Cacique, and held him till fome came and took him. From thence the General Went to Cholupaba, which the Spaniards c a1Ied Villa Farta (fat Town) by rea-1 fan of the plenty of Maes that they found there. They made a wooden-b ridge to pf1fs the River which . is near to that habitation ; a n d having marched two days over a defar t Countr y , t hey arrived at Caliquen the Seventeenth of Auguft . In that place, when Soto informed him felf about the Province of Palache, he was told that Nttr-.. vaez had advanced rio farther in, th~n the place where then they were; and th~t he h a d en)barked there, becaufe there w a s no way to go farther, and t hat there were no m "ore habitations t o b e met with. It was urged to the General; that' he ihould return to the Port of the Holy'Ghof}, an leave Florida, wher~ he ru n tl)e risk of being loft as_ Narvaez was ; t~at if they engaged fart her in, there woulcl-be ' QO getting back again , be-' caufe the Indians wo. u ld f pend that little Maes . which they had left in maintaining themfel ves. The General made anf wer to tl1efo grievances , D 4 Tha t


40 A. "!{elf-Zlion fJf the lntVafton That he would neV'er turn his back before he faw the danger nearer ; and that he was not perfwaded of the truth of what the Indians faid. There-up~n h~ ordered the Horfes to be kept fadled, and in a I condition to march,and fent orders to the Ca111p-l\1afi:er-General infiantly to come and joyn him. Mofcofo and many others believing th-~t they fuould advance no farther than Pa lac he, bt1ried under-ground all the Iron which they had at c; ale ; and came to C aliquen after they had fuffered much hardihip, , by reafon that the Country through which the Governour had marched, tyas utterly wafted. When all the Army was joyned, Soto parted from Caliquen the Tenth of September, taking the Cacique along with him~ At the end of three day~, fame Indians came to vifit their Lord ; and all the days following they attended him on the march , playing on a cer tain pipe, which ferves for a fignal that they come as friends : They faid that the Army would foon come to the habitation of Vzachil, a kinf man of the Caciiue of Caliquen ; that he expecred the Spaniar'ds, •with intention to render them all forts of fer vice, and at length prayed the General to • fet their Cacique at 'liberty; but he would not, for 'fear they might make an Infurrecrion, and refufe him Guide.s : however, he ufed civil ' pre-1 texts, and made a fair excufe. In this manner were five days fpent, until the Army arrived at Napetaca the' Fifteenth of Septem~er. Fourteen • • : 1 . :.. ;_: : • • Indian!


. 4nd Conqneft of Florida. 41 .1 /r1dians came to the Governour there, praying him to fend back their Cacique; he told them that he detained him not by force, but that he de~ fired he might accompany him as far as Vzachil,. In the mean time 'j-ohn Ortiz. learnt from an1n ditm, that they were refolved to affemble , and endeavour to fet their Lord at liberty : Ortiz ac.,, quainted the Governour with it, who gave' orders that all both Horfe and Foot fhould arm, and be ready within their ~arters, to the end that the Ind fans fuf pefring nothing, might be fo bold as to venture into the Town : Thereupon four hun ... dred Indians in Arms beiDg pofied within view of the Camp, fent two men to the Governour to demand their Cacique. Soto took fix Troopers with him, and holding the Cacique, to V/hom he talked, by the hand to re-a!fure the Indians , he advanced to the place where they were pofied; b ,ut when he perceived that they prepared to fight, he commanded his Trumpeter to give the aliarm : At that founq. all the Span'iards Horfe and Foot fallied out of their ~arters with Co great rage, that the Indians being furprized and ama-. •Zed, minded nothing but how to efcape ; . never~ tbelefs they killed the Governours Horfe and anog ther, but loft forty men that were run through with Lances ; the r~fi threw themfelves into two Lakes difiant from each other. We purfu'd them to the fide oft. e lakes,and fhot at them as they were fwim~ ng to fave themfdves : but _ " ... not


42 A .Relation pf the Inrvaflon not many lhot did hit ' ; fo that the Governou~ commahded one of the Lakes td be befet, the few men th at e had not f ufficing to encompafs both. The befc t lnclians endeavoured t-0,'fa:ve themfelves in the night-time, f wirriming . .f oftly, to the fl10ar• and that they m i ght not be difcern_ecl, they cove red their h eads w th the leaves of W ;iter-lilJies: but the Troopers perceiving the watt5r to bubble, f p1;1rred in the it Horfes up tb t~(f ! ~~nter , "arid drove the Indians in again . The . igbt was tlius f pent with ut any refi on_ either fide: Orti'l:. cs:!• led tot em to render th emfel ves t0 the G Ver~ nour , feeing they co' Id not efoa p ; which at length they did, beine5 confl:raincd by the {harp nefs ~f the cold that they endured in the water. So t~e firfi who could hold out no longer , crie q to Ortiz, th at if-they would not ki11 him, he would render b" mfelf; and before the break o f day, they came al out one ~fter ~mother, exc e p t twelve of the bravefi, whoall -refolyed to die i n t l e water before tht:Y would yield : Butt the Indians of .P aracox2, rho were no~ in Irons,jump t int o the -Lake ; and fwi.mm-ing ,-~ took hold o f Jhef e ~leCp~ -ado~ s by the hair , and drngg' d them;1 afhoar, \\d10 were immediately 1t into Irons. ~All th~refhv eredivided amongh the Chrifiians. to ferve them for Slaves. The 'difgrace and mifory of tfiat ' fla very , made them retohre to rebel' ; and they charged one rc>f their numb~r , who fer .. ved for Int e rpreter , ~nd whom they highly efiee-. , med


.. and Conque.ft ofFlorida. . -43 med for his Valour, to firangle theGenerq.l when he fhoulaJpeaktcf l11m~-oy" throtling 111m wi h his two hands. .Th s blade finding a favourabl e occafion , fell upon the Genera-I ; but before be could get his two ' hands to his J;hroat , he gave him fuch a, furious blow with his fifi: upon the face, that he put hit11 all ~n a gore of . bloud : AU the l,;2dians at this fignal befiirred themfelves; he that could make ufe of his Mafiers Arms, or of the , Pe>under wherewitk ~ they pounded the Maes, fee upon.his l\1affer therewith , or qnth_e firfi th at felf irito His hands. , They made ufe of the L~nces or _Swords th ey met wit h , as skiffti11y as if t hey had beern.:bred to it from t heir childhood ; fo t hat on~ of them with Sword in hand, made he~d al gainfi fift~en or tweqty men .in the open place; until he was kdled ny _the Governours HaJbar., diers: -Another~arrned ~ith a Lirrce got up into a Grinary where they kept the Maes_,_ and nin.~ king-is great noife there as if there had befn ten men tog ether ; he defended the dodr fo weH, tha.t they were obliged , to fl19ot him tlfrougb a hole ' ) n th e roof. 'rhey-were ;o tn'e number of 1two hundred Indians; were at l~qgth beaten and reduced._ The Governbi.1r gave the younger to thofe who had good Chaios;md commanded the.mi; to .fucure them well : all the refi were tied to frakes in the middle of he place , and fhot : ?eath with Arrows by the !nclians 6f P aracoi

4 A Kclation of the lnvajion CHAP. x,I. The Governour cqme1 to P~Iache ; he is ' . ,old that ther_ e is~ great _de1l of (;old far .. 1her up in the Co~ntrJ'f qpetaca the Three and' twentieth of Septem!J~r, and went to en~ camp by a River, where two I11dians brought the General a Stag from the Cacique of ?!'1!:achi(:, next day we paffed by the Pelaya, a large Habi-: tation, and from thence went to Vzachil, which we found abandoned upon the report that wa~ fpread of the Maffacre of Napetaca. The Towq was full of Maes, little Beans, and Cucumbers, which were very agreeable refreihments to us, as mo .re fuitable. to our way of living: The Mae~ was like Millet, and the Cucumbers better than thofe of Spai_n. The (ieneral fent out t~o Ca~ ptains feveral ways to take Indians, who brought in an hundred as well women as men, that were ' all divided in this manner: The Capta -in who; took the prize fet one or two apart for the Go~ . vernour; the refr were divided b~twixt the Ca .. ' ptain and Souldiers . . T 1ey. w ere chained by the neck, and ferved to carry the Baggage , poun~ , the Maes, and in othe' r employmen_~s w~erein the ! , c h _ain


and Conqueft of Florida. 4; chain incommoded them not too much. . But feeing the love of Liberty makes any enterprize , eafie, the Indian who was led to the Wood to pro•. , vide fewel, or to cut Maes, fometimes killed his Mafier, and ran a way with the Chain ; others filed it with . Flints, which they ufed infiead of Iron. They who were catched in ' any of thefe actions, pay'd dear for it, ito the end they might take from them the boldnefs of attempting the like another time. . When the Women or Children were an hundred or fix fcore Leagues from their own Country , they were let go without Chains ; thefe were very ferviceable,. and learned Spanijh very foon. The Governour, at length, left Vz.achil, that he might go to P alache; and in two days march ca.me to Axille, where the In-. dians did not at all expect us; but feeing the Woods were near, moil: part fled into them, and efcaped. Next day, being the Firft of O[fo/;er, we fet forward, but firft had _ a bridge made over a River that we were to crofs in our way ; , at the bridge it was a fl:ones throw over, where no . 1 ground was 1to be found , 'and at the fides there . was water up to ones middle : The fides were covered with high and very thick bufl1es, wher e , the lndi@s made a f11ew of defen ding the pafiage ; but the General ordered his Crofs-bow m e n to advance , who , made them retreat ; and fome Souldiers pafi over upon pieces of wood t hat were fuoved a-crofs, to defend the entry of the Bridge. -----. -. . , So


4~ A Kelation of the lnvafton So the General crofTed over with all his men; , on l'hurfday St. Frdn~is his day, and came to Q,ar~ ters at Vitachuco, a Villa.ge of the Province of Pala.che. The Indians had fe.t it on fire , and the Houfes were frill burning; however, we entred the Province, which we founq to be very well .. peopled, and plentiful in Maes. We met ever y where almofi with Houfes like to our Farm-houfes in Spain ; and large Towns, as Vzelu, where we arrived on Sunday the twenty fifth of. Ofloher, and on Tuefday after at Anhayca of P alache, where the Cacique who commanded the whole Province had his Refidence.. The Gamp-Mafier or Qarter-Mafier-General, whofe place it is to quarter the Army,affigned us Q,arters round the Town. There were other Villages at half aLeague or at mofl: a Leagues difiance , from whence we had good fiore of Maes, Cucmnbers, fmall Beans, uod dried Prunes better than thofe of Spain; the Trees that bear thefe Plums, grow naturally in alt the fields. Thefe Provifions wer~ brought to Anhqyca of P alache, in fufficient quantities to ferve us all the Winter. The Governour knowing that the Sea was but ten Leagues off, font thither a Captain with fonie Horfe and Foot; who having paft Ochete, fix Leagues from our ~arters, came to the Sea-ihoar, where they found a great Tree cut down, and fhaped in form ofa Man"ger; thev fa\v alfo the bones of dead Horfes; which made them concfode that that mufi .be the place where


and Conqueft of Florida .. 4 7 where Narvaez. built rhe Barks wherein he was cail: a .va y: the Governour. b~ing informed of that, fent Danhufco and thirty Troopers to the Port of the Holy Ghofl,, with orders t,o Caldeiran to leave that pail:, and come to P alache. Danhufco parted the Twentieth of November, and found that the Indians were returned to Vz.achil and to the other Villages; yet he took none of them, fearing that might fiop his march, and give them time to draw . together. He paffed by their habitations onely in the night-time, and took his refl: for three or four hqurs in fame by-place ; fo that he made but ten days Journey to the Port, from whence he fent two Caravels to Cuba, on which.he embarked twenty Indi.anwomen for Dona lfabella, according to th~ Governours orders. He went on board the two Brigantirres with all the Foot ; a11d coafiing a ong the fl.10ar!) came t o Palache. Caldeiran made the Journey by Land, with the Troopers arid fome Crofs-bow men; b ut the Indians fet upon him on his march; and wounded 1ome of his men. So foon as he was come to P a lache, the Govern our feat to the Port, planks, nails? and all other materials neceffary for the building of a Bark; which he fitted out and manned with thirty men well armed, to c!uize in that Bay, in expectation of the Brigantmes: They had fame engagements with the Indians, who skulke.d in their Canoes about that Coafl In the mean time, an Indian undif .. covered


4S A Relation of the Inrvafion covered by the Sentinels, came and fet fire to our habitation, on Saturday the Nine and twen . tieth of Novem'1er ; and feeing it blew a high wind, one half of the Town was burnt down. It was Sunday the Nine and twentieth of Decemiet before Danhufco arrived with his Brigantines. The Governour having refolved to difcover the Country to the Weft, commanded out Maldonado ~ith fifty Foat -fouldiers to march along the Coafi, and fear ch for fome Harbours ; and at the fame time he detached Troopers to go upon the fcout about the Town, becaufe the Indians were -become fo infolent, as to co,ne and kill men with .. in two Crofs-bow-fhot of our Camp. Thefe Troopers found two Indians and a woman gathe .. ring fmall Beans; and though the Indians migh t have faved themfelves, yet they chafe rather to die than to abandon the woman, who was Wifo to one o f them: They wounded three Horfes 9 w hereof one died. S ome days after, Caldei/cm with thofe whom he Commanded , entred into a Wood that was upon the rode to the Sea ; there he wasfet upon by Indians, who forced him back, and took from him the Provifions which \Vere car• ried by his men. In the mean while , the time wh i c h the Governour had prefixed to Maldonado for h i s r et urn, w a s elapfed by three or four days, whic h did n ot a little tronblc h i m ; and he had refol ved n o t to fta y for h i m but eig h _ t days lon g er, when that Captain came, bring ing w ith him an


and Conqueft of Floridtb. 4 9 an Indian of a Province ca~led Ochufe, threefcor~ Leagues difiant from P alache: There foci had found an Harbour of good Ancho _ rage, an~ fafo againfi all . weathers; this extreamly fatisfied the <;iov~rnoiu, who always hoped to find on tha~ .fide f9me Country rich in_ Gold. He font Mal ... donado, to the Havana for Ammunition and Provifions, and gave him orders , to return back to him again to t _he Port of Ochufe,, _ whither he was to go by Land: That if afly obfiacle intervened that might hinder the Army from being there the Spr _ ing follovving, M.aldonado was to return to the Havana, and come back again the next Spring after, to wait for the Goyert19}1r ih that Port, becaufe he Would ehg*ge in no o 'her. Et1ter/ prize, before he had found Ochufe. Maldonado being gone with thefe or~ers, and his Compa1i)"' ~eing given to John de Gz.1,z,m(ln , th~ .Jreafurer 'j-ohn Gaytan brought a young Indian -to the G oe. verrtour, who had been taken at Napttaca, :-H told him that he was not of that C01.mtfy r but of another very remot~ towards the Eaft_ ; and that when he was taken he was corh, e.l on -his• Travel s , to N"1petaca .~ -That his Coun .try ,-~alled Tupahar, was govern'd by a La?y whofe Tow1J was of~~pro~igiou;s bignefs that ihe had Tribute pai . her by all her Neighbours,by fome in Go~ds, and . by others in Gold. Whereupon he defc-ribed the manner how that Gold was dug~ how it was mel..., tcd and refined, as if he had feen it dot1,e ~ -hun..,_ E dt c {


; o A Relation of the ,lnvafton _ dred times, o;r as if the Devi~ had taught him; infomuch that all who underfiood the manner of working in~ the M ines, averred that it was impoffible for him to [peak fo exacl:ly of it, withou t . having • fe~n die ~ame; and fo the relation of that lnclian paft for a real Truth , becaufe of the cfrcumfta nces wherew-ithhe confirmed it. . C H A \P~ XIII. The Go'l/;~rn,our leaves Palache , to go in feat~~[J-~ofthe Province of Yupha; and wh4t,:_hefel him in t!Jat Expedition. Pon t-h~s encouragement we left Anhqyca o f . Palacheo~ \VednefdaytheThird-ofMarch, I 5 40. no m _an ha-vi g a y thin g in his thoughts b ut to g o 1~{e-a~ch f t J •• ~ich C oun try of Tupaha. The G0v~rnbur o r d ere Ptovifions to be made for th~eefsqre L eague d

a11id Conqueft of Florida. 5 ,, for Cables, to bear up the Canoe in paffing againft the current of the water.. The Horfo f warn over by the help of Ropes that pulled them, a~d that labour fiopt us a day and a _haJfs time. At length we came to Capachiqui on Sa.,; turday the Eleventh of March; the Indians were in Arms in all that Country ; fo that five S pant ... ards being gone to feek Mortars to pound their Maes in, in forr.e fcattered Cottages, n:iet with fe~ veral lnclians who came upon the fcout : Five of them detached from the refr, and attacked us fo furioufly , that a Spaniard ran away _and came and gave the allarm in the Camp. The mofr , diligent went out to ailifi their Comrades, and found one Chrifiian dead, and the other three clangernufly wounded ; but the Indians fled i 1to fwamp to fecure themfelves from the Horfoo The Governour leaving Capachiqui, pafl: ove .. a , a defart Conn try, and came to Toalli th One ' and twentieth of the Month.In that Country we began to find houfes far different from thofe which . hitherto we, had feen: Thofe were onely coven: with Herbs, whereas thefe of Toalli had for their Roof little Canes placed together like Tile ; th~y were very neat, fome had the walls made of poles fo artificially, interwoven , tbat they fee med to be built of fione . and lime: for that being a cold Gountry, every Indian hath a Houfe.fo live in in the WitJter ,; infide and outfide m~de tight with thefe Poles. The door is rfarrow and low t E 2 they


I • 52 A Relation of the Invafion hey flmt it well in he night-time, :3:pd ki11:dle a fire within the _houf~, which heats' it like an Oven fo that one hath no need of being covered. They have other Habitations for the Summer, and Kitchins adjoyning their Houfes where they bake heir Bread. Tbe Granaries wherein they lay up the Maes, are raifed upon four pofis, boarded , on the fides, with a floor made of Canes. The Houfes of the . Caciques and perfons of ~ality amongfi them, are to be diftinguifhed not onely by their greatnefs, but alfo by the large Balconies that they have over the Entry, and by feats below made of Canes in the manner of benches. Every houfe hath feveral Granaries, where they . fay up what their Subjecl:s a n d Tenents bring them in for Rent; as Maes, Stags skins , and Mantles of the Country, made like little Caffocks of the rind or foft part of the bark of cer~ tain Trees; nay , and fame aJfo woven of the thread of a certain Herb, which being well bea ten , becomes like flax. Thefe Mantles ferve them for Cloatns; one1 they have which covers hem from the girdle down below the knee, and , another on the left fhoulder, thrown. back under the . right arm, which they wear always abroad, in the fame manner as the Eohemians do. The Indians have never 111ore than one about their ihoulders~ and cover their lower parts with Breeches made of a Stags skin , . much like to thofe that are ufed in Spain: The leather isextraordi~ narily


'and Conquefl of Florida. 5 3 narily _well-drefi~ and they give it what colour . they pleafe, with fo perfect_ a dye, that their firered colour is. not furpaffed by the findt Scarlet. Their Black is good alfo , and of this they make Shooes ; the y give the fame colour to their Mantles with as rriuch perfection. --we parted from 1oa!/i the Tv. enty third of March, ~nd on Friday the Army came t0 a little River, which they paffed upon a Bridge made of one fingle Tree, from which Bennet Fernandez. a Portuguefe fell into the water and was drowned. The Village of Achefe was pretty near, w here the Indians had no intelligence of our march; to our view they threw . themfelves into a little River near the Village; but fame were taken, and amongfi: thefe, women : One of them underfiood the Language of that Lad who conduB:ed the Governour to 1upaha, which much confirmed th e relation he had made, becaufe we had pa1fed through Countries) where different -Languages were f p o ken , nay and fome which-he underfiood not. The G overnou r fent one of th e Indians whom he had taken, to call back the Cacique, who was g ot to the other fide of the River : He came and made him this following difcourf e. Mofl High, mofl Mighty , ancl mofl Excellent Lord, thing,s that are rarelyfeen,caufe admiration: l--Jo w could we then be ajfe[ied at the (tg,ht of your Lor'djhip, and men who were altogether unknown to us, mounted upon fa. furiozM Beafls as tbefe feem to E 3 be,


54 ./1. R _elation of the. lnvafion ;e, and breaking into my Country {o impetuouf!y~ /;~fore I knew any thing, of your roming? [bis hath f1fpe4red to u.r fo extraordinar1 a thi,ig, , and hath /!ruck fuch terroi 1 r in our minds , that it was not in ~ur power to flay and receive your Lordjhip wit h r hat Honour wkicb is due to fa l-Iig,h and Illtllriour Prince. ,But the conftlence I have of your Generofity anl Virtt-tes, mak me hope t!Jat you will not ()nely pardon my faitlt, but g,ives me alfo /Joldnefs to /ejire Favours of you: Firfl; that your Lorcljhip ~vow,ld difpofe of my Perfon, Cot;tntry, and Subje[/s; and thrn that you would tell me from whence you come, u:hither you go1 an~ what you feek, that Jo l may be in a /Jetter condition tq render you fervice. The Govern our anfwered, That he was as well fatisfied \ ith his Offers and goqd will, as i f he had pre ente d him with a g reat Treafure; that . h e va So of the Suri, and that h e came fro• the place of his abode1 in fearch of the grea"' 11:ei.1: Lo~d, and richef.1: r ovince of tha t Country. The Cs:ique replied, That beyond his Territories ;tl ere w~0 a great Lord , whofe Country was cal..., ed Ornte; and gave us an In terpreter a n d Guideso Thi s obliged the Gov ernour t o fet at l iberty ~ll the SubjeB:s of this Cacique, whofe Yillage I e 1efr, m.,: chmg along the River through a very well..: pe?ple Cou ntry. W e parted the firfi of April; and a u r d epart . re, by orders from the Gover .. nour , ereq ed a ooden-Crofs in the middle of ~. ~e Market''place of t~e Village ; and being in l1afie:i


and Conqueft of Florida. . 5 5 11afie, we onely told the 7ndians, that that Crofs ferved to put us in mind of 1 1at Jef iu Chrifl fuffered for our Redemption , that he was both God and Man , and that he created Heaven and Earth ; that in confideration thereof, they fl10uld bear a reveren~e towards that fign ; which they promifed to do. The Fourth ot April we came to Altaraca, and the Ten ' th of the fame Month ' to Ocute : The Cacique fent two thoufand Indians to the.Governour, with a Prefent of Rabbets, Part~idges, Maes11:bread, two Pullets, and a great many Dogs. Thefe lafl: were no Iefs efieemed in the Army, than the befr fueep, becaufe meat and falt were very fcarce there, infomuch that the fick had no kind of refrefhments; which was the caufe that the fmalleCT: indifpofition which would have been made not ing ofin other places, reduced a man.to extremity of a fudden, fo that he died of mcer weaknefs : And it was fad t6 hear the poor wretches in th eir agony figh and fay, Alas! had I but a bit of meat, or a little falt, I Jhould not die. The Indians are not put to fuch ftreights; for with _ their A rrows they kill fiore of Fowl, and Venifion, as wild Hens, Rab-bets, Stags, and other Beafis : They are expert in catching wi!d Fowi and Beafis, and have a thoufand inventions for that , which the Chrifiians had not; and though they had had, they wanted time, being con:fl:antl y on the march', and not da~ ring to leave their Ranks. This want of meat E 4 w ....


~6 A Rel ation ofth e Invafion \ Vas the caufe t h at of the fix hundred men w hCl . Bowed Soto, he who _ c ould c atch a Dog in ;rny Village though ~ himfolf a very happy man ; (for fometi m s we found thirty in a p lace) b u t the Sould ier that killed o n e , an d fent not a quar t e r to , hi~ C a ptain, fuffe& ed for it , paying dear for his incivilif s hen he was t o go Sent inel, or upon ~rny guari of fatig le. Tuefday the Twe lfth o f April, the Gov ernour p arte d from Ocute, the Caciqu~ having g iven h i m four h undred lndians for Se rvice. He w ent to C ofaqui, an d from thence to P a t o fct; the Cacique ot' this Province who was in peace with the C aci q u e o f Ocu te, h a d i nforma tio n of t he Govern o ur s mar ch; and being defirous to procur e hi~ friendihip, h e cam e t o him, ~nd f pake i n th i s manner. Illujlrious ancl Potent Lord, I jhould now deman d Qj Fortune that foe w o u l d ./Je pleafed /Jy fame fmall ~rofl onely to. make m e pay f o r the l-lonour t o which foe adv ance s me, in making, m e Jo happy as to obtain the t hing, I mofl def reel in this life, which is to Jee y our Lordjhip, and !Je a/;le to render you fervice. 1hough my fong,ue /Jear the image of what is ,in my heart, and th at my heart cannot diffe mble the fatiJjaEliotz which it receives on this occafi"on, yet it wants power f:,t!!y to expreft it. What can t h e Counf(Y which I g,o vern hav e meritecl, t o be honoared i vith the figh t of Jo g r e a t a Man, anti fa excellent a Princ e , w h o aught t o /Je ferved and refpeftec l /Jy all m e n in the :porlc/ ? And the lnh:1bit?ints of t!J.~. Country /Jeing ( e


a~d Conqueft of Flo_nda. ; 7 the mofl inconjiderahle of all others, whence can they , have this happinefs? the thoug,ht of which alone, i.s enough to preferve them from all the calamities that may befal them according, to. ihe courfe of Fortune. ' ,Seeing, if to day we be fa happy as to be reckoned aYfiOng/l your Lordjhips Su/Jjefls, we cannot fail of htng, proteclecl and maintained /Jy true Juflice, and Redfon, and of taking, to our felves the name of men, feeing they who have ne"ither Reafon nor_ Juflice, may juflly , he ranked among, Beafls. I hearti[y then ~ and with all due refpe[t, offer my felf io your LorclJhip, /;efeechingyou that in recompence for the jincerity of my will,. you would /;e pleafed to Command me, my Country, and Subje[/s. The Governour told him, that he was much obliged to him for his kind cxpreilions, of the effeB:s whereof he was already ferifibl~; that he would remember his good will as long as he lived, and honour and fayour him as his Brother.. For the fpace of fifty Leagues from Ocute to P atofa, the Inhabitants whereof are of a gentle and peaceable nature ; the Country is very pleafant, and the Soil fat, being watered with a great many Rivers which contribute to its fertility. , But from Ocute to the Port of the Holy Ghofl, where we firfi entred Florida, that Coun .. try, which is no lefs than three hundre d and fifty Leagues in extent, is a light and foft Land, foH off wainps and very high and thick bu{hes, \vhcre the wild and warlike lnclians defend thcmfel ve sgainfi the a ttempts of the Sp,tniards . , beca fo Hofe


58 A Relation of;the In vafion H orfe cannot break through thofe {hong places; w hich was v ery incommodious t9 us, not , onely becaufe of the want of Proviftons , which in all l aces they carried away , but alfo for the di(nc u l ; ty. we had in finding Guides. . CHAP. XIV • . ' 7he G o vernour leaving the Provinc e o f Patofa, meet s with (I, De fart, where h e and all bis men were reduced to extrea m mifery. N t his Habitation off a tefa, the young Indian who ferved 'for Interpreter and Guide , fell upon the ground foaming at the mouth a s if h e J:iad been pofiefl: with the Devil ; the Gofpel as .read over him, and be recovered. -.After tha t, h e . ;a1foreq as, that four days Journey from thence }towards 'tqe Ea!l, we fhould find the Country h e .fpake of. The lndfans of Patofa on the contrary affi~med , that they had rio lrnowledg~ o(__ any J~Jabittion that way, but that they knew ther e )Vas a plentiful ' and populous Province to th e orth .. W efi, called Cofa; however, the Cacique t old the G overnour that he would furnifh him ,v.ith Guides and Servants ~,hat wayfoever he re-,, fol ved t o go, whethe r to 'ard C efq; o:r toyvards th e


and Conqueft ofF!orida . 59 1e Province _ which that Inclian de 1gned. Soto emanded fix hundred Indians of him,and fothey parted with tefiimonies of reciprocal affttt.ion . W e rook Maes for' four days, and marc _hed fix by a,. way that grew n,arrowe and narrower fii.11 till at length it altogethe r fai_led >!S, T'.ce lncl,an mar ched in the Van, and ma. d us foard over c w great Rivers a Crofs .. bow-f110t broad; where w e had water' up to the gi rt,s; bu feeing the Current was very r ,apid , the Horfe were forced to make a Lane, to fecure the paffage of thij . Foot, 1 who paifed thro u gh holding b y the Horfes. OL r fatigues wer e double ; d in pq.ffing a broader and more rapid River, where the Horfes vter-forcr d tofwim a Pikes length: This put tlie Governou r ~nto a great perplexity ; he made a halt un er fame Pine-trees after we had paifc-d t he Riverj and threatned the you g ln/ian, that he w ould have him throw n to the dogs, b e caufe h e had de~ eived him, in telling him that it was but four days journey, whereas we lad fpe 1t nine, rnnrch'." ing feven or eight Leagt,es a day ; and the -I rft s I ~eing quite ~ f pent by reafon that the n -t em..: felves had fh rt allowance of Maes. The lnclimJ confeffed tbat he knew not , 1 here I c v,:as ; and ~ha t ackno wledgment would h .. ve cert ainly made h i m a . p rey to the dogs, had not he been the on -ly perfon wl om John Ortiz underfi ooJ . 1 he Governou r left the Army e campe unde r the 'fines~ and Vlith a Guide ~nd fame orfe "nd Foot U'~V3


6 o ' A Relation of the lnvajion dvanced five or fix Leagues intO' the Countr to find out a way ; bur he returned at night e x 1 treamly troubled that he could find no fign t h a that Country was i nhabited. Next day it w~ debated in Council, whether we ihould retur \ back again , or take fome other courfe. T h t Country which we had !eft behind us, was ruine and laid waCT:e, and our provifion of Maes fpent oth men and horfes were fa heartlefs , that i t was doubted whe t her we could be able to get to a place of refref11ment : befides, the Indians ta, I ing their advantage from that diforder, might have had tbe boldne(s to attack us ; fo that Wt had caufe equally to fear War and Famine, if Wt _ refol ved to turn back again. Wherefore the Go vernour refol v ing to fend out fame Troopers o n all hands to fearch for fome habitation, dif patched four Captains feveral ways, eight Troopers a piece~ They came back at night, dragging their Horfesby the bridle , or driving them before tbem , they were fo quite f pent ; and yet found neither rode ' nor habitation. Next day four others were comrpanded out , accompanie d ; with eight Troopers who a 1 could f wim; moun ~ ted on better horfes , , with orde r s even to crofs the Rivers they might meet with. Thefe Ca~ ptains were , Ga!leg,01 wh o m arched upwards aJong the fide of the River ; Danhufco, 'who follow .. ed the courfe of the River downwards ; Romo and Lobilho who croft the Country. The Go• vernour


andConqtte.ft of Florida.. 6 I vernour had brought witi1 him into Florida an hundred Swine , which had already bred him three hundred Pigs; fome of thefe he caufed to ,, .be killed, and halfa pound of fle{h given to every souldier a day; for all the Maes was confumed. three or four days before. Thus the Souldier<"' kept Soul and Body together, with fo fmall an allowance of meat and fome boyled herbs ; for the Indians of P atof a were fent back fo foon as Provifions began to be fcarce , though the poor men fhew' d an extraordinary defire to ferve the ChrH1ians in that neceility, and a great deal of trouble to leave them, befo_re they faw them in a good Country. Sunday in the Evening Dano hufco returned , and told us th _ at he had found a little Village about twelve or thirteen Leagues from the Camp; whi c h fo_ rejoyced the Governour and whole Army,that theyfeemed to be raifed from death to life again. Munday the Six and twentieth of April, we decamped to go to that little habitation, by the Indians called .A-Jmay, and by the Spaniards the Village of good Relief;. The Governour left a Letter buried at the root 6f one of the Pines in the Camp, and thefe words cut in the balk of the Tree : Dig, at the root of thiJ Pine, and you'll find a Letter. It was to give notice to the other Captains who were abroad upon clifcovery, what was become of the Gover nour, .and what way be was gone. . The way was no othenvife to be knovm, but by the trees and -


" 6 2 A R_elai:ion of the lnvafion and. bufhes which Dm:hufco had br oken d own in his paffi g o The Governct r being a ccompan i , w d wit 1 th ofe w .. 10 were befl mounted, arrived at the H abitatio on Tuefday, all doing t h eir ut mo _ ro follow hi n-in the march ; fo th a t fam e lay l 1 i g ht t wo Leagues fhort of the Villag e , others three or four, according t o their courage or firength . In this habitation w e found a Gra, nary fuH of parch d JWaes, and f@me Maes in grain, which W v S difi :ibuted by allowances : W e alfo took four Indians, who confrantly affinned hat they k new of no other Iabitation, till the Gov no r co. i ma d e d o n e to be burnt alive ; then o of them o d us, that two d ays J our ey from thenc th .... re was a Provi nce called Cutifa• chiqui. On _ Tuefday Gallegos, Romo, a d Robifho j oyned us ; t ey found the Letter, and had fol . fo e d the tr a of the Army ; but L bilho lofi t. o of his men, whofe hades could not mar c h : The G vernur V/as rru-:h c ff e nded a hat ne• gligence, a~d g ,ve orders to fearch after them; In the mean time I e p arted for Cutifachiqui, and fook •h,eP Jr;dia ; 1 s by the way, wl o told h i m that the Lady of that Coun t ry had already had notice of tt c , h r i { h r , and that fhe expe6:e o . t em in one of her riabitations. The G overnour. fent back one of thefe three Jndians t o offer the ad. his fri n d . .1 • .>, a d tell her that he w a s comog to fc.c 1 e . S o foo n a s he was in fight of the Village, four Canoes in one of which was the Sifter


and Conqueft of Florida~ o 3 Siiler of the Cacique or ~een, came to receive him ; and that Indian Lady comi 1g af11oar, told him, That her Sifter had fent her t o kifs his L or d il1ips hand ; and that fhe did not come h er felf,. becaufe,.fhe was taken up in g iving ord~rs to make ready all her Canoes or tranfp orting the Army, and for the reception of fo gr eat a Lord, to whom fhe had devoted all her ervices. The Governour thanked her ; aiid fame tim e after ihe was gone back, the Cacique appeared in a kind o f Litter, carried by four of the mofi confiderable ofher Subjects to th e water .. fide. She went into a Canoe which had a Tent in: the fiern fupported by a Lance, wit h a Carpet and two Cufhions orf which f he fat , accompanied by fame Indian wo~ men of her Retinue, and many Canoes with men. In that equipage fhe came to the other fide_, where the Governour expefted her , and fpake t him in thefe terms. Mofl excellent Lord, may all happinefs attenl your arrival in this Country ivhich belo,ngs to you. Though my A!Jili~y comes Jhort ~ f my Will, and the Services we render youfuit not with my Dejires, nor with the merit of fo powerful a Prince~ neverthe lefs, fince the Will is more to he efleemecl tha n all the !reafures in the W orld, if they_ b e prefented without _ it, I offer your Lordjhip a firm and con flant good will, with my Perfon, Country, Subje[/s, and mean Services. . Having faid fo, ibe prefented th e Governour with Mantles and Skins, which were brought' 1s


1 A Kel:ztion of the 1nvafion brought in the other Canoes, and pulling.from he1 ne_ck a Lace of large valuab]e Pearls, the p uti ~ about the Governours, whom {he entertained ve. ry pleafantly till a n umber of Cano e s Were com e fufficient to carry over the Army : And fo Ion~ a he frayed in that Village, the _ took care to fen a him a great man y Pullets daily.. That was i very pleafant Country, fruitful and wat ered w itn a r great many Rivers. . It produces ' b ut a few bu{hes, but Nut-trees and M u lberry~trees in a . bundance.. The Indians told us, that the Sea w a ~ but two days j o urney difiant. Within a League round the Village, there w ere a great m _any for. fa ken houfes, wherein th e grafs grew, which w a ~ a that they had been a long time uninha bi, ted: We were told by the Indians that the Plague had been the caufe of it; that it had raged in the Country two years before our coming , whic h had obliged the Inhabitants of thefe Villages t o feek out other Habitations. In their Store-ho u fes were fiill to be feen a great many Mantles made of fluff, of the bark of a treet or of white1 . green, red, and blew feathers, very convenient for the Winter, and very neat according to theif" 1 fail1 ion. Befides thefe, there were a great many Deers skins rarely well dyed and cut into breeches, hofe, and fuooes. . Seeing the Cacique obferved th a t the Spaniards highly efreemed Pearls,. fhe bid the Govern our fend and fear-ch in fome Tombs that were in her Town, telling him th~t Ire


and Conqueft of Florida . 6 5 he would find abundance there ; and that if he caufed thofe alfo of the other Villages to be fearched, they would furni{h Pearls enough to load all the h9rfes of the Army. The Tombs of the Town were indeed fearched, where we got four .. teen bufhels of Pearls ; and the figures of Children and Birds made alfo of Pearl. The people are tawny, well fhaped, and more polite than any we had as yet feen in Florid a : They all wear Cloatbs and Breeches after their own fa{hion. The young Indian told the Governour that they b e0 gan to enter into the Country he told him of; and feeing there was fome probability i n it, he un, .. derfianding the Language of the Inhabi t ants, Soto foffered him[elf to be perf waded ; which made the Inclian defire of him that he might be Bapti0 zed, and had it granted : he was named Ptdro, or Perico ; and the Governour ordered the Chain which he had hitherto carried, to be taken off . That Country, according to the relation of t h e lnclians, had been well peopled; it was reck o n e d plentiful ; and probably the young Indian w ho led us thither, might have heard of i t , thougl, he affirmed that he had feen it, havin g devifed a ll the refi: of his fl:ory according to th e befi of hi imagination. We found in the Town a Dagg er and fome Coats of Mail; whereupon the Indians t old us, that many years -before , the Chrifiians had landed in a Por t tw o days journey from thence (this was certainly Aylhan , who u ndertook F th~


66 A Relation of t1Je Inrvajion the Conquefi: of Flori ti a) that the Governour died upon his landing, which had occafioned great fa. ltions, divifions, and flaughtfr amongft the chief Gentlemen that had followed him, every one pre .. t~nding to the fupream Command , fo that at length they left the Port and returned to S pai11, without difcovering the Country. It was thought fit by all that we f110uld fiop here~and people this place; which was fo advantageoufly fcituate~,that all the Captains of-iliips of new Spain,Peru,S.Marte, and of the Continent, would be over-joy'd to come and Trade in thi s Port, fince it lay in the i r way to Spain: That the Country was exceeding good, and that it might afford a good Trade and very confiderabl e profit. But fince nothing run in the Governours mind but the Treafore of Ata/Jalipa, and that he hoped to find the like; the fertility of that Country, and the abundance of Pearls, coufd not fatisfie him, though in reality a great many of them were worth no lels than Gold; and thofe which they might have made the Indians fith,would have been of another-guefs va ... lue, if the Country had been peopled , becaufe they fpoil their lufire by piercing them in the fire. Ncverthelefs, though the Governour was much prefi to comply in that with the defire of all his men, he . anfwered, That that Country could not fupply us with Provifi o nsenough for one Month; thar we could not excufe our feJves from going to the Port Ocvfe_,where JJ1aldonad{) \.Vas to wait for us; and


and Conqueft of Floridae t7 and that, in finej tha.t Country would be al\\-'ays; open to us9 and we might retreat thither if we found none richer~ That in the mean time the Indians would fow their Land and fo we fhoul find Maes in greater plenty. He always infor med him!'elf of the Indians, whether they had net heard talk of fame great Lord, and rich Country~ and the Indians telling him that twelve days; journey from Cutifachiqui , there was a Province called Chiaha, fubjefr to the Lord of Cofa~ he im<> mediately refolved to go in queft of that Coun~ try ; and as he was a dry and fevere manll though he took pleafure to hear the opinions of all, yet fo foon as he had declared his own, he could not: endure to be contradicl:ed, but did ~hat he j~~gc, ed befi himfelf. Thus all were feign to obey I> in fomuch that though the leaving of this Country appeared to be a great fault feeiqg we could have got Provif,.ons from the Neighbours about, , unti. the Indians had fown theirLand ~ and the Mae. been ripe, yet none durft oppofe-the decifion o~ Soto. CHAPjl


68 A Relation of the Invajion CHAP. XV. T~e Governour departs from Cutifachiqui ta.go to Cofa: What hapned to him du.,, ring his march, . .r E left Cfftifachiqui the Third of May: The Indians were upin arm s ,and the ~een fl1ew'd fome indifferency towards us, nay and , orh~ clefign of flying without gi~ing us Guides or Indian Servants to carry our Baggage. Her difguft was occafioned by the bc1.d ufog~ wqich he Indians had received from fome of the Chriftians ;,, amongO: wf10m, a s gene11ally in ail great Co m panies, there were fome of a low and_ bafe mind, who for a ' little interefi committed fuch _ afhons, as expofed themfel ves and-thofe that were . wit:h them. Thefe: broyls obliged the Gover .. nour t o command the Caci7ue to be arrefl:ed, nd carried away, in a manner unfuitable to the ... indnefs fhe had ihew'd him, and of the receptim on he had had: fhe was forced to walk on foot with her Maids. In the mean time , that fhe might deferve a little confideration to be had for her frill, :ie ca fed Indians to come out of all the Habita .. tions by which the Governour pail:, to carry the Baggage from one place to another. We mar .. ched


and Conqueft of Florida. 69 .ched an hundred Leagues in her Territories, . and every-where we perceived the marks of the , re• verence and obedience which were rendred to her in the promdtude and zeal wherewith all the I11dians executed her orders. However, Perico told us that ihe was not the Lady of the L~nd, but the Cacique's Coufin, who had fent her to that Town to do J ufiice upon fome Lords who had revolted ; but he had lofi all manner of credit by the lies he had told ; however, he was born with, becaufe he was ufeful to us as an Inter .. preter. During feven days march, till we came to Chalaque, we pafi through the moil wretched Country in all Florida ; the Indians there feed on Roots which they fearch for in the fields~ and Fowl they kill. They are a peaceable people, g::-, naked, and are extreamly feeble : their Cacique brought the Governour evo Stags sl{ins as a very . confiderable prefent. There is fuch plenty of wild Heros in that Country, that one Habitation prefented the Governour with feven hundred ; and indeed in all the refi, they offer'd him wha~ they had. That Province is five days journey difi:ant from the Province of Xualla : In this 1afi11 we found very little Mae.s, and that made us after fix days fray? to le.ave it, though both men and horfes were both equally tired. Fram Ocute to Cutifachir;ui, they reckon an hundred and thirty leagues, of which fourfcore are defarr ; and from Cutifachiqui to Xualla two hundred and fifty f 3 throug h


70 A . Relation of the lntz1afton through a mountanous Country. We found fome very bad ones in our way from Xualla to 0!_,tJxule : and whilft we were upon the march, the '-(;acique of Cutifachiqui ilole away from the . Indian flavcs who carried her, upon pretext of , going to do fome needs in a Wood near the rode; but fo focn as {he was there , fl1e fled into the thicl~ of the \Vood, whre fl1e hid her felf, fo that fhe could not be found. It was the Governour's defign to take her along with him to ~axule, where the Lands of the Indian Caciques that paid l1er Homage, ended: She carried away with her alfo a little Box, which the Indians call Petaca.1 and which is made of Canes : That Box was full of unpierced Pearl s , which thofe who had skill j~clgcd to l?e of very great value. An Indian woman that waited on her carried the Box,which the Governour left in her cufiody that he might not afflict: her too much, but V/ith an intention to -.ask it of her when he difmiffed her at ~axule. She had care not to forget it , and went t o Xt,allt;1 in company of three flaves who had fled from the Army, and a Trooper, who bein~ left behind fick of a Feaver, had loft his way m th e Woods. A,limamos ( that was the Trooper~ name) told fo many things to thefe flaves, that he made two of them c}Jange their refolution and return with him to the Governour in the Province of Chiaha : They brought him news that the C~t cique was at Xualla, with, an Indian the flave o f . VajcoY4


and Conquejl-of Florida. 7 I Vafconceios; that ilie would by no meansconfent to come back with them; and tha t the I ndian a n d Cacique Jiv'd wgether like man an wife, being refo lved .to return to Cutifachiqui . I n five ' d ays we arrived at 0!_px ule, where t he l nrlians m ade a pref ent to the Govern our of t hree h u n .. d r e d D o gs, knowing that ithe Chrifiians eat t h e fleili of them, which thefe people did not. ~ a xul e was not provided .of Maes no mor e than t11e r eft of the Country that we had pafr ; \vhich o blig e d the Gov em our to fend an Indian to the Ca-cique of Chiaha, to pray him to make prov ifion of fame Maes in h i s Country, \Vhcre the Army was to refre!h for fomedays. Two days after o n o u r way to Canafaqua, the Governour m et nventy Indians all l oaded with ba~kets of :Mulberries , whic h they prefented him with; for from Cut i fachiqui all alo ng to this Province, and farther in in Florida , there arc a great many Mulber rytrees, Walnut-trees, and Plum,.trees, which gro w naturally wild in the fields, but yet as large a n d bear as fair fruit as thofe which are cultiva ted with care in our Ochards. Leaving Canafaqua, we marched five days through a defart C o untry ; and two Leagues from Chiah a , fifreen India n loaded with Maes me t the Governour from t' c Cacique, who told him that t heir Cacique expecre c hi~ . with n v en t y Granari e s full of proviGon.~ which he offcr~d him , as h e alfo did bis Perfo .~, Country ,S:.1bjr.lts, and all that he b ad. Tbe G o .. F 4 verno m


7" A Rel,ition of the Invafton vernour entred C~iqh,.,1 th~ Twenty fifth of July, where he was very weil received by tbe Caciqite, 1,,vlio having made him this difcourfe:, left his lodg-. ings for him. . Potent and Excellent Lord, I efleem my felf Jo happy to fe~ that your Lordjhip 1J pleafed to make ufe of my Ser"'.Jjces, that nothing; can give me greater jcfr t1~1llion, nar /Je mare ejleemed hy mr. or LorclJhip being at ~~xule, order' d me to make provifi~ . on in this Jown of Maes for two m _ ontbs, and I ha'Ve .filed twenty Granarif s with the befl that ~ou!d 6e found in this Country. If your Lordjhip have riot been r~ceived with the honour that i.J Jue to fa great a Prince, I /Jeg of you to confider my Touth which excufes my fattli, and to accept of my Will which fhall alwqys /Jr reqdy with q crmfiar;t ~nd Jincere ?,eal ta render you fer-vice. The Governour affured him of his gratitude and ffecrion. The fndians of this Town had a great deal of But'"er, or rather Sewer, in pots tl1at run hkeOyl; they faid it was ~ear~ greafo: We foqnd Walnut-Oyl there alfo ~s clear ~s the S~wet 1 anq of very goop tafie, '\'Vith a pot of Honey, though before nor after we found neither Beesnqr f-Ioney in ~ll Florid4. The ' To\y n fi~nds upon the branch of a River that parts into two a Crofs~bqw\f11ot from the place, and unites again a League belovY. The lflaqd or .J-,!aqd betwixt the nyo brq,nches wa~ at motl: two Crofs~bow'.';'fhot over , and the Channel on tach f1qf pr~try large, fo th~~ they migqt be foardeq , • \., • 0 9iYH


and Conqueft of Florida. 73 over the fields on both hands, being fowed with Rice : Seeing all the Indiavs ftaid in their Habi":1 rations, none but the Governour lodged in the Town, and the reft of the Army en.camped abroad :under the trees, without any order, tbe Souldie.rs being even at a pretty difiance fro m one another . The Governour allowed, or at 1eafi connived a t that di(or9.er, becaufe the Indians were peaceable, all quiet ; and to have done otherw ife , would have incommoded us very much ; for the horf~ were fo tired our that they were fit for no fervice, having had but very little Maes all the way fron1 Cutifachiqui, and no leifure to recruit fince th~hardihip ' they had fufiained in the defart of Ocute: And feeing a great many of the Troopers wer~ in no condition of fighting, they turned out their horfes into the Pafiure•grounds about a quarter of a League from the Camp. We were very happy t h at our wea~nefs tempted not t h e lna'ians to fall upon u~; for all of us"' ere but in a bad condition to make a defence. The Govern our allow~ ed u s a full mouth to refrefh our fel ves ; and du~ r ing that time, the ground being extraordinary good, the horfes grew wonderfolly fat. When he was ready to march, fame who pi1fhed th-e\r defires beyond the b o trnds of Reaf on , ~rnporru ... ned him fo much that he derq~nded of the tra~ ~ique thirty Indian women for Daves: The c a ~ cigua told him, that: he would comm u nicate th e matter to the chief .[nt!ic;ns of the l-fabitation ; , . pu~


7 4 A Relation of the lnvaflon but before he gave his anf wer, all the Inrlians_in one night fled with their Wives and Childreno' The Governour refolved to purfue them, had not the Caciquecome to wait upon him; he told him, that he appeared before him with a great deal of fhame and confufion, becaufe that his people bting gone, though contrary to his will, he had followed them witbout daring to take leave of him ; but rha_ t being ienfible of his fault, he was cone to deliver himfelf up to him as a faithful Subject ought to do: That his Subjelts obeyed not him as yet , ~ut his Uncle who governed the Country for him, until he fhould be of Age to manage the Government himfelf: That if the Governour had a defign to find them out that he might punifh them for their difobcdience, he offer'd to ferve him as a guide JI feeing he was fo unhappy as not to be able to render him other fcrvices. The Governour at the very infiant fet out with thirty Hor[e, and as many Foot, to go aod find out the revolted Indians ; and as he paffcd by the Habitations of the moil: confidera,ble deferrers, he cut down and ctefiroyed all the Jl1l.-1es they had fowo. He was conducl:ed to a R iver which formed an Ifland, into which the(e people had retreated to avoid the attempt$ of the H.arfe: There he fent :rn Indian to bid them come back to their Habitations, a{furing them th.at he would demand no more, but fame of them to carry the 13:igg~ge, as all the other people had done;


and Conqueft of Florida~ 75 done; that fince they had fo great an efieem for their women, he defired none of them. 1 he Indians embraced thefe propofals, and returned to the Town. In this place the Cacique of Acofle came to offer hi$ fervices ; and as Soto asked him if he knew any rich and fertile Country, he told him that Northwards he would find the Province of Chifca, where they melted Copper, and another metal of the fame colour, but much more lively and perfect ; that it was a metal which feen,ed to be more precious than Copper, but yet was not made ufe of, becaufe it was fof .. ter. This relation agreed with what Soto was told in Cutifachiqui, where ~ve faw fame little Axes of Copper, which they faid was mingled with Gold. But fince to go from that Town to Chifca, there was a defart Country to be pail, and that they told us we fhould meet with Moun"' tains unpa!fable to the Horfe, the Governour would not go to Chifca by the {height rode, but thought it better to take his way through a pea .. pied Country, where the men and hor1es might . better fubfifl.-; and from whence being fully informed of the truth, he might divert his march towards that Province ; he therefore fent two Spaniards with an Interpreter and Indians that ~new the Country to Chijca, to make difcoveries and bring him back news at a place which he af-figned them. CHAP.


76 A Relatio_ n of the lnvafion CHAP. XVI. Fernando de Soto efcapes a great danger in the Town of Acofie by bis. prztdence: rrhat bapned to him upon t be way, 4nd his arrival at Co fa . . C Oto being refnlved to go to Acofle, fe1!t for the . ~ Caciaue of Chiaha, and to o k his leave of him, , j_ ,giving l um fome prdents which fatisfied him ve. ry much. Acofle is feven days journey difiant from this Town, a n d we a r rived there the fecond ot July. T h e Governou~ made us encamp two Crofs -bo\\"\ .. fllot from t h e Town, whither he went ~ w ith a guard of eight perfons: The Caci q u e ex .. pre{fed a , great deal of kindnefs to him, ' in out-: • ward appea rance; and w hilfr they were in di( courfe toge ther, fome Foot~foldiers came to t h e Town to g et icJme 'fll,res ; but finding it was not . .good, they fell a rifling and pillaging fome of the / nd ians houfes : The Indian s fiartled at that pro .. . cee ding, ran to Arms, and fome of them \Vith fiaves and cuclgels fell upon five ot fix of the mofi iofolent SoulJiers, and banged them foundq, ]y. Soto ver y \ Veil perceive d th e danger be had run inro; he faw the JJ1Jdians incenfod, and bimfdf amo.ngfr th~ m \\ ith to f~w of bis 111cn, fo that , h e


and Conqu~ft of Florida. 77 he refolved to get off by a piece of cunning con trary to his humour, for he was open and free, and difguifetl his paffions as little as any man ; befides that, he could not endure that any Indian fhould be fo bold as to fall foul upon a Chrifiian right or wrong; but fincerity was out of doors at that time : He therefore took a cudgel and ran to the affiH:ance of the bzdians in mauling the Chrifrians, which exceedingly re-affored that people ; but at the fame infiant he fent one tothe Camp to order the horfe to arm and advance . ; and having taken the Cacique by the hand, whom he entertained very affectionately, he infenfibly wheadled him out of the Town, with . a g~eat many Indians more , until he came to an open way in view of the Camp: Tl:ere the Troopers advarn:ing in file, without a!1y fign . of what they intended, eoviroi)ed the,Cacique and his Indians, whom they carried to the Camp, where the Go,., vernour caufed them to be put into Prifon near t'~ His Tent ; thin he declared to them that th~y fl)Ould not hudge from thence, until they had given him Guides and Indians for fervice, and un.., til fame fick Souldiers wbo were coming in a Canoe from Chiaha, and thofe whom he had fent to Chifca were arrived. Thofe of Chifca came three days aft~r, and told him that the ' Indians had led them through fo barren a Country, and over fuch rough Mountains, that it was irnpofIIble the Army cou1d march that way : That fi~dmg


78 A Relation of the Inrvafion ing the way to be fo long, and that it would have taken up much t-ime, they had thought fit to come back again from a little Habitation , fo poor that they found nothing fitting for ufe. They brought 1 onely with them a Cows hide that the Indians had given them, which wasan inch thick, and h a d hair as foft as the wool of an ordinary fheep. The Cacique granted Guides, and. Indians for fervice, ~nd fo was fet at liberty. July the Ninth the Ar. my parted from Acofle., and marched to Tali; the Cacique whereof came to meet the Gover • nour, and made him this difcourfe. Moft excellent Lord and Prince, worthy to be fer , 'Ved and o/Jeyed /:Jy all the Princes of the world, aJ may '1e judged hy the Yirtues which at frft Jig,ht ap, pear in you. It iJ not now the frJf time that 1 come to know who you are, and what your power~: And I will not confider my own meanneft when I hop, that my fervices may /Je acceptahle to you , feein g where Power i.5 wanting,,yet the Inclination andWill may be praifed and accepted: That's the reafon , which makes me take the boldnefs to /;eg, yottr Lord•, Jhip that you would onely have regard to my dejires , and think wherein I can ferve you in that Country which is your own. The Governour made him .the ordinary Compliment , that he was obliged, t o him, and that he would confider him m, his own Brother. The Cacique caufed two days Pro,. wifions to be brought to the Army~ and at part• ing he gave the Governour four Indian women, and


and Conque.ft ofFlorid~t-o 79 and two men, whom he needed for carrying cf his Baggage. We marched fix days in the Country of the Caciqt1e of C ofa; and Indians came from him daily to Compliment the Governour, who at length arrived at Cofa on Saturday the fit: t~enth of July; the C acique met him two Crofs ... bow.fhot out of the To\\'n; he fat on a Cufl1ion,. and was carried in a kind of Litter upon the fhoulders of four of the mofi confiderable of his Subjecls; his upper Garment was of Martin skins, made in the fame fafhion as the Ladies Mantles are in Spain; on his head he wore a kind of Dia .. dem of Feathers ; and feveral Indians fung and . play'd upon Inil:rurne 1ts round the Charriot . : He refpettfully faluted the Governour, and fpake tbus to him. Excellent and mighty Lord, above all the Lords of the Earth, thnug,h I come now to recei'Ve you_, Jet it is long,fince I recei'Ved you in my heart ; andjmce the day I came to hear of your Lord/hip, I ha ve had Jo great a dejire to ferve you, and it z .vouM lie Jo pleafant and fatisfac?ory to me to do fe, that all I ccm exprefi here, is nothing to what I feel, nor no way c omparable t/ it: This you may be aj{u, e 1 oJ; that the Empire of the whole World would not fo re}oyce me, nor make me in my opinion fo happy. Expect not that I jhould offer you what is your own ; that's to fay, nry Perfon, my Country, and Subjet7s. I will onely make it my bu_{lnefs to command my Servants, that 1i1ith all the care and re/jet? that is due to you, th9

PAGE 100

80 A Relation of the Invafton they divert you /Jy }ing/ng, and playing, upon ln}lru ments till you arrive in the Town : There your Lord, fhip foal/ be lodged, and ferved /;_y me and ~Y Sub, jells, and foal! difpofe of all I have, m of that whicl 6e long,s to your [elf; wherein your Lordjhip will do mt • a Jing,ular favour.. The Governour thanked him; and fo they entred the Town with extraordina. ry joy. The Cacique lodged the Governour a n a all the Spaniards in the houfes of the chief perforn of the Town. The Granaries were full of Maes and fmall Beans ; and the Country was fo popu , Ious, that the Villages and fields fow'd with Mcm touched one another : It is very pleafant, becaufe .. of feveral little Rivers which make mofi lovely Meadows ; and in the fields there are a gteat. , many S panij1? Plum-trees, as well as of thofe o f the Country, with plenty of Vine~ upon the fides of the Rivers, whofe frocks rife as high a s th e trees. There are others difiant from the River s fide, \vhofe frock is low, and carry very farge f weet Grapes; but feeing there is no pains ta ken about them, there fiones are of an extraor0 dinary bignefs. The Goveroour mofi commonly ; fet guards over the Caciques to hinder them from running away, and he carried them along with him rill he was gone out of their JurifdiB:ion, becaufe their Subjetl:s waited for them in the Villa .. ges, and furni { hed Guides and Indians for fervice ; but when he as about to ente r into another Prov in "'e 1c fc1.. them back again, as he did like .. wife

PAGE 101

an,21 Conqueji of Fl01:icfa. i wife the Indians_ who of t h e i r o w n a c cord curie the Baggage, when he was come into the Terri• torieS' of another Cacique t hat fupp1ie d him w ith _ new ones. In th~ mean rrme tbe b:'clians o f Cofd could npri ,ei~dt:irre Lat ib eir_ Cqcique Jl?. a rnarch thro u g h the negli~ ' gence of their guards rhey {hag g led away Chain,/ baggage, and all together;;

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L 8 2 A Relat ion of the Inrvajion C H AP. XVIf. The Go'Verno ur leaves Cofa, and goes to Tafcaluca. f_AVgujl the Twentieth we parted from Cofa, after twenty days fiay there ; and the Go0 vernour according to his ufual way, took the Cacique along with him as far as the Pro-vince of Ta(caluca, whither he intended to go. Our firft quarter was at Tallimuchafe, a place abandonedii and next to ltava depending_ on Coja, where we fojourned fix days, by reafon that the River which pail by that Village was extream h igh. When the water was a little fallen, we continued our march to V 1/i/;ali, whence ten or twelve Jn-.. dians were come in name of the Cacique, to of. fer obedience to the Gove rn our: All of them had Bows and Arrows, with a great many Feathers about them; and they waited on the Governour ,: to _ the Town, wh ich he e n tred attended by I twelve Horfe, and fome foot. The Indians were all in Arms, and the Governour judged by their' countenance thc11t they had fame bad defign : w e were informed afterward,that they were refolved to refcue the Caciq_ue of Cefa by force from the Governour , if he had feemed to approve their de-. -fign :

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, , , and Con1uefl ojffodda." 83 '(lgn The Governour m ade the tefi of his men fo march into the Town, which was fenced ioo It is a little Town upon a frn~aH River, ~ery, well > palliifado'd round, as all the refr were which we found farther up in the Country: The Pa)ifiado was of gr~at frake_ s d-riven de~p_ into the Earth; with poles of the bignefs of ones aqn crofs_ways, ' both in the ou dide and infide, iVhich were fafined with _pins to knjt all the work toge t her:itha~ wa~ about the . height of a L~nce; . but tqe C dcique v1as in a 'town ori the other fide of the River,; ~otii fent for him, _a~d he came vvithou~ any refi.: ftance ; fo' that after fome reciprocal Com pli.: 1n'ents, he furdiihed us with Indians for fervicesi\ whom we , fiood in o e e d of, and thi r ty lndimi ';VO men ; There y;e i9ft a S paniaril called Man= i:t1110, of a Noble Farniiy of Salamanca , whb ' fl:ray~ed in the Woods ' wbilft p e Was a Iookihg for ' Grapes, vi:hich that Coun'try produces in g reat P .len:ty., L(;a. ving that To_wd_ ~ -we found another, fobject to .. the frrme tacique ; :tnd froni. thence' ti1e _ Governour went to 1oafi., where we affo took lndicin-s' for fen.rice, and thirty Worn~n~ Our march wa~f commonly five or fi~ teagues a day)' in Countrie5 inhabited ; " hut in' ihe detart 9 we ma'rched as faf as we could go, that vie, mig_~c_ ot be fireightned in provifions. From Toaji wr; marched five days io the Territories of the ca.: ciru: 1 of1allife, wl~er~we ~rrive1 the~i~l:teent~'. cf Septem/Jer; Tlus _1s a great 1own lymg upon , .. G i/ . ~ ,

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I ~ 34 A Relation of the lnvafion a very rapid River, on the other ttde whereof the fields were well cultivated, and covered with Maes, which that Country is. plentifully furnifh-ed with: But feeing the Indians had abandoned their Habitations, the Governour fent word to the Cacique that he fhould come to him ; which he did; and after many offers of his Services, gave forty I11dians. In this Town one of the chief lndia _ns of Tafcaluca came to falute the Gover~ nour in name of the Cacique, and made him this difcourfe. Mofl mighty and mojl virtuow Lord, the great Cacique of Tafcaluca my Mafier, hath fent me to kifs your Lordfoips hand, and to let you know, that he is informed you gain the ajfeElion of all men by your Perfeffions, Power, and Merit ; and ~hat all the people of the Countries through which your LordJhip hath pa/fed, ferve and obey y_ou : Thi& he acm knowledges to be your due, and dejires more than life it Jeff to fee you, and ferve you ; and for that reafon he hath Jent to offer you his Perfon, Country, . and Sub{efls. So that when your Lord/hip pleafes to come into his Country, you Jhall there be received, ferved, and obeyed, with all affeElion ; and he ctaves no other reward for the dejire he hath to render you fervices, but that you. would do him the favour to let him know. when you'll come; and the fooner you te .. falve to do it, your favour and his joy will be the greater. Soto received that Indian very civilly, and fent him back with a prcfent of fome trifles, which

PAGE 105

ttnd Conqueft o f Florida . 8 5 which he cared not much for , and another more con6derable for the Cacique. He difmilTed the Cacique of Cofa, and at Tallife tool~ as many .lndia}t_ s for ferv_ice as he fiood in nee d of; fo having refrefhed jn ths1,t place for the f pac e of three weeks, he fet out for fafcal~ca. Our firfl: quarter was ~t Cafifle , and the next in anothe r Town unde r the jurifdiltion of Tafcaluca, fro_ m w hence w e went and encamped i n a \ V ood two Leagues {port of the Reftdence o ~ the Cacique Soto feot the Canw-mafi:er-General Louis de Moftofa t o acquaint him with his arrival. H e foun d the ,Cacjque under a Balcony before his door ; prefently a Carpet was fpread upon, an emin ent place out of doors, with two Cu~J,ions upon it, o n e over the o t her, where he fat down, environed with I n . dians at fome difrance from the plac e where he fat ; thofe of great~fl: quality were next him9 . one of whom to keep the Sun off of him h e ld, over his head an Umbrella of Bucksrskin o f the . bignefs of a Buckler, and p arty coloured black and white, with a St. Andrew's G rofs in the middle ; cit a difrance one wou l d have taken it for Taffe~ay, the colours were fo exceedin g good : It was very well firetched out, a n d carried upo n a ~~nee, being the device or Standard of the Cacique in time of War. This Cacique w a s muc h fear ed by his Neighbours and Subjects, and commanded a very large ~qd well-peopled Co1,1ntry: h e vvas of a very higt tlature, well ihaped, fhong limbs, G 3 and

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86 A ReTation of the Invafion and a well .. proportioned body. yvhen the Camp~ Mafier had deliyered his Harangue, all the _Troo pers of his Retinue made a great many P affeul~f in the Market"'plrtce, f purring their horfes fometime~ to th(:! very place where the . Cacique was, , which he beheld w ith a great deal of gravity, cafling his eyes onely upon them now a~d then in a mofi haughty and difdainfl mariner. In th~ mean time the Gov erriour arrived , the Cacique not budging out of his place to go and rp eet hirn ; S o to took him by the hand, and both went ~ind fat doWn upon a bench under !he BalC:ony, _where the Cacique f pake to ' him in thefe terms. Mighty Lord, may your Lordjhips arrival ~e at .. tended with all happinefl ; 1 am as well pleafed to fee you, cu if you were a Brother whom .I extreamly -loved: I need fay no more as to that, feeing,. it is to no purpofe to exprefi in many words, ,what may h faid in a few, infomuch_ ar it is the Will which gives farce to 'Aclions, ant( A[lions are the Evidences of Truth . . As to the Will,you Jhall know by the fair~ nefs of my proceecling, how fincere mine is. , I efleem the favour you ha ve Jhew' d me in fending, me a ljre .. fent, iu much a; it dejerves, . and efpecially becdufe it is a Prefent from jou. Look, now, what it is you would have me ferve you in. : : T~eGovern ourthanked him very civilly, bu fet f pies over him ~o long as he fiaid in that Town ; and when . he was ready to' be gone 9 he refolved, for many reafons, to tak_ e him along with

PAGE 107

and Conqueft of Flonda.. 8 7 with him .. After two days march, we found the Town_ of Piache upon a great River, where Soto demanded Canoes of the Indians to carry over the, Army. They told him that they had n one, t but th~t they would make rafts of Canes and c,lry wood, which they did in a very fl10rt time ; and feeing the River ran very g~ntly, we paifed over with a grea t d _eal of eafe~ It is reckoned an hundre~ Leagues from the Port of the Holy Ghofl to Pal acb.e, and that way runs from Eafl: to Weft; from P al.uhe to Cutifachiqui there is four hundred and thirty Lengues, from South-,Vefi: to NortI~F Eafr; and froni Cutifachiqui to Xualla, the way is from So~th to North for the f pace of two Imo.., . dred and fifty Leagues. In fine, from Xuall a to 1afcaluca wqich are alfo two hundretj Leagues dii1ant, one hundred and fourfcore go from Eaft to We~ as far as coja, and the refi from cofa to Taj. caluca from North to South . When we were get to the other fide of the Ri ver of Piache, a Spaniard purfuing an Indian woman his flave, who had run awq.y from him, was lofi in the vVoods, being either killed or takeq by the Indians; whereupon .tbe Governour told the Cacique, that he mu(!: be accountable fqr him , threatning to lf eep him in fetters as long as he lived, if the Chrifl:ia n were , 1 not found. The Cacique fent one of his Indians , to Maville, a large Town on our way, belonging t~ anothe r Cacique ValTal to . 1afcaJuca ; his pretext was good, for ~e faiq he fent co give him no-G 4 ~ tic e

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88 A RelatiQn of the 1nvafton tic e to prepare Provifior.s and lntlians of fervk~ for the Army: But it \.Vas a pparent e nough after• \Vards that th at v'\ as not -his defign, anc} that the bufmefs c , f th a t MeTeoger, T1/a s to catJfo the IndilJ~ S ouldiers mufle ' r into a Budy, that q1ey might fall upon us. Vie continued oqr march three days> the laCT: whereof \iVas th r oug h a ve i ~r >1 u:fous Country, and the Eighteenth of Q[f ober vve arrived at f'1aville. Sot o had the Van " gtiard \ ,~h th irty Foot ... fouldier~, and fift~en Borfe. N t ' ar it he Town be met' a Souidier whori) he had fem "tO the Cttcique, t o pray hi1}j t o ay , and likewi(e t.1 obferve the motion of the Indians; the Souldier told the Governour , that they feeme d to have fame bad defign, becaufe whilfl:' he ~arried it JJ1aville, he Lad 1ee a great many Indians iq Arm s enter the Towri ,, arid th.at they laboured \Vith ext ream dilig ence in fortifying the Paliffado . about the plac e . U pon this, lrlofcofo told the Go .. vernour, that . the beft way would be tor~ricapj feeing the Indians app . . ared not to be fu~t~iiliv~ n ough : but So(o replied, That hewas \Veary of .,ncamping 1 and that be would go refrdh him!eL in the Town. The cacique at his entry rec~ved h i m with the found of :nilruments; and having o'ffer)d him bis Services ~ prefented hitn , wfrh three Mantles of l\fart{o.,skins. The Govc,no r made his entrv in th~ middle b~nvix ' t . .. .I . tw o C aci'ques , fo1 lowed by eight of hi~ guard~,. ~he, '"hr~ e O J fou~ Troo 1ers, wh' o alighted ro\;,vait U )Op

PAGE 109

!1nd Conqueft of Florida~ 8 9 pon 1 1irp ; ,fo ,he went and fat down nd~r a Balcony, where the ~acique of Tafcaluca pr4y' hiqi t o leav, e him in th~t T6wn, and not giye J1im th~ troubl~ qf going any -~arther ; but perc~ivi~g by 'So t o's d1fcourfe, that 1t would be hard for hun to ' o btain his leave, pe ci1anged h 'is defign ; and pre-. ~:ndin g to _g_o fpea!~ wit_h fome fn_tlians, he.l~ft the 9overnour httrng m his place, and went mto a hour~, whert many lnqitms were affembled with their Bows and 4rrows. The Gpv. nour. perrei v ing that 1e return _ed no~, call~d him feveral nmes\ and at length the Caciqu e ma~i.e apfwer haughtily, That he would neither coie out of that p~ace, nor go any fa_ rther 7 th~t if the Goverpour would depart in peace , he might in a go o . ~ ~ime ; but that he m ufi not pretend to caqfhir ~ut of h~s Co~ntry and pominio~. CH A P. XVIII. The_Indians rife t1gainft the Governour ; , : ancf what bapned upon itQ He -haughtinefs of the Cacique. made t,. Governour fenfible tha t there was a Plot J~i?: He" ende avo~red to f veeten him by Civi-11t1es, tow hich the lnpia'JJ made no anfw~r ; on fhe contrary, wit1 a haughty and flight og loo ' he

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90 A Relation of the lnvajio n he wit bore w into a place where the Governout ; could nei tber fee him, nor f peak with him : Sot( feeing another Indian of ~ality paffing that way1 calkd him to him,and bid him a{fore the Cacique, th at he would give him leave to be gone when and whi her he leafed, provided he furnif11eo bim wit h a Gui de, and I ndian for fervice ; b u t the Indian replied , That he would hear no pro, po fit' on; w 1ich obliged Gallegos to take hold o f h i m by t h e ski rt of bis Mantle, and the Indian t o fpr ng away from him, leaving his Ma ntle i n hi: han ds. Now feeing the Indians too { to their Arms, Gallegos drew his Sword , and g~Y-~ one whom he had taken hold of fo furious a th irfr, t hat he rn n l im through the brea!f; that blow was t h e fignal to th e revolt: They c _ arne run , ning out of their houfes all in fury, fhooting Ar rnws at the Governou r an 1 thofe that were witn ;!3im. • s .oto fa v very , vell, tf1at if he made heaa againft th e m , the re -as n o probability of efca, =pmg nt of t heir h a n ds; and if he ca 1fed his For, ces to a d ::mcc tmv ards the Town, t 1e In 1ian s fro m th eir Ju[es w:1ere t hey fheltred, would kill ~Il tbeir l or es, and 1.ake a great Daughter o \ :P.1e n ; he therefor thought it befi to run out o l th e row o \\1th ali tl e f peed 11e co'uld; but before ~ e co Id fav e himfe.lf, he was fain to b~ t aken u~ ~wo or t hree _ time5. All that accompanied bim w ere dangerouOy wound ed, anci five killed upon ~he place. The Governour, w~uncled as h e w a s , crie d

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and Conqueft of Florida. 9 t cried to his men to keep off from rhe Paliffado., from whence the Indians fi ot furioufly ; and as the Spaniards retreated, moft of them running, the lnclians fallied out upon t hem , k i lling with their Arrow s all ~vhom they overtook. The Daves who carried th~ Baggage had unloaded it in a place near the , Paliffado; fo t h a t during th e rout of the Spaniards , the Indians of Malvil/e loaded t hem again with the Baggage ; and leading them into the"Town, knock'd off the Chain s they carried , and gave them Bows and Arrows to fight with againfi us. Thus tbey feiz'd all our equipage , and even our Pearls ; and feeing we had marched t1rough a Country that in all ap 'pearaoce had fubmitred, many Souldiers had left their Arms with the Baggage; fo that they fell into the Enemies hands, who bad, befides, Svvords; and Halbards which they had fnatched from thofe who entred with the Goverhour. So foon as Soto was out of danger j he mounted on horfe~ back, and with fome other Gentlemen oti horfe~ back alfo, turning upon the lnclians, he killed! three with his Lance~ which made them retreat behind the Paliifado, where th e y defended them.;, felves, and from whence the bravd1 failied out when the h orfe we're making their Caracol , and immediately en.tred in again fo foon as they tur~ ned upon them. A Moock and . Secular I rir->fr)/ With one of the Generals Servants, and an /;1dicm woman~f1ave, were fiill in the Tmvn . The re. ':7 Jt

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.92 A R elation of the-l n vafion v olt of the Indian s was fo fudden , tha t they h a d n o t :1m , ge out , fo that th e y were oblig e d t o b a rricado the mfelves within the houfe where they were , making fail: the door ; and feeing th e y had a Swo r d , the Generals m a n fianding behind the door, m ade thrufr s at the Indians who offere to co m e in ; anct the M onk and Priefr faying hold each o f th em of a fiaf L flood on each fide to knock down the firft that fet his foot wi thin the houfo. The I n dians wh o faw the door fo well defended , were got upo n the roof to tllake holes in it, and to fho ot them with their Ar r mvs. ,vhen all the Army came in fight of Mavi!k, they he d a Council to deliberate whether tl1ey ihould affault the Indians in th e Town, or onel y be1iege them , becaufe the affau lt was very dangerous; but at leng t h the affault was r e fo!veq upon in this manner. CH APn XIX. -The Governour draws up his m en, 4 n d en~ t ert MaviUe, CO~o mad e t hofe wl10 were_ beH: arme~ t _ o a .. L_j l i g h t , whom h~ drew up .. nto fou r Batahons ~ an d rn~rche d {he ight to the Gates of t he T m v n ; this b ing d one in fpigb t of the lndimu, their firft care

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and Conquefl off.lorida .. , 9~ care was to make the Cacique withdtaw; tel1ing him, as we were informed by fame Indian !laves, that in foch occafions a Cdcique fignified no more than another man , and fought onely for qne ; that in the Town there was a great many Indians to c ommand, brave arid expert Souldiers, and that one of them was enough to give the ne .. ce1Tary orders; that feeing the fuccefs of a F ight depended on Fortune, it would not be known for what fide Victory would declare, that therefore they prayed him to fecure his Perfon , to the end that if t hey all died in the B att el, as they refol v ed to die rather than t urn their backs ,, fome might /emain alive t o g overn the Country. The Ca~ cirpte refufed to be gone; b ut they preffed hint fo hard, t hat at length he left the Town arcom..: panied with fifteen Indians, carrying with him a Scarlet Cl oak , and the befi things he found in Spaniards B aggage. The Go~ernour being 1flformed that Indians were feen flying out of the Town , a p~rry of Horfe to make the rounds about the circuit of the place, and i11 eve_ry B atalion placed a Souldier with a lighted firebrand, to fet all on fire, and fo to oblige the Indians to fight abroad in the fireets. Having fo ordered all things , they gave the by a Musket .. f hot , and t h e four Batafions matched With extra ordinary fory to their fevera1 pofis. There was a fearfol Daughter on both fides at the entty of tbe Gates ; for the Indians defended them

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94 A Relation of the Invafio1i : them fo valiantly,, : _ that they beat our njen bad feveral times; at length the Gates were forced , and we mingled pe/l .. me!l'with them: The MonK and Pridt were very opportunely relieved, b u t with the lofs of two brave Souldiers who wer~ the firft who ran to their affifiance. The Fight continued fo long, that the Chrifiians choaked with droughth , went to refreih themfelves in a Pool near the Pali1fado, whe're they drank as much bloud as water ; and fo returned to the fight. . This obliged the Gov~rnm)r, and thofe that were with him on horfe-back, to enter the Town, where they charged the Enemy fo briskly, that they put the Indians into diforder, ~nd gave opportunity to the Souldiers to fet the hou" fos on fire. They that thought to fave them, fel ves out of the Town, were forced in again by 1the Horfe that made the round ;-fo that aef pair giving them frefh firength1, they came to : blows again with the Spaniards.but that way of fight., iing was very difadvantageous to them ; for the Chrifiians hewed them down w~th fa much fury; that many of them threw themfelves one upon 1 another into the houfes that were on fire, irhere foey were fmuthered and reduced to afbes; fo. that abo_ve two thoufand and five hundred lndi-\ ans perdhed by the fire and fwordo We loft eighteen Chrifiians , ' atnongfr wham were pon Carlos the Governours Coufin , and one of his Nephews , John de Gomez and Mem Rodriguez, both'

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and Conqueft of FI J;,. 9 5 both Portuguefe, and John Va[quez de Villeneuve o f Barcarota, all Gentlemen of 02; lit y anct rpuch cil:eerned ; the refi were but pn vare S ouldiers .. . A n hundred and fifty Spaniards were w ounded i n thi Acrion , with feven hundred Arrpw-ihot ; a n d God permitted that all of them in a very fl10rt time were cured of their wounds, though they were very dangerou s . All o u r Equipage)) Linnen, Cloaths, Pearls, and Ornaments for fay..:. ing o f Mafs, were con fumed by the fire, our men having .no r ef pelt to that lofs, finc e it was far lefs than the damag e that the India n s might have done us by fighting under {helter. The Governour h a d advice in that place, t hat Malclonado' waited for him in the P o rt of Ochufe, which was feven days jo urne y difiant ; but h e difcharged Ortiz to divulge the news,lefi it might be prejudj-.;;• cial to his defigns : For fince by the fire h e had l oft the Pearls which he iq tended t o fend to C u/;a, by that o fientati o n t o invite men t o c ome over to Flori'da; he refo1ved to give n o news of himfelf until he had difcovered fame rich Country, that h e might not difgufi the S o uldiers w horn he nee0 ded for compleating his Conqueft , if they faw neither Silver, Gold, nor other Riches b rought from thofe places., CHAP.

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;;6 A 1?..elation of the .Invajion._ CHAP. XX. 1he Go"l1ernour ieave.r Ma ville to go to Chica fa ; wbat bapned to him in that Journey; . ' ' r,Rom the time we landed in Ploricla, till we ,]l_ departed from Maville, we had lofl: an hun dred and two Chriihans, fome by ficknefs , and others fighting againft the Indians. In confide,,, rati o n of the wounded, \Ve were obliged to lie en-, camped three weeks near that Towif, in a fruit0 fol and popu1ous Country; for befides ~he fen c e d Tovjns, there were many fcattered houfes all about in the Country, difiant from ~me ano ~ ther one or t'wo Crofs .. bow-{hot at mofi. The Govern o ur finding that the wounded were al" moil: cured, de~a!TJ.ped on Sunday the Eighteent h of November, a1: l the Sould~.ers having _ provided thernfelves of Maes for two days : n~verthelef s , We fpent five in a defart Country, befor.e v.} e en., tred into the Province of P afallaya. \Ale found two Vilfages Taliepatave", arid Ca/Jufio , , this lafr ying upon a gre~t River, the oppofite fide wher e .. of was po1Tefi by the Indians; . t'1 ey called to us that they would k ri'ock out ,the bi::iim of us all, , if we were fo bold as to crofs the River ; which obl iged

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and Conqueft of Florida~ 9 7 i0b.Iiged Soto to caufe a great Boat to be built pri~ vately in: the Woods, that the Indians might not come to. know his defign. It was finifhed in four days time, and the Govemour order'd it to .PY carried :down half a League lowet on the , Riven there ihe put on board thirty Souldiers . weH arm~d; . but when the.Indians perceived his defign, thofe , that were neareft came running to . defend th~ paffage : They made fome refiftance , till the Spgniar4s landed ; but fo foon as they marcbed;towa~ds them; the -Indians r , etreated and threw . theti(elves into fwamps covered , with Reeds; , .~he thirty Spaniards mounted on horfe ~bac~,'. and :went• pown afong the Rivef, till they \ ,found a pfoee-where the Army croffeclever with ' out a"t'JY difficulty. We ,found Towns : full of Maes and dry 1 Peafe : from thence we marched .five_. days -through a d~fart Country ~ ; until -we , c~gie to a R~ v.eir where t:he b1dians offer'ed again JP difpu.teq$ the.,paffage. But Soto, avoiding . as . m~ch as--be•--~vld .,to exp(?fe .his men to more en= gag~ments, i9 two-days t-ime caufed another ca .. 1fo.e. to be,made, and fent one of his ln.di4nsco .. tlle Caci, pie to ;demand pea~e and his frienufLip: .rpis ,did [lOt fucceed~ for . the Indians b~ing up,i , maffacred his _MeiTenger~ bef pre his face ; and hay iQg don_~1 fo,, retir1 d with loud fho~ts. So that the paifag : b;ing free 9 we went to Chicafa the ~ighteenth of Dece,m/J~r: It was a little Village, ,containing ~bout twenty houfes;i where the Go -. H vernm:r

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98 A Relation of the Iwva.fwn vernour was obliged to pafs the Winter, -becaufe it fnowed,and the cold was already ... f~ fharp, that1 the Army foffered extr~amly in the Camp, before they could find out means to make houfes. This Oo~~try w~s well p,tmpled, and _full, bf fcattered houfes.1h the fields, ' like ,to thofeJ df Maville-: We foundabutidam:-Of M~es there; mo~ -p~rt wqe(e .. 'tl)f~asfrill up0n vheground,. fo1~ that ~we had ~e• .nough for ' t~e whole Wmrer~~att~. We tROk fom Indians, and amangft oth h;\\on~ who was uch .tonfidered by'.the Cacique ~and• who petfa1doo"'thtt'Ciover-n@u ro fen0 wotd':Jto the often td vifit the Go:ven1out, ~who fdPimimes fent: iHr him, and lent fuim a horfe : m go a0etrcon1e to ~lie : l.amp. This Indian complai_ned_'to:l-itm•of."'~e o f msVaflals:who"hadrev0ltc:d !'~e~ddmg aPl1 -fiance aga inft that RebeJ_ .. ; , wh9m 'lrei ifitenaea to punfh ; which was :a: mter fham t61maJte us die vid , ~ ~~i-.Forces, tna~ fo• he might att~e.k ui ,fepa .. rately_. However; l =he Gavernour . grant~ him ~hat affifiance; an~wh~n ~he Cacique .. came with two

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I and Conquefl of Florida ~ 9 9 two hundred Indians in Arms, he accompanied him with thirty Horfe, and fourfcore Foot. They marched together to Saquechuma , which was the ~place of Refidence of the Indian whom the Ca• cique pretended to be revolted: that Village was abandoned, and the Indians of Chicafa fet fire to it, the better to dif guife their Treachery ; but the good order which the Governour obferved •on the march , being always upon his guard as well againft the Indians who accompanied him, as, againft the EQemy; and the care that was ta• l{en to fortifie the Camp, hindred them from at.e. tempting any thing againfi us. Soto upon his return from that Expedition, entertained. the Ca., cique and the chief of his Subjecl:s at a Feafi,where he gave them Pork to eat, which they had never tafl:ed before, and which to them feemed fo de]i .. cious meat', that from that clay forward the /n.,,, dians came every night to certain houfes a Crofsbow-fhot from the Camp, to fieal and kill the Pigs that were there. Seeing they had , in this manner, carried fome away, guards were placed to watch them, who furprized threelndians , two --of which the Governour ordered to be fhot to death with Arrows; the third had his ha-nds ~ut off, and was in that condition fent back to the Cacique, who pretended to ,be much troubled that they had been fo infolent, as to meddle with any thing that belonged to the Governour ; ; he faid th~t it rejoyced him to fee that they were puni -H 2 fued . ... . ....

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100 A Relation of the' ls'Vajion fl1ed as they had deferved., He lived retired into a Country-houfe half a League from the Camp , whither four Horfe-men went one day without leave: Thefe were Francis Oforio , Reyno.fa a Ser. vant to the Marquefs of Ajiorg,a , a Page and a Valet de Chamber of the Governours, called Ri• heyra, and Fuentez. They brought away fome Skin s and Mantles by force , which fo offende d the Indians, that they left their Houfes. Soto b e .. ing informed of that violence, caufed them to b e apprehended, and condemned Oforio and Fuentez to death, as being the Ringleaders of the enter priz e , and confifcated the Goods of all the four: All the Church-men and chief of the Army beg'd Oforio' s life, and fame mitigation of the Sentence, but he was inflexible ; fo that the Criminal s were going to be led to the Market-place to hav @ their heads firuck_off, when fome India11s came from the Cacique, to malte their Complaints t o the Governour. The _ coming of the Indians which fhould have hafined their death, was that which faved their lives ; for Ortiz put
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and Conqueft o/Florida. 101 That they who had wronged them were Prifo.., ners ; and that the Governour would punifh them in fuch a manner as iliould ferve for an ex-, ample to all others. So the Govcrnour pardoned the men; and being refolved to leave Chicafa m March, he demanded Indians for fervice from the Cacique. The Cacique made anfwer, That he would propofe the matter to the moil: confiderable of his Subjects ; and feeing the anf wer was long a coming, Soto went to p~y him a vifit on Wednefday the Eighth of March. He pref1ed him again to furni{h him with Indians, whom the other promifed to fend next day: Neverthelefs" the Governour obferved that he was a hatching fome mifchief, and ordered Mofcofo to keep a good guard all night , which he neglected. The Govern ours obiervation was but too well grounded ; for about midnight the J11dians in fo~r Batalions came to attack us in four feveral places at once ; and fo foon as they perceived that they were difcovered, they beat a Drum, whicli ferved them for a fignal ; and with fearful fhouts broke into the Camp at the fame time that our Out-guards retreated thither ; nay, fcarely had thofe who were in the Village heard the noife of the Enemy, when one half ot the houfes were already all on fire. Three Troopers were that night upon the Vedelte, two of whieh were of low birrh, and the leafl dleemed ofaoy in the Army ; the third was a Coufin of the Governours,, who till that day H 3 had

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1 Ol A Relation of the ln'Vttjon . had preferved the reputation of b6ing flout; neverthelefs, on this occafion he behaved himfelf as cowardly as his Companions , running away with them without fo much as once running a . Lance; fo that the Indians entred without any oppofition, and fet all on fire, waiting for the Chrifiians abroad, who came out of doors in dif., order without having leifure to arm themfelves; for being for mofi pa'rt as yet overwhelm' d with Oeep, and blinded with the fmoak , .they knew not where to find their Arms, nor how to faddle their horfes ; nor could they fee the Indians that pierced them with their Ai rows. , Several horfes wer~ burnt in the Stables, none efcaping but foch as broke their halters , and faved themfelves in the flreets : So terrible was the diforder , that every one thought of flying without making head againft the Enemy ; but God who onely chaftizes his Servants to correlt, and not to deftroy them, ancl who holds them in his hand in their greatefi neceilities , and amidfi the moft frightful dangers, fo blinded the l ndians that they perceived not our diforder, but imagined that the horfes which ran about the {heets, w~re Squadrons drawing up to charge them~ In the mean time there was none but the Governour tha t could get on hmfeback, who followed bya , Souldier called Tapia, f purred up again fl: the Ene~ Il1Y; Soto with the thrufr .of a Lance killed the firfi [ndian he met, but feeing in the general for ... priz~

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and Conquefl of FJorida_ci 103 pdzeand c nfiernation care enough had not been taken to girt his horle f , tfie violence of the tilt threw him off, with the faddle betwixt his legs. J ' The rumour of the danger the Governour was in, fpread. immediately, whi~b obliged a great many that were leaving the Viliage to go hide themfelves in the Woods, to rally again and come to his affifianc_e. And fe~ing it was frill night, that the Indians frill imagined that the horfes which they beard ruo_ning, were coming to fall upon them, they gave ground, and abandoned the Town, leaving 011ely one of their number oead upon the place, who was killed by the Governours own hand. The Village was wholly burnt down, and a woman that followed her Husband perifl1ed in the flames, who having got out of the houfe with him , went back again to fave fame Pearls which ihe bad preferved; but when fhe thought of getting out a fecond time, the fire was at the door before her, fo that neither her Husband nor any body elfe could fave her life. Three Chrifiians more were fo fpoilt by the fire, that one of them died three days after, and the 9ther two were fqr a long while unable to go, but forced to be carried a-bed in a kind of Litter born by Indians. Twelve Chrifiians died on this occafion, with fifty horfes and fot1r hun~ dred hogs which were burnt. All that \Ve fa vr d from the fire 'Of Maville, was confumed in this: feveral who had not the time to take their Caf-, H 4 focks

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1 04 A. Relation of the 1nevajion focks were reduced to their fingle Doublets, fa that they fuffered much by the cold which was very iliarp ; and though we made 'great fires, yet we fpent. whole nights without fl~e}?, becaufe , we were br01led on one fide, when we froze on the other. For avoiding that incon~enience, a Souldier invented coverlets made of two Matts of withered grafs fafined together ; they laid thefe coverlets one over and the other under them. This invention was laughed at at firft, but at length the laughers themfelves thought themfelves happy when they could make ufe of them. We were in fo great diforder, and fo de~ flitute of arms and faddles which were confumed by the fire, that had the Indians affaulted us once more, they might eafily have defeated us. Soto thought fit to remove the Camp from the place where it was, to the houfe where the Cacique held his Refidence, and where we found Aili-trees which we made into as good Lances as thofe of Bifcaye. ,v e found means alfo to make faddles; fo that in eight days time the Troopers were in a condition of doing feryi~e again. -_ .. ,1 CHAP.

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. an~ Conqueft of Floridail Io; CHAP. xxr. "1he Indians return to attacl{ the Spaniards, ' and are beat off The Governour goeth --io Alimamu, . and the Indians in arms ex-1 peel him on the way. WE had already encamped eight days with_; in half a League of our former ~arter, ~nd had made a Forge to drefs and new temper our Swords that had been f poiled by the fire ; our Bucklers, Saddles, and Lances, being likev.:ife fit for fervice, when on Wednefday the Fifteenth dayof March, 15 41. the Indians came to attack us a little before day. They were divided into three Batalions ; but feeing our pafi danger had taught us wit, the Sentinels did their duty, and gave the allarm in good time : The Governour and Troopers were on horfeback in an infiant .. H~ di vi~ed them in. to three Squadrons : and having provided for the guard of the Camp, char-" . ged the Indians fo furioufly that they could not , fland it. se • eing the ground favoured the Horfe, and that it was already day, we might have had a fuffic:ient revenge on the Indians for their former affault, had it not been for a Monk that feU a crying with all his for~e very unfeafonably, 1o the Camp, to the Camp: At that cry the Go-. yernour and his men hafined thither, and gave --

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106 A Re/4tion of ~h.e lnvajion the Indians time to fave themfelves, leaving one~ 1 ly forty of their number aead upon tne pface : Some were taken , whom the Oovernour asked about the Countrv that was further. : before 'Us, and on te Twenty fifth of /!p~il we . ~'ent 'to , Alimamu ; . it was a f mall Village, where we found but little Man In the mean titne, the Army being to march feven days . through a. tlefart Country, Soto fent out three Captains three fe. veral ways to feek provifions. Da.nhufto, who went w 1th fifteen Horfe and forty Foot the way that the Army was to mar"ch, met with a fhong Pali(fado, whete the Indian, waited for us. He faw them walking with their Arms behind the Palilfado,haviog their bodies almoft all over painted with various colours,as black,white,blew,and red, laid on in fireaks, fo that they feemed to be in Doublet and Breeches ; fome had feathers on , their heads, others horns, and their faces made black, with the circuit of their eyes died red, that they might appear more terrible. So foon as they fa w the Spaniards appro aching, they fell a fhouting , and with their Drums beating came out to receive them. Danhufco th6ugh( befi to retreat to an open field within a Crofa, bow-ihot of their Paliffado: he drew up his Foot with their Crofs-bows and Bucklers before the Horfe, to fave his horfes from being w~mnded, and fo made head againfi the Indians, who falli~d ou_ t ~by feve~s -or e~ght5 in company, to skirmifl1, ' ' _ -They

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and Conqueft of Florida. 107 They kindled a great fire to the Spaniards view, and took an Indian by the head and feet , making as if they cafr him into the fire, after they had knocked him on the head. with a great club, to /hew the Chrifiians that they mufi expefr to be treated in the fame manner. Danhufco fent off three Troopers to carry the news to the Governour, ~ho immediately advanced, and refolved to beat them from that pofl:; faying, that if that were not done, they would take the boldnefs to attack us, when they might do us greater prejudice. The Horfe alighted by his orders, and attacked the Paliffado in four bodies. The Indians made a very good defence , till we came up to the Pali{fado ; but charging them then brisk1yjl they ran for it over a little River which they had at their back, and defended the pa!fage with whole flights of Arrows ; where feeing we could find no foard for the Horfe, we were obliged to retreat. There were but three Indians killed, and many Spaniards \vounded, of whom fifreen died fame days after. This lofs made the Governours Conduct be blamed in that he had not got the nature of the ground which was on the other fide of the River viewed, and a paffage found before he attacked the Indians. Becaufe the hopes they had of making good their retreat that way, if they chanced to be beaten, made them-0bflinately maintain the fight, defend themfelves, and anoy the Chrifiians1 without running great risk. CHAP.

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t 08 A Relation of the lniajion CHAP. XXII. 'The Gqvernour, .goe.r to O!Iizquiz, and from thence to Riogrande. THough during three days fpace fome little quantity of Maes had been brought to the Army, and that the wounded wanted refi, yet the Souldiers who fuffered very much had fiiU more need of victuals ; fo that the Governour was obliged to decamp to go to Q.fgzquiz., and marched feven days through a defart Country foll of fwamps and woods; but where there was fii11 horfe-way, unlefs in fome few places where they were put to f wim. The Indians of Q.5zquiz had no intelligence of our march, fo that we took them all in their houfes, and amongft the refi the Cacique's Mother. Soto fent him word by an lntlian, that if he would come to him, which he ~ight do with all fafe_ty, he_would refiore _to him ,,1 -his Mother and all his SubJelts. To which the Cacique made anf wer, That he fhould fid.l: deliver his Mother and the other Prifoners , and then he would come and wait on him. Seeing the Souldiers were tir e d out and heartlefs for want of vicruals , and the horfes alfo in bad cafe, Soto refoh~~d. to give the Prifoners their Ii ... -bertyll

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and Con1.ue.ft of Floridao I 09 . berty ; to fee if. by that means he could oblige t h e Cacique to let him alone in peace; he there. fore fent hoine the CacilJue's Mother, and all the r eft that were taken, having in very obliging words expre!fed the great clefire he bad of Jiving .in peace with them. Next day .when the Gover-nour expected the Cacique, we faw a great many armed Indians, coming with a defign to attack us : all immediately armed ; which the Indians obferving, retreated to the fide of a River out of . the reach of fl10t. They confulted together about half an hour , and then fix of the chief of them advanced towards the Camp. They told the Governour that they were come to fee what kind of men they were whom he commanded ; that they had learnt from their Ancefrors that a white people fhould come and conquer their Country, and that therefore they would go and tell their Cacique, that he fhou.ld come and offer his fervices to the Governcur ; fo having . prefented him with fix or feven Skins, and as many Mantles, they re ... turned with all the other Indians that waited on them. In the mean time the C acique came not, . nor did he fend us any more news of him ; but there being na great fiore of Maes in the Townsi the Governour made us march to another about half a League from Riogrande, or the great RiVer ; there we found as much Maes as ,; e needed, an d Soto went to view the River ; he found on the fides of it a great deal of Timber fit' for building of

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1 r o A Relation ofrhe Invafton of Boa ts, and an ad vanrageous place for the Army1 to encamp in, which he ordered to advance. W patcht up fome houfes in hafie in a fmooth level ground, about a Crofs .. bow-ihot from the R~ver, and th1 t h r w e Lr g h t all the Maes that was in the V i llag e s through which we paft. Immedi .. ately w e ell to p repare the wood that was necefo fary for t h e Boats ; and whilft we were employ'd about tha t work, fome Indians defcending the River, came afhoar, and told the Goverpour tha t they were the Subjects of a great Cacique called A1uixo , who commanded a great many people in a very large Country on the other fide of. the River ; That they were come in pis Name to ac0 quaint his Lordfhip that their Mailer would come to-morrow and wait upon him. The .Cacique did; indeed, come, followed by two hundred Canoes full of a,rmed Indians, painted after their way; and adorned with feathers of all . colours, having fhields in their hands wherewith they covered the Rowers ; the refl: with their Bows and Arrows 11:ood fore and after in t1he Canoe. The Ca.cique's Canoe had a Pavillion in the poop , under which he fat ; there were others alfo tr immed up 11 in t-he~ fame manner for the chief Indians , who ftttirig under their Pavillions, gave their orders to thofe who guided the Canoe. They put them:. fel ves in o rder , and advanced within a fiones throw of the River fide; from thence the C a cique f pake to the Governour who flood on the

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and Conqueft of Florida. I r I the {hoar well attended, and told him, That he w a s come to offer him his fervices,and affitre him 1of'his obedience; becaufe he nad been informed thaf ne was the niofr Potent Lord of the ~hole , Ea-rfh. Soto thanked him, and prayed him to comea-010ar, where they might difcourfe more t eiii'rnodioufly together ; to which the lndia1t. made rto anf wer, but ordred rhree Canoes to put in;.wqich were loaded with fifh, and bread made of:Pafl~ of Prunes, , qr of the kernels of that frufr, '{lnd 'oT ihefhape and bignefs of a tile. TEe Ga .. vernour accepted die Prefent~ and importuned the Ca'cique to come a{hoar. But feeing the defign of t h e _Indians wasonely ' to watch {or an -occafion to f ut_prize us,when they perceivedthat the Gover-. n our pad pt ~!smeri ~nto very _~oo'd ?roe~, . tney fid o d'of from thefuoar,andat the fame time die Ct-ofs -bow-m e iri;wh,o were aH in areadinefs, fhot a t tt&em'. with lo a ffiouting ,t-11nd made five or ~t I to 'fall. They retired i~ very good' order, fovered with rq_~ir--fhields;;and no man leaving . his 'Oari,tB~uglthefa{v h.is C9mpanion fall by his fid~. They 11tnded f~at~tirnes afterwards to attack tis bt fo.IB6ri Its ~e1~ hargedthem; they hafinetl ~l~Jd iliefr~an~es ... ! Ir was a verrpleafant fight t
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1 1 A Kelatio1' of the .fn'Zldjion Governour chofe three of them which thr hours before day he mann~d with twelve Troo Fers of tried Courag~~ who he was certain W.RUla die rather than turn their backs to their Enemies Each Canoe contained four, _defended by .Crofs, bow-men, with good Rowe~s t _ o carry thei1:1 oye r . to the other fide of the Rive_r. John Guz1?1~n.who commanded Maldonado's Company, wa~ in~hij other Boat with his men ; an~ becaufe ~h~_cr , rent of the water was very f~ift , he mad~'.t -hern . go a quarter of a League higper than the plaei where we encamped ; fo ~hey .paifed oyer .-ano landed jufr over-againfl: the Camp. Whe~tQ,ej were within two fiones thro~ .of the , fJ1.0f!f\, ~ {~ 1 Troopers took the water on ~or(eba~k, .ap~Jan ded in a place where the fan_ d was : fir~ : Fincling . no Enemies there, they e~fily landed, and made . themfelves mafiers of the pg.~ge. 1'heJ3o~t~ immediately !eturned bac~ ~o the othe,r1 fi_pe where the Gove!nour was , who paft . over . witn the .whole Armr ~wo hour~ bef~.e Sun-fet ~ _., J)e , _ . Rive~ in that place was ~~}f ~ ~~~~gu~jpvef11.Jo that a man could not be difii',lgqifhe~. f.r;om, one ftde1 tp the othe~ ; ! it ~1as very geep apd, ~~ry rt pid, and .being always full
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. tm~ Conquefl of Flodda: I CH AP. XXIII~ The Governour goes from thence to Cafqui; ~ndfrom ihence to Pacaha , where be finds Cquntry different from the othe~ parts of Florida. . W , : Hen we had p~ffed that River: the great: e11 of all -Florida, the Army marched a League and a half to a Town in the Province of ./1.quixo; the Inclians had abandoned it~ neverthelds the Cacique fent thi rty to learn intelligence-of our march and deflgt1. As foon as they appeared . in fight of thf' Camp , the Horfe made towards them, and the lnclians d i [ per fed ahd fled; 'but the 1 Country bei ng open and level, they were fo hot~ ly purfued, that two of them were killed; and fit: teen taken, who were brought to the Gov ernour .. He had f e nt a Captain with Souldiers t o bring our Boats up to this Town which fiood upon the River ; but feeing the courfe of i t wa~ not fl:reight; and that it behoved us to turn a great ~any reach~s before we c-oulc;l get to the Camp~: the Indians who were acquainted with all the tur. n_ing~ and wi?dings, aqd expert in that Naviga7 t1on, many times attacked the Boats, and redu~ ~ed us to . great extremiti f3; fd~ ~e durft tiot ! !e~i

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t 14 A Relation of the ]n'llajion venture out into the fiream which was too rapid, and fianding in to the fhoar, they skulked by the River-fide and lliot at us. No fooner was the Governour got to the Town, but he fent off alil the Crofs-bow-men , who came very ieafonably to our affiftance. When the Boats were come t o he Town, he caufed them to be broken p, and all the Iron-work to be kept for other occa~ons, TheArmy refied a night int his Town.and parted next day to go into the Province of P acaha ,which according to tht relation of the Indians, bordered upon the Country of Chifca, where that . Metal was found whicb-the Governour took to be Gold. On our march we found feveral great Villages abandoned by the Indians; nevertherlefs, we took fome, who told the Governour, That three days journey from the place where we were, he would find a powerful Cacique, called Cafqui i This made him hafi:en our march to a little River, which we croffed upon a bridge; but , feeing the waters were out~ the men marched till Sun-tet up to the middle in water. At length we faw dry land to our great fatisfaclion, becaufe we feare, d we {hould have been forced to pafs the whole night in the water ; and our joy hereupon .. adding to our firength,. next day about noon we found the firfl habitation of the Ptovince of Cafgui. The Indians expelred us not, which coft many of them their dear liberty .. , That Village we plundered,. with another half a ' League difiant, t , . whi~ \ ,.~ . , -

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and Conq1te.ft of Florida~ r I whither the Horfe had advanced. The Land of this Country was the highefi, driefr, and eveneft of a ov that we had found before we came to the ,grec~ tRiver ; the fields were covered with Nut. trees, whofo fruit was of the fhape of an Acornp and we found fiore of thrm every-where in the houfes, which the Indians had btd up for tlleir Proyifions: Thefe Walnut-trees ctitle_red nothmg from thofe of Spain, nc,r from tho1e which we had feen dfewh~ e m that Country, but tl -at their leav,~s Wf:t e k mewhat fmall en We found al ... fo a great many Mulberry-trees.and Plum.,,trees; whereof fome bore red Plums like thofe of Spain,. and others Plurr s of a v10let-colour, diflerent from ours, but of a far better tafie. All thefo Trees were fair, and of as good a grovvth as thofe which ate raifed with care in Garderis and Orchards; for the Land yields but few rufhes and buil1es. The Army marched two days ih this Provine~ r Cafqui, before we came to the plac~ whefe the C acique ufuo.lly refided ; and the Gountry upo~ ti1e Rode was fo populous; that G,,ne of their Villages was as big as nvo or thre~ in the other Provinces. The G-overnoti r fent ad Indian to acquaint the Cacique that he was coming to fee him, to defire his friendfhip, and to treat him as his own Brother. To which the Cacique anf,vered, That he ihould be welcomep and rhat he would joyfully comply with whatfoever he ihould pleafe to enjoyn him~ He added -Ii ta

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, t 1 6 A Relatio/i of the lnvafl~ n , to his words a Prefent of Skins, Mantles,and . Fiili fo that after thefe tefiimonies of mutual friend. fhip, t h e Indians forfoo k no more the Village t hrough which we pafi, but in all places receive the Army with gladnefs, and offer'd-the Gover. nour Fi{h, Mantles, and other prefents. T h e Cacique came out of his Town haJf a League t o meet the General, and f pake tq him in tlJefe terms. Mofl High, mofl Mighty, and mo.ft i//flriozu Lord , may your Lorjhips coming be happ y. As Joo~ as I waJ informed of your Lordjhips Power and g,teab ~cllities, thoug,h upon your entry into m y Countr -you killed my Subjecls, and made th e m Jl av e s , ne, 'Verthelefi I r efolved to. conform my will t o yours1 and to approve whatever you d o , feeing, I am.wholb at your Jervice ; for I thoug,ht yon mujl have h a & jufl reafon t o do Jo,_ upon good conjiderations, which areh idfrom me, tut are known to your Lordjhi j; jince an evil may fometirnes /:;e permitted, for avoid ing, a great e r evil, and for obtaining, a good. I c m a;t to thixk it will pro'Ve fo, becaufe it w o uld be , J declare ag,ainfl reafon, to !Je p e rfwaded that the G t t nerojity o f fa excel lent a Prince d oes allow him t o con fent t o any injuflice. I have fo little powe r to d i your Lordjhip fervice, that unlefs you ha1Je Jome re• ./pell to my Wi ll, which is difpojed to o!Jey you in al t hing,s, I can deferye but very l ittle at your' hands: 4 But if it be reafona/;Je that Jome value Jhould /;e put ~pon a Jincere Will, accept of i t with my PerfoH, Coun•

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and Canqueft of .Floncla.' 1 17 ,coantry, and Su'bjeEls.1 s to '!Je difjoferl of atyour plea~ fure,Jince were I mafler of the whole World, l could not ha'7:Je a greater inclination to receive -and Jerve Jour Lordjhip. Soto made anfwer to this difcourfe wery civilly in few words, and then they entred into a Conference, ~herein the Cacique very obli'"' ,gingly offer' d the Governour his houfe to lodge ;in ; bt he. excufed himfelf that he might keep :the peac_e, faying, That finc-e .the weather" was fair and pleafant , he had r~ther lie in _ a Camp. So the Camp was pitched under trees a quarter of a L~ague from the Town. ;fhe Cacique-returned to the T
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• . I 1 8 A R.elation of the Invajion ding ro his own Image and likenefs: That he'ha wiHmg to fuffer death upon the Crofs fo. theSaJvat10n uf Mankind, and that the third daj he rofe again from the dead, having fuffer'o death as man; but that as God bis Nature w a immortal= 1hat he had afcended up into Hea Ven. . where his arms were open to receive a l thofe rhat applied themfelves to him. He then comma1~ed a very high Crofsto be made, whid wa's fer up in a riftng place of the Town, tellin~ the Indians that tbe C hrifiians rend red it honou inremembrance of what JESUS CHRIST foi.d fuffered upon it for them. After the Gover, nour and all the Spaniards had rendred their re, f pects hef ore the Crofs on their knees , the Indi. ans did the iike ; and $oto. told them) that they 1hould continue to honour and adore it, and de, mand of that Lord ,;vho w~s in Heaven, all that they m > ht Hand in need of.. After that , Soto inform'd himteif of the Cacique how far it was from that Town to P acaha ; he told him that it was a days journey, and that at the utmofi bo!J.nds of his Country, there was a Lake which made a kind of a Gulf in the great River into which it feJJ adding, that he would fend Indians to build a Bridge for the pa{fage of the Army. The , day we p.1rted from Cajqui we came to a Village ofthat Province, where we {laid all night, and next,day e came to the Lake, which :was rapid, dee_P,i:and half a,.Crofsobow-fhot over. . , , • . ,.,,. !-i i r , : _. : . (._.: i..;. ,' , ; , The

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and Conrpeefl of Florida. 1 19 The Indians had made an end of the Bridge when the Govemour came : It was made of pieces of Timber in form of pofis laid upon trees driven into the Lake ; and on the one hand they left a ; 1 rank of flakes which ftood up higher than the Bridge for thofe that pafi: to hold by. The Caci'Ju~ of Cafqui came to us in this place with his Indians . in Arms; and the Governour fent an lndi4n to tell the C acique of Pacaha , that though he . 'Yas Enemy to the CacitJ.ue of ~efqui who was wit~ _ him, yet if he wouJd fia y for our coming in peace, he fhould have no injury ~one hn ; ancJ that if he granted him his friendiliip, he would treat him as his Brother. The Governours Meffenger brought back word , that the Cqc!.tJ"!e had with contempt rejeaed theOffers that were ijlade J1im, and that he fled with all his Subjects p~y~nd _the Town. Soto took all his Horfe to ga ~ncf purf~e them, and many of them were taken in~ Yillage a quarter of a League off. They were deliv~red into the hands of the lndia1'S. of CafcJ.ui. who led them to the Town with n;1 • .:ch gfadn~fs. becaufe' they were Enem~es:; but it extd th~m e~ceediogl j that ~hey were notfuffer•""~. ' ' I :1ifa-., ere them. ln this 1:-dl h:. , bitatior, .,ir.; ,ound feve-' ral Mandes, with th~ 'sk~us l Jtags, Lions. a~ .. Bears , befidrs a great many Cats skins ! 1\nd fee~ i ,ng the So_uldiers wer~ very iH dnattted, they foon found the meao_ s of ApparreHing themfel ves tQ_e~~with~ Of the Mantles they made. dole .. 4 , bodie~ I',

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.,.;:-~1 ~G ;f Rel~tion of the lntz1ajion bodied Coats , Caffocks , and alfo W aft:e-coats; which they lined with Cats skins as well as thei f up~er Coats ; and the Stags skins"~hey cut i~to Breeches, Doublets, and Shoes : the Bears skms ferved to ~ake gqod Cloaks, bedmfe no Wp.te~ 1 pierced them. W e found alfo in tha~ Town Bucklers of the raw hides of Cows, which the _:Troope.rs made ufeof for their defence . .. . , \. C . H AP. XXIV. The. ~~c~que of f.aca~a ~~m~J and offe~~ . '•hi:s fervice: C afqu~ with{fraw.s, but con:tie1_. again to excufe him/elf-TbeGo'lJ.e rnour 1ita~S them friend.r. . I W . ~dnefday . the Nineteenth of June the Oo~ ,vernour ehtred the Town of Pacaha~ and' J odged in the Cacique's houfe, which wasvery large, . a ,o& fortified with a P~rliffado and Turrets, whe ' tein holes were made to ihoot through; The Town was provided with old J.(faes, the fields covered .with green, and in the compafs. of a League about the Town, there were a great ma: ny other very large ones,_ and all fortified. The Town where we quartered had a great lake near i t s endofore, the water whereof foll into , a ditch drawn round the fame dofe or fence , which en-. • , r ! 1 , , , 1 r • ,_ '. .. ., 1 co1n~

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. .4nd C~nq11~ft of Flo~i.d~, J 21 coq.1paed it .almofr all roun~ : And th _ e Indians had a1fo made a canal from the great' River to the Lake ; by that ~eans the River-fifh came into it in great plenty, ad th~ ~acique ufually di ... 1 verted himfelf at fifuin'g. 'What quantity foevei; were taken, they we~e neyer miffed, as we t~ied it. with Nets that were in the Town. Several Lakes thereabouts Wefe every whit as well furnifl1ed, but they were a fofter kind of fifl1, than the fiih that cc1me from the River, ~nd nothing near fo good : they all differed fro~ t~e fif11 of Spain. The fifh which they call Bagres, .. is of ~n extraordinary fhape ; the head of it is one third of its bulk, and about its fins and belly it hath great bones ~s fharp as a needle. Thofe which we took: in the Lake were about the bignefs of a large Pike; but in the _ grea~ River there were fame that weighed from an hundred to an hun _ dred and fifty poupd weight, of which ma~y were catched with the Hook. There are other filh that refemble a Barbel, and others again a Carp~ witfl fcales like . a Roach, but of a colour fomo,.. what browner; thefo they efieemed n~ofi. We , caught another for~ of fif11 alfo, called Pexe-palla, the P alatft./h ; the head of it i s covered with a kind of an elboN-hood, the upper point whereoJ • is 'iliaped like a Palet or Lingel; others again refemble the Aloft , and all had fcaies except the Bagres and P al,1t-f fo. The Indians fometimes caught fifh as b1g as a h~1g, which they called " Pexe

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12 2 .A Reldtion of the lntz111jio11 Fexe perco, and had feveral ranks of teeth above and below. The Cacique of cafi}ui. fent the Go. re_ rnour Prefent often , and toJd him one day that he would deliver up to him the Cacique of Fatacha. He wenf , to Cafqui, from whence he. 1 fent up a great many Canoes by water, and-came himfelf by land atterlded by feveral of his Sub. jetls. Soto led them hirhfelf, accompanied with forty Horfe, and fixty Foot;to .. a place where the Indians in the Canoes difcov~red Pacaha and his men, who were retreated irirchi little Hle. five Spaniards went in a Canoe under: the Command ()f Don Antonio Ofario , to view th~ Indians of l' acaha, and judge what number of ril~n-, they might be : They were about five or fix tho~fand, who taking all thofe that came in the CdHoes for Spaniards, were fo frighted that the C.atfipie" and lndians, who were in three Canoes, fled to the other fide of the River , and the refi caft them~ felves into the water with fo much fear and precipitation, that ~hough they could f wim, yet many of them wer? :qrow~.e4 efpecially Women and Children. The GoveFnour who was on fl10ar not knowing what lilpp~d Don Antonio's fide, , put on board the Canoef. • '<>f . afrJui" Souldiers td . go into the Hland, where they / arrived at the fame time Don Antonio did, and too~ feveral in~ 4ians, men and women, with a great deal of boo~ ty. Thefe Indians had loaded much of their Goods in Paniers of Canes upon floats, to carry' = •. , _ • :, • them

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anq C011queft of Florida. 1 2 . 3 them to the other fide ; but fear making them forfake theni, ' the floats carried down by the current of the water~ fel~ into the hands of CafiJ.ui's men, who filled their .Canoes with them ; and fearing that the Spaniards ' might take their booty from them, went away (with their Cacique) with_ out taking leave of the Governour. Soto was extreamly incenfed at that, and returned imme., diately to P acaha , from whence he made an incurfiog into the Territories of Cafqui , and took twenty or thirty Indians; having done fo, he re~ turned to the Town, becaufe the horfes were quite weary, but with a refolution to go and attack Cefqui within four days. He fet at liberty a Subject of P acaha, and fent him to tell his Cacique , that he defired to be his friend , that he fhould come to him, and that they fuould go together< and make War againfi CafiJui. Pacaha immediately fent back feveral Indians , who brought one with them whom they called the Cacique ; but the cheat was difcovered by one of Pacaha's , Brothers • who was Prifoner. The Govemour tol d thefe Indians tbat they fhould bring , their Mailer, fince he. knew very well that he who ufurped his Name was not, and that no re. folution could be taken, unlefs they took their rneafures together. . So that the . Cacique came ac .. -companied with many of his Subjects, and made the ufual Prefent to the Governour : This he feconded by a very fine difcourfe, which he concJu ... ded, -

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' 1 ~ ~ 4 A :Relation, bf.the lnvajion ded; That though ' his .Lord{hip~fo1d done :him fo . manyinj.uries . inwafting his Couotry, and kiHing his.~ubjecrs, without any prov,ocation ever .given , hy him, yet h~ could .o.ot forbear to be his mofi humble Serva~nt. Soto fet ,his Brother and the \ moft con{iderable of his Subjetl:s at l~};)erty; and tl}.e farhe day the Cacique of.Cafiffi (en,.t a . n fn/ia1J to a!fure the Governour 1 . that 1Jis M _afr~r would com.e ~next day and beg ' .his pardon for . the fault __ he .bad cot;nmitt . e _ d in re.tiri9g without his leave. T.o which he mad~ anf wer , That if the Cacique did not come iri perfon, he hi~felf would f~tca biJn., and punifu hiQl as he deferved. Ca/qui .failed not to come, and began with a prefent of Mantles, Skins,and Fiili, befid~s one ofhi~ Paugh~ t.rs whom he offered to Soto, _fa.yiqg that i , t was his gre~tefi ambition to ~1\ie h~& .Blod with fo great a Lor.d,and that for th.at end h~ had brought his Daqghter, whom he pn1yed him to _ take for Wife; thereupon he made a very long and judi~ i cious (peecb, full qf the praifes pf the Gover~our, and concluded by begging hi~ pardon for the fake of that Crofs which he had left, in that he had gone awa~ w~th~ut his o~ders; b~in~ a{h~ l l med at wha.t his SubJeets had qon~ Vfttqout h1~ confent. Soto anfwered thq.~ ~e-qad thofen a very good Patron ; and that i( qe had nqt Gome to ex ... cufe himfelff he r~f(?lved to have gqne and put him, his-5ubjech, and Country, to fire aod (word. To wh~ch the {nd~ctf!__ ~e_pFe~ J!lfy Lor4, I a:ncl_.~1:Y.. . Sub~

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' ' tind. Cokquifl of Flotldt 1' ~ 5 Su'6jeEls are yours, and my Cou~iry-'l/elong,s to you,~"' d oing fa then you would have, deflroyed your own Country, and killecl your Su!Jjecls; as for my/elf, I \ am read_y to accept of any thingJrom your hancls, whe .. ther it /Je punijhment or favour: What I ha7.Je al~ teady received.from you in leaving me the Crofs, 1~ the g,reatefl beneft that can be bejlowed, and much above rry deferts; far all our Maes had been burnt up !Jy a..n extraordinary drought, had not I and my Su!Jjefls on our .knees before the Crofs prayed faT' Rain, whereupon our mifery prefently ceafed. The Governour after that, refolved to put an end to the differences that were betwixt him aodPacaha, ' and made them both dine with him. The two Cacique's had a new contefi, which of them {hould . take the Governours right hand; but he agreed , them, faying, That amongfi Chrifi:ians there was no diftincl:ion made betwixt the right and left t hand, as to the place of honour, that they fhould do the like, feeing they were with him, and that . every one fl1ould take his place as it feJJ. In the mean time he fent thirty Horfe and fifty Foot-/ Souldiers towards the Province of Caluca, to find out a way from thence into theProvjnce of Chifca." where the Indians had told him there were Cop per-Mines, .and Mines of that Metal \vhich refembled Gold. Thefe Souldiers marched feven days through a defart Country, and rettm1ed quite f pent , having eaten nothing but green Plumsand Maes in the blade, which they had found m

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t 26 A ieiatio,i of t6e I,wa/io~ in a wretched Habitation of feven or eight houfes: i And indeed the Indians told the Gcvernour, that 1 farther Northwards the Country was for the moil: part unpeopled becaufe of the c ld ; and that the Cows were info great numbers, that the people could not preferve _ their Corn for them, but that they lived on the fleili of t_hofe be,:.~s. Soto finding that that Northern Country was fo barren and poor, asked the Indians whereabouts he might find a well-peopled Country; and they told him,that they had knowledge of a great Province towards theSouth,called ~gate,which was abundantly furnHhed with all fores of Provifions. CHAP. XXV. Soto goes in faarch of the Prorvince of Qg.igate, from whence he goes to Cali.; goa, and thence to Cayas. . He Army lay in ~arters of refrelliment \ for the f pace of torty days at P acahd; where the two Cacirpes firove who fhould make moil: Prefents to the Guvernour. when he was about to depart, P acaha gave him his two Sifl:ers, faying~ That tney were the pledges of his Affection, a!tL. t.1at he prayed him to marry them, to the end he might always think of.him: , The . one

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and Conqueft of Florida. I 2 7 one was called Mac.moche, nnd the other Mochifa11 both hanctiorne and well f11aped, efpecially Macanoche, who had very good features, a pleafant countenance, and a majeftick air ; the other was fomewhat more unpolifhed. The Cacique of Cafqui caufed the Bridge to be repaired, and the Army returned through its Country to its former Camp, near the Cacique's Town , who brought from thence plenty of fifh , and two Indian women, whom he trucked for a couple of fhirts: From thence we parted and paffed by two other Towns of the Province of c afqui ; and feeing the lail: lay upon a River, he fent •for Canoes to 1carry us over, and having taken leave of Sott1 there, returned home. From thence we marched towards f2!!ig,ate, where we arrived the Fourth of AuguJI ; the Cacique fent a Prefent of Mantles and Skins, but ~urfr not tarry in bis Town. This was the greatefi Town that we had feen in all Florida, infomuch that the Gover ... nour and all his people took up but one half of it: But Soto knowing that the Indians dealt not fncerely, he caufed the other half to be burnt, tor fear it might ferve the Enemies for an en-.. trenchment , from whence they ruight anoy us under cover . ; and gave the horfe orders to be in : readinefs to beat them off in cafe of an attack. At length an Indiafl came to the Town very well accompanied , and gave it out that he was the Caci9.ue ; which obliged the Governour to fet guards

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j213 A Relation ojtbe inva}ioti guards over him to obferve him. .In the mea .tirhe, many Indians brought Mantles and Skim );mt w_hen they found no opportunity of putting th~ir bad defigns in execution, the Mock•Ca.cique, c,:oming one day with the Governour outof his hcmf~, ran away fo _fwiftly; t~at no ~hrifria_n ,wa~ able tb overtake him, and threw lmnfelf mto a ~iyer whith he f warn over~ whilfi a g r eat inany .Indians on the . other fide. ihot at our men , ana made tetrible ihouts., The Governour immedi, #ely croffed the Rivertb charge them ; but theJ ft~id not for bis coming; . .and as he was in pur, fuii: of them, he found a Town abandoned, and a . little farther a Lake which the Horfe could not ,, -pafs . . Seve~al indian women appeared .on the a. ther fide of the _ Lake, which made the Governour fend ov~r t.he Foot, who topk the[e women anct a great deal of Baggage. $oto returned to the Camp, when:; the fame night th~ Scouts took a ~pie; the G9verno ur asked him ifhe could guide him to the place where the Cacique w~s gone, and the Indian promifec\ to do it:Whereupon Soto took thirty Horfe, and fifty Foot, and matched to fin~1 the ~acique; after a day and a halfa march $ouldier met him ~n a very thick Wood; _and not knowing him, cut him in the head with a fword, .. which made the poor Indian, cry out that he was ~he C acique, and begg'd that they would not kill him ; fo he \1/as taken,~ith an hundred and forty of his Subjects, whom Soto brought to f23igatd, wher~

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and Conquefl of Florida; r19 w~ere he told the ta;ique that he mufl: fend for lnclians to ferve the Chrifiians; But having exd pelted fome days, and nofie coming, he fent out two Captains with Horfe and Foot along the _ two fides of the River, who took feveral Indians mert and women. They fou~d thenthat theycol!ld get nothing by thei-r Rebellioh but lofs; fo they fub~ mitted to the Governour, and came to receive his orders , bringing with them Mantles and Fifli The Cacique and his two Wives were kept under a guard ofHalbardiers in the Governour's houfe:, whiHl: Soto inforrn1 ~ ~irnfe!f daily of the natur~ of the Country whither he intended to match the Army; and he learnt of the Cacique that going down the River towards the South , the Coun ... try was very populous, and governed by very powerful Catiques; and that towards the Northa Weft was the ~rovince of CaligM at the f~~t or the mountains. The Governour , and all the principal Officers, imagining that we fl1duld find a Country beyond thefe r.oountains of another quality than that where they were, and which might produce Gold or Silver, refolved to go to Coligoa. 0!Jgate as well as Cdfgui and P ?icaha lie in a .flat Country, of a fat and fruitful foil, and amongfl: little Rivers that form fields, v\there the Inhabitants fow a great deal of Maes ; from Ta.f caluca to the great River, we reckoned thre~ bun--' dred Leagues, and all that Cc;mntry is low, fuU ~! Lakes and Swamps , and from P acaha w 0!t0 . . . I\ . gpt~

PAGE 150

130_ A Keltt:ti"on of the In'Vajion gate it is fix fcore Leagues. Soto left the Cacique of this laft Province in his Town, and marched under the condutc of an_Indian, that led us for feven days through a defart Country continually a-crb1s the Woods, where no way was to be found; but that which -incommoded us mofi, was, that that Country was in a manner nothing but a Marifh, where we were oblig'd to fleep amid fr water. It was indeed very low, and fo full of fiil1, that we killed therri with our flicks; and when our Indian flaves fiirred onely the water and made it muddy, they came up to the brim as if they had been giddy and fiunn'd , fo that they took as many as they pleafed with their hands. The people of Colig,oa had no intelligence of our march, and were fo furprized to fee us in the firfi Tow'n, that they threw themfelves in a crowd into a little River that paft by that Habitation; but feeing the ~hrifiians came on both the fides, many of them were taken with their Wives, and the Cacique h:mfelf. Three clays after, _ the chief of his Subjects came to wait on the Governour, with Mantles, Stags skins, and Cows hides, which they prefented him with: 1 They told us, that five or fix Leagues from thence Nor _thwarc.ls , there were great herds of d1efe Cow~, but that the Country was not much inhabited becaufe of the cold_ ; and that they knew no Province more plentiful and bett~r peopled tha, n that of CayaJ towards the South. From ' ~-

PAGE 151

and Conquefl of Flor.ida. t 3 t ~gate to C oligoa it is al mofl: forty Le&gu_es, and t-h1s lafi Town Jies at the foot of a mountain, and upon a River as big as the River of Coja in EJlra~ madurd ; the Soil is fat, and bears fo great plen.; ty of Maes, tha~ they are fain to thtovv away the old that they may have-frore rootn for the new ; it likewife produces Peafe or fmall Beans, and cu&; cumbers bigger and better than thofe of Spain~ and which being roafred on the hearth, tafie like Chefinuts. The Cacique of Colig,oa gave us a Guide to conduct us to Cayrts, and abode frill irl his Town. We marched five days to P alifema, where the Cacique's hou(e was hung with Bucks skins, fo well died and wrought, that one would have taken them for good Tapifiry, tbe floor alfo being covered with the fame : The Cacique left all the furniture to accommodate the Gover0 nour, and to fhew that he was indined to peace~ nevertlielefs he clurfl: not fiay for us himfelf,which obliged Soto to fend a Captai~ in foarch of him .. He met with a great many Indians, but it being; a rough Country~ tot.1ld not apprehend any but ' Women and childrerl. Seeing there ~vere but a 1 few feparated . Hab'itations there, the Army made no long flay, but advanced to Tafalicoya : SotfJJ took the Cacique of this Town to ferve him for a Guide towards the Province of CaJtJJ, which was four day-s journey difiant. When he came: thete, and found the Habitations at a difiance one ftom another in die Country~ the Cacique ha~ . K 2t vinS

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t 3i A Rela~ion of the lnrvafion ving aiTured him that it was a very populous Country, he imagined that he had put a trick upon him ; he threatned him {harply, asking what place they were in; but the Cacique and all the Indians affirmed confiantly that we were in the 1 Province of Caya.s, that that was the beft and moil: populous Town of all the Province ; and that though the Habitations were fcattered in that manner, yet there were many Inhabitants, and large fields fowed with Maes. That Town was called Tanico, and we encamped in the pleafanteft place on the River-fide ; the Governour advanced a League farther with his Horfe,and met with no Indians, .but a great many Skins which the Cacique had left as a fign t.hat he was not our Enemy, for that's the cufiom in that Country. CHAP .. XXVI . . The Governour goer to fee the Province of Tulla ; what happens to bim itpon the way. Ti-le Army refied a Month in the Province 1 of Caya., ? during which time-our horfes g~ew fo fat, t hat. th~y never . were in fo good ~afe fince the ~egmqmg of our Expedition : The Dfaes there bemg excellent good, and .the {haw bcmer,

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-and Conqueft of Fl~rida. / 133 better, they eat a great deal of it without any 1 danger ; but the water of a Lake contributed al ... fo much to the fatning of them, which was fo , good and wholefome, that they could not get their bellies full on't , and fatned. them to the eye. We had had no Salt till we came to that place, where a great deal was made, and where the Souldiers did not forget to make Provi{ion ; Indians trade in it with their Neighbours , and barter it for Mantles and Sk_in5. They make it in cakes along the River .fide, which leaves a great deal upon the fand when it overflows; and fee~ ing they cannot make th~fe cakes fa long as it is mixed with the fand, they put altogether into baskets ~hat are made for the purpofe wide above and narrow below, which they hang in the air upon a pole, and throw water upon the fand that drops down into a veffel fet under the basket, which af~erwards they boyl; and the water be~ ing evaporated, the Salt remains at the bottom of the pot. There was a great deal qf Maes. fowed in the fields upon the fides of tbe River~ 11 But the Indians were afraid to appear; at ' length fome ventured to come near the Camp, and were . called to by the Souldiers, which gave ~heqi the boldnefs to crofs the River, and come to fee the Gpvernour ~ttended by his Souid~ers. S~to ask.., ed them news of their Caciqu_e.; tqey told him that. he defired to live in peace with him, but that p~ \ys ~~r_aid to pi:efent himfelf~ Tl1e Qqvernour . . !\ 3 -(eQ, , .

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134 A Kelatio,i pf tpe Incvafto,i fent him word that he might come fecurely 7 ~ml that if be would thew himf elf to be his friend, he fhould give htm Guide~ anq aq _ Ioterpreter ; 0 fberwi{e that he wold come and find him ou~, which woJld be 'to his ruine. Sotq \vaited tqree day& c,-n 1llS i\nfwcr, and feeing he came not, he wen t hlm ( d -and . ook him with an hundred and fifty o f h 1 ~ ~'.t-mjects : Soto p~t the ordmary que .. ftions to lum, If he knew of any good Country, ~nd any great ~ord? The lndiart made anfwer, , That the be(\; Country thereabouts was the Prnviqce of Tu/14, a day a,n_ d a halfs jour11ey difiant towards tl1e South ; that ' pe w ould give him Guide . to conduct him, but ~l1a~ h e could not f~r~ nifu qim with an Interpr~t.er becaufo tl~e LanT guage of the Indim~s of.1_ulla differed mud) from the Language of his Subjects; and that feeing his Predecelfors and he had, always been in Wa~ with ~he Cacique.s_ of tha~ Province, they had no ~ommuq~carion tog~ther, an~ underfiood not one ~n~ther. l! pon_ that information, the Govern our fet out withfome Hor(e , and fifty Foot~fouldiers, fo fe~ if h_e could pafs through 111llt:1 with the ~rmy ; fo foon as they had in~elli~ence of tis march, the whole Country rofe ; and whe~ ~ft~en or twenty fndi,,m~ were got tog~ther, they fet upon the , Governour ; but being pai~ off by the ~orfe, they got up to the roof of the houfes~ fuqpting A.rrows from thence; an~ though they w~r~ 9.rive~ !fOl~ oqe poi\, ye~ ~~1ey got uponh a"! ' . pot er2

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and Conque.ft of -Florida. I 3 5. not her, and attacked the Spaniards on all hands That way of fighting lafied fo long, that the hor-fes could not make orie fiep forwards : they kil .. led one, and wounded fome Chriil:ians, leaving fifteen of their own upon the place" We could not take any but about forty women and children ; for the Indians that fought had no quarter given them, if they were taken: But the Governour fearing they might gather together in greater bodies, refolved to come back to the Camp at Cayas, a~d parted at night, keeping off of the high-way that he might difappoint the Indian~. Next day he came to tl1e Camp, where he fiaid threedays, and then with all the Army fet out upon his march to Tulia. He took the Cacique along with him ; but arnongfi all his Subjelt~ there was not one to be found who underfi:ood the Lc1nguage of the Indians of 1ulla. After three days march we came to a Town abandoned ; in the mean time, as foon as d1e Indians knew that we wereentred into theirCountry ,they came to attack us a little before day,in two bodies, and armed with Arrow~ and Pnles after the m~n":! ner of Pi~e~. So foon as they were difcovered, we betook our felves. to our Arms, and broke out upon tq.em, to the lofs of a great many men on their fide, and one!y ;i. few Sould iers and Hor-fes wounded on ours~ Soto chofe out fix of the chief lnJia1J$ from amongft the Prifoners whoi he h4d taken, aqd ba vin~ caufeq tl1ei~ risht hand K ~nd ' i -' ,

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I 36 A Relation of the lnvajion and nofe to be cut off, he fent them back t o the C aciq?fe. to tell him, That if he . o~eyed not his Orders, h~ w ould find him out, and ufe him ~11 his after the fame manner ; which he made ' ~he m compr ehend by figns the befi way he cold , for fault of an Int e r preter . Before three days were ayer, a n Indian. laden wit h Cow-hides, came and . cafl: l!imfelf a t the Governburs feet, weeping, and fhewmg all the figns of an extream forrow. ~ oto took him up, and the Indian m .ade a long dif. icourfe wl1ich no body underfiood: They t'nade . pim ~onceive by figns, that the Goverriour woul9 pave the Cacique to come,and that he fhould bring with him an Interpreter who underfrood t~e Lan'guage of the Inclians of Cayas. . Next day three , lndia11s more loaded as the firfi was came to the ~amp,and three days after twenty others,an~ongfi . whom there was one who underftood the Lan;. ' guage of Caya;. He made a lopg difcourfe full pf reafons to excufe . the Cacique, and ~xpreffions i~ f raife of the Governour, and concluded with a protefl:ation, ihat he and all the other Indians were come on behalf of the Cacique to receive the overnours Commands, and promife him Obepience. Nothing rejoyced Soto and all the Sp~'l_Jiards more th~n that Inte r preter, feeing withiput knowing the Language, it' was very difI-icul~ to proc~ed any farther in FlDriJa. Soto, o,rdered Nm to be kept with a great deal of care, and told JQ~ pther lnefians t .hat t~ey might return to thefr .:\,-.• - • ._. ,.{. _ _ ,,. .J.----I' , _Cacij{JC,,

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and Conquefl of Florida. J 3 7 Cacique , ~nd aifure him that he pardoned all that was pail:, and that h~ took his Pref~nts and Interpreter very kindly ; that he would be very gfad to fee him, and that he might come neJ(t day. At length the C.1cique came, attended by rfcore Indians, who all enrred the Camp weeping bitterly, as a fign of their repentance and fubmiilion,according to the cufi~m of that Country. They brought with them a ccmfiderable Prefent of Cevera! Cows hides, which were very convenient againfr t~e cold in that couqtry, becaufe they made a good furr, the hair of them being as foft. as {heeps~wool. Thefe Cows are to be found in very great numb~rs to the Northwards of this Provi1/se, but we fa w none of them alive, beaufc that Country is bc1,rren, and almoi.1: a defart. The acique of Tu:fla made;;, a f peech to the Governour in his own excufe, and offered hirp his Perfon and all that he poffeffed. . And here it is to be obferved, that this Ca,cique and all the ref1, as ~lfo all their Envoys,exprdfed themfelves in their own Language, as elegantly the rqfi polite Orator could do in hi~. -"' '"• l ' • • CHAP.

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1 3 8 A Relation of the lnvajion CHAP. xxvn. The Governour goes from Tlla to Auti a nque, . where he [pends the Winter Ouarter. -SOto having enquired into the nature of the Countries about Tulia , was informed that the Country to the Weft had nothing but feparat e Habitations ; but that betwixt Eaft and South , he would meet with large Towns, ef pecially in the Province of Autiamfjue, ten days journey difiant from 1ulla , which might make about fourfcore Leagues, a~d that that Country was extraordinary fruitful in Maes. Seeing Winter drew on, and that the rain and fnow would hinder our march for two or three Months, the Gover, nour was apprehenfive that we could hardly find prov ions in thefe Habitations fo remote from one another ; and befides, the l-t,1dian$ faid that near to Autiamrpte they faw 1a great Lake; and ac• cording as they ' talkt of it, we had ground to believe it might _ be an arm of the Sea. The Gcweh nour was very defirous to fend advice to Cu!Ja, and to get from thence a fupply of men and hor-1 fes, becaufe it was already three years that nei• ther his Wife ~or any body elfe h~d l1e~rd what . . wa~

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and Conqueft or Florida. 139 was become of him ; nay befides, he had alrea• dy loft two hundred and fifty of his Souldiersj and an hundred and forty Horfes: -All rhefe reJfons concurring, made him determine to pitch upqn the Province of Autiamque for his Winter-~arters, and to fearch for fome Sea~Porc in the Spring: His defign was to have two Brigantines built there, which he would fend one to Cu!Ja and tbe other to New-Spain, to the end that if one of them fhould mifcarry, the other might carry news of him to one or the other of thefe two Provinces. He hoped to make new Levies with the money that he had at the Havana, and carry on his difcoveries Weilwards, having not as yet proceeded fo far as thofe ''places where Ca!Jefa de facca had been. He {ent back the two Cacirues of T'ulla and C t1yas, and began his march towards the Province of Autiamque: after five days travel .. ling over very rough mountains, we found an ha~ bitation called~ipana, where we could not take any Indians, the Country being too clofe for the horfe ; however, thar Village being feated a . mongfr mountains, we laid an Ambufcade, and caught-two Indians: They told us that Autiamrv,e was fix days journey off, and that to the South we would find another Province called Guahate, very plentiful in l'rfaes, and extreamJy well peopled, But the Province of Autiamque being the nearefl:, Soto continued his march, and cq~e to the Town of Anoi,?
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140 A Rclati9~ of the l'nvafion ching in the front of the Army with fifty Foo and ' thirty Jiorfe, furprized the Indians, who e x , pell:ed no fuch thing as the feeing of us,. there1 and took a great many Prifoners of both Sexes : Two days after, we found the Habitation of Cq tamaya, where we encamped without the Town . Two Indians pretending to be fent from the Ca. cique, came to obferve o'ur Countenance; and t h e Governour told them, that they iliould go ano bid the Cacique come to him, without any fea r of violence; but they came back no more, and we had no more news of them. The day fol . lowing the Chrifiians en tred the Town , which was forfaken by th~ Indians ; there they took what Maes they fiood in need of, and without longer fiay in that place, we went and pafi the night . in a Wood, that the next day we might reach Autiamque : In this Town we found. ~ great _ deal of Maes in Granari~s, fmall Beans, Nuts, and Prunes, and all in great plenty ; and , we took fame Indian~ that had fl:aid to pack up , their Baggage, for the women were already con-1 veyed away to places of fecurity : That's a Champion Country , and very well peopled. The Governour pitched the Camp in the placi 1 mofl: inhabited, but at a difb.nce from the houfes, , to avoid the fire that the [ndians might• put to them, and ordered it to be fortified with a Palillado of\V ood : The ground was meafm:ed out by 1 pa~e~, that every one might work in that foni.fi~ ~atio,

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and Conqueft of Florida. 141 cation according to the number of flaves he had; the lnclians brought the, Timber , and the enclofure was finifhed in three days with high and great piles of Wood driven deep into the ground; and faftned with good crofs pieces. The River of c aya, paft by this Town , which was very large. Some Indians came from the C adque bringing Mantles and Hides ; and another lame Cacique of the Town of 1ieriquaque , and Vaffal to Autiamque, frequently vifited the Governour, giving him many prefents; however, the Cacique o f Autiamque appeared not , but onely fent to know of Soto how long he intended to fojourn in that place : When he came to underfiand that he was to be his gueft , for above three days he fent him no more Indians nor Prefents , and was the caufe alfo that the lame cacique withdrew for g ood and all. Several parties were fent out, who t ook a great many Indians of both Sexes, and amongfl:-the refi the lame Cacique; but the Governour having ref peel: to the fervices which he had reridred him, onely checkt him a _little, and then gave him his liberty, ordering him two ln_dians to carry" him home ' upon their fhoulders. Autiamq_ue, whofe fole defign was to drive us out of his Country, fent out feveral Spies, one of which coming in the night-time to the gate of the Camp, was difcovered by the Sentinel, who gave him a _ thrufr with his Sword that made him fall; 'he was brought to the Governour, but ,-_expire~

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142 A Relation of tbe Invafton ~xpired before any thing could be got out of him: The night following, ~oto being willing to keep his men in a readinefs, caufed a falfe allarrh. to be given by a Souldier, who cried that he faw the /n. ilians. He haq made ufe of this firatagem in other places ; when he obferved any negligence in the guards, ot in thofe th~t were out upon_ duty: and he very feverely chid t hofe who defa yed to come totheir Colours;fo that all {l:rove who fhould be fidl: at their duty. We fiaid three months at AutiarJ1fJUe, having plenty of provifions, as Maes, fmall Beans, Nuts, dried Prunes,. and Rabbets; which we had not as yet learned the way of catching, till we came to this place, where the Indians, fhew'-d us how they took them in fnares ; and this was by a frnall firing with a running noofe fafl:ned to a fiick in the ground, into which the Rabbet running its head , hanged it felf by the neck; and that it might not gnaw the firing, it was put through a little cane. A great many were taken fo among the green Maes, efpeciaIJy w!1en it froze and fnowed. The fnow ~{ept us a whole month within the Town, fo that we could not go abroad': But feeing we began to be in want of wood, the Govern our with all the horfe., men mounted on ~1or feback, and riding often .'to and again, pathed a way to a Wood diitant from the Camp two Crofs-bow.s{h' ot, whither the Foot went and cut fewel. In the mean time,our Indi .. ans who had their chains taken off, catched Rab..i bet9

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. and Conquefl of Florida; I 43 1:tts in their Snares, or fhot them with their Arr ows. There were two forts of thefe Rabbets, fame like thofe of Spain, and others which were i ndeed of the fame iliape, and had the fame kind .of wooll , but they were as firong and bigger t han Hares, nay thicker and fatter too. CH A P. XXVIII. Soto lea'VeS Autiamque, and goes to Niko, and from -thence to Guachoya. -WE left our Camp at Autiamque on Wednefday the Sixth of March, I 5 42. The Govern our had a mind to go to Nilco, which acc ording to the relation of the Indians , flood on t h e fide of a great River ; and his defign was to fall down . to the Sea, and expeB: the recruits that . he had ferit for;forhe had no more than three hun~red Souldicrs remaining, and forty Horfe,where• of fame were lame, and good for not bing but ro make a . fl10w in a Squadron ; for above a year t hey had gone without fhooes for want of Iron, I b u t being accufiomed to it, and marching upon foft ground, that did not much incommode them. 1 ohn Ortiz died at Autiamque, which extreamly grieved the Governour ; becaufe having loft fo good an Interpreter, he was afraid that he might engage himfelfin fome Country where he and all , his men might be loft, and the rather that now he -t..ad

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144 A Relation of the Invafion had no other Interpreter but a young Indian of Cutifachiqui, who underfiood a little Spanifh ' : The lofs of Ortiz. was a great crofs to his defigns, for it requi,red fometimes a whole day before that young Indian could explain , what the other would have done in four words, and very often alfo this lafi took what was faid to him in a quite contrary fence, fo that it hapned after a whole days march, that we were forced to f pend two days in coming back the fame way again, or in wandring in the Woods, not knowing whither we went. After our departure from Auti'amque, Soto made us tarry ten days in the Province of ~yays, where , we found a Town upon that River .which pa!fes by Caya.; and Autiamque; Soto ordered a Boat to be made to carry us over the River, and we were forced after \Ve were got over, to fiay four days . longer, becaufe of fnow and bad weather. The Army marched aftervnrds three days through fwamps and fuch broken ways , by reafon the Country is very low, that the Troopers thernd fel ves were many times up to the knees in water, and always to the fiirrup, befides feveral places that they were forced to f wim over. At length we came to the Town of 1ultelpina , which was forfakeo by the Indians, and' no provifions left. A Lake that difcharged it fe]f into the River that palled by that Town; and it being very high, and running impetuoufly , a Captain and five Souldiers who ventured to emfs over by the Go• _ vernours

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... and Conquefl of Florida:. 145 ,nours order; were overfet in 'their Canoe. ; fome ftuck to the Canoe, and. others to tbe tre~s that were in the Lake; but franciJ B{ljlien wasarow.ned , no1body being able tO' .help him. He \\1as-I a Gentlemen of ~ality porn 'in f7illenewve of Barcareta. Iri: the rneq.n time . Soto fougi!1~ out. a .way along the fides' of , the Li~e, but to hb purpofe ; fo that he ca me back to t~e Town , : w11i") ther two Indians caqie.,; ; and taught him the means how to. get cw-et the Lake. : ~
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. A Relation of the Invajion Town.-That Country, which is very even, is/ fo populous, that in the compafs of a League about thisTowo1thereare a great many very large1 Villages full of Maes , fmall Beans, Nuts, and Prunes.; fo , that except Cofa and Palache, it was the moft fruitful and popl:)lous Country that we had hitherto found in Florida. An Indian atten• -ded by r fome others came to wait on the Gover. DOU( in name of the Cacique, and prefented him with a Mantle of Martin-skins , and a firing of large Pearls; and Soto requited him with a Co~ Jar of Mother of Pearl, which is much efieemed ~y the lndfa11s of Peru , and fom~ other trifles, wherewith the Indian feemed much fatisfied. He came back two days after, but from that time forward we. faw no more of him ; on the contrary the lndhms came in the night-time , and carried away the . Maes in their Canoes, which they con• veyeQ into Hovels built in a very thi~k wood on the othedide of th River.. The Goveroour feeing that the Indian. came no more , as he promifeq, laid an Ambufcade near to fome Granaries of Maes clofe. by the Lake, where the Indians came, to fieal the Corn ; two were taken, who told us that the Indian who came to the Camp was not , the Cacique, but a Spic whom he had fent to dif. , cover our force, and to learn whether Soto h21.d a defign to make any flay in his Country, , or if he intended to advance farther in. Immediately the Governour commanded out a Captain , to crofs the

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and Conque.ft of Florida. I 4 7 the River; but as the Indians perceived us in our paffage, they forfook thtir Hovels, fo that we could take but twelve, who were brought to the Camp. The fame River that paffes by Ni/co.runs ; by Cayt1J and Autiamqae,aod it djkharge~ it teH into the great River that runs by.P acaha and Aquixo; they joyn near to Guachoya, the Cacique whereof came up the River to Nilco to make War with the Indians of that Country : This Cacique fent art Indian to the Governour to offer him 'bis fervice, and to acquaint him that within two days he would come and kifs his hand. He came at the appointed time, accompanied with many Indians,-, and prefented the Governour with Mantles arid Stag-skin. s , in very civil and fubmHlive terms._ Soto entertained him and fhew'd him much honour; but having akt him what Countries lay lower upon the River ; he made anfwer, That he knew no other Town but his own, but that on the other fide there was a Province governed by a Cacique called OJ!ig,altan. After this Confe~ rence, he took leave of Soto, and returned home to his own Country. Son e days after, the Governour refolve
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14S A Relation of the lnrvafton that we had a defign to attack them, they retur~ ned and acquainted the Cacique, that the Spaniards were coming to his Town. This put him into fo great a fright, that in the night time he. carried away all that he could, and fled with all ' his Subjefrs to the othe~ fide of the _ great River. In the mean time Soto fent b efore a Captain with fifty Souldiers in fix Canoes, and kept on marching with the refi of his men: He arrived at Gua• choya the Seventeenth of April, and he lodged in the Town, which was fenced, being a Crofs-bow. fl10t from the River; In that place the great River is called Jamalifeu; at Nilco , Tapatu ; at Cofa, Mico, and at the Haven, that's to fay, it's , mouth at ' the Sea, Ri. ' CHAP. XXIX. Which trea_ts of a Meffage the Governour fent to Qligaltan ; of'-the Anf wer he received, and of what happened thereupon • .L I :AS foon a s the Govern our was come to Gua-, 1 choya,, he commanded Danhufco to mount u p t h e River in Canoes, becaufe he had obferved on th e o th e r fide Hovels lately built. Danhufco returned from the Expedition with his Canoes loaded 1

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anfl Conquefl _of Florida. 149 loaded with Maes, Small Beans, Prunes, arid Bread made of Prune-pafie. The fameday an Indian came from the Cacique of Guachoya, to tell the Govern_our that his Mafi:er would come next day. ' The truth is, . we-fa'w a great many Canoes coming down the little River, which went aihoar on the fide ef the great River oppofite to where we were; there the Indians held Council the fpace of an hour , to deliberate whether they fhould come or not ; at length all the Canoes came over to our fide. Guachoya was there with many of his Subjects, carrying Fifh,. Hides, Mantles, and Dogs, which they brought along _ with them . . . They came to the Town, where they offer'd all : thefe Pref en ts to the Governour, and the C acique fpoke to .him in thefe terms. . Potent and excellent Lord, I beg, your L_ordjhips pardon for the fa ult I committed in withdrawing, and not waiting,for you in this Town, that I might meive and ferve you; feeing, the occafion of doing,fo, wa,, and it 1sflill more acceptable to me, than if I had obt ainecl a great Vi[/ory. I waJ afraid where th;re war no cauje of fear, and therefore it wa, that , I did which I ought no.t to have done; but feeing precipitation always produ,ces had ejfe[/s, and I retired without know~ng, what I did: I am refolved not to follow the opinion of F_ools, which is to per,.. fevere in their errour, :but to imitate the wife who , take the heft Council; I come to receive your Lord/hips_ Cor,nmm1.ds that I may ferrue yof!; to the utmofl . -3 -ef

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:1 5 o A Relation of the Invafton of my power. Soto having thanked him for his J Prefems and Offers, asked him if he knew any thing of the Sea; the C acique faid, that he &new ' nothing of it~ nor of any other Habitation lower down the River, except the Village of an Indian -V aflal of his , arid three days journey further down the other fide the Province of 0!_igaltan, the Cacique whereof was the greatefi Lord in all 1 th~fe ~arters. The Governour thought that Guachoya difguifed the truth to make him leave his Country, which obliged him to fend out Dan• hufao with eigl1t Troopers to make difcoveries down along the tide of the River , and to inform himfelf if the Sea was near. Danhufco was out eight days, and upon his return told the Gover• nour, That during all that time he could not make above fifteen Leagues, becaufe the River fetched great compaifes into the Land in feveral places, and that the refi of the Country was full \' off wamps and very thick woods. Soto. finding by that relation, that many obfiacles withfiood his finding out the Sea ; and confi.dering that his men decreafed in number daily, without the hopes of any relief, gave fo much way to thefe I fad and melancholick refleltions, that he fell fick upon it; however, he fent 'an Indian to the Ca• cique of ~g,alt cm, to tell him that he was the Son of the Sun, ,and that the Caciques of all the Provinces tbroL'gh which he pafTed, had offtr'd h'm their fervices and obedience; that he asked his friend-

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and Conqueft of Florida~ 1 ; t friendfhip, defired to -have the fatisfacl:ion of fee;, ing him, and that he would fund him fome Pre• fent of what was moft: efieemed in his Country, as a . mark of his good will and fubmiffion. 0!9 galtanfent him anfwer by the fame Indian, That , iince he boafied himfelf to be thtr-Son of the Sun, he would take the pains to dry up that great River, and then he fhould be ready to own him for fuch; that in the mean time it was not his cufiom to vifit ~ny body: but that all his Neighbours viftted. him, and paid him Tribute willingly or by force.; fo thatt ifhe had a mind to fee him, he fuould come over into his Country; that if he1 came as a friend, __ he fl1ould be gladly received, or r, if he intended to make War , he would expecl: him in his Town; and that neither he nor any man elfe fuould ever make him give an inch of grounq. When the Indian brought back that Anfwer, Soto wasalready' a-bed fick of a high Feaver, which was increafed by his vexing that he was not in a condition to crofs the River, and try to humble the Pride of that haughty Indian, though is was a very great River , being half a . League over, and foventeen fathom deep, of a very rapid Current, many Indians on both fides ; and that, in fine, Cunning . at that time was more ufeful to hirn than Force. The Indians of Gu4.., ~hoya brought daily fuch quantities of fifl1, that the _Town was fu,11 of them. The Cacique gave _notice to tlie Governour, that Q:figaltan was to 4 ~o~e,

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15 A -Relation of the ln'Vajon come and attack hjrn one night, which the Goverpour lookt upon as a falfo allar-1'1?-, ; to oblige ~1iin to l _eav-e the Town; how~ver, that he mig(~t notfeem _nE'.gligenr; he doubled his Guards, and , ordered a good watch to be kept. @galtan did, imt come, and the Governour talked of it to the c~cique, .wh~ maJeanfwer, Tl~at he did come, but rhat his Lordfl1ip having put all things info good order , he was obliged to retre . at. In the mean time, he daily importuned Soto to pafs the great River, tell1og him that he would give him .forces enough to beat 0!..,igaltan. The Gover nour afTured him, that fo foon as he were well, ' he wo 1ld go in perfon to that Expediri0,11: But , feeing many lndums came to our ~arters, and . tbar tt1e Coum ry was very populous ; that be"' fides, there were many breacbes--iq the Pali!Tado, which, it was not fit , ihould be fiopt , left the Indians might think we ~ere in fear of them; Soto made all bis Horfe mount the Guard eve~ ry night, who were upon duty at the Gates with bridle ; in hand, and from every Court of Guard two Troopers were fent out upon the Patroulle, and to vifit the out~Sentinels , whili1 the Cro!sbow•men kept guard1 upon the Riv1=r in Canoes, .to hinder the Indians from a[faulting us treache.:. 1 toufly. The ' Governour alfo, ,that he might make him(elf more terrible to the lnclians,thought fit to fend a Captain to Niko, whither thofe of Guach~ya faid the Inhabitants were come back ; tha:t

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~ .rz-d-Conqueft . of Florida~ '153 1tbat by the rigo~u of the puni{hrnent !}lould ~nfl'i~ upon, them, he might q~ell t~e bol4n~fs of . both, if they refolved to attack him: For that effelt he chafe Nuno de Touar with fifteen Horfe, , and! J~hn de Guz.man who with his company was to g6 up the River in Canoes. The Cacitue of ~uachoya fent alfo many Indta,11s in Canoes to this _ Expedition. Touar marched by Land, and fiaid ( for Guz.matt, whom the night-ttme came and Ian ... ded two . Leagues below Nilco. The Horfe ad~ vanced' firfi, and about break of day ,found an In-. dianSentinel, who fled, giving the allarm with , loud cries, Touar and his Horfe fell on with fo l , great fury, that they mingled with ,the lndifinS before they could get out of the Town. It lay in a Champion Country, and was at leafl: a quar .. ter of a L~ague in compafs: It might contain be-, . twixt fiv:e and fix thoufand Souls, ~ And feeing the J:5oor wretches came running out of their houfes1 in crowds, aod preffed one another on all -hands. , _ hardly a Trooper but found himfelf alone{ amidfi a great many Indians. Xhe Captain gave orders that no quarters !hould be given to the men ; and their confiernation was fo great, tha~ . not one of them had tbe c o urag e to fho ot an Arrow; fo fearful were the cries o frhij Women and Cbildren, that they ftunn'd \ even thofe who. pur--fued them. Ahove a hun dred were killed, and ' many wounded with Lan c es, who , were afterwards let go to t~rrifie the reft who \\~ ere not prefent

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1i ._; 4 A Relation of the ln'Zlajion prefent at the rout. Some Chrifiiails were fo cruel as to kill even old men and children, who / did not offer to make any refifi:ance: But they' who ' onely fought for opportunities to fignalize themfelves honourably, and who were known to-, be brave men , made it their chief bufinefs to break the Indians who rallied, by running them ' down with their Horfes, and pricking them with Lances ; and when any women or children came 1 in their w~y, they delivere.1 them over to the ' Foot. Thofe who to fhew their Courage iliew'd themfelves inhumane, were puniihed for it by Almighty God, who fuffered their crime to fall upon their own heads, ifI may fay fo, by the bafe actions which they commifted in view of the , . whole Army, on fuch occafioos where Valour was feafonable, and at length by fuffering them to die miferably. . , There were about fourfcore women and children taken , and a great deal of booty: The Indians of Guach_oya_' made a halt without the Town , and' peaceably beheld the fuccefs of the Attack, thiit they might fee what became of the Chrifiians ; but when they percei• ved that the Enemies were broken on all hands, I and what execution the Troopers did with their I Lances, they ran to pillage the houfes; and ha• vi .ng loaded their Canoes ~ith plunder/led back to 11 Gptachoya before the Spaniards left N1lco; and re• .fated to their Caciquewhat they had feen \Yith no lefs dread than adiniration:. CHAP. '' .

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and Conqueft of Florida. r;; CHAP. XXX. , The Death of the General Don Fernando de Soto ; Louis Mofcofo d'Alvarado n chofen iiz his place,, THe Governour perceiving that his Jafl: hour drew nigh, fent for the Kings Officers$ with the mofi confiderable of the Captains and Gentlemen ; he told them, that fince he was go-ing to render an account to God of what he had done in this life, and chat hrs Divine Goodnefs in , ' taking him out of this world , did him the grace to allow him his Senfes to the laft ; though he was unworthy of that mercy, yet he mofi humbly thanked the Almighty for it; that he acknowledged he was exceedingly obliged 'to them all, as well prefent as abfent, for the atfecbon and fidelity they ~ad fi1ew' d towards him , which hehad proved , by all the misfortunes and pains they had fo generoufly endured; that he had always wifued he might have b~en able t<:> have fl1ew'd them his gratitude , by Rewards fuirable to their Merit,had it plea{ed God to_have fetled him in a more happy condition; that he b~gg'd them to pray to God for him,that through his infinite merry his fins might be forgiven, and his Soul recei v , d mto Glory ; that they would take

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I ,;o A Relation of the fnq;4jion t~ke back the charge that they had given hj911 and which he refigned up into their hands ; and that they whom -he might hnve offended would. be fo good ,as to grant him the pardon. which 4~ begd ' of them; that to all his other Prayers he added this one more, That they would"ip his prefence chufe fome Perfon of ~ality that rtiight be fit t o Command them in his place to the fatisfa'.frion of all ; to .the end they might prevent the divifions , th~t after Qis qeath might arife on thJt occafion.;' and that having chof en. one, they would take a n Qath to obey him : That as that was the lafi fa, vour he defired of them, fo it would be the mofigrateful -t~n.to l1im , (ee.ing it would mitigate his grief and trouble for leavjng.,them in a barbaro u s and unknown Contry. Balthaz,ar de Gallego s being de!ired by all the company to an[ wer this Difcourfe, began by motives of Confolatioo, re., prefenting to him the uncertainty q.Ud lhor~nefs of the life of man ; to what miferies it wa~ expo"l fed ; and that the fooner w~ left it,. the greater was the mercy of God. He added many other edifying !biogs, and at length faid, that fince it plea fed God to remove their General, though it , was a lofs which they refeoted with extream grief, yet it was but jufr, nay and neceifary, ttlat he aod all his fhould refign tbemfelves up to his Divine WiU: That as to the Perfon 1whom he appointed them to cbufe for fupplying his place., they prayed ,~i~ Lordihip to name ~im hirnfelf; ._ whicll

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and Conquefl ofFlorida. 157 which immediately he did, naming Louis Mofcofa d'Alvarado his Captain-General. That nomina-. tion was approved by all, and they took an Oath to Mofcofo. Next day, being the One and twentieth day of May, the Magnanimous, Virtuous, and Valiant Captain, Don Fernando de Soto, Go-. vernour of Cuba, and General of Florida, yielded his Soul to God. He had the fame fate as many other great men have had, whom Fortune onely 'raifes high to make their fall the gr.eater. He died at a time and in a Country where his farrow could receive but very little confolation ; every one fl:oocl in ne~d of it for himfelf in the danger we were in of peri{hing in a Country which we knew not . i ; and feeing thefe were reflefrions that fufficiently took up the thoughts of all, Soto had notf.all the ailifiance which was due to him, and which we could have wiihed to have given him. Mo[cofo would have his Death concealed fro1n the Indians, becau!e Don Ferndndo had always made them believe that the Chrifl:ians were immortal ; and feeing they had a great opinion of his Prudence and Valour , he wifely judged that his death might infpire into them thoughts of revolting, thoug~ they appeared to be fubrniffive ; for it was good to n3:ifi:rufi tneir natural levity and incon~ancy. Befides, as the ignorance of that Nation, makes them rec;eive for a truth whatever is beyond the reach of their knowledge, the late General had perfwaded them, that their moft fecret -

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158 A Relation of the Intz1afion cret defigns were : not hid from him , though they could-not conceive how that {houlq be, and that his Image which he fhew'd them in his Looking-glafs, told him a~l their thoughts : being 1 perfwaded of that, they duril: not fo much as think of Rebellion. So foon as he was dead, Mofcofo caufed his Body to be put into a houfe, where it lay three days ; after which~ it was buried in the night-time near to one of the Gates within the Town. _ The Indians who had feen him in his ficknefs, ..and now faw him no more, I began to have firong fufpi9ions of his death ; and when they pafled by the place where 'he was interred, they curiouCT y looked upon the ground, wich fee med to have been lately dug, and talked to one another. This being told to Mofcofo, he caufed him to be deterred very privately in the night-time, and a great deal of fand put into the Mantles wherein he was wrapt; in thi~ condition -he was carried out in a Canoe to the middle of the River~ and there funk to the bottom . . In the mean time, the Cacique of Guachoya daily asked . . news of Soto, whom he called his Lord and Bro .. ther,defiring to" know what was become of him . . Mofcofo told him that he was gone abc,ut a little . bufinefs up to Heaven, whither he was accuil:om-ed to go ; aod being he was to make fome lhort ftay there, he had left him to ComfI!and in his, place. The Cacique making no doubt then but . that he was dead, fent for two very h~ndfome young

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and Conquefl of Florida. i; 9 young/ndians,and told the Governour,that it was the cuftom of his Country when any great Lord died, to put to death fome perfons to attend and ferve him on his Journey ; that thefe young men prefented themfelves to render that duty to his Lord ad _:Brother, and that he might freely caufe their heads to be. firuck of[ Mofcofo made anf wer , That the Governour was not dead , but that he was gone to Heaven ' ; that among the Chrifiians whom he Commanded he had chofet1 th9fe who were to attend him, that he prayed Guachoya to fend home the 1two Indians, and to renounce fo damnable a cufiom. He fet the Indians at liberty upon the fpot , and ordered them to return to their houfes ; but one of them refufed to do fo, faying, that he would not ferve a Mafier who had condemned him to death without a caufe, and that he would ever fiick to him who had faved his life. The ; Governour's Goods were fold at an Auction, confifiing in an in two Slaves and two Wives, three . Horfes t ~r:id feven hundred Hogs. The Slaves and Horf
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, ,:i6o_ A. Kelaf#on ofthe_lnvafion the fame manner for tW()'. hundred Cr_owns a piece: The truth is , they who had Efiates in Spain bought but little , or had it at a cheaper rate. From . that time forward moft part of the Souldiers _.got Pigs, ~hich they fed and eat of them on all days but Fridays, Saturdays, and the Eves_ of -Fefiivals, which, they obferved according tp the' cuftom of Chriftia~s) a thii1g they could not pra.ctife before; for fometimes the souldiers wanting flefh for two or three Months together; they eat meatwlien they could find it, without any difiin-, , ltion of d~ Y~• .... _ , . . _ . ' I CHAP. XXXI. .. The Governour ;Louis de _'Mofcofo leaves Guachoya, and goes to Chaguat-e, and from thence to Aguaca y. ' ' THe Death of Don Fernando was n~t recei-ved by the whoJe Army with the fame . . fence of farrow ; on the contrary fame rejoycecff at it, in_hopes that the new Governour, who was inclined ro devotion, would chooferather to feek repofe in fame Country inf1abited by Chrifiians,• than to carry on the defigns of Soto, in making new Conquefts with fo _. much fatigue , whereof they were already .difguH:ed be~aufe of the fmaf1 . , P~?-fit

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and Conqueft of Florida.~ . 16 1 profit they had made. Council was held to de .. liberate what was befr to be done in that Jun clure/ and the Governour having taken exalt in~ formation of the nature of the Country th3:t was on all hands round us, he learnt that the moft populous was towards the Weft ; and that going . do~n the River beyond fl!!:jgaltan, the Country was defart, and ddl:itute of all fort5 of Provifions. Ha pray'd all the Officers to give their Opinions in Writing, and to fign thym, that it might be decided whether we {hould follow the courfe of the River, or crofs into the Country : The ge-. neral opinion was to march into the Country towards the Weft, becaufe New-Spain was on that fide ; and that Voyage by Sea was more uncertain and dangerous , infomuch that we could not build a V.eife] !l:rong enough to weather a ftorm ; that we had no Mailer , no Pilot, no Compafs nor $ea-Cart ; that we were not very fure on what hand the Sea was, and whether the River did not make great turnings, or had Falls from Rocks, where the Veffel would be in danger of being loft. Some alfo who had feen Sea-Maps, addeq, That according as they could judge by the Latitude they were in, the Sea-Coafr mufi be five hundred Leagues more or lefs difiant from the Coaft of New Spain. That fo though perhaps the neceility of getting Provifions might make us ramble a little out of th,e way, as we went by ~and,neverthlefs after we had marched all the Sum-. . M mer

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162 A Relation of the Invajiqn mer long, we might iight upon fome Country . inhabited, where we might fpend the Winter 1 comrnodioufly ; provided the Army met with no l great Defart that might hinder our paifage; and that the Summer following we fhould undoubted-1 , ly come to fome Country ' inhabited by the Spaniards; , befides,that travellingpy Land;we might perhaps find fo~e Country that would _enrich us all. ' Though it was the Governours defign to get out of Florida 'as foon as poJfibly he could, I yet he was obliged to conform _ to the general opinion, becaufe of the inconveniences that were repreiente~ to him to~ be in a. Sea~ Voya-ge. 'so he left Guachoya on Munday the Fifth of Ju'f!e ; , the Cacique gave him a Guide to go to ChaJ;uate,and-fiaid , afhome in his Town. We paffed through the Province of Catalte, ; and having croffed a defart Country, we arrived at Chaguate the Twentieth , of June. The Cacique of that Province had been :at Autia .mque.. with the . Governour Don Fernt1rjdo, and made him a prefent of Mantles, Skins, ~ ,nd Salt. -In the mean time, one day before Mofcofo arriv~d in this Town, we,miffed a Spaniard who )Vas fick, and believed that the lntlians had kjlled him : The Governour font word to the Cacique that he fhould caufe him to be lookt after and fent back to him, and that _by his care and dili-, gence therern, he woqlq judge of his Affocbon; oth erwife, let him not imagine that he could a• .voidthe refentment of the ~paniarcls1 who would .. pur~.

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and Conqueft of Florida. _ . 163 purfue him and his Subjects into all places , and fet all his Country on fire. The C aciquc cam&: immediately, bringing with him the fick Spaniard; and having made the Governour a great . , Prefent of Mantles and Skins, he told him, that all the Treafures of the World could not have oblig' d him to have had the thoughts that he was fufpecl"" ed of;that no confrraint was laid upon him to come and wait upon the Governour his Father at Auti~ amque, and to offer him his fervices wi~h fo much affection and .fidelity, that he il1ould fo foon fail in the duty which he owed to die goodnefs of Soto, without receiving any new injury ; that no , motive of intetefi could ever Mind him fo far .. , But fine~ it is our fate that Croffes fhoulcl fucceed our Ple~fores, Fortune thought fit to , tnoderate ~ the joy he had in feeing. him , by the trouble' he fe1t to find him angry with him, whereas he hoped. to have done him fervice in bringing that fick Chrifiian into his houfe to be taken care of, ~nd in reftoring . him to him fafe and found ; that , ~f that acl:ion deferved a punifhment, he would accept of it as a favour, being wholly devoted to the obedience of his Commands. Mofcofo made him anf wer, that fince he was not to be found in his• Town, he could not forbear being vexed at him, thinking that he had fled, as ni~ny other' Caciques had done ; but that the teftimony he gave of his affeffion and fidelity, obliged him novl -to love him as his Brothero The Caci_fue w~ted : -M 2 oa

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164 A Relation of the l,vvafton on him to his Town, . which was a daysjoui-ney off: they -paifed by a fmall habitation where the lnqians were making of Salt, wherewith the Chrifriahs provided themfelves. Tl~ey got it out of a Source like a Fountain-head , which was near to that Village. We fiaid fix days at Cha .. guate, where the Governour inform'd ~imfelf of the nature of. the Country that lay \Vefiward : They to)d him , that three days journey from thence, he would find the Province of' .Aguacay: And theday we parted from chag,uate, Francis de Guzman, natural Son to . a Gentleman of Seville, fled to the lndiaHs for f~ar of lofing a young In1 dian girl which he had and carried rabout with him, _ being apprehenfive that fher would be taken from him to fatisfie fame debts that be had contracted at . play. The Governour heard nothing of this till after two days march, and fent to the cacique to have him fearched after, and fent to him to Ag,uacay, which the Indians neglected to _do. The Cacique of Ag,uacay fent fifteen Indi-. ans to eet Mofcofo loaded with Mantles, Skins, Fifl1, and roafted Venifon. Wednefday the Fourth of July tl}e Army arrived at his Town-, and quartered there, it being abandoned: The Governour fent out fome parties, who took fevernl lndiam of both Sexes ; and in this place we_ came to hear of the South-Sea. The Indians made a great deal of Salt in this Town, which they formed in• to G~kes !!:! fqu~~~ ~oulds, and prepa~

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and Conquefl-of Florida. 1 ts; -prepared it in the fame manner as thofe of CayaJ did. CHAP. XXXII. The Governour goes from Aguacay to Na, guatex ; what hapned to him. He fame day Mofcofo parted from Aguaeay, he lay at a little Village which held of the Cacique of that Province ; we encamped up'Qn the banks of a falt Lake, from which we had ' Salt the (ame Evening. Next morning we mar• , ched, and f pent the following night in a Wood , that was not very thick , and from thence we went to P ato : At length on the fourth " day after our departre, we found . . the firft Habitation of the Province of Maye, where we took an Indian, who told us, that from thence to Nag,uatex it was but a day an~ a halfs journey more, which we made through a very populous Country. Saturday the Twentieth of July , the Army en~ campedon the fide of a very pleafant Wood, be~ ~twixt Maye and Nag,uatex. Some Indians being obforved to come and view us, Mofcofo fent out a party of Horf e , who kjlled fix of tbem, and made two prifoners that were brought in to him l-:Je aske~ them what they came to do, l'4 3

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166 A Relation of the lnevajion :and they confeffed that their deugn was to dif. cover what number of m.en he had, and the feat of his Camp; that it was by order of their Ma fier the Caciqf!e of Nag,uatex, who was tqe fame 1 day to come and attack him, being affified by two other Caciques that accompanied him. Whilfl: Mofither Ba.t-alions which iade a kind of bopy of referve, but th~y were as warmly received as the pthers w~re, and had no greater ca~fe to brag of their temerity. The lNdians were put tq the :flighti ~nd the Chrifiians rallied again, when of a fuqden gre~t cries were heard abnt a Crofsbow fhoffrom the Camp. Mofcofo fent off twelve ~orfe tQ know what the matter was ; and they found fix Spaniards, two on horfeback and four a foot, furrounded by a great many Indians, where , the t~p Troop~rs did all that could be expell:ed , qf bra v~ rneq in q~fending_ the fou~ Foot-fouldiers : . 1 rhey had loft tl~e1r way m purfumg the Indians ~-ho qiade th~ firfi attack, and having rallied to re~tJrn to the Camp, they fell into that company ', ' ) ' ! .,. •• 1 of

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and Conque.ft of Florida. 167 of India,s who fet upon them. Affiftance com. ing in very good time, moft of the Indians were killed, and onely one taken who was brought to the Camp. The ;.Governour asked him who , they were that attacked us; he faid it was the Cacique of Naguatex, the Cacique of Maye, and a third very powerful in Lands and Vaffals , who _ governed a Province called Hacanac ; however, . that Nag,uatex was the General. Mofcofo ordered his nofe and righta~m to be cut off, and fent him in that condition to Nag,uatex to acquaint him that next day he would enter his Country and . put all to fire and f word , and that if he would defend it , he fhould meet him at the en try into ' , the Province. The Army refied that night in the fame place, and the day folJowing went to a Village of Naguatex where the houfes were at great difiance one from another. He asked where the Caciques Town was, which was ihew'd him on the other fide of a River that run near that place : We marched up to the River, and found the fide oppofite to us covered with lndi'f' ans in arms, who feemed to be refolved to difpute Us the paifage. Seeing the Governour Jrnew not t-he foard, and that he had men and horfes wounded, he drew back the Army to the ~ Town which we left, refo~ving to reft there for fome days, that they might have time to be cured. So the Army encamped within a quarter qf a League of ihe River, near a Town in a pretty , ~, ~M 4 dear

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168 A Relation of the lnvafion dear wood of very lovely and pleafant trees; and that 'place was pitched ~pon becaufe the weather was very fair and calm. . Some Indians were talten, who told us that the River was foardable at certain times, which obliged the Gover-i nour two days after to ' fend off two Captains with fifteen horfe and fome Indians a piece to fearch for a foard, one up and the other down the River. The Indians appeared to defend the paf-, fage in both places , nevertherlefs the two Captains paffed over inf pight of the Enemies , and ' -found on that fide of the water a very populous Country, and plentiful in Provifions; whereupon they came back and gave the Governo~r ~n account of what they had done. CH AP. XXXIIf. The Cacique of Naguatex comes to w~if on the Go'Vernour: He pa . rts _from Naguatex, and arrives at Mandacao. THeG~vernour fent an Indian to the Ca-cique of Nag,uatex to tell him, that if he came and offered him his fe. rvice, and fhew'd his repentance for what was pafl:, he would pardon him ; but jf he failed, that the Governout would come and pmifu him according as his Treachery ' defer..

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and Conqueft of Florida~ 16 9. deferved. Two days after,the Indian came back, and told that the Cacique wou~d come next day: Atc0rdingly a great many cf die principal Sub .. jefrs of Nag,uatex appeared, being fent by their Mafier to obferve the Govetnours looks, and the carriage of his men, that he might thereupon take I his refoh;tion: They onely told that therc;qcique was coming, and, prefen' tly returned. T~ Ca , cique came two hours after very well accompa, nied, his Indians marching in t~o Files, and ma-king a lane for the Cacique to walk in the mid-1 die. They all came \\teeping ~ccording to the I cufiom of the Province of 1u!/a, which is not far from thence to the Eafiward. The Cacigue made a low bow to the Governour , and beg'd pardon for what he had done , the thought of which alone, faid he, deferved ' to be punifhed ; he enlarged much in the Governours praife, and in commendation of the Spaniards, whom -he called immortal people, rejecring the blame of all the enterprize upon the bad Counfels of one of his Brothers who died in tqe Fight; he_ concluded with the offer of his fervice and obedience. Mofcofa an(wered, That he would pardon him what was I pafi; and that if he would for the future co main .himfelf within the bounds Qf his dqty, he .flmuld con!id~r him as his friend. Four days after,the Army decamped ; but the River was fo fwelled that we could not pafs it, which extrean;ily furprized us, feeing it had not rained for above a month be-fore,

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1 70. . A Relation of t~e ln'llajio fore, and that it was Summer too; however, the /ndians told us that it hapned fo fometimes with, out rain ; this made. us j~dge that that extraordi, . .n~ry motion mig~1t come from the Sea flo~ing into the River . , becaufe we were told that that• , {welling always hapneq. in the waxing , of the Mo _on, ; in the mean time none of thefe Indiazns had ~ leafr knowledge of the Sea. The Army marcned.bac~ the fame way t
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and Conqueft of Florida. 171 When we had marched two days longer, we per .. ceived that our Guides led us out of the way, out of premeditated and malicious defign, changing our. march from Weft to Eafi, and that they had left the high-way and brought us into very thick woods: Mofcofo caufed them to be hanged upon a tree, and took for Guide an Indian woman of Miffebone; ihe made_ us turn back again into the high-way, and led us into as poor and miferable a Country ~s that which we had left. That beggerly Province was called Lacane; it hardly af .. forded us any thing but an Indian , who told us that the Province of Mondacao was peopled and plentiful in Maes, and that the Habitations fepa-' rated from one another 1hew'd like mountains .. We direlted our courfe that way , and the ca~ -cique came out to meet us weeping, as a mark of his fubmiilion; he prefented the Governour with a confiderable parc~d of Fifl1, and offered him his fervices. Mofcofo treated him very civilly ; and having refrefhed and made provifion of Victuals, he took a Guide, and marched towards the Pro-vince of Socatino. CE-rAP.

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172 A Relation of the lnvafton I C HA P. XXXIV. The Gotpernour lea'l/es Mondacao , -and goes to Socatino , and Guafco~ The Army marches througb , a defart Coun .. try, . and returns to Niko fo~ fa,t!t of an lnterpr_eter a .nd Gi,ide, fAFter five days march the Governour found the Province of Aays,the Ii:ihabitantswhere" of had no knowledge of the Chrifrians ; but people being wild and favage,our etry into their Country caufed a gem~ral rifing. When-fifty or fixty of them were got together, they came and aifaulted us in our march, their numbers continually encreafing; and we had no fooner fought one company of them, but another began a new skirmiib. This w~y of fighting lafied a whole day, till we came uptoon' e of their Towns. We had fome Souldiers and Horfes wounded ; but the wounds not being very d aogerous, they fol-' lowed the Army fiill; hmvever, we made a great flaughter of Indians. When the Governour parted from this Town , the Indian who conducted us told hirn. that he was informed at Mondacao, that the Indians of Socatino h~d feen other Chri\" fiians,

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I and Conquefl of Florida. I 7 3 fiians. Thefe news extreamly rejoyced the whole Army; for as men eafily believe whatthey paffionately defire, we perf wadeq our felves that . they might have been Forces come out of NewSpain; that if that conjetl:ure were -true, we might leave Florida . when we h~d a mind to it, if we found nothing that might make us live happily there; and that fully diffipated all the fear we had of lofing our felves in fame defart Country. In the mean while, that was the thing that the Indian aimed at ; for two days after, he led us out of our way : Mofcofo ordered him to havefome1 firetches with a Rope, which is a kind of Rack; whereupon he confe!fed that the Cacique of Monda'cao his Mailer, h _ad commanded him to 1'.'.Uine us, as being his Enemies, and that , he was obliged to obey the orders of his Lord. The Governour caufed him to be thrown t6 the . Dogs, which tore him to pieces; and another guided us to Socatino : It was a very barren Country, where we hardly found any Maes .. ?rf.ofcofo enquired if they had never had any qews -of Chrifiians, and the Indians a!fored us, that 'they had heard fay that ihey marched to the Southward. . That relation engaged us into a twenty days match through a defolate and unpeopled Country , where we fuffered incredible hard{hip and mifery; for the Indians buried in the woods tha~ little Maes they had ; and the Spaniards were daily obljged after the fatigues of their

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174 A Relation of the Invafion , their march to rake . in the woods that they might find out , fomewhat to feed on. We came at , length into the Province of ~uafco , where we found Maes, which we loaded on horfes and In-1 -elianflaves, to maiatain us on our way to Nagi{f-' coca. It was the firft thing the Governour did in all places to enquire about Chrifiians ; but the' Indians told him that they had_ never feen any but us. He caufed them to be put to the Rack, the torments whereof made them devife a fiory, which was, that the Chriilians had advanced as far as Nacanahez.; but that they h~d gone back ' the way they came ; that was a place but two days journey . difiant. The Governour hafined. , thither with all the Army , and at our coming we took fame Indian women , amongfi: whom there was one who faid that fbe had feen Chriilians, and rhat fhe had been their flave, but that ilie ~ad made her efcape. Immediately the G0• vernour fent out a Captain with fifteen horfe the way that the Indian woman diretted, to fee if he could find the trafrs of horfes, or any other mark. They were not gone four Leagues when the wo .. man that ferv.ed them for a Guide, told them that , all fhe had faid were meer lyes; and wedifcGver..ed that the other relations which the Indians gave us concerning Cbrifiians, \Ve're of the fame nature. So we came to Guafco ex'treamly perplexed, beqiufe the Country where we then were wasbarren, and there were no other Habitations , to

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' 1 and Conq1tefl of Florida. 1 7; to.the Wefiward. We again queftioned the , Indians, who told us that ten days journey that way from the ,place where we were, there was a River called Daycao, whither they went to hunt Stags that fed along the banks of it ; and that they had (een on the other fide of that River, people whom they knew not. We provided alhhe Maes that we could rap and rake, and marched through a defart Country as far as that River : Mofcofo made ten horfe crofs over it, who marched for fome time along the fide of it, till they came to a Hamlet of Indians, confifiing of fame pitiful Cottages. At fight of the Troopers they fled, lea.ving behind them t ,heir Baggage , which iliew' d their mifery and poverty ; fo gre'at it was that in all the Ha . mlet they could nor find half a bu{hel of Maes. The Troopers took two l_ndians, at1d came back to lyI.ofcofo, who waited for them on the other fide. He ordered thefe two Indians to be queftioned, but there was not an Indian in the Camp that could underfiand their Language. Then did the Governour aifemble all the Ca .. ptains to confult with them what they had to do ; mofi part adv ifed hi._m to return back to Guachoya ~ .nd. the great River, becaufe the Province of Nilco abounded with Maes ; faying, that w~ might f pend the Winter in that place, and make , Briganties to carry us down the River to the Sea, where failin g along the Coafi we might get to New-$ pain ; that though the enterprize wan-ted

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1 76 A Relation of the Invafion ted not its difficulties, as it hath been already ob~ ferved, yet it was our lafl: refuge , becaufe it was impoffible to travel by Land without an Inter-, preter ; that they believed the Country lying along the River of Daycao, was the fame which r Ca/;efa de Vaca in his Relation fays he paffed through, and where the Indians were errant as the Arabians are, without fetling in one place; and that they fed on Figs, the roots of Grafs, and 1 Venifon: That fuppofing this conjecture .to be true, if we enga.g'd into thatCountry ,we mufi infallibl y . perifh for want offood; that it was alr~ady the be, ginning of OElo/;er, and that if we fiaid any longer, the Rains and Snow woul. d hinder our return,an d ,. fo we mufi peri{h and be ftarved in that miferabl e Country. Mofcofo at that time had rather been in a place where his. fleep might not be broken by continual allarms, than to be Governour ano _ Conquerour of a Country where mifery and trouble befet .. him on all hands ; fo that he ad I hered to that advice, and gave order,s to return I back the way to Guachoya. . .

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. aizd Conque.ft of Florida. . 177 I . ' CH AP. XXXV. The Army returns to Niko, and at M1-noya . V,effels are made to carry tbem qut of Florida. WHe~ the tefult of the Co~ncil of War was publiihed in the Camp, many were af flill:ed at that refolution ; the way by Sea appeared to them to be no lefs difficult and dangerous, than by Land, becaufe all things necefiary were wanting, rtot onely for building, but alfo for rigging out of Ve!fels ; and they had not yet loft all hopes of finding fome Country tich e., nough to recompenfe them for all their labours, becaufe of what Ca!Jefa de Paca had told the Em .. perour : and that was, that when he came into n Country where Cotton grew, ~e had feen Gold, Silver, and preciori' s Stones of extraordinary va .. lue. And it was certain that we had riot as yet . gone fo far in as thofe places where Ca!Jefa had been ; for he had kept along the Coafl: , and we had advanced up Joto the Country Weftward That' we mu'fi: n 'eeds find thofe places he fpake of, becaufe he faid in his Relation, tha ' t he had marched for many days, and entred the Countries on the North-fide. Befides that, we had found N fome

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178 A Relation of the ln'Vajion fome Cotton-Mantles, nay, and Tarqueiffes at Guafco ; and the Indians made' us figns, that they had thofe things out of a Country Weftward of them; and that that way led us alfo into the Country of the Chrifiians: But, in fine, in r fpight of all them murmurings and frettings caufed by this return ; and though many had taken a refolution to periili in Florida , rather than to leave it in a beggarly and miferable condition,yet they wanted force to withfiand what was deter-1 mined, becaufe theGovernour's opinion concurr'd with that of all the chief Officers; but fame time after one of the difcontented faid, That he would be glad to have one eye put out,provided he could put out one of Mofcofo's, fince it would trouble " ~im extreamly to fee him happy. Mofcofo and his Friends had a mind to have been revenged for tis di.fcourfe ; but they durfi: not do it, becaufe within two days he was to quit his place. From Da_ycao where we were, to the great River, it is a hundred and fifty Leagues, which we had marched all the way Wefiward-Our return was extreamly irkfome, becaufe the Country was ruined ; and we had much ado to find Victuals, feeing the Indians hid them. The Towns of Naguatez, whicJi to our farrow we had burnt, were rebuilt, and the houfes full of Maes ; for it is a very fruitful and populous Country.-They make Earthen-ware there, which differs little •from that of Ejlrem~s or Montemor. When Mofcofa ,I, came 1

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, , and Conque.fl of Flori'da. i 79 tame to Chaguete, he found fome Indians depute1 by the Cacique, to tell him that the Chrifiiani who had fled to his protection, would not come back. The Governour wrote to him , and ferit r him paper, pen, and ink, that he might give hj~ an Anfwer. The Governour's Letter informed him of our refolution of leaving Florida; that therefore as he was a Chrifiian , he ought not t~ trufi: himfelf in the power of the Indians, meni 1 without F~ith and Religion; that he heartily pardoned the fault which he had committed, prov.ided he returned to the Army; or fignified in Writing whether or 1tot he was detained by forceo Indian carried the Letter to him , and came ~ack again without other anfwer but the name Gaz.mau written on the margin of it , to let us know he was alive.: Mofcofo fent twelve Horfe in fearch of him ; but feeing that he had lntliani f pies that informed him of every thing, he hid himfelf fo well that he could no"t be found. In th~ mean time we were fo pinched for want of Maes, that the Govern our was obliged to be gone without any farter fearch after him. YI e par ... ted then from Chag,uete, andcto!fed the River to' go to A _ays, and from thence following the courfe of that River, we found the Town of Cildno-~which had not feen before. At length we came Nilco; but we found fo little Mad there , that there was not enough to1 maintain the Soulciier$ . during-the dnie that wes to be employed in b _~il-N &of

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1 g ' o A Relation of the lnvafion ding the V effels : The reafon of that fcarcity was, becaufe we had been at Guachoya all the feed-time ; fo that the In,dians of Nilco, feared by the evils they had endured, durft not come to fow their Lands : Befides, we knew of no other Country but this where there was Maes, and it being very fruitful, we whol, ly relied on it for our fubfiUance. We fell into a confuJion that bordered l1pon def pair; rnofi part of the Souldiers blamed the refolution that had been taken in leaving Guafeo, and not purfuing our difcoveries by Land : They faid that there was no hopes of fafe-, ty by Sea, unlefs God would be pleafed to work M~racles for them ;-for we had no Pilot, . no SeaGart, and no body could tell at what place the, great River fel] into the Ocean. We wanted Sails alfo, and every thing that we could make them of; and though we had a little Enequen, which is an Herb they make a kind of Flax of , yet it was hardly fufficient to cawlk the Veflels; but W ' e were wholiy defiitute of Pitch and Tar, and they could not be made {l:rong enough to reftfl the leafi frorm without that, fo that we mufi pe..rifh without remedy. This brought into our minds the misfortune of Narvaez, who was loft. upon that Coafi: But the mofi grievous inconvenience of all, was .the want of Maes, without which it was impoffible to fubfifi, and without food the Souldiers would not work. In this defolation we took the befi~ courfe we could, which was

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and Conquefl of Florida. 1 B r wus to recommend our felves to God , praying . him to open fame way for us, to let us out 6f rhofe miferies: He gracioufly heard our Prayer~, and permitted that the Indians of Nilco came very fubmiffively , and told us . that two. days journey from the place where we were, we {houJd 1firyd upon the fide of th~ great River, two Tpwns ~,t,ich w~ had not as yet dif covered ; that was ~he <:;ountry of Minoyq, which was extraordin~rily fruitful. The I_ndians added, that they knew not then whether there was Maes there .or riot, beca.ufe Jhey wer'e at W~r w . ith ~hat peo-. p,~, _and that t :b"ey would be ve_ry ~lad to joy~ with the Span_iards and fight agarnfr them. ftlof cofo c9tnmaQded out a Captain with forne Horfe a,nd ~oat, ~pd accompanied by the Forces of Nffcq, they weqt to Min()Jtl, and found two great ' Towns diil:ant from each other half a League, in an open Champion Country ; there they rook feveral Indians, and found Maes in abundance. The Captam fortified himfelf in one of the Towns,. and fent advice to the Governour of what he had done. , Gre1t V(as the joy all ~ver the Camp ' ? and i_nfiantly we parted. It' yy~s th$! ~ginning of Decemher, and that proved as hard a march as any we had made fince we Iefr Cilani, beca(e o{ the fwamps we met with, ;:l.Od of ti~e 'rains thai: fell with a North wind , 'fo that we were wet above and bel;w , and had great caufe tp give t~ank~ to God, \yhen we fpund a littJ~ dry place J , fO

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~82 A Rela.t!on . of t~e Ineoafion 1;0 r~ft in _ at our joureys end. Thefe fatigues killed ~11 our lndian ~ervants, and feveral Sf4?1~ ards alfo after we arrived at 'Mino;a, few of thofe who f1Jrvived. efcaping dan~erous difeafes, which1 degenerated mto Lethargies: That Countryficknefs was fatal to Andrew de f7aftoncelo~ w.ho Ried of it, and to two other Portuguefe of the City bf Elvas who attended him ; they were Bro~ ~he~s, arid went by the pame of the S~tiJ.. ~h.e ll.ril?y quartered in the bett~r of the two To~ns, which was fenced with a Paliffado, a quarter or a l,iag~~ from .the great River. Thither brought all the l!'faes from fhe qther Towp,which amounted in all to fix thoufan~ bufhels. In this place we found the fitte~ Timber for }?uilding of V.:eifels, that we had hitherto feen in all Florida, for which we all thanked G~d as 'for a fingufar mercy, and fome glirnpfe of hopes of getting once mor~ into a Chrifiian Gountry began to appear, arong US.a: . / , ;; , .. • . I CHAP. t , t ; •

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and Conqueft of Florida. . 1 8 3 CH AP. XXXVI. Seruen Brigantines are built ; .the Ar~y de" parts from Minofa. SO foon as our ~arters were fetled at Minoyq, i.__ 1 the Gov~rnour_ ordered a,11 the Chains of the Indians who were in the Camp to be knockt off, , and ail the Iron that was ~ept for a referve, to be brought out : . We fet up a Forge for making the Iron-work of the Veffels, and felled wood to bqikl them of. A Portuguefo of Ceutq 1,,vho being a flave at Fe~ had ,earned to fawe, taught fame ~ou1diers the ufe oftheSawe, and a Geneefewhom God h~d. purpofely preferved ~o faye us, ( for he ~loqe knew the Art o( building Ships, and had it not been for that man, we had been ftill in 'Floridq) thatGeneofe; I fay,beingaffifredqyfour . or five Carpenters of Bifcaye who prepared and , fitted the Timber !i undertook to buiJd Brigantines~ Another Genoefe, and a Catafor,ia~ of the ' Coupty of Cerdagne took care to cawlk t hem with that Herb I told you o f , w hich refemble~ rfemp, and is called'Enequen; and when that fai-led them, they fupplied the want with the thread of Mantles, which they, purpofely undid, anq ~ingled it with f~t. Eanh. We had with us a N 4 .Cooper~ ,,

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,1,84 A Kela_ tionofthe Invaft~~ Cooper, but he was fick to extremity, and he being the onely man of his Trade that we haa, we were obliged to wait _ till it pleafed God to refiore him to 'his health; and though he was .frill very -weak, -yet fifteen days before our 'departure hct made two large Casks for each I?rigantin~,[iich as the Sea-men call Hogilieads. The Indians of Taguanate, which is a Ptovince two days journey 'frorn •Nilco up the River, and . thofe of Ni!co alfo and Guachoya, feeing that ''the Brigantine~ w~n~ forward, \vere perf waded that we rha-~e them. for _ carrying awaY' their crop which they ' put ' into . the water ; nevetthelefs, they frill . brought 'us; Fiih and Mantles , which the Governour exafred from them for makin_ g of Sails. God was fq gracious at1 that titne, as to. continue to us ' the marks of his protetl:-ion, by moving the Indians to bring us in Mantles ; , for we had no means left to go and fetch thel:TI, becaufe in the begin~ ning of Winter the water had furrouride the ~own, leaving but one _ League of dry Land i2 rbund us; fothat we could riot go ou~ on h~rfe~ back, and without that it was impoffible to re~ duce the Indians ; for they were ~ery numerous; and feared our foot fo little, thatth~y made no fcruple to fight them harid to hand either by land' . or by water, becaufe they .are mo.re _ dexter . ans in fhooting , and nimbler than the Chrifl:ians , 'th~ grou~d alfo being more proper for' their way' ?f , tightmg. They alfo brought fame t-:.opes, of _ which

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.,4nd Con9ueft of FI~rid~~ 1 5 which we made Cables ; and when thofe faiJeq, we made others of the rinds of Mulberry~frees. The Trooper~ m~de w ooden fiirrups , and gave their Iron cries to 'inake Anchor s ot In March, though it had not rain'd for above a month befor e, the River fwelled fo prodigioufly, that it reached to Nilco, which is ntne Leagues off on1t ; and the Indians faid that it f p,reai:f as far on tbe other fide. The Town where we were, flood 011 a height ; neverthelefs , in the highefi: places the Water reached the {hrrups of a Trooper~ We built high ilieads of great pieces of Timber covered with ~oughs for Oabling o~r horfes; and the like was done' in the houfes. But thefe not hol"" ding out ~he water, we were obliged to get up ro th e Garrets, and never went our of doors but in Canoes, or on1 horfeback where the ground was higfi. we fpent tw o Months before the Ri~ ver returned into its Channd; in the mean time ,v.e kept . a good guard abou r our Brigamine.s, and no Indians were any more f uffered to come near them in their Canoes: for the Governour began to have1 .. fome fuf picions', not witho~t ground, 'that the lndidns had a mind to rife ; fo rhnt he ordered that without any' noife 1 one of thofe who came t o the Town {}ioukl be fei:2:cd,and b 'rought to him when all the reil w ere . gone . . The , orders were put io execution ; and finding that the Indian would not confefs any thing, he com ... manded him to be rackt. then the Indian con-1 fefTed1

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1 , 86 A Relation pf the lnvajion feifed, that the Caciquesof Nilco, Qua~hoya, ana 1aguante, accompanied with other Cafi9.ues to the number of twenty, had refolved tQ " attack th~ Camp with a very great Army; that to mask their Treachery, they were tfl fend him a 1 great Prefent of Fifh , three days before the At1:ack, and another Prefent the fame day _ they had pitched upon for the Enterprize : That the. /ff. r,lians who brought the Fifh, combining with thofe who ferved in the Camp, were to fet fire to the houfes of the _ Town, having firft m~de thcmp felves Mafiers of the Lances and other Arms that ' hood before the Souldiers doors: That at the :fight of the fire, the , Cadques, ,Who wer~ to be in ambufh, would fall upon us with all' their men,' and furprize us in tha;t diforder. The Governour prdered the Indian to be kept jn Chains, aod q~ the day he pitched u pan , thirty Indians loaded' with Fifh came to the Town. They were pre• -fently apprehended, and Mofcofo ordered the nofes. ?.,nq right arms of all of theni to be cut off; and in that condition font them back to Guachq1a, ,hofe Subjeltstbey were, with orders to tell him, that he and 1 all his confederated Caciques might, come ; that he irnpatiently e~pe~ed them , and . that he lhou]d know the Governour was ipfor~ ed of all, even to his_ moil: {t:c_ret thoughts. This example put them all into a firange fright, fo that Nilco and 1aguante came with gr_ eat fuppiiffion to jufiifie themfelves , , aqd fome days af-. ter

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.and Conqueft of Florida. 187 _ ter .Guachoya brought another C acique a Vafial qf his, who had learnt of a certain, that Nilco and 1aguante had really combined againfi: the Chri-fiians; whereupon Mofcofo c:aufed fame of the lnqian$ of Nilco to be apprehended, whoconfeffed 'the truth. They were delivered over to this Cadque , who put them to death without the Town; and next day Mofcofo punifl1ed likewife fame Subjetl-s of Tag,uante, who alfu confeile
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1,88 A Relation of the lnvajion , and that it ~as then Summer, when n_o rain ha \ fallen for a very long time, yet it was the will~ 1 God that it f w.elled again ~11 of _ a fudden at new Moon,and, as I may fay, came t_o find ou! Bri• gantines, wh~ch fo were very eafily launched; ' whereas had we been neceffttatecl to carry ~hem _ over-land, they would have been in danger o[ breaking , or bulging by the Keel, or fomewhere elfe,. the nails for want of Iron were fo fl1ort~ ana the planks fo thin. The Indians of Minoya came I daily to ferve us, not fo much out of mdination, I as neceffity, that they might gain fom~wh_at t o live on; for the Souldiers had feized aH their Maes: And feeing their Country w~s very fruitful in that , and that they • made moil: of their food of it, they being fo amerou~ knew n~t what to get to eat. Thofe who cam_e to the Town were fo fami{hed , that they were reduced to skin and bones, and many died for meer want, .1 The Govemm~r ha4 feverally difcharged any (Maes to be given ro them; but the Cbrifiians feeing that even th _ e Hogs had their beIIies full, and t.Lat th efe poor l11!iqns who came and took fo much pain-; to ferve them, and whofe. extre~m mifery t:"'ey cold not but pity,. charitably gav e them of the Mac s they had; neverthelefs,through their charitab) 1efs we had not Maes enough to rut on board for the ufe of the Arr,ny. All that remained v vas put into tl~e Brigantines , and iw~Ive great Cm:1oe! that were fafined two and • two

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and Conqueft ofFloridi. 189 _ two together. Firfi we put on board two and twenty of the befi Horfes, and then killed aH the reft, whofe fleih with that of the Hogs were dried .. So the Spaniards parted from Minoya, the feco'.nd of July, 1543 . CH AP. XXXVIi. 1The Indians of 011igaltan attac~ the Spa-. niards upon the Ki'ver, and the fuccefa of that Engagement. ON day before we went on board, it was refolved, that all the Indian Men and W o,d men, who followed the Army, fhould be dif.. miffed, except an hundred, ~horn the Governour allowed to be kept and Embarked : But there being a great many perfons of ~lity, whom he durfi not refufe what he granted to others, he was obliged to come off with this Fetch ; that every one might keep, Indians fo long as we were upon the River, but that they mufi: all be fent back when we come to the Sea, becaufe we had not Casks , enough to hold frefh Water for fo many peopl~ ; , In the mean time h e gave notice privately to his Friends, that the y fhould retain thofo whom they-had, and carry them with ~hem into New Spain~ -So they who were l

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1 90 A Relation of t/Je Invafton were in bad terms with him, and who were n o t: a few, fent back about five hundred indians of '. all Age and Sex ; amongft: whom there were ' fome young ones that {p~ke and underfio o d Spani!h already. For being ignorant of the My. fiery which time difcovered to them afterwards, they thought it would be cruelty to take them along with diem, and leave them fo far from their own Country, in dirnger of being made Slaves by other Inclians ; and for the advantage of a few dayes fervice to reward them fo ill for all the fervices tl).ey hctd rendered them. Mofi of thefe poor Indians went away weeping, whic h wrought a great deal of compaffion in us, fee ing . fo many Souls loft without remedy , that might have been faved, by infirutl:ing them in the Chriftian Faith, which with alf their hearts they would have received. The Spaniards who parted from Minoya were in . all three hundred and twenty two , in fevell' Brigantines, pretty well built, fave that the Planks were a: little too thin, becaufe of the \\ 'eaknefs of the Iron work, that they were not well caulked,r and that they were open without any neck. .some boards were laid a..:crofs to ferve for a Deck, that the Seamen might have convenience to Sail a n d wdrk the Veffel ; and that the Souldiers alf o might walk and take th~ air. l'rlofcofii appointed a Cap .. tain for every Brigantine, and made them take an Oath to obey him1 , tiU we were come into g

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and Conqueft of Florida. 1 9 i a Chrifiian Country. He chofe the beft of all for himfelf, and fo we fell down to Guachoya. The -Indians expected us there in their Canoes, a n d had made a kind of a Hall covered with branches of Trees, where they intreated the Governour to come a fhoar and refrefh himfelf; but he excufed himfelf, and continued his courfe. The Indians waited upon us in their Canoes as far as a branch of the River, which broke off to the right hand. They told Mofcofo that the Province of O!gg,altan was not far from thence, and t hey prefied much to land and make War again ft that .Cacique , promifing to affift us with all . their force ; but feeing they had told us before that that Province was three dayes Journey difiant, the Governour thqught they had a mincf to betray him, and therefore difmiifed them. So we continued our courfe by the largefi branch of the River, which run very f\Yift, making way a-pace with our Oars. The fir'fi day we put a-fhoar into a Wood by the River fide, on the left hand , and when night came, we Em~ barked again. Next day we landed near a Town which the Indians abandoned. There we took a Woman, who told us that the Town belonged to a Cacique called Nuhafewe, a Vaffal of ~g,altans, and that ~g,altan expected us with great Forces. Mofcofo fent fome Horfe down along the River fide, who found great quantity of f!!aes in fome Houfes, whither the whole Army ---~ent,

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... 1 9l A Relatiofl of the I,vvafi.~n, went, and tarried a day, rd put on board tl1e Maet which we wante d very much: Whilfi we were fl:ill in that Pofi: , we faw feveral Canoei With Indians in themJ7who rowed down the Wa~ t:er, and being come to die fide oppofite t~ u:s, . with fome kind of confoGqrf they drew up in order of Battle. The General fent off all the Crofs-bow men in two Odniles, who d'ifprfed the Indians ; but when they faw that the Spa~ niards did nothing but dif perfe ~hem without 1 p urfuing " they took heart , and drew nigh, tthreatning us. And fo long as tfre Fleet continued in that place, they frill kept within fight of us, fotrie in their Canoes, and others on the River fide. When we weighed Anchor tliet got on head of us, and joined all together near a Town thai: frood very high, upon one fide-of the River, as if they intended to fiay and fight us there. ,Each Brigantine had a Canoe at her Sterrr, to' ferve when occafion offered. Thefo Canoes .were Manned wfth well'4rm~d' Sould~ers, I who dLf perfed . that Body of Indians and .burnt the Town . After that, we . went a:n10ar in' an1 open Plain, where the Indinns durfi not rnbleft, us; but next day they appeared upon the River; to the number of art hundred Canoes, amongft which tlrere were fame fo great that they carried \ threefcore and ten men. The Cacique's Canoes had their PaviHions , under which the Indians : appeared, adorned with' Feathers of feveraJ Co• lours,

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t ? ' ":, ; i " . ( "1 :_ ... and Conqueft of Florid~. . 1 9l folirs, an~ they :uJ.vanced. in gqo qrder withint two. Crofsbow ~1ot ,o f the. Brjgantines. From t~a t f\:ation they .fent tpre~ lnclians in ~ittle Canoe, t1rider the faff pre ext of a Treaty : . But in reality to obferve our qrder . and,. ftrength . .1 They were carried abo~rd ,. Moftofo's Brig;mtine;., to whom one of tqe Indians f~jd,,that the Cadqui o f @jg,a?tan ri:is MaP,:er,. had (ent him to offer fom his Frfon~fhip, and ~o. ,affure irn';, that allli tliat the Indians o,f _Guac~ojq _ _ had fpok~n. to his P.rejudice was falfe;. ~lJ~t_they be.ing his d~clared_ Enemies, tne Governour ougq~ n9t to give qe0r dit ~o th~ir Impofrur~~~ pt_ .belieV.~,-, rhat . (ki~ . g{ll!a~' was ready fo ft/ve _him. Mofcofa anfw~r~ ed, tha' t he was. very .w,ellp~rf"W,aqec;l _of Jhegoo~ i~tentions of (}ggalt~n, an?. t~a~ _he flfould 1'11s Mailer, that he ha4i a gr~at dteem for ~1m9: af1d. de fired to be his; F ritnd. The Indians red turned with that Anfwer . to their M'aJk.r, ai1clt irrunediately they fell ,ypon. us: . \\~it t~rribte. fhouts. The Ciovfrri'our Coriunanded out Johd ile Gtizma1t, with fifteen armed men in.einoes~ io' . 1nak~-~1ead againft the En_emy. _ The Ind)dni made .a frop at . the fight of that . Detachmeni) and; d1videcf into two , ii11 the Spaniard.t w~rij got betwiit them .two Divifions. Then~ they_ joined, and fliut in Guzman. with the Canoef tmt had aclvai1ced with bin~ , -w~1ic~. fh~y f-u~i~ufly engaged; and feeing their Canoes-were much .big.~. ger than ours/ and th~~ they1 jumpt into~ _the . . --. 0 Watfti ...__..,j "' _ _ ..

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1 94 A Relation of the l1N1aji'uti Water on all fi.des to hold them up, and to ovetJ fet thofe of Guz.ma1J, they over-turned thefe in a: trice; fo that thofe brave Men fell into the Water, where they periihed miferably, becaufe of the weight 'of their Arms that funk them to the bottom ; and foch as could keep themfelves up by f wimmibg, ot that fiuck to the Canoes were knocked dowrrwith polesd The Souldiers who were in the Brigantines . fedng that terrible diforder, did all they could to afiifl: them; b~t the tapidity of the ftream rendered their Attempts l'lfelefs, becaufe there was no rowing againfl: it to come up: to the Enemy; fo that there was but four Spaniards faved, .. who fwatn to the next Bri~ gantine~They loft eleven,amongfr whom ~John Je Guz.man, and a Son of Don Carlps called John de _ Varg,(IJ were much lamented; the reil: alfo were perfons of ~ality and worth. 'they who efcaped faid, that they had feen fome Indians carry John de Guz.man into one of their Canoes , but whether dead or live they coukt not tell, ,

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and Conquefl. of Fiotida. t 9 C H Ar. xxxvnt. Of the Head.ftrongnefs of the Indians iii purfuing u.r during our courfe in t/Je River. I T . His ad varitag~, made. the inJia;;s fo 1nfo-g lent and fierce , that they came and at~ tacked the Brigaqtin 'es, whith ~hey had riot the boldnds to do till then. _ The firft they fet up..,; on was that which Caldeiran com'manded, an d which was in the Reere. At the firft difcharge they wounded 'fl ve a:nd twenty rileri on board ; for there were but four iri that Brigantine that had Armour. Thefe came to the fides to hin.: der the lndiani from boarding : ; but they who ' had n o A:rms finding themfelves expofed to the Arrow~ {hot , left the O 'ars and hid themfe1 vest under the Deck. So that the Brigantin•e feU_ a..:1 cro(s the ff ream , and would have been carnecJ dowa by the Current, had tmt orre of the Soufd, diers iq Armour, without ffaying for the Cap~ tains Orders, m ade a Foot Souldier ply his Oar _ again , who fet the Briganfirre to rights, and: -k ept her fo, whilff the Trooper covered himt ~ith l~is Buckler , nay and with his ~dy tooo 7'he Indians came n o nearer than theit fl.ow' 0 2; -fuoot.,,

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,. 1 96 A Relati::m of the l~tzlafton fuoot, from whence they did us a great deal of mifchief: when we could do them no hurt, becaufo there was but one Crofs-Bow in each Bri-' gantine , the reft being out of condition of fer-1 ving; fo that all the Spaniards could . do was to receive their ihot, and keep them from boarding. At length they left that Brigantine arid attacke~ another, which they engaged for half an hours (pace, and fo one after another they , had a touch at all cl them. We made double Mats well put together, .and fo il:rong, that an Arrow could not pierce them. And. they who had, ' fo much f pare time from the Indians lliot, made a Target-fence along the tides of the Brigantines. Thefe people being mad that they could not hurt us-by fhooting upon a level, fhot their Arrows at random in the air, tha~ falling down i nto the Brjgantine, they might by theiii weight do grea-' te _ r Execution ; and fo they wounrled fmne Soul .. diers. Their greateft efforts.,,were agaiofi thofe that lookt after the Horfes in the Canoes, which: a hundred times they efiayed to board; • but the . Brigantines defended them,. turning round theCanoes, and at length put them into the middle of the Fleet ,. In the mean time that . way of fighting wearying them fo, that they could hardly fiand under their Armour any longer.• The Governour refolved to keep going all the 1 night lo.RID that he might pafs the Province of ~igaltanJ , ~her~ ~e ~~o:ught wo~ldj . . g1v~ .

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ttnd Conqueft of Florida. l 97 give us 1 no more t~o uble.~ But they followed us on frill; and when we imagined the!Il far enough t from us, and began to take heart again, tJ1ey came upon us all of a fudden w i th fuch hideous -fhouting~. that we w ere q u ite flunn'd with it: 1Thefe alJarms lafied all night long , and half next day, at which tim~ the Fleet was pafr the Province of 03i galt an; rieverthelefs, we found -no more eafe for all th a t ; becaufe the former before they left us, recommend e d us t o the Indians of that other Pro yince, who prefently qune in purfuit of us wit fifty Canoes. We w~re en gag' d w~th them a whole day and a nigh~; nay, they -had the bolpn .efs t~ b(?ard oric of the Brigantines ,:which wa~ r~trea~iog with i t s Canoe at the fiern, out of w41ch they t ook an Indian woman , and wound~cJ. f otne Souldiers. They who carried the horfes ~n the Canoes, being we~ry of rowi~g fo long a time,refi:ed. themfelves fometimes ; anq. . then t~e Indians fell upon them immediately. Th~~ obliged the Brigantines to fray for them, which was a great hindrance to us, fo that the Govern our reiol ved to put a!hoar , and kill all the ~~orfes ; accordingly having foqnd a place 'fit for putting that defign 'in execution, we landed, killed the[~ poor beafis, th~t were dried as the !efi tyere: There were but onely-five or fix l _eft ~live, ~hicl1~ fo foon as the -Spaniards were on board again, the Indians wet afhoar to fei2e; but the hor!es defended themfel ves by kicking _ 0 3 .anq

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J 98 , 4 Relation of the Invafloti , p.gd running from fide to fid~, which put them inf 1) foch a fright, that moft part leapt into the rater, anu all got into d1eir ~anoes again to fol"?, , XJV.1 tne 8ngant ;nes, which they maulecJ w~th con~ tin ua.1 {hooti 1g of 4-rrows. In tl~at manner we f pem. tlrnt whoie night, and until ten a dock next Jnornmg, about wnich time the Enemy left us? Then feven Canoes withlndiat1s ofa little Town upon the ijde of tqe River , came to continue the purfuit; but perceiying they did u~ but little hurt? 1 rhey return'd to their Town; and from that time forwarq we met with no mon~ Enemies upon the Rivero Our courfe continued feveQteen pays~ wherein we made two hundred and fifty Leagues: the River at its mouth divides it .felf into two branches~ ea_chof whi~h are . ;it le~fi a Leag~e ~nd, ?half overo • I CHAP. XXXIX. I TlJe Fleet comes to the Sea ; what befi! the Spaniards before they put out. into it, f1n4 in t~e beginnin4 of their Voyage. THe So~ldiers being almo~ fpent by fo mucq fighqng, and _much more by the tr6~1bl~ of-ro-wing, we refol ved t9 go afho~r ~alfa League fro1 tqe oth of the .I,tiv~r, tha~ they might ~ h~v~

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and Conquefl of Flodda. 19 9 have fome days refi. They hadother ~roubles upon them befides,, occafioned by the fcarcity of , , provifions ; infomuch that for many days they had nothing but a little Maes roafi.ed or boile d in a pot, which was difiribut e d amo n gfi them b y allowances, ever y mefa of t hre e havin g a -Headpiece full, and but fcanty meafure to o . As foon as we were ~ncamped, the Indians came i n feven Canou to attack ours ; and at the fame time , other En emits made up to us crofs a f wamp, ar, TT?ed wit~ poles with fbarp ~pointe d hooks m ade . of~ ~ili bone, wherewith theyrought fo v igomufly, that after _ they had wounded fome Spani -, ards1with their Arro ws, t hey clofed with us; but, at length, with much ado we beat them off. In the mean time the Gove rnour order e d fame Souldiers to go i n to the Canoes a n d r nake head againfi the Enemies : The y wait e d for us 1 till we were within bow .. fhot; and then having fhot, and wounded fome Souldicrs, they retFeat~ ed as n imbly as a well-mou nted Troop er dears himfelf when he is bere t by Foot; and rallyin g again t h e y ren~wed the t barg e always within the reach of their own fhot, and wit h out th e reach of ours: for though fome of o ur Souldi e r s 1, had Bows, ye t the y knew ' not hmv to u f e therp ; and befides, their Arms were almofi b roken w ith . rowing . The Enemy on the contrary expecte d them at their o\ i n ca!e; and having made t heir {hfcharg ~s, th e y wheel'd abmit again, like H orfe-. . 0 4 men

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f p~ A K(latiorz of the ln .vaft0n !ffien a pic.keer,~ng. Our met;:i, o~(erving Jhis, an4 that there w~s but little appearance tq come up ~ith th ,em, ~ay aod that tl}ofe who had got .q.ear@fi \1/.erS! Vf,ry ill h,a~dled, th(?ught it was enough to b~qt them off; an~ fo r~t_un1ed to the Brigan; tines. We tarried two days in that place, and then the Fleet , following the Current of th4t branch of the River where we were, fell down to ine Sek~ The Governour ordered to found to fee ' what Wat~r':we had in the Rivers mouth ; and i1aving fouqd'for~f farpom water, he came to an /lndwt, ~nd called a Council, th~r all might give ~heir Opin 'io.bs as to the 'f. oyag~ ~e were to pndertake. The qudl:ion was put, Whef her we fl~o1:1ld ~irelt 09r courfo i}:reigt1t ~or Ne7:V-~pqjn, {fa~~Ing rn# to Se~;?rGpafi i~ ~~og rie~r then1oar~ Opimons were q1v1qed ; but the-aclv1ce of /)m{"! ~ufco weighed mofl: with the Qoven1
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and Conqieeft of Florida~ ~or fto.m that Riv.e_r ~to New-Spain it run North ~nd South ; fo that if we followed it, we iliould make a compafs that would eJtrearnly retard our Vay .. age, and put us in danger of being overtaken by the Winter~ before we could come into a Country inhabited by Chrifii~ns: Whereas W we had but any favourable wind, we might crofs the Gulf in ten or twelve days time. But that advice was not at all approved by the better part pf the Council: They faid, that it was the far furer way to keep along the Coafr, though rhe Voyage would be longer ; becaufe our Vefiels were very f1ightly built, and \Vlthout Deck~, which ~ade them in danger of being loft, fhould we meet with the leafc florm; that the risk was no lefs if we were becalmed or met :lWith contrary winds, becaufe we had but very little fref11 water for want of Casks to put it in. And, in fine, though the Brigantines were itrong enough to hold out a frorn-1, fince we had neither Pilot nor Compafs to direB: our courfe, it would be a ralhn .efa to crofs over an unknown Gulf. That Ad-vice w i1i~h carried by pluralities of voices,was fol-,lowed, and it was concluded that we fhould not fi:and off frorn the Coafr. The Fleet being ready to fet fail ; the Cable of the Brigantine on board of which tbe Gove"rnour was, flipt its Anchor1 and left' it in the bottom of the water. And though we were near Land, ncverthelds it could n9t be gpt up, again by the Divers, becaufe of _ the

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. o 2 A Relation of the lnrvafto11 the depth of the River. Mofcofo and all tha t were aboard with ' him were extreamly troubl e a at this accident, and they were forced to take a Mill-fione infiead of an Anchor , with fame bits that the Troopers had fiill rcferve~, wh~ch were tied to it to encreafo its weight. Thus we • put to Sea with a favourable wind, and in very fai r weather, being the Eighteenth day of July. The Governour and Danhufco being on head with their Brigantines, kept out two or three Leagues at Sea; the other Captains bore up to the G o , vernour to ask him if he defigned to quit the fl1oar, which he not to do without acquain -1 ring them, feeing It \Vas contrary to the refolmion of Council ; that if he would not follow ir, neither would they follow him, and every one ': 'ould m1ke the befi of his way, Mofcofo anf wered, T . hat he would not undertake any thing vJithout the ad vice of his Council ; that he flood one.Jy off from the tho~x that he might fail witl i PJOre fecurity in the night•tirpe, and that next ~lay he wold come in fight of it again when h e (aw his time. Vv e failed all tl1at day and the pext until the Evening with a fajr wind, and all the while in frefh water, which was a furpri?e t o us, feeing we were a great way from the 111outh _ of the great River: b u t its Current peing very ftrong,' and the C o ail low, it carries its frefh yva~ ter a great way out into the Sea. About night 1-ve difcovered a little H1ad like a Rock , where . the

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,and Conqueft of Florida. I 0 3 . the Fleet came to an Anchor to take a little refi. There Danhufco (o prevailed by his reafons, that all the Officers confented to ftand out to Sea. w e followed that coqrfe two qays ; but when we had a mind to put in again to the fhoa r, we met with a contrary wind, fo that the fourt h day we began to be in want of frdh water. Every one curfed Danhufco, add the Governour too for complying with his advice; and all the Captains fwore that they would no more leave the J11oar, Jet the Governour take what courfe he p]eafrd. It was the will of God that the wind veered ab m a little, a nd f otir days' after that the Fleet had ~ood out to Sea, all our fre{h water being f pent, we rowed in to !hoar again with a great deal of difficulty, 4nd went to land on the fand ,vhere there was no 'fhelter. In the Evening the wind turned about to the South, and bkw foll upon the fl?oar, on which it forced our Brigantines. The wind was high, and our Anchors being but light , and vyeak came home, fa that ourVefiels drove .. lq this extremity all leapt into the water by the Governours order, and ftood betwixt th~ Land and the Brigantine ' , to eep them our in the \Va., ter, until the wind abated. . . . . . . ... CHAP~

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~04 A Relation. of the lnvafton . CHAP. XL. _ A jiorm difperfes the Briganties ; they joyn again at a 'Koc/tor li ,tt,le lfland. SO foon as the ftorm was over , our men went a{hoar and dug pits, which ft_1rnifhed us with frefh water enough to fill the Casks of all the Brigantines. Next day we fet fail again, _and after two days came to an Anchor in a little Creek, fafe from the South-wind that blew at that time, and was againft us; it detained us four days in that place, till at length the weather being calm 2 gain, we rowed out ; but towards the Evening the wind began to blow frefh , fo that it forced the Brigantines upon the fhoar • . We werefenfible then pf our fault in leaving our Road; for the Sea qegan to fwell very high, and the wind blew fo hard, that the Brigantines could not keep company. Two of them that were on head of the refr, were forced into an Arm of the Sea that run into the Land ; and the other five feparated from one another a League 1 or a League and a lulf, were cafi: upon a flat open fhoar, not know• ing where they were, nor what was become of the refl: ; the Sea being rough broke forioufly up., on that ilioar, and the Anchors could not hold: The

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and C~nqueft ofRlorida. :i6r'f The Oars figoi6ed nothin' g at all almofi . againft: the violence of d!e fiorm, though there were at leaf\: feven or eight men a:t each Oa ' r to , keep the VeiTel in the water , which made ail the . refi jump1 ver-board.. When the wave that forced the1 Brigantine to-lan,d was pafi, .they thrufi her out again wirh incredible pain and labour, whilfi the : M1: with bowls laved out the water that broke in,} to the V effel. In the mean time \ die rem peff j w~s ftii~ encr~afin~?-as our fears al~o of feeing our , Bngantmes, m which aUour hopes lay, broken to . pieces, w htff we were, attackeq by a far more irt~' fupportable ca:laniity; for about night fuch a ter,,: rible quantity of Musketto's came about us, that" we were all over covered with1 them ; and their fiingings caufed fo iharp pains, that they feemed to be venomous. About break, of day the wind ' ceafed, and we had a calm, but the M usketto's continued as. bad a~r ever1 for they fell upon us iii fach numberlefs (warms, that our white Sails ap• peared all black ; and the Rowers tould not fee their ands to an Oar , without . fomebody by them to beat off thefe Infects. However, we ,wer,e-f0,glad tO"fee the ~orm over, that we laughed at the other inconvenience, when by day-light we could fee one another with monfirous faces; and it was. no unpleafant fight to . behold how every one beat themfe.lves to kill the Musketto's. All fell a rowing, and qur Fleet , got together a-'. g~i~ in that little Gulf wh~re the two firft Brie\' -ga!!!!!l~~ .... , .. , . • ' : •• < .' ••

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106 A Relation of tpe Invafton gantines hlu put in to. There we found of that~ fcum of the Sea called Copeck ~uch like to pitch, which fome indeed make ufe. of infiead of it for their Veffels, as we 9ur folves did, having flayed two days in that place to re-fit our ~rigantines~ We failed t\vo days more, and came to an Anchor in a Bay where we fiay'd as long; we fent our feven men in a Canoe to find out the bottom of the Bay ; but they could not. The Fleet fet fail with a South wind which was againfi us; never .. thelefs, feeing it was not violent, all were fo defi. rous to make an end of our Voyage as foon as we could, that we employed our utmofi: endeavours to get out to Sea agai~: We advanced then for two days with little Wind and much labour, till we came to a little H1and at the entry of an arm of the Sea. ' The weather that hapned after gave us good caufe to thank: God, for fending us into that fafe Road : There were a great many fifi1 thereabouts, which we tooJt with Nets or the Hook; and it hapned that a Souldier having thrown in a Lin1e, the end whereof wa:s tied to his wrift, a fi{h f wallowed the Hook and Bait with fo much force, that it drew the man head.: long into the water: by good luck he bethought himfelf of an Axe which he carried -about him\ wherewith he cut the Line, and f worn back tothe :Brigantine. Bad weather kept us, here a fortnight, and then it pleafed God to fend us a favourabie gale, for which we rendred him our' I mofu

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', and Conqueft of Florida. '2 o 1 moil: humble thanks, in a very devouf Proceilion which we made along the fi1oar of that I!land befeechi g his Divine Majefiy to guide _us into a place ~here we might confecr~t~ our _Servic-es to: him with more zeal and tranquility. : CHAP. XLI. The Spaniards arrive at the Town of' Panico. FR.efh water is to be found by digging . in the ' fand every-where on that Coaft, which was a great convenience to us for filling our Casks. S o after we.had ended our Proceflion , we went o n board, and nm along in fight of land fix dayso Danhufco perfifted fiiU in his firft Opinion, faying, th~t he had feen Maps, and remembred that that C oaft bore North and s~uth , fo foon as one was pafi: the River of Palms; that hitherto we had fieered from Eafi: tq Weft ; and that fo according ~o his judgment that River could not be far off: The Fleet fiood a litde out to Sea; and next day early in the morning we perceived at a difiance fome Palm-trees, which feemed to rife above , the. forface of the water , and we obferved that 'that Coafi: lay North and South. At noon we pega~ !~--~~ry bi~ m~~~t~ins, ~hich . ~e

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~o& A Kelation of tlJe Invafi~ii we had not feen before, becaufe from the Port c,f the Holy Ghofl to that place, the Land is low a 'nd level, fo that it cannot be f~en bu t _very n~ar, Thefe remarks made usbelieve that ~ve had pafs'd the River of Palms in the night-time , and wt knew very well that it was but threcfcore . L agues from the River of' P aiiico' : Hut
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and Conqueft of Florida. 209 after the Spanifo fafhion, which gave them the bbldnefs to ask them what G 0W1try they were in. The Indians anf wered in Spanijh, that they were in the River of Panico, and that the Towrt was fifteen Leagues off. It is not to be exprefi: , with what joy they received rhofe gfod tidings; their Birth day feemed not to them fo happy a day as that was: They leaped a{hoar, and kifl: it a thoufand times, lifting up their eyes and hands to Heaven to thank God for the favour he had befiowed upon them. The Souldiers of the_ Brigantines that followed Caldeitan's, perceiving that he entered the River, freered the fame courfe, and arrived at the Harbour; but thofe whd were on board the other two Brigantines, had not the fame fortune. When they found that the teft did riot follow, they tackt about to look after them, but the wind was contrary ,•and the Sea fo rough, that they were forced to c~me td an Anchor near the }hoar. I~ that place they were toffed with fo furious a fiorm, that finding they could not weather it neither at Sea no'r in that fiation, they took the colirfe to run afhoar: And feeing the Brigantines were light and drew little water, and that that fhoar was low and of a foft fand, the wind drove thern on dry ground without any hurt to the VeUels, or to thofe i:h:at were in them. So that whilfl , the Spaniards wh0 were in the H~rbour, , tailed pleafures which can .. not be exprefi, thefe ~ere over .. whelmed with P grief

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1 o A Relation of the Invafion grief and trouble , feeing they knew not what was become of their Companions, nor whether Fortune had caft them into a Country; where they {hould meet with favage people and Enemies to the .Spaniards. They were . ihiewrackt . two Leagues below the Harbour; and 'fo (oon as they found themfelvts out of danger, ever y one packed up what he was ably to carry, and (o advanced up into' the Country; at length they met with Indians, who told them where they were, which turned their fadnefs into extraordinary joy, and they thanked God, as it was tht3ir duty , for delivering them out of fo many mifehes and dangers. CHAP.

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and Conq!teft of FJvrida: 1 . t CH AP~ XLII. ' The Spaniatds ' go to Panico, and in what manner the Inhabitants received them. I ' . OU r Voyage lafl:ed fifty days from the mouth of the great River in Florida, to the mouth of the River of P a -nico, into which. we entred the Tenth of September, 1543. \Ve fpent four days in going up the River with our Brigantines; but the wind being low , and not very ufeful to us becaufe of the compaffes which that River fetchesJI fo that we were many times obliged to tow them up, the paffage was fo tedious and toilfome, that we left the Brigantines to the care of the Seaaa men, and went by Land to Panico, being impa!'i' tient to get, as foon as we could, into a Chrifiian Country, and to be prefent at Divine Servire, which fora very long time we had not been. \Ve were all cloathed in Buck-skins died black ; and fo foon as we entred the Town, we went {height to the Chur~h to offer up our Prayers to Gbd, and mofl humbly to thank him for the Miracles . he ~1ad wrought in faving us. The Burghers who were informed by the Jndicms of our arrival, came to th~ Church , from whence they too: home with them foch of us as tbey could know, P Z . 9}'!

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1 A Relation !>[ tl,e lnvajion or who belonged to their Relations or Friends. 1"'he Governour of the place offered his Houfe to Mofcofo, and ordered the other Spaniards to b e , . quartered by fixes, or even more, according t o the convenience of the Inhabitants, who kindl y entertained their Gue{1:s with Pullets and Bread of M(;1es, and the fruits of the Country, which are the fame that are in the If1e of Cuba. The Town of Panico contains about tl1reefcore and ten Families: their Houfes for rnofi part are ~uilt of Stone j and Lime,except fome few that are only wooden, and they are all thatched. The Country is not Rich, becaufe it' produces neither Gold nor Silver; but, on the other hand, the Inhabitants have plenty of ali that is nece!fary for life. The wealthiefi have not above five hundred Crowns of yearly Rent; and their Revenue c onfifis in _ C6tton, Poultry, and Maes , which the Indians who are their Vailitls, pay them as quit-Rent. \Ve vv ::re in all t-hree hundred and eleven Gentlemen an 1 Souldiers, remaining of above fix hundred who followed Soto into Floricla, when we entered this Town. The Governour of the place forthwith dif patched a Burgher to give advice to Don Antonio ~e Mendofa Viceroy of Me'xi-J co, that three hundred men of the Forces that had been with Don Fernando tie Soto for the Difcovery and Cooquefi of Florida, were arrived at Panico, to the end he might give orders for their fubfifi:ance, as being in the Emperours Service. The

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and. Crmquefl of Florida. 2 , 3 . The Viceroy and all the Inhabitants of Me,xico, were extreamly forprized at the neW' S; for all gave us over for lofl: fo foon as we advanced up into the Country of Florida; and t bey loo kt up, on it as a M .iracle, that having no place of retreat, nor no ailifiance fent us, we could have maintained our felves fo long amongfi theft Infidels. So fo_on as the Viceroy recei vcd the adv ice , he fent Orders in wr.i_ ting, to furnifh us in all places we pafl: through , with Provifi ns, and .{ndirm Servants; and if they refufed to fupply us accordingly, he gave us leave by the fame Orcier to , take by force, without any danger of pt1nifh .. ment : But we needed it not ; for aH the i'ay vve went, the .people came out and met . us, {hiving \vho {hould tirfi prefent U with Pullets and other Provi!ions. p 3 CHAP.

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14 A Relation of the ln'Vajion CH AP. XLIIf. Of the cirv_il and genero1u manner how we were treated by the Viceroy, and the Inha~itants of Mexico. l T is reckoned threefcore Leagues from Panico to the great City of Meflitam, or Mexico; and it is as far from that City to the Port of Verar:ruce, which is alfo threefcore Leagues from Panico. Veracruce is the Port where they take . fhipping to go from Mexico to Spain, and where they land when they come from Spain to Mexico ; and thefe three Towns make a Triangle, V"eracruce being the South-Angle, Panico the Eafi, and Mexico the Wefl:. This Country is fo populous, that the mofi remote Villages of the Indians, are not a League and a half difiam ~one from the other.. Some of our Souldiers who were moil fpent, abode a month in Panico, others a fortnight ; and, in a word, as long as tbey had 1 a mind, their Landlords not grudging it in .the leafl:: On the contrary, they i11ared with them what they had ; and all, without exception, feemed troubled at their departure. The truth is, what they gave cofi them but little, fince their Indians furnii11 them with more Provifion s . than th e y

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and Conqueft of Florida. 2 I 5 they can well f pend ; and they took extraordinary pleafure to hear the relation of our Adven .. tures. The Governour g~ve of the Goods in his hands belonging to the Emperour for his dues, to thofe who would accept of them. They were very happy men who had referv~d a Coat of Mail, for they trucked it for a Horfe ; fo fome were mounted , but the greateft part performed the journey to Mexico on foot. The Indians in all places received us very kindly , and did us ,all forts of good Offices, offering the Souldiers whatever they had in their hou1es, though they had no \Vant of Provifions ; for when one asked a Pull~t of Indian, he was fore to bring four; and if one feem'd to have a mind to a fruit which was not to be found but at a Le~gues difiance, immediately he ran to fetch it. When the Souldicrs came to any Indian Town, the Cacique prefe"ntly commanded an Indian who carried in his hand a Verge or Mace, to fee that Provifions were fqrnifhed. They call that Officer, 1apile; thaes to foy, Serjeant. He took care alfo to pro• vide us Intlians for carrying the fick, and our f mall Baggage. The Viceroy fent a Porhtguefa tQ meet us twenty Lea ' gues from Mexico, with Sugar, Rafins of the Sun, Pomgraqates, and o~ ther refrdfonents for the fick who might H.,nd need of them : And he acquainted us tha . t he would cloath all the Souldiers at the Ernperours charges. The Citizens of Mexico came to re P 4 c~

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'l I 6 A Relation of the ltivaflon ceive us without the City-Gates, a-nd defired it as a great favour of the Souldiers that they would lodge with theni , and they who prevail~d car: ried them home to their houfes? where they tr.eat _ed and cloathed them fo well, that the .Apparel of him that was worfi cloathed, was worth rhir:ty Crowris at leaft. The Viceroy had die fame ~are of thofe whom he entertained in his Palace, ~here they of . the better . quality eat at his Table : He had another Table for the private Souldiers, where all were welcome, but though he had in~ formed himfelf 'of their feveral qu atities, that he might fhew them honour accordingly , yet feeing he denyed not his Table to ariy of the Conquerours whether Gentleman or Peafant , it fometimes happened, that the Servant fate cheek by joule with his Mailer ~ . However, that little diforder proceeded only from his Officers faulr, of whom fame th o ugh , that knew th~ir duty better, . inforrped themfelv es of the qualities of perfons, and treated them with ~h11:inc.l:ion. In a word, all {hove who ilionlcl'entert .ain us befi,and that iq. fo gentile and obliging a manner . ,that they prayed the ~oulcliers to make no ('.:eremony to take what they 'offered them , faying that they themfelves had beeq in the Iike.firaights , that mhers had affifted them, and in fine, that it was Jhe cufiom of the Countrey . . God A1mighry reward them for it , and_ may it plenfe hirri to give pr~~f ~9 ~hof.e \~~o h~ve ~een preferved by hdis . goo -

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and Conqueft of Florida, 2 1 7 goodnefs in that difcovery , to f pend the ref\: of their days in his holy fervice, and that of his in-, finite mercy he would vouchfafe , to receive into glory thofe wh_ o have ended ~heir_day_s in that enterprife , and thofe who peheve 10 him, and coqfefs his holy faith. CH AP. XLIV. 9[ fame Singnlarities of Florida, of Fruits, Foul, and !3e4fts, w,bic(J that Co!mtrey produces. FRom the Port of the Holy Ghofl, where the Spaniard~ lah~ed whe n they entred into F/oridq, to the Province of O~ut~ it is reckon(dabout four hundred Leagues all in a flat Countrey full of Lakes and thick Woods, excepting in fome places where the ground is light , and produces Wild Pioe-trccs; and in all that way, there is neither Mountain nor Hill to be feen. The Land of O'cu/e is fatter and more fertile, the Woods ar~ not fo thick there, and it has Meadow-5. watered with little Rivers. It is a hundred and thirty Leagu~s from Ocute to C1:1-tifachiqui, of wpich fouricore ~re through a deiart Countrey , that yields no-,-t . t hing but wild Pines, and yet bas great Rivers ~~nning through it. But from Cutifachiqui t o Xua~

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I 8 A Relt1tion of the lnvajion Jfruala there is nothing but l\fountains, for the f pace of. two hundred and fifty Leagues. The f e two Towns are feared in a high Countrey ,but level, and cut by Rivulets whid1 have Meadows on the banks. Beyond Xuala are the ProvitJces of Chiaha, Cofa, and Talife, which are lovely Plains of a dry ground. that produce Maes in plenty. From .. ,J .. ztala to Tafcaluca it may be two hundred and fifty Leagues, .. and three hundred from Taf caluca to the great River. That Countrey is low, full of Lakes and Swamps, but the foil is of ano-• ther nature beyond the great Riv.er. It is prett y high, yet there is champ10n ground in it, and is the mofi: populous Countrey in all Florida. O n the fides of the grea _ t River from Aquixo to P acaha ~nd,coligoa, for the fpace of an hundred and fifty Leagues , the Countrey is plain, and in forne pfaces _ very fertile and pleafant. From Coligoa t o .Autiamque it is reckoned two hundred and fifty Leagues, in a Mountainous Coumrey, and from Autiamque to Guacay two hundred and thirty of a level Countrey ; , but the 1Vfomr1ins begin again from Guacay to Daycao, that are an bunJred and twenty Leagues diitant. . The way from the I-Joly Ghofl to P alache is from Eail: to yv efl , and North Wefr ; from Cutifachiqui to ~:r..~uala from I . South to North; from Xuala to cofa from Eafi to Wefi, and from Cofa to 7afcaluca, and from thence to the great River and the Provin c e s of ~iz.quiz , and Aquixo from Eaft to Wefr. ln

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and Conqiieft of Florida. 219 In {hort , P acaha is Northward fr' om Aquixo> 1ula We!r of P acaha , and Antiamque to the South of 1 ula , fo as are the Pr ovinces of Guachoya and Aycao.. The br e a d they . eat ull oyer Florida is made of Maes, w h i c h refembles great' \MilJet, and the fame Maes ferv e sfor focd in the Wnti!les , and in all the Indies b elooging to the:Crovvn of Cajli!le. In Florida there are alfo Nuts,. P lums , J\foib erries. and Grap e s ; every cne labours his field of Maes apar t , but all the otbe.r Fruits are common, becaufe the y grow in the fields in great plen ty , without any neceffo y of' cultivating or watering the Trees. The Moun-tains yield Chefinuts,which a r c fmallcr than tbofe of Spain. From the great River Weflwards the Nuts differ from thote of the o ther Provinces, for they are foft and {haped hke ~n Akorn , and from tbe fame River to the Port of the Holy Ghofl, they are harder and the T re"'s as well as ,Fruit refemble thofe of Spain. All . over Florida rhere is a Fru r which grows upon a kind of Pfo.nt like _ to . a Lilly which the lntlians fow~ That Fruit refembles a bon Chreteen Pear of an excellent rehfh. ' There is alfo another Herb w hich bears its Fruit near the ground as the Apple of Love, and is ve-ry good. The Plums are of two colours, the one r~d, an9 the other a dark gray of thQ bignefs and fhape of Walnuts . They have three or four fiones,and of rhefe lafi excel.lent Prunes are made, which in goodneis furpafs tho[c of Spain. The Vines

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~20 A Relation. of the lnvafton, .&c. Vine s want onely care and dreffing; which m a J be eafiJy known, becaufe the Grapes have very great and hard fiones, neverthelefs they are very good. In a word,all the Fruits are better :and lefs hurtful than thofe of Spain. That Country breedi a great many Bears and Lions,Wol ves, Stag s,Wi!d cats, Tame cats, and Rabbets. The Poultry are wild there, as big as Peacocks, and very plentiful. The Partridges are fmall like th ofe of Africa; and you have alfo Cranes, Geefe, Turtle s , Field,, fares, Sparrows, and other black b irds that are bigger than Sparrow s , and lefs than Starlings : a ~ alio Gofs-hawks, Falcons, Sparrow-hawks,and au other Birds of Prey that ate to be found in Spah The Indians in general are well enough fhaped, but thofe of the Plains are better limbed and much nimbler than the Mountanecrs, as alfo the people that inhabit the heart of the Countrey , live more at their eafe than thofc of the Cor1fi. For the Land on the Sea•coafr is tarrcn and poor, but feeing mifery renders them fierce and warlike, they rob and play the Pyrates. From the Pert of th:: Holy Ghofl to Pa/ache , and from Pa/ache to tbe River of Palms , the way is fr,om Eail t o ' Weft, and from the River of Palms to New S p a i n from North to South. That Coan i s low and 1.ofr, but full of fhelves and banks of fand. flNIS.

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A JOURNEY OF THE ~mptro, of INTO E AST-T AR TARY. In the Year 1 6 8 '.2. LONDON: Printed by Freeman Collin.r , for John Lawrence, over-againfi the Poultry-• Compter., 1 6 8 6.

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WO JOURNEYS ' Of the prefent Emperour of . C : N A INTO TA.RT ARY, .In the Years 168-2, and 1683. --With f ome Difcoveries . Ma.de by the SPANIARDS In the Iaaud of . -California, In the Year 1
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PAGE 245

Advertife1nent . . He Reader is .. to ta notice , That the two Expeditions of tbe Emperonr o f China, were faithfully tranjlated into French from tbe Le_ tt e r s of the fainous Father Verbiefi, who at_tended that Emperoi e r in both theft Journeys ; and that the N arrative of the Spaniards late Defcent o n the I fl and ~f Calif urnia, WM lz~wifa tranfiated int o French from a Spa11ijb Relati on, ta~n from the Letters of the Admiral him/elf, who ~a5 the chief Gommanderi n that Enterprh.,e: All which three ar, Dedicated to the.Fre . nch l(iugA

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A Journey into ~alt 1!:artarp.; In the Year 1 6 8 2. IN the b e ginning of th e year 168 i, the E m ~ perour of China rtiade a progref s into Eaj}-1artary, when by the dead~ of t hree Rebel. King<; he had quieted a Revolt that had broken o u t fa fame Provinces of the Empire : _ One o f rhefe revolted Princes was frrangled i n the Province he had made himfelf Mailer of; the fecond being brought to Pekin vvith the Ringleaders of the Fathon was cut in pieces in view 9f the , whole Court , the mofr confiderable ffelandarius themfelves lending a hand to this fad Executio n , that upon that Rebel they might revenge the death of their Relations whom he had cruelly put to death .. The third who was the mo(t confiderable, and, { in a manner, head of the Coofpiracy, by a volun• tary death prevented the pundhm~nt which he had deferved ; and by that means put an end to a War of feven y~ars continuance. Peace_ being thus rd1:ored to the Empire, and all the Provin-ces

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A _Journey into ltafr..;Tartary. 2~ 5 ces quietly enjoying their ancient liberty, on the Twenty third of March the Emperour fet out upon his Journey to the Province of Leaotum, the Country of his Anceftors , with defign to vifit their Sepulchres, and having honoured them with the accuil:Clmed Ceremonies, to continue his progrefs int~ Eafl-1artaty. From Pekin to the end . of the journey, that progrefs was about eleven hundred miles in length. The Emp erour took with him his eldefi Son, ! a young Prince often years of Age, who is alrea~ dy declared Heir of the Empire: The three chief ~eens actompanied him alfo, every one of them in a gilt Chariot, as Jikewife the principal Kings who compofe that Empire , with all the great men of Court, and the moft confiderable Mandariw of all the Orders; who having a numerous Retinue and fplendid Equipage,made in all an At. ' ten~artce for the Emperour of above threefcore and ten thoufand Souls. It was his pleafure that I fhould wttit upon him in this progrefs, and be always by him_ , that I might in his prefence make the rieceffary Obfer,;i _vations for knowing the Difpofitiori of the Hea ~ vens, the Elevation of the Pole, the Declination of each Country, ~nd for meafuring with Mathe matical Infiruments the height of Mountains, and the difiance of places. He was willing alfo to be infi:rucred about the . nature of M&:teors, anrl many other Natural an'd M a thematic a l matters; q_ where~

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2 26 A Journey into Eafi-Tartary . wherefore he gave orders to an Officer, that _all ' the Infl:ruments I might have occafion for, fhould. be carried with us upon horfes , and recommended me to the Prince his Uncle, who is alfo his , Father-in-Law, and the fecond Perfon of the tate ; he is called by a chinefe Narne , which fignifies an Aj[ociate in the Empire. He charged him to fupply ,;ne with all thing s neceffary for J the Journey ; which tbat Prince did with fingu lar goodnefs, making me always lodge in his Tent, an eat at his Table. The Emperour ordered me ten horfes out of his nwn Stables, thar I might change mo~e eafily when occafion required ; and amongfi: thofe there wer e fome that he himfelfhad rid, which isa very great difiinfrion and honour. On our Journey we marched alw,ays North-Eafi. The way from Pekin to the Provinc e of Leao, tum, which is abou t three hundred miles in length, is pretty even and level ; within the Province of Let1otum it cont inues four hundred miles , but much more unequal becaufe of Mountains: . From the Frontiers of that Province to the Town of Vla, or the River which the _ Tartars call 8_ong,oro1 and the Chinefe Sum-hoa, the way for four bun• red miles more1 is very rugged, being intercepted in fome pla~es by very craggy Mountains, and in others by' Valleys of an extraordinary depth, and defart places where one may marc h two or hree days and nothing to be found. The Mountains

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.4 Journey into _-Ea~--Tartar_y. . 1 ?/j tains of that Country ' on the Eafi-fide are cover .. ed with great-Oaks, ~nd ancient Eorrefts which have ri0t been cut for many Ages. . All the Country beyond the Prdvince of Leao:. , tum is very defart, nothing _ peing to be feen ori aH hands; but Mountains, Valleyst Dens of Ty.; gers,.Beats, :and other. ~ild Beafts : , Hardly any houfes ate to be found there, but onelyJome forry thatched Cottages upon . the fides of Rivers and Torrents: All the Towns anq Villages whi'ch i faw in Leaotum, and which are pretty numerous, are entirely ruined. There is nothing to be feen , every-where but old demoliilied houfes, with heaps of Brick and Storie : fome houfes have been_ lately built withirt the old Precinct of thefe_. Towns , but without any order: fome are of Earth, and others of the nibbifi1 of the ancient Buildings, moil covered with-firaw, and but very few with tile. Of a great niany Towns and Villages that were in being before the War, there i~ nGt n9w ~he l~afi: fign remaining ; for th'e little King of the Tartars who began it , ha_vin~ but a very f mall J).rmy at firfi, armed the Inha~ , . bitants of _ th~fe places, and then'
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3 o A ~ .Journey il!,tO Eafi-Tartary. Baggage, w.~..r~-fent before by ways made .on the fides of the Ern. perours Rode ; befides, the Emperour, the . ~ings, and generally all .. the great Iyfen of rhe-Ci:011rt, had a vafi numb~r ..ofJeq-Horfes following tbem, that they might cha-nge as o c-caftan ferved ; not to reclwn the herds of Oxen , :tlock_s of Sheep, and other Cattel ~hat mufr needs go along with us. And though that val}: number of men, horfes, and flocks, kept . a way pretty difiant frotn the Emperours Rode, iet th e y rai!ed foch_ a terriblt d ufi, that we fee med to march in Cl oqd; and had mu~h--adp; to difrern tho_fe that were fifteen or twenty {itep~ ~efore tJS. 1 ,L: , Oqr march. was fo weU,order.ed, tb_q.t this Arm3/ , encamped ev..<~ry Eveninty up.~-11 the.: {i!leJ_Pfr fome . River or Bro.ok : and ~htitl1:Sfapdard~n '":~ .... : _ ; i. r,8 , ' f; • ~ "; .. In three ,fi)OO~ths time -wertnact~ ,~Q~l;lt~ a thou : fand mil~s :bl~rth:E#l:warcl.r,~d : as mu-ch :tJJpJe . 0 n our re. turn .. ::) .a1 le.ngth we arriyed ~t '&~m-l:1a_y, whicq. is a Fort fcituated betwixt the Sqyt ,h-Sea an.cl the Mol1lntains1 -0f tlfe J~orJ:h. , T,hete it i s hat ~h~t f~mous Wall begins which divicles the ~. .,,. Pro0

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A Journey into Eaft-Tartary. 231 Province of ' Leaotum from that of Pekeli, from whence it reacheth a vafi way Northwards over the highefi ~ountains. When we entred that Province, the Emperour,the Kings,and great Men . of the Court , , left the high-way we mentioned, and pafs'd along the Mountains of the North, which without int~rruption run North-Eafi : we fpent fomedays there a Hunting, which was in t his manner : , The Emperour chafe out three thoufand of -his Life-guard, armed with Arrows and Javelins; Thofe hedifperfed feveral. ways, fo t~atthey took up a great compafs of ground about the Hills, which they environed on all hands: l his made a kind of ~ircle three thoufaod paces diameter ; then drawing nearer and nearer together in a regular march, . without leaving their ~ank what impediment foever they found in their way, (for the Ernperour had put Captains and fame Grandee~ alfo among them to ~ake them keep their order) they prought that great circumferen e in-to a cirde of far kfs compafs, which had about three hundred paces in diameter ; fo that all the Beafis who wereenclofed within the former, were ca_ ught in this as ~n a Toy l ; becaufe all alighting, they joyned fo clofe_ together, t~at they left no fpace for them to get out at . Then were they fo hotly purfued within that narrow compafs, that the poor Creatures? quite fpent with running, fell down at the Huntfmens feet; a n d were taken up Q.A with .. . .

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~ .3i A JoHrney into Eafi-Tartary~ without any troqble. In this manner I (aw two or three hundred Hair~ taken in lefs than a day~ time, befides a grecJ,t many Wolv~s ~nd Foxes. I have feen the fame thing feveral times in that , . part of Tartary which is beyond the Province of -Leaotum, where at one time I remember I fa w ~bove a thoufand head of Deer , enclofed within fuch Toils, which came and cafi themfelves into the Huntfmens hands, finding no way to make their efcape. We killed alfo Bears, wild Boars, and above fixty Tygers ; but for killing of them they take ~nother courfe, and make ufe of other Weapo~. . It was the Emperours pleafur,: that I f11ould be prefent at all thefe different ways of Hunting; and he recommended it to his Father-in-Law in a very obliging manner, that he iliould have a f pe~ oial care of me, and fee that I were not expo fed to any danger in the hunting of Tygers and other fierce Beafl:s. Of all the Mandariw I wa~ the onely perfon near the Emperour without , Arms~ Though I had been enur~p to ~ fatigue from the time we fet out upon our progrefs , yet I was fo we~ry every Evening when I returned to _ my Tent, that I h~d much a~fo to {land upon my legs; and many times I would have f pared , my felf the labour of following the Emperour, if ~y friends had not advifed me the contrnry, an~ if I had not been afraid he would have taken -it jl1~ if 4e had rerceived it. . , . . -!lft~r I

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A Journey 'into Eafi-Tartary. '.2 3 3 After about four hundred miles of continua Hunting in this manner, we arrived at length at -Xy_n-yam, the Capital City of the Province, where ; we {l:aid four days. The Inhabitants of Coree came and prefented the Emperour with a Seal or Sea-calf which they had taken ; the Emperour I ~1ew'd_ it me, and asked. me if that Fifh_ was men-_ , ,uoned m our Books of Europe; I told him that we had a Book in our __ Libraryat Pekinwhic;hexplain'd the Nature,and had a Cut of it. He faid he would be glad to fe~ it ; and immediately difpatched a Courier tooqr Fathers ~t Pekin, who within a few days brought it to me. The Emperour was pleafed to fee that what was obferved concerning that Fi{h in the 13ooJ{, . agreed with what he faw. I-fe ordered if afterwards to be carried to Pekin, to be carefully preferved there. During -our fray in th~t City , the Emperour with th_e~eens wen,t to vifit the Tombs of his -Anceftors, which are not far difiant, from whence ,he fent them back to Xyn-yam, that he migh~ con(,tinul his Journey towards Eafl .. Tartary. . After feveral days marching and hunting , he r came to Kirin, four hundred miles difiant from _Xyn-yam : That To~n lies along the great 'River S ong,oro, which has its fource in M ount,. champe, difiaot from thence four hundred c:niks towards the South. • That Mountain, fo famous in the Eaft for having been the ancient Habhati• on qf 9u.r .rarta.rs, js always covered with Snow, frQm

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~34 A Journey into Eafi-Tartary. from whence it hath taken its Name ; for C hampe fignifies the White Mountain. , So foon as the Emperour perceived it, he alighted from his horfe, kneeled down on the River-fide, and bowed three times to the ground ~ . to falute it ; then he gave orders that he ihould be carried on a Throne glittering with Gold, and in that manner made his entry into the Town. All the people flocked out to meet him, fhewing by their tears the joy they had to fee him: And that Prince was extreamly pleafed with the tefiimonies of their Affection; and a~ a mark of his good-will, he fi1ew'd himfelf publickly to all, and difcharged his Guards from hindring the people to come near him, as they do at Pekin. ' -, In this Town they build Barks of a fingular fuape, and the Inhabitan~~ .have a great many always ir;i a readinefs, to beat off the Mufcovites, who come often upon that River to contend with them about the Pe:3:rl-fifhing. The -Emperou.r refi:ed two days there, apd -then went down the lliver with fame Lords;accompanied with above an hundred Boats, as far as the Town of Via, ' which is the fairefi of all _ the Country, and was re the Seat of the Empire of the Tar---. tars. A ltttle -below that Town, which is above thirty miles from Kirin, the River is full .of a certain kind of Fiih which looks much like the Plaice of f,urope ; and it was chiefly to divert himfelf at fi01ing

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A 'Journey-jnto Eafi-Tartary. 2 3 5 I Fifhingthat the Emperour went to V la ; put the Rain$, faUipg a U of a'fdden, fo fwellec.:l.the River, ~hat ti.II-thew Nets ~ere _};i5oken and carried away by due, floud.: N,eve~tJ1elefs, the Em perou . r tarried fo,, ~ or ~x days at Vla,; but fo:iping t _ hat the Rain~ c<2otinued, he ;yv-as obliged to ~ .orr.ie back 10 ffiri,n~_•t~( rn~~t the ' p!e{lf~r.e of Fifhiqg. As-_we were,. rceturnmg, up (th~ River, the Bark wherem I was ;itl-1.d1e _Etnpe);ours Father-in-L _ aw, was fo • beate. o : ''itb th~ w ay~s ;-thpt we were . forced to go a{ho~1 a,pd to get jqto a Cart drawn by an Ox, whkh br~ught-._ u..s very late Jo Kirin, the Rain c0n}i:nui(lgall the .way. . . . : At night when they. werG difcourfing with the Emp~rput _about ipat .5dventure, ' he faid laughing, The. .Fifh }pave made fools of U! At length, after two . days fiay ,a~ . Kirin, th~ {\ains began to iit?.ate,. and w~ _ retur.Q~d to , Lf.,aotum. . I cannot h~_re exprefs the trouble and--fatigues .we endureq_ rhroughQ~tJ_hi,s w.hP.l~rJo_rney, ju s-w.-ays broken_. :md JJjfl~f-talmoft jm!'Wsiblc;,b~rJ 1~Rain~: we went rtoritb-mstlly QVier liillis aqd Jdq:}e_S: ~ -~nd wid • -ekJre-aJittla-ng, .. the violem:~ of the Cur~ r~nts~t: oo:ver~dall,Q~i2r -wid1 the overflowing of th~ w:.it
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3 6 A Journey into Eafi:-Tartary. The Camels, Horfes, and other Beafis that carried the Baggage could not get forward ; they fiuck in the mires, or died of weaknefs upon the Rode : The men fared no better; and all pined away for want of vicl:uals and neceifary refrefh-J ments for (o long a Journey. A great many borfe-men were forced either to alight and drag their horfes ori by the bridles, or to fl:op and reit them a little in the open fields. Though the ~arter-Mafiers and their 0fficers fpared neither work-men nor wood, which they cut down eve .. ry-where, to fill up the broken piaces of the way with faggots; neverthelefs, when the Horfes..and Waggoosthat fet out very early in the morning _ had once paffed them, it was impoilible to pafs after them; the Emperour himfelf, his Son, and all the L~rds of the Court, were oftner than once forced to crofs over mires and fens on foot, fearing they might be expofed to greater danger, if they attempted to pafs them on horfeback. When we met ,with Bridges , or any narrow pailes, all the Army made a halt ; and fo foon _ as the Emperour with fame of the moil: confiderable was over, the refi came crowding on ; .. and . every ,, one 11riving to be firfi, _ (everal tumbled into the water; others going about by more dangerous ways, fell into bogs and quagmires , wher-e they ftuck. In fine, they fuffered fo much in all the ways of Eafl-Tar(qry, that old Officers who for above thirty years had followed the Court , faid , tha~

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A J'!Hrney into Eaft-Tartary. 2 3 7 that they had never endured fo much hardfhip in any Expedition. On tbefe occafions the Emperour oftner than once gave me proofs of a very fingular good-will. . The firfr day we fet out upon our return , we were towards evening fi:opt by fo large and rapid a Torrent, that it was impoilible to foard it over. The Emperour finding there by chance a little Boat, which _could not hold above four, went over firft with his Son, and fome of the chief Kings followed next ; all the other Princes, Lords, and Mandariw, with the refi of the Army, waited impa_ tiently in the mean time on the bank for the return of the Boat, that they might get over as foon as they could to the other fide of the water, becaufe night w21.s drawing on, and the Tents were already over long--before. But the Emperour coming back to us in jufi fuch another little Boat as the other, asked abud where I was, . and his Father-in-Law, having prefented me to him : Let him come in , faid the Em perour, and g,o' over with w. So that we onely paifed over with the Emperour ;_ and all the rdl: continued on the other fid~, where it behoved them to f pend the night in the open Ai~. The fame thing hapned next day, and almoft in the fame manner: The Emperour about noon came to a River as high and rapid as the former ; he ordered the Tents

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3 8 A Journey into Eafl:_-Tart~ry. Tents and Baggage to be carried over in Boats1 wl~ich took up the time till night, and made me alone to pafs over with hrm and a few of his Re0 tinue, leaving ~11 the great Lords on th~ other fide, who were obliged to fpend the night ther.e. , The Emperours own Father-in-Law ha' ving asked him if he fhould not pafs over with .me., fee-ing I lodged .in his Tent, and eat at his TabJe; he made himanfwer, that he iliould 11:ay,and that he himfoif would take care that I fhould have what was fitting. , When we were over, the Emperour fate 'dow n by the water-fide , and made me fir down by him, . with the two Sons of two little Weftern Kings, and the cbief Colaos of Tartary, whom he -l honoured on all occafions. The night being clear, and the sky very fer~ne, he P;ould have me name to him both in the ,chin fe aocl European Language , all the Conftella-, tans that at that time appeared above the Ho-1 izon ; and he himfelf named firft all thofe which he knew already ; then unfoulding a little Map of the Heavens, which fome 'years before I had prefented him . with, he fell a fearching for the hour of the night by the Star of the Meridian; "I delighting 'to f11ew to all the skill he had in thofe Sciences. All thefe and the like favours which he iliew'd me often . enough, ' infomuch as to fend me di{hes of meat from his own Table, were fo publick and extraordinary, that the Em perour's two

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A Journey into Eafr-Tartary. 23.9 two Uncles, who bore the Title of Ajfeciates in ' the Empire, faid upon their return to Pekin, tbat when the1Emperour was out of humour, or _appeared melancholick, he refumed his ufual cheer. fulnefs fo foon as he faw n:ie. . • I arrived in good health at Pekin the Ninth o Jane very-late, though many were left fick upon the Rode, or came back from the Journey woun, ded and maimed. I fay nothing of what we have done for Religi-on in this Journey ; I referve the particulars of that for a Relation apart, wherein it will be feen that by the Grace of our Lord, our favour at the 1 Court of China produces confiderable fruit to the Church, and deprives not the Emiifaries of their Croifes. I will fubjoyn here the 1artarea~ Names, and the difiance of the feveral places, through which we palfed in Ea./l Tartary, from the Capital City of the ~ Province of Leaotum to Kirin, in order, ac-cordirig to the days we fpent in that march: This may be reduced into a Typographical Map, and1 ' inferted in the Map of the Province of Leaotum, ~ which isto be found in the Atlar.ofFather Martin Marini, changing therein oncly the Latitudesjl according to the Elevations of the Pole, which we have taken notice of before. I'll add one thing , more which I learned from the very Inhabitants of ?Jla; to wit, tha~ Nincrita, which is a place of confiderablG note in thofe ~arters, i5 diftant from

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~40 A Jourtzey into Eafi:-Tartary,. from 'llla 700 Chinefe furlongs, each containing 3 6 0 Geometrical paces; and that embarking at Nincrita upon the great River Helum, into which the Song,oro and iorne other more conliderable rs ~an it, difcharges themfolves, following . he Curtent of the water, and going North-Eafi, or a little more towards the N orth, in forty days time one will arr ive at the Eafr-Sea, which is, as I conceive, the Streights of Anian. This I had from the Generals own mouth, who is at Kirin, and who hath made the Voy:1ge himfelf,

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~41 1h; diflances of the places through which we pa.ffed . in Ea!l-Tartary. . THe firf\: day we parted from Xyn-yam, the chief Town of the Province of Leaotum, ( and arrived at Seao-lyfto, for fo that place is cal~ led in the C hinefe Language, 9 5 C hinefe furlongs. The fecond day we arrived at Chacqy Ang,ha, 8 5 fur lungs. The third day at another ltiver of the fame name, 7 ' 0 furlongs. The fourth at Kiaghuchen, 50 furlongs. The fifth at Feyteri, 8 o furlongs. . . The fixth at the Brook of Seipery~ 60 furlongs. The feventh at the Brook of Ciam, 60 furlongs. Th.e eighth at Courou , 50 furlongs. The ninth at the Village of Sape, 40 furlongs. The tenth at ~aranr;i Pyra, 40 furlongs. The eleventh at Elten Eme amhayaga , 70 fur-longs. The twelfth at Tpatan, 5 8 furlongs. The thirteenth at Suayen ny Pyra, 60 furlongs. The fourteenth at Tlmen, 7 o furlongs. The fifteenth at Seuten~ 7oforlongs. I The fixteenth at the City of Kirin, 70 furlongs." , That way makes in all 102 8 Chinefe furlongs, which are 3 69 miles,allowing I ooo Geometrical paces tp the mile. I have aln;ady told you that a Chinefe furlong confifis of 3 60 Geometrical paces. R A; \

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A Journey of the Emperour of CHIN A INTO WEST-TAraT.4~1. In the Year 1 6 8 3 . ....,_.._..His year the Emperour of China, being in the Thirteenth year of his Reign. made a Journey into Weft-Tartary, with the ~een his Grand-mother,who goes by the name of the ~een-Mother. He fet out 1 the Sixth of July, accompanied 'with above threefcore thoufaod _men , and a hundred thoufand horfe. He would needs have me go along with him, and one of the two Fat hers \vho are at the Court of Pekin, of whom he left the choice to me: I pitched upon Father Philip Grimaldi, becaufe he is befl: known, and perfecl:ly well skill'd in the Mathematicks. The Emperour undertook that progrefs for. fe .. , veral reafons: the firft was to keep his Force_ s in continual Exercife , as wel1 in. time of Peace as War; and therefore having fetled a firm Peace in all the parts of that vafi Empire, he recalled out . of the feveral Provinces his befi Troops hither; and hath refolved in Council, ' every three years to . . ~b

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A Journey into Weft-Tartary. ~43 make Expeditions of this nature in (everal feafons; to teach them by purfuingStags,wild Boars. Bears, a~d Tygers, to overcome the Enemies of the Empire, or at lea ft to hinder that the Luxury of China, and too mu.ch repofe, may not foften their Courage) and make them degenerate from their Primitive Valour. . The truth is, thefe _ways of Hunting look liker a Military Expedition than a Pafiime ; for as I r have already obferved, the Emperour had in his Retinue an hundred thoufand horfe, and above threefcore thoufand men, all armed ' with Arrows 'and Cymiters, divided into Companies, and mar , ching after their Colours i~ . order of Batte!, with beat of Drums and found of Trumpets. WhiHl: they hunted they 'invefre~ whole Mountai~s and Fotrefis, as if they had been Towns they were a-bout to befiege, jn that imitating the huntings of the Eafiern 1artaria11s, which I mentioned in my Iafi Letter. That Army had its Van, its Reer, and Main Body, its Right and Left Wings Com,,; manded by fo many General Officers and little . Kings. There was a neceflity during the fpace of above threeftore and' ten days they were upo,n the march, that Provifions and Ammunition fuould be carried about for them in Waggons, up~ Qil Camels, Horfes; and Mules , in very rough and_difficult ways; for in all Weft-Tartary (I call it. Weftern, not with reference to China,wbich lies Wefi:ward of it) but with relation to Eaft~Tarta,,. . . . R 2, • ry)

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~44 .A Jdurney into We.ft-Tartary~ ry) there is nothing tc> be found but Rocks and Mountains, Hills and Dales. There are neither '!owps nor Villages, not indeed any houfesthere; the Inhabitants lodge in Tents pitched here and there in the fields. They are for mofi: part Herdfmen, and r'emove their Tents frnm one. Valley to another, according as the Paftures ~fte better or worfe; there they feed Cattet, Horfe, and . Camels: They have no breed of Hogs, not of any of thofe other Creatures which inother places are bred in Towns and Villages, as Pullet's and Geefe ; but: one!y of fuch as anuncultivated ,Land can feed with the Herbs that grow naturat-1 Iy of themfelves. They f pend,; their time either .. in Hunting, or elfe in doing nothing 'at' all ; and as they neither fow nor labour the Land, fo they ' have no ci:op, but live on Milk, Ch(ere, and Flefli, and have a kind of Liquor not unlike to our' Brandy, wherein they carrouze, and make thenife] ves often drunk. In a Word , from morning till night all their care is to eat and drink, like the Beafis ancJ Herds they keep. They have neverthelefs their Priefis, whom they call LamaJ, for whom they h'ave a fingu•, Jar veneration ; wherein • they differ fro'm die Eajl-iartars, wlio for mofi part have no Religi .. on, nor believe at alt iffany God. In fhort, both the one and the others are fla ves,, and in all' things depend on the wills of their Iviafier~, whofe Religion and Manners they blindly embrace and 'fol-. low . '

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4 ]ourney _into Weft-Tartary. ~45 Jow ; like to .their Beafis in that too, .,which go whither menJead or
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~46 A Journey into Weft-Tartary. Befides all this Retinue, he would alfo be attended by all the mark~ of Grandeur which ert .. yiron hirp at the Court of Pekin; by that multi tude of Drums, Trumpets, Timbrds, and other Infiruments ofMufick, which play in Confort whilft he is at Table, and with the noife whereof he enters and comes ou t of his Palace : All this _he •did to terrifie thofe barbarous people by that ex~ . ternal pomp, and to ,imprint in them that fear and reverence which is due to the Imperial Majefty. '' -~ For the . Empire of Chin~ neve( had at any time more dreadful Eifemis, thari the Wefiern 't-arta~s, who beginnin~ on the Eafi of Chi1ta, f qrTound it. with vafl: numbers of peoNe, and block , it up to the North and Weft. And it was againfi: their -•Im:urfions that a Chinefe 'Emperou'r bui~t that gr~at Wall, which divides China from their Country: I have crofied it four times, and nar"'.' . . -row]y confidered it; and without exaggeration I may fay, . that the fev,m ~onder~ of the World put together, are not comparabl~ to _ this wor~; and all that Fame hath publifhed concerning it a~ ~ong the Jj,uropean~, GOl?J~S far fbort of \vhat I 1,lll y f elf ha ye. foeri. , admired it particularly for two things; firn, That iri that long extent from Eafi to Weft, it runs al orig not onely vafl: field~, but alfo over ~oft high l\1ou. tains ; ~ upon which it rifes gradually, and is fortifie-d by intervals with great Towers;

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A Journey into Weft-Tartary" ~47 Towers, that are not difiant from one another above two Crofs-bow-fhot. Upon our return I had the curiofity to meafure the height of it .in one place by means of an Infi:rument , and found , it in that part to be a thoufand and thirty feven Geometrical foot above the Horizon ; fo that it js not to be conceived how fuch a prodigious Bulwark could be raifed to that height in a dry Qoun try and full of Mountains, where they were obli. ged wi~h incredible labour to bring from a far the water, bricks, mortar, and all the neceifary materials for the raifing of (o great a work. The other thing that furprized me was, that this Wall is not carried on upon the fame line, , but turns and winds in feveral places according to the difpofition of the Mountains; in fuch a man-ner, that inftead of one Wall, it may be faid there are three, which encompafs all that great part of China. But after all, the Monarch who in our days hath united the Chinq{e and Jartars under one Dominion, hath done fomewhat more for the fe .. curity of China, than that Chinefe Emperour who built that long wall ; for having reduced the Weafiern Jartars, partly by cunning, and partly by force, he hath obliged them to go and live • thre~ hundred miles beyond the Wall of China: And at that difiance he hath difiributed amongft them Lands and Pafturage, giving at the fame time their Country to other Tartars his Subjell:sj) R 4 who

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~48 A JoHrney into Wefi~Tartary • .-. who at prefent inhabit it. Neverthelefs, the Wefiern Tartars are fo powerful, that if they agreed among th emf elves, they might frill render themfelves Mailers of all China, and Eafl~1artary, as it is confeffed by the Eailern 1artars 'them-. felves. I faid that the Tartarian Monarch who con~ quered China1 ufed Artifice for fubduing the We~ . fiern Tsrtars ; for it was one of his chief cares by Royal Bounty and demonilrations of a fingular Affection, to engage the Lama1 into his i9terefl:s. , Thefe having great Credit and Authority over the whdle Natioo, eafily perf waded ~rhem to fubmit to the Government offo grea frin~e : ; and it is in confideration of that fer vice r~nd_red to the State, that the prefent Emperour fiill looks upon the Lam& with a favourable ' eye~ that be is Ji .. beral unto them, and makes ufe of therri to keep the 1artars in due obedie~~e ; tho,ugh ~nwardly. he def pifes them, looking upo1:i them as a ' dull ansi bbcki{h fort of men, who 'have not the leafi tin8:ure of Arts and Sciences, wherein that Prince, doubtlefs, fhews a great deal of Wifdom and Policy in difguifing fo his real thoughts , b,y thofe ex,. ternal marks ofefieem and kindnefs. ' He hatlrdivided that vafi extent of Land into forty eight" Provinces w 'hich are fubjefr and tribu. tary unto him. Hence it is that the Emperour who at prefent Reigas in China, and in both the 7'artaries, may juftly be called the greatefi and mofi

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A Joit.rney _ into Wefl-Ta~tary. '24.9 mofi powerful Monarch of Afia, having fo mariy vafi • Countries under hirri united and not interr.epted by t'he Lands of ary forreign Prince; and he ~lone being as the Soul, which gives life and motion to all the Members of fo great a Body .... For fince he hath tal~en the Government upon him, he hath never emrufted the care of it to any of tbeColaos, or the great men of his Court: nor hath he ever fuffered any of the Eunuchs of the Palace, any of his Pages, or any 'of thofe young Lords that have been bred with him, to difpofe bf any thing within his houfe, or regulate any matter by rhetnfelves. This will ap'pear v ery fl range,. ef pecially if one confider how 'his Prede~ cdfours were wont to act on fuch occafions. With wonderful equity he punif11es the great as well as the frnall, he turns them out of their Places, and degrades them from their Dignity, al~ays proportionating the punif1m1ent to the heinoufoefs of their Crime. He himfelf takes cognizance of the Affairs that are handled in the Royal Council, aod in the other Tribunals, requi~ ting art exalt accont of the J udgrnents and Sentences that have been pafi therein. In a \-i'ord, he dif po[es of all , and orders_ every thing by him felf: And that abfolute Authority which he hath thus tak~n to himfelf, is 'the caufe that the grea ~ tefi . Lords of~he~ourt ,' and thofe of the bigbefl: ~lity in the Empire, even the Princes of the Bloud tl,emfelvcs, ' never ap.pea~ in bis pre-fence,

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!2;o A Journey into Weft-Tartary. fence, but with profound ref pelt and reverence. After aH, the LamtJJ or Tartarian Priefis, of. whom we have been fpeaking, are not onely e .. fteemed by the people, but alfo by the Lords and Princes of their Nation, who for politick reafons. ' 1hew them a great deal of friendfhip; and that makes us fear that the Chrifrian Religion will not find fo eafie. an entry into Wefl-iartary. They have a great power alfo upon the Mind of the ~een-Mother, who is of their Country, and at prefent feventy years of age. They have often told her, that the Sect whereof ilie makes profef.. :fion, hath none more declared Enemies than us : And it is a kind of Miracle, or at leail: a f pecial protection of God , that notwithfianding this, J the Emperour who hath a great deal of refpecl: and efieem for her ,hath ftill heaped honour and fa. vours upon us, always confidering us in anotherguefs manner than he does the Lam(IJ. During our progrefs, the Princes and chief Qffi. cers of the Army , going often to make their ~ourt to the Q!Jeen, and we being ad vifed to do the like alfo , we thought fit firfi to confult a Courtier that has a great kindnefs for us,.and who fpeaks in our favours to the Emperour when we ' hav e any bufinefs: This Lord going into the Princes Tent, told him what paffed ; and imme~iarely coming out again, fa.id to us, 1he Emperour hath given me to underfland, that it is not ne~ ceffery you jhould attend the ~een OJ others do. . . Which

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A Journey into Weft-Tartary. 15-1 Which convinced us that that Princefs had no ~indnefs for us. The third reafon that engaged the Emperour into this progrefs, was his Health ; for he hath found by a pretty long experience, that when he frays too long at Pekin, he never fails to fall into fame ficknefs, which he prevents by means of foch progreffes. For all the while they continue, he keeps no company with women, and, which may feem very ft range, there wa not a woman in all that great Army, except thofe who atterided the Qeen-Mother ; and that's a new thing too that fhe accompanied the King this year, the Jike being never prachfed before but once, when he took the three Qeens with him to the Capital City of the Province of Leaotum, to . vifit the Sepulchres of their Ancefl:ours~ The Emperour and Q3,een-Mother intended alfo by that Journey to avoid the exceffive heat that is at Pekin during the Dog-days; for in thnt part of 1artary , there b]ows fo cold a wind in the Months of July and Augufl , efiJecially in the night time, that people are obliged to wear thick cloaths a .nd furs. The reafon that may be given for fo extraordinary a cold 1 is; that that Region lies very high , and is full of Mountains : Amongfi others there is one, on which for five or fix days march we were always going upwards. The Emperour being defi~~us to know how much it furpaffed in height . the

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2 ,~2 4 Jaurne1 into -W~J;r-Tartary. tJ\e plains of P eki,i, W 1hich ar.e .abou.t tbr~e bun, .cl;r~d miles difiant from it; having upon our re_. ,tud1 meafuied;above .a.n hundred Mountains tha1\ are upon . the Rode, we found that it was e_levated three tho:UfaocJ Geometrical paces c,1.bove the Sea that is neareff to Pekin. The Salt-petre wherewith thefe Cq_un.tries a , . bound, may likewife confribute to that great cold, which is fo violent, that digging thre~ or four foot deep in .the Earth, we found frozen clods and heaps of ice. A great many little Kings of , Wefl-1 artary came witb their Children from aU hand~, fame three hundred, and fome fiv~ hu.nqred milei to falut~ theEmperour. Thefe Princes who for 111ofi par~ know no other .Language but tqejr Mother .. Tongue, which differs mcl1 from what is fpoken in Eafl-1art4ry, with tbeir eyes and gefiures fhew'd us a great deal of civility. Some amongft th~rn had travlled to Pekin to fee the Court,, and had feen our Chm~ch there~ A day or two before we arrived at the Mountain, \f hich was the period or our J oiirney, w~ met a little King of great age~ who was coming back from th~ Emperour : perceiving us, he fiopt with all l~is. Retinue, and made bis I nterpreter ask which o f us it was that was called N auhoaii; one of our Servants havtng made a, fig~ that it wa,s I, the Prince accofled m; with: much civility, an,d tpld nw that of 1~:m_g time p~ l~ad ~n,O_\~t:1 my ' NameD : • • .... ':i

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\ ' A Journey int
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_254: A Jonrney imo Weft-Tartary. I;Ie hath befides expreffed his kindnefs to us1 py caufing di{hes to be fent from his Table to our Terit, and fometimes honouring us fo far as to make us eat in his own ; with that regard to our days of failing and-abftinence, that whenfoeverhe .did us that honour, he fent us onel y fuch dillies as we could make ufe of. The Emperours eldeft Son, after his Fathers example, fhew'd us likewife much kindnefs; for being forced to make a fl:op for above ten days, becaufe of a fall he had, from a horfe, whereby he received a hurt in the right ihoulder, and a part of the Army (in which we were) flaying for pim, whiHl: the Emperour with the reft continued his . Hunting ; he failed not all that while to fend us • once, nay fometimes twice a day Vicl:uals from his Table. But to conclud~ ,' we look upon all thefe favours of the Royal Family, as the effecl:s of a particular Providence, which watches over us and the Chriftian Interefr, and for which we have fo much the more reafon to thank God, that the Emperours affeB:ion appears not always fo conflant towards the great men of the Empire1 nor even towards the Princes of the Bloud. .,, As to the other particulars of our Journey, they are much like to thofe that hapned lafi year in our progrefs to Baff-Tartary, which I defcribed at large in my lafr Letter ; that's to fay , we were accommodated with the Emperours Horfes and Litters., lodged in the Tents, and eat at the Table • of

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A Journey into Weft-Tartary. ~ss of the Prince his Uncle, to whom he particularly recommended us. For above fix hundred miles that we made in going and ~omi~g ( for we returned not the fame 7 way we went) he caufed a great way to be made over the Mountains and Valleys for the convenience of the ~een-Mother, who was carried in a Chair; he caufed a great many Bridges alfo to be caft over Rivers and Torrents, Rocks and points of Mountains to be cut through with incredible labour and charge. Father Grimaldi will defcribe the other circumil:ances in his Letter. I have fpoken elfewhere of the fruit that Religion may reap from our Journey. Let it fuffice in this place to fay, that the Emperour , whofe will and pleafure we cannot in the leafi refift, without expofing this miffion to manifeft danger, commanded us to follow him ; I have ,ne.verthelefs fpoken twice to that Court-Lord who is our particular friend, that he might get us excufed from fuch long Journeys, and ef pecially my felf, who am not 1;1owof an Age fit for them. I have endeavoured to obtain at leafi: that the Emperour would be fatisfied with one of us. Upon the Rode the Letters of our Fathers came always fafe to my hands, and I had the convenience of writin g to ; them by the Couriers that went continually to the Royal City, or. came from thence. I wrote this in hafie, that I may perfifi: in giving you an account of our Occupations. Aa

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: . •,' . An nece.ffary Explication for j~ftifying tl1e Geography ~hich is f uppofed in thefe LETTERS. ""' • j "" ; • / • IT may he .thought flrangc , that tbe Author of thefe Letters mas mention in the ftrft of a bJnd of War betwixt the , Eaftern Tartars , and the Mufcovites , confidering the vaft diftance that feem~ to he betwixt the{e people in the Geographical Maps; but tbey who ~now how far the , Mufcovites have enlarged the bo~nds of their Empire along the Sea of Tartary, will judge the thing to be lefs difficult: Befides, thofe who have feen thefe Co1en-' tries, have made difaoveries far d fferen~ from what 01tr ' . Geograph.er s have hitherto informed w of. Ve'ty lately A1on-fteur d'Arcy, who Commands a Kings Ship

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An Explicationc . ~; 7 Ship ih the Marefoal d'Eftrees E lee~, tole( .u,s, That ferving in Poland, and having been made Governdur of a place _ioward.r Mufcovie , fame Mufcovite AmbafJa-dour s pafJed that way upon their return, and that he having entertained them fo as to put them into a good humour~ one of them foew'd him a new Map,,of the _ Ctmntries that lie betwixt Mufcovie and China, and told him, tha{ from three Towns which he _ foewed _ him, , whofa Names were Lopfla, Abafinko, Nerginfo co, all three under the Dominion of u tht , great Du~r, though lying in grtat Tartary , there wa,s a way to Pekin ; not above jive and. t wenty or thirty day.r Journey. That Map m,uft needs be ~pt ~ery pri~iate in Mufcovie , for next day the Mufcovite wu-mad with him~ felf for having given it him , faying , , that he would pay dear for it if it cam~ to be ""-.nown. The Officer being jince come bacJt into France , bath given a S-,, CopJ

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258 . • An Explication. Copy of it to the King, and another to . the Marquefs of Seignelay~, To confirm thh., we may add what a French-man wrote two months ago from Mufcovie , that .. they were ac-lually raifi'!g Forces there for ma/:J.ng 1Yar again/I' the Chine(e: . .

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A NEW V_ESCEN. T . OF THE SPA NI .tl . . ' n the Ifland. of . "'\ . l ~.:-0 In 1 ni.e Year • ' I _. ' ; • (J • l j --.-.. ,?,_' '. ![!: . l . ' ~ ~-. HE-;great Hlanq __ of; C .alif1:frnia \1at}:i ap-. .pe~~ecA, a ~ c~PiJl~~ .. \fiOfit!lJy~th~. Sl1wffi : .t}.rms, ~ eve, f '(~c~1-.M&1ico, WJa~ ,ano~xed J9 that Crown! r ~~l;fqj' R'tljgi99, an thfSaj~yati<;mof the Jfla..nders, ~ith: ;b~ hopes ~Mtr.thofe ~hQ have faile~ u PiOfl tl}~fo ~.$-A~, ?~ye alfjl}f S. gtven qs of fifl1111g P~tl:f ls tlJ.er~!O_aJ;>Jr1qq~~~~w e . 111~pe s fiil,l~Gl~~t~us to\jtW:efl~ -rJ1e EmPJWyg, OHr Nation unt,o tl}dfe vafi ,3:.ml J,ti~ , Countr ~~~-~hefa ... mous Don Fernando CortezMctrquefs del Va!le,was the firfi thaJ cbncei ved ihat defign, ~n9.r made the Voyage; but. tlie fear 0 tr.oubles wherewith he S 2 _ was

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200 A new Defcent of the Spaniards. he was threa'tned in a new-conquered Country,h a ving recalled him to Mexico,fiifled the hopes that all baa of the fuccefs of his valour & good fortune, Many great Captains fince his time have renew. ed that E~terprize, but it hath alway s been crof. fed by fome unexpected accident ; and all .that hath been got by feveral defcents made on that Hland, was onely fame knowledge qf the people who inhabit it, of Pearls that may be fiihed, ana of a kind of Amber that may be found there. The glory of fu~c~ed;ing in that Gonqueft, n o lefs important for Religion~ than advantageo u ~ for our Commerce, was referved for our Mo, narch~ at whofe, d1a1ge: tliis Ia(t Expedition w a ~ made, from the frrft fuccefs whereof we have ground to ex pelt (utur.e~ profperity. The Mar, quefs of Laguna, Viceroy ' and Captain General of Me)fico, wJ1ich we caJl 1-f ew7s_pain, having .receivea orders from nis M,ajefiy to f pare no coil: in thofe Eriferpr1es whidi 'n1~gni:1 give,.h0 'pes of propaga • .. ting1tpe Faith a m~nM ~ oirbarous Nations, fitted ,but two men of.W..arf with ~ a Billander, to ferve ~i:h~m fb~ a r Pinnae~, '~np havin~ ~rp~nned them ' weH, and'-1>r9viekJ t11em with all forts of Arn -n:nm1fiio,i ... ;.;~nt dierrf\1pon the Coquefi under the ~oad' ufl orpo,n.::.fferJore ti' Atondo-, Admiral of New,,S/a11;~_from w11dfeJJ!.'eftcrs this Relation hath been t~kert 1 • This E-t:f!e Fleet put 0ut from the Port of Chalaca in New Galicia the I 8th day of January,. 163 3. For:

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A new Defcent of the Spaniaras. ~61 For the firfi days the ~ind was contrary, fo , that they were forced to fail upon a wind, and by a ftorm were driven into the Port of Mazatlan, where the two fl1ips entered the Ninth of Fe/Jruary. 'lvlarch the Ei'ghteenth they arrived at the mouth of the River of Cinaloa, where there is a pretty commodious Harbour, ' there 'they refrefhed for fome time; and then continued there courfe along the Co~fl: of Cin
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) 262 A ne'w JJefce.nt of the Spaniards. went the Voyage , faith that the mouth of that Haven lies in 24 degrees 45 minutes. This gave fome caufe to doubt whether or not that was the real Haven of Peace ; and the doubt was t4e more confirmed, that the Indians whom they_ found in the Port , underfiood not one word of what the Jefuits who were on board faid to them,. who fpake according to a Dictionary of words made by the Fathers of their Society when the Spaniards made the former Expeditions to the Haven of Peace.. To which it may be added, that the ancient Relations of thefe Expeditions, obferved that the Indians of that Port; were wont to come out upon floats and in Canoes to meet the Ships with great demonfi:rati6ns of friend-1 , fhip, and at this time no float nor Canoe appeared, nor indeed for fome days was there any perfon ; to be feen. The Admiral Don Ijidore d' A~ondo, . who had the fame doubt, thinks to fatisfie it by alleadging that the Indians , called Guaricures, who according to the ancient Relations made War with thofe of the Haven of Peace , might have driven out the ancient Inhabitants, and made themfelves Mailers of the Country, becaufo the Land-marks which are given that the Cape of St. Luke _is on the po1nt of the Ifie of Ceralbo, ; prove that that Port is the ancient Haven of Peace: However it be, we {hall call it by that Name. They entered it the Thirtieth 9f March, having firfi: kl t the Fefiival of St. Jofeph for 4 nme.

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A new Defcent of the Spaniards.. 6 3 ., ni.ne days. The Bay is. very large, and , much like to that of Cadiz.. Next day they advanced five or fix Leagues farther up, and came to an ' Anchor: the Admiral and Captains went afhoar t in two Shalloops, and landed in a very pleafant place, full of Palmtrees,where they found a Fountain of excellent frdh water. They faw no body, but by the tracts they obferved , they concluded that there were men there : They went no farther that day, but came back and lay. upon the {hoar. The day following aJl came afhoar , and made a great Crofs, which they planted upon an_ Emi-111 nence,. to take po{feffion of the Country in the " Name of God, and of the Catholick King. They had a mind to know whether there might be fame Indians hid in the thick f Oods that cover ' the Mountain : for that end they left fame things fit for eating, as Indian Corn, Bisket, and other things, amongfr which they mingled fame Beads of a Chaplet, contenting themfelves with that difcovery, and fo rn-imbarked. They landed upon the Third of April, and found the things they had left untouched in the . ' fame place. The Admiral, accompanied with a Captain ahd fame Souldier~, went up re a little hill, from which he could difcover nothing but a great Lake , an~. fo returned to the Ship. On Sunday after Mafs, they fent out upon difcovery a Shalloop in_to a narrow paifage that reaches a-s 4 bov~

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~ .64 A 11e~ Defcent of the Spaniars" bove three Leagues : Father Kino writes, that the farther end ofthat fi~eight lies in 2.4 degrees 1 ,q minute~. In t~e evening they fe,11 a fiilimg, anq too~ a great many Sea-wolves,Soles,Thornbacks, and feveral other fifh of prodigious bignefs, -whereof they made prqvifion for three days; but amongil: thefdi1h fame th .~y i~new to be poy~ On Munday they came afboar again in tpe fame place where they landed at firfi: they began to build a little Fort with a Church which they Dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupa, becaufe ijnder her Auf pices they had undertaken the Con queft of that Country~ That precaqtion wa~ Q O t ufelefs ; for tl~e Admiral and fame Captains advancing up to a height, difcovered great frnoa~, , which is the (tgnal given , by the Califurnians to affemble when they go out to War. The Admi ... ra~ th0ught fi~ to fortifie himfelf, which was done withtruql
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A new Defcent of the Spaniards. 6; coming {1:reight to the place where the Spaniards were. The Allarm was founded, and every one retreated in to the Foot.' Hardly were they got into a pofiure of defence, when there appeared 1~ thirty five Indians wel~ fbaped, and armed with Bows, ' Arrows, and Darts ; they drew up into a half-moon, and began to make figns that tl e •'fa 11iards fhould be gone and leave their ou t ry. The Admiral and Captains made 1 n s to them again, that they defire.~ n thrng but peace 'J and that they were . come to make Alliance \ V . t h them. They made a fign to them to lay down their Arms, and that they would do the like alfo; . b~t the Indians would not. In tl~e mean time, Fat her MathiaJ Gog,ni, and Father Et,;fe/JiUJ franciJ Kino, MiHionaries of the Socit-ty of Jefos, who embarked in that Fleet to endeavour the Converfion of thofe people, ad van ... ctd towards them in a fearlefs manner, and offer"! ed them Bisket, Indian Corn~ Beads of Jet, and many trifles which thefe Barbarians look upon as very precious things. At firfr they would not receive them from their hands, bu t made them a fign to lay them down . upon the ground , and ( that they would take them. The Jefuits did fo; they took what was preiented them, and having ' eaten with great demonfirations of joy, they laid down their Arms, came to the Fat hers, and took fr:om their hands, arid the hands of the other Spa"": 1t1iqrr!.r,all they pleafed to giv~ them. They feem~ . . ed

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-,.66 A new Defcent of the Spa_niards. ed to be very hungry, and rubbed their belly and ftomach very fafi with their hand , to fuew the need they had of food. Not that they wanted , vittuals, for they had Venifion with which they entertained the Spaniards, and fame pieces .of a -kind of Roafl:-meat which they alfo eat in NewSpain: But by what could be conjectured~ having that day made a long march, it was probable they were wjlling to referve their Provifions for their return , or to eat them by the Fountain ' which was feized by the Spaniards. It was obferved, that the Barbarians having eaten a little of what was given them, carried the refi up to the Mountain, and then came back again, fl1ewing by their geftures that it would be a great kindnefs to give them fome more. May be their wives and children were in the Neighbouring woods, and that they went to fh.are what they. got, with them. That day they retired not till 1 towards night ; and though the Spaniards were . extreamly well fatisfied witb what had pail, yet ~hey thought they could not ufe too great circum-f pection in fight of a people whofe humour and fidelity were not as y~t fuffici~ntly known. The pays followi:ng were im ployed in cutting of 1 l?alm-trees and other great Timber for fortifying the half-moon. Thurfday the Eighth of April the Spaniards made a great fiiliing; and becaufe , the Indians appeared not that day, they fufpelted they might have fome bad defign, and that they _/

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_ A new Defcent. of the Spaniards. 267.. they gathered together Forces to come and attack them : But next day appeared fourfcore and ten Indians far differe . t from the former, who gave the Spaniards all the teflimonies of friendihip ' that could be defired : thefe fl1ew'd them a . ._;rucifix and the Image of our Lady of Guadalupa . but it • was plain ~no ugh by the f urprize they fecmed to be in at the fight of thefe things , that they had never feen the like before. At night they went to lie upon the Mountain, nnd returned next day, ilie~ing a great deal of familiarity and freedom; for they mingled with the Spani11rds. \vith-1 out any fear, and indeed with a little too much liberty, fl:ealing fame fmall trifles with wonderful dexterity and flight. The Admiral percei ving that diforder , thought fit to remedy it by inf piring into them fear and ref peel-. And this is the courfe he took: He cauted a very thick earthen Buckler to be faflned to the bones of a Whale that were found there by chance; and then made a fign to the Barbarians to {hoot their Arrows againfr that Buckler. Some of the firon"" gefl: did fo with great dexterity, but the Arrows 1 -broke, and fcarcely grazed the hair ' of it, which1 furprized them ; for their Arrows are fo fl1~rp_ and piercing, that th~ fhoot all forts of Beaft~ . through and through. The Armiral asked them by ftgri , if they had a mind to fee the force of the Spanijh .{\.r.ms, becaufe they imagined, as they confeffed afterwards, that the Harquebufe ~as a kmd

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~68 A new Defcent of the Spaniards. kind of Bow, and the fcowring-fiick the Arrow; and that they might know what the force of fire Arms was,he ordered Lieutenant Don Martin re-• raftigui to fhoot at the Buckler : the Lieutenant ftanding fix paces farther off of the Buckler than they did, difcharged his Harquebufe, and pierced through not onely the leather of the Buckler, but alfo the bone of the Whale to which it was faftned. The Barbarians in amazement drew nigh to fee the fhot, and asked a Buller, in hopes they might do as much: They had a Bullet given them, which they put to the end of a Dart, and then blew with all their force, thinking that the blowing was the caufe of the report which they had heard ; but fo foon as they let the Bullet go, it fell at their feet. This experiment frightned them, and made that they durft not fieal any thing more; nay, if they . chanced to take any thing , they gave it back fo foon as they were bid. The Spaniards asked by fign if there wa:s any River in the Country ; and this one of them did to make his Anf wer be undedl:ood: He took a Dart,and pointing it Wefiward, began to go at a ttot, and ha'.'" ving made a turn and a half round the Camp, he turned the point of his Da-rt towards the Sun1 thereby fignifying that there was a -River difiant as much way as by going at that rat ' e one might accomplifh in the f pace that the Sun takes to make a turn and a half round the World ; which wa~ as much as if h~ had faid that there was a ~iver

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/' A new Defcent of the Spatiiards. 1J69 River Wefiward a day and a halfs Journey from the Camp. They gave then a handful of Salt,ask .. ing if they had any of it ; they put fame of it in to their mouths, and made a fign by turning the head, that they had not. When they had done fo, they put their hands upon their cheeks, ~nd fuutting their eyes, took leave of the company, intimating by that'gefiure, that they were going , to fleep. The J ef ~its who made the Voyage for no other end but to endeavour the Converfion of thofe people, applied themfelves prefeotly to the lear ning of their Language: They moil: exacl:ly remarked all the words-which they underfl:ood, and re immediately wrote diem down that they might learn them~ and Fa. ther Kino, ~ho begins to un derfiand that Tongue,affirms that it is very clear, and contains all the Letters of rhe Alphabet. The people are docile, affabl~, and of a very chearful humour ; they pronounce S panifh v , ery diftinfr1y, and from the very firfi their Children came ~nd play'd with the Ghi)dren of the Spaniards, as familiarly as if they had been bred tog~ther. f There fcarcely pafi a day but fame new Indians came to the Camp. The Spaniards having 'kepr-Holy-Thurf day with a great deal of Devoti on, in the Church which they had made of the trunks of Trees, forty Indians different from thofe whom t~ey ha~ fe:n before, came to them . : They made fnendflup w11h them, and gave them fome • trifl~s

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;o A new Defcent of tbeSpariiards, trifles in recom pence for (ome loads of Ximber that they .were d~fired to carry. Th4y were fq well fatisfied with thefe Prefents , that they all came back next day with their loads of woo4 up-on their back, thinking thereby 1to . pleafe the Spa-.. niards. . They are a very teachable p~oBle, take inUru-8:ion quickly, pray with the Fathers, make the fign of the Crofs, and clear! y and difrincH y re.pe~t the Prayers which they are taughr to, fay, ; _,for though they uncj~rftand them nor, ret the N4me of GOD, which is contained in thefe Prayers, is c3:pable of foftning thei~ hearts, ~nd producing great effefrs in their Souls. . , . l The ingenio}'S way of expreffing any thing by gefiures, fhev\~ s very well that they want not wit. An o}d man who had had fiv(} Children, took this tourfe to make the S panittrds undedl:and that he had buried one qf them : he dug a hole, took a piece of wooJ ancf Overed it ther~in with ei;Hitl}, ; endeavouring by that reprefentation to c001(0,rt himfelf for the lofs he h?-d Suffered.. In this man:ner tbefe good peop\e converfe with the Spanjards, , and iofon~1 thm of many . tl)ings , , which would be. too long to be related , here. It is • not as yet known if they have any Cottages :-Th~ Admiral having Gom~~nded a Corporal a-u_d -,fome Souldiers to mar~h up as far as they col:lld in the Country , t , o cJifcover if. tJ1ere were any ; and they ha V ing marc-h{td about three Le~gues, went

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JI. new Defcent of the Spaniards. 7 1 went up to a very high place, from whe_nce they perceived a great Lake, lovely Plains, and thick fmoak at a vaft diftance ; but fa w neither men norhouk~ . The Air of this H1and is very good and pleafant; it hath great Mountains covered with wood, full of Wild-fowl, Rabbets, and Deer. The Soil feems to be very fit for all forts of Grain ; there is already fome Indian Corn fo.w'd, Melons, and other Seeds which the Spaniards carried with them. The Meadows and lovely Pafture-ground which they have found there, make them believe it will breed all forts of Beafis : and therefore the Ad miral fent off the beft Ship to import fo~e for br~eding ; they have ~dvice that fhe was arrived at Hiaqui, where they had taken on board all ~hat the Admiral demanded. Some Souldiers walking abroad at a pretty good difiance from the Camp, found a. Cave, . wherein was a great quantity of dead mens bones~ which made them conjecture they bury 'their dead there. They found alfo the marks of fome. Veiiels,which is probable were the reqiains of --h e fhipwrack that Captain Ortega made in that Port. c in the year I 6 3 3, or 1634: . They found Mineral frones them alfo, and Mother of Pearl, which that great Gulf is full of, if the ancient Relations may be believed ; but what wonders foever they report as to that, there have been none found as yet, and the Indians themfel~-es know of no fuc-h t-hing

PAGE 292

272 A new Defcentofthe Spaniards. thing. May be there are none to be found but in , the Ifles, which are ,very numerous in the middle of this Gulf, ef pecial1y to the North-Weft. They found likewife in the fame Cave, the bones of 4 Whale of fo prodigious a bignefs, that one fingle Jaw-bone was five ells broad. The Admir'al Don ljidore d' Atondo impatiently expell:s the horfes that are to be brought to him from Hiaqui, that he may advance farther up intotheCountrytj and go to the other fide of the Hav
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