Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
Creator:
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Publisher:
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
Location:
New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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General Note:
Date updated: 2020-04-20 9:24 AM.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Australian National University
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
Resource Identifier:
K26-05622 ( USFLDC: LOCAL OI )
k26.5622 ( USFLDC: Local Handle )

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/ ',. *""' PAI!llA lfEN (HJJJJ'EAt\ C.llVE EX:eLORATION GROUP 4folti.me l 2 April 'll• '.. Price: NEGROS I. N 1 JLS. 1 WOCQARK I ' <1 :,. :. '-f$11.:;1t.

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c CAVER. VOIUWIE NTJ!';IBI:Il 2 C:::: :Ls t: .. :11.e\JE:\J..etter of the ... \r.ma. UsvJ .. nea .LLc :Michael Bourke'. 9 D ri 9 I' ap u.a. N :;;v1 o 00 per annum o D., Ao S o o ? I{ era vat 9 East }:Tev; I)roduction Ian Cooper,, .. .. -..;:it.:O..:...'I U .. L 3-1 " o G , C unc CU .h..bfJ tI'act D s Vo.l.n;:ne 1 'i Number I Doli11.e a.r Tukc Village 9 Pom:. o t Ca J. Borougho lt::"ita:in edi. t :Lon .. ::;erek Cla.rl-c IL Michael J3ourkeo (< J J"?oro1 Cave9 Chimbu Dj_stric-f .. Go:rge 9 Chi: 1bu District .. u IU. c t.. J:3j 11 Sa:nderf o -)(2 2 27 41]. 4'.) 48 50 ovv ;:; the areas in )apua Uf w Guine:l the:ce occrrr _ in which estone is pro1dnento It couC16C3 bv Th-.OJ_G !:J' \f\Jj 11-i;. rn q 1 all +he 8V2-j abl1.::i I -I " (,.. J .. ,,_ 0 .J.-Q , 0 I ..... ,.. -1-\,,,. .> • • lJ \J C-_..li •"""'" • V c.tl H.t tb e c:,, v as fir 3t pub1ished in 7 61 ... 7 9 6 c

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./ NIUG nn CAVER VOHJME 1 NUMBEH. 2 21 was a most encouraging response to the first of Oaver9 so here's the secondo It is produced in the name f Guinea Cave Explora.ti on Group o The Po 1L Go C ,, E o Go? i It :J .. f:::-an association proposed by Kevan Wilde and Van Watson of I ..... o:f-fi-ee-bear-ers9 me2ti,:ngs 9 _ finances but hopefully will amass a reference 1:L brary of periodtcals9 maps and trip reportso Yon.r editor is still out of pocket so a subscription by any New Guinea cavers who have not yet paid would be appreciated ..... (-; :r:.sno.es and addresses of potential subscribers who have not a copy.. will be sent free to any caving 0 willing to send their publication to the PoNoGoCoEoGa oo VJi.sh.ing to do so are asked to indicate this" those contributions coming in.. As there are not exactly n. u of edi tors9 cartographers9 typists9 production s lickers (to put it mildly), maps and articles in as ete a form as possible are appreciatedo Maps should be done ... ,,_ .... , ... .. , ..... or Dmaller 9 in black ink and with full information ' 09 instrwnents used or grade, surveyor, North direction9 le1se:rH1) o Use international units (metres9 not mete:cs9 rna " ) * * -x-__ _ J.'ht? produced by the Australian Speleological. J:'ed.2ration ts 11TlE reference book on Australian and P aN o Go caves and -.,.. ... .,,., J • • b. . d d d 1 . 1 J:1 issue is now eing pro uce an wi 1 inc ude map 1istso An;yon? holding maps and sketches or knowing of cave s in any pub_Lication except the available literature C e 0 g " :, _ 9 g e 9 o et c o ) i s asked to send de . i.8 Ol -0.J.e S to Michael Bourke '('DaAoSoFo 9 Kera.vat, EoNoBo) VJ iJ compiling the nap information for the H811dbooko The follow-" "i'ecfuIreagfi':3,mc of cave or map 9 ve lo Instruments and methods used or Cave Research Group of GoBo standard;; 3cale9 ew (Plan9 cross i:Jection or longi tudina1 section); D::::t.te9 ?-ubli. ea on dete.L1:.: :: 3urveyors/Draftsmani p T(]r:-r) -j C< i1eld o I'" 'i . ./ }.:; J.. 9 OtneT cLata ( e o go 9 ada.pted c"'rom another map or compiled by 0 o 0 0 ) o

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I 22 NIUGHH CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 AcSoAo is a journal providing abstracts of all current caving literature in Australia and PolLGo, and is produc.ed, ev.ery six months by the Australian Speleological Federation and the Sydney cal Society.. If you are interested .in any of the many and varied fields connexted with speleology9 AoSoAo is a musto All the PoNoGo cave literature is included" The latest issue c6ntains 26 PoNoGo abstracts for the first half of 19720 Five issues have now been produced.. Subscription is $1.50 for two issues for 19709 1971 and 1972" The 1973 rate will be $2. Send subs to Po 0 o Box 198, Broadway 51 lL So vVo 2007 o * * * THE NEN CONTRIBUTORS Chris Borough is a. former member of the Sydney University Speleological Society. He caved in the Highlands in the early sixties and later in New Britain" Iyo Mesibere is from T1..'..fi in the Northern District and is currently a final year student at Vudal A:.:;ricul tural Collegeo The trip described here was his first caving experience. Bill Sanders has been caving very actively in the Highlands since last year. He was one of the four on the first descent of Bibima cave" * * -1(... Cover" Bougainville and the Vogelkop Peninsula. in Irian Jaya did not come out too well on the map. Sorry By the way51 inclusion of Irian Jaya on the map of New Guinea does not indicate any political overtones for unificationo p. 2, paragraph 4o The refere:hce (Rickwood 1955) was ami tted and is g Fo Ko (1955) .. Geology of the Wc;stern Highlands of New Guineae J. Geol. Soco Aust. 2: 63-820 .... ro 159 paragraph 3 line 2 should read 11.oooopassage without upper levels o o o o o u V* * /*-V* V* \,("* * * * Irapui cave in the Porol Scarpo PoNoGo9s longest. Jn.vavEX:; map o Carstenz in Lcian Jt'Yao Papuan caveso N O'::i Ireland P" O o VJ" .. Mondi ca.vingo Kev ReaC.' HiglJ.lands exploits from a few years back"

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/ :rnuGnn CAVER VOLUME 1 1'TUMBER 2 23 111 • ....i1• "'i• • 1... . Ho Galla.sch ,, 1i!'lt" ff.•"l.:il,.. . 1111JJ1..f.1 : ' .. . J . i,11 . ,,, , ,, .. ,. " -j. • 1 I } 1969 o Access was by road from rvTumeng9 a patrol post on the 1'1 ,;-* o Bulolo highway.. It was a spectacular drive along the Snc.ke IU ver Gorge o On either side the mountains of the Kuper Hange tovrnrc(l to almost 2000 m o At times .the road clung to the side of the mou::.1-tains, other times ft descended almost to the swirling torrent of the river. A beautiful sight was the cascading of an minamec1 stream over the opposite cliff, JOO m in to the ri vor belovJ o From where we halted at the Mission on a spur overlooking the Snake River 9 it vvas some 20 minutes brisk walking through the kunai to Sogaiyo villa.geo Here we vvore met by the luluai -who offer.ed us some juicy sv1eot oranges 9 rather a rare cor:unodi ty i.:::i PoNoGo .A score or so of young boys were interested in coming 1Ni th us to the caveo They followed us through tho gardens and down a steep limestone hill into the gorge o Through this gorge runs rJ. tributary of the Snake H.ivGro In the outcropping not far above the bottom of the gorge 9 was a narrovv fissure vJhich was the entrance to the cave o This is calledAfaruru by the local peopleo This cave is the one named Awarida in the ASF Handbook (Champion 1968) and Arbaruru by Brown ( 197 3) • Mac.hs ( 19 51 ) uses the nar:18 Afaruru c.--:.lso With torches o.nd cu.ndles vv e entered the ca.ve o Through the first.>'"S.ection' we -were accqmpanied by boys bearing burning -brands in one ho.ndl> In the other they held brushes to wield nnd .. strike dovm flying foxes and,,. hats o These VJ ould be o..n ac1di tion. to ... , .: .. ''the evenii1.g mes.lo Many bats occupied this sE:;ction and guano on the floor o The roof e.nd sides of the small cha.mbers 1H ere . .• ,b;y; , us t and smoke" 1\'1Ji. . • );; \ 1J. ... ,. ., ; , .,, . , '\" ., •. , ."'.. . . ' ,.><::'\. :_ . 1 .... ,17 M!@•t. "L0:f;,,,;t .. h@' 1!.cili:ltmtt&i j_ 1 hands and lm.ees and wriggle through a small opening into the ::.1ext section. As vve were moving bctvrnei1 huge boulders 9 v10 did not at first realize the large size of the 'cathedral' chamber -vve entered. The right side wall of this chamber was me.ssive9 to a height of perhaps 20 m9 and in plo,ces covered with palisades of stalacti teso On the left vrnre several openings to a crevasse. This area richly decorated in ste,lc,cti tcs of varying hues of cream ari.d brovni.. In the floor vrnre doop scoured potholeso Far below, be seen rushing beneath the flooro At the end of the main chamber vrn followed a fissure through to the edge of a rushing stream o This emerged from. tho darkness of r:;, small passage on the. right and churned dO\vn into a hole on tlrn 1

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?4 NIUGINI CAVER .VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 I edged over a narrow pl2.i1.k someone had placed across this 2 m stream to a 20 cm vvide ledge on the opposite side:o AftGr testing this slippery ledge, I decided to give it a miss! The vrn.ter level was higher than on previous occasions o. It vms on our return that I found1 near. the end of tb.:e: 9 cathedral' chamber, an obscure but quite. large opening into .. 0, J'.lOViJ tunneL This I follovrnd for some 50 m to a junction vd th a similar but slightly larger passage at right angles • .J_ s was follo\lv ed for a considerable distance. to the right. vnt:il progress vms halted by mud fill o The thickness o.f .mud wculd appear to indice.to tho.t this was at times a stream . :3sctgc o In the other direction9 after perhaps 70 m from our entrance, we vrnre halted on the brink of a chasm. This cut across and was somG 12 m deep and of unknovvn length. The roof was far aboveo It. is probable that the passage c6ht-Lnues across the other side of the chasm
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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 25 records the cave as 600 m longo During periods of low rainfall; it is possible also to follovJ upstream along the c2.ve rivero Thero are a group of burial caves (overhangs) nearby. These will bo described in another article. B:rmJn 9 Lex ( 197 3) o AvJc.::.rida Co. ve and Associa.ted Burial Caves o Dovm Under 26-27. Newsletter of the UiirvorSi'ty' of Queensland Speleological Society. Champion, Co R. ( 1968) o Caving and Karst in Papua and New Guineao in Matthews, Po (Ed.) Speleo Handbooko Australian Speleological Federation. Sydneyo M8'd1s 9 Arnold TuL ( 1 9 51) ., Bones of the Buangs o 1 st December, 1951 PPo 14-180 -r.* * A LARGE C.A VE AHD DOI1INE NEAR TUKE VILI1AGE ... C. J. Borough* Much of the island of New Britain is limestone but is almost a complete unknovm from a speleoYs viewpoint. The big problem9 2,,s vvi th the majority of Papua l\f ew Guinea 9 s limestone is lack of access. Native populatj_ons have concentrated around relatively fertile areas of moderate topography and with the exception of the upland regions this tends to completely exclude the limestone are.DB which can only be described as extremely rugged.. It is so difficult to walk into these areas that even man.y experienced Papua :Nev.J Guinea cavers vrnuld not have encountered the severe karst topo-graphy that is so typicalo The karst landscape consists of endless sinks vvi th almost vertical sides near the outer edge of each and clothed in dense forest Rainfall is generally in excess of 5000 nm (2oon)o It can only be described as impossible country and I :n.ever succeeded in pushing more than a km into it from one edge., Army maps show two remarkable features on one of the limestone :olatea.ux North of Pomio in Eastern New Bri taino They are a large ,::ole about 1. 5 km long and 460 m deep and a smaller hole, 0 o 5 km n=Lde and 380 m deep o For the average caver 9 this is too much and I drooled at the prospect of seeing these.immense holeso VThen good air photo coverage became available I was able to ]?inpoint the position of the smaller of the tvrn holes and arranged to fly over the hole in a helicopter. Because of the ground vation it was not possible to climb very high above the plateau in .;+ c/o J?orest Hesearch Institute, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Yarralumla, Australian Capital Territory.. 2600.

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26 NIUGr'NI .CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 the helicoptero impossible to find the hole despite its. size because of the very nature of its formation a collapse of a large ti..i.."'1.derground cavern plus all the burden. The hole was eventually located and must be one of the wonders .of the world just as described on the army map, though possibly more like 450 m deep and with a ver.y large river flovv-1. ng across the bottom •. The si. des .are. sheer and bare rock is visible around most of :the sides lvery rare in Nevv Britain!) ... With the information about the river I checked the air photos again and found vJhat appeared to be a river flowing from nowhere and having a village right on the river. It seemed a reasonable guesE:1 tb,at the hole a fevv kilometres away and this river were connected so I contacted Kevin HE-ad who undertook a 150 km sea jdurney in his speedboat to join me at Open Bay. We flew in to the village by helicopter and were able to spend a couple of days exploration. The river by the village was indeed .large a11d fast flowing ( 9 m wide 1.5 m deep flowing at about 20 km/hour) and came.:f.rom a large railway tm111.el type cave . ., There were no alternate passages or ledges so Kev and I decided to try inching up the stream. The technique evolved had myself holding on by the fingertips and lying in the current whilst Kev climbed a.round me until he could get a holdo The system failed at the first sharp corner and we vrnre rapidly returned to the exit by the current. Assuming the river to be an impossible route, we attempted to reach the BIG HOLE on footo With extreme reluctance the local people agreed to take us near, but not to9 the BIG HOLE as it was a place full of devils etc .. (these being ravenous crocodiles who supposedly lay in wait at the bottom of the BIG HOLE)o After many hours of vertical toil and pleasant plateau vvalking vve came across the lip of the hole .. We climbed down as far a.s possible and belayed down to the extent of our rope (60 m) but we guessed that we were still 300 m off! We reluctantly gave up when the rains came and slogged back to the village vJi th one concTusion '.'" impossible without incredibly costly gear, transport and bods. I believe we were the first of many cavers who will experience a feeling of disbelief at seeing such a wonderful spectacle but will also feel despair at being mJ.able to enter a. truly magnificent, guaranteed virgin cave. I flew over the doline in December 1972 and wouMestimate depth as m. The diameter is of the order of 400 m at plateau level and 200 m at the bottom. with an almost circular shape and near vertical sides of exposed limestone, the doline is indeed a spectacular sight.. River flow in the doline and at the (from Chris' photos) appears to be mu3h less than the 75 m /sec he estimated.. It is more like 4-6 m /sec.. Still a very impressive cave ruino

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0 NIUGIHI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 / 27 H. o Michael. BoJ:'ke * . PERSONNEL a Michael Bourke (leader) 9 Lex Brown9 Harold Gallasch.,: tesiey-!remon, Pauline McMahon9 John Webho 17th December, First member departs from Rabaula. 9thJe,nuary, 197Jg Last member returns to Rabaulo Main party left Rabaul 19th December and returned 6th Januaryo Boeing 7279 Fokker F27 (to Rabaul)9 PipE;r Aztec, Cessna 1720 VW12009 Toyota 3-ton truck9 Toyota Stout9 three tractorso Admin .. trawlers Andevva, Andera, Nimba9 outrigger canoes (with and vd thout engine},. bamboo raft o Party was walking for 12 days. 30 carriers employed dailyo 250-300 men9 women and children employed as carriers. The aim of the expedition was t'O explore and dool:ll8ent tJEacave in the Pomio Sub=district of NevJ Britain located at 151 40 'E9 5 129S" Following reports of a very large doline in a limestone plateau Horth of Pomio9 Mike did an 8-day trip to.the doline in April 1972. He entered the doline, but did not reach the bottom. A cave entrance taking water was sightedo An expedition by the University of Queensland Speleological Society to explore the cave was proposed and a report published (Bourke 1972) o. Planning for the expedition started in Brisbane in June with 11 potential memberso Mike returned to Keravat1 ' New Britain in July; 1972 and the organization continued at Keravatand in Brisbane. Lex wa.s in charge of planning in Brisbane" It was intended to. fly from Rabaul to the at Nutuve Catholic Mission in the.middle of the islando However, the strip. was washed out before it Y\Jas opened and the had to fly to Palmalmal Plantation on Jacquinot Bay on the South coasto , (Fig. 1) From here transport was by tractor to the plantation9 thence launch across J acquinot Bay and then tractor to, Waterfall Bay.. A day's walk to Uutuve9 another to Ora village and another up the cliffs, across the plateau and into the doline were planned" In fact it to-ok 8 days to get the main party from Habaul to the do line instead of the four planned. Most of the equipment from Australia was shipped to Rabaul in Derek Clark9 Hal and Mike made a recon;naissance flight over the area in December in a Cessna 172. Derek had to pull out of the trip a few days before we left because of back trouble" * DoAoSoFo9 Keravat9 East New Britaino

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28 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 ORA CAVE A1TD DOLINE The is the. largest known do line in aTiirge-ITmestone""'"plateau.. It is situated in Yalam limestone which has a maximum measured thickness of approximately 1100m. The limea,tone outcrops over 5509000 hectares South and West of Pomio .. Plateau altitude is 600 m 1500 m a .. s .. lo At Ora doline it is about 1130 m (3700 ft) aos .. l.. f The topography is one: form of polygonal karst termed cockpit karst and is covered in tropical forest .. It consists of innumerable adjoining dolines or cockpits generally 30-100 m deep that pit the landscape .. Residual hills surround the cock-. pits 7 but these are not the rounded conical hills termed cone karst described elsewhere from PdNoGo The hills tend to be aligned so as to form a series of crooked ridges .. The sides of the cockpits in some areas are sci steep as to preclude overland travel.. Drainage on the plateau is undergrom1d and stream effluxes occur around the eP.ge of the plateau near the base of the cliffs .. Huge limestone 'cliffs hound the plateaux in places and are formed rivers. cut through the limestone.. Cliffs 300 m high are common and some are probably up to 900 m higho The cliffs9 gorges andkarst topography give the country a. spectacular appearance from the, (3-;ir o Four exceptiona,lly large dolines are knovvn to us from .the area North of Pomioo (Figa1) One is only a few kilometres NV/ of Pomio and another smaller one near Nutuve was sighted from the air. Near Tuke village is another marked f3.S 11 Sinkhole approx o 12 50 deep11, on the military maps o . Thi'S vm.s partially explored by Chris Borough and Kevin Read in 1968 (Borough 1973)0 Ora ts the largest of the dolineso (Fig.4) It is marked as 11Sinkhole approx .. 15oov deep" on the military map.. It is in fact a double doline (an uvala) with a bridge across the centreo Our survey showed it to be 900 m long, 560 m wide 9 ai1d 268 m ( 880 ft) deep. At the bottom of the doline a river emerges from a cave entra:nce 9 stays on the surface for 50 m and then disappears into another cave. About 1 .. 5 km away and .51 m lower a river emerges from the cliff 342 m (1121 ft) high that forms the edge of .the plateauo The efflux is 55 m up the cliff and forms a spectacular waterfall where it emerges from a cave entrance some 10-20 m high to form a tributary of the Iso Hivero The river in the Ora doline and the one that .emerges from the flif5 are probably the same •.. Flow rate at the vvaterfall (5.45 m /seco 193 cusecs) is of the same order as that measured at the bottom of the (5.69 m3/ sec .. 201 cusecs) and in the cave (4o04 m3/sec .. 1 cusecs) .. (Figs. 2and 3)

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29 "' : . . "' r, •. .. ... ..... 1 ..... 1 ... ll. , . ,.fb h ; ti;' 'i( •'""9'• ...... .o : ?-• lr 7$C)00 1 Ora Doline 2 Deline near 4 Matan Doline & Ampht#Jeatre Wide Bay After PtG h 2SQOOO Geoloak.ol .... .. NtW BRITAIN

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l' 30 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 N;UMBER 2 F . downstream section it possible to 'move relatively easily for 105'm before it becomes necessary to cross the streamo The chamber is 15-27 m vVide and about 27 rn high with the stream occupying half to all of the cave flooro By crossing the stream twice in this section vve. were able to explore 168 m of passage before progrBss was halted by a waterfall that occupies the entire floor of the e,ave o Al though only a few metres high9 the w0terfall stopped us because beyond it a person in the "could not be effectively belayedo The cave with the roar:i,Jig ri V.J\.,,continues downstreamo The river occupies the entire cave\ flo.o.t".o It should be possible to explore further by the waterfallo Moving upstream frdrtt1'E{: ;;;bo"ttoril\ .. o.f the do line vve entered a large From the /roof hung) huge stalactites wi tg a weathered Flying foxes,:were congregated in places on the ceilirJ.go' .. .j}.t the upstream end of the chamber the river 'eme:cges from .. a.. small pass.age impossible to enter 'because of the concent:cated flow G)f the rivero Our survey showed it to be 85 m and where the river disappeared further .. , ,;:. , . ' .. . . ,. :: .• {:,:). :\:i > : :,; : . ;, ... : By IT19Y:ing th0 ohan:tber 'irl:>:t'Ps'6utherly' direction we , came:; out fn the bottom qf ;the ():ther half of the twin do line. Sheer wa:lls,over 100 m high surround the bottom., Away from the roar of the riwer the' quiet of the doline was a pleasant change 11 ,. .. ,, {, :.:1 From the e the cave again and. followed an otld s t.reap1 l'.}assagc bp,:ck_ .. /to, .. the riyp,17.t the,. was ... a domed qhrn1'be;r 30 .. _ spedta.cular waterfall th ri ... :a pool il;l to .:passage only big enough to c ontaJn the river o Upstrea1p:,w,.e/moved a. beautifully de .. corq.ted sec.tion along the river to a lake o Calcite curttt.ins, pandle;;;;;wax flowstonB and stalactites lavishly decorate this area. Th'e river fluws but slowly through the lake .some 6 m de e'p ru1'd 'l O to m--.. vvi .... end of the lak ff'"the roof and \Nater meet thus limiting further exploration., Explored cave vvas 600 m long a.nd 67 DIARY .... (<: .. :... ' , . Porrlio. on the trawler a .ge ar-.o '.'.;'" ;)'.:; ... Pomio and went cavingo 19th Decembero Rest of party flew to Palmalmal PlantaTion-*fnAzteccharter and thence via tractor and launch .. , . J ;'. . .. ,; !'• : ••

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w,. l•yal$n I I J11 1 .. ... .:;;_ ____ .... bou-day 0 l 2 I 'i. I "multiplt" efflux&. (;)ffhJx eost of 7..;o positbned by aerial observation only. I Ora doline •

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32 NIWINI CAVER VOLUME 1 UUMBEH 2 to Pbmio withthe rest ()f the .. -Xota:\ of equipment 500 kg (1'foo lbs)" f r Wednesday2 20th Decembero Travelled by tractor1 rf:lft9 tractor9 and: P'canoe aridwalked""'"to mission base camp near the mouth of the Esis River" No carriers so overnighted at priest9s hut, Trottbl? carriers. party and gear moved to mission shed 22 hour3 walk from the e-oost • • Five party w1thmost .of g?al' vvalked to Nutuve\5-b hours). Hal stayi:d at shed vn th 4 patrol boxeso We had problems with pay rates for carrierso Should have been at doline,but three mare days to go stillo Progress was frustratingly Every001e very tired. Father Benedict 9 s hospitality was beaut as vvas his freshly baked breado :_!rd:l.1. ..... o Five of us got to Ora village after a long day--C82--9 hourST on the track" Hal got 110 Nutuve .. ..... After a late start we had a look at the efflux which is 1.5 km North of West (rom the village" Very impressiveo Gained our first idea ot the problems in moving along the river. Haj_ turned up at 13unset so we had Christmas togethero Good_ to be together again and there. Les and Pauline vvere the first vvhi te women in the village. _J2.:lo Lex, Mike and John vvent up to the doline with some gea.ro From thE:J village we climbed a hiD.l to a small and then up thE( cliffs to the platieau p:toper o T/l:oving on the plateau me4ns goi:rj.g in and out of dolines continuouslyo None had promising"entrances as most were blocked on the surface o Entered Ora doline from the northern ond and got to the bottomo 1!he villagers had insisted that it -vms not possible\> At the bottom a raging river emerged from a 23 m high cave entrance, moved on the surface under an overhand and then disappeared into another huge cave entrance o What a sight! Made it all worthwhile .. Bnd all our worries over carriers evaporated. out of hillside and jungle 30 m .above the river. From a 35 slope we cut a horizontal bench and erected a houseo An earthquake was experienced while setting up camp. The carriers bolted fearing the vmasalaiv (spirit) that inhabits the doline? but were restrained by threat of non-payment o . -Hal visited the efflux while the girls stayed in the village and read the control barometer. Lex took barometric

PAGE 15

BlVGDl CA.UR VOLUD 1 IDllBIR 2 FtG4 ORA DOLINE N l doJ1nc . notthe rn doline • .1 :10000 0 !OR !apg !90 '9 m 6ai metres . .... , a lC ?•J>s1"J:OH. ,,: .; 33 ........_ :Doic'na S \o\->c<. 1 ,,._,. JCl;.(f . . -'-r l;>A..""e.t;.:c )t, 11• U;"". -Pla" by ,, t&J. Ii-., f., .. "._,.I& o.ft.J. •Ml i_.h..r f"'a -:LJ.• -_s:_ _1... I •

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34 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 readings as. we walked into the doline. ... Lex was ill and rested, John and Mike found a way 'to cross the stream and explored the southern doline and. upstream chambers as far as the lake., The cave downstream of the do line was explored u.i.-vitil a river crossing became necessaryo Unable to cross without gear. Rigged a rope across tho river below ttie. car.ap to acp_ess .. to the ca.ve. .t ... Hal9 Les and Pauline visited the multiple effluxes some hours walk South of the village o The streams emerge about 50 m.. ,U.P a. fa.co ax1d. the vv.a ter ff111y Q_ow:ri to Iso River. It appeared possible to follow at least one•o.t
PAGE 17

• • FIG 5 . section AR river sectiOn lm .__ dccorotiOn .., 2 fi' • ORA CAVE NEW BRITAIN . . ' southcrrl .doliM ----4• .o•• f 4t' norbrn doline " i A .... FI ..1-southern dolinc //• "" ., .. ,. f ' .... If y>'-cl;.-ft :Z s\ok 1:2000 05 40 ---_ metres DRAWN-A.L.BROW N. u. Q. s. s. 1 .,,a./3 e 'PU:tTioN. C. 'R. <;-. <\t>• 5 '$,.A,.,-lt1t.>. $. • • •

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0 36 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NmvrnER 2 out to daylight and the green of the jungle.. The roar of the river was always with us except in the southern doline.. Les had a rest day as her leg9 injured in a started to become very painfulo Usually we vvere up by 5030-6 .. 30 aom., At 8 aomo When nobody was .:UP9 we decided to call .. rest .. Hal took a fevJ surface sh6ts and collected molli;iscs. .. o Surveyed most of the cave in 8 Hal took photoso John collected boneso Pn.uline tried two squeezes but no goerso ..... Dau __ l.272 .. Les had a sleepless. night vJi th her leg . which seemed to be getting worse.. Decided that Hal9 Les and Lex would go to the village tomorrow to get medical advice O.J'.l the radio and helicoptero Our domestic sent back to the village for carriers" More surveying9 some photography and stream flow measurements done.. Climbing gear recovered from climbo Lex and Mike tried to get to the. top , of the bridge in .the do line, bu.t were bca.ten by darko Ha.19 John? Lex and Paultrie-we1Tt.-back for more photography at night.. Tho flying were not prGsent in the upstream 13ecti.ono Up to 10 hours underground. Hal, John and Lex started to have feet trouble. Les was strapped into a stretcher made from treGs9 sacks, bush rope and tape.. Four men carried the stretcherand four relieved except on very bad pitches where men were neededo The trip down was okay, despite a 40 slope out of the doline and near vertical pitches on the cliff. Only when the carriers started was Les knocked about. Lex contacted Civil Defence in Ra.baul for medical advice.. The chopper was to cost $1200.. Relieved to know it vvaspossible to carry the stretche+ .okay" John and Pauline did a fevv cross sections in the downstream section and collected the fixed ropes.. Mike read the base barometer in camp while Lex took readings on the way out. After lunch Mike and Pauline spent 4 hours trying to ,,_ get to the top of the bridge but were confronted with cliffs and ran out of time. The doline was sketched. .... ,;IanuaE:t,o John9 Mike and Pauline did a traverse in the southern CIO!ine and on the top of the Came down to the village. Lex was on the radio a lot and we had to use a relay station at Kokopo as Civil Defence in Rabaul have poor reception. The vrnrds, HVJ8 D.el ta Tango calling H.abaul" VJ ere to become very familiar in the next few days. Helicopter ordered and then cancelled. Les f eoling better but leg still very m-vollen.. Surprisod to hear news of the injury on the radio nevrn in several la.nguc:1.gcs. Hal buying artifa.cts madly

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 37 Q and collecting. stories about the masalai in the dolineo The masalai? -Tuki? is the most powerful one and amongst other powers, he can ca11-se swelling of Nutuve in 10 hours, Les taking the '> Iong, Flour.s P.eing. jogged on the stretcher very vv.ell. Only view for her is the 'jungle: canopy. John and,. Mike with bad feeto Big hassle t at Moga village trying to get sufficient carriers 9 but got through finally. Could not get Rabaul on the radio. All pretty vvearyo to sion base camp on coast iJ?-8-it hours o J ohY1 aMIV!ike vn th very painful feet" All weary again. No trouble getting through to Rabaul on Civil Defence frequencyo Aerial rigging while on the move a bugbearo Co Dog 11Reception is very good, Delta Tango. What is your Aeri21.1 today? Over"" llScveral mankis (small boys) holding up the wire on tvv 0 bamboo poles 011 .atur:i.t. Walked to Si bil River and crossed by: canoe aiid'then tractor to Cutarp Plantation" Les on the stretcher and Pauline went by motorized canoe to the plantation. Adinin. launch to Palmalmal. After a lot of radio .. vvork we got a: charter in despite • the heavy cloud cover. Last message on the radio from Civil Defence in Ra baul, 11 The .Az to c should be at Palmalmal in half an hour" You -.-. can come home 'now .. n Five of us returned to Rabau1 with some of the gear.. Met at Rabaul by ambulance, doctor, CirtJ)efence, and reporter., Les taken to hospital where it -was f ormd she had an internal infection in .her leg. Lex returned from Pa.l:ma.lmal to Pomio with the six patrol boxes by launch .. ..... Lex returned to Palmalmal on the launch .. Lex back Rabaul on a Cessna. charter with Photographed the do line on the way back. Les was pn the vJay to recovery after a week in hospital. . (fJ..) Both carbide and electric lighting were used on the' trip.. arbide VJ as taken for economy and proved invaluable ' particularly in the surveying portion of the trip, but the initial exploration of wet caves using carbide is inconvenient if not impossibleo Without an.y form of battery charging available? dry cell batteries were the only source of power. Eveready 19lantern batteries11 vvere used, and are expensive ($3 .. 00.ea.ch) when long periods underground with a large party have to be planned for. There is no problem of shorting across the terminals of tha batteries even when completely submerged for long periods.. Mine Safety Appliance headlamps functioned satisfactorily in water, but are not waterproof and had to be drained and dried each evening.,. However, •, v1ater affected the thread of the ring holding the lamp glass in place

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0 38 NIUGINI CAVER VOLtmIB 1 NUMBER 2 and the .gl:ass was lost from several of these lamps •... The dry cell batteries were purchased in Rabaul and this could have proved a sever.e to the Several of the batt.eri'es (all in their original sealed plastic) had no lif .. E) and the rest gave very limited service. Any future exp.edition to a humid country should ensure the quality of the-1.+ ba-:t;.teries, preferably by buying them direct from the man:4!aoturer tn Australia.. . Emergency torches vvere small convenients,oon deteriorated in .. '-... '" . ' ' " . .. . .. 9. . . 9 . .• largBr waterproof hand torch used as an eme.rRecy tpfc_h was completely sa tisfa.ctory.. . ... ., "( b) .:. Where rivers a.re involved, usage of rope can 1)..? high. t one stage 9 four fixed ropes were in position -at river crossings .in only 600 m of cave. Had cave been more exten.si ve, or vertical pitches encountered9 would havebe.en 9. shortage of rope. Ex:Pei1dable rope, which could be cut to. minimum length for these crossings would have been desirable. Plastic hose rope protectors were used and were invaluable in avoiding rope damage at these crossings where repeated use of the fixed rope every day would have caused wear. The value of a propylene rope for exploring:the lake is mentioned below o After a week's use in thu waters .. .of .. the cav:e, ropes were stiffening with calcite deposits and had to be washed thoroughly in rain water as soon as .. aftor return to Rabaul. -( c) River and Lake o Three buoyancy vests were used tfUII ii1e-jaeket's wou -have been too bulky) for lake work and d.eep, river crossings. ]1or some people the vests .would not keep a fully clothed caver afloat, but they:provide sufficient buoyancy to cancel the effect of waterlogged clothes and gear so that: normal treading water was adequate. Other people were kept afloat without .. treading watero The 75 m of . lake was investigated by using an air mattress under one_ arm and swimming with the other arm. Fully clothed, one gains O!lly.about 20 cm every stroke9 so better propulsion was made by floating and pushing a.long the wall wherever .. this .. possibleo The propylene rope was used as the lifeline, and i'ts property .of -floating on vvater .greatly increased its safety. A terylene rope was used initially but the ro'pe sank to.the bottom as the. swimmer moved avvay and there.was a very real danger of the rope snagging. River crossings were difficult and dangerous.: Two crossings were made by rock-hopping, but here, even vd th a belay, a fall could have resulted in quite a severe battering fr9m the stream \Ni th the possible danger of being swept under rockso JJ'or the second crossing we had to develop a method of ing across the stream. A fixed rope attached 10-15 m-upstream of the crossing point formed the support rope which provided

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUJ\1E 1 NUMBER 2 39 balance against the force of the current. The svvimmor attached his waist-loop to the rope by jumar prussikers (one on a small sling) and a rope from the swimmer to the bank was the .belay rope by which ho could be hauled back should h,e get into trouble •. The. belay vvas effecti vo as the swimmer would only have to be hauled .. across the current -the support rope still taking all the The purpose of the jumars wa.s toallow the swimmer to move. up 'or down the support rope as footholds in the river-bed dictat
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40 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 not in use. was as JohJ.1. 37 hrs9 Lex' 30 hrs9 Mike 30 hrs9 Pauline 27 hrs9 Hal 25} hrs; Les 3} hrs. . Technical .Noteso . We surveyed the cave to CoRoCo Grade 5 stan dard:---ThedOline was surveyed using two Pauline Aneroid baro. meters, and by short traverses iri the base and at the lip. of .. •. tZie,)Uirses. . used was to have one barometer read every half hour as a base station to determine ambient pressure change, and the moving barometer read simultaneously .at the required point. The difference in. reading gave the elevation differenceo Good rcsul ts obtainedo Attempts to measure ceiling height in the cave with hydrogen filled balloons failed when the balloons broke. . . Our, aerial slides of the area were used in drawing up the doline. The barometers also gave relative heights of the. vill age, efflux, top and bottom of the dolineo Stream flow measurements were made by segmenting the river cross-section into several unifonn channels and deter-: rn.ining the hydrolic jump and cross-sectional area of. each segmento Flow rates were as Efflux 5.45m3/second 193 cusecs Doline 5. 69 n 201 11 Upper chamber 4. 04 11 142 " 5450 l/scc •. 5700 If 4040 "if Bone deposits were collected their position.mapped. Insect specimens aJ.1.d molluscs were also collected. A species of wild. banana9 vms observed in the bottom .of the doline" This species is known from 8lsevvhere in Papua New Guinea and the but has not been previously recorded from Britain. Weather Conditions. Few problems were encou.ntered with rain rarr:-Iraiiiffiaiiily fell in the afternoon and evening if at all. :Q_e_Q.E?IDPEtf are in dry. sea.son. Annual rainfall is a ppr oxima te ly 5000 mm '{ 2 oo-iric hes .. ( ye ar s records) is 6164 mm (243 inches). A comfortable camp was erected from a bush material frame and pla.stic sheetingo Tables were constructed from bush material. It was planned to have a large central.hut for cooking with small tents used for sleeping. However9 because of a lack of sui t,bl.e tent sit.es 9 the party also slept in the hut with no dia9omforto The area surrounding the camp quickly turned into a bog

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 41 on the very steep slope after a moderate amount of rain. Timber walkways provided some rcliof o Access to the toilet some 30 m from the hut was a problem m1der such muddy conditions. A toilet closer to the hut with a good timber walkway would have. been more suitable. A flat covered area suitable for changing into and out of caving clothes is.also suggested for these conditions. • Menuo The diet was based on dehydrated meat and vegetables evening mea!s' biscuit and sprec.d lunches' and cereal and egg breakfasts. Therewa.sa wide variety and the menu proved satisfactory. Eating habits while hiking and in base camp were different. On the trail, quickly prepared meals were used 'With much less variety. Medtcodo A comprehensive first-aid kit was taken and most items were use • The antibiotics and pain killer were invaluable for Les. Talcum powder for rashes and antibiotic powder for minor cuts were very useful under the humid tropical conditions. Most of us experienced a foot condition the skin peeled off. This vJa.s attributed to being in water daily for a continuous period in the cave. Hal's and Lex's feet were all right for the . out as they had a rest day at the village. John and. Mike who did not have this rest day9 developed very painful feeton the walk outo Antiseptic bandages were useful in dressing feet,. Air leg and arm splints were taken. The former was used to prqtect Les' leg in camp and on the trip outo It is highly recom:rp.ended. !rhe splint prevented direct pressure from being applied to the.leg andallowed the patient to sleep at night. The Evacuation.. Our precautions and arrangements for an emergency proved th.eirvalue 9 especially the radio which vJas lent to us by Civil Defence, Rabaul. A small car battery provided the power the radioo Insurance to cover the cost of an evacuation wa.s not taken out. It would have allowed us to use a helicopter to bring Les out. An agreement to share the cost of any evacuation was signed by all members prior to departure. It would have been impossible to carry out Le.s vvi thout the assistance of the villagers. Their care and strength in carrying such an a:wkvrn.rd load (sorry Les) was remarkable, even over almost vertical terrain. We achieved a fair bit of radio and newspaper coverage mainly because of the injury. Costs" The total cost of the trip ex-Rabaul was less than $1000, vt:LtE transport and carriers being the largest i terns. Food costs were reduced by generous donations by 5 companies. Cost breakup was as $366 (includes 3 light plane charters, ship freight and tractor hire)9 Ca.rricrsg $356j $119 ($86 worth of donations not included)9 Equipment purchasog $85 (for first-aid kit and

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" 42 NIUGnn CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 caving gear)9 $52; $180 TOTALg $996.00 Mistakeso On the.whole vve vvere well satisfied with the trip •. Un.aerestimation of carrier and access difficulties was the biggest mistake. It would have been better for one or two people to move most of the equipment in before the main party, or even to airdrop it into Ora village. More prior knovvledge of the cave would have been useful9 . but our knowledge from Mike's April trip, aerial reconnaissance, and aerial photographs was fairly adequate. Insurance to cover the cost of evacuation should have been investigated further than it was. • • We used most of our gear. The 3 ladders were not used nor were the field telephones ... In other circumstances underground9 they would have been used. The pressure lamp used for camp lighting was unnecessary as carbide proved c.dequate for this. Food quantities worked out very vvell. As discussed earlier, the area ofe'fova.ted, thick limestone is large ( 550,000 ha i:D up to approximately 1100 m deep). The underground drainage and large flovrn in underground rivers must produce extensive cave networks. We explored but one cave incompletely. Lack of time precluded planned surface exploration. Entrance to further caves must be possible via the known stream effluxos at lower levels or via the thousands of dolines of the plateau all of which take some water. What is needed is old stream passage's or smaller rivers. Further surface exploration by a small mobile exploration party seems to be the next step. A caving expedition in Niugini is a major undertaking requiring considerablG planning and pre-trip effort, much more so than to a remo.te area in mainland Australia, such as Camoovrnal or the Nullarbor o The variety and uncertainty of transport required and access difficulties are problems as great as the climate and unfavourable topography. Creditso During Les' evacuation, Civil Defonce in.R_abaul PFOViaed invaluable assistance with medical advice and transport arrangements. Loan of the is also appreciated. The trip would not hav.e been p)i>sible -without the 250-300 people of the Kol tribe who carried our equipment and the stretcher. Father Benedict's -warm hos pi tali ty at Nutuve vvas very welcome. Generous donations by the following companies saved $140, and are acknowledged with thanksg-

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\ \ \ NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUlVIBER 2 43 Amco Pty. Ltd (jeans)9 Rosella Foods Pty Ltd (Dehydrated meat and vegetables); The Nestl6 Coo (Austo) Ltdo (milk9 Milo, chocolate); Cadbury-Schweppes Pty Ltdo (chocolate); Arnott's Biscuits Pty Ltd. (biscuits) 9 Kellogg' s. (Aust.) Pty Ltd (breakfast cereal). Reference so ..-....... Bnrough, G. (1973). Bourke, R. Michael A Large Cave and Doline near Tuke village, Pomio Sub-district, New Britain. !!;tugi_E.i (1972). Ora Cave, New Britain. Ho • 5 6 , June , 1 9 7 2 • p o 3 * * * TRIP .. Iyo Mesibere * This report is condensed from an article in News Views 7 (2)g the student newspaper at Vuda.l. Iyo MesibereISPro13aoly the first Niuginian to write about caves. ' . On 1lth February 1973 a par-cy of 7 Vudal students and Ian Cooper set out for the ftrst caving expedition for the yearo At LA.ES we picked up Michael Bourke and a Frenchman George Casala. From Iuvare village past Malabunga High School we walked on a bush track for about 20 minutes to reach our first object, Durwy cave. It is situated in a gully and a stream runs through. It had both entrances open and you could enter from both ends. At first I thought the inside of the cave was lifeless9 but I was wrong. There vvero some cave "Ctwellers ready to moet us -the bat community. There were some interesting things in the cave -like trickling water from the roof, and odd shapes of rock on the roof and flooro We then went on to the opposite entrance and Mr Bourke took out a tape measure and compass to measure the cave so VJe set to work. The measurements were length 4 7 m.9 vvidth 6-15 m, and height up to 7 m. When vrn finished with this cave we continued up the stream for the second cave. After .. . .,,, ... another small cave. Mr Bourke and Kui crawled under a large damp rock while the rest of us waited. I heard some faint voices from another hole where the stream used to run. Mr Cooper and the Frenchman enlarged the hole with their hands and Mr Cooper got in vvi th a flash light. Soon after he 1;rn.s out vvi th the other two. We then made our way up the stream, then changed direction to another cave. I was surprised when the villager pointed to the entrance of the cave. It looked like a big hole in the ground that you would * Vudal Agricultural College, Kera.vat, East New Britain.

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--.... 44 NIUGDH CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 have to climb dovvn to enter. After lunch we started to climb down. This cave is the biggest and is called Luminas. The distance from one end to the other is 460 m. .A small stream --:ru.ns from North to South fallowing the cave. The height of the roof varies from a motre upwards and the width from 1.5 m to 4 m. At one stage we came across an unfamiliar noise in the deep inside and out poured hundreds of bats. In spite of the smell of bats9 I enjoyed looking at this cave. We kept moving upstream till vrn arrived at the dead end which was narrow. There were stalactites and stalagmites in the cave. From there we returned to the entrance and started moving downstream fron the daylight because the entrance is in the middle of the cave. This time we walked some distance and then monkey crawled as the cave was getting lowo Soon after, we had to do leopard crawl until we arrived at a point vvhere a person could not go through. At this point we were all in muddy water and vJere soalrnd to the bottom. Big Cooper was on his .-belly in front of me and his 'maus gras' was wet. We made our vvay back and left for home as we were all very tired. It was good fun so make up your mind for the next caving day. * * * Ro Michael Bourke Derek Clark was killed suddenly in a tragic boating accident with his yacht in Habaul harbour on 25th March., A Rhodesian, Derek had travelled widely before coming to PoNoGo, including a trip overland to Australia from the 0 on 8, n10torbike. He wa.s an acti VO yachtsmanrl climber and caver. He caved in the Highlands up to 19720 A back injury forced him to pull out of the Ora expedition at the last_ minute and he was considering participating in the Lavani expedition. His enthusiasn for any aotivi ty he undertooTc9 competence and easy-going disposition will be missed by many. The lives of his friends have been richer for having known him. Our only consolation is that his death came suddenly and while doing something he loved so dearlyd * * *

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 45 THE CAVING SCENE 11A1111Wawaawat ld$L4!1lluwD:.-.,.tli'o:ai...There are now 24 starters including 6 PoNoGo residents for the,Lavani,Valley expedition in August-September" Van Watson over the area recently and observed sinks9 many of which are water. Sinks were 30-70 m deepo The plateau is situated at, about 2500 ma.solo with resurgences at about 1000 m a. s" l.o Paddy Pallin is sponsoring the expedition to the tune of $1300 worth of gearo Plans aro vvell under way with Bill Sanders, Van Watson and Kev Wilde in there over Eastoro ............. ...---Van was up Chimbu way in February and with Bill Sanders and Tony Madden, checked out 2 holes on top of the Porol scarp. One was full of "fierce batshit and lots of crawlinguo The other takes water and they got down JO m with a..i-iother 45 m pitch left unexplored •. Bill and Tony also ha.d a look at a couple of prospects near Bibima but nothing foundo Kev Wilde has be en underground a few times since arriving 0,t Bereinao The Brown River road to Bereina from Moresby will open upmore limestone to Moresby residents when it gets through in the near future. :Lex Brown (Unio Qld Spel. Soc.) got underground in February 3.t Mumeng on the road. He and Bill Sanders wandered out to explore Mobile cave (see report this issue) North of Kundiavm one Sunday and got down to 160 m ( 520 ft) when they ran out of gear but not vertical cave. Unfair, I say. Lex and Les Iiemon (one of the tvw chicks on the Ora expedition) get hitched in a few vveeks. Also in February Mike Bourk69 Ian Cooper, 7 Vudal students and a visitor visited 2 of the river caves at Gaulim on the Gazelle (see article this issue). One cave was surveyed and another found. The students are keen for more and havcbeen practising their abseiling the past few weeks. InApril Mike9 Chris Holland and Jean Schafforius shovved Gerry Jacobson from Moresby over the tuff caves near Malabunga. Another small cave was found and Gerry collected charcoal for C14 dating. A party of 4 spends 3-4 VJeeks in the Poroma area. ofthe Southern Highlands in May-June doing the preliminary investigation for a hydroelectric scheme. The party will. be searchi'ng and exploring caves in the proposed catchment area9 flying in daily in a chopper from Poroma. The area is unpopulated and has never been visited before by Europeans. The probable party includes Michael Bourke and Gerry Jacobsono Searching for caves with a chopper and with the Admin. meeting all costs must surely be the ideal way to do it! Ted Anderson and Clive Champion (of ASF Handbook fame) were in Irian Jaya on a glaceological expedition to Carstenz recently. Ted reports huge areas of limestone, karst fields, big holes and

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areas of tovver karst about 2800 m aosolo Thanks to the correspondents VJ ho provided the nevJ s 9 and keep sending it in. Any action from the other centres -Moresby, Lae,. Bougainville? * * * V. Watson* Cave No. 8, Porol Escarpment. See locality map, 1( 1) g ).-HISTORY.. ThQ,."ldC'at'; the cave being used to dispose Ofdead a;nd' persons suffer;io.g from disease and persons who were not popular, eog.9 sorcerers and enemies captured in -.After surfeuce visi tw by Europeans the depth guesses varie<\ frcjm 60 m to 200 m. , -. -, ' ), -, .0 The mc:in exploration was carried out by L. 0 Watson 0 z 0 s 0) and Dr J. James ( s. s. So)' :Ln early JU:n,e 1972.. Two porj;ers_ were hired to carry the i 50 m of terylene 'Jume,r' an,.d gear to the top of the sca.rp. Tb.G entrance is at the bo"ttbm pf a small cliff face. To be sure of reaching the bottom, 100','lll of terylene rigged for tho first pitch and with the a.id of a ladder, 1 Vo Watson clipped on to the rope and gently abseiled down. i""'"'"""'":"""-"'"'""'"" ,,,,A1CJ:."'ee r:Le" noi-se ---:frem-giant.f1ying.-fo xe.s ,, ____ unseen,g,"_ .. ,1u;:mnp_tg d Van to wait at tho bottom of the pitch with a rock in each hand until Kevan arrived to give moral support. There had been talk of ghosts and things by the locals. The first pitch was approximately 50 m and investigation of a hole in the floor another drop which was descended by using a nylon rope for a.bsoilingo This pitch was about 23 m and there werG three possible leads from the bottom, but were all too tight for us to push. The cave wns not as deep as we thought it would be, but it was our first big descent and ascent on a single rope by abseiling and prussiking. Total depth of cave approximately 90m. Not worth further exploration. * c/o Carpentaria Exploration Co., Ramu Base9 P.Oo Box 113, Nladang. * * *

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J l I i; / --CC<.".,,.,;,._. A r 'A' ( ' t'J• \ t"l "! 1 p ri m 0 """' o• rri ,.,,\lt\.t ii;:u •. i). • •• O!'.t.

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• 48 NIUGINI CA VER VOLlThIB 1 NUMBER 2 .Q.fil!JlQ!X OlJf;M})rn;p pp. VE 2 K. A. Wilde * LOCATION. Approximately 1 km north of Pari Rest House. davelro:" 9. See loco.lity map9 !'!iugifil HISTORY. Used as a burial cave for many generations by many Ciansincluding the Gena, Naragu, Endegu, Yongamugl, Kewa.ndagu ru1d Ubanagu clans. The name Obondo'Yonaminge translated from the Kuman language means Ubondo' (na.me of tarn in area) and persons deceased from disease. The cave was used only to dispose of dead that died of disease, sorcerers or unwanted persons. Most recent buri2.l vms of an aged woman in 1965-66. There are some artifacts on some of the corpses. The locals believe that it is the sour.cc of a freshwater spring called -... uru-"-(Disproved). . . EXPLORATION. K. A. Wilde October 1971. . ' long "o..nuo75 m highj which loads into a chamber 6n.Uby.,,:m :ith a 3 m high ceiling. The area in the main ch.ElJ1lbcr --;:;m1tains a r2:rge number of skeletons and some corpses with still. Thero is a hole in the far vmll wg.ich , .. -L yicle.s.y .. slopes dQ,:VJ:UyJ_ards f_qr, about 3 o at 80 to .... \ loads into_ a mirior-6ha:niber through the ceiling. ''J!'h:Jtrt; -rs--i'.f'm'climb to the floor Where there is a rift about 0. 5 m wide and 5 Ill deep which do.es' not As a cave it is not vvorth further explor-ation but is doftnltely of archeological intere.st. The-caye pas cm unbelievable atr:1osphere and a visit is of dcfini te value. * * * lfil!IV A Cil. . IL A. Wilde * I10CATION. Cave No. 2 on locality oap .• l ( 1) 3. Tii."'-chiffi5u Gorge near junction of the Chimbu cmd Singa Rivers, First recorded by F. Poxker 1964 who did not carry out an exploration owing to the t'on dangerous access to the entrance. Known by locals for many years, who enter the system to the point where the stream passage divides. Carried out in October 1972 by Ko A. 'Wilde, .. !ita-'tson, T. Maddern and B. Sanders. Entrance may be .. gained at two levels (upper or intermediate); however, entrance is best gained by the upper level through a dry and dead passage that leads to a short squeeze Lnd a hifh * c/o Police Station, Central District.

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' , : ., .. ...• ,.,,y 'iri:UGINI CAVER VOLUJm 1 lltJJUJER 2 BURIAL CAVE; CHIM BU DISTRICT Sk4.t<:.h 0 -1:100 .. .\ i --K. Fl. w1ue. SIGEWAGI CAVE CHIMBU DISTRICT f -:-. l} upJ-,. ....... h-... Y\eJf.. '2.) I"tc.r .... J.; .. t.a .t.11\t,.-.,,.c:R.. J..c W4.r 'l.V" t.-o.. .... c.e. l: lOOO K. A. WJLJ)f. 5 kQ.tc.\.. only. a -I o c o a c ---,,. -, ' -:e v"R tf\ C 1-1 A t"" I \ \ \ v 49 • I

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50 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 lovol traverse, above the for about 18 m. 1 and 2 on sketch.) There is also an entra.nce in the lower level. (See 3 on sketch.) It is, however, advised not to attempt entrance from this point; 2.t this stage the strear:i passage is narrow and the water is fasta The stream then gushes out into the Chimbu River.. The traverse is follovved by a squeeze through a hole in the cave wall (alternatively, this may also trcworsed.) is then an upward slope into n;i gld si:;rcam passage which then slopes downwards at about -----tov1ards the stream pas sago. Tho stream passage is then follovved to whore it the west fork loo.ding to a waterfD.11 and 2, sump. The passage has two other passages leading off which do not go. The main stream p2ssago continues to another vmterfall .'ith a 10 n climb where a handline may be used. The stream c::;:tcrs from ;_1 sump and above the vrn.terfa.11 is an upper level t leads to a flooded p2.ssago with a 1 O m deep pool. HalJ\my along the stream passage in the lower level on west side is another passage which does not go. Access up olc].zv.f.J,owstsn.e... ..X .. ti.e. inte:r.mE;c].iate Je7e1 ... cave is and and the stream phssagc does hnot "see:rtl:1a:coessihle 01:1 this level oxccpt where the stream flows beneath the floor c::md into the Chimbu Gorge. Access to the higher level is up a 60 slope on tho west side9 ond a hand-line is best UDCd. ::::UI/Il\1ARY o Tho cave is of no further interest except for the of tho flooded pasDc: .. ge and the access which the cave affords to the ChiDbu Gorge by climbing from the upper level to the intermediate level. Bill Sanders * HISTOfilo First entered about 1964 by the Kiap9 Ag. Officer and1':utheran Missionary from Gembogl9 who lowered themselves on an old hmv ser down as fo.r a.s the mud slide. They had the assistance of the local people who lowered theD down. The villagers decided after pulling one of the party half way out9 they'd had enough! They eventually got home. Lex Brcwm and Bill Sanders visi tcd the cave on 4th March 1973. * Sub-district Office, Kundiavm, Chimbu District.

PAGE 33

i r ;.; ; i ! ... , (sio-F) ME ..Jt--------a I. ' 1:1000 ' C, 'R. C7. 1 A. J.... :S'AowN. M A'i\(.ti, tfll'l 3. :Pt1. ,,,. ., ... p.. .. S.e.c tion Fi A' .. I •u . .,.t:o-.):.L ''

PAGE 34

52 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 LOCATION. In Upper Chimbu Sub-district9 near Duglpagl vIT!:3.gc-; half an hour Is walk from the Kundiavm-Gembogl Road. Elevation about 2000 m9 with Chimbu River 300 m below where multiple effluxcs arG reported to (One hour's drive from Kundiavm. on strictly 4-vJheel drive vehicle.) THE CAVE. Entrance is in a coffee garden. (Suggest that ownor 's-pormission bo obtained for those who want to push this cave.) It is muddy vJith overhung vegetation9 and is approx imately 10 m by 2 m in plan. Initial pitch 64 m down vertical shaft with flutings nearly the full length. Each fluting measures approximately 30 cm across. Mud on the first stage and a mud slide at the bottom where a 50 m tcrylene was attached to the first 70 rn terylcme. Down the mud slide and over a rock ja.m \d th minimal forriations the remainder of the descent. A bit more 'v'.Jater. Down 41 m with mud and some debris. To one side a cle:::r rock pool with no flowing vw.tGr. Opposite side and dovm through more mud and nnother rock je..m set in clay. Walls all dD.mp smooth rock. The ceiling not visible in the electrics usocL Belayed 36 m nylon CJnd ovor. Ceiling again out of sight. Hole descent only about 1/3 of the actual width of the shaft at the belay point. Came to the end of the rope with about 18 m still below where the shaft angled off. Rested ru1.d dis covered a dubious type of human jaw bone iiJ hi eh Lex Brown has taken to Brisbane for identification. Attached a 6 m ladder to the 36 m nylon an down to full length of available equipment at 146 m. As there were only two of us we decided to call it a day at this point. The far wall at the floor level could not be scon9 vJhether the cave goes or not is uncertain. We'd been down two and a hn.lf hours and it took another two and a half to got back to the surface. There is a possibility that the shaft continues. There is a rumour thnt noises from the river have been heard at the entrance so worth investigation. Another large entrance occurs just above the roadviay and is readily visible from it, lmt is reported to have only a very short length of passage. 11 rrHn terylene -50 m and 70 m9 No. 4 nylon9 brc0.k b2T r.'.J .. cks9 jurnc .. rs Dnd cloe;gers. ( 150 m of ropG required -could be descended on a ladder.) Lex Brown has also described the cave in a trip report onti tlecl 11Mebile Cave11 in Dovn1 Under 12 ( 1) g 22-24. New.sletter of the University of Q.uc.cns17:i.iia SpeI'eOiogical Society. * * *


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