Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
Creator:
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology
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Newsletter
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
Resource Identifier:
K26-05623 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5623 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Karst Information Portal
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.. N EWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION G R OUP . . j • ,,,.-"--.... ' b ..... .•. J t 0 Y'l>"" \,, • ,illjf i' l d. ----........._ -=-.. .. Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Publication. July 1973

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53, NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 3 ......... . $ Niugini Caver is the newsletter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group.. The PNGC"CG is an informab.associa tion of persons engaged in speleology in New Volume 1 Number 3 o July, 197 3 o Price 50 cents per issue. $2.00 per annum. Editor Ro Michael Bourke, D .. AoSoF .. , Keravat, East New Britain9 Papua New Guinea. Tyvist and, Production Jean Schafferiuso Toktok Bilong Edita The New Ccntributors Caves in the Mendi Area, Southern Highlands District. John Van Amstel. Exchange Publicationso Notes on Caves and a Legend, Southern Highlands Districto Lex Brown. Speleo-hydrologic.al .Investigations on the Viaga River, Southern District. Ro Bourke. Pirua Cave, Pornma,:Southern Highlands District. Ro Michael Bourke:.. The Caving Scene. . The Hole 9 Porol Escarpmer{t, ChimbuDistrict. Ko Ao . Irapui Cave, Porol Escarpment9 Chimbu District. K. Wilde. . Longest Caves in the Worldo Cave Survey Gradings. Some 1963 Trips to Monono, Henganofi, and Eastern Highlands and Chimbu Districts. Caving at Kandrian, West New Britaino H. Notes on Map of Cave at Javarere9 Central Cavers in Papua New Guineao 040CJIJ•O•• Ohuave, K. Read .. Gallasch. District. 54 55 56 58 59 59 63 65 6i 70 75 1• 77 86 89 The cartoon was modified from one by Kev Wilde who copied it fipm Ash Cody ..• Pierre St. Martin in France is the deepest cave in the world, by the way. * * *

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NIUGINI CAVER .. J NUMBER 3 54 The 5ollt.hern Highlands contain and thicker limestone than any dtstxict in the country, and yet it has been one of the nele.c.ted, cave-wise 9 until recently o Only in the last few years as this primitive area has been opened up to the outside world have cavers been active there. In the early sixties the Port Moresby Speleological Society did not visit the area because it was considared that the red tape to.get into the restricted areas YJas formidable than the mountains themselves. And formidable_. indeed is some of the limestone country. Even the geomorphologist So WO Carey was moved to superlatives in describing the limestone country to the South .. j.n the Strickland-Purari foothill areao Carey (1938) wrote9 -. "Overland transport through this reg:i.on is of ten a task of extreme difficulty. The has a deplorable tendency to form sheer walls along fa.ult-lines9 and precipitous chasms and gorges along the st.reams.. On the limestone plateau the surf ace is broken by countless caldera and sinkholes 200-300 feet aeep with sides of jac;ged rock9 and the day's journey may bea continuous series of descents and ascents through these depressionso Tbe surface a litter of great limestone blocks with knife-edl;::.ed projections which lacerate and gash the boots and legs of and the feet of his carriers ..... .. mo.a-t f "C-Ountry." ' Little has been written on t.Q.e caves in the area., Neil Ryan's article on the El,rave area (Ryan t970) was the first to give specifio detai1s on caves and locations7 although the geomorphologists Jennings and and Williams have studiQ. karst. in the area earlier o WilJ.iams {in press) goes into more.detail on the caving potential, but gives few details. Various authors of the "kiap turned writer'' variet3 have mentioned caves in the general areao In this issue we bring four articles from the Southern Highlands including notes on the caves from near Mendi. It is hoped to publish urtber articles later. With the biggest caving expedition to come to Papua Guine? now in the field 1n the Southern Highlands, there should be&much more known about caves shortlyo The Mendi group is not now active following an a-ctive t1e:t'iod over the past few years 9 but hopeful i_y caving will pick Up again soon.

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55 ITIFGIEI v:sn v OL UJTC 1 3 rey<; S .. (103D). 3 3 . Ylilliams Paul preso). and K2rst Areas in JJc s t l:T cw Guin o J\ cta 5 th Int orna t .. t< o 11 ',. ,r; :-1. e 1 e o 1 o ."',.v .. .. \, , ' . '"9: r:u ... 0 • .... •• "::' .J.,. :c,.. (J . "".. '1 . •• •• ::>Jl .. '-' v i_..., • . .I u u I .. _1 " f iru t vi o it :_;d ptJC\ IT ow in 1 811d ret1.,i .. rne"'"a""'fJ.1 ... for the --Brito in e:cpedi J\:fteI' the he ccved dt =\uneng nnd in the Chimbt..to lie is the President of the Jniveroity of jueensland Speloolo3iool Kevin ReoJ commenced c2vinc in Papua New in the .. IIe vn:s o pron.inent member of the Port Lloresby ;::Jpeleologiccrl Dociety and founded the Goroka Cdving CJ.ubo L(ost of his c.:vinc been at Jovavcre and in the stern ond Chimbu Districts .. He haG also cnved in New John -'ifon vv::s introdt,i ... ced to in 1 at .. M ......... r.,_1 .... C'"'Vi 1"}.!".'' n"011'" -l-here cii nee -11en -• _, .L.-(.,\ l.J --• v . C:I --<..) (...\-l.-,.LJ U >.J V Bob u1d Vi v .Vincent their CdVL.i.g in Vl. ..... a: :::>-.... .. ItJ the"'-r C""1e -'-o Vo ..... + '"'oreal'"'y I.; c Cl .L l:;:; I Ct .L 1-. 0 " . . '---J '. t) (....\ l l; --...L v .L.1 0 ,.,) and made a series of trips to the J vavere caveso

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NIUGINI 1 B 3 ' 56 Information aupplied by John Ven ->\The Mendi group was starced when r:ev:an "'.Jilde interested John Van Amstel in cavinc in A h2s besn active for some years but is cur:ently do:rrnant as only and cJim Wellington now remain in Uendiw As in most places they suf!er from the problem of enthusi2stic stsrters Bho do not front when the appointed time for comesu The vill&gers are not alw2ys keen to provide location information (JS some caveo :_:sed for burial and ot: ers (_;re used cs hiding in tine of local w2iso The ccves are not very Lc_:ck of e\-y,ipment or sti..fficient experienced peo1Jlo has :revented ex;?loration of come dee;) The names given below refer to the.nearest villageo The order is from South to Tiorth. (See uap) OL'LH. J\ oc:;ve and thG uost interesting one in the areo., ,, 'Pb.'ere ts D zroup of sinkboles ,. }, river :Clovvs in 3 or 4 entrcmces in sinkholes. jbolrc 40 ;_1ou.rs hove been spent exploring the cave r.:md it s not yet fully End to end lencth is not creat 7 bii..t ther.e Cave Is small snd is to the I.Iendi 9 Southern Discriot o

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_, f I 1"'o Lttt.. :r.'li{,J.

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NIUGDH CAVER VOLmrn 1 NUMBJR 3 58 E._UNIH • .P.> A sinkhole .. -bas been reported nearby 0 HIAPo The cave is muddy and entrance is gained via thebank of a river. Two hours are needed for exploration. SOI,;., A and cave have been report.ea 0 SOBA; There is a sinkhole with a breeze coming out. hours walk in from road o PING-SRIPo A small Nearby a creek effluxes from a o A cliff with sinkholes in it. 1'Lb1lI" .A large cave is reported near the tmrn .. * * * PUBIICATI01JS ......... Niugini Caver is being exchanged for caving publications in Austraiiao TFiey will form the basis of a library for the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Groupo Publications received are being held by the editor of fI;hugini at the moment and can be borrowed from himo The following have been received so far. C 0 Ea G. S., Ao ..... __ SPAR SPELEO-SJ?IEI; THE :-:rK3 T"SRU CA VER .:.-.Zll Newsletter of the Cave Exploration Group (South Australia) Newslette:r of the University of Queensland Speleological Society Nevvsletter of the University of Speleological Society Newsletter of the Tasmanian Caverneering Club Bulletin of the Sydney University Spelo Soco Western Australia Spel. Soco .... 1" ''""-

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 NOTE ON CAVES AND. A LEGEND, . SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS e b I a Lex Br•wn * The following notes on several caves and a'legend in the Mendi area, SoHoDG9 were provided by John Grant from Brisbane who spent a University vacation working w:i.th C.D,.VVo in the Mendi area 1967/680 are eave entrances, quite large t• the South west of Mendi near the quarry and at the foot of the •liffs. (See Article by Van Amstel, this issue) The caves may have used by the villagers as a burial ground. An uitderground river, a tributary of the Erave, enters a eave 4eo m upstream of a road crossing on the read 8-15 km East of Mendi. The river is 6 m wide and 0.5 m deep, and enters a hole about 2.5 m in diametero It may be accessible in the dry seasono The river is believed to re• emerge 1-1.5 km downstream through sand and gravel banks. (Photographs of this entrance are now held in the University of Queensland Speleological Society's slide libraryo) There is a legend of a cave that goes from a range from one valley to the next North east of Mendi towards Hagen. The cave would be 24 km longo It is not now accessible (20-40 years later) oecause of rock falls and also fears of the villagers. * 45 Station Road9 Indooroopilly1 Queenslando 40680 * * * Il\fVK:iTIGATIONS ON THE RIVER, SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS DISTRICT Ro Michael Bourke * Being a tale of some streams that fltw the "wrong" way and sometimes the "right" way; springs:; wild limeston, landscapes; and a natural bridgeo A unit of water flow equal to a cubic metre per second, i.eo, a flow a metre wide and deep flowing at one metre per second. * D.AoS.Fo, Keravat, East New Britain.

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NIUGINI CAVER. VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 60 . Cuseo The. British unit equivalent .. o.f ... a ... i. e o 1 a . "' -flew cubic of water per second. There are 35 curecs in a cumeco wa:ter channelo channel. A stream that takes water from a river, or A tributary contributes water to another A solution or collapse feature found in karst areas. It is a dopD.ession or hole -in.the ground's surface. } Hydrology; The study of natural waters. General term for solution controlled lapdforms1 particularly where connected vvi th underground d"twersion of dratnage. In May-June 1973 a Commonwealth Department of Works field party spent a month doing the preliminary investigation for a hydroel6ctric scheme on the Waga River9 a tributary 6f the Kikori Rivero The proposed site is located some 15 km South west of Poroma Patrol Post which is 20 km South of Mendi. Because of the remoteness of the study area9 daily access was from Poroma using a helicopter. As the proposed scheme is located on knowledge of the underground hydrology and any cave systems was vital to the investigation. This work was done over a two week period by Gerry Jacobson (Geolo Survo9 Dept. of Lands) and myself 9 assisted by Bruce Gil tman (Co Do .L) and Banai Triure (Geol. Survey). Probably about 100 caves and small cavities were explored 9 most of which_ were smal1 a . -The longest was an old stream passage 195m-long and generally 2 m tall and up 10 m wide. The stream that formed the cave sometimes passed through it and continued in a series .caves for 500 mo The entire system was not traversed as there were 10 entrances to .the surfaCre which one to avoid muddy tight squeezes. The longest section allowing easy movement was 65 m long. The stream drained a small valley and flowed intn the Waga River. Another cave 40 m lnng takes a stream of 0 o 3 cume-cs ( 10 cusecs) from a very large distributary flowing from the rivero

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61 NIUG INI C.A VER VOI1UME 1 NUMBER 3 About eight other caves worth recording were enteied, the longest being 25 m. One cave 14 m long acted as an overflow channel for the river. The most hydrological feature was the distributaries which carried water from the Waga River. One was flowing at 10 cumecs (330 cusecs) -a very high flow rateo (A typical small cave stream flows at 002-0.1 cumecs.) The cave into which the distributary flows must be large, but we dDUld find no way in. Another distribut2ry showed most puzzling behaviour. When we first saw it, it acted as a distributary flowing at 003-.06 cumecs (1-2 cusecs)o There were four channels and all the flow was going into channel number 3. Then on the 12 June after he2vy rainfall four channels were flowing to the river at a rste of 3 cumecs (measured at 94 and 111 cusecs). The flow had reversed overnight. Flow had reduced to 006 cumecs the following day coming out of channels 1 and 2o The following day it WDS again acting as a distributary, that is9 flow had again The next day there were Oo3 cusecs going from the river into channel 3, but with the ac:ded complication that the ':iater was flowing out of channels 1 and 2o Most confusingt There were another two distributaries that flowed at o15o3 cumecs (5-10 cusecs) depending on river level. Measurements in the c7aga River suggested that about 17 cumecs (out of 57 cumecs total flow) were being lost from the river over the study area of a few kilometresp There is reason to doubt our meosuremen howevero The distributaries accounted for much of this loss. _Q_J;'_:hrgs Where all this water goea still an unsolved pro5 .em. 'Ne investiga tea a serie;s of sprinBs a few kilometres West of the study area, but at tbe time there was no flow from themo They must carry very large flows at times from the size of their cbannelso Areas of young regrowth suggest flash floodingo However, the altitude of the springs (1060-1070 m) is ebout the same as the distributaries and these springs more likely drain the limestone plateau at the back of them. The springs occur at the base nf the limestone where the contact with mudstone occurs-0 Along the river in our study area there were about seven springs but combined flow wns only about 015 cumecso Larpe springs were seen at Beaver Falls on the Muli Rivero This is about 40 km from the study areao

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NIUG nrr CA VER VO EJ1TE 1 NTJ11B-SR 3 62 The limes tone land surfaces were wild and spectacular in placesa In the Emia and Erave valleys, tower karst occurso Sheer limestone pinnacles up to 100 m tall are clumped along the sides of the valleyso It should be noted that this form of tower karst differs from that characteristic in Asia where the towers arise from a flat alluvial plaino As we flew from the Erave valley to the Waga valley the karst type changed to honeycomb karst with some cone karst in the transitional area. Honeycomb karst consists of a surface punctured by solution holes or dolineso With cone karst the dominant feature is a positive formo Rounded cones stand up from a basal surf2ceo Strike ridpes orientated IToWa-S.E. dominate the broad topography in the River areao Honeycomb karst is found on top of these ridges where they are broad enough, and in the valley floors on gently sloping land& In places the dolines were only a few metres deep and apart, suggesting a relatively young 2geo Possibly a mudstone cover has been removed by recently o Generally dolines ;,vere metres deep and aparto J.10 On the l'fobi River a few ki lome t:ces South of the junction of the L1ubi and '.;:aGa ri ve!'s ttiere is a natural bridge through which the river flowso It was estimated as 120 m tall and 200-300 m longo The cave mouth into which the river flows is about 15 m tall and 50 m wide • The most disappointiri.g aspect of the trip was the lack of big caves despite the promise of the area and our resources of time, manpower9 a helicopter and labouro However, the unusual hydrology and interesting karst topography was a good as vvell as the general primitiveness of the area and the peoplea As I spend more time in promising are2s searching for caves in Papua New Guinea, the realiz2tion is coming that extensive and tbict limestone with underground drainage does not necessarily add np to de or long cave;:.:; that one can enter" It is hoped to publish the hydrological and geomorphological data in Jieli_ct_i t8-. with the cave maps o * * *

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63 ITIUGINI 1 3 J?IRUJ\ . CLVE, . POIWH.A 1. HI DI 811RI OT •. •. " ---.,. ==-.......... M1C.:. *" LOCATION., The cave is some 3-4 km South of Poroma is 20 km South of IIendi o The main effbrance is 1 5 m North of the road that runs South from Poroma, and a vehicular bridGe crosGes the stram that effluxes from the cave.. It is vvell l:novm locally :;:;.nd has been visited by Jim Wellington 2nd other covers from On Gth June 1973 Bourke, Giltman, Gerry and Rae J
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r j I t J.'\ t I PIRUA CA.VE,POROiv\A)S.H.D. ( \ v\ \ '\ I \ .,\').. \ f ; ,fl,()_ -.. r-'•i;p. . ,,'(,, t' t ::,.
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65 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NIDJIBER 3 PAINTINGSo Twenty metres from the entrance there are two adjacent wall paintings done in red and black (see figure). The red colour is derived from red clay. One figure resembles a face and the other is star shapedo They were done on a smooth surface a few metres above floor level. The local villagers said that they "bilong bipo11 -at least before World War II anyway. The paintings indicate that it was prohibited to go inside the cave or drink the water from ito However since the Europeans came (the Patrol Post was established in 1967 only) and have drunk the water, the villagers have also done soo The paintings seem different to me from those described in the literature from the Chimbu7 Kainantu, Port Moresby, Kitava Island (Trobriand Islands), and Jafi and Jegriffi in Irian Jayao FAUN.A'o Ten metres from the main entrance a python was curled up in the ceiling when we visited ito A fish 8 em long was seen and small bats inhabited the entrance chamber9 OTHER IN THE AREA. (Information from John Van Amstel and Jim Wellingtoii") South east of Poroma two caves are known. One is a doline at least 15 m deep whi•h :aas been entered. The other nearby one is small. -Near Nenia North west of an unstable sinkhole is known .. * * * THE CAVING 3CENE Four cavers went over to the Keriake plateau on the West Coast at Eastero They were trying to get to a very large doline therec It appears to be approximately 1200 m by 700 m and 140 m deep (possibly the doline visited by Fred Parker years ago?). The party flew to Torokina on Good Friday morning and walked to Atsinima village that day. However some of the villagers refused to take the party there and nothing could be done. (Information from Hans Meier) Bill Sanders9 Van Watson and Kevan Wilde got down a deep pot ("The Hole11) in the Chimbu at the end of Eastero They pulled out at 170 m depth down before reaching the end of the cave o (See report this number o) .. _ . Gerry and Rae Jacobson and family and a few friends seem the only people caving out of Moresby these days. Over Easter they tried unsuccessfully to find the cave at Javavere mapped by Bob and Viv Vincent (see map this issue)o The Vincents have now gone finish and are off on a world trip.

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NIUGINI CAVER 1 NUMBER 3 66 Lavani Expedi The b caving expedition to Papua New Guinea is now under way \late July). John Carter9 Kev Wilde 9 and Van Watson are in the expedition area Wes.t .of Koroba in the Southern High s District setting up camps for the week long w lk in9 doing some preliminary .investigations. There are 25 starters with five from Papua New Guinea, one from Singapore, five from New Zealand and fourteen from Australia. The main party will be in the field for a month from ear August when the main party will fly to Tari and Korobao \-l 0 \y-.-,e..-s Bill Sande:::s, Kev Van went into the area at Easter but ran out of time after three days walking and had to pull OU t before getting to the i tion areao Kev writes? ;I The area is bloody tough with s upon miles of rain forest and is honeycombed with g ntic dolines. B&;r:P" reckon the limestone is 900-1200 m t Sponsorship by companies has been good and the l ion will be supported by air drops. One of the membe:cs is a doctor.i Most members are familiar With the 11Single T) 8l1 techniques for Vertical caving. Madang: John Bywater has en collecting cave life and exploring the Rempi system ith his students from the Talidig Vocational Centre9 on one trip with Vince Aitkin up from Australiao s had a look at another couple of caves near Yagam spital behind Madang, and reports that a nearby lime tone fissure belches out sulphurous fumeso John h8.s the usual problem of being a one man cavj_ng kmd. Any spe os pas, .. Jing t!Jrough Madci.ng are invited to contact him at tbe Education Off ice and he will take them to the local c2ves. Mt, Elimbari Peter De par tmen t, Uni. of Q ld "'o 9 Eastern Highlands side of (the 11Bat Man!!) from the Zoology ent 1972 in a village on the c Elimbari studying the fauna. t reports numerous dolines He is now back in Brisbane. He only entered a few cave on the side of the mount2ins. Mt. Ha5eg:. Neil Ryan ot done any caving out of Hagen, and is looking for interest speleos up bis way. Neil can be found in the T.,.lJ.._, 11. at the 11ples balus1'. New Britain: Over Easter Gallasch and Chris Rawlings visfted the "Police Barr ;:) 11 cave at Kandrian on the South Coast (see report this Mike Bourke, Ian Cooper and Rod Saunders had an aerial inspection of the karst areas in the Raulei Range in the -s. No cave entrances were sighted ... The area is a large do lines and the country is very rough. A perched lake in the limestone country was sighted.

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67 1 3 The Ilemborr Rongo on the North Coast betneen Keravat and Rabat:tl was confirmed nD Et caving arec: in July vvben Hal vir::;i ted a sm&ll cave un hour 1 s walk fr on VLUVJdt1voi" New Irelond m11 recEmtly visited near the road t -Tr,1rc1 0..L_f'.l : r101) to +}'18 '.Tec-1 -Cl v . .,,,l -l •. i J.\.C.. • .L .l. -._Jc .. 1l C. / U .._ '' 1:; V C •• O V" It was a few hundred metres long 2nd wos an cave. Sotrtbern Hig_hh,nds Ca vine; is ot D in llendi most o:f the have moved on. Jim ")ellincton c;one leo Ve '-;nd )TObc:tbly is This leaves Jobn V3il Amstel holdinc the The C D ':) b-,:"CJ r o -i 'We:" t i t i o i.1 f i e l d r t:,r w :::;, s :L n : o , " u -,., -J.-. ,.J ..... the River 2reD Ior c mon in They fot.md a few de cont eaves s orne t ere::J tinr;: hydrolo C\r On one of the 11rest the .:rty Pirua near PoromO m /,ccess by Lo or) Roc::d, Chinl:'m Dis tri et .. HI8'.1XmY. Used the 1ocal inhe;.\1)i t:mts for hunting flying '.l'he fir,-_, t Eu:cope.:::n to note the existence of the system wcs tson in 1971 Ho J_)reviotrn descent5 with the ezception of of the fir,. t 30 m or so Vcu1 \'h:. ts on ,_md '.rony r..Tcdd ern early this yetjr lFime is tmlcnown"' 0 Eocene :::nd Olic;occme limestone (Rickwood 1955 .,,; system is lo tea on whc t s cems to 1J o an Ea s t e c t f . u.l t .. e Bi 11 ;3Dnd er. 5 Kev::n Fi 10 e nd Va:n Wc;tson })l'l.1s, ;211d r set o:Cf from Kundirnna at sl)Qut 10.15 on 4th April 1973 on Billvs 350 cc tnin and a 1 ccf,tvJO f3 trol.::e., The ro:-.:d V1hJ.S :.-,o slippery as hell and the bikes were 2b2ndoned et a 12ndslide 2bout a kilometre frou the Prim2ry ScboJl P. ri vill3ge. We continued on foot and reached the sbout 1.15 p.Ll .. * PoO. Box Boroko, ?a New Gi}.iner:

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r ! i I ! I I:;, c ,,,,,,,. I o. bs!!-I { ' l l l \ 1: 68 -r0 tm. ! \ fe\ '; h; .. O o if.O

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69 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 The 4mtrance to the system is situated on land •wned by one "lapun" (old) Siwi and is mudd-y-with a perfilaiierit stream. We scrambled into the entrance and down the first 15 m of the system to a 10 m abseil (wet) which we rigged with 11 mm terylene followed by a shprt pitch of only 5 m (used 'T' The route so far had been muddy and unpleasant with a large quantity of bat guano overlaying the rock surfaces. We then struck an 8 m abseil (wet) which we also rigged with terylene9 this was followed by a short scramble whieh brought us out into a much cleaner area with a .deep fissure. Van tossed the 1'dd reck;dfwn fissure whi•h produced impressive deep hole noises. We that the chasm could well exceed 80 m so we rigged our l•ngest terylene rope of about 75 m with a knot tied in the end. Van off through the narrow opening and exclaimed that it was a beautiful clean and open shafto He ran out of rope whilst the shaft was still going9 but was fortunately carrying a 25 m rope on his back which he tied on to the erig inal with a super-clever type knot and continued the abseil. Kevan and Bill followed Van down the rope and altng a short scramble• We then rigged a short hand-line of about 5 m which "dr8pped" us on to another pitch of 35 m down a series of cascades which we rigged with a No. 4 nylon. Oh yes., I forgot to mention that there was a 5 m ladder pitch after the 5 m pitch nearer the entrance (see sketch)o Two of our wet cells freaked out and Van and Kevan were obliged to use carbides which9 unfortunately9 kept drowning themselveso Van chimneyed down for about 15 m or so and came back witb a report that "The Hole" was still goingo We decided to surface and return before the July-AugustSeptember Southern Highlands District Expedition, to complete the explorationo At the time the decision was made, there was also an cminous rumbling noise rolling up the system which assisted us in making up our minds about leavingo We outj using Jumars and were on the surface by 8.15 p.m. (Progress was hampered by failing carbide lampso) Bill did a great job of hauling the wet ropes out in 'H' frame pack which won loads of admiration from Van and Kevan. In conclusion9 the cave is well worth revisiting and seems to be a definite goer. The drainage for the area, the River Singa, is approximately 400 m below the entrance and the system is still 9oing 1Ni th possibly enough go to exceed the magic fto \Doesn't sound so good in metres.) Rickwood, Fo IL ( 1955). Geology of the Western Highlands of New Guinea. Jo Geolo Soc. Aust. 2: 63-82. --

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 70 .. IRAPUI CAVE 2 POROL K3CARPMENT 9 CHIMBU DISTRICT • • IC Ao Wilde * With approximately 4 km of surveyed Irapui is the longest cave known to and surveyed by speleologists in Papua New Guinea in July 1973. The cave has not been fully explored •. ,, . 0000000000 "' Irapui is situated approximately 30 m above the ef the Kwiningl Gorge through which flows the often boiling River Kwi. (Ningl being the Kuman term for water .. ) The Kwi itself runs on the northern side of the Porol Ranges (Escarpment) in the Chimbu Districto The initial tion was made in 1964 but it was not until May 1972 that a and survey was made. Frem Kundiawa it is possible to reach Irapui by a shert drive and a relatively short walk, the total time being under one and a half hours. The drive takes one along .the East side of the River Chimbu along the road that leads to Mai which lies behind the Porol Escarpment, an almost majestie knife edge ridge that travels from Kundiawa to Chuave split by a g•rge through which flows the River Chimbu, a shallow but fast river. The first few miles of the journey are a little bumpy but a most pleasureable drive with almost bare magnificent limestone cliffs falling away into the River Chimbu.. The road has two hairpin bends that must be negotiated and it is strongly recommended that a four wheel drive vehicle be used. Vfuen one arrives at the highest point on the road9 it is a good idea to stop and take in the scenery from one of the limestone outcropso Below is the boiling River Kwi which flows into the River Chirnbu and through the mighty 'V' that the Chirnbu River has cut through the escarpment o Above9 the rock-strewn Porol Escarpment climbs towards the sky. A short drive further on, after the road swings to the right1 brings one to a small native track that descends to the River Kwi. This is the track that leads to Irapuio A twenty to thirty minute walk along this track which follows the river then ascends a little is the entrance to the As a point of interest there is a cave in the limestone-ut crop at the beginning of the track; this is not Irapui but Mebikumbago9 a long straight system with two levelso * P.Oa Boroko, Papua New Guineao

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71 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 The entrance to Irapcri is approximately 2 m in diameter and leads down on to a 45 mud slope and into a small chamber. Leading North west from this chamber an old passage 40 m long which closes off o There is a 45 slope upwards gouth west with a short squeeze which leads down another 45 slope (muddy) into a small chamber which contains a large fallen slab of rock& The route travels along the right hand side of the rock, although it is possible to go over the top. This leads into the first chamber known as Marata chamber (see (1) on map)o The distance covered so far is approximately 100 m. Marata chamber is named after a stalactite which resembles the fruit of the pandanus palm that the natives call maratae The chamber is 50 m long and 20 m wideo In the North east upper corner of this chamber is a further chamber known as Goga-Kuri chamber (5) which develops into a passage, the whole being 150 m longo This passage contains the first indication of good 'living' formation. In the southern upper corner is a shaft 25 m deep (2); known as Irapui-Kombago. It is made up of loose conglomeratec There is an excellent belay point from a column which has conveniently formed on the side of the shafto Each of our descents have been made on single ropes with aid of abseiling racks and Jumars9 however7 it is a perfect pitch for a laddero At the bottom of this shaft is the river passage known as the Kwiningl Overflow (4) which is some 300 m long and travels in a south westerly directiono The stream terminates in a whirlpool sink in the chamber known as Skunge (7)9 named after the incredibly slippy thick mudo This in turn joins up with Tarn Chamber (11)o The river passage is clean of weto Approximately halfway along is the chamber called Ples Pit-pit (6) .. The continuation of the original passage which leads off Marata chamber also takes one to Tarn chambero Along this passage which leads to the base camp (20) is good formation in the form of flowstone, and stalagmites etco The base camp is 150 m from the chambero The vertical squeeze on the right before the camp leads nowhereo The base camp is a raised sandy platform which is perfect for overnight trips .. This entire passage which continues for almost the total length of the cave is probably the original stream passage and now makes up the upper level of the systemo After the base camp the passage continues in a north westerly direction. Just past the base camp travelling due South is another passage some 30 m long which leads to the Balcony (10) which is an overhung 8 m pitcho It is recommended that this pitch be tackled by ladder, it being most unsuitable for the single rope techniqueo There are two

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perfect belJy )Oints a short the form of a stalagmite end 1:lL, :_1ce from the overhang in 3m2ll but sturdy The J)icch leGds into Tarn (11) which con.nee-Cs with the river passcge6 Tnrn ch2raber is bout COO m 72 its v;idth at the wide;::.:t ic 50 m" It is o;;;--,roximately 33 m higho There is a lake (12) on the side of the chomberQ The depth of t1,:is L:ke v:;ries to the senson (Uet or Dry) often cJisa)pe,::rEJ in the Dry season., Tlrn roof of the is DL.d c , of the bedding pL:me end the flo 1r is '),p of ru:Ji)le ,:::nd Lr'-_,e sl,Jbs" There is not a gr.oat CJ.eel of formation exc t :1_l1 che :form of c2lcite deposi-cs and some crystcl )Dols coloured iron Its 11LC,;l1ificcnce7 however9 lies i sL:,e and e;eneral ::tn10sphere. In the South Ez:ist co:n1er is 1>, :-::; ,:;e v1hicb lies over the otbor side S()ddle .. This p .. '.SS c: 1\1z::ra nc::med. The rsssz:1ge of s Tl __ 1ou,sand Y!ouj_1ds (9) 9 the narne 0L1c; derived fron the f et thz't the p;.:::sso is made ri .. p of :1::'ed v:ti te \Ii th of brilli2nt red iron oxidcsv e p2ss3ge is 170 m long 2nd can only be described e:;=cc It in a cryst31 Grotto which is of crystal :Corm:.:tion.. This 2re, of the C' vc j_s the r;10st be2utiful erec of the entire .. nd ic J.s . .c.'.vi;1,:::le to renove one 1 s boo-Cs to avoid The fz.:ir end of Tarn eh rc1bcr c1_oscs do .n to L:: slc}inc; nKJ:e of the beddin(:; _ .ne is CJ_Uite ous to negoticd;c not b:;en _ to its limits. When leoving the chcimber9 it is to by the Be:lcony end to continue along the ssa which continues alonG fr01;1 the J:.Joi:nt where the is entered" 1111i s -r\ ''.' Cl c< ":! i s :-i O'"J 11 s l\Ti' r.: 1 ( 1 3 ) -111 e -:1 i .-, r.,. v,1 c-:-_,, + ,::i r '.•) o o l ___ s .. 1 iJt_...i.OOc, "'--.. v _ ..... ...... ... v c....k--1_0 \ uv ..;: _ ... Theoe pools ore gours or o:ls snd they continue for c.:.prJroxirnatcly 110 There :i_c3 good slong this :passage li and it requires little tcch to _:.wco-cL.-:tc, The pc:ss,::ge etpl;e._;rs to cloBe off L'i , crm,:;ll sq_uee::e._. Hovrnv::.r, just before the is on -Che left. The opening is slichtf::-;_:nd lec::ds into l)it-prop pc.ssage9 iiVhich is ren:LnL::Jcent c:: nj_ninc COhj_s paosace is 100 m lone tc in 2 Porkc, (15) is ;:: low -0rnt sct.rne:,o but is e2sily V'le'o--i -)'-ed )d i s le0s +11 ") '' .,,eJ-.,,,,8 1 011() On the other J • .;. J (_;, {; (.;\ G . u .L . :._) u L.-'J._ L.; lLL l; _,[_ --[::, side is a ps.ssace 130 111 1 -,;bich leeds to en t "been dam2cc:d by trG!'clors ;-ri.d is Gurie Region? ::c;u.ria11 mea.ninc; e'-':rc in the pid,'.'in A-''\' .. .,-ro"'rlm;-'-el"(" 60 I"," -'-l";i Cl c;p,-:i'G) i' Q ;-; j'-:11,,..-:-her 'i):.;:ci--:::•')e }-'.i./---Lilt u l ....... l..r.i...::. l.Ji._._._..}J i::l ..... -'"""--L.v ....... _;,::c. ... .,.a:..Jc,'-) 1 ea d i off in a nor t be r l =r dire j_ UlL This pc, 8 s c: g e is o J o I' t c:nd ;;:::1most b8{:irnJ to The descent c:.::;.n be ne .. ::o-Cic-;ted by free clin1 ) cbimneyinc; dorm calcite

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73 ""' f.J:.l (.,) x I'.) . .tt ..et. t d a """ ft( 0 fJ' . ., 0 ll') ' 8 I --=

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NIUGINI CAVER VOI:mrn 1 NUMBER 3 74 walls for approximately 10 mo This leads one on to a low ceiling bedding plane and a 12 m pitch which should be descended with the use of ladderso There is a good belay point around a large black river stone which is wedged into a vertical cracko From this position one can hear the noise of running water; in fact in Wet season the river which is at the bottom of this pitch thunders along its courseo This river is probably the continuation of the river passage below the shaft in Marata chambero The river passage (17) has been named Chimbu Way as it is believed to come out in the Chimbu Gorge. There are higher levels along this passage that have not been explored with the exception of UppE;rsoxploration which is situated on the left of the river passage when it finally terminates in a sump .. A little should be said o.bout the Kwiningl Overflow (4) and the subsequent river pass e that leads to Skunge (7),, Beneath the shaft Irapui-Kornbogo is a small chamber through which flows the river passageo The overflow which leads off the chamber in a north easterly direction begins in a number of ducks vvi th as little as 0 o 1 m airspace an,d. af::ttjr about 30 m opens up. On one occasion at the time of the survey the water level rose and subsided 5 m in twelve hours! The resulting danger is obvious and little needs to be said. One must always be rnnare of constant danger that is caused by tropical rain storms. Throughout this system is some excellent formation, and although little has been said during the description9 it is well worth noting that apart from The Passage of a Thousand Wounds (9) and (13) there are varying types of formation present in just about every major passage and chamber with the exception of the entrance area which is dry and 'dead' e Although the system has been explored and surveyed, there are many opportunities for further exploration and the system is a rewarding tripo The survey took three days from the base carnpo However9 the system could probably be done in two days without the hindrance of taking bearings and There is approximately 3000 m of known passage in Irapui. The survey was carried out in May 1972 at which time little of the cave had been fully explored.

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75 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 LONGEST CAVES IN THE WORLD After years of patient work by American cavers, the connection has finally been made between Mammoth Cave and Flint Ridge. The resulting system has a surveyed length of 230 km, which establishes it without any doubt as the world's longest to datea The connection was made on September 9, 1972a Low water conditions allowed cavers to explore a 1830 m long crawl/stoopway which provided the long sought for linko Throughout the years9 a rivalry has existed between the cavers working in Mammoth and their Swiss counterparts in HBlloch. The Americans would announce a new record figure of surveyed passages9 only to receive a telegram from the Swiss telling them of discoveries in HBlloch which brought the laurels back to their pet systemo But as the Americans pieced together the Flint Ridge system from Crystal Cave, Unknown Cave, Salts Cave and Colossal Cave9 their explorations took them nearer and nearer to the daddy of them all, Mammoth. Rumours persisted of only a matter of metres separating the two under the intervening Houchins Valley, but the connection proved Now that connection has been made, and the ]/Iammoth/Flint Ridge system surveyed length has probably a long way still to go even if no further discoveries are made -which is unlikely -for the backlog of discovered but unsurveyed passage is higho (Reprinted from Descent No. 23 p. 24) Hl:Hloch in Switzerland with about 115 km of surveyed passage is quite definitely namba tu in length nowo With 54 km of surveyed passage9 the Optimistitscheskaya gypsum cave (say that in the Ukraine comes in as the third longest in the world and the longest in the UoSoSoRo Australia's longest is Exit cave South of Hobart in Tasmania with 17 km of surveyed passageo Irapui with its 4 km up in the Chimbu still has a little way to goo Wet pastaim! * * -*

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 N1JMBER 3 76 CAVE SURVEY GR!\DINGS Most of the cave maps in Caver have a grading based on that used by the Cave Research Group of Great Britain (CYBG)9 for example, CRG Gde 4o This grading system has been adopted by the Australian Speleological Federation and is given below& The CTRG have recently proposed slight changes in their system, but these have not yet been accepted in Australia. CRG Grade..J.. -Diagram from memoryo CRG Grade 2 -Based on notes made in the cave where no instruments were used but directions and dimensions were estimatedo CRG Grade 3 Compass used and read to the nearest 5 degrees9 dimensions taken with a marked cord or stick of known length; angles of slope are not measuredo CRG. Grade 4 Compass read to nearest 2 degrees, measuring tape or marked cordo The tape or cord to be held level or vertical, or at between stations. Distance between stations may have to be restricted to enable this to be doneo Thus plan distance is measured but slopes are not. CRG Gr_ade 5 Calibrated prismatic compass and clinometer with bear ings read to the nearest degreeo Distances by non-magnetic metallic or fibre glass tapes and measured to at least the nearest inch9 or 3 centimetreso (Y{G Grade 6 Prismatic compass and clinometer both calibrated and used on tripods9 and read to nearest t degree. Distances by non-magnetic metallic or fibre glass tapes and measured to at least the nearest inch? or 3 centimetres. CRG Grade 7 -Theodolite for angles and slopeso brated tape or high grade tacheometryo is more accurate than Grade 60 Distances by cali Or by method that

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77 NIUGINI vcunrn 1 NUMBER 3 pe t?-i 1 Gr ... -All details based on memoryo Detail Grade B . Passage details estimated and recorded in the caveo (Added to a line-survey). Detail Grade C .. _ .. -..., Measurements of detail made at survey stations only. Details of points intermediate between stations and recorded in the caveo Detail Grade D . Measurements of detail token at all survey stations and at as frequent intervals be een stations as is necessary to show significant changes in passage direction9 shape, nature, or dimensions and for all areas of possible interesto If backsights were taken this is indicated by an 'S' * * * E..tLST::::RN HIGHLA1rns AND CHnrnu DISTRICTS . .. ......... ... K. Read * This article has been extrected froE1 unpublished reports of the Port Moresby Speleogical Society. !he party was C)mposed of 1.3 persons? four members of Society9 Kev Read9 John Barnaby, Margaret Evers, Charlie Legrady, ex-member Kath Taylor, visitors Chris Borough, {SoUoSoS.) 9 Bob Taylor (Orange Speleoo Society) 9 and John Eccleso A party of 6 frora Kundiawa led by John Ross arrived at Monono Saturday af ternoono ? .. LJ. '\Scee. g-s; P.1\.1'.(1 •

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NIUGINI CAVER 1 NUMBER 3 78 INDIVIDUAL CAVES Duon Diri. The former report on Duon Diri may be regarded as fairly accurate. Unfortunately:i the depth of the cave is considerably less than believed previouslyo Duon Diri is a fissure cave located in the base of Mount Elimbari on the 1\10110:::10 sideo From the entrance (205 m x 1o5 m) a vertical shaft falls away for 18 m to a 1'bridge11 formed by collapsed boulderso This "bridge11 forms a convenient platform for a second belay of some 20 mo The total depth of the cave is 45 m with no horizontal extensionso A sloping floor gives the impression that the cave is deeper than it iso There is little secondary formationo Morenao Morena is a very large weathered cavern approximately 90 m x 45 m (at the entrance) located between Monono and Nambiufa. It was probably formed by weathering and subsequent collapse. At the rear of the cavern 120 m in is a high level passage 35 m above the steeply upward sloping flooro This passage is only about 15 m long and 6 m high, and terminates in rubble. Access to the passage is difficult and should only be attempted with good geer, and experienced climbers. The last 5 m is a near vertical mud fiENGANOFI, EASTERN HIGHLANDS DISTRICT2 16th March2 1963. On Saturday 16th March a of three from Goroka (Kevin Read9 Dick Robinson9 David Cole) with Allen and Jan Muscio from Henganofi!I descended the vertical hole ("Hell's Gates"?) and investigated other entrances to the hole. The hole is 43 m deep about 20 m long and 15 m wide. It was most likely formed by a large collapse above the rivero The North west side rises 12 m above the other and forms a high overhanging cliff o There is egidence of extensive jointing with the rock dipping 20 WNWa The descent is made on the left side to a cleft 9 m down. This cleft provides a good belay point, although a further 20 m descent can be made by rope to a small (108 m x 1.2 m) The floor is 17 m below this point, and the wall 20 undercut for the entire distance a The vvaterfall is 34 m high and forms a curtain behind which is a cavern very high? and about 15 m wide. river flows between large boulders and enters a high sage (9-15 m) in a North west

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79 3 di re et This J:X.:lS so ce w(1 f 01101.: cd for 30 m Ol':).ly IJn.t every prouise of In the cliff obove the point where the river coes 1111a e::.rr,1"'01,,1d i s <::; C''rl"l'':llJ (1 r). x 2 i::; m) e-'1+r:--"'"'1Ce •r1l11 cl1 1"CO''Yl0S v... ... ... 0..!..,.. 1...-.....t.. C1 a L.:..1U u _ .1. .L._ "" ./ J. v Y\ "v . 1J v Lu v a dry river sssge 2fter bout 50 ra d2ylisht is snd throuc;h c\ L::rc;e hcle in e flo the iJottom of "Hell v s GCJtesn cz:n1 be seen :::;01.,:i_t 30 m in c :a 3 \.'.-?, ?.f "'., 2 O 1 lt:3 60 rn of ,,;, Cc;.L<., ,)l.J.1,_,,., : 11d, ,.,.,J. OUS J.. r. \.'Ore ne'lmecs, life 13.nes ";rnre ed whenev :..:r cti 1. The limestone ot is lerrn joj_nted them ot and docs not sceD ss ,:s first thought., On the ck sloes of v1cr:e notc:;d a number of d oLLnes whi eh provide sone intere:.:1tinc; 1\ v1;:,;lk from I\Io:;:10no to Nambiuf2 could be On 8L:ndciy 17th rI;:;r i Kevin Hend > Je::L::y--Vomtcil? David Colo and K<:1th Taylor visited Hengc:mofi .. nHellv3 Gatean was visitc_;;d Je:.T;y :.:nd descended the ledgee1 The porty some tir1e ctisinc bel2ying, aboeilinc; u::ner l Ol1 6 m cliff.. In the hich fi .sure ccve was visited 4-00 m Ifoi'th we:. t of HI:fell 1 s Gc:d;eD11.. L small streu:1 flows into it. cbe :fiso; __ :.re ;;c;comes driver 9 m end 30 rn 9 drops s:wcy vertically Sm to 11Tbe '.}ell1i to circulDr ledi:;c J. :5 m in .!\ w;::::terfz1ll flows cl mm tlle :::mwotb r.:;hoo:: ce., Besond the is a further of m o rJhe er or '-1_.:nd This drop mo;-'/ well le3d into the m.::in ri vcr During the Jti__ne lone Yevin Hec;d Pet .:.:r .i\uos walked from Chueve to Fi:.: ro cave Xorrnor 5 exploring some c:::ives :md mu1:.dnt; 2rrangenents :CoI' i1xt;iire cc:nnps in the orec ..

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NIUGINI 0.AV3R VOLUlVLC 1 NUMBER 3 80 TRIP DIARY June 80 Kevin, Peter arrive Ohuave twelve noon9 inspect Kimomo cave (waterfall was not flowing) walked to Fikombaro mission9 arrive in heavy rain at 4 p.mo June 9o Kevin, in company with Luluai Moses, partly explore Kirove cave, return to mission 10 a.mo Kevin, Peter, Moses and others examine paintings on overhanging limestone cliff 9 explore small fissure cave 11The Wedge". Return camp 5 Porn. June 100 Further exploration of Kirove caveo Jerry arrives 11 a.mg with Keith and Done All return Kirove, complete explorationo Return Goroka 8 Pollio DESCRIPTION OF FROM ;'HIGH C.AV:?:J" TO FIKOMBARO MISSION The combined Chuave Report (Bain? 1963) was found to be very inaccurate9 both the report and map$ Rather than try to correct the errorsj the description has been re-written beluw. From the Topia River entrance the track rises steadily to a small village. On the left is reported a cave system where the Leyer River goes into Lombida Cave (?)o Further on the track rises over a saddle, and about 200 m down on the right hand side is a 9 m x 6 m vertical entrance. This entrance is in the southern side of the saddlec About 6 m down is a horizontal passage, which looks very promisingo On the north side is a large collapse dolineo Further up this valley the Oriri River can be seeno It is likely that this river is connected with the cave. The track continues to rise and follows the valley for about 1.5 km, over another saddle. On the South side of this saddle is Kirove Cave, at the base of a solid wall of limestone 60 m high (see "Individual Caves"). A kilometre further up the valley is the main drainage divide9 and the motor road to Nambaiyufao On the northern side of the divide is Knvoi (not ivKofi") village9 and Fikombaro missiono From the southern side can be seen Movi and Nambaiyufao The village on the southern side is Leo9 where there are four vertical caves. One was sighted9 and stones went a considerable way downo On the western side of the valley close to the road, is a high white limestone cliff, with paintings claimed to be over four generations oldo One hundred metres below the road at this point is a vertical fissure cave (11The Wedge") o

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81 IHUGINI CAVER VOJJ"JT:E 1 Ntn1BER 3 From this point the road to Cbuave rises steeply, and passes between two large dolines, and follows beside a row of round dolines in a line. Near this point is reported a cave with small7 verticalentrances. The cave is said to branch, with very long horizontal passageso Close to the summit of Elimbari are reported huge dolines with very deep vertical caves& These caves are reported half a day's walk from the roado INDIVIDUA1"1 CAVES gr __ ?_Y,f_Cay__. Ki.xove has been formed by the !'Tiro and Onanaro Rivers. The main entrance is about 90 m x 45 m, but narrows down to an arch 1 m high by 21 m wide. The roof and floor dip 9 f a river passage 9 m x 6 m wideo The two rivers join outside9 and flow in on the North vve;Jt side of the entrance o Entry is made generally on the left side, about 18 m above the rivero Progress down the passage is slow9 due to the many small waterfalls (average 2o5 m). The rock is folded heavily here, and as might be expected9 the passage dips after 60 m, forming a 11sump11 and lake 6 m x 2 .. 5 mo On the left is a passage requiring excavationo From the direction of flow 8nd to?ography9 it is likely that the river emerges as the Oriri, and if so could join the Leyer, and eventually Topiao 0 nThe 1.'\Tedge11 is a vertical ficrnure cave with a round solution chimney entrance 2.5 m x 2 mo Six metres down is a ledge 2o5 m A further 18 m down is a ledge with a fissure on the lefto This can be only descended for another 12 m by ladder9 as the walls close in rapidly, but by chimneying for a further 6 m, the bottom can be reachedo A small stream flows9 but it would be very difficult to follow. FT-iORA In Kirove cave two specimens were collected, but subsequently lost 0 One was a nmushroomtt grovving with others, in a logo The other WQS a white substance rather like fine cotton woolo Both were found in complete darkness., FUTURE ACTIVITIE;J The dolines on the road to Fikombaro deserve investigationo The two vertical entrances in this area should be found and explored. The boles near Leo could developo An

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3 S2 inderJendent 2nd well-ec'},iDned rt;-/ folJ_ow the courses of the Oriri A light pcrty dolines atop camp there, and make o s2y loc2te the large well-equined rty could then descent. -_,_ -The altitude of Fikemboro is cbout 230J m reoulting in extreme fo tigiJe 5 and cold nights.. :Jed dinc:; .. high enerc;y foods ore recc:ired:. -C ctho:r v1ith z:; planned i tinerar;/o IJL:.lu::ii I1oses is v2ry oud man. He informed me th:.; t in the t he h:;d never Dhovm r::i the ccves.. I tLink our friendly the items of ge<::.r c::rried helped vvin him over., Cr1re should be 1:en 011 .fi.Fture to pre serve theoe good relations$ 0-11 c1..J01,1.1/'\d::iv 2):-+11.J. Jt\l'.f(\1 .. 1 O,f: '), c-:1 -r) OI0 f'i --re (":T "i")e0d .J . .!. .__.. t) v , . _ ...._, .. v ../ ,,1 ..J _ L,. .'. u J .J. --. V • l. '-O J. \. (..; 9 D C 1 •rr v :i r • d D "I L ) 1 a ' L 1 b l .. o e 9 i.'"" --;.:10. e .Lill'l e 7 .. 1. c e(;n \VC'. .i... ... :e . on -co -011e c {s lo1)cs of Jfount BJ.imb.ri Q .l\L.:'ived Fikornb.ro 10 collected teccher Fr .. Luluai Mos cs and Iaij 2, proceed ecJ. thJ.:'our)1 lCLi.r:Ji sLrn1nit of Mou.i1t B1 .. imbc:irL D:3vid Colo deccended 45 m vurtical hole, DG usLi..:.:;l no :.Cound. Keith sbovvn small entrzu1ce to deep vertic, 1 descended by Keith and Kevin ... (see 11Dm.1r;ling -LFHVIDU .. \IJ CJ. ) ., The rcy dolines ;Jusioe tho J_'o,.d into J?iJ:omb1_:'.ro the re::.ortc:d h ori .zrnntc l ve ove,, Dtrcchncnn v 11.:bio is 1occltud 15 ..... -.. 4 •. _,._ '-n & .. i -. ( f1 • ) I J I Elint.i..tes walk above toe rm:er :CliJa. in che boc-com of o 45 sided 12 Ll deep d ineu The is about 30 m by 90 m The entrance is 1.2 D x 2 m iD a cliff face, vJith another snaller 3. 6 m hichorQ CChe cave vvz:is O:j e <"' c e ''\d e 1 0 _,,.., Ll r) 1"'1 ;J .. "\ -fi ("I e (' '-i' m ,.) _I_ (-' c::j +: 6 0-(") ho 1"' fT' 11 e 'i''./ ':'l 11 C< . ,_, .U. , _ J_ 1 -? I L.c u _ u kJ u hC.< l; J ,l v • ;l -1.. - • u i:.:> arc r:.10Dtly smooth 2nd 1:11c1 cn:'Ct..1,t for the fu.11 depth 9 and .... , ov (cY• nd r1i -c' l1 Cl e c :l rv i-'-' O"l""!',}'":l ti Oi1 T11e des c cnt is nm de v -\,_, .. \' v.-;.._) .J.. • u ...L ,,._ (.., -\-.. l ' against the smooth well, 3nd there arc no rests.

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83 NIUG INI CAVER \ 01 UJ\:IE 1 NUMBER 3 The extensive secondary deposition makes geological observation difficulto The hole is square at the top, about 6 m x 6 m and rectangular at the bottom -the East wall slopes out, and the bottom is flat, covered with gravel, and the only possible extension would be Easto A curiolls about the hole is that the limestone dips about JO E, yet the hole is quite vertical. t , Vertical Fissure descent by David Cole., This cave is 45 m, with a small ledge 9 m down. The bottom is 6 m x 9 m, the floor clogged with mud. Two other holes about 45 m deep were seen but both seemed to endo Dolines the Fikombaro roado Two of these dolines were examined 9 but b"oth we-re clogged 9 the water escaping by seepageo About 75 m above the road a horizontal entrance in the cliff was entered and followed for 60 m. The entrance is 9 m x 6 m, the floor flat and level. Inside the floor is broken, and the passage becomes steeper still, ending in a rear vertical clay wall. There is river gravel on the floor at this point9 and a trickle of water falls from a high narrow cavern aboveo The clay wall is toe dangerous to climb, and exploration was abandoned9 Beside the entrance is a 1.5 m x 5 m hole which is reported to be quite deepo COlVIB![ENTS The party was very disappointed with the horizontal cave described aboveo It seems that a cave is considered in relation to others close by when being described by a villager., In an area with no caves a 5 m long passage will be described as 11big". So far9 ten promising vertical holes have been examinedj and all found to end from 30-45 m downc The reason for this could be the very thick soil overlying the limestone -over 15 m in places, together with the high rainfall. There are very few real outcrops on the back slopes of Elimbari which is unfortunate9 because a really solid outcrop would avoid the soil problemo About a dozen holes were seen9 but by the law averages, it would be safe to assume that they would be cloggedo Perhaps the best idea would be to look for outcrops, or areas Jf local folding9 where the rock is exposed. Such areas may exist tovvard the summit of Mount Elimbari, but very little was seen on the backslopes. No jointing or bedding could be discerned, but in places small vertically weathered outcrops were seen. The best idea would be thorough exploration below Fikombaro Oriri and Leyer Rivers.

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1 3 84 Yunee Cavev For sone tine we hove ous,coted a cave in ,--ni 1 e 1 • -i ocr;h vj_11_._:-: ::e.). ,___ __) .ci.. ',, ___ v,c,.:.. --'--,_, ----I told the people th2t I a Geen e cove from an nd c.:skcd for the ex2ct To0ether with the ovmer (Silai) the cave thoro ezplored. _.,.,,,The system.is an er c2vev c-::n entrcrnce in a cliu:. fccc :JboLn 9 m hi 1 :> de fairly stoeplyc Thirty metros o river to 3 m x 5 m high and ti:r.rns ri :;ht. '.I:bere re s orno u trD::ing f orma ti ons and a further 15 m the turns left ag:inc A further 1 r; 1n i 0 .-ClJITI"' Tbe e .• lnofJt c Lily the other side of the socond one described Oriro T.he e:i:;1tr,_ nee .of. d-ufing ..... .. , ! : I ' \the firctt'' to Fikomhro. e cntr nee is 6 m hi;)1$ 5 _m w1d e 5 is ,Joo.:tod. _in ..::: iL= ori;, the c: otd;tf "sid:e:c tlie< ridc;o Cibove Le;yei' -nd vertiC[;1 for 9 ffio to 45 m the Oriro river sinks in several noloo. Inside the entrance 9 n cbe c ... :vcrJ.1 i,s vey;-y The floor drops ste e p-1_y. for 21 1 ev el f 011. mrn the stril:e C:L '.__)") for 60 m to u e 1 eft irJ 2 _70 steep k:nk which v1us ne \vich ,nd "benk is over 30 r;1 '11' "h ' d 1 .. .1 .. -'i N 1 ...... "J:ictri-l 2 r-111 1 ' • rl,.-.. ,_ -1d i ' G '5' n D c v : v u E --1.:.: C; ll' __,_l lie\ . b (.\ 0 ,.:; '}' (:) '-' " ') L iil ( _ _')Lt d 1 . 1.2 m 102ding into s mose ocoured river passages.9 many vvi th sheer ;::nd orcirt dro:;o of to 6 EL .'.\ short distance dovm is evtdonce of recent floodL1g -l2rge loc;s blocking the pauosce 2 n up. Jbout 90 and 20 CT is a second pc;ssnge j oininc one foJ .. lOYJcd., .A short distJnce further the C88 enters 2 6 m'wide fissure, .?7 m i R ;:; " the Ori:ro.,

PAGE 34

85 NIUGINI CAVER VOI.mrn 1 N"Ll].ffiER 3 Despite great care taken with arrows9 much difficulty and was experienced returningo At least five times other passages were seen, and several times the route would be via one of many high level The problem is finding which one, and not missing the arrowo One of these passages must be an overflow to the river? probably the large onG joining (mentioned sbove)o The curious thing is the vast drop in level from where the river goes in, to where it is seen in the cave -75 m drop, in 90 m length. A second passage leads from the North end of the main chamber9 and terminated in a sheer drop (fissure)o Stones took from 4-7 seconds to stop bounc ingo This could be a more direct entry to the rivero I consider this cave the most d2ngerous in Chuave, both from flooding9 and a party becoming losto Great care should be taken in both regards, and adequate light thorough exploration of the lower levels9 in particular the second passageo Sixty metr2s to the North is a huge cave 45 m deep, steep sided9 60 m across9 and the bottom filled with mud o The villac;ers seemed sure thc::t the tv,;o caverns joined. , During the twenty-four hours, goodwill was found everywhereo I told that I had now seen all the caves in the area, and no objection made to my entering any cave 9 and I was told of tvJo more small streams going down dolines between "Noo 811 and "The Pit" -the people have always denied any caves hereo They were pleRsed when I told them that hordes of Europeans would not followo It was agreed that (identified by trog suits) would be given full freedom in the area. B 1 th 0 . ;inl. n .. l' . d . t . . e ow e riro a oI ao ines, in ica ion is that this is tbe river th,::. t joins the Topia near "No o 8". This makes Oriro cave a part of Kirn.01109 only 5 km away1 and nearly 300 m bighero When exact figures are established? and a thorough trip made, a record could be claimed. The Leyer river does exist; only two small streams which flow into small toleso These streams could join Topia, but probably above groundo

PAGE 35

NIUGINI C}.V=R 1 nmmER 3 86 An interesting story wa.s heard 2bout two 11Masalai", a male and a female9 living in Lombida cavec A fire was reported lit by them recently9 and investigated by missionaries .. H.EFERENCE Bain9 Gordon Ao (1963)0 Cbuave, Eastern Highlands District, New Guinea -a first report. Cave :i 1f 2 ( 1 ) .; 3-9 o ._,_ __ -K* * Ho Gallagh * A This article is probably the first caving article on West New Britain ever publishedb The Patrol Post of Kandrian nestles on a suit of upraised reef limestone of Pleistocene (coronas) at the base of 100 m high limestone cliffso This forms an undulating plateau which extends inland to the 7hiteman The incredibly broken Miocene limestone of the Whiteman Range undoubtedly contains large caverns but the whole area is unexplored. Patrol reports mention rivers emerging from cliffs or else disappearing undergroundo The Alanbit River is reported to emerge from a hole in the bills. Only in the immediate vicinity of Ks.ndrian bas any cave exploration been ca:rried out o Tvv o caves are the first situated just behind the Police Barracks and the other across the bay from Kandrian, in the promontory of Pleistocene limestonea The men of Tuielo village tell of a large cave several hours walk into the bush, which has traditional significance for the people of the areaa From the air there appe2rs to be a large doline only 1000 m or so off the end of the Perhaps this connects to a caveo A small cave in the vicinity of Angelek village was visited and the road construction supervisor reports other in the areao Near tialangalo village ne2r Avli primary school 30 km East of Kandrian9 a river emergeB from a :1railway tunnel" cave entranceo Entrctnce to the "Police Barracks Cave11 is eained after clambering over boulders at the base of the pleteau limestoneo Dri tailL

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NIUGINI CAVER VO.LUME 1 NUMBER 3 88 Hidden behind boulders and screened by vegetation the sizeable opening is sometimes difficult to find. The cave goes straight into the cliff o Inside the entrance is a large circular pit into which the efflux pours during the 'wet' season. A single passage leads up to a rock slope which must form a waterfall when the stream is active. At the base is a deep scour. Above the."waterfall" the passage enters a chamber largely filled with a huge slab of rock. Around the left side of this rook the passage flattens out until it is too small to follew. It is through the smaller openings here that water enters the active oortion of this cave. There was no flow when the cave in April 1973. Stalactite and stalagmite formation occurs in this area and above the boulder fill. A climb over boulders to the right gave entrance to a large tunnel leading back in the direction of the cliff face. This emerged into a large chamber which could only dimly be made out in the torch light. Our intrusion aroused the large bat population which started a migration to more remote corners of the cave. Some flew into an opening above the tunnel and closer inspection revealed that this most likely led to another opening on the surface of the plateau above. A scaling ladder would be necessary to climb this opening. The chamber is partially filled with fallen boulders, the domed arching high overhead. The floor was covered by a thick layer of fresh guano. From here a large passageway led to another chamber which also housed batsc The slope of the cave had been upwards and this second large chamber was not far below the surfaceo A cluster of tree roots emerged from the roof and hung down for some 7 m into the cavity. After clambering upwards over large fallen boulders and through several smaller chambers, emergence to the surface was finally gained. This top entrance occurred at the bottom of a conical shaped doline, approximately 20 m deep. The surface around the doline is covered with low bush which tends to conceal it from the main road only 100 m or so distant. During the visit to this cave in April, 1973, by Chris Rawlings and myself, no collecting was done in spite of the rich cave fauna that occurred. In addition to the bats and insects associated with them and with the guano, cave spiders and cave centipedes were particularly noted. These warrant collection and further study.

PAGE 37

tlA t\4 t.1li /'1 fl .• ,J J:,,l A .l) L1 fj !l 6 A D(OA '1t Ll ,/f,;o.41> \ ROOTS Fi'tOM SURFACE I: SOO o S JO 15 a,o R c=:::111 I r:::. :: ln"'l H. .QA"l. .• L.ASCH ( A-PRl!... iG\13) G .. 'k*<.f SJ(f:TCH OF VFRTICAL. SE<.1"'TON tNO'f TO SCALE) F l tEGF..Nl) ... -f 1/-J,t. i•"• ft\. (;)b f'o. ltct t"l bowl.to. r s.. A (_:) --.j "'I.. "f. " Stq.fo.c t;tts of .-N (tApptox) BOT TOM ' f H \ l ----. ..; B -7--d icc;,_.. 1_ . . '----------r / ! fl>-0--/ .i 'f'l ) {J f'IT 5M DEEP I -/' l I /. SCOUR JN FLOCR . 2M OCEP " bat chamb 4 fol t(f A 0. 4,(\ 4644 #>. -41'\ '-.... ... 4 7 A/t/J ZJ. "'" A.!lt; PfJSSIBLE OPENING 3 4 4/AJ:.4,.,_A.,.IJA . .. _. TO SURFACE 11V :::.OUE:i:.ZE

PAGE 38

..... 89 c_:_, VJJ T J. ,._, ..... _ .............. ..tl.. .... As Bob and Viv Vincent ond I are uncertain of the name thot has been used j:or tbL:; cave })revionsly 9 no name has been given to the m2p hereo It moy be Old Cave. Perhaps one of the members of the old Port Moresby Speleological Society could provide the name .. mh i o r • ' ' I • a• ..1.. e unust,m preson-Ga-cion is an isomecric iagr; .. .;r.a .. This method gives a cood irnnec}iote idec: of the form .. It is a diagram c:md not an map with interior detaiL The authors also nroduced a location man which is reproduced here in par=-c.. ThP ,: ircctions to the c;:::ve are as follows. Fron I)ort c;c beyond Soguri until the ELrngrc:ve Ri vor is reached" There are a few houses at the river.. It is possible to ford the river in a four wheel drive vehicle? or a sedan if the river is low& Proceed 1. 5 km along a vehicular trc:ck. ro .. d brsnches to the left m1d 300 m along it$ there is a rubber fCJctory.. Do not ao to the factory but proceed strai3ht for 2nother 400 m where a foot tr2ck to the left goea to the cnve. The off 150 ra before Doee village. Proceed alons the track in an eanterly direction for l::m to the c .ve, guide is very useful.. There are ot leaot four other caves in the some of which provide good GUINIJA ...... •' ••• , •.. • C;; •• • ... ...... ,,.) The followina is a list of residents known to be caving in J)apu..a Guinea. rmd/or PolLG. so .. bscrilJers to ..92...Y.!!..• Both 1 and vJOrk s are given if these are not the same. .t'\lfN.ABJJLI1JJ, Gra hem RUIT, G-ord on B.:\KER , H1i 1 BATES, Bob Mike Bmmmr, 1Ti ck BYV-ff, TJ:fil, John District Medicul Store, P.H.D., Vlevvak., 425 ?ort lioresbv" ;.;e-. :t.. ,, .. ................ D.Ji o S. Fo 9 Namatc::mai, New Ireland, o o Box Bates Tr ns-;;> o rt .. ... .,-. ..... D o ,'\ • i'3 • l:; • .. Ker;::: v a t 9 E. r: • B o o. Box I Territory Survey l?ty. Ltd • • Oo Box 2070, Hadang Distrj_ct Toledii .. School.,

PAGE 39

90 PA.

PAGE 40

91 I

PAGE 41

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 3 92 COOPER, Ian DODD, Brian GALLASCH, Hal HOLDSWORTH, David HOLLAND, Chris JACOBSON, Gerry & Rae KIDD, David LOH, David MADDEN, Tohy MAYBERRY, Mike MEIER, Hans NOONE, Mike David PARKER, Fred PYBUS, Anay & Judy RAWLINGS, Chris. REA:r5,"' Kevin ROMANYSHN, Vic & Bev RYAN, Neil SANDERS, Bill SCHAFFERIF:, Jean SLACK, .Alan STIPBIK, Geoff STOTT, Bill VAN .AMSTEL, John WATSON, Van Vudal College, Keravat, E.NoBo c/o Hans Meier, P.O. Box 73, Panguna. D.AoS.Fe, Keravat, EoN.B. P.O. Box 4505, Boroko. Chemistry Dept .. 9 Uc P.No G. Malabunga High School, Via RabauL PoOo Box 7787 Port Moresbt. Geo logical Survey, Dept. of ands, Konedobu. D.,AoS.F., Kandrian, W.N.Bo DoA.S.F., Keravat, E.N.B. D.DoA.,, Kero'Wagr7 Chimbu District. P.O. Box 173, Rabaul., Cox Johnston & Co. P.Oo Box 73, Panguna, Bougainville. P.O. Box 1144, Boroko. Law School9 U.P.,N.CL PoOo Box 50559 Boroko. Dept. of Forests. P.O. Box 52, Daruo D.D.,A. \iVabag Hospital, VVabag9 --,Voll.Do DoD.A., Kandrian, W.N.B. P.Oo Box 5983, Boroko., Dept" of Lands. Busu High School, Lae. P.O. Box 27, Mt. Hag'8n. Territory Airlines. Sub-District Office, Kundiawa. P.O. Box 504, Rabaul.-Tavui Secretarial School. D. D. A. , Vifew ak. PoO. Box-2417, Konedobu. Entomology Section, D.A.S.F. D.DoA., Kundiawa. D. iL S. F. 9 Mendi. Claude Street, Hamilton, New Zealand. Carpentaria Exploration Co ., ( ? ) Mad ang ., WELLINGTON, Jim D. D . .LL , MendL WILDE, Kev & Bev P.O. Box 6490, As it can be seen, there are 3f cavers or subscribers scattered around 12 districts in P.N.,G. Scattered is the word, although there are a few people together in Moresby and on the Gazelle. The Moresby mob seem pretty quiet for their numbers! Caver also goes to libraries in Papua New Guinea and to subscribers, societies? and libraries in all states of Australia as well as to New Zealand9 the UoKo9 the U&SoA., Switzerland, Hungary and Japan. Please send any errors and omissions in this list to the editor.


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