Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology
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Newsletter
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
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K26-05653 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5653 ( USFLDC Handle )

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NEWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP Moil$.;:t; . Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 93 Niugini Caver is the newsletter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploratloil"'Group. The PNGCEG is an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua NevJ Guinea. Volun1e 1 Number 4 o October, 1973 .. Price ----Editor and Producer ..... .,.,...--'n!QW...,..__ 50 cents per issue. $2.00 per amn:Un. R. Michael Bourke, D.A.SoF .. , Keravat, East New Britain9 Papua New Guinea. Jean Schafferius Toktok Bilong Edi ta -Focus on the Chimbu 94 Some Caves of the Kundiawa Area. Ko A .. Wilde ....... 0000• 95 Caves of the Singga Valley, Chimbu District. Fa Parker. 103 Caves of the Wahgi Gorge near Kundiawa, Chimbu District. F .. Parker ... o .. o o o o .. o .. o ....... o ...................... o .. o. o •• o .. 106 Next Issue .. eooooooooooooeooooooooooooo•ocoooco•ooooo0000 .... o ....... 121 Subscriptions.. o ., o • o ...... o o ......... o .. " ... o., .. "" ., .... o o .. o ... o .... "., " 122 A Seminar on Caves and Karst of Papua New Guineao o•c•oo 122 The Cave of the Year Award ... ., ...... 0000<>00.••oO•• 122 Exchange Publications.. o .. " ............ " "c. o ... ., .... " •• ., ........... " o 122 To Find the Deepest Hole in the World.. R. Michael Bourke123 Deepest and Highest Caves in the Southern Hemisphereo Ro 1/Iichael " ........... " .... " • ., ...... " .......... o ... o ....... o.. 127 Trip to Kova.na Cave11 Hotokas Area, Bougainville District I-I " R o 1 e i e r " .. .. o o .. o o " • " " ., ., .. o ., • " .. " .. .. .. " o • .. .. " " • " • • .. • o • .. • .. 1 2 8 The New Contributors., 0000000000•••"•"" .. " ... 131 1J0 b C D' . E dt J 1974 131 i,u __ ._,,r)or arv lVlng xpe lion, anuary • oeooooeo I :rhe Rempi Caves9 Madang District .. John Bywater ....... o .. o•o 132 Tapitapipi Caves, Dabora, Milne Bay District .. LoJo Brasso134 to Javavere, Central District.. Michael Noone.. . .. . . 135 Bat Guano Cave, Kaut9 New Ireland District .. Ro Co }1UtCrli11.SOllc ooooooo•ooo•o•oooooooooeooooooooooeo 136 The cover map showing the caving areas in the Chimbu was kindly provided by Kev Wildeo Assisting vi1ith production were Rod Saunders, Jean Schafferius and Hal Gallasch ..

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::"IUGIIH CAVEH VOLUJ\1E 1 rrm.rnEH 4 The Chimbu is the most significant cave area in Po?LGo at the .CToment It won 1 t be thdt 1,:;::J.y forever gs the better a.reo.s in the uthe:rn I-aghlands 9 Stct.r Eountains 9 Nev-J Bri tnin 211d l'Jevv Ireland are explored9 but now the Chimbu contains more caves known to speleologists than ;:-my other area? and there been more published o..bout it th(.-::.n any other area. The reasons sren9t hard to find. It1s accessible by road and much of it is cleared s.nd inhabited.. The Port Moresby Spe1eo1ogical Society Goroka Csving Club did most of their caving at Chu2ve as vell as Henganofi in the E8..stern Highlands a.nd (),t Jo.vavcre out of I'Ioresby. In the fevv years there hci.s been c keen o.cti ve group perating out of The district has the deepest known cave in the Southern Hemi-e 9 and the longest in o CL There u.re numerous good sport caves" As in most areas vJhere caves are found close to villages 9 (,C. Giythology hn.s c:risen o.bout the cc.ves 9 a.nd they serve as buria.l Jites9 shelters, and they house rock In this issue six articles deal with the and literature =J.i' the Chimbu.. .A further article on burial cu.ves and rock a.rt has been held over to the next issue because of shortage of spaceo The or arec.s of Chu0.vc lJt::i.mbD,iyufo and ?orol Singga Valley ore covered 9 D s well as the . .ic.hgi Gorge and Kc:.gul CJ.rea o Cave nctming and reporting remains confused 9 ho-:1 ever o It is 0ifficult to reconcile descriptions given by the different major .:1u.tLJ.ors on the o.ree. {G0 B'D.in9 Co J?. P,.rker9 K., Heet.d and L( .. e),, The Chuave m::mbaiyufa c:::.ves in r.kTticular are not described nnd ere Piven different names by different nuthorsc ncvv names to that have tr;.::di tiono.l ne.mes is a particul2rly confusing practice. is the further pctential of the Probnbly very goodo The limestone is novJhere z::.s extensive or thick 0s in mD.ny other :treas in Xcc6rding to Bain et alo (1970) the average thick DCDS of the Chit11bu limestone is approxI'mately JOO lTI9 al though in ::: .. ces it is much thicker and crt Mt o Elimb&-ri it exceed 1 OOO illo number of unknown caves must still be lergc9 especially in the havo received little nttentionso f8r., Some of the knovvn 2aves such ns Irapui and Kainomo (Kiown, Gre incompletely exploreda Depths are not likely to exceed Bibimn (494 m) by much but there are probably several caves in excess of 300 m deepo It seems that the Chimbu will remain Pn.pue. He1iv 1 s star caving area for few years at least" o See bibliography this issue o

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FIU:::-INI CAVEH VOJ..JUME 1 NUMBEH 4 95 sm.rn CAVES OF THE KUNDIA rA ARE.A 11;;.>11::. • .... ----... .... ....... ... 11:,,. IC A. Wilde * INTRODUCTIONo The limestone of the Chimbu is striking and undoubtedly gives the area its charm and characteristic beauty, with its steeply sloping escarpments9 vertical cliff faces and deep gorges which have an abundance of caves and potholes. This paper describes caves North of Kundiawa Chuave in the Porol Escarpment and Singga River areao (See location map.) Caves numbered 16, 17, 199 249 25 and 26 have been described from Parker (1965). The majority of the caves were explored by Van Watson9 Bill Sanders? Tony Maddern and the mainly during 1972 and early 1973. TOPOGHAPHY,, The Porol form an impressive series of cliff south, from the north they are steep dip slopes varying from 40 in the west to near horizontal in the east near Chuave. As can be seen from the map9 the backslope is drained by the rivers Singganigl and Kwinigl. Running north to south is the deep steeply inclined 'V' of the Chimbu Gorge at which point the Singganigl, Kwinigl and Chimbu meet. The Porol reaches an altitude of 2450 m near Chuave where it is covered by dense rain forest and virtually uninhabitedo On the northern side of the Singga. the limestone steeply rises and continues along the Upper Chimbu Valley towards Gemboglo The slopes of the Porol Escarpment are cultivated with the occasional hamlet on the crest of the westerly end. To the west, the Chimbu Limestone continues to Nogare (east of Kerowagi) and east beyond the limestone massif Elimbari (2SOO m)o Known generally as Chimbu Limestone9 the area has been geologically mapped by Rickwood (1955) and more recently Bain, Mackenzie and Ryburn (1970)., The karst morphology was referred to by CoSoI.Ro06 (1958) and has also been mentioned by Jennings a.n(l Bik ( 1962) 9 Champion ( 1968) and by Williams ( 1972). Karst occupies 87 km in tertiary limestone which could reach a of 1000 m (at Mt .. Elimbari) in thickness and dips 30-40 to the north or north-east. The long, sharp limestone ridges are orientated roughly north-west to south-east to 300 m high on the south-west sides; local relief reaches 1200 m (above .rahgi Valley) with the cliff faces being commonly broken and cavernous with abundant faultingo There is an east-west fault in the region of the Sikuri Pass where Bibima. is located, which undoubtedly gives the system its great deptho The ranges are of Eocene and Oligeocene limestone overlying the Upper Cretaceous Chim grou:D of shales to the south and above them are the Miocene sediments to the north.

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SG .. • ..., Ii . I I I I I I VElt VOLDliE 1 :0J1Q3].;.i_t !L "'"' IJ <:/:: d
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lHUG nn CA VER VOLUME 1 NUMBEH 4 97 CAVESo The caves are listed from west to east and are in the same-sequence as they appear on the location mapo 1o The Holeo This has been explored to a depth of 170 m and exploratioii'""'Is_,_not yet completeo Wilde (1973c) described the cave. 2.. Located about 1 km vrnst from Kurumugl Primary 'T' School half Df the River Singga is a resurgent from a. bluff, the entrance being about 10 m up the vertical rock face. The first 80 m or so of passage is blackened by pitpit torches but after the squeeze it is clean and has only been explored on one occasion November 19720 Approximately 100 m of good passage follows and brings one to a fissure at the bottom of which is a river flovJing roughly in a westerly direction.. The drop can be rigged, with 20 m of ladder or rope, upstream about 20 m the passage degenerates into a mud slope and boulder choke, the stream can be follm:ved a little 1;1ay by crarJling until one runs out of air space. Downstream a sump can be by-passed by a small mud squeeze on the (R) bank, a dry passage with formation and a small upper level continues for some Z_)o m until it meets the stream againo About 120 m downstream the river finally sumps and by climbing through a small inlet to the ( I1) of the sump a small chamber is reached where there is an 98' shaped charcoal etching and the remains of a 'bombom' calcited into flowstoneo It is unlikely that the cave can be pushed, but the water level may drop9 thus allowing the choke to be investigateda (See mapo) 3., Urungotaindc o Located a short distance nor.th of Ku Administration-1F5"8t-House. A sink approximately 30 m deep; a dirty and muddy hole that does not goo 4o Nongamelo North-east of Ku rest houses about 50 m deep and of a-simiiar nature to Urunogotaindeo 5 o o A shaft of Binus 90 m vd th virtually no formation-as8uc1i"'tut a large chamber at the bottom of the 50 m entrance pitch \Ji th a 40 sloping mud flooro Bones ca.n be found amongst the mud; the sink was used by the local people for disposing of their deado There is an opening in the floor of the chamber that can be descended for approximately 30 m but does not goo 7atson (1S73) described the cavea 6 o o A burial cave situated about 1 km north of Pari administration llest House near Uramakini Hamleto 2er mission shorild be obtained from one Kag-Tongia before entering this system as he has relatives buried thereo Described by Wilde (1973a).,

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J.HUG-HH CA VEH VOLillfE 1 NUT\11BER 4 99 """ 7o Situated in the rock face above Kokombogo II, a dirty system used for hunting that is not fully exploredo Some formation has been cracked and displaced about 15 mm, probably by earth tremors. 8. ;Kokombogo Situated on the vrnstern side of the Chimbu Gorge, a large opening on to the Pari Road. The system travels horizontally for about 15 m and is then sealed off by old forma tion. Often used as a resting and sleeping place by travellers to Gemboglo Undoubtedly originally and the Kokombogo systems \Jere once connectedo 9o Burial cave? refer to paper on burial caves and rock dravJings., The entrance is approximately 5 m vJide and 3 m higho The burial cave is approximately 6 m widet16 m long and 3 m higho It is sometimes known as Yonaminge or Kurakombogo caveo Location sketch not included for conservation reasonso 10., __ .f.., A three level system situated on the eastern side of the v j unctt on' of the Singga and Ohimbu rivers o Wilde (1973b) described the cave. 11. A -dead 'U' shaped cave situated on the southern bank of the B.iver Kvviningl; a smoke blackened and almost dea.d system. 12. g:,EQ-1=,o The longest surveyed cave system in Papua New but still not fully explored. This system has much good formation in the more inaccessible passageso Described by Wilde (1973d)o Parker (1967) called this cave Irukunguai or cave. 13. A tv-vo level fairly long system situated a short distance dm'mstream of Irapui and Kurakombogo near the walking track for Gurema o It vJas once used by the Gurema people for protection after attacking the first government patrol into the area, the bullet scars can still be seen on the rock faces around the entrance to the caveo One Goga-Kuri who lives nearby vdll readily relate the tale if askedo The entrance is dry a11d dead with signs of frequent use; the cave consists of a. long9 vvell formed9 straight passage which is entered by v1hat is an old stream passage and vmterfall 9 then through a viet 9 muddy squeeze which is sometimes found to be flooded and necessitating a short but completely submerged dive of approximately 3 m in lengtho This passage is approximately 500 m long and terminates in a mud soak. About halfway along the passage there is a climb u.p the steep north wall, which brings one into what must have been a beautiful lake chamber.. Ho';rnver9 there is a small hole about 0 Cl 75 m in diameter which enters \ilhat vms the lake vvb.ich is novJ covered in crystal formation in little pools. Then9 there is

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another passage parallel to the main one, but about 23 m above, and displaced to the north. This is a similar very regular passage, which is very much older and more extensive formation is to be found, with stalagmites, crystal pools and flovvstone o After perhaps 150 m the passage is closed off by formation.' (Parker 1965) The system could possibly be more extensive as underground river noises have been heard from the lower level. (Author). , 14. Gembameo Situated on the crest of the Porol Range on the northern-side, a large impressive entrance which is accessible from Mai Village by a track. Large ciamber 100 m long and 40 m high with a small stream running along the floor, but no passages. Occupied by fruit bats (Dobsonia P. Dwyer 1972) who used the cave as-aroost. 15. A moderately large rock shelter at the base of the bright orange cliff which can clearly be seen from the road when proceeding to Irapui by vehicle. Consists of two chambers on separate levels YJi th no passages? also knovm as Kukombogol. (Refer to sketch.) 160 Kewanmaruo 'A pair of sink-holes to the east of Kukombogol-;-'both-said to be connectedo They are ea.eh small dolines and appear to be only a fff1i-J hundred metres apart. The eastern one is partially climbable for a distance of about 18 when there is a vertical drop of about 25 m to appears to be a narrow9 vertical passage going in the general direction of the other sink-hole. Unexplored.' (Parker 1965) 17. 'A small fissure at the foot of a cliff to the north of Vl omai rest house. A murdered coastal native is reported to have been thro;im into the cave and I investigated this in October 1965. There is simply a steep fissure sloping

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NIUGDTI CA VER VOLtThlE 1 NUMBER 4 101 down to the west for about 50 m. There is no water and the bottom is narrow and filled with earth and broken stone. There was no trace of a body or remains True black ground beetles were seen in swiftlets droppings, but were not far from the mouth and not a true cave dweller.' (Parker 1965) 18. Bibima. This cave is currently the deepest known cave in the So'Ut'fieri:Hemisphere, being 494 m deep. The cave has been described by Wilde and 'ifatson ( 197 3) and Watson and Wilde ( 197 3) " There are several popular accounts of the record-breaking trip by Anon (1972a), Connolly (1973L McQuillan (1973) and Wilde and Street (1972). . 19. Maimboboo 'A large creek flows into the base of a and descends-a large broken passage some 60 m long before. dro:;)pi.. 12 m ....... then a river passage terminates in a crawl that could possibly go. Some tributaries join the main stream from the south probably from at least two sinkholes to the south and one to the south-west,. none of them being negotiable for more than a f evJ metres. from their junctions with the mainstream. The system flood in 'jrnt weather .. ' (Parker 1965) 20. Parker ( 1965) refers to this cave as 'AukmeriL. 1 A deep sinkhoie vd th only on,e entrance. 'In the bottom of a lar doline between the cliff face and another limestone massif which is on the Masul Nilkama track.' (Parker 1965) Unexplored. 21 .. A reported sink hole between Agumugl and Uila. Unexplored. 22. 'This is a doline in the crest of the range draining an area to the east.. It is accessible by an easy walk ing track from the Dumun rest house. In the doline covering a.bout 50 ha there are at least four sinkholes amongst the broken blocks of stone jutting from rain forest. None of these easily climbable and may lead to large chambers below. As is the case with the streams entering Bibima and Maimbobo, the emergent YJater on the southern. slopes of the ranges come up as small springs and seeps, and not through cave mouths. There are springs about 2 km south-east of Uila but no caves.' (Parker 1965} . Four sinks were found in this area but there are likely to be more o None of the four were deeper than 30-40 m, all VJ ere \mter which seeped away through very narro\iJ fissures or boulder chokes. Further exploration of the area is worthwhile. (Author) 23.. A deep sinkhole between the cliff face and a massif limestone block, north of Masul rest house with a streamo Depth approximately 50 m (est)o but has potentiala

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102 1'TIUG nu CJ.\ VEH VOLlJME 1 IHJlIBT:{;R 4 24 o ? A reported sinkhole vJi th a. river running into it .. Not.yet explored. The natives have a legend which relates to a Grow) of people going into pa.rt of the system to hunt possums ( v11hich vvi th a large indigenous rat occupy the mouths of some of the caves of the area) and the cave 'closedv itself upon them leaving but one young lad outside 9 YJho reported to the village people hoVJ after the cave vclosed' it partly opened again to allovJ him to communicate with those inside. Later the people visited the cave over a period of days and heard of the men dying one by one until there ,,ms but one and he lived for a day or so after the otherso This, if it is based on fact9 probably confirms the drastic earth movements v-Jhich have affected a:nd possibly formed some of the Kvvi Valley Caveso' (Parker 1965) 250 'Again the site of a river going underground, but this is the only example found north of the ranges in this area. A quite considerable creek drops 16 m into hard amorphous grey limestone9 though there is no superficial limestone for some miles around on the northern slopes of the ranges in the region of the Nilkama headvJaters. o o o .v1e descended and followed a river passage sloping dovm to the north or northeast for about 250 m and to about 190 m vertically the entrance 9 vvhen the passage narrowed considerably and a sump vms reached.. This stream undoubtedly e'merges as a series of three or four springs about 2 km donn the valleya One of these springs emerging in the middle of a small hamleto' (Parker 1965) 26. Tokobareo 'A deep sinkhole at the foot of a cliff belo'a a passover the ranges the 1;11kama track crosses .. A sheer drop, about 30 m deep and with no entering stream, this looks more like a deep rock fissure than a sinkhole .. • (Parker 1965) 27. Mebile. This system is not situated on the Porols but in theUpper Chimbu Sub-district, one and 2 half hours -nalk from the KLmdiayn1 Gembogl road near Duglpagl o It has been explored to a depth of 160 mo incomplete. Described by Brmm (1973) and Sanders \1973). There is obviously much potential in the Chimbu area for further caving. Although it is unlikely that a deeper system than Bibima ',:ill be located9 there is scope for deep systems of 300 m or more, such as Mebile and The Holeo The dip slopes of Elimbari (2900 m) Limestone Massif support many sinkholes up to 70 rn vJide and 1 5-20 m deep vvi th steeply sloping concave sides (CSIRO 1970)0 Some fifteen sinks have been investigated in and around the Chuave -Elimbari area but all terminated in boulder chokes after about 30--40 ma There

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NIUGHTI CA VER VOLUI\TE 1 NUJ\rIBER 4 are, however, some known large and extensive horizontal river systems such as Gomea which have only been partially exploredo Gomea has tremendous potential and would warrant an organized large party tripo There does not appear to be great depth potential on the slopes or surnmi t areas of Elimba ... but as previously mentioned the horizontal systems have potential and should reveal subterranean of extensive and large proportions., Any exploration iaould need to be -vrnll planned and E::quipped to negotiate large and fast volumes of wa.terc The area north of the Kwi and Singga Valleys and towards Gembogl (Upper Chimbu) sports relatively extensive and sub stantial limestones and could support deep systems (for example, Mebile); little exploration has been carried out in the areao East of Kermva.gi is Noga.re, and from lfogare to the Upper Chimbu is also rich with quite thick limestones that attain an altitude of 2500 m (estimated) e.nd so far only very super ficial exploration has been attemptedo There is a short but well developed river system with an impressive opening at Wela'kuma \:-vhich is knovm as ela1mamaru Cave. There are also a number of sinks that have not been investigated.. The potential of the area is good but is offset by the walking and time involved in carrying out a detailed explorationo CAVES 01' TEZ snrnGA VALLEY CHr.rnu DISTHICT .... .. -.. .. F. Parker From 1964 to 1967 I located a.nd visited a number of caves in the Chimbu District. Those in the Porol Range east of Kundiavm vvere listed in an eDrlier paper (Parker 1967) o Other areas in the Chimbu District 'iJhere caves were found include the Duglpagi area north of Kundimm (see also Sanders 1973) visited by Mike Bell and myself in 19679 the 'vfohgi Gorge to the south-1,rnst of Kundia\1m \Jhere I visited caves in May 1967 and the Kagul area south-east of Kundiawa v1here a single cc.we vJas visited in 1964 o To assist sneleos currently working in the area9 this paper contains informG tion I obtained9 in the hope that they-can carry exploration further than I was able to on my solo trips.

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104 nn CA VER VOLUIJ:Z 1 KUT 4 :rHE CAVES ....... 1. Nogaro While at Kerowagi I heard reports of a large cave Nogar rest houseo The area can be reached by a r:d:;ecp four--wheel drive track9 starting on the Hig1'1lands Highway vrnst of Mingende,, As bridges had collapsed along the road I \Jas unable to visit the area. on the occasions on v;hich I triecL A ',.ialking track from Pari vJill also reach Nocar but it is a fair walk. (See Editor's Noteo) 2. Uramo A small opening into the south bank of the Singga Hi ver south=,,;vest of Pari rest house. ,4as not visited., . 3 o o A large partly collapsed chamber tvilO-tLirds of the way up the north slope of the rangeo A small entrance allm1s access down a rubble slope for about 100 mo ITo 2irst explored by Bob Oreill (Canberra) in early and by myself in October9 1964" 4 .. Yonomiglo Stone,, A single limestone rock tmder cave and short passage described as Obondo 1 :onaminge cave. (Wilde 1973a)o The aged woman referred to was buried in.October or November? 19640 5o Chim bu. Two small u...imamed passages on the nest bank of the Only a few metres longo 60 A sinkhole pointed out to me from Pa.ri rest house9 since explored and described as Gagoga.mgama cave 1973) D 7o Omkombogo. A rock shelter at the base of a cliff at the point-where-it meets the Singga. An area of about 15 m x 5 m. Lies behind the drip-line and deposits indicate some 2rchcological potential. Jo ?o White obtained a few scrapers in a test pit in 1967. BelmN the shelter a stream emerges from a boulder fall o About 20 m above the shelter is a cave mouth 3 m x 3 m. The sage is old and dea,d 9 vvi th a level floor 9 and about 100 rn. no side passages. The walls nere black with soot, bably from burning brands used by the people for hunting o Six specimens of . \Jere collected on 19679 from a colony of about thirty in the caveG fevJ metros upstream from the shelter are t1,rn small hori. zontal fissures used for burial. 3.. l?i.G:ndJ;.1o A short passage said to be at the foot a cl:_ ff next to the stream.. It wa.s not visited and is said to be a few metres long.

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R .. -A .• "'" """""'"' "<')! •• " ii' . t ('*: ' i'k ;f'ili "J •• p! '"' '..! &•w1111:1il\.,.,, J•lf'-y"'' ... ,.._ --;ii r

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NIUGilU CAVER VOLID/iE 1 NUMBER 4 See Speleological Bibliography of the Chimbu, this issue. EDITOH'S NOTEo This is Welakumare cave and is a fairly 1arge-rIVersystem with a number of entrances, the main one being a short distance from Nogare rest house. The passages are large and well developed9 but it is not an extensive system. (Information supplied by Kevan Wilde.) * * * F .. Parker * INTRODU(fTION o Some 8 km ESE of Kundiavm the large Wahgi Bi ver ssi vely through a narrow limestone gorge o Cliffs rise to 200 m on each side, and small streams fall over these into the river. The walking track from Gero to Sipagul (see map) crosses the river at its narrowest poiht by means of a. rattan can bridge less than 20 m long. On 7th and 8th May 1967 I visited some of the caves in the corge. The numbers refer to the map. 1 .. Vi elamuro ,, About 200 m upstream from the bridge over the --the--Ongbonigl, a moderate-sized permanent stream9 flows south tonards the river. It enters a small cave mouth9 drops over a 20 m fall in cave, flmvs on south for about 70 rn, then turns east to flm-J parallel to the river for about 200 m, ending in a sump.. The stream appears to emerge beside the river in a small sump, just a fevv metres above the bridge. In the dry season the sump may be passable. :Most of the passage parallel to the river is subject to rapid and complete flooding during rainstorms, as evidenced by debris on the roof and wallso fhe village people occasionally climb part of the way down a small sinkhole which enters the passage above the waterfall, to ea tch flying foxes o '.!here the passage turns to run parallel \ivi th the river there is another entrance v1hich the village people [mid they would not enter" They claim two mysterious deaths in t cave at some time in the past. At one time a man entered the and followed the stream up to the waterfall. He emerged and died vvhile he \'\JaS VJalking home. On another occasion9 a mcn1 follovved the passage dovmstream and did not come oute People entered to try to search for him and quickly left vvhen they heard -che sounds of 'people talking9 and of dogs and fovvls' (probably-

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1:TIUGilH CA VER VOLUME 1 l'JUlrnER 4 107

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108 NIUGIHI VOLUME 1 NUMBEH 4 the burbling of v11ater amongst stones vJhich is quite loud in this cave)o A colony of large flying foxes lives in the cave. 2 o About 2 km dovmstream from "'Ielamuro 9 and still on the north bank of the Wahgi, the small stream Moranambul flows into a narron fissure cave. This can be followed for about 100 m to an opening whence the stream falls dmJn the cliff into the river.. The passage is high up to 20 m -and narrow -less than 2 m" Near the exit a small passage branches to the west and I follovrnd this for 1 5 m u:ntil stopped by an overhung climb up., The passage appeared to extend beyond thiso A series of small s9 hliniopterus medius9 was collected" In a doline to the east of I\Iur"ugugris..__a, 'o_'88}?"""8Inkhole cc,.lled Ilalamuru into vvhich a amount of Yrn.ter drains du,ring raino l!'rorr.. the south bank of c '"'ahgi 9 near Toglun cave 9 the emerging Morana.mbul can be scen9 but no opening in the cliffs which correspond Bith Ilalamuruo a large vertical opening in the cliff some 30 m west of t Moranambul emergence maJ be connected to the vvestern passage uf l\lurug ugl o 3 o Touluao A small cave on the south slopes of the -\Jaht;i ._ .... .l:i;: __ ...,. e9 below Sipagul rest house. The passage is 1o5 m high9 3 m for about 10 m, then open!ng into a chamber 4 x 4 x 2 m higrio The walls c,re covered in soot 9 and the cave is still used for overnight camping by villagerso Amongst old formation at the c: of the floor there are many used ;:::5tonc scrapers lying on the surface o A cryptic 9 semi burrovving skink9 Sphenomorphus was found at the edge of the ..... 4 o Tvrn small u.nnamed fissures in cliffs on the east of the ;:5tream GivJinigl" One drops 12 m to c} mud T other is sealed after 4 m by debriso Further could be located both east :.t.:'ld \rnst of area9 along the gorgeo If not, it is w0rth the visit to see the cliffs and waterfalls of the gorge" * -1,!. * -xBurial Caves and Hock .Art in the Chimbu Burial Caves from the Central, Morobe and NmJ Ireland Districts +:in the Erave9 Kagua and Lake Kutubu Areas

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NIUGilU CAVER VOLUIVIE 1 NULIBEH 4 109 Fo Parker * Some 1O.5 km south of Kundiavva.9 Kagul rest house and hamlets are spread along a high ridge jutting into the Wahgi valley from the east. From the ridge at an altitude of about 1950 m (6500 ft) there are magnificent views of the Wahgi River to the north and south vJhere it flovJ s in a steep broken valley some 7 50 m belovv .. Kundiawa township9 the Porol Scarp and Mt .. Wilhelm can all be seen9 clouds permittingo Along the slope of the ridge steep limeotone cliffs are sandwiched between softer9 clayey Marigl Shales. The cliffs are broken and irregular and range from 30 to 60 m in height. Road access to Kagul commences at the Highlands Highvmy at Dumun9 whence a dirt road leads to Koge then Kagul after a long climb up the Suai RangeQ I visited the main cave near Kagul on 10th Hovembor 19640 Kobikobiri Caveo In the cliff about 150 m below the rest about 6 x 6 m from which a large pass age goes straight into the cliff for about 70 m where it is sealed off by an old rock fallo Above this passage is a small system with a small opening in the cliff 10 m vertically above larger entrance. The two levels are linked by a sloping passage near the entranceo During the wet seasori there is a great deal of dripping and seepage in the main cave and the floor is covered in deep mudo At the foot of an earth mound about 20 m in from the cave entrance is a small 'minev where the village men obtain a fine white powder9 greatly valued for decoration for dancing. The material is in a horizontal bed about 0. 6 m thick, m under the cave floor G The cave mouth is often used as a shelter9 mainly in the dry_ seasono There could be archeological possibilities but the amounts of water seeping through the Bet seasons would destroy organic materialo Swifts nest in the ca.veo Villagers say a large colony of fox0;s used the cave until the adve:nt of steel axes with European contact. The new tools enabled the people to cut down most of the trees on the ridge, after which the flying foxos left o Old guano deJr.)QSi ts confirm the story o A story told by both the Kagul and Kwima people des,.cri bes a 11half-rna.n11 Kurc\1G::Lgl9 who lives near the cave and emerges every year in December/January to vmnder around whistling in a -)(-',: 71 1 dl i' f 0 -t . ' D 11 0 D np_ 0 n 2 41 7 TF -"d b D \'.T Gi .I e 0ec lO.r.19 o.Li.o0o..i.!o, 0 0 DOX 9 A0l1c. 0 U9 .Lo.;."o ro

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110 NIUGINI CAVER VOLill/.fE 1 NUMBER 4 low monotone. He is not malevolent,but the whistling manages to frighten men away from hunting possums in the cliffs during that time. While the whistling noise could well come from wind action at the interconnected cave entrances, the story is ver;r similar to others told to nave Cole (University of Washington) and myself at other places in the Chimbu and Eastern Highlands Tiistricts.. The names differ in each case, but the common factors are malformed, forlorn but non-malevolent spirits who wander near and in caves and rock shelters. A few small fisstires are reported in the cliffs to the south-east of Kobikobiri. * * * NOTES 01T SOME CAVES IN THE EJJIMBARI ANJJ CHUAVE AREAS ... oz, ... Wo:Ql ..... .... ...... ----..----...... ... K., Ao Wilde * The following report covers a number of caves visited the author and Van Watson from 3rd to 7th F"ebruary9 1972 .. accompanying was Peter Dwyer of University of Queensland, Holmes and Mick Milston of Sydney University.. Mention is made of other caves reported but not visited., by Also Keith also Cave No. 1. Kiowa or Gomea or KaimoITo Caveo This system is wcll-knoWiibut'l'Soniypartiy""explore'd""""o-It is-a well lmown archeological site anQ was the subject of research which discovered evidence of temporary occupation and use by food gatherers and hunters as early as ten thousand years agoo (Bulmer 1964) The entrance is dry, old and collapsed. A good sleeping area is located on a platform of silt near the daylight limits at the entrance. To the right of this a passage leads up 8 m to a wooden pole to an upper level overlooking the campsiteo A fissure in the opposite side of this level leads jnto a cavern 18 m long9 15 m wide and 30 m high .. Two passages lead out from this chamber; the most obvious of them leads off to the left and is approximately 4.5 m wide, 2.5 m high and after 68 m there is a 2.5 m drop which requires a short hand.line and leads to a ledge on the right which overlooks the main stream.. A difficult hj_gh level traverse leads off to a flow and pools which can be reached from another passage in the afore-mentioned chamber. F"rom the ledge 15 m of is required to reach the main streamo The stream v:as not explored and should only be attempted in the dry season .•

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l\J"IUGIFI CA VER VOLUME 1 lf01\[]3EH 4 1 1 1 ELI _RA f_ ... ,t'1\;fT)" 1:/ "•( •.. i j\;4BI1 A.)•,, l! "-.: _;t .t'\. t .,,/. lj ' \ ' ,,,< .r f '<' 1 "" t,.J LIMBARI .. ff '1 ') l, bUtr$A ..,..ANA9'4 0 l>ll;\l 3ffh ,...C:riiUUH .. TUtt.RL,. &l'JJ.

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112 lHUGINI CA VER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 From the cavern close to the entrance a second passage leads off to the right necessitating a 15 m climb to the higher levelo A wooden ladder has been placed there by locals to assist in the clim1J. The passage from the top is 8 m wide and 15 m high and after about 180 m a large pool is reachedo Past the pool is flowstone and a small stream vvhich drops some 15 m into the main stream. The traverse is 45 m from the flow to the ledge along the right hand wallo The large passage leading to this point is rather confusing due to the many levelso Halfway along a stream enters9 which was not explored. The main stream has been previously explored downstream to the efflux by the PoMoSoSo Upstream remains unexplored. See also Anon (1961a)9 Anon (1963b)9 Bc.,in ( 1963), Chm1pion ( 1968), and Van Deus en ( 1963) .. Cave No. 2o Noumbi Caveo Noumbi is located 6 m up in a bluff above-the-waikingtrackbetween Chuave and Nomani rest house., (The track continues to the Elimbari Loop Road at Fikombaru Aid Posto) The entrance is approximately 2.5 m high and 1o5 m wide; but inside the passage widens and after some 45 m a jrmction is reached; to the left a passage leads to a small entrance after about 60 m; to the right the passage leads down to a series of pools and a drop of 10 m to a cavern 10 m wide, 30 m long and 15 m high. There is a small drain soak in the floor and a slope with.Jormation on the right with no other passageso Cave No. 3o Kirove Cave.. This cave was not visited but is referr8d-to'by'"'Bain' \19.bJ), Champion ( 1908) 1 and Read ( 1973) o Cave No. 4. Sinko Lende Sink is situated on land belongfng a former Member of the House of Assembly. The entrance is located in a small sink and is approx imately 3 m wide. A s'U.itable rock belay is located near the entrance. The fj_rst pitch is about 10 m and is best rigged with a The second pitch which is also approximately 1 O m is best rigged on a small flake which is located opposite a ledge on which one can traverse. This is followed bv a scramble down and over two 3 m drops and a rope pitch of som"e 40 m and a vertical squeeze of 8 m where the sink closes off and is no longer negotiable. Cave No. 5. Retretenoro Cavee This systl(m was not visited but was reported by local people. ., .9.ave No. 6.. Roko Sink. Roko sink system is a system of five ffi.nkholes in a small area; these were not descended but appear to have potential. 2av ... e 7.:..-:-KE_h-riap.gQ.!2 S];nk.. Kanangoro Sink is situated on the ..Left nand side of the track to the surmni t of Elimbari, the entrance being situated some 20 m up in the face of a limestone

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:i:TIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 IJUMBER 4 ,,-:; !J,,, !'.Cf, !,";,;; i: . ,.,.,,.,..," W> N Lt t.JI 0 zo ;to t'3owt+J :,"' A (.;-v::<:;: ...... , '"' t,,_ .; ...... I i .:_. ,,,.,,.. Flo iJ :> 'f o N E PcOL I i I I ,, I

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114 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 cliff o Approximately 25 m deep with u substantial covering of bat gw::vno on. f}_ o o.r .. Cave No. 8. Name u..11known; situated on track and is the third sink-down-'Yrom the summit.. Not descended and of doubtful potential o Cave No. 9 Q Anafaruafi. Sinko Anafaruafi Sink a short distance-from-ffO:-s:--x-crimb-of 1 5 m to a point where 15 m ladder is rigged followed by a further drop of 10 m and still going. Not fully descended owing to lack of equipmento Cave Noo 100 Komndokoaumu Sink,, First si.nk on right of track-from-summit:"---.ApproximatelyJO m deep with a difficult vertical squeeze .. No further potential .. A hwnerus bonG was found at the bottom of the shaft. 11 o Rafaifo Cave" This cave was previously unknown-to-eitf.le'r-Europeans-orlocals was discovered by Van Watson. The entrance is located 30 ill down the bank from an bld helicopter pad approximately 100 m south of the trig' station on the summit .. A bit of a scramble is needed to reach the open-. ing and care should be taken not to fall 450 m into the valley below,, The entrance is 2.5 m wide and 1 .. 5 ill high and leads to a saddle of fallen rocks and rubble.. To the left is a scramble over boulders, flowstone, formation and guano to a shattered floor 10 m There are a number of holes in the broken floor that do not go.. A small pc-:i.ssage 9 ,:hen scramble over and 1:mder a large bc)ulder> the passags continues past a large pile of guano with c.::<:\Te sWJ_ftlet nests above.. (Pete Dwyer indtcated that it could be of considerable interest to zu-ologists for cross sectionB and cave fauna.) A little further on and to the right is a flowstone vmll with a short horizori.te.l squeeze at the top which leads to two small chamber3. Returning to the entrance saddle there is a chamber to the right 10 m wide, 30 m long a.nd 6 m high with a shattered floor and no forma tj_one Exploratitm of this cave is complete., Cave Noo 12. Kimolimba Cavea This is a depression on the easternside-ofMaliga Ba88CamP:-Stream passage 50 m long9 gently sloping high fissure followed by a narrow squeeze which could possibly be pushed6 The depression is approximately 2070 m AaSoLa and appears to form a major part of the swnmit drainageo Cave No. 130 Morena Caveo This cave is situated in the face of Elimbari 7-No't-vrs:rfed. 'Referred to by Bain ( 1963) 9 Champion (1968), and Read (1973) .. See Bibliography on the Chimbu District, this issue .. * * *

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:nuan:r VER .. 1 ltrJl.IBER 4 115 /' ()UAN 0 AtJf) . //""'' ,,,,. """'' C. A. u A.O l SKErl,,.M. . 1.

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116 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUM:E 1 NUMBER 4 A SPELEOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE CHIMBU DISTRICT ---..... ......._ __________________ _......_ ................... _...._ .... __ ....._._. .... R. Michael Bourke * *Anon. (1961a). (Known Caving Areas in the Territory). l 2-5. Cave _.... .............. Anono (1961b). New Guinea. No. 12: 4-5.June 1961. Anon. (1961c). Round-Up of Society Activities. No. 4.Sept. 1961" Anon. (1963a). Trogging Around the Societies" No. 19: 12. March 19 6 3. AoS.F. Newsletter ........ ,... .. ._ *Anon. (1963b). Chuave Trip -Easter 1963. 3 11-12. Anon. Record to P.N.Go Cavers@ Aug. 24th 1972 p. 1. Anon. (1972b). N.Z. Cavers Descend to 1954 ft. New Zealand Wed. 9th August 1972 p. 160 Reprinted in 1 335. Anon. ( 1972c). Cave Record in New Guinea. The Su.n Fri. 25th August, 1972. Reprinted ,;I. • ..Eele9.. Soc :-TCTT1) 308. Anon. (1972d). Edi+orial. New Southern Hemisphere Depth Record Bibima Cave. No. 2. Aug. 1972. Anon. (1973). The Caving Scene. l 9; l 45-46; l (3): 65-67. Anon. (1973). Good and Evil Spirits. Friday 13th July 1973 p. 17 and 25. Bain, Gordon a (1962)oCaving in New Guinea. g_ ( 2) : 9-11 • The Western Caver ------------................. ...... *Bain, Gordon a (1963). Chuave, Eastern Highlands District, New Guinea -a first report. J (1): 3-9. Bain7 J.H.C., Mackenzie, D. E. and Ryburn, R. J. (1970). Geology of the Kubor Anticline Central Highlands of New J2}2;E, !i... • Qe o • O l2 * DoAoS.Fo, Keravat, East New Britain, Pa1,.ua New Guinea. 0. • ,ruinea"

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NIUGINI C.A VER VOLUME 1 NUMBER. 4 Bourke, R" Michael ( 197 3) • :tE ugini Caving News"'> .. 1.!.!.ST-: N 0 0 5 9 2 .5 0 3.lmer9 Susan ( 1964) o Radiocarbon Dates from New Guinea" Polvne Soc (3)0 327 32R ,.,, .. ,..., .. .. • ., k-""""-. -0 '-'. Bu.lmer\ S:J.fmn ancL Ralph ( 1964). The Prehistory of the Austra.lia::1 Wew Gui.nca Highlands o .. ( 4) 39-76 • CSIRO ( 1958).. The Lands of the Goroka-Mt. Hagen Nev,i , Guinea. No" 58/ 1" * Champion, Co Ro ( 1968). Caving and Areas in J?apua and New in p. 189. P .. Matthews (EcL) AustQ 0peleological Federationo Max (1973). In Search of an Underground Everest" Pi.2'S/PQ:2le ( 12) 20-22.. Reviewed i" Y.: 212 o 1J ( 6) 1 6 E11is, (1972) 0 Editori.a1 Southern Hemisphere Depth Ifocorc_ Shattered. i l" SQ.2 238e Golson, Jack ( 1972). Prehist0ry? in 2 and g 961-CJ?O. P. Ryan (Ed.) Hosking, J" So (1967). Papua and New Guinea. Limestone and Lime in the Terri to::r.y .9.filB.Q I:'aer 2-1 .. e:mings, J N" and Bik, M 0 J 0 ( 1962) .. Karst Morphology !rnstralian New Guinea. 1.2 (4833) 1036-1038 .. MacMillan, Jo Jc and Malone9 E .. J" (1960) .. Geology of the E::i.stern Central Highlands of New Guinea. Bur .. Min., Res. C< ,.._......,ll'llW -'7:1r-•,.,,....... McQuillan, Col ( 1973).. Everest Lies Below" Aug,, 9 58-61. Parker, Fred (1965). Queen's Cave. Letter to the 3 ( 44) Nov. 1 5th, 1965. Parker, (1967). The Caves of the Porol Ranges Between t Chimbu River and Chu.ave 9 in the Chimbu District of the East .. ::;rn Central Highlands of New Guinea.. Communications: Oecas. 1-:i'], ner No " 2 ' P" 2 0-2 7 ,, Sydney S pel e o .. So c • ------......

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1 H3 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 Pavey, Andrew (1972). Cave Notes .. .I2!3:E No. 16: 2. June 197:20 Pavey'} Andrew and Robinson, Philip (1973) o News from ;Q.2.g! No.. 23 g 35-36.. April 197 3 .. -v:-Read, J .. Ro Lo and MacGregor, Jo Po ( 1967). Caves in the ctLLr-:bu and Eastern Highlands Districts. Geol. Section, Depto of PolLGo Unpubl .. Note on Investig. No. 67404 .. * Read9 K. (1973) Some 1963 Trips to Monono, Henganofi9 anD tern Highlands and Chimbu Districts o !!i.!:!-Q!!i -1 ( J) 77-860 Rtckwood, Fo K .. (1955). Geology of the Western Highlands Jo Geol. Soc. Aust. 2: 63-82 .. ---........ ........_ ----:-:'anders, Bill ( 1973). Me bile Cave, Chimbu District o .... l ( 2) 50-52" yr,.. na ' 9.J'.l .J.../vusen, o Hobart M .. ( 1963). First New Guinea Record of i!: • 44 ( 2) : 279 .... 280 -------.... -----------,, VV a V o J)j_ strict o ( 1973) Gagogangama Cave, Porol Escarpment'} Chimbu 1 46-7. 2,(-tson, V. and Wilde, K. (1973). Bibima Cave Papua New Guinea _, . Bu1,J;o No .. 111-115 .. Dec. 1972 o \1ffhic0 7 J. Peter ( 1965).. Archaeological Excavations in New Repo:-t" 2.Q. H ( 1) 40-56 0 x "'Jilde 9 Ko A,, ( 1973a) Obondo 'yonaminge Cave, Chimbu District o Niuginj Caver 1 48-9. * 87 Ko A .. (1973b). Sigewagi Cave, Chimbu Gorge, Chimbu J)j .. sJcrict. l 48-50., *Wildes Ko Ao (1973c). The Porol Escarpment, Chimbu Di. rict. ITi.!:!-!.g;h 1 ( 3) 67-69 o Wilde, Ko A .. (1973d) .. Irapui Cave, Porol Escarpment, Chimbu o l ( 3): 70-7 4 o Wilcle, Kevan and St re et, Bev... ( 1972) .. Group Tackles Bi and ; o., 10A New World of Adventure. Ne! Gu_!g.; !:QE:! " 1972 .. Po 5o , Kevan and Watson, Van ( 1973).. Bibima Porol Euce.:.:_'p-,,. 1 Chimbu District. .1 2-60

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 -x Willtams 9 P 0 W o ( 1972) Cave and Karst areas in East New Gui:::.c '=1," o eol_Q_g;y (Stuttgart, 19 69) (in pru o Yosii, Riozo (1971)0 Cave Collembola of New Guinea Collected by the Explorer's Club of the Nanzan University o .QQ.t!> Biol o Lal)., :QQ2.:Y 0 ? ?..l g 7 7 7 9 o *Papers marked thus would be of interest to the general caver. Other papers are of a more specialised nature or do not pr much det3..il on Chimmbu caves. I could assist anyone vJho could_ not obtain any of these papers. However, there are a few I not have. Any corrections or additions would be apprecia;te:L * * -1: The Speleological Research Group Western Australia hav2 recently announced in their newsletter (June 1973 p. 2) The Modular Cave System for armchair cavers o By special arrangement the P .. can now offer this system to fJ.:-om Momote to Daru. -The system consists of interconnecting bits and accessori c to enable:; you to erect the cave system of your choice in the privacy of your own homeo Kit 1 "Ins-tant Do line" • 60 kg golignite5 5 mm of fuse9 optional extra; a pair of runninc spikes. Kit 2 "Pretty Chamber". One fibre-glass chamber with genuine plastic pretties and psychedelic-coloured lights, eleven light fuse boxes, 800 metres of chicken wire, one plastic water pool, 37 cents, 3 Hong Kong dollars9 one empty coke t 3 n G:ro-tby Grotto11 o chamber simulated plastic wool9 3 kg used carbi Kit 4 "I,lud Sump11 0 ... '''-'' -' -tight passage. 4851 litres of chocolate blr111cmE::.,:n{)c" Kit "Dangerous Crawl". Small tight passage in unstable rockpile '} optional . .3 ,'J.ar'ci-personnel mines o Kit 11 Tourist Chamber". 30 metres of rotten stairway 9 12 metres of rusty handrc:t::' 9 135 metres of knotted cavestring9 optional oDe boot9 2 empty tins flea powdero * * *

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120 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 Hans Meier huge doline . that the Bougainville cavers tried to investigate at Easter is not the same one Fred Parker visited and wrote up for Helictite (See 1 650) ---------In June a party of five visited and surveyed Kovana cave in the Rotakas area (See this issue). This is the first report of caves from this areao Hans took a group of senior scouts to Boromai cave in the Kieta area in Augusto Again the illagers vvere unwilling to allow access to the caveo This problem seems particularly bad on Bougainville. A quick trip in October had no difficulty with villagerso Chimbuo In September after the Southern Highlands expedi tion";-Kundiawa was descended upon by some of the southern cavers interested in burial caves and climbing Mt o Vfilhelm o Kev Wilde took a party to one of the burial caves for surveying9 photography and sketching drawingso Cavers iilvolved were Ashley Cody, Keith Dekkers, Gordon and Rosemary Fox, Millie Holl9 Rosemary Nicholls, Alex Poozanoff, Janet and Neil Ryan and Kevan. Janet and Neil revisited the Chimbu in Octobero They spent a few hours in Irapui, and located Kurakomdogo II which they couldn't find in September. Mike Noone organized a from Moresby in ,Jctober t'See this issue) o Mike plans to run further trips in the New Year and sta:: t a Speleo Society at the Uni o New Britain. Chris Holland has located another tuff cave at Malabunga:--l?eter Bailey9 Michael Bourke, Chris, Rod Saunders and Jean Schafferius visited the Iuvare caves on the Gazelle in October. They had a quick look at Iuvare cave and then a surveying trip through part of Luminas caveo Hal Gallasch has located a few more small caves in the Rembarr Rangeo New Ireland., The manager of Londolovit Plantation on Lihir Island is--rE.?ported to be visiting caves on the island and excavating calcified human bones. :Michael Bourke, Kath Carman and Jean Schafferius visited and surveyed two small water supply caves at Liga village and Medina High School in Octobero Numerous other caves were reported by the villagers from Manggai village to Medina9 but they were too far from the road to be reached in the available time.

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NIUGINI CA VER VOLUivTE 1 NUMBER 4 121 The biggest speleological expedition ever to PolLGo was conducted to the Muller Range in July August-September.. Five PoNoGo speleos joined 21 from Australia and New Zealando The area was established as a major "deep cave" area and significant discoveries were mad.eo (See report this issue)o This expedition has been previously referred to as the Lavani Expedition as the Lavani Valley was the original target areao As always in PoNoGo the expatriates are forever being transferred:1 "going finish" and being replaced? and cavers are no exception. Some of the movements in the last few months are as follows .. John Bywater has gone to Wewak where he is.working as a piloto Ian Cooper (Gazelle Peno) has left for the UoKo for a year., Brian Dodd and Mary Rogers (Paguna) have moved to Minjo Gerry Jacobson and family have "gone finish" to Canberra .. Alan Keller (BoHoPo9 Rabaul) has returned to PoNoGo after spending the last year and a half working all over Australia" Mary Jane Mountain has arrived in .Moresby (Anthropology Depto9 UoPoNoGo)o .. Fred Parker is also moving to Moresby.. Andy and Judy Pybus (Wewak) have "gone finish" to the 11old country"o Van Watson (Ramu) has also "gone finish". Hevs in Q'Ueensland at the momentq but will be back in Kiwiland by Christmas for a Mt. Owen expedition. Kev Wilde has taken a job in the and has his sights on a trip to the Saruwagedso Orait, mi laik tok thenk yu tru husat i i bin salim pas i kam long mi wantaim nius bilong ol hulo Yu no ken lusim tinktink long salim toktok bilong ol hul ikam long edita .. Em tasol. * * * " " " •• will be 10th January, 1974.. Keep those articles coming in" NoCo has published articles j_n Volume 1 on caves from tvJelve of-the nineteen districts9 and articles from one more district are on hand for Volume 2o Perhaps all nineteen districts will be covered by the end of Volume 2? * * *

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122 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 SUBSCRIPTIONS ______ .. a • o o for Volume 2 are now due" Send $A2 to the editor for a yearYs subscriptiono Rumours that (i) the editor has made a fortune from is retiring at the Green River Patro1 Post9 and (ii) he-has been bankrupted by NoCoand is fleeing to a iemote karst area in New Britain were vI'gorously denied by him at the Vanimo International Airport today.. Subscribers can look forward to at least another year?s issues of NoCo * -x* o o o •• will be held in mid-1974, probably in Sydneyo It is being sponsored jointly by the Australian Speleological Federation and the Sp8leological Council Ltd.. consider going or presenting a paper -it should be a good show a * * THE CAVE OF THE YEAR AWA.RD ..... ....... is awarded each year by the editor of the AoSoFo This year Ora Cave, New Britain? took the award. th Bibima Cave the runner-upo Ora also took the Cave of the Month for June 1973 9 as awarded by the Qf Speleological Societyo __ l:'M'l'te the * * +:As well as the publications listed in the last Ca:ye:,r, following have been received. Victorian Speleological Association SOUTHERN CAVER ... --Southern Caving Society Tasmania SPELEOGRlLB1FITI ________ .,,...__ .. National University Caving Club Canberra Speleological Society The PoNoGoCoEoGo is noVJ receiving exchange publications from most of the member societies of the Australian Speleological that are currently producing a newslettero The exceptions are Blue Mountains Speleological Club7 Central Queensland Speleological Society, Kempsey Speleological Society9 Metropolitan Speleological Society, and the Sydney Speleological Society., * * *

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NIUG nn CA VER VOLUIVIE 1 N1JMBER 4 123 Ro Michael Bourke * Such was one of the aims of the Niugini Speleological Research Edpedi tion (Lavani Valley) 197.:L The expedition did not do that 9 but a of deep caves vvere bottomed and the exnloration area was established to have world class cave depth potential o The tVJo deepest caves explored were bottomed at 329 m and 311 m, becoming the fourth and seventh deepeet explored in the Southern Hemisphere respectivelyo The Highlands of Papua New Guinea now contain three of the caves in. the Southern Hemisphere known to be deeper than 300 m (c 1000 feet) a 'I'H:E The expedition wa.s conceived by Van watson Kev wIId:e-who together with Julia James from Sydney organL:. and led the expeditiono The target area was originally the Lavani Valley, west of Koroba in the Southern Highlands ( the expeditionvs title)o Limestone exposures of 1600 mare known from the cliffs overlooking the Lavanio However this area is not so promising according to BoPu geologists working in the area, and the target area was switched to the M1-:ller Range further west tovvards the headwaters of the Strickland River9 but still in the Southern Highlandso Aeric:;tl recomiaj_ssance showed there to be numerous dolines, many water, at altitudes of 2700-3000 mo The resurgences are 1200-1500 m lower to the expedition attracted 26 people from .Australia9 Papua New Guinea and New Zealand, including many of Australasiaws best vertical cavers and a few non-caverso Members were: Jerry Atkinson (Sydney),.Michael Bourke (PoN.G.,), Paul Caffyn (W.,Ao)1 John Cater (NoZo), John Clec-ry (ILZo), Ashl Cody o Z o L Keith Dekkers (VL1L), Tony ( 9 :In.no Dyson ( dney), Gordon and Rosemary Fox (lL Z o), Phil Glast\'l (Sydney). Millie Holl (NoZo), Julia James (Sydney), Neil IJ.Iontgor;1,_. (Sydney)'} Rosemary Nicholls (Sydney), Andrew Bev P::1vey (Sydney), Alex Poozanof (Sydney) 7 Andy and Judy Pyln1_;:-.; (PoNoGa); Phil Robinson (Tasmania), Mark Rogerson (Sydney)1 Peter Sha1N (Tasmanj_a) 9 Van Watson (PoN o CL), Kev Vlilde (Po .. The main party left Sydney on 4th July 1973 : .. returnee:ron the 2nd Augusto An advance party of three spe:nt two 1Ne cutting tracks and establishi.ng a base cLmpo K:_ght clays of track cutting were 1:>;c1uired to get in., n1c same vms done one a21d a half cL-1ys once the track was cut o L part:1 * DoA.S.P.9 Kerav 3ritain, Papua Guinea,

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124 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 of three had done a preliminary trip at Easter, but could not get into the areao The main party travelled in a chartered DC3 from Moresby to Tari, and thence by road to Koroba and Kelabo village. From here we walked in for a solid four dayso The walk was difficult and most of the party were affected by the altitude9 as we were walking at 2700-3000 m at timeso Moss forest and honeycomb karst relieved the monotony of the montane foresto It was a weary party that entered the base camp clearing to find a comfortable camp established by Kev, Van and John Cater. Most of the gear (some 1400 kg) had been air-dropped into the clearingo The exploration area is uninhabited, the nearest people being the Duna to the south-east and the nomadic Pogaio to the south-south westa The latter have only been contacted on four occasions. We half expected to meet them but no contact was made. We were the first non-indigenous people to enter the area .. EXPLOBATIONo From the base camp9 two exploration parties set out:--onernoved to the area of large dolines that take streams to the south of the clearing. It was these dolines that had attracted some of the cavers from south to the expedition. They resemble Swiss cheese from the air and so the area vms nicknamed the n Cheese" o The do lines were up to 240 m deep and 300-400 m in diameter (not as big as the Ora doline, mind you). Eleven of these giants were investigated9 but only a few boasted shafts, and the deepest of these was a mere 35 m deepc From the base camp, exploration of large dolines, river sinks and small caves was taking placea Nothing "went" however .. The party that moved back half a day on the access track to the "Fault Line" area fared better. The dolines form a "honeycomb" on the surface? and most are no bigger tha."Yl 40 m in diameter" Many investigated produced caveso My diary entry for 14th July 110ur first day underground and a bloody good day. Neil and Gerry did the first pot (MR101) 30 m deepa I bottomed MR102 at 26 ma MR103 and MR104 were a few metres deep only. Phil descended MR105 (Uliguria) for 42 m. He got down MR106 for 12 m to top of second pitch. "Belo bek Phil9 Neil, RMB and Jerry went down Uliguria again" Second pitch 10 mo On the third Phil ran out of rope but not cave at 120 m down the ropeo Cave still going."

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!HUG INI CA VER VOL UJ\IB 1 mnn::BER 4 125 Friday 17th tiSix of us went down Ulimulmulumo At 140 m down Neil and J2rry abandoned the caveo It is a tight muddy squeeze at this stage with little fm:::'ther possibility o Took hours for party to prussik auto All impressed with the 73 m entrance pitcho11 THE CAVESo In the fault line area two caves were explored to over .... 300-m; another two to over 150 m and another three to over 50 mo After the "Cheese" party returned9 the;y moved to the "Fault I,ine11 area and explored our deepest find -Kanada Heiowa Heia (Sunrise Cave) o ])epth was 329 m. The cave is long horizontally with only the one long pitch (81 m). The "Fault Li:cte" party accounted for the rest of the caves o The other 300 m plus cave was Uliguria -311 m deep. This cave consists of a series of vertical pitches (45 m, 14 m, 113 m, 33 m, 5 m, 8 m9 55 m, 25 m). Other deep caves wers Uliui (150-180 m), Ulimulmulum (160 m), IVIR116 (71 m), MR301 (62 m)9 Kanada Kana ( 56 m). Thirteen pitches over 40 m deep in 10 caves were descended. Single rope techniq_ues were used exclusively for vertical work .. This is the first major Australasian expedition where single rope techniq_ues have completely replaced ladders" The deepest pitch (named 11 Shot tower" for the falling rocks) vvas 113 m in Uliguria. On the first descent Phil Robinson reached the bottom of a 122 m (400 feet) rope and called for the 300 m rope. Bikpela sem! Nobod;y still knows how one runs out of a 122 m rope on a 113 m pitch (especially Phil)o He was last seen membling something about "carbide out-glasses dirty-rope tangled-long wa.; down". Uliguria also produced a 55 m pitch nThe absolute rip off pitch". Paul descended the last few metres by abseiling over his own prussik loops tied to the end of the rope. Out was accomplished by prussiking up the luopso Other long pitches were in Uliui (81 m) 9 Ulimulmulum (73 m) and ( 71 m) .. The caves generally consisted of a series of vertical shafts? with little horizontal development Q ManJ ... consisted of the entrance pitch only, which was blocked by rubble. Vle found very little running water9 although caves were dampo And some were horribly muddy .. On the walk out we explored a cave where the Atia River disappears. The cave takes a 9-12 cumec (300-400 cusec) river which forms a spectacular waterfall near cave entrance .. Unfortmiately we have no exact flow datcJ. as some difficulty was experienced finding a volunteer to hold the tape in the stream for gauging! Explora.tion was stopped after 108 m by the river.. However a traverse 20 m above tha raging river

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126 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUJ\1E 1 1TUMBER 4 provided some sporto Already Keith Dekkers and Kev Wilde are talking about returning to the caveo Exact depth potential is uncertain, but it is of the order 1000-1500 mover a few kilometres distanceo The river emerges as the Narli, a tributary of the Burnett and then the Strickland. It needs to be emphasized that the potential of the area is staggering. The streams sink at 2500-3000 m and emerge 1200-1500 m below. In two weeks of exploration and caving we barely scratched the surface (so to speak). We explored 30-40 features out of innumerable possibilitieso Access and exploration is difficult. A chopper would be useful if one could afford it. We were prevented from exploring the most premising areas (fault lines nearer to the resurgences) by access problems. Our expedition was costly ($16,000), well-planned and organised, most of the party were experienced vertical cavers9 and some were experienced in the New Guinea bush. A weaker party in these regards could not have achieved as much. One of the caves explored is probably the highest cave in the Australasian region and the Southern Hemisphere. Most caves explored were in the 2700-2900 m A.SoLo rangeo I do not know which was our highest as many were within a few metres differenceo A book is being produced with papers on all aspects of the expedition, the caves and our scientific worko This article serves only to provide a brief accoUJ.vi.t of the expeditiono Depths quoted are not final, as they were computed in fieldo KOSTSQRI!!o One of the members, John Cater from New Zealand9 was killed in an incidc::u.t with a veh:icle at Ku...ndiawa after the expedition. John's untimely death was a sad end to the expeditiono * * *

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NIUGINI GA.VER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 127 R c cha.el Bourke I\ The seven caves in the Southern Hemisphere known to be deeper than 300 m are as Bibima, Chimbu District, Papua New Guinea Harwood's Hole*9 Takaka Hill, Nelson area, New Zealand Gorgoroth, l\1t o Arthur, New Zealand Kanada Heiowa Heia, Muller Range, Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea Khazad Dum, Jw."'1.ee Florentine, Tasmania Blackbird9 Mto Arthur, New Zealand Uliguria9 Muller Range, Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea * Measured by altimeter only 494 m 1620 ft 369 m 1210 ft 346.5 m 1136 ft 329 m 322 m 316 m 311 m 1079 ft 1055 ft 1037 ft 1020 ft The deepest pitch on the surface is 189 m (620 ft) in Harwood's Hole, NoZ.. The deepest internal pitch is 137 m (449 in Gorgoroth9 No Z o The second deepest internal pitch is the 123 :o (403 ft) pitch in Uliguria, P .. NoGo The highest cave in the Australasian region (and probably the Southern Hemisphere) is one of the Muller Range ones explored in the recent expedition. Caves were found at 2700-2900 m AoSoLo The highest cave in the vvorld9 by the is the Rakhoit Peak Cave in the Nanga Parbat mountains of Pakistan. Explored in 1963, the cave is only 73 m long9 but is situated at an altitude of just over 6649 m (21,800 ft)8 (Waltham 1971)0 Don't think PoNoG,, can beat that one, 'but as this cave is more than tvvice as high as .any .. other known cave in the world9 we could. easily find a for the Pakistani. .. . Waltham9 A .. C .. (1971). The Future of Himalayan Speleology, in British Karst Research Expedition to tTie' liillia1ayti a-:.n..WaitE::1m: tEd :"J-'.HawtTiorne s"';-N o t t ingham o * D.A .. SoFo 9 Keravat, East New Britain, Papua New Guineao * * -)E-

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128 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 9 _goTOKA_ Ho Re Meier * LOCATIONo A small area of coralline limestone exists 15 km south-south west of Yvakunai in the Rotokas area of Bougainville,, PARTYo Brian Dodd, Mary Rogers, John Ashby, Betty and Hans Mei ei: .. .. THIP REPORro Kovava Cave was visited during the long weekend 9th tcJ" TTtS-''Juiie 9 197 3.. The party flew from Aropa (Kieta) to Togarav. by BAS Cessna,, Here we were treated to tea and coffee by Mro & Mrs" Firchow who were able to give us much interesting information about the district and its people. We left for the cave accompanied by two yj_llagers who acted as guides and carriers" After lft hours 9 Ibu Village vms reached where two more villagers joined us. Camp was set up one hour later at a hut in a village garden,, While the girls made preparations for the overnight camp, the rest of the group went on to the cave" The entrance is at the foot of a low cliff where a small stream emergeso The dimensions of the entrance are 2 m wide and 3 m high. After 15 ma point was reached where the stream emerges from a low passage on ths right. About here, the cave also divides into a number of passages which recombine 20 m further on. As we proceeded9 a narrow opening was n)ticed on the right which leads a slde passage o This was not explored 1mtil the f ollow:Lng day .. In this area9 the main passage is 6 m wide.. At 2 m from the floor9 it abruptly narrows to 1.5 m .. A narrowing chimney rises vertica.lly for at least another 10 m. I was taking photographs when shouts from ahead made me catch up quickly., One of the villagers had speared a freshwater eel. Bashing it a few times against the cave wall soon quietened the wriggling creatureo We entered a fairly large chamber after passing through a short 9 lovv o From here a winding, narrow but very high pass&g2 was followed,, Progress was soon blocked by a plug of sediment 3 m thick., A trickle of water was flowing from a small opening at its base.. A rope had to be used to get the party over the loose materialc It was found later that the opening at the base could be enlarged by removing a few pieces of wood and loose * PoOo Box 73, Panguna, Bougainville9 Papua New Guineao

PAGE 38

C.t; VER. VOLUME 1 1-TUMBER 4 129 ""' f.:iJ

PAGE 39

130 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 stone. This made it possible to crawl through. We rejoined the main passage. Daylight was seen a short distance upstream, vdth a large tree trunk lying in the entrance. No examination of the outside was made. We returned to camp after mapping part of the cave. The night was spent at the garden huto We all had a taste of eel after it had been cooked in a piece of bambooo Next morning was crystal clear. A good vievv was had of the Balbi plateau where wisps of fumes and steam could be seen above the barren crater wallso We returned to the cave to complete the survey. The side passage noticed the previous day was exploredo A short distance into this passage daylight was noticed near the ceiling9 the height being about 10 m. Just past here, the passage splits up, the right hand branch being blocked after 23 m. The ceiling in the left hand passage was low and progress was at a croucho At the far corner couJd be seen what appeared to be a semi-solid river of mud and batshito Many bats were encountered in this area. Twenty-five metres further on, the ceiling became lower again. No further advance was made as nobody was keen to crawl through the stinking mud. The total length of passages was calculated at 220 m. The difference in height between the stream entrance and efflux was estimated at 20 m. The cave was very easy going throughout. It was possible to walk practically all of its length. The floor consists of small boulders, gravel and sand with the odd spot of mud. The flow in the small stream was guessed at 50 litre/seco (Oo05 cumecs). This flow would increase considerably during times of heady rain, but it is not expected to present any danger to cavers. Two small openings were noticed about 3 m above the floor. The wall below one of them was caked with black bat droppings. These openings were not investigated. The villagers do not know of any other caves in the area. A snake was found at the lower entrance. Its colour was brown with white markings and its length was about 1 .2 m. 11hree kinds of bats were noticed, but not identifiedo Bats were encountered throughout the cave but were more numerous in parts of the side passage. Eels appear to be common as one of the villagers brought his pronged fish spear and caught his eel. This was the only eel seen.

PAGE 40

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 131 We returned to Togarau in the afternoon where we were entertained by the Firchows'. The night was spent at David Akoitai's house. The warm hospitality extended by the Firchows' and David Akoitai was much appreciated by all. We returned to Kieta the following day by BAS Islander getting a good view of Mt. Bagana on the way. * * * John Bywater is an ex-mem'ber of the Canberra Speleological Australia Speleo Group. He has caved extensively in NoSoWo, Victoria, West Australia, the Northern Territory and New Zealand before coming to PoNoGe Here he has caved around Madang. His interests lie with cave life. Hans Meier commenced his caving on Bougainville and has caved-In-several areas on the island. He is the main cave "pusher" there. Mike Noone is an ex-member of the Victorian Speleological-Society9 University of Queensland Speleological Society and Westminster Speleological Society. He caved regularly in Victoria and then Queensland for a number of years, and did some caving in the UoKo He arrived in P.NoGo in 1973 and the Java:r.ere trip described herein was his first PoNoG. caving. Fred Parker is a member of the Sydney Speleological Society:--He ..... Eas been caving in PoN .. G .. since the early sixties in a number of areas, particularly in the Chimbu1 Eastern Highlands and on Bougainville. He has published several major caving papers and was one of the first to publish on PQNoGo caves. Fred is particularly interested in cave life and is an expert on frogs and reptiles. * * * Ian Lewis of the Cave Exploration Group South Australia is leading a return diving expedition to the Nullarbor, from approximately December 26 to January 149 and is looking for dry cavers (non-divers). Cost per person from Adelaide will be approximately $50.. Chances of success in finding new caves are cp_aimed to be enormous.. Interested trogs write to Ian Lewis, J2 Glenelg North, S.Ao 5045., indicating :caving experience o * * *

PAGE 41

NIUGINL,CAViER VOLUME 1 1'TUJ\'1BER 4 •. ... : '.' t ....... : ..• '.' John Bywater * This is probably tho first article to describe caves from the Madang Districto A cave system near Remni was visited by Vince Aitkin and myself at Easter this yearo Rempi is about 30 km almost due North of Madang along the North Coast roado Prior to Vince's arrival I spent some time questioning villager;::; about caves in the area and found a lot of confusion between "bikpela hul bilong gram1n and iihul bilong Japan man". The villagers all had the belief that all holes in the ground were dug during the war by the Jape.nese o I eventually found an old man who knew of some holes that had plenty of bats in These were described as being "klostu" h::Ls village Suruaina After arranging for carriers and guides1 I decided to visit these holes the next day. To reach the caves we had to cut a track through some fairly thick jungle but we eventually arrived at a doline formation with a creek flowing into ito Entry involved a crouching crawl down the creek and our first impressions were of the incredible number of bats in the We passed numerous chambers of bats and several pythons9 and the cave just seemed to be going on and on. As the snakes 'iN ere slovvtng our progress some'.""" what and as we wanted to look at the laiger cave, we decided to returno This decision was gladly greeted by a couple of my students who ha.a accompanied us. The really terrified them and there were some problems getting them to pass the snakes on the way out. Fauna noted in this cave were bats, pythons (one species), cave crickets, cockroaches9 frogs, crabs and an eel. After another walk over a fairly steep ridge, vrn arrived at the mouth of a large cave with a creek flowing out of it. On the upper parts of the entrance were the remains of a bamboo "banis". Draped around this vvere three tree snakes and around the entrance were a couple more pythons o We made a quick tri.J) inside and again noted the huge number of bats but did. not stay long as our carriers were getting quite panicky and a mass desertion looked highly ltkely. (I have since found out that thu large cave has a tambu on ito) On return to the village9 I questioned the villagers about the caveso In the local language the smaller cave is called :Nilnelan and the larger is called Nasuan. The caves are visited

PAGE 42

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 133 occasionally to kill bats for food and the older villagers talk of hiding in them during the war (after the dug them! ) One old man wn.o couldn' t-speak pidgin told me ( thr o ugh an interpreter) that a long time ago the people who live d in the a r e a sheltered in the caves when attacked by hill peopl e . The young p e o ple l eft the elders there and went to K arka r Island and starte d new gardens. They then came back and c ollecte d the old people and took them there. This was a bit controversial in the village as some others still maintained the Japanese dug the caves. A Catholic priest in the district has told m e a similar story to the old man's. It looked as though the caves were the entr ance and exit of the creek and just a continuous system. Father Ben edict of St. Fidelis Seminary told m e of a mission p arty that walked completel y through the system some years ago . Working o n this information, I visited the system again in early June. With a couple of students I made a trip through the c a ve, confirming this and making a collecti o n of cav e f auna . Unfortunately, we r e m aine d at the large exit to watch the bats leave and the c arriers who took our gear back to the village. " .lost" the load with the specimens i n it . . From _ my. !f._ote book the following: Collected: Obs erved: Small b ats: 2 species 1 l arge bat Frogs: 2 speci e s 1 Hyla Sp . 1 Brow n Frog Snakes: 1 python unide ntifi e d 1 carpet snake . Mouelia Sp . 1 tree snake. Brita sp:Crabs 6 Cave cric k ets 6 All living in Cockroaches 6 ) b a t guano Centipe d e One 20 cm long) 1 Barn Owl. zYtoalba 1 Rat. My intentions were to forw ard these to the Museum in Moresby for identification. F auna-wise, this cav e is very inte resting. A recent trip was a failure due to r efusal of villagers to carry into the a rea. App a r ently they now hmre a big "tam. b u" o n visiting the cave . * * *

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134 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 N1JMBER 4 Lo Jo Brass 0 • • • 0 0 0 • • • This extract is reprinted from pages 124-125 of Brass, L. Jo (1956). Results of the Archbold Expeditions No. 75. Summary of the Fourth Archbold Expedition to New Guinea (1953). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. III 83-1520 ................ ------------_....,........ -Dabora is near Baniara on the northern side of Goodenough Bay (Cape Vogel Peninsula), Milne Bay District. • • • • • • • 0 • • The Tapitapipi Caves were in primary rain forest on a gently ridgy limestone plateau, about 60 m in elevation, steeply scarped to the south, where it rose from flat lands carrying gardens of the Dabora people. Our party was given sugar cane to chew at a large garden recently carved out of the forest between the top of the escarpment and the entrance to the caves. What appeared to be the main entrance was under an overhanging cliff, perhaps 25 or 30 m high, facing approximately west. There were two openings, one above the other at the base of the cliff, the lowermost of which received a stream (dry when we saw it) fed by a sinkhole catchment basin extensive enough to shed a large volume of water from heavy rainso The entrance of the disappearing stream was 2 m or more high and as wide; the upper entrance was more in the nature of a crevice, spanned by some rotten poles which someone had used as a bridge by which to enter the level. A third entrance, used by us, went in from the bottom of a small sinkhole back about 50 m eastward from the rim of the cliff. My one view of the cave was with two natives for company. Crouching low to enter9 we soon found plenty of room and a good floor. In about 50 m the cave forked. We took the right-hand branch and in a short distance came to a large chamber which fairly swirled with small bats. Using switches, and in places floundering in soft, wet guano several inches deep, we brought down 15 bats of four species. Van Deusen, exploring the cave farther, brought the bat catch up to eight species9 including Rousettus and the large fruit-eater Dobsonia moluccensis. The Iocarnati ves valued these two species for meat.. Abour300 .were. claimed to have been killed in a foray into the caves a week or so before our visit. Another hunt, with electric flashlights and coconut-leaf torches, took place while we were there. I did not see the bag. It must have been ample, for my boys came into possession of six big dobsonias, neatly bundled up in wrappings of fresh fan-palm leaves.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 1 NUMBER 4 135 Discovered in 1925 or 1926 by Assistant Resident Magistiate Oo Jo Atkinson (1927, 1928, 1929) bf Baniara, and partly explored by him between then and 19289 according to the Annual Reports, Tapitapipi is evidently a well-developed system of caves. Recently Father Cruttwell of Menapi Mission and a companion penetrated a distance he believes to have been about 2 miles, where they were forced back by bad airo It would appear that no white man has gone far enough into the caves to reach a land underground where, the natives of Dabora believe, the choicest of all bananas, mangoes, and breadfruit grow. * * * TRIP TO Michael Noone * PERSONNEL. Michael Noone, Peter and Di Kincaid, Nicholas and Zandra-S'eddon, Val Taylor, and Greg Kelly. Land Rover, VoWo beetle, 2 motor bike helmets, 20 ft doubtfUl rope, 2 dozo candles, 7 pissweak torches. TRIP REPORTo Stung by the Editor's comment about the quiescentMoresby Mob in 1 (3) and encouraged by the excellent Vincent location may9 I organised a day trip in search of Old Cave (?), Javavere. The cave was located and identified by 2.00 p.m. and by 4.30 p.m. Peter Kincaid and self had investigated two-thirds of the length surveyed by the Vincents. Other members of the party suffered from varying degrees of cave and bat phobia but everyone was impressed by the dimensions of the cave. I was distressed to find recent graffiti in several of the passages along the lower level, some of which included U.P.NoGo as an addresso I suppose this shows some sort of student interest and I shall campaign for a UoP.N.GoSoSo in orientation week 1974. Peter Kincaid, who had never been in any sort of cave before, showed signs of instant conversion and we have planned a properly equipped trip for early 1974. I was not able to contact Kevin Read about location of other Javavere caves and I would be pleased to hear from him or other old PoM.SoS. memberso Also, can anyone tell me where to get miner's helmet lamps . with nickel alkaline batteries and does anyone sell carbide in Moresby? * P.O. Box 4817, University, Papua New Guinea, Tel. 53900, Ext. 2278

PAGE 45

136 NIUGINI -CAVER VOLUME 1 NU.MEER 4 UT Ro Co Hutchinson * This note is extracted from pages 241-2 of Hutchinson, RoCo (1941) .. Phosphate Deposits in New Guinea. 1. (4) 239-2480 Bat guano, generally consisting of the excrement of several types of bats, is to be found on the floors of caves in many parts of New Guineao The entrances to these caves are generally situated in places difficult of access and, although a great many caves are known9 there are undoubtedly a large number which have not yet been discoveredc RE?cently the author visited a large cave at Kaut on the west coast of New Ireland which9 according to all accounts? is one of the largest guano caves yet discovered in New --Guineao The entrance to the cave is on the face of a cliff about '70 ft AoSoLo Close.to the base of -the cliff is an excellent sch'ooner anchorage and the guano could probably be loaded straight into the ship by means of a flying fox, although a considerable reduction in weight would result if the guano were first dried. The cave consisted of an outer chamber which was in semidarkness, a large inner chamber in complete darkness and a number of small grottoes. The cave penetrated the cliff for nearly a quarter of a mile and contained many pools of crystal clear water and some very fine stalactites and stalagmites. It was inhabited by large numbers of bats varying in length from 2 to 10 inches, rats, snakes and insects.. The guano, which was very moist and slippery, varied in colour from black to light brown and in places was several feet deep. The irregular depth of the guano was due to the unevenness of the cave floor which, in places, penetrated the guano,, It is estimated that the cave contains from 5000-10,000 tons of guano. Numerous samples were collected from different parts of the cave and at different depths. Several years ago a large bat cave inhabited by a small variety of bat was discovered in the Madang District. * -x--x-',


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