Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana


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CAVER____,. NEWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA.CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP Volume 2 Number 2 April 1974-Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication. •


NIUGINI CAVER VOLill/rE 2 NUMBER 2 159 Q:.Y.E is the newsletter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group. The PNGCEG isan informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Volume 2 Number 2o April, 1974. Quarterly. Price Editor ____ ......__ 50 cents per issue. $A2 .. 00 per annumo R. Michael Bourke, D .. A.S .. F., Keravat, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Jean Bourke t .. Pag_. Cave Giants of New Ireland? H. Gallasch 160 Revised List of the J)eepest Caves in the Southern He mi sphere .. o o • .. • o .. .. • • o .. .. • .. .. " • .. . ., • .. .. " • ., .. • . • .. .. .. .. .. . • . .. .. .. .. .. • • .. 1 6 2 The ev.,i C on t rib u t or • • " o .. " .. • .. • .. ; .. • .. o • • .. • o • o " o o .. o ., .. • .. : , ., o .. .. 1 6 2 Notes on Rock Art and Burial Caves of ths Singganigl and Kwinigl Valleys of the Chimbu District.. Ko Ao WilcLe .. . • • • . 163 Cave Potential in the Star Mountains.. F .. Parker ... a .. .. .. .. • • • • .. -! 30 The Caving Scene ...... " ...... o ....................... " o" " ... o. i; () ..... .. • • • .. -181 Caves of the World More Than 600 m Deep , .......... 183 National Cave Depth Records which Exceed JOO m ...... ,, .. ,, ..... "....... 183 Report of Some Caves in the Yagaria Lufa Area, Eastern Highlands District. F .. Parker ... o • ., .. ? ",, .... ,, ... " o. o ... 184 Visit to the Baiyer River Caves, vVestern District. L. L•<>-000000000000••• 190 * * * Engravings in the wall of Umarah cave, New Ireland" The engravings appear to be old and have not been previously recordedo The photographic field is about 2o5 m wide (See 'Cave Giants of New Ireland?') Photo by Hal Gallascho * * *


160 NIUGINl CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 H.. Gallasch It wn.s f!tated in a previous article (Gallasch 1974) that recent upraising of parts of the eastern coast of New Ireland has resulted in subterranean drainage of the coastal belt at a relatively _shallow depth. Many small caves occur and these can be entered from the bottom of doline structures or gorges erodec_ into the limestone. Such is the case with Umarah and Kistobu caves, located in newly cleared garden areas of the •:Kolonoboi people. These caves are about forty minutes from the main east coast roado Because of the dense regrowth in the area local guides are necessary to locate the entrance doline. The steep, thickly wooded .s.ides slope dovvn to a stream at a depth of about 20 In the entrance 6f Umarah cave, on the upstream sicte, the creek has cut a. ne,rrow path through a :platform of lin1estone 8 m -wide. Above this, on a smooth wall of the cave and well sheltered fro:i_ the entrance, are four faces carved into the limestone. These faces are outlined by grooves worn 5 cm deep into the stone. Associated witfi the.faces series of ljnes and small holes. (See.Figure) With the exception of the lo-wer face, which appears 'to have been done a much later date a.rid is 2 .. rough copy of the others, the engiLwings are weathered and seem very ancient. They are si t.ed about 3 m above the floor. This together the size of the faces has led to a belief by the local people that they were drawn lf giants who p8opled the land before hu:qians r" to New Ireland,, Questioning of the people indicated th8t they knew nothing about the origins of the engraving, neither did they have a:..:y stories about the cave as they did have about other caves in the area;, These engravings would appear to be unique for New Irelaml and as far as is known have not previously been recorded. The creek can be followed upstream from the engravings through a passageway hung with large stalactites. This cave shows evidence of several creek levels, the current level being in a crevice up to 2 m deep in the former wide floor. After about 100 m the surface is again reached, in the bottom of a shallow gorge. From here to its source in the central mountain range the creek remains on the surface. Downstream from the engravings the creek crosses the floor of the doline to enter another cave. At this place there are only a few metres of limestone over the entrance. The lower cave, of the same length as Umarah, contains two


162 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 caverns which house many particularly numerous zone, where large po s and flying so These are the 1 est chamber, twilight the villagers in capturing oos have been sitioned to aid This cave;;, known as Kistobu7 emergc;;s into another 1 again s underground emerge into the Mi River From the the stream cannot followedo It is said to enters the sea on the boundary of Belik Plantationo REFERENCE ------=i==--Gallasch, H .. (1974) Some Burial s in New Guinea. 2 (1)g 138-141. * * * This list ne because of scove-ry by a British expedition ( ) ;.n Peru 1972 9 resurvc:y of Harwood's Hole Christmas, recalcula on the depth of the two epest caves on the Muller Ranes expedi tio:'l last August Sept ero (The ori calculations were in the field.) Thi st does to an official onQ nor is it accurate -co the last or foota The revised list is as follows -Bibima cave, Chimb11 District, Papua NE,1.J Guinea Simla de Milpo, Peru Harwood's Hole, Takaka Hill, Nelson area, New Zealand Gorg2roth, Mto Arthur, New Zealand Khazad-dum, Junee-Florentine, Tasmania Blackbird, Mt .. Arthur, New Zealand Uliguria, Muller Range, Southern Highlands District, Papua New Guinea Kanada Heiowa Heia, Muller Range9 Southern Highlands Distri , Papua New Guinea * * * THE NEW CONTRIBUTOR ........ ===--Metres .. -494 407 356,,5 3l6 322 316 313 305 Feet 1620 1335 1 1 1136 10 1037 10?8 1000 was a member of the Port Moresby Speleologi Society in the early sixtieso He caved at Javarere as well as i .. the highlandso * * *


NIUGINI CA VER VOLUJ\:TE 2 2 163 The Kundiawa and spel cave sys-c vli th and There collected ever .. accompani associati area scientific un..nown unexplored scope fo:r; the archaeologiGt ethnographer 8 many fasch1ating myths ancl legends to be deaths of old snatch them away with rock drawings and burial caves no-ces on ChJ_mbu prehistory cu1 tural Ak Kaga.mugl Cave sometimes krown as Kurakombogo or Yonaminge 1 is situated in the of the Chimbu Gorge within tb.e land boundaries of the Ogondia Clan the Kumanagu tribe I:n. order to protect the cave and its conterts exact location is not given. Description.. The entrance to the cave is 4.5 m wide and 2.2 m high.-,o .... tt.1.e--front of the entre.nce is a semi-circular area 10 m wide and 5 m longo The entrance is surrow'.1.ded by bush. The is situated directly benea-rh a substantial overhang which affcrds protection to those drawings that app2ar on the rock face aroun.d the entrance,, T1_1e area :ls maintained. and kept clean and free of l:Jush i:hus indicating '-,hat the site j_s still for by The cave :p:r.•er 15 m long and at its widest point is d m. The roof varies in heigh. but is an average o:: approximately 2.5 m high0 The entrance passage is _4 m wide and slopes upwards at about 20 The floor of the cave is dry a.wl is constituted of fine eart,h.. Most of' the formation in the cave i 'dead' with the exception of isolated ro that is still in the process of grow:tng.. The cav-e9 is almost co:c.pletely-dry. A variety of fauna inhabit the ,::ave and ca"re swiftl s9 rats9 cave crickets9 beetles and cockroaches have been erved but no specimens have been collected _dentifi It observed that the rats ha'l gnawed many of the skulls lea\ring quit0 large holes in them .. It is said that the decee,s of the {_;ondia, Jramakani, Gowamu, Ukani Auakani, Endugc.akani, Yonggamugl 7 Simbugu, Wauga, 1 Yonarn.inge j_ Ku..rnan f m:: a burial,, * P .. O. Box ') or PoOc New Guinea,,


164 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 Konandagu9 Aruku, and Kurumbu Clans have been buried in the cave. It is also said that the cave was almost wholly used for the burial of warriors killed in battle, but had on occasions, been used to dispose of persons deceased from natural ea.uses. Most of elders will not enter the cave because of evil spirits apparently due to the fact that they have also buried their enemies there in the pasto In the centre of the cave is a collection of bones and a skull on ?.f a bark stretcher ...• •. ; G:i.C'"the fro or of the cave accompanied by a number of vroven •.arri( .... , ... bands and belt loops.. A small number of unidentified: w:o:den. . .... acts were also observed. West of the entrance is a small burial cavity approximately 2 m long and 1 m wide containing a of skulls, rihs9 vertebrae and other small Also present are pieces of wood and decayed matting.. The entrance is concealed by branches and logs and is only 0. 3 m high. Monochrome drffNing>.J appear profusely upon the overhang at the and upon tbe walls in the interior of the cave •• of ..... Unfortunately (in terms of interpretation)urdike many Australj ::::n sites, as far as is known, the artists who executed the drawings d.e:alt with in these notes are long since dead and all the drawings dealt with are beyond living memory. Hovvever, the local people of the area have their own interpretation8 of a Gm.all number of motifs and figures, and where possible these interpreta<:;ions ha.s been con.firmed by several informants. All the drawings observed by the author are mono chrome and executed in charcoal. No ochre paintings were observed in the caves of and Kwinigl Valleys; ochre paintings have, however, been observed by the author and others, on a number of rock faces and overhangs in the area dealt with in these notes. As far as is known the drawings are previously unrecorded and undated. Ak Kagamugl burial cave was previously unvisited by Europeans, according to local residents; but the other sites mentioned are relatively well known. Some authorities9 for example Lommel (1966), say that the charcoal drawings of New Guinea date from about the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries AD, and further, that the ochre paintings are probably thousands of years older. However, the author was informed by local inhabitants of the Chimbu area that ochre paintings had been executed both before and after the arrival of the European, thus placing the most recent ones within the last thirty years. Information from local residents indicates that most of the charcoal drawings in the Singganigl and Kwinigl Valleys had been executed outside of living memory.


remains of bark s (14'\! ""O"" th f! onr) J \";: . i \\, 0 1 2. 3 4 Scale 1 :100 t ". ")('._,!.) P,i\5SAGE 20\ SURVEY ----A. Codey. KA.Wilde. C.R.G. Grd. 4. 5 919,,r1 . . 'J. i I I I


166 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 The figures that appear in Fig. IV are possibly derived from the squatting figure that is common throughout Papua New Guinea. Some variations of the figures that appear in Fig. II are poss-2 ibly related to the x-ray style that is common throughout Papua. Classification. The following motifs and figures with the exceptlonoftheGerigl Ambu figures (Fig. II) appear throughout , all the sites. Fig. I 1.(a) Crescent motif possibly derived from 'kina' a shelJ. decoration worn around the neck by both males and females throughout the highlands, including the Chimbu. (b) Solid crescent motif similar to (a). ( c) Open crescent motif similar i;J. shape to both (a) and (b), but with thin, vertical lines at each extremity. 2. 'Flower' or 'necklace' motif -origin unknown. 'Leaf' --3. 'Leaf' motifs origin unknow,1. (This motif was also observed 1-"7 White and White (1964) at Aibura Cave in the Highlands.) 'Chevrons' ---------4.(a) Enclosed rectangle containing bisected chevrons. (b) Chevron motifs. (c) Double bisected chevrons bordered by vertical lines. ';ie', __ 5.(a) 'Eye' motif. ( b) Circle wit b.' sun-rays'. (c) Concentric Circle motif. ( d) Concentric Circle motif with 'spokes' or radiating , lines. ------............. --.... 2 This is an unconfirmed opinion of the author.


a a a h u b Basic dassificotion of drawmgs found ot sites d -


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 Fig._ .. II Fig. III The following is the interpretation placed upon the figures by local inhabitantso Figo II (a) -(k) are eleven variations of the t figure Gerigl Ambu, said to be a maleYo spirit and bringer of disease and death. It is said that he has the appearance of a being with the flesh and body of a frog.. Some say that he and Yogondo (see Fig. IV) are responsible for the rock drawings and others say that the bats and flying foxes (Wela) leave the caves at sunset and gather charcoal from village fires, then return to the caves and rock faces where they draw the figures and patterns. There are over thirty variations of this figure in Ak Kagamugl and yet it has not been ol1served at any of the other sites in the area, whereas varid.tions of the Yugondo are to be seen frequently at all the sites .. With only a few exceptions the Gerigl Ambu figure appears v upside down' and s tandi:ng upon its 'head' ; Fig. II, with the exception of (k). The base of this figure as referred to in the text, is the top as seen from floor of the cave; and similarly, the is the bot;_ tim as seen from -Lhe floor. Figures ( d) and ( e) appear to be only partly finished, or at incomplete when compared to the rest of the figures. Gerigl Ambu is translated as Spider Womano The connection betwesn the above des Tiption and th.e translation is unlrn.own and may be due to local variations of the Geri.t;l Jur:1u myth. The name is often used in land fertility rites .. !.iangle and Diafil.Q.L!Yf.2.1i.f. 1.(a) Chain of linear diamond patterns enclosed by vertical lines.o (b) Part linear and part solid triangles in a chain and enclosed in vertical lines, similar to (a) .. (c) Chain of solid triangles joined at the apexices to form open diamond patterns in the centreo (d) Concentric diamond motifs with spaces filled-in in between .. Triangle and diamond motifs appear commonly T.hroughout the Chimbu s.rea9 being carved on house posts and bark


170 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 belts; tattooed on bodies for self decoration bands and bamboo blinds. woven into arm 2.(a) 'Shield' motifs9 many of which appear throughout the burial chamber of Ak Kagamugl. The origin is3un1m.own but they are possibly related to Gerua boards .. (b) Concentric 'shield' motif o (c) Concentric 'shield' containing a further 'shield' with short lines drawn at and fi.lling the space between the two shields. The innermost 'shield' contains a de of chevrons. 3.(a) Rectangular motif containing s, chevrons and bise ed c drawn rightangles to the (b) Rectangle containing verti 'rays' s (c) Rectangle, similar to (b) bis cted by one horizontal (d) Rectangular with an or lines of varying thiclrnesse , with bJrizontal lines drawn between the left side of the :rectangle and the first or vertical.. 'Rays' are from the uppermost three sides of the rectangle. Many variations appear throughout chamber of Ak Kagamagl, but only the simpler types such as (b) and (c) appear at the other sites. 1. 'Lizard-like' anthropomorphs known locally as Yogondo, a spirit figure that appears sites throughout both of the valleys and the gorge; and is to have the build and appearance of a child or youth, and the flesh of a bat (Wela).. He is commonly k:t1ffwn by village elders who will readily talk about himc They are reluctant to discuss Gerigl Ambu; thus indicating that perhaps 3 Ochre painted ance or boards


172 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 Yogondo is considered to be less harmful" like', but painted, anthropomorphs were Aibura.. (White and Whit , 1964). 'Lizarderved at 2 .. Anthropomorph with head, arms, 'tailv but lacking fingers and toes origin unlmown .. 3o Anthropomorph with head9 arms, fingers9 legs a.nd toes9 but 'tailless' -origin unknowno 4" Headless anthropomorph vvi th arms and legs9 but no fingers or toes origin unknowno 5o Anthropomorph with head9 arms and legs but no fingers or to s origin unknown. 6 .. Long-bodied anthropomorph with 'tail'9 head, arms and legs but lacking fingers and toes -origin lmknown .. 6 throughout the Ak of cure 1 only appear at Figures 19 29 4 and 6 classified as zoonorphic Whether the 'tails' are in Figures 19 29 39 4, 5 and Kagamugl system. Variations Ak Kagamugl and Mebikombogo. could, due to the 'tails' be rather than anthropomorphic. fact 'tails' or exaggerat s debatable and the original int of course unknowno characteristics is ,ti of the artist is For ease of scription the cave have been divided into sections (see survey) -X.. A vertical section was not made due to the very uneven logy the roof" For reasons of space the following not s are ver-J ef. Section. A -Bo 'Eye9 mot + chain of linear IDOUds-=i=-ChevrOnS + 'l I motifs SUperimp tioni:ng9 tected and dry. Section B Co Faded and moti1S-=-with some Burial Cavityo diamonds + triangular motifs tri s and dia faded, proand diamond of bisected Section D -Eo Alcove 3 m ove 1 the entrance. Con-centric-circies solution hollow +multiple zig-zags + chevrons+ chains of diamonds (Fig. III, 1, c) +linear patterns of no definite form9 to t author. At head is a Yogondo figure + two 'eye' motifs in solution hollows. Continuing into


174 NIUGINI 2 2 cave proper with a further Yogondo (Figo 9 1) +heavy linear semi-circle+ three crescents \Fig. I, 1, c) + zig-zags + rectangular motif + ' e' mo + triangular chevron designs. Section F Go Geometric var1ation-+-7ey ' motif + Gerigl Ambu variation ( (Throughout and they are as for this reason practicable or 0ection G -Ho t':iang'IG'S+-rec + heavily drawn 'I' Ambu variation; the btsected diamonds tions and Ambu + further ons of Gerigl Ambu that they appear; will only b where chevrons + upright and inverted III, 3, a) + 'leaf' motifs (Fig. I , 3, b) Gerigl consisting of the 'body-triangle' are five long, protrusions. The ' ' is formed by a small ons forming a 'crowr. o body join is a cres V) o To the left is curvilinear triangle six short On each side of the where the cent protrusion whi a Yogondo variation centric and inverted figure similar to • TI 'leaf' motifs + chevrons + it three conGerigl Ambu The alcove has Sections H -I .. Continuation of cove ve)o Two variations o:f"Ger1gT-Xmbu (Fig. II, k) + open + chevrons + chains of inverted and upright triangles + filled in and open triangles, base to base and bordered by verti lines ( • III, 3, b) + segmented circle + linear crescents + filled-in diamonds + Gerigl Ambu figure sin1ilar to Fig. II, b.. On the walls of the chamber proper appear 'eye' motifs + open and filled-in chains of diamonds + vlizard-like' anthropomorph + concentric 'shield' motif+ rectilinear designs (Fig .. III, 3, b) + 'shield' motif (Fig .. III9 2, a) + enclosed chevron motif + crescent motifs + a further Gerigl Ambu variation. An 'eye' motif of concentric and spoked circles + chain of three linear diamonds with 'rays' from the extremities. Rectangular variation of the Gerigl Ambu (Fig. II, h) + 'snake-like' motif+ d signs amongst calcite flow .. J. Three variations of the Gerigl Ambu figure (Figs. II, b and cT; the third being rectangular and 'upright' with an interior of vertically bisect chevrons. The section continues with further variations of the Gerigl Ambu figure similar to those in section H I.


1 7 1\fIUG INI CA VER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 Alcove with columns and calcite shelf -no drawings. S0ction K Lo Continuation of J -K .. Section L Mo Two 'complete' figures an apparently 'incomplete' fig' over a number of burials.. The top figure is a Gerigl Ambu variation with a triangular 'b v w eh is sected and has an interior of chevrons.. The figure no ihead' and has out-stretched, curved arms with an upright filled-in triangle on the base of the 'body' triangle. The central figure has the appear of the skeleton of a small child with bent legs and outstret arms; and is similar to a figure that appears in section F -Go To the right is a similar and apparently incomp1 te figureo Section M -No Chevrons + bisected chevrons + filled-in and open shape motif containing diagonal and horizontal 1 s .. 8 ::;tion N 0.. Bordered -double bisected chevrons + nottf + zig-zags + chain of filled in diamonds .. Low roof -no drawings .. Section P -Oo Continuation of section 0 P .. ..... Section Above Remains of Bark Stretcher.. A complex of drawings -r0-cretaIIecr to CleScribe;-butsome-ofthe more typical designs ap:)car in Fig .. IP... ..Also present 'eye 'I motifs + Gerigl Ambu va.riations + chevrons + dib,monds + a Yogon Lo variation .. '}!lete' variation of Gerigl Ambu (Fig. II, d) an interior of three vertical lines + rectilinear designs. ction_.fL.:_... Alcove contains no drawings.. Immediately after the alcove is a linear motif similar to the abstract spider motifs that appear in other areas of Papua New Guinea (Hanneman 1969). Below this is an incomplete variation of the Gerigl Ambu figure (Fi go , d) + Yogondo variation + faded 'snake-like v motif + rectilinear motifs + vertical chains of open diamonds + enclosed vertical chevron design +'shield' motif + geometric linear designs + zig-zags + 'eye' motifs + rcctil inPnr Rimi lar to Fig .. III 39 d + further Gerigl Ambu variations + further 'shieldv motifs.. ' Linear designs partly obscured by swiftlet guano m.:_cl mineral deposits.. A blank area followed by a recess contain-two variations of the Gcrigl Ambu figure similar to Fig0 II, l:J,, Vertical chains of open diamonds triangles + vertical de gn of open and filled-in rectangles + 'shield' motif similar to Figo III, 29 e + linear designs superimposed over a faded desi similar in nppearance to the 'foetal' skelc;ton figures in sec ons F -G and L -M + indistinguishable and faded linear


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 177 designs.. (These de are 4 m from the entrance .. ) motif h interiors of Section U -V -Wo 'fior1zontaI and-ve.t ti forming concentric rectangles + Gerigl Ambu figure wi around a solution hollow + triangular motifs + rectangles + zi + fad and indis-tinguishable drawings partly cal ci to ow and algae., Section W X., Faded and indistinguishable designs obscured by-algae-deposits and mineralso • • o • e • ., • ., " • The following is a brief accolmt of other sites ob2erved by the author including ome brief notes on cultural and prehistory .. Sigewage is a small cave system Qll the _nprtb: .. west side of the Chimbu Gorgeo It is, in fact, two systems '''i th five separate entrances.. The lower system is a thTee level cave (Wilde 1973b) vn th no drawings, c.nd the upper system is a .. short dry cave with two lmovm entrance;" Both these entrances have a number of bichrome charcoal dravnngs consisting of many varied anthropomorphic figures ( " IV) and chevron, triangular, diamond and rectangular designs similar to those ia Ak Kagamugl., 'Lizard-like' Yogondo figures so appE''lr along with crescent motifs and linear designs.. No human re.uains are present, but the system is still 1Sed for hunting b2:.ts (wela).. Some of the local people claim that the site was once used for burials but the remains have since been removed because of pilfering., There are a number of burial sites in the Singganigl Valley but no rock art was observed by the writer, with the exception of bichrome ochre paintings at Kokombogo, a dry old cave system 15 m long and is situated immediately above Sigewage, jacent to the Kundiawa Pari Road.. The second exception is Obando Yonaminge (Wilde 1973a) which is a well known burial cave situated 1 km north of the Pari Rest House near Uramakani hamlet. Here the bones are piled feet thick; the most recent burial being in 19640 It is said that the cave has been used by the Gena, Endugua, Naregu, Yonggamugl, Kewandagu and Kamanagu clans for many generations .. . A!l .extremely interesting drawing is located in the Umkombogo system (Wilde 1973c), which is a two level river cave situated 1 km west of the Kuramugl Primary 'T' School.. Here, half of the Singganigl River resurges from the base of a limestone bluff.


178 The entrance to above the outleto use. NIUGINI The the author was Mebikombo ated near the o bridge on loop road to Gurema Village. diamond motifs ' those observed been seriously in charcoal" Ochre paintings have the Kiowa archaelo cal sit of the est flourishing during highlanders were used bone and for cooking9 re brief periods ( Bones have been tion and it is obvious the dead in this mannor., from incnrahl s and unvvant as pr:tJvi During the on the Porol Loop road travels, 2 first 100 m ly littl tccted the cave doubtful It j_s upper change execution es by the vm.s unlikely. of thC; U!Jper by sm:=ike .. no signs of other site observed in the area by almost dry 9 two system si tuthD, Mai,to in th0 r, re m


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUJ\iTBER 2 179 once witness a scene a w cide' point by leaping the 50 m Itis hardly surprising that the Chimbu believes in the ghosts and 'wild spirits' (Brown 1972),, of In caves, gullys fleeing from purpose and to frequent fighting, protec on and c and some caves are still us t after for this ection by authorities ( 1972) .. From all e.:1d legends Tb northern the ground Guinea stone areas, come myths caves and their imagined inhabitants. there was a world bbneath ers also b eve their there are frequent cqves and rock shelters,, culture emerged.. The Trobriand Islandance ors emerged from caves and rocks, s of cargo cults being with No cave drawing sites burial caves of the area in se notos.. There is still much research to b done and much exploration to carried out before the story vvill be anyw re near complete" Archaa:lLogical digs have en out.near Ornkombogo, Obondo Yonaminge and many rock shelters around the area, but none YJlown to the author been out in ea es or the on of the Chimbu Gorgeo ac sele people 'tabus' associat should therefore b c1 tion. It is better to approach elders youths.. The tection of se sites reason that exact locations have 'interested' ons would mG of the caves and their should contact the author or the University of New Guinea. The author wishes assistance in t fi Ashley Cody John Cleary Millie Holl Rose Nichols Dr .. I,, Dr., M., Jo ory N ZoSoS .. -* 1LZcSoSo caves and exploranot for this on of struction interest ems their es


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 Brown, Po ( 1972) .. The Chimbu A S-tudy in Chrmge in the New Guinea Highlands .. Schenkman Publc Coo9 Cambri , Masso pp " 1 7 ' 21 ' 5 9 6 5 " Hanneman9 Eo Fa (1969)0 Grass Publicationso (Pages Vo (1973). Arts of New Guinea. Pacific ) 0 , Porol Escarpment, Chimbu 2) g 46-4 7 0 Districto White, J,, Peter ology Rock Art in Nov. 14, 19 (1964). A New Frontier in Archae Papua New Guinea.. .'.f'.h. Lo11g 775-7770 Wilde, KaAo (1973a)o Ob 'y Cave, Chimbu District. Niugini Caver 1 48-490 Wilde-;-IC"X7 'fT973b) Si Cave, Chimbu Gorge, Chimbu District .. ITiUigi 2Y. 1 (2) • ILlL ( 1973c),, Caves of the KuJ1c1iavm gd;.:!:!E.i!Eh l 95-103. * +:* POTENTIAL IN THE STAR MOUNTAINS ......... ---);Coq F .. Parker * The Star Mom1tains straddle the border Papua and into the New Guinea Trust Territory ext Irian Jayo.. .. In no major caves. A for 1975 is consi The following to one of the viI have been to the ing reptiles mens, and looking into cave from Olsobip the south and south to the cott there to the I of the Sirius Plateau. Wall and much the but no major river caves horizontal caves I indication OOO that the you obviously H on two natural I cover then vJ tion found on planned t area .. from Parker expedition .. ::1 <:o 11 ory specithe area to Tifalmin west from s to the south Hindenburg few sinkholea, out about. The few allo Hence my not as great as * Wildlife Section, DoA .. S.Fo, P.Oo Box 2417, * * *


p e tentative the trip Members ep caves .. Cara bid bats.. Fred to an area of three NIUGINI through Durwe..i but were 1mimpress surveying s were Glenda Hambly, Chris (139 m) oh the t Luminns cave (441 m)o pas sage as 1 ov1 aB 30 cm Singoinga nection .. the dye did intense .. Tim and going a bit caves year not VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 181 orth, and Hans oppo te was to high party had Smoke from a couple the er -needless o possi ensions were It's still on with corres-en o .. Go and GoB o May '75 is the twenty starters at this stage and d for months h a huge budget .. c interest but basi they ars seeking and .Parker group and-ahout Roy Mackay small cs were were small black s that::. ve and been the venue of took a party the caves nating!) Two Bourke 9 Stngoinga s-Cfrvey of a stream placed in river con .nogut1 at on was not s Prior9 f ) ff' c;U V \.J 1 well as nn.s., Only all four the one +ound last


182 make the hi stream sys in the area am planning teachers and scene going over to Ranges .. " um (3000 also in the vall least 80 Cred feet hi holes A few bits to hand recently. Australiao was confirmed in at 172 m. It is six caves news New Zealand o A J\T o Z o Mt., owenaiid Takika depth it as the de st cave in the Southern re .. c 2 NUivffiER 2 es t up to wouldn't horizontal sites I and grass ed hunmany cave near stone overseas have come , South Wales, mainland Australia, In-Australia, after Chri trip to Mt. Arthur, caves in 60 to 150 m was surveyed to 356 .. 5 m confirming in Zealand, third deepest Venezuela.. The British-Venezuelan Karst earch Expedition last year-found 25 caves sc d 37 shafts. The longest cave was 1 km the was 305 mo The latter, El Guarataro, is the deepest in Venezue and the sec st South America. El Guarataro is situat t Serrania San Luis Range in North Venezuela. * * * Brisbane Christmas 1974 Aust .. Speleological Federation Convention * * *


Antro di Gouff re Abi,sso Abisso iieseau Fran....;e Italy Spain Poland Iran Switzerland * These li Association com:Prre-cr-iJ;Y 1 u 9 2 ) renees * 61 610 3 -1174 9 53 770 751 750 -x 2799 2657 2558 57 2240 2215 2192 2165 2'132 7 2041 2008 ,200-1 1 3850 3008 2799 2526 63


184 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 2 Austria Lebanon Mexico Norway Morocco Algeria New Guinea Jugoslavia Greece Peru UoSoSoRo Canada T.L So A. Rau.mania New Zealand S::urkey Australia C'reat Britain Venezuela The follow Gruberhornhohle Faour Dara Sotano San Agustin Raggej Kef Toghobeit Anou Boussouil Bibima Polokskajama Epos Chasm Sima o Schachta Yorkshire Neff's Izvorul jabriskaja t on Cave oarelor Ddu * * * on a trip of some 17th-18th October, 19F.: 710 622 612 575 560 539 494 465 443 7 384 361 350 344 330 321 308 5 2329 2040 2009 1885 1837 1768 1620 1525 1454 1335 1312 1260 1184 1149 1130 1082 1054 1010 1000 F .. Parker * linLestone areas were visited C<-ving Club over the weekend Saturday" 17th Party compr1_mng Susan Whiting, Terry Alexander, Ke:n. Erwood and Parker lef't in the morning for Fore rest house, then leaving ctco at the rest house, the party inspected the one area at the foot of the KRmi Needle, seeing sinkholes and one cc:1ve near Kemasei village. In the afternoon Peter White and David Cole who had been worktng with vil l (ff's making stone implements and a rock shelter gaiyu vj l Tne:e 9 joined the party at Sunday" 18th whole party left for reported caves in the Ehi rest house area, on the roado One party, Messrs. White, Cole and Ervvood inspect caves and sinkholes to the west of the road, while the other three members followed the river cave to its limit .. Messrso Cole ar1d White departed for Goroka around luncj:l-time; Erwood and vj_si ted Forapi limestone area and


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUlVIBER 2 185 -the other t\t110 members collected gear from Fore rest house,, All four members then returned to Goroka. .... The area is generally undulating kunai hills and ridges, and thj_s openness offered good opportunity to spot all the limestone areas in the region visited. There seems to be one definite belt probably starting in the Nambaiyufa areasincluding the whole of the east-west ridge on which the Kami Needle is situated, then .. proceeding in a southoasterly direction as evidenced by.the out crops betvrnen the Kami Needle and the Ehi rest house area (see map). It can be said fairly definitely that this belt continues on to the reported limestone ai'eas in the area. There is apparently another parallel belt further to the north, probably commencing near the Henganofi caves then reaching the Sonofi area previously visited. The relation between this belt a:cd the isolated outcrops in the Asiempa, Noreikora and Barabuna areas cannot be guessed at. TIESCRIPTIONS OF CAVES SEEN ________ .,..... _____ FORE-KEIVIASI AREA Locality: On the left of the track from Fore rest Kema village, about 400 m from Kemasi. Access: See abc-vre., In a clump of pi tpi t in what is at present a garden in a doline. The opening is not visible from the track .. Description: A sinkhole in the bottom of a doline, dropping at least 15 m, of which only the first 3 m can be climbed down without equipment.. The villagers say that the Ymter from this and the other dolines in the area emerges about 800 m south of Kemasi :Ln a small creek valley.. The point of emergence is a sump; there is no opening .. Relation to The natives seem to attach no importan1 to this hole and are very willing to show it to visitors. Localityg 200 m south west of Kemasei village .. A large do line about 45 m across 9 at the bot ton.'. of which is a deep sinkhole surrounded by a thick growth of pitpit o According to the natives in the wet season a lake fills the


186 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 N1Tr1IBER 2 doline then slowly drains away9 emerging at 1 described alreadyo This sl drainage pr restricted passageso as No. Relation to natives is understood by the natural importance to the principle of the do not seem to attach any superi:.....2!l!-to Locality: About 500 m w st of Kemas village .. Access: A small track from the village leads to the hole .. A vertical fissure in the ground dropping at least 45 m" The fissure is at the base of a 9 m high cliff of limestone and probably connects up vJi th passages bringing water from the sinkholes to the north. Thus it would be the most interesting .for future explor-a tion.. There is a small horseshoe shaped passage from a point 3 m the cliff to of the main openingo This curves in and down very steeply to meet the main fissure about 9 m below the point of entry. Relation to No importance attached to it • ..:.. __ .QQi_cav_ About .. 5 m north of Kemasei village, at the northern edge of the stone cliff" Access: To Kemasei village as alreariy set out, then a small track leads to t caveo A steeply descending cave with an entrance about 3 rn by 4 .. 5 m high in clump of pitpito The entrance slopes steeply downwards to the north, turns east for 18 m and still sloping down turns north 45 m.. Then the cave turns east and the floor is silted up9 closing the cave off at what used to be a sinkhole about 30 rn further on.. The silt floor is about 30 m below the entrance.. Vva ter still runs :tnto the cave and seeps through the floor in times of rain. Formerly the cave used to continue to a clump of trees in the valley to the northj about 600 m and 90 m b entranceo The water flowing into the cave novv emerges from the area as a seepage.. Judging by the nativcs1 ideas, the cave must have silted up within the last fevv generations -the people have stories of men entering the top cave and emerging in the valley. Relation to There is no importance attached to the cave but swiftlets are caught there and bats occastonally caughte


188 NIUGINI CAVER VOLlf.lVrE 2 NUMBER 2 Historyg This is the first time the cave Europeans. been seen by Natural Swiftlets nest in the end according to the natives a migratory bat congregates in the cave at some times of the year. This is confirmed by the presence of areas of bat droppings in the cave. On small track between Kemasi and a northern hamlet of Fore,, for location.. Both are near the track itself which is not very often used.. The track leads from the village to a through the limestone cliff, where a large face of orange and brown limestone is visible from the rest houseo The track continues on and down a kunai ridge to the other hamlet of Fore .. Descrintiong o fissures in the ground which drop at least 12 m vertically and could not be descended intoo There were worn boulders on the floor of the fissures9 811.d they have som8t1rii.:i:ig to do with the drainage from a r of silted up dolines to the north west .. EHI REST HOUSE AREA About 1 .. 5 km sou-+;h of Eh:.:. rest house on the Oka pa road through the Yag0ria. Accessg By following the road to from Goroka, turning east along the Okapa road and on past th12 Henganofi turnoff to about 1.5 km past Ehi rest house, where there are limestone out-crops on the right roado There ls a small track leading down to the left to the cave a distance of 200 Description: This is a small river cave which proceeds in a generally southeastcrly direction w re the sinkholes shown on the map.. A small permanent ere emerges from the cave mouth which is an opening about 3 m high and 1a2 m wide.. The floor is rly level and in t half of cave traversed rises only about 9 mo The floor of is a flat pebbly creek bed, cover s of The cave proceeds for about 600 m as 2 -4 m and of varying height from 3 m to 12 m.. The limestone contains much old fossil material9 mainly the traces of burrowing worms which pre-date by some eras the shelly fossils of the areaa There are muddy seepages into cave at a r of points but no openings on to the surfac o The last 250 m are avvk:ward 9


a Hist visit are. it 88E)mS small from t F s and ano in t NIUGIIU VOLlJME 2 NUMBER 2 * *' 1 tach li t.tle I heard s but to obtain also bottom of and :visit paid to ./l not en are arG Y1L)t oration; there st. of the Kami west of the r.oad there is r10rth st a of the Bern=t White


190 NIUGIN! 2 2 L L'e Fevre * This arti is from Mount Hagen Trip Report Noo 1 of the Port Moresby Sp published report of Soci tyo It sonts the first t stern Districto On Saturday 7 er 19639 Peter s and e L depart River Valley9 approximately 30 km west" The River Baptist Mission Kikyalama village near and caves is o to three hours (about 6 ) of Mto Hagen .. The one the and the 'H should only be explor This pot is only ep, and three members of the Three and a fourth would required to of ladder was used acrosB the sloping 9 m The pot was caused by solution and severe scall perfectly round wall supports this theorye Mitchell9 for the Baiyer from the Baiyer Paraga river in the direction tants, clange:r0us9 and quipmento higher level caverns .. There on Rain kely .that heavy ical hole 120 m formed doline d by ladder by only were used'} The first length the doline .. on the almost On Sunday morning party entered the cave again9 proc past the pothole to a dry cavern and then on to a further seriescf secondary collapsed passages 240 m from the entrance, after accom-plishing only minor on.o Abwessa is also an river cave, through which flows t Poga Rive:r.. The river ows south west over shale and limestonD, and enters the cliff in a rio:rth west ectiono The river leaves the cave some hundr of metres away on the other side ridgeo 6ut 30 m in is a collapsef gorge, a further 30 m in through some diffi squeezes is a daylight entrance in the roof o Future on should b this entranceo The e ;undergrowth r:iakes searching for entrances difficult, and confuses e direction generally. * Present s unknown * * *


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