Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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K26-05656 ( USFLDC DOI )
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CAVER _______ NEWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP Volume 2 Number 3 Auguat 1974 Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication. •

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NIUGHH CA VOLUiv'.IB 2 lIBMBER 3 191 Caver is on Groupo er of the Papua Guinea Cave ormal association of engaged in s Volurnc 2 Number 3 o Price Ecli tor Toktok Bilong Edi Australian Speleol erly., issue., .. 00 p2r a:nnum .. Bourke9 D oSoFo 9 Kcr3.vat9 , Papua Guinea., J Bourke Contents -Focus Ireland oooc •oo•ooOo•o• 192 ca.l Federation Tenth Biennial Conference . " " o ., o o o o ... o o o ., o a " " .. o " o o " " " " ., .. o o • "o o o " o o o a o .. • 192 Caves of the New Ireland Districto Ro Michael Bourke and H • Galla s C 11 " " .. o .. •• o ... " o .. " " 0 o " o o c " " .. " " .. o ., " " " " o ., .. ,, " ., ...... Japanese Tunnels on the Peninsula "O""""".""o••••• C o rr e c t i on Vo 1 um e 2 Number 2 , " ,, • ,, " • " " " .. " " " " " o " o " " .. ., " o " " • • Stori Bilong Twnbuna -Cave Legends from New IrelartcL H. Gallas eh Q o o o o o o o o o o o o • o o "' o o o • c> ... o o " • o ••• ., o o ••• '1 • ' • o • Matarai Prison Cave9 New elancL R" Michael urke • o ...... The Caving Scene " .. "" ",, " " " .. "o o " " " " " " " " .. " " " ., "" o o a .. o o " o • ,. .. o • Some Caves of the Lelet Plateau9 R.. Michael Bourke ... ", o o o o o o o o " o o ,, o " " " o o ., r " o o n .... o o .. " .• " ... The Contributor """o"""""o"•o• .... ,, .. 00000 ........ " .... co•o••• Caves of the Namatanai .A.rca of New IrelancL Ho Gallasch o :Matapara Cave9 Nevv Irelando Re Michael Bourke ""00000"""0 Two \Vat er Supply Caves, Ireland" R., Michael Bourke •• * * * 193 205 205 206 s 211 212 221 222 229 231 Cover Photographo Exploring a cave on Belik plantation in the Uamatana:Larea ofN8w IrelancL (See Caves in the Namatanai Area of New Ireland" .. ) Photo by Hal Gallasch,. * * *

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192 CAVEH 2 Nillv1BER 3 Again, one tion of N Co is devoted mostly to one district -this time the Ireland District,, I have followed the formula used before vvi th an overall revie\AJ cle including a complete bibliography other articleso * * * AUSTRALIAN. SPELEOLOGICAL FEDERATION TENTH BIENNIAL CONFERENCE ...... WHERE? The -1-and 2, Accommodation College, 100 will be held in the Physiology Lecture Rooms Queensland, from 27th to 29th December, 1974. evening of Thursday, 26th December at Union WHAT9S ON? es of short consecutive symposia with discussion and s9 splays and demonstrations9 and the new improved SPELEO Evenings devoted to films, slides9 discuss-ions FIELD TRIPS --------lVIT., ETNA LINIESTONE QUEEN SLltND 24 km north of Rockhampton9 the most densely cavernous limestone outcrop in Australia9 'Close to coastal scenery.. Individual transport at caves, but public tranBport to Rockhampton possible.. Moderately civilized, come and go as you pleaseo KF.MPSEY AREA & OTHER NoSo 0 CAVE AREAS Individual transport, trips as convenient for those returning south after the Conference., Wet weather may impose group Lra1u{pui L to thA RrAa., Distant area, expedition level, group transport, possibility of substitution of Undarra Lava Tunnels if wet season closes access0 TEXAS CAVES, SOUTH QUEENSLAND Self guiding as you pass by9 reached by a detour off the New England Highway .. The 74 AoSbFo Conference Committee9 PoOo Box 29, Qo 4103.

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CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER .3 193 R., Michael Bourke * and H. Gallasch * Caves are very numerous on New Ireland., At almost every villageon the north east coast from Mangai south the people know of caves nearbyo They are important to the villagers in a number of ways.. Legends on the island often f?a:ture ... in Beier (1972) many of the Noio stories contain references to caves.. During the war mar..y people hid in them, as they probably did also in times of tribal fighting.. Some caves have been used as burial places in past times" At places the caves serve as water sources and their bats are hunted for food. Because of road access along the coast, some of the cave:s are well known to local expatriates, and guano has been extracted from a few... Very little exploration by speleologists other than ourselves has been carried out., Mention of caves was made in German reports but these have not been researched. The earliest available report is Hutchinson (1941) who described a guano cave at Kaut.. In the Port Moresby Speleological Society (1960) report for the AoSoF,, Conference, notes on cave locations in the Namatanai area are given. This information was published in Sydney (P .. ILS .. S" ) and also by the PoWLSoS .. (Anon 1961) with some of the information left out., A trip report of ours in 1970 to five caves.about 90 km :south of Kavieng has been published (Bourke, 1970), as have descriptions o.f burial caves ( Gallasch, 1974a) and cave engravings ( Gallasch, 1974b) north of Namatanai o A brief note (Anon, 1974) on a recent trip to the Lelet Plateau has just been publishedo In the period 1968 to August 1974 vrn have caved on NoL, 14 times 9 most trips being done by the junior author o In this article we summarize our information on caves together with what little is reported in the literatureo The prefix N is used for caves that are accessible from the north east coast; NS for caves accessible from the south \Vest coast 9 and L for caves of the Lelet Plateau .. The New Ireland District comprises the main island of New Ireland and seven groups of smaller islands. The di&trict extends from the equator to 5s and from 149.0 to 154 E .. The main island lies between 2ov and 418 and 150' and 1?3--to•Eo It is a narrow, northwesterly tending island 350 km long and up to 48 km wide. From the north west end elevation increases in the .S.chleini tz. Range and Lelet PlateA.n t-o n. maximum at the

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194 NIUGINI CltVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 southern end of the plateau.. From here elevation declines to a low saddle near Namatanai.. There are further high peaks (up to 2300 m) in the broad southern part of the islando Annual rainfall varies from 3000 mm to 5000 mm.. The vegetation is mostly tropical rainforest with some grasslands .. This geological information comes from Hohnen (1970) and the BoMoRo OOO OOO geological map .. French (1966) also provides geological information on southern New Ireland.._ The 'basement' rocks of New Ireland are Oligocene andesitic agglomerate, tuff and lava intruded by presumably comagmatic gabbro, morite, diorite and tonalite .. In the northwestern half and part of the southwestern half of the island, these rocks are overlaid by up to 1400 m of shallow dipping, lower Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene biogenic limestoneo (See Figo 1) Limestone is very common in the district. The Schleinitz Range and Lelet Plateau consist of Lelet Limestone up to 1400 m thick.. The greatest development is on the Lelet Plateauo Karst topography is very well developedo The north east fall of the plateau is made up of a series of 14 narrow, regularly spaced, sub-horizontal terraces. The south west edge of the plateau is marked by steep limestone cliffs up to 530 m higho The surface is covered by cone karst.. Sub-parallel sinuous hog back ridges up to several tens of kilometres long and 100 m high are also common,. The Surker Limestone is also tertiary in age (Lower Miocene) .. It is located south east of NamatanaL. Thickness is probably up to 1300 m in the south" Rare dolines occur, but no karst topography is developed" The Punam Limestone is Pliocene to Pleistocene (?) in age and is located at the southern tip the island and around Muliama Harbour.. It is up to 1300 m thicko The area involved is much ss than the Lelet and Surker Limestones .. Raised fringing coral reefs (Pleistocene to recent) form an almost continuous strip ong the north east coast of New Ireland. They also occur in places on the south west coastj particularly on the southern end of the island.. The limestone in the Kavieng-Kaut area is raised coral reef. This limestone is also common in the , groups east coast.. also occurs on Dyaul Island off the south west coast and on New Hanover, the small islands between New Hanover and New Ireland, and Mussau and Emirau Islands in the St. Mattias group to the north of New Hanover..

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196 2 NlJTVIBER 3 Road distance from locationo eng is given for each Liga village (5 km)o ce,ve used a:=,. vva ter source by villagers" (See 10Two Water number.) s 9 l\T evJ iv this Mangai village ( 44 km) .. Caves a.ce report the hills several hours walk from ;;he coast o Nonopai village ( 56 km) o A cave used by the war is s in J'ap2,ne s e during Luburua plantation (69 km) .. N2o Matarai w2.s useo cave during the -war o (See 11Matarai Prison Cave, numbero) as a prison eland" this Panamana village ( 76 kr.o.) c N3 o Ba::i.11 cm.re from here to the west coast is reported to pass is on the thir:1 _ range. The walking track this cave. It Logogon village (86 km) a N4o Purio ( du) cavec This cave was used as a shelter during 1Ne.r. CJ1d fire site and beds cut into the floor can still be seeno 7Vhcn V'Je Visited it, We found a human bone in the cave. 1970 (See Figo 2) N5. Lamis cave. This cave is an and the entrance is located in a low cliff N6. A small cave adjacent to Lamis. 1 , "' t c vU.. >.: faceo from Logogon, (See Fig. 2) . The villagers report burial caves several hours' vmlk away 9 and deep shafts in the hills half a day's walk 2,way" There is a strong resurgence near the village. Medina High School/village (88 km) .. N7 .. There ls a small cave used as a vmter supply in the village grounds.. (See Water Supply Caves9 NeVJ Ireland" this issueo) NB.. Matapara caveo A large impressive cave at the back of the High School. (See "Matapara Cave9 Ne'N Irela:.1dn this numbe::::-o) N9o Bolof cave., Fossils have been collected from this cave near Medina according to the villagers .. Burial caves have also been reported from this area .. Fissoa plantation ( 92 km).. A very cave is reported at the back of the plantation.

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198 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 Fatmilak village (109 km)o A river cave and a dry cave are reported .. Lamussong village (137 km)o River cave reportedo Konobin village (145 km)o Caves reported in hillso Konogusgus village (170 km)o Two caves with streams in them from which people obtain water when working in the gardens. There is also a cave in the hills where the villagers hid from the Japanese during the war, and there are other caves in the mountains. Bumbuve village (180 km) .. N10. Pamp caveo (See Fig. 3) A stream which crosses the road is followed through pandanus. A five minute climb brings one to the entrance. The stream effluxes as a waterfall from the mountain side. The entrance is 2-3 m high but the cave divides and becomes smaller inside. One of the two pass inside eventually becomes too small to follow 9 and the larger one is hlocked by a rock fall from where the stream issues.. The complete length of the smaller passage is decorated with stalactites and beautiful straws. Kantembu village (176 km). N11. A large pot called Mamarabin occurs at a place called Lamout Massang. The pot is several kilometres in from the main road, and is said to be a circular pit, 200 m across and 30 m or more deep.. Caves are said to lead from the bottom of this pit and come out at the top of the mountains. (See nstori Bilong Tumbuna Cave Legends from New Ireland", this i SSV.C3 o) Near Kantembu there are two other caves in which the people sheltered during the waro N12o In the limestone cliff on the beach there are a number of small caves called BuangKalubuo om village (197 km) .. N13 .. Several hundred metres towards Kavieng from Silom cave (N14), there is a cave entrance 2 m from the r edge o T{1e small hole opens into a large chamber .. IJ14" Silom cavec This cave is across the road from the site of the former Government Rest House on a prominent bend the road. (See Figo 3) From the road a well worn track leads down into a doline5 at the base of which a steep boulder-covered slope goes down to ar.:. underground lake. It is from here the village people obtain their water6 The deep water can be skirted by wading through thick mud 0:.1 one A boulder-strewn slope leads up to a large vertical sided opening to the surfaceo A branch passage was followed until progress was halted by a deep crevassec Water entering the further side of this chamber flows as a stream into a sump v.ihich

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e 00 ii) 'f""' w > <( 0 "" c r;) J .l 0 c ff!" d il '

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200 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 emerges under the underground lake. Good stalactite and stalag-mite decoration occurs in the inner section cave while bats an.d flying foxes live in the larger initial cavern., Bulu village (202 km)., Caves reported by PoMoSoSo (1960)0 An underground river resurges near the village but cannot be entered. Lokon village (204 km)o N15o There is a cave entrance near the aid post. Karu village (221 km). N16. Several kilometres along the road that crosses to Konogogo on the south west coast? there is a river cave containing several hundred metres of passage.. (See "Caves of the Namatanai Area of New Ireland", this number.) Lploba village (226 km) a N18o Loloba cave is behind the village in a cliff and contains remains of human skeletons some 27 m in from the entrance. There are two large caverns connected by a squeeze beneath a mass of fallen boulders (Gallasch? 1974a)o N19. Bonamai cave. Consists of several small9 low connecting chambers and contains fragments of human bones (Gallasch, 1974a)o N20. Komebe is a small cave about 40 m from the beach. It goes straight into a low cliff for about 30 m and is no higher than 1 mo Formerly used as a burial site (Gallasch, 1974a) .. Belik plantation (230 km). N21o A surface stream enters a large cavern and can be followed for some distance before it disappears through a log chokeo (See 11Caves of the Namatanai Area of NevJ this number.) Kolonoboi village ( 234 km). N22 o .Umarah is a river cave containing a series of rock carvings.. It is about 100 m longo For a fuller description and map of the cave and engravings, see Gallasch (1974b) .. N23. Kistobu cave is downstream of Umarah and the same stream runs through it. It also consists of a simple stream passage about the same length as Umarah. (See 1974b) At least one large pothole also occurs in the bush near Kolonoboi but it has not yet been viRited by us .. Kena.pit plantation (236 km). N24 .. A cave called MarabungeTumadui t is located near the pla:nta.tion hnnse e (See "Stnri Bi long Turnbuna Cave Legends from New IreJ_f-1.nd" 9 this i 0nuc D) At least one other cave occurs on Kena.pit plantation, about 50 m from the main road.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLillvIE 2 Nill/IBER 3 20'i Bakan village (240 km)" Small caves occur in the low limestone cliffs just inshore from the present coastlineo There is underground river so (P oSo'So9 1960),, Ramat village (242 cave inland from the vi been found inside., S .. S" at Ramat .. N25o Katasalong is a former burial Shall beads and hwnan bones have (1960) reported an underground river on (244 ),, In low limestone cliffs near the small caves occur a few metres above sea level. 9 at least partly, to wave action at Between Pir village and Bopire plantation, a cave is reported to occur in t cliffs near the beacho Bo village (258 km)c ep pothole is reported hours walk from the village on the track to the west coast" In the hills above the river between Bo and Namatanai there are a number of small caves, and a larger one (N26) some 14 m long and 2 rn high., When first visit by the informant, this cave contained a wooden figure about 1.5 m tallo Napunta village (inland from Namatanai). There is a burial cave near here in which a stream has erod into the former stream bed leaving ledges on each sideo These dges have been used for lay-ing out the bodies9 commencing the back of the cave and going towards the entranceo Rases villagr;., N27., Lokabar is near the village., It is still used for burials, e cially of very old ople. Instead of just laying out the bodies flS was done formerly9 they are novv sometimes encased in wooden boxes., The entrance is well hidden by flat stones. Before the Rasese peopl the mountains and buried t which are only known tc o the bodies were placed on 1 Mageh plantation., -cn1n pendicular si dolincso down to t they lived in in o s9 the locations of in the burial cave at Napunta, coconuts9 th0'rP are several perN28'JM2 .. geh No .. 1 cave"., One stream from the lmclula.ting plateau has worn a gully and enters a large cave.. In one branch a collapse has opened another entrance to the surface .. The main stream.passage

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202 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NuMBER 3 quickly ;becomes' too lovv to .fpllow., (Refer to "Caves of the Nama tanai Area of New Irelandn 9 t.his issue .. ) N29... nMageh No .. 2 cave In the hills behind Mageh plantation about minutes walk from the last. of the coconuts, a large cavern can be entered from the side of a hill. This cave houses a large bat population and contains appr e quantities of guano. (See in "Caves of the Namatanai Area of New Ireland119 , this issue.,) s:ohu:ri 2 village a N30.. Ka base cave occurs in the bush a kilometre's drive and 20 minutes walk from the Sohun Primary School. It is about 400 m long with a consist downward slope .. (See 11Caves of the Namatanai Area of Ireland119 this number,,) There are other caves be the village .. Hilalon plantation .. village9 there are s only some 20 m long .. On the edge of the plantation near P.oronbus small caves near the coast9 said to be Nokon village .. Caves report Huris Vi Caves report Samo village .. Caves reported Kapscl vi N31 .. and 100 m or more of passage .. the village o It has been us have been found in it .. Muliama village" Caves report Japanese during the war .. by by p ( 19 60) 0. J\L S .. So ( 1960) .. two a stream kilometres inland from 9 and human bones and teeth Said to hfl.ve been used 'by tb."e Cave depth potential is up to 1400 mo Descriptions of 31 caves in the inhabited area of the plateau are given in this number (see u Some Caves of the Lelet Plateau9 NevJ eland11) o Those caves were all visited in a small in only days9 so it can be presumed that there are many thousands of unexplored caves in the mountainous centre of the islando CAVES ACCESSIBLE FROM THE. SOUTH WEST COAST There is less information from here compared with the other coast, probably access more difficult. Kaut villageo NS1o guano cave which consists of. two chambers and a number of small grottoeso The cave penetrates the cliff for

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NIUGINI 2 NUMBER 3 203 nearly 400 m (Hutchinson 1941)0 Lulur village.. There is a vertical cave Pe,1_.namafei vi which is in the are said to fall pot situated near the village LGrge trees cut into the hole NS3.. There is clump bamboo, somewhat down the hill from ( to artic "Stori Bilong Tumbuna -Cave Legends Ireland" 9 this issue") Lasiliba schoolo Leangnivu cave. (Fig" 4) Across the road from the school leads through swampy bush for approx-imately 100 m to the base of a limestone cliff.. A small entrance passage opens on to a chamber. This adjoins another much larger chamber where a large rood collapse admits daylight to much of the chamber .. Many small bats inhabit the large chamber and deposits cover much of the level flooro An opening to another cave is situated at a higher level on the side of the collapse Various Chinese have remo small quantities of guano for private gardenso FUi 4 0 , .. ; e ... . ,..

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204 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NIDJ.IBER 3 NS5. 11Iandok caveo Near Lasilibao Guano has also been col-l c c-c fr o m er c L viliage o NSG o There is a burial aave not far from he:ce which is entered by descending a rope from the top of a cliff hundr oetres high. =,Tesi v: _, Several kilometres inland from the "tillage on the track that goes to Lenkamin villn.ge on the Lelet Plateau, there are numb8r ' f rock shelters under large limestone at about 300 sbove sea levelo .iYS7o overhang is 15 m long, 6 m deep5 and L1p to 2.5 m tall, and contai1s eight beds made from saplingso There is a fireplace b et\1J e e1:_ es.ch and the next o This is commonly used as an over-ni camp people walking between the plateau and the coast. Kalili Main Divi on.. A cave is reported. Corre.2.tno limestone occurs on almost every ish;.nci9 so caves pro1YJ,bJ.y 021. most islandso We have no definite information although are reported from Lihir Island. this 8..L'ticle we have rapo=cted abou.t 70 caves and provided infore::ttion u1 locations for manv more o This means that there are no1:v :no:.ce report::d caves from the"' New Ireland JJistrict than from any other district, including the Southern Highlands9 Milne Bay Districts where there are also many reported caves o IJ.Iost of thes8 have only been explored by three cavers in a limi tecl number of t1ips" With limestone so very cxtensi ve in the district there must be innumerable more unexplored caves., especially in t)1e mo'lJ.ntt:.inc!. Some of these are perhaps very c1eep, some large, while others undoubtedly have interesting legends associated with them" Anon., ( 1961) (:Known Caving Areas in the Territory) .. 1 (1): 2-50 (Produced by the PoMoSoSo) Ano11o ( 1974) Cave Notes New Ireland, PoN oGo No 14 (Produced by the Uni .. of No S o W o S p el e o .. So c .. ) Beier, Ulli (1972) When the Moon Was Bigo Legends from New Guinea. Collin3o Hong Kong. Bourke9 Ro Mo (1970)0 New Guinea Cavingo TrLp Report from New IrelrnJ.d9 ToPoNoGo Down Under 9 (4)g 129-130. by the TT • .------uni. Qldo Speleoc Soco

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 205 French,_ D" Jo ( 1966) .. _ The Geology of Southern New Ireland. Miner. Resour. Aust. Record 1966/179. Unpubl. Galla"SC'h; H:-r1'974a):--some-'B'i'i'rial Caves in Papua New Guinea Niugini Caver 2 138-141. Gallascfi";-H.-rr974b). Cave Giants of New Ireland? NiugiEd:, -..--.-2 ( 2) 1 60-1 62 .. Hutchinson, Ro Co (1941) .. Phosphate Deposits in New Guinea. New Guinea Agricultural Gazette 7 (4)g239-248. Reprinted in 19'73 fl"4)''i'"13bas-"Bat Guano Cave, Kaut, New Ireland District" .. Hohnen, P .. D .. (1970) .. Geology of New Ireland. Aust. Record 1970/49 Unpubl. Port-Moresby-Speleological Society (1960) .. The PcM.S.So Report for the Third Biennial Conference of the Aust. Speleological Federation. Canberra, 1960.. Unpubl. P .M. S.S. ( 1961).. Caves of Mew Guinea. Communications 5 ( 5) g 2430.. (Produced by the Sydney Speleo:-soC:j _______ -* * * During World War II a large garrison of Japanese troops occupied the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain. They constructed extensive underground installations to shelter from allied bombing. Many thousands of man made caves are still to be found on the Gazelle, as well as in other areas in N.G" The following extract is taken from "The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul and Interrogations", United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific Area) No. 75; Naval Analysis Division, 1946, Washington. "By March, 1944 most of the Japanese installations were underground. 350 miles of tunnels and caves, ranging from simple dugouts to extensive and labyrinthine facilities with 'timber-shored walls and supported roofs. There were 8 hospitals which by January 1944 were also underground. They vvere equipped with complex medical and surgical and x-ray, and laboratory facilities. Seven smaller hospital units were underground. A total of 5,400 patients were thus cared for." * * * __ The reference Lornmell (1966) was omitted from the reference list of the paper "Notes on Rock Art and Burial Caves of the Singganigl and Valleys of the Chimbu Districi-n: 163-180) -............ --It Lommell, A. (1966) .. Prehistoric and Primitive Man. Paul Hamlyn, London. * * *

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206 . NIUGINI CAVER VOLUI\IB 2 NUMBER 3 STORI BILONG TUMBUNA CAVE LEGENDS FROM NEW IRELAND ___ Ho Gallasch * Because of the large areas of cavernous limestone on New Ireland9 many of the inhabitants have lived in the close vicinity of caves. Prior to European colonization a large proportion of the population lived in the foothills or mountains. Here caves were visited to hunt for flying foxes, and these may have provided a significant proportion of the meat in the diet of some peopleso Often particular caves were chosen as burial caves in"which to inter the bodies of the deado With colonization and a cessation of warfare, most of the population settled on the coasto Here also caves were presento At almost every village along the east coast road of New Ireland, informants can tell of caveso Some caves are well known to many of the people whereas others are known to a few or perhaps only one person. Some caves appear to be public property while others are looked on as the property of one person or familyo Perhaps the cave may have been found by some men on a hunting trip and is known to no other people, and in some cases, care is taken to hide the cave from unwelcome visitorso The caves have been of varied and often essential use to the villagerso Often they have been a prime source of fresh water, particularly during the dry seasono Sometimes the water is obtained from within the cave, other times the supply issues as the efflux from a cave, while most commonly the supply is a resurgence pool or creek issuing from a drovmed caveo Meat is obtained from the 'flying foxes and in some caves scaffolding has been erected to facilitate the flailing down of these animals o During times of vvar, the caves have also offered shelter, particularly during the period of the occupation9 and some of the larger caves have been occupied by whole communities for many months., Evidence of this occupation is still presento Finally, cave burial was one of the major methods of disposing of the bodies of the deado It is not surprising therefore that many of the caves have stories or legends telling about their formation or use by ancestral beingso A number of the stories from New Ireland featured by Beier (1972), for example, make reference to caveso The following are a selection of tales recounted in various villages about caves in their vicinity. Several kilometres in the bush from the main road, in the vicinity of Kantembu9 a large pothole called Mamarabin occurs at a place called Lamout-Massang (N11)., It is said to be a circular pit, 200 m across and 30 m or more deepo *.DoAoSoFo9 Keravat9 EoNoBo, PoNeGo

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The people b splice three or four They would at the bottom of the foxes his th a hunters to Once, when no one was pole over These hunters In the there ar Legend Tabar I CAVER 2 3 207 o and e into the pito foxes in the caves hundreds of flapping a warning and the consequenceso oo pole, the foxes .. village (N12)o visited and rc:;turned with it Ireland for with their cliffs to form thus bringing it to the of New there is a cave called a man his pigso One of lang did not lango Thereupon, upon the rains to in the darkness the vv as drowned o The men of Tabar y,iere angered and stones at her? the stones penetrating the the house on Kcmapit plantation, (N24)o Many years ago lived in this cave with beco.use Subalangcros v to Subalanga tall tree and called to fall and and ow the in a large here there is a cave (NS3)o Many years ago a wild pig ved in this hole" This pig captured a young girl took her to live with him in the caveo Any men venturing near the cave were chased avmy by the much feared pig.. The men from the neighbouring vil1n,ge, to placate the pig, would prepare food and place it in a basket at the cave entrance .. The pig would tbPn nmerge from the holP. fl:no tear the basket to bits, after which the vvoman w come out and collect the food" One day the men hid in the bamboo and when the pig emerged to tear the basket of food, they had placed there, Lhey speared and killed the animal.. It was only then that they found the woman in the cave and they took her with them back to the village.. From her were born the children who founded that particular clan .. Beier9 Ulli (1972)0 Ireland.. Collinso the Moon Was Eigo Hong Kong .. * * * Legends from New

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208 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 MAT.ARAI PRISON CA VE 9 NEVif IRELAND R .. Michael Bourke * Matarai cave (N2) is located in slightly hilly country on Luburua plantation about two kilometres north of the main road. I visited it on 29th July 1972 with guides Loko Tokamit, Matagal Tomoko and his wife Betty from Lakuramau villageo We explored the cave and surveyed it to Grade 4 standardo There are 131 m of passageo There are three chambers with a small stream in one sectiono (See map) Bats were noted. It was used as a prison for natives by the Japanese in World II and we were told stories about this time, and features of the cave relevant to their occupation were pointed out. These stories were told to us by Loko and Matagal who were domestics for Japanese officers during the war.. Hence they had access to the cave.. Arry villager found near it without good reason would have received the severe treatment the Japanese handed out, such as being tied to a coconut palm or held by four men and whipped with a wet whip, rec ving either 20, 40 or 100 lashcso Our guidesv stories were emphasiz by of bowing9 whipping9 rifle drill, marching, etc .. , and they could recall the commands.in the Japanese language as well as the names of some of their wartime .. At the start of the war, village people used the cave to hide from the Alli planes when they bombed and strafed the Japanese and Villagers.. The bombs bullets did not scriminate and vill-age people were also killed along with the new invaderso Then the Japanese found the cave and it \i\Jas used as a prison and also as a residence for the prison commander.. Villagers suspected of assisting Allied spies or "bikhedsvi were interned in one the chambers .. The prison chambcr9 which is 30 m long and at s greatest dimensions is 8 m wi and 9 m tall, s a mud floor and a single entrance which was by a pair of guards o Tvvo timber entrances were constructed9 one very small the other The prisoners were forced in through the smaller one. If they were fou_nd guilty they also left via this one9 whilst the fortunat few found not guilty left via the larger entrance. Even then, it was not to return free to their village, but rather to work in t ex ive food gardens that fed the Japanese garrisonso Inside the chamber, prisoners' hands were sometimes fastened to es so their et did not touch the flooro They were a tin;y piece of sweet o daily by the native policemen a Otherwise they would be crow together in the floor, their ribs protruding thr h starvation their hands and legs swollen from the suspension eatrnent,, A smoky fire burnt continuously at the back of the chamber so the prisoners were blinded by smoke ..

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Na; MATARAI CAVE, NEW IRELAND LBGEND -h fl f: . 1 r J 'Z i C c,f \ r L"'-... .,, 1 ) ;;i. t,.ri:-; ! 'i' Y !."'4 • J 0

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2l0; NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 The commander's house in the entrgnce chamber of the cave was built on a platform made from koronas (corraline limestone). One of the posts is still standing. The court sat;'in part of this cave and was conducted by two officers and sentence passed by the commandero Those marked for execution were taken to a pit several hundred metres from the cave and died by the svvord.. A croton (a decorative shrub) now marks the pit v.1hich can still be seen. The bodies were covered with earth in a graveyard near the main road. It was claimed that so many men died during the war years that every village had many widows by the war's end. Outside the cave is a small platform made from stones to which the commander was carried by two Japanese youthso It was from here that he spoke to the assembled soldiers, native police and perhaps prisoners or villagers. The villagers would be ordered to repeat "America9 English, Australia namba ten. Japan nambawan .. " Failure to repeat this or use of the salute instead of bowing resulted in punishmento A stone path leads to three cave entrances from the assembly area and the end of the vehicular road. Guards were stationed along the path and inside the cave entrance as well as outside the prison chamber.. Any prisoner who failed to bow respectfully to every guard was brutally helped on his way or beaten in the small of the back with rods. The commander's house also served as the warning centre for air raidso When Allied planes were sighted by watchers in the ranges, the message was telephoned to the cave and the warning to take cover ("belo") was shouted out from the cave entrance and relayed to the soldiers and villagers who would flee into the jungle. One day, a mixed race prisoner who was interned because of his race, escaped from the prison chamber past the two sleeping guards. He crawled in the dark deeper into the cave from the commander's for 45 mo Here he saw the light from another entrance and escaped from the cave to the ranges where he successfully hid from the Japanese.. The guards were beaten for their carelessness. It was a month after this that the planes dropped their leaflets saying that the war was overo The soldiers destroyed as much equipment as possible before they were interned at Namatanai before being tried for war crimes in Rabaul or repatriated to Japano Thesound of guns firing off ammtmi ti on went on for a day and night before the Allied troops arrived.. The su.rvlv:inr: prisoners were released .. Today one can view paths and platforms that still remain. The prisoner who escaped now works in Kavieng. Stories from the war concerning the cave, or of natives who would put a man in prison to get his wife9 or tales of the hard life as a carrier are told vividly by the older men while the younger generation listen and watch in awec * * *

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 3 Central Districto Since the last edition NoCo9 Fred Parker aiid-Mike-Noone-have three trips to Javavere-and one to the Surinumu Dam areao Fauna collection and introduction to caving for UoPoNaGo students were the objects of the tripso Plenty of students turned but they vveren' t really keen, so there is little chance of a caving group getting going at the Uni. The "dolinesn marked on the map in the Surinmnu Dam area turned out to be blocks of rock -not even limestoneo David Holdsworth has been visiting and recording some rock painting on the Sogeri Plateau latelyQ Chimbuo Kev Wilde took a party of 7 from Goroka on an intro ductory-trip to the Porol Range in Marcho Caves visited were Obondoyonaminge and Irapui. The trip was an introductory one to get the highlands' caving scene on the move again. The party picked up some info on new cave locations and storieso Chuave was visited in Julyby another party of four .. Visited were Kaimomo, Nola, Angunga and Kiroro Weraro caves. Angunga really has a lot of potential according to Kevo They ...were stopp a short way inside by a pitch estimated as 80 m. Mary Jane Mountain has been working on an archaeological dig at Nombi cave at Chuave,, Caving in the Chimbu sounds expensive -the villagers are demanding anything up to $10 per cave. Better than on Bougainville at any rate -expatriates are not even allowed to Nenduma in the Kieta area. East New Britaino Michael Bourke found a newo small cave in JulyonLondipplantation near the mouth of the Warangoi rivero The cave houses an old Japanese gun guarding St. George's Channel. This is the first recorded cave from this area. are fashionable latelyo The British one.for '75 is well into the planning stage and a smc-111 booklet has been pro duced. Kev Wilde is on the planning committee and has been sending wads of material to the UoK. One of the members (one Howard Beck) is now living in Mt o The expedition is patron is the Duchess of Kent. Late news is that the expedition may be delayed through shortage of fundso A UoSo expedition known as the American-New Britain Expedition is also in the planning stage. It is hoped that the National Geographic Society will be backing the trip. It is a 35 man, six

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212 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 month, $125,000 job. Target area was still not decided in June, but the Nakanai Mountains and Whiteman Range areas of New Britain or the Hindenburg Wall were being considered. Ther,e are already 100 potential starters in the UoSo and Canada. Not to be left out, another Australian show is being mooted -this time to the Lelet Plateau of New Ireland with the Raulei Range of New Britain as a second choiceo Plans are vague still, but an ex-Brisbane trip for mid 875 is in the wind. Manus has been one of the most neglected areas cave wise to date:--Geoff Francis is something to remedy thato So far, Geoff has visited. and surveyed Loniu and Nge-Pelimat caves on Los Negros Island he has plans for exploration in central Manus., New Ireland" In April ten 6aY-trip-to the Lelet up 30 caves, five of which they were unable to bottom most promising for really er Michael Bourke did a In five caving days theyknocked were over 30 m deep and four of which cause of lack of gear., The area is holes" Early August found Hal Gallasch doing a very brief trip to a new cave at Silom 2 village south of Namatanai. It was 400 m long and sloped downwards all the way. * * * Re Michael Bourke * Recently Alan Keller and I spent ten days on the Lelet Plateau looking for caves" Our motivation was not simply to find caves, for there are many more accessible caves around, but to find deep caves, particularly caves too deep for our limited resources. The Lelet limestone is up to 1400 m thick, drainage is underground, and the water appears as resurgences on the north east coast (Hohnen, 1970) no more than15 km from any part of the plateau. Hence, possibilities for very deep caves appeared most favourable. We flew from Rabaul to Namatanai on 20th April 1974 and then took a bus to Konogusgus vjllage on the north east coast. From here a five and half hour walk brougtl L u.o to I.n-wntknna village on the plateau. We had six days on top, five of which were caving, three days around Lowatkana and two around Lenkamin village .. We left the plateau from Lenkamin,walking to Kalili plantation on the south west coast in seven hours.. A copra boat returned us to Rabaul, the entire trip taking ten days. We were not equipped to explore to any great depth as we were carrying only one 36 m nylon rope and a limited amount of abseiling, prussikinc and general

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1:250000

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214 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 The plateau is located to 80 km north west of Namatanai and is in the centre of the islando (See Figo 1) The true plateau is smaller than this and lies at 1000 m to 1400 m altitudeo However the area to the north east is alao known as the Lelet and this is where the villages areo The four \Tillages of Lowatkana9 Limbin, Lenkamin and r=aluan are at 900 m -1 OOO m al titude and are within a few kilometres of each othera Access is from Dalum9 Konogusgus or Lasigi villages on the north east coast and Kolube or Kalili plantations on the south west coast. Geologically the area consists of tertiary Lelet Limestone which is up to 1400 m thick (Hohnen9 1970).. Tertiary volcc:mi cs bound the area on the south westo There are several faults on plateauo Hohnen (1970) describes the plateau surface as "completely coverGd by closely spaced, low rounded conical hills, which rise 30 m to 100 m above the interspersed sink-holes or dolines" o 11his cone karst is the classical humid tropical karst type and is also known as cockpit karsta The topography on the higher parts of the plateau is probably more rugged than in the area of the villageso Caves we exploredo We were guided to all caves by local vill show them to uso They know of many more caves near their villages that we did not visito Caves 1 to 6 are located south and south west of Lowatkana villageo Caves 7 to 13 are a few kilometres north of this village; cave 14 is a few kilometres to the north east; and caves 15 to 19 a.re a bit further out to the north west. Caves numbered 20 to 24 are located from just east of Lenkamin village to a few kilometres south of the village; caves 25 to 30 lie a few kilometres south west of the village to a few kilometres north east of ito Generally only caves 9 m deep or more were recorded9 but a few others with special features have been includedo As in many places in P.NoGo9 cave names are in fact area namGs, so it is possible for one name to apply to several caves if they are very close. In general cave development vms vertical rather than horizontal; they were not very muddy; stream passages were common9 but not flowing water; and the rock tended to be sharpo The village people believe the large caves are the home of "tambarans"o These are small invisible men who move around at nighto Caves we did not bottom and those more than 30 m deep have been marked VJi th an asterisko The prefix L is used for caves on the plateauo L1. Lowatkana. Located 100 m south of Lowatkana village in the bottom of a dolineo A pothole 25 m deep orientated NW-SEo (See Figo 2) L2.. Loronango A :fissnrP c:nvR 5 m deep with a drop going off from the eastern endo Two hundred metre:.:1 vvco t; "-f T,1 at the bottom

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216 of a * connc: the 14o5 i cal me Fig o 2: L5 G ito Blo NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 ebeo 100 m west of L1. Consists of o s bottom.. The eper shaft is 34 m d w of the cave. Orientat SEo (See Figo 2) Bumbulup. 1 km south west of Lovmtkana vi on the side of a hillo Our guide found it of almost falling through the vegetation t. A hole 10 m deep with a small stream by vegetative debriso Near L4o OVJ 0 L6o Selanito A steepsided doline 14 m deep near L5. The oor is 15 m by 7 m wideo L7., Lavvariskul o Located about 1 km north of the villaze on the side of a hill. Just east of the track to Lasigi o A cleft rtmr_ing 11 deep, 12 m long and 4 m wideo LS. Labaiyu. About 1 km north of the village and 100 m \vest of the Lasigi tracko Cleft 9 m deep, 15 m lQng a11d 5 m vJ:j_c'-2 l'unning NE-SW o L9o Labaiyu. Several hundred metres east of track and near L8o Cave is 1 5 m deep and one wall is decorated with flovvstoL.e o (See Fig. 2) L10o Labaiyu. cave 6 m deep located in stream near L11 o Labaiyuo Small cave 11 m deep in stream bed L12. Daniso Just west of L9, 109 11. Vertically 12 m deep, 30 m long and 8 m wideo -7t L13 o Dani.so A deep cave on the side of a hill a.d jac L12o There is a 41 m pitch which is free except for th0 tnp bottom few metres. Inside the cave there is a large chamber ated vJith stalactites and a fev.J stalagmiteso (See Figo 3) L14., Lavon. A fevv kilometres north east of Lovvatkana 1 and on top of a hill adjacent to a pig hunting track. A simple shaft 10o5 m deep and 3 m by 1.5 mat the baseo L1 5 o Muras. Several kilometres north-north \Vest of village in a creek bedo A vertically walled doline 9 long and 5 m wide.

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63 usu u s 25-fV-1974 All C cS GRADE 2 R.. BOURKE 0 15 10 15 !!!S.2!!!! m 1:500 ' LONG. SECT. AA L 13 DA IS l 11 BAlU ORIS 22m deep FLOOR PLAN E-W LONG .. SECT. 25-IV-1974 . NW-24--' ( 1 MN t I

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218 NIUG nn CA v"'"ER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 * L16o Etiso Just north of L15 in creek bedo A shaft 1 o5 m in diameter and at least 24 m climbed down for 8 m because of 78ry ,sb_ctr:p wanted tc use our rope on other cav . ..:;s o ! L17 o Batumoriso WeE.Jt tu of li1 '.J a:;_1_d L1 6" A shaft 22 m deep with about 11 cf +: ttorn" is a stream passage that is blocked ""\ 2 j} L18o Angolomon. Just west of L1 edge of a doline with 5 m of passage A 9 0 deep on the -Che bottomc * L19. Tv1usumuras o West of L-1 in a doL_n0, Consists of short horizontal passages connected by vertical We explored it to a depth of 11 m and for a length of 59 m but were stopp9Q.. by :J:ack of gear at a 7 m pitch. The entrance looks most v..npromi$ing the cave starts with a 17 m crawlo Passage dimensions are small. A good sporting cave where we spent a few hours underground. ..:.e location corresponds with a stream marked as going undergroill1.d north west of the village on the 1:250,000 map. (See Figo 3) The villagers }\:now of many more caves around Lovvatkana. }or example the councillor9 Lepan9 vvanted to show us orrn near the United Church and Martin had another one for us in the area of L19. L20. Kanulumuo A small cave a few hundred metres east of the Lenkamin schoolo The entrance leads to a slope that goes to the end. There is a daylight hole insideo It i2 12 m deepj 15 m long and 6 m wide. L21. Metliki. A few hundred metres south east of L20. The entrance is in a creek bed that would take a lot of water at Tames. The entrance passage is horizontal and small o The cave is 1 m deep with one chamber and a few passageso A stream channel the bottom is blockedo Near the cave entrance is a small grotto a few metres de There is a stalagmite inside and two small stone It :L that Jesus himself made the grotto and placed the stones, and he told the people to make a singsing at the grotto to make taro gardens grow wello The people do thiso said that L22. Mesangasang. A feVJ kilom:.:-;trcs east of Lenkai:1ino A small cave 10 m deepo The entrance is at the end of a stream bed. Inside there is a dry stream passage about 12 m longm L23 o Lavva_civanggasu. A few hundred metres south vvest of 122. A shaft 18 m d.eep leads to a 45 slope and a well decorated chamber 8 m long by 6 m wide at the bottomo A small horizontal cave connects with the shaft a few metres from the surfacea Depth is 25 m. (See Fig. 4)

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220 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 L24. Lamlad. A few kilometres south of the village and west of L23. Situated at the bottom of a dolineo cave is 7 m deep, 7 m long and 3 m wide. It is used by the old guardians of the pigs as a water supply. There is a sys of es the cave which act as walkways and supports., These are somewhat rotten -as I found out! The water is collect from drips at the back of the cave by walking on a ledge and on the timber walkwayo * L25. Canimelavow. A few kilometres south west of Lenkamin and several hundred metres of a house with a concrete tank stand. Situated in a gully. Depth was estimated as 34 m. It was descended for 16 m only because of lack of rope. We had been promised that this hole would be too deep for our rope -and for once our guides were right. A bolt at the ledge 16 m down would be use ful. (See Fig. 4) * L26. Putbo. A few hundred metres east of L25 on the side of a hill .. A shaft 38 m deep with two pitches and a chamber halfway down (See Fig. 4). * L27. Awatbumbumo A few kilometres north east of the village., This was our deepest cave. Depth was estimated at 51 m but the cave was not bottomed because of lack of gear., The entrance is a shaft 2 m in diameter that opens into a large chamber decorated with flow stone. The entrance pitch is 27 m and is free all the way except the top few metres. Spinning on the prussik out was a problemo At the bottom of the pitch a scree slope goes down about 6 m to the top of a shaft which was estimated at 18 m deep. The shaft was not descended. A bolt would be needed at the top of this pitcho (See Fig. 4) L28. Buangkum. Few hundred metres south of L27o A small well decorated horizontal cave vJi th a chamber 8 m by 9 m and an 8 m long crawl. There are many stalactites inside. A swallow's nest was found right inside. L29. Muraso A few hundred metres west of L28o A small horizontal cave 15 m by 5 m and 4 m high. There are two stone walls inside and a small wall across the entrance to have been made by tambarans. Inside there are numerous bones believed to be those of tambaranso Some could be human boneso We were told that a small blocked hole is the home of a spirito This is a special cave because it is the home of many tf:i,mbaranso The bones are us to work love magico If a man wants a certain female to desire him9 he approaches our guide 9 Lakuna.9 vJho performs magic by mixing a small bone fragment with coconut oil. The oil i8 smeared on to the face before a singsing and the woman is charmedo We were assured that the magic is so powerful ths.t it would even vrnrk on a European vrnmano Magic e is four dollars o

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NIUGINI CAVER VOL1Th1E 2 NUMBER 3 221 L30a Muraso 200 m east doges skeletortat the bottom. L29. Small cave 5 m ep with a Lemerukluk. Several kilometres east of the villageo Vl this caveo The guides said that there is a s t:r:ong om the entrance and that the cave is deep., This ge be was to find enough caves to justthe area. I not feel we have ess, area is most promisingo In five explor 30 caves, five of which were over 30 plus, 38 m, 41 m, 51 m plus) and four of which to bottom caus of insufficient equipmento The probably a trip with a small mobile team of about The area around Lowatkana is not very promisingo would be worth going back to, considering o caves "\Ve vrnre unable to bottom on our last day 9 and people speak another cave with a strong draughto area probably corresponds with the fault line marked on the cal and there is.a scarp to the south east that may of the fault. It would b worthwhile operating on the uninhabited true plateau to the south east of the villages which is 1100 to 1400 m above sea levelo There must some very de caves there! The Lelot is fairly accessible, needing only a day's vvalk to the villages and another up to the high area if access vvas from the north east coast. Carriers would be a problem for an expedition. The track from the south west coast is shorter but is very steep and goes from sea level to 1200 m altitude in only seven kilometres as the balus flieso Hohnen, Po Do ( 1970) o Geology of New Irela.ncL Resources Record 1970/490 * * * Bureau Mineral ------....-i-..==-was the leading verti caver in Tasmania for a number of years before comiri.g to Papua New Guinea in 1971 .. He caved on and Ir * * -)-.. F .. CONFERENCE BRISBANE 27-29th DECEMBER9 19740 * * -K-

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222 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 Ho Gallasch * Caves ab in t Pleistoccme-Recent limestones north west and south east of Hamatanai on New Irelando Basically they appear to be of two Type 1 0 Coastal cavern which can be entered from an opening in the cliff-of upraised coralline reef limestone? and Single channel stream caves which occur in undulating country or foothills some stance from the coasto Type 2 caves can be fferentiated into (a) those which can be entered from an efflux opening9 usually those higher in the foothills 9 and (b) those which can be entered where a stream or former strea11 went undergrom1d (influx cave) .. Other cave types may occur in the mountains behind Namatanai but difficulty of access has so far precluded exploration in that area., These are usually of limited size and occur in the most recently upraised reef limestone.. Two factors would appear to be involved in their (i) subsurface coastal drainage; and (ii) wave action .. Along the north oa,st coast of New Ireland in the Namatanai region the upraised forms a cliff of varying height.. Wave action in former times has resulted in overhangs and small caves, a number of v1hi can be seen from the road.. Percolating water has resulted in abundant stalactite formation in some of these overhangs.. In addition, much of the drainage is subterranean with vmter resurgence occurring as springs near the present sea-water 1 evel.. In former times this 1.rvater resurgence occurred in the vicinity of the upraised limestone cliff when this was the coastline.. This aided by wave action resulted in the relatively shallow but sometimes roomy caves along the coast. Caves of this type have been described near Loloba village (Gal1asch9 1974a) and occur on Kenapit plantation9 near Bakan, Ramat and Rasese villages and on Ramat plantation. About ten of these small caves have been explored but many more have not yet been visitedo Because of the proximity to most villages, these caves have often been us as a burial place for tho deado The bodies were placed on 1 s starting at the back of the cave and progress::;_ e., In some villages, these caves are still us as burial places9 particularly for the bodies of old people ..

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUNIBER 3 223 These are not very common as most drainage resurges at or near the coast as openingso Several do occur at the base of the Lelet Plateau (Pamp cave is a good example -see "Caves of the New Ireland District", this issueo) Karu cave is also of this type whereas Mageh No. 2 is a modified form. Karu Cave (N16)o A cave is situated within 150 m of the road which crosses from near Karu village to Konogogo on the north west coasto To date9 the local name for the hole is not known and provisionally it has been called the Karu cave. From near a major bend in the road, at the base of the mountains, a slope leads down to a stream.. This is followed upstream for about 80 m to where it emerges from the hillside. The stream can be followed along a passage way averaging 5 m high and 3-7 m wide. At one place there is a false bottom, the stream having eroded under a ledge:of the limestoneo At some 80 m from the entrance a branch passage leads off to the right. (Refer to Dia. 1) From this point the stream had worn a narrow cham1el between smooth sided walls. Due to the depth of the water, this tunnel was not followed any further. The branch passage is at a somewhat higher level than the current stream bed and would appear to have been the initial route of the stream. It was followed for 110 m until the roof height decreased to 0.6 m. Throughout its length, through squeezes and small cham bers, the passage is decorated with stalactites and columns .. Many of these had an average diameter around 15-30 cm and had been broken by earth movement but had subsequently rejoined. (N29) As the local name is not yet known, this cave has been called Mageh No. 2, being situated in the foothills about 45 minutes walk from the back boundary of Mageh plantation. No defined paths ran near this cave, and it can only be located using local village people as guides. The entrance in the side of the hill opens immediately into a 1arge chamber, heavily populated by bats and flying foxes. (See Dio.. 2) A large portion of this cave would appear to result from roof collapse into an underground stream. A steep climb down over boulders slippery with water and guano ends at a small pool of water fed by a trickle coming in from the right side of the chamber. Everything is covered by thick deposits of guano. A short climb up the right hand side of the chamber leads into a small solution tunnel which can be .followed as a steep crawl for about 36 m. Various small roof openings drain water down into the main chamber from which it flows as a seepage on the opposite side of the cavern. INFLUX_Q.[1; VE. (Type 2b) Influx caves are relatively common in the undulating country between the coastal cliffs and the foothills. Some surface streams

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. CS.. tn z --: I 4 A 4 c: -, -., 0 b.; .. .,, ":;> ( u:-::: d \JJ ,,,,,,.. ().. 1 • . 4'4 ""'> i d1 d f ,. ' J et...... ........ ' -t" p Q f'J "' ;) b... Q -

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NlJMBER 3 225 from the mountains othills are event from reaching the coast by a barrier of t uplift coralline tones which form the coastal cliffs.. Thes streams typically eroded a steep gully then become erraneano Some of the cave entrances at the bottoms quite impressive with massive hanging oons of creepers9 ferns and shrubs.. Bats seen flying around the entrances and it is popular vi people to flail down flying foxes as they caveo In some cases the path of the underground stream coast can di from the line of large doline ructures.. Caves of this typo are Umarah (Gallasch, 1974b)'} Noo 1 Kabase caves .. Belik Cave This cave occurs on Belik plantation and can be entered-from gully about 1 km from the coasto A series of impressively lines leads to an estuary on the coast .. From the gully perenni stream flows over ulclers into an entrance 15 m wi and some 11 m high .. About 10 m of limestone overlays the entrance.. Quit conspicuous near t entrance is the differentiation of one typoso The more recent strata comprise koronas type limestone eh is bedded on dense fine grained metamorphos limestone. For most of its 10 m high and 10-16 m wi , (See Dia .. 3) .. Sections are ext up to 4 m longo 150 m from the left of the is roof collapsea seen on the surface The up to this point passes heard churning down a cc1-s chamber about stream path .. 9 with stalactites a sn1all chamber to er::,rth and rock from a first of the dolines ov,; the pas sage .. __ _J _ e (N28) Situated tovmrds the back of Mageh plR-nta=tion, the entrance to this cave is very similar to that of Belik cave, occurring th ty of a ste fullyo The initial chamber averages 8 m vd 9 8 m high a.nd is about 36 m long. From this point, a steep slope leads into a l0r chamber at a higher level which opens through a small pot to the surfacee The stream which follows the left wall of the main chamber continues through a smaller passage way for approximately 40 rno (See Dia. 4) At this stage'} the roof has lowered to within 50 cm of the flooro Kabase Caveo (N30) This cave occurs several Jdlometres furthfYr down-the-'COast-from Mageh.. The vehicle track into Sohun P-rimar;y School can be traversed by 4-wheel drive vehicle for about 1 km through the village gardenso From the end of the cut road9 a 20 minutes walk along hunting trails into the low limestone hills brings one to the entrance of Kabaseo Unlike the previous mentioned caves, the entrance is fairly inconspicuous, being in a small

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lfl f E 0 a \., ! J r& J,, -1. f!l f i Jl, -' t j.., .. _ rr of, 0 "'"" !.IJ -• ft "'ii CJ u. ea a..9 O+ i: A A
PAGE 39

228 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUivIBER 3 depression concealed by tall treeso The entrance, behind several fallen limestone blocks, leads down into a chamber which has an opening to the sky. From he.re the cave slopes steeply downward, the spacious passage being well decorated with stalactites and wall accretions. For about 180 m the cave continues as a succession of chambers up to t2 m wide and 8 m high. Many sections are beautifully decorated with calcite formations and throughout there is a large bat population. The has a consistent downward trend, the slope varying from about 10 up to 45 • Near the extremity of this section an opening in the left wall leads up to a small solution passage at a higher level, (See Dia. 5), not explored. For the first 180 m, cave formation comprised solution and collapse processes but after this., the smooth walls indicated only solution and stream action. Many of the walls appeared as if they had been plastered and white-washed. For much of its length, this section was only 2-4 m wide, but began to widen considerably at the furtherest point reached. In spite of the narrowness of the passage, the roof varied between about 6 and 10 m high. Here also bats were very numerous and at times we had to shield our faces as they came careering past. The further in, the thicker the guano got, until at about 400 m from the entrance it prevented our passage. Here water mixed with guano formed a quick-sand like slurry around 1-1.5 m deepo By clinging to crevices in the wall, a point was reached where further along the tunnel this slurry could be seen coming to within 1 m of the roof of the cave. Although obviously this had been an influx stream cave, it appears that the stream is no longer active and the presence of water in the lower reaches may be an indication of the current water table having been reached. The size of the passage at the end indicates former continuity but this appears now to be sedimented up. In spite of this, the length (400 m) and depth (around 100 m) make this the longest and deepest recorded cave in New Ireland. REFERENCES ----------Gallasch, H. (1974a). Some Burial Caves in Papua New Guinea. Niu.g!fil ,g_ ( 1) 138-141. Gallasch, H. (1974). Cave Giants of New Ireland? !ius!.!!! _g ( 2 ) 1 60-1 62 • * * *

PAGE 40

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 229 Ro Michael Bourke * The cave (N8) is at the of Medina High School on the north east coast some 90 km south of Kaviengo The nearest village is Medina, vd th a vehicular ronc1 going to the cave from Lonagon village a fev;; kilometres up the =-oad o The owner is Seniele who lives at the back of the High School9 and he likes visitors to get his permission to go to the cavec It is well knoVlm locally and has often been visited "bcf groups of expatriates, as well as the local villagers. H:::"l Gallasch and I visited the cave in June 1972 and I published a trip report in which I wrongly.called it Mongop cave (Bourke, 1970). In November 1972 Yvonne Chisholm and I revisi tecl the cave E\ccom panied by five boys from Medina village: Riwas, Sova, Pokawa and Demas, who helped to survey the cave to Grade standard. The cave is rather impressiveo It is basically a single chamber 308 m long, and up to 60 m wide and 43 m tall. Depth from the lowest point in the floor to the daylight hole in the ceiL_ng was estimated at 52 mo The entrance is a walk in type, 5 m wi_deo The cave is dry and decorated vJi th numerous fJtalagmi tes and colunms. At the back the chamber becomes much smaller and is packed with columns. There are several daylight holes in the ceiling. The main feature .Of the cave is a daylight hole tovmrds the backo Twenty-five metres above the floor, daylight streams in through the hole and the trees in the forest above are contrasted with the dull inside of the caveo Total passage length is 362 m. Unfortunately, vandals have been active and names of students from the nearby high schools decorate the walls.. The owner is concerned about this and has disallowed the students from visiting the cave. He is considering charging admission as a businesE venture. The cave is populated by numerous flying foxes and i.nsect eating bats, particularly horseshoe On my first vi t I collected a couple of spider-like animals from inside. Fossils have reportedly been collected from the nearby Bolof cave0 Bourke, Ro Mo ( 1970). New Guinea Cavingo Trip Report fr')ffi New Ireland, T .. PoNoGo Down Under 9 129-130 .. (Newsl2tter of the University of Queensland-Speleological Society.) * D.A.SoFo9 Kera.vat, EoNoBo, PoNoGo * f._:. *

PAGE 41

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PAGE 42

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUIVIE 2 NUMBER 3 231 Ro Michael Bourke * New is subjected to regular dry periods when water shortages occuro The problem is aggravated because much of the drainage is underground. To overcome the shortages, village wells are being sunk. But in some places the problem is avoided by obtaining water from caves where underground streams flow through them. Two of these were visited and mapped on 20th October 19739 by Michael Bourke, Kathy Carman and Jean Schaffcriuso They are described here. People also obtain water from caves at Konogusgus and Silom villages and at Lenkamin on the Lelet Plateau. No doubt caves are used for this purpose elsewhere on the island. The village is 5.km south of Kavieng before Utu High School, and the cave (N1) is 100 m west of the main road. The entrance is 13 m wide and 2 m high and is situated on one side of a shallow collapsed doline 16 m in diameter and 3 m deep. From the entrance there is a 4 m drop to the cave floor, half of which is occupied by a pool of water. The pool averaged 1 m deep when visited, but is deeper in the wet. At the back of the cavern the pool is about 5 m deep and the passage can be seen continuing underwater. The cave is decorated with stalagmites and stalactites. Outside the cave, part of the floor of the doline was concreted by the Japanese during the war and a concrete wall erected at the cave entrance. (See map) Two pumps were sited on the doline floor.. The water was pumped to a storage tank and thence to Kavieng and Utu. The equipment was removed to Kavieng after the war by the Allies, according to the village people. The villagers now obtain their water from the cave and there is a "tambu" on washing in it.. The polished rocks inside testify to the use the cave receives. The water supply for the school is pumped from a stream in a cave (N7) on the school grounds.. The cave entrance is located in the bottom of an irregularly shaped doline 15 m in diameter and 10 m deep. Concrete steps provide access to the bottom of the dolineo The cave entrance is 11 m wide and 3 m high. A stream of approximately 0.2 cumecs flows into a pool in the entrance cavern from a small passage.. Another small passage 16 m long leads off the cavern and ends in a rockfall. Water is pumped from the pool into a pumphouse in the doline, and then to a storage tank on a nearby hill. The supply is said to be constant, even in the severest droughto Water from the cave reappears about 100 m away to form a lagoon that flows into the sea a few hundred metres away. * D. A. S. F. , Kera vat, E. .. , P. No G .. * * *

PAGE 43

13-1 k. -N1 \XIATER SlJPPLY CAVE,LIGA VILL 1:..soo. 0 5 lO ._lll!!l!lalt=:=tm R.1\-LBOIJ RK . g, ,,,.3. L :\ENJ). -... 0 0 f:' t. .I \;:'" .,_j -t:..f:J> C ei n C i ;?,tQ. 'R. ou fl io.X_ \'\1) 'i RA J:>E. !;.. :B . A • -(.5 'Root J....rc..:<\ht .. -, "'t.'f".,,s .. ' ..... ,; /J ])0 v l d. Cl. r _s b N l s .-R., l'"i'\ -il. PL E


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