Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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serial ( sobekcm )
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
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K26-05657 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5657 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication. \ \

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLlJME NUMBEB.4 A Niugini is -the newsletter of. New Guinea Cave Exploration , Groupo The PNGCEG is an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in I?apua New Guineao Volume 2 Number 4. l\!ovember, 1974. Quarterly. Price Editor Production of Last 50 cents per issue. $A2.00 per annum. R. Michael Bourke, DoAoSoFo9 Keravat, East New Dritain7 Papua New Guinea. Jean Bourke Michael and Jean Bourke9 Hal Gallasch, Chris Prior and Peter Ma S3ngeri. Contents Page Toktok Di]_ong Eclita Cave Conservation •••••••••••••••o••.••o•••oo••••••• 23tl Caving and Archaeology in Papuq New Guinea. Jim Allen • o o. • ....... o •••• o.. 23:.;, Starters Wanted for New Ireland Expedition ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••o 236 Caves for National Parks 0••<1•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 237 Subscriptions .. .. ;, ......... o ••• o .. • .......................... o ••••• o •• o •• o....... 237 Extract from Gui.dleL to the Preservation of National Cultural Property in Papua NevJ . Guin\1a o Po No Go Museum .... o ....... ., ., ........ "" ...... o ••• ., o o. o .... . Ambitious o Expedition to Visit Great/Britain H ....... o .............. u •• ... ••• •• •••• The 1965 ,Star Mountains Expedi Mo J.. Shepherd o ........ o ..... ., o ...... .. Bibliography of ,the 1965 Star Mountains E)
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234 NIUGINI GAVER VOLUME .2 NUMaERA TOKTOK B.ILONG :EDITA CAVE CONSERVATION I . Cave conservation is an aspect of the sport we have paid very. little atten tion to in the past9 mainly becase there have been few apparent problems. In an industrialized and urban country7 such as Australia7 Britain or New Zealand9 that most of us call home, caves are threatened by mining for limestone9 damage by visitors9 both organized cavers and casual 6nes9 and certain aspects of 11development11 such as flooding by irrigation dams. They also serve as convenie .. rubbish tips7 particularly for dead ,livestock. These abuses have occurred heref. but they are not widespread. For example 9 in Irapui ( Irukunguai or Queen v s) c2,,::; near Kundiawa9 the whole of the floor of the main passage was turned from a sparkling series of crystal filled rimstone pools into a muddy waste covered in tin ca.ns9 a.nc;J. prok$n_shards of. stalactites and stalagmites in the year following.its discovefy by Europeans (Parker9 1965). Kev Wilde9s tri;:: report to the same cave in this issue mentions rubbish left inside by cavers •. The walls of the well known Matapara cave at Med:i.na 'on New Ireland are decorat2c' with visitorsv names (Bourkej 1974) •. I know-ari i-solated doline in the Raulei Ranges of New Britain that is three daysv walk from the nearest road -but it thousands of empty tins; courtesy of an army surveying team. A small cave near Kandrian in WaN.,B .. was recently blasted in for 9koronas' to pave the road. bes.Pi te these ancr. other. destruction of caves or their content is not at all common here.' Most caves are not easily accessible; few resider;ts or expatriate,_are. inclined to go any distance underground9 few of our caves are well decorated' compared with those in dryer climates; mt:Li) caves are rl ver ones ahd rUbbish _is removed' naturally; and the. economy is baSJC. on ture ancf ohe mine rathar than secondary industries. We can probabl1 expect more of these conservation problems with more industrialization and urbanization. There is9 however\, an aspect of cave conservation that is of great concerr in . As Jim Allen "points out 1ri his article "Caving and Archaeology in Papua New Guinea11 ln. this issue, buria'l and art sites: are commonly located ir caves and. rock shet ters. They also provide 'evidence ;of former living sites. Dr o f-i.llen poin.ts' out '..the resporisibili ty cavers have not to disturb such si ter, and to report them to professional archaeolbgists. The extract from the Muse< 1' 11Guid,e. to the Preservation of National Cultural Property" gives the legnl of such preservation. What _other resporisibili ties do we have? The question of publication haf. troubled meo In "t-Lc. t have adopted a policy of publishing any submitted material on archaeo"iogical sites considering that the recording is more impo:r. ant than the need to Umi t knowledge of such sites. This decision was made view of ( 1) tne lack of,published il'}formation; (2) the ty in getting many of the sites;: and (3) the lack of intere9t' '.iry sites by casu:ll rc3.c1. of N,._Co . Perhaps a more restrictive pubiicatit:irt policy should be. adopted? --. ; . Cavers are now presented with an opportunity to give their ideas on cave.; suitable for inclusion in National Parks -see the extract-from Mr .. Hill9s letter,, I am not certain how important National Parks are il) conservation iL a country where most land is owned by villagers, but this isan opportunity

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NIUGINI CAVEH VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 235 conservationists in other countries :rould not pass up., Neith2r should we. To enable me to reply to the request9 information on caves suitable for inclusion in National Parks is needed. Mr"' Hillvs letter gives the three types of caves of interest. Cnvers with thoughts on the subject are asked to write to me. REFERENCES Hourke9 -,,H., Michael (1974).. Matapara Cave9 New Irelando Ni.ugini _(3h 229-230. Parker9 Fred (1965)0 Queenvs Cave.. to the Editoro Nov. 15th9 1965 Po2o CAVING AND ARCHAEOLOGY IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Because of its short occupation by Europenns9 and no p:.rnvious of writing by loc<::lligroups9 the development of historical traditions in Papua New Guinea is dependent on oral9 linguistic and archaeolcgicaJ. evidence.. Of these9, archaeology can explor? further into the past than either of the other evidence.. The history it produces is not the sort of history most Et.irop:eans immediately understand. It provides no d:.:ites o:f 0u.tt1es or lists, of :kings. Instead9 working from the discarded and brok.en rubbish of the past\' the history which emerges is primarily one of technological change9 from which9 by a ,variety of developed techniques9 changes in past r::conomic nnd soci.J.l actiVfties cari be documentedo Such work in New Guinea is still in its infancy<; but already a complex picture of human progress extending over 25 9 OOO yecns 5. s emerging o It is a history of immediate value to Papuans and New Guine2ns in pa:cticukr7 but fascinatingly its relevance to the vvider region of islnnd $outhEast Asia and ultimately to the world history of mcm.. Nsw GuineZt past historyi corrbining man and his unique clima.tic and biotic setting!/ i:::; offerirq e;xpJ,;}n;--,,. tions of development now rarely obtctin2ble9 particuL:irly in questions ,such as the ways in which simple tropical agricul tu:re develuped and spread o.nd intensified. Much of this evidence comes from caves and rock-shelters9 where it has been protected the decay and obliteration of a tropical environment., Burial sites, living sites and art sites have all been reported in the of l\Jil).gini Caver, and all these are9 in one form or another9 historical dence of considerable valueo Professional archaeologists 6re few9 and are normally dependent on information such as this for the location of sites9 all too frequently, even in a country such as Papua New where found in sites have little or no monetary vnlue9 the archaeologist arrives co find sites disturbed and plundered. Apurt from anything else9 people who interfere with sites of past human habitation are breaking the law ar.d are * Dept. of Prehistory 9 Australian Uni versi. ty 9 Austral ion Capital-Territory., 26000

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236 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 liable to prosecution9 but this is not the p9Jnto The law exists for a and that is9 by removing objects from they were originally discarded9 the status of the objects is reduced from pieces of historical evi-dence to worthless curios.. Despite the painstaking excu.vation and recording et sites which the archaeologistdoes9 he is himself conscious that as he excav-ates he is as surely d-::::stroying the evidence before him as he would be by reac: .. ing a manuscript and carefully burning each page after reading it. A collectin. of pottery shards dug out of a site and sent to a museum or university is of little or no more value to the a_rchaeologist than to the person who has callee '.;c them. Cavers9 by the nature of their activities9 eririounter archaeological sites more frequently than most people9 nnd the recording of them cnn add another facet to cavingo There exists in Port Moresby the facility for recording site locations and other info:tmation in The New Guinea Archaeological Survey9 Depa::r ment of Anthropolo9y and Sociology 9 University of Papua New Guinea9 P .. Oo Box 4>:' University9 PoNoGo Alternatively9 one can contact the Curator of Anthropology1 Papua New Guinea Museu.m9 Po:d Moresby.. Site recording forms are availab_le frc The New Guinea Archaeological The Do' s and t s of site recording are simple g Do record the locatic.: of the site by its grid coordinates on a published map if possible9 or by .' directions if not; try and End out who owns _the land on which the site is loc ated9 either nn individual or i1 note the sort and size of si te9 whether it is a cave or rock-shelter or ::;oi:'"'et.hing else9 and whether it is an art site burial site etco; whether it has shell or bone or pottery or stone flakes scat tered around the surface.. t dig holes in the site to see how deep the der: is or what it cont.J.ins9 interfere with rock faces which are painted or carved in ways which mo.y hJ.sten deterioration of the surface9 don't despair if archaeologist doesn9 t appo0r on the next plane to excavate your si teo There only three zirchaeologh:;ts :resident in Papua New Guinea at the moment9 and all ,_.. in Port Moresby. Your information wi 11 be appreciated and acknowledged. Finally9 collect artifocts from' the site unless requested to; personal collections are usually the first thing into the garbage tin when one 9goes finish 9 • STARTERS W1mTED FOR NEW IRELAND EXPEDITION An expedition to the Lelet Plateau of New Ireland is being planned for tk middle of 19750 The aim is to find and explore deep caves. The possibilitie: finding very deep c
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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 extensive SRI experience.. Plans will be discusped at the Brisbane J\SF ence at Christmas. Timing is still.undecided, but a tentative dnte {o leave Rabaul for New Ireland is 27th Jtily9 1975. * * * CAVES FOR NATIONAL PARKS Tho is a text of a letter sent by Mr. Mo A" Hill, tho ExecutJ.\h. Director of the l\btional Parks Board9 to the editor" It is self-explanatory., 0 • • • • • • 0 The. Papua New Guinea National Parks Board is interested in obt.::ining much .iriforTin{ion 'o.s possible concerning caves and cave sxstems within the country o. TLis iswith a view to making an assessment of caves sui t"'ble f o:c develc:pmEtiTCo At the same time there may well be cave systems that because of their goclogicnl9 biological or other values should be given full protection status., So far little or nothing has been done by the National Parks B(.ard in regu.rd to the development or protection of any cave systems though '-.. on the list of potential areas for investigation. We, currently, no or-..: on the stuff with any experience in caves or caving and I am therefore to you to seek your assistance. 10 If you could possibly suggest a list of references in relation to in Papua Nov1 Guinea I would be most grateful. I would also be grateful f comments9 suggestions and recommendations you or any other members of the group (the would care to makeo At this stage9 in general terms, the Board is interested in 3 ':ypes of caves., 1) Those that could or should be developed for public visi :.:ation;; 2) those . o:f historic or prehistoric interest that should be preserved as :;;,_;: and 3) those which need full protection because of their scientific intere:/ Al though I don vt anticipate the Board moving very quickly in fie the sooner 'NC9 start getting information together and making contact with '/CUI. members the sooner we can begin to get our thinking straight. 1foy assistar:cc you can give us and any suggestions you care to make regarding the broad ment of caves in Papua New Guinea will be most welcome. * * * SUBSCRIPTIONS ... 0011 are due again. The sub for Volume 3 will have to be $3 I am sorry to Most salesmen justify the all-too-common price rises these days by citing r.'. cost's. I won 9 t. It vs just that Niugini Caver is running at a losss o.nd I v:,x reduce the lasso This yeo.r I will be $80-100 out of pocketo Any Bclditionol you can rake up will help the finances. The larger the production i.'Un9 the cheaper is the cost per issueo t.n order form is enclosed for persons who z:, now unf in::rnc:lal.

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238 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 EXTR/1CT FROM GUIDE TO THE PRESERVATION OF NATIONAL CULTURAL PROPERTY IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA P oNoGo Museum The National Cultural Property (Preservation) Ordinance, amended 19679 of Papua New Guinea is designed to preserve the naturnl history and cultural heritage of the country for future generations. The Papua New Guinea Museum and itf Trustees have been entrusted with this responsibility .. NfffIONAL CULTURAL PROPERTY National Cultural Property consists of objects of particulnr importance tc-1 the people of Po.pua New Guineao National Cultural Property may include any object or place associated with the traditional culture; or minerals, fossils and zoological specimens of scientific interest (Part 1, Section 4 of the nance). The following schedule lists categories of National Cultural Property which have specific restrictions regarding their acquisition and transferg SCHEDULE OF 18 MAY2 1967 1.. Human remains or any part thereof when dried, preserved, decorated or othm wise dealt with in a manner traditional to the indigenous people of Papua New Guinea. 2. Traditional funerary objects or thingso 3. Carvings or engravings on stone. 4. Carvings or engravings on implements9 tools, weapons? utensils and ornamen manufactured wholly or partly from stoneo 5. Carvings9 paintings, engravings or other representations on rock. 6. Dei-JOSits of tlncient pottery or other relics of historical or antiquarian interest. The acquisition and transfer of these materials is limited tog a. The Trustees of the Papua New Guinea Public Museum and Art Gallery, b. A native in accordance with native custom, or c. Any other person or organisation approved by the Administrator in Council after having received a report from the Trustees1 except insofar as that acquisition or transfer is authorised by an Act or Ordinc • • Any contravention subsequent to the date _of initiation of the schedule will re • in a substantial fine being imposed on the offender .. Physical locations which are protected by the Ordinance specifically incJ. a variety of placesg * PoOo Box 6359 Port Moresby9 PoNoGo

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 . 239 . . . . .. a .• A cave or other place in which ancient remains9 'human or other, are to be f ourid. b. A carving, painting or other representation on rock or in a cave .. c.. A deposit of ancient pottery or historical remains. d.. A place used in former times as a ceremonial or burying ground .. A person shall not disturb or otherwise interfere with a place or object referred to in this list. A penalty is scheduled for any violation of. this sec tion of the Ordinance. Any individual planning to investigate and work a site. of this nature should obtain permission in writing from the Trustees of the Papua New Guinea Museum prior to the initiation of their activities. Materials listed in the schedule of 18 May, 1967 may be exported on a temporary basis for study purposes (Appendix_ III) o * * * AMBITIOUS PoNoGo EXPEDITION TO VISIT GREAT/BRITAIN Plans are well advanced for one of Papua New Guineavs most ambitious over: o seas speleological expeditions. Following several expeditions to Australia9 New Zealand and Japan, our boys are now lcoking to the Territory of Great Britain to set new records for cold and wet caves. Rumours suggest that the Great-B:rita.in c:tvcs :.ro s _ incr0:1bl y c _ 1 _: -Ch . t the: ti ves wear rubber suits instead of the normal shorts to g_o caving o Of course such stories must be treated with :caution until :we can verify them., However to be on the safe side all members of the expedition will be issued with a jumper. News of politic al unrest in the remote Sc'otland and Wales sub-districts has been unsettling, particularly loc,nl agitation for inclependencei> Tribal fighting in the slums is said to be very bad. Coupled with power shortages this wet season9 the country sounds a most primitive area. The expedition will concentrate on the Mendip-Pennine area with day trips to Cork and Waleso With a proposed budget of $238,329?741052 and the 82 man expedition in the field for months9 we can confidently expect new frigid:i.ty and dampness records .. (Prompted after reading in recent numbers of Descent plans for the 1973 Australian and 1975 British expeditions to * * * ADVERTISING In this issue there is an advertisement for New Guinea Disposals. It is hoped tc obtain more advertising in the future to offset production costs.. Readers can help by patronizing the companies that advertise in Niugirii Caver, and by mentioningN .. C .. * * *

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240 NIUGINT GJWER> VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 THE 1965 STAR MOUNTAINS EXPEDITION t', -Mo Jo Shepherd* In Febr:uary 1965, a small Australian expedition comprising six whites and seventeen New Guineans set out from Telef omin in central New Guinea in order to spend several months in.the urexplored eastern Star Mountains regiono Co. leaders of the expedition were Paul S)imons o.nd Tom Hayl lar 9 both with o wealth of climbing and paving experience in many parts of the worldo The remaining members were Barry Craig9 anthropo1ogist9 John Huon9 medical officer9 David Cook, geologist, :and myself, geom.9r.pho19gisto Apart from carrying out surface exploration and scientific work in various fields, we intended to explore any caves that we should encounter in the region. Two members of the expedition (Symons and Craig) had lived in New Guinea and were known personally to our Telefomin :carri13rs. This was to prove invaluable during the arduous months ahead, as our. carriers remained kyal throughout, incredibly honest, and almost invariably in good hum
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I l I ft l l ' i I I o l t M,} l 1 I t I "'lOt!O' t ,, .................. ., ... , l ' ' I l I 1 'L_J.. __ LJ. _ _L__J l . I . . . SC.ti.U: . . . !_ . . . .11.1 •. H/l<\ti. ........... ................ -.... _ ... ... --. .. --.......... ...... ,,""'." ____ __ ,. __ ...... .... -.... .. .,,.,.. _,.,.,,_,_ ........... ,, ..... ,.....,. .. _,.,. ... .., .......... ....... tr'."',,.,.. ...... ,..;.,, ....... .. -.STAR hAOUNTAINS A.REA CENTRAL NEW GL!

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242 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 huge dolines up to nearly 90 m deep and 800 m and in other places where the overlying impervious strata is thicker? by polje-like bu.sins., All of these features receive influx streamso We had detected these massive dolines and basins on air photographs prior to the expedition and had decided to focus cave exploration in this area., Equipment was air-dropped to the plateau and we examined all the major dolines and basins. In no case did we discover any sizeable cave system9 but we frequentJ.y encountered blockage of the influx passClges by clay or boulderso In one doline and in many bo.sins the streams simply terminated in muddy surface poolso The highest part of the eastern Star Mountains9 the Capella Massif consists of lapiez k2rst and is dissected by two major sets of jointso Whilst scaling the peaks a number of shafts (30 m plus) were obs8rved., We examined several but found them to be blccked iJ.i.th glaci to where they issue from the foot of the limestone cliff so The dense vegoto.tion would render the tnsk a difficult one9 however., In I would tend to expect the major effluxes to debouche on the western boundnry of limestcne near the Krom/ Ban junction? about 1o5 km from the I:-ian Jaya l::order to the south of the main divideo The expedition did not visit this loco.lity9 but it would apear

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME NUMBER 4 243 ' !I to be far more accessible than the higher pjrts of the Star In ''ci:ddi:. tion9 lcc"al' food would be available.; ...... There are of course immense lugistico.l difficulties 'in actually reaching the Star Mountainso Any .serious cave exploration will require equipment far beyond what could be carffed. on this prelimin:::rry t:rip9 it must be remembefec1 that exploration of the deep caves of Fr::mce9 Italy and elsevvhere has required several heavily:equipped expedH4ons just to cxplcre a sin9le9 relc:itively accessible cave. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 1965 STAR MOUNTAINS EXPEDITION Ro Michael Bourke * /.mono ( 1963) o i\round the Societies a ASF Newsletter No., 20 po. 4 o (BritJsh-Australian planned.,) '' Anono (1964) o Expedition to of the Stars., Sydney Morning . Octo 30th 1964. (Expedition of 6 amaf:ey; to go sea.rching for Anon. (1964).. Expedition to go td'New Guineato Explore Caves. Sydney Morning Heraldo (Paul Symons 'to join expedition.,) -.. -.. -.-.. Anono (1965). 9500 Hunt for Beetleso Teleqra1)ho ,'February l4th 1965., Reprinted in Stop Press .Feb., 1965 PPo4-5o (Membeis names To cost , 5000 Supplies to be flown in from Wewak.,) f.1non. (1965).. Planning Assault.; South Pacific Posto 'Feb. l2th:1965., (Photo of members.) Anon. (1965) .. Study of Remote Limestone Ci{veso South Paciffc Post. Feb., 12th 1965. p.6.. (Members nameclo) . , Anon., (1965)., Explorers strike m9ney t:toubleso; 1'.Stc:ir Trek''•' :south. Pacific Posto March 19th 1965., p .. 13 and p.1'5 .. (Expe'ditioh .short 'of. funds ... ) Anon. (1965)" Indon Patrol to Stur Mountains.. South Po.cific Posto May12th 1965" (Expedition climbed 2 peaks;; discovered u.---seiies of StJectu.cular sinkholes; no major cave development.:.) !mon. ( 1965). Star Crossing" q new 11firsts"., South Pacific Post. May 10th 1965.. (The last rtiajor.blank has been wiped off the .... P:)N."G" .map with the crossing south to north of 'the Star Mountains .. ). Anono ( 1970) •. Fi 11 ing in cGtlinea v s Blank Spaces ... Paci Uc Islands Monthly 41 (10) g 83.. (Tom Hayllar has written a lengthy account of .the expedi-tion)o Bain9 Gordon ao (1963)0 Expedition to New Guineao ASF No .. 200 Supplemento 4 pp.. (British Overseus C3ving Expecli tiooto New Guinea .. lasting 3 ... 4 months commencing June 1964 planned., Assistance and members needed.,) Hayllyar9 Thomas.. An Account of the First Crossing of the fmstralian Star Mountains 9 19650 Microfilm PMB83., Avo.i lablo from Pacific Manuscript$ Research Schoel of Pacific Studfos9 Australian Naticnal University,, (1J.. compre.;:; hensive account of expedition,, There are references to the sinkhules and caves * DoAoSoFo9 Keravat9 E.NoBo9 PoNoGo

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244 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 including burial near Tifalmin and cave art.) Heap9 David (1964). Potholing Beneath the Northern Penni.neso RoutledgE; and Kegan Paul. London. 206 PPo Po 183., (British expedition to visit No Go in 1964-5.) J; (1965). Geomoiphclcgy of the E6stern Star Mouniains Rogiona Bo Ao Honours Thesis9 Sydney University. (UnpubL) Shepherd, Mo Jo (1968)0 Australian Stc:i.r Mounto.ins Expedition Central .. New Guinea, 1965. Transcript Proco 7th Biennfal Conf., AusL SpeleologiGal Federation. Goolwa9 South Austa Dec .. 1968 p. 136-1390 (A ...>ummary of caving aspects of the expedition including notes on organization.) * * * STUDIES IN SPELEOLOGY This international journal is published by the William Pengelly Ctwe Studies Trust Ltdo The journal aims to publish well informed articles on all aspects of cave studies9 .but not specialist articles which can be understood only by other specialists in the same field.. The latest issue9 Volume 2 part 6 (for 1973) contains a number of most interesting articleso One article describes the formation of lava tubes in Hawaii as observed by vulcanologists -a somewhat hazardous occupation., it would appear., as one of the staff fell into molten lava.. The mnn in question suffered no permanent disability except disfigured skino Excellent colour plates accompany the paper., Other articles describe blister caves from Ethiopia and their mammal f auna9 and Kenyan lava caves .. Earlier issues contain other interesting papers from around the w0rlcl., such as IYCaves on the Mcon and or'i-Mars"; 11Cnve Co.lei tevi; 11Cave Bears" 9 The Early Recording and Preservation of Rock Painting in South African. Studies in Speleolcgy can be obt.J.ined from 16 .New Road9 Kingston-upon-Thames9 Surrey9 UoKo at .50 (.,25 for eo.rlie;r issues) plus postage (10p for 1 copy9 20P for 5 copies)'o If you ha.ve an inte.rnativnal interest in speleology, this. journal represents good valueo THE NEW CONTRIBUTORS Jim Allen was engaged in extensive archaeologi6al work in PoNoGo for a number of yearso He was a lecturer in prehistory in the De1_::.o.rtment of Anthro polcgy and Sociol'-'gy at the UoPaNoGo before joining the Department of Prehistory at the Australian National University 9 which is his substantive position. Nick Bowden is more of a walker than <"l caver9 but he9s /done some caving at the Mumeng caves in the Morobe District. He is a surveyor by profession. Geoff Francis is a member of SoUaSoSo He came to this year and in a few months has managed to explore and survey a number of caves on o.nd Los Negros Islands. His particular interest is karst geomorphology o He is a tea'cher., 6 Mike Shepherd was a member of SoUoSoS" and participated in the 1965 Australian Star Mountains Expedition. As well as doing some caving on the trip9 he studied karst geomorphology.

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NIU()INI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 245 THE CAVING SCENE Eastern Highlandso In August Kev and Bev Wilde9 Dick Knight9 and Graham Wilson did some caving in the Sinofi area along the Kainantu-Okapa roado A number of rock art sites and three small to medium sized river caves were visitedo This is the first report of caves from this area. (See report this issue.) Kev, Dick and a visitor, Graham Wilson, also did a trip out to the well known Hell 9 s Gates in late August. Kev reports a cave nearby with the unlikely name of Tin Tin Banga. He must be kiddingi (See report this issue.) Kev got out to Kafiavana south of Goroka in late Octobero He writesg 19The art is fantastic •••o Techniques, style, motifs ond materials are beginning to form a pattern of distribution now and I am getting wraped in the whole thing.," East New Britaino Tim Sprod and Michael Paspari from Vuvu took <1 party of ten students out to the Iuvare caves in August. Duwai, Luminas and the Alumgo. Cutoff cnve were visited. Iuvare was also visited in September by Michael Bourke and Jim Farnsworth. The trip was to introduce Jim to the area, and and to complete the surveying which was done by doing a surf ace traverse from Luminas to Syngoinga. All four caves were visitedo Together with Francesca Malonga, they visited the pumice caves at Malabunga in Octobero All the caves were explored and Jim did a survey in cave number 2. The same day a new cave • some 51 m long wns found at Rabagi village., this is a first for this area. Method of formation is slightly different from the other pumice caves, as it is formed at the contact of the overlying ash and volcanic rocko The others are formed at the contact between the s2ndy ash
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246 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 The PoNoGo-Australian expedition to the Lelet Plateau of New Ireland is now a goer (See request for starters;-this .. issue .. }. : It will be a more modest trip than the others planned for 975" but the potentfolof the area is almost as good as any other, access is very much better7 and the party will.conta;i.n a number of speleos with previous expedition experience in Po Go The place will be getting crowded out at.this rate! Madango In October Michael Bourke and Kev Wilde got out to a cave, or was it two?, near Madang. It was explored for a few hundred metres only, but provided some good sport as there are two duck-unders inside .. Manus o The gap in our knowledge of caves on Ma nu$ is being rapidly filled by Geoff Francis o In /1ugust he. spent some time in. Kari area in central Manus o This is the largest limestone outcrop in the District., Geoff writes g '''Kari proved to be really interesting" The limestone was not as extensive as the air photo interpretation had suggested9 in many places it was overlain by elastic sediments, or had been eroded down to the impe'rvious volcanic basement •... But. there were many river caves., I surveyed 13 of them, ranging from 50 rh to. 1000 m in lengtho There were quite a few high level openings into abdndoned river passages9 but these were difficult to get into.,u In SeptE?mber9 he did a Grade 4 survey of Nge-PelimL!t
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Pho 921263 NIUGINI CAVER N E W G U I N E A D I S P 0 S A L S p Box'• 71 9. RADAUL PAPUA NEW GUINE1L (Advertisement) Ph.. 92 TI 31 ah .. ARMY 9 NAVY;-AIB FORCE MILITARY SUB.PLUS GENEW\L MERCI-IiiNDISE Ex: Aust., Army J /Greeri Shirts New...;tised condition Sizes 11u 17t" $5o00 3o00 All cotton Knife Fork Spoon 3-piece combination seto Aluminium Alloy non-rusing 65c set used condition Army Steel Dixie: Good/used condition 95c Khaki .. Webbing Haversack 13 X X 4u New f>5o50 Canvas Typo as above Plus 2 Front Pockets eD9 Rings f 6r Tying on $5 .. 50 new J /Green Basic Pouch New 65c J/Green Cotton Thigh Pockets for extra item storing Size 2611 $1.,50 $2050 Army Slouch Hat Good condition Puggaree -t SSL5o Cotton Drill Shorts Used and New Sizes 2411 42" Khaki9 Navy9 J/Green9 White Atistralian Giggle Hat . $1075 Black Leather Ex-Army Boots Repaired as Necessary $60 50 is,,. so Vinyl Poncho New $5.,50 303 Bayonette . As new with Scabbard 313.95 Without ScQbbard $11.95 5v x 79 Vinyl Groundsheets or Sun Covers only Webbing Straps Large Assortment Straps9 Padded Ha.rness9 Spiders9 All Complete 50c to $1.,50 Good used and sotne nev1 condition Webbing Belts Australian Arrrry $1.,80 UoSo Pistol Type $1 ... SO Good/used condition . Nylon Mosgui to Nets Ex.Army 72" x 36n x 3611 11$ New $7 .• 50 Drop Nylon Net 36iv x . 7211 x 72il Drop .00 WE MANUF11CTURE TARPAULINS AND HAVE A REPA!R SERVICE ?RICES: QUOTED DO NOT INCLUDE POSTl\GE OH AIHFREIGHT WHITE AND ASK FOR DETF1ILS OF OUH FULL f.?ISPOSAL RANGE

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248 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 TRIP TO THE AND ENDUGUAKJ-\NI CLAN AREAS 9 POROL RANGES2 CHINBU DISTRICT ., ........ . .., .. _ ..... . Kevan Ao Wilde -)(-... ,,,_,_.,. On 23-24th March9 1974 a party of seven visited Obondoyonaminge and Irapui caves on the dip slope of the Porol Ranges., The party wasg Kevan Wilde9 Bev Wilde1 Dick Knight9 Geraldine Deutrum9 Lynette Mayne7 Judy Mayne (all from Goroka) 9 .Gire.s {Par.i villg,gG.J, On Saturday we set up residence at the "haus kiap" at Pari villageo We set off f9r Sigewagi11 but part of the Chimbu Gorge had collapsed9 so we set off cave .hunting ..... Having achieved. nothing by ll. .. c;i•m•q we went up to the; lime.:. stode .,J)f1J.ffs above :.S:i:gewage for rope and ladder instruction" .. t; noon we visited Obond6yonaminge o We paid $5 entrance, fee to Kagl-Tongia. and went inside o Kevan was pleased to see that the entrance was still well con cealed c:md the contents of the cave still much as they were some 2-4 years agoQ Kagl (the ownor) informed us that there had been a number of European :visit.ors, in pre.ceding. coup.le of monthso We returned to p,:1ri at about 6000 p., m .. Th2t_: evening the elders mentioned two other burio.l caves9 one be.iD9: V..li'..9fn ... _ .... :' (visited by Fred Parker in 1964) and an unnamed; cave south west of the
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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 249 TRIP TO GOME/1 AND NOL/-\ VILLAGES CHU/WE9 GHI.!1BU DISTRICT Kevan V\fi l.de * Over the period -6-?th -July 9 19749 Kevan and Bev Wilde9 D{ck Kn:i.:ght and Helen Wilson :visited Kairnotno9 Nola9 1;ngunga nnd Kiroro Werara cuves.. In an earlier paper Wilde (1973)9' 'r err'oneou.sly: called Kaimomo cave •. Friday night we travelled from Goroka to Ko.imomo cave via Chuave and GomoD. village: .. We set up camp in the entrance of the cave., The party proceeded to the 15 m pitch.. Bev and Helen stayed at the top of the pitch and Kevan and Dick rigged and descended on single ropes., The streo.m was down and we explore_d upstream for some 100 m when further progress was cut short by a 6 m waterfall with a huge volume of water cascading down9 making it impossible to climb without bolting a route to the right and clear of the watero The party returned to the pitch and explored downstream for about 150 m.. The stream trdvels approximately northo Again a waterfall was encountered and being short of a handline, we abC'lndoned the fall o .. The party returned to the rope and .prus.siked out.,. -The. pitch was derigged and everyone returned to the entrance -round trip nbout 2-t hourso A high water mark 15 m above the present wQter level .. Saturday morning we had a quick look at the right hand p2ssage as far as the drop into the stream., The lake which wits observed. 1:5'{ Wi Ici'e--and Watson in February9 1972 was found to be dry and. the.main chamJJer iphabited by bats.. At 10 .. 00 am .. we proceeded to Nola villagG (Leiyo.) and to Nombi ._(referred to as Noumbe incorrectly by Wilde ( 1973))" Here .Mary Jo.ne Mount(:dn wo.s working on an archaeological dig" Back to Nola where Kevan and shown Nola, sink a short di stance north of the village by one Council lcr NomanL rigged the entrance pitch with 40 rope and abseiled in over.a sharp struck bottom at approximately .33 mo He free climbed the remaining 10 m to the bottom which was blocked by surface soil ond rocks.. Dick followed .:u1d both prussiked outo Nemani then took us to Angunga sink a short distance north east of the village (10 minutes walk) .. The sink is taking a small amount of wate6 which would increase considerably in the wet season.. The stream v1as followed for zi short distance above ground and then underground for about 20 the stream then dropped vertically for a considerable dist2nce which was estimnted as about 80 m plus.. Kevo.n and Dick decided that more rope and people were required for a and hope to plan a return trip as the sink has enormous potential for depth -possibly -300 mo An outlet was not located and the . system possibly clrc:iins into Kiowa.. . .. The lccal inhabitants said that it was commonly held that both systems (Kaimomo and Angunga) are connected to Kirove cave near Fikombaru some 5 krn south west of Kaimomo cave (Gomea Village). Kirove was not visited out a of well equipped cavers to this area is warr
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250 NIU GIN I CAVER;. VOLUME 2 NUIVJBER 4 . excellent demonst:r:ation.of.lc;cc.il The ar.Q ... in the kunai when they attempt to leave the cave to feed in the evening some 19000 flying foxes were claimed to have been killed. It had9 apparently9 boen some 30 years since the last time such
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NIUGINI S:AVER VOLUME 4 charcoal with red ochre and linear geometric designs no Almost abov"::: the resurgence is a drawing of a man and his modern in <-'qpearance9 is claimed by the :i.oc l r! .t. -, 1 : r -. " _., c-;,, .. , , -1 .P F . ..ere.:.'...$ .c; a ._0lQD..L.,.i..J.Ccn ..... t. dL1..•<,..CdG,_,, L.C; tc ,.•u,c_, .. ,_ "-'v8 ,.i_(l vi1, 1 ....... c. :face., .. y'; (before the days. of aid) V.'hen 0. pig became sick t:1c 01N(ler ;it9 -the the alcove and ::rernai.n 1ivir.9 off the fle;::hJor .seyen to ten afti::::r which he would leave _ttc alcove wash <11imsg1 in :th12 river_,,_ ._i ' 3o Isiabir.:nda (not visited) ;' .. /:.. qry ;)ink reported to be located on the top of a limestono ' ';:::, distq.nce no:dh,wept of A legend relates to-a male and o. who were me::-and: had a young dapghter" Th_e two J.i ved moynta.in ncc.1.r T$iabinunda. and were (by legend), for the paintings: appear in the. caves Cind roe[< faces in. tpe ars:J.., . c tie.ight an9 _'::lOSition of some of-. the c:ruv1ings9 :it is thJ.t the yre+.e able fly up the cave walls" When the clay.ghter 9!'.GW q.'llovy<;?d {leJ. to marry a youn9 man of th2 Oiynna area and they and live ,vJj_:r:h their daughter"_ This latter part_ is probably. to explain :::he absence: of spirits since. the of the 9 sink has n< peen explored and-is not visited by 109al-p0ople n no gut9 , wh5. h is sai,d to come from the hole., Ofaft.mco;1_ Cave. . . /.,_._. ___ -'. -.t\ppro?j_mqteJy 4 k.m past south e<:tst of Sinofi v:Lllag0;; a river. levels .and Jomo for exploration., The cave j.s situ2tec1 :Ln large outc':\.DP< with _small caves. wl1ich we-r:e vi _ Information .from tents $t.'.g9ost t11c-t they h:11orphs and zoomorphs 0lso anricci.r:9 alcng .with vl.oetfv mo-::ifs9 designs? concentric_ circles and circles with v sun-rays v Tho Che'lmhr-:'T evidence . and could bo of archaeqlogicnl interQst. Conch;:;;ion . It is ::ikely th0t there are many rock ort and citve art in It is .also: i. ike 1 y that there are a large number of small. cave::.:;: on.J flff explorati or, could b0 rewarding., The cirt sites were recorJecl in. be published s6parately at a later dateo \rJi 11

PAGE 21

252 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 HENGANOFI AREA 1 o Hel iv-s Gates (Murifinka cave) 1kcess is via a secondary road that i.s located on the left and some 408 km on the Goroka side of Henganofi.5.,5 km along the road is Yohoteg2ve villo.ge and about 1 km north west of the village is HelPs Gates or, more: correctly, Murifinkn co.ve., The cave is situated in a fairly insignificant outcrop of limestone at the base of Mt.. Marunu., The cave was visited by .Kevan ReaJ and others in 1963 (Reacl9 1974) and ho.s been visited quite frequently since then.. The following is a brief Zlccount of a trip carried out by the. wr:i ter 9 Dick Kn.ight anc1 a ncwcomer9 Graham Wilson9 from New Zeo.lando We left Goroko. at 8000 a .. m .. Sunday 24th August, 1974 and drovf;) to Ysh.o:tagave village (we had had two previous attempts and could not find .it)9 walked: the:: track to Hell 9 s Gates sink and rigged it with 45 m of Kevan abseilec1 down to 2 ledge about. 20 m down and looked over the overhnng clown to 'the botto1n" Seeing the rope not reo.ch the bottom9 he climbed and prussiked out agai'n apd re-rigged the pi tch9 which is alongside a 35 m waterfall9 in two. sectionso Ke.van rE'CJ.lled that there was reportedly a sm:ill fissure cave some 400 ffi, north west of s Gates with a .25 m so we decided to go and explore tha.t first.. The entrnnce was found and the sma119 slightly wet9 river passoge was followed for. some 30 m or more where the vertical pitch was rigged with 18 m of ladder and a nylon belay .. There wns little water and the pitch was easily descended by the c.Jving party and two loca) fellows9 the total drop being some 15 m only. The bottom of the pitch brought the party into a surprisingly we'll developed stream passage which was followed for some 200 m (estimated) in a north direction (guessed)o We then found ourselves in a very lnrge chamber which was a veritable zoo. We observed very large leaches red to pin\< in colour, spiders:< cockroachcs9 tadpoles, flying ihsects and hundreds of thousahds of flying and heaps of beetle infested guanoo No specimens were collected anc.l no species were identified., The small stream joins the mainstre::tm in the northern corner of the chamber and this was followed for some 75 m or more anc1 abanclonecl when we ran out of dry ground and would have had to swim. The purty weQt bnck to the main chcutiber and went upstream along the mainstream for some 75 m or so, and in n genero.lly southerly directiono The large and impressive Hell 9 s G:;_tes cmtr("mce and wo.terfnll could bo seen and the party climbed over some exceedingly slippery rocks to the bottom of the sinko The party returned by the same route and de-rigged the ladder and ropeo When on the surface we found that the loco.l youths had de-rigged our Hell9s Gates ropes9 bagged and brought them around to the sm3ll Kind9 but dangerouso The trip took some 4-5 hours but could easily be done in half the time9 and was found to be very rewarding.. /:, return visit to survey the system is planned for the near future., • Between Hell9s Gates 0nd the small fissure is n smnll dry through cc:ive known o.s Tin Tin Bang09 and judging by the smoke blackened roof and ashy floor9 it has some archaeologicQl potenti2l.

PAGE 22

'", NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBEH 4 253 Conclusions ' Ke\Ttrn Read (Read9 . 1973). mentiohs: many and: 'some sinks in .fthii:'s:.::at"e.a:: and tfihre: b.re: n:o dO'ubt 'rrioreo The area 'is worthy: of. m6rb a:ttentibrF and:,'.ftirther'exPloration will be carried out in the REFERENCE Reads Ko ( 1973) o Some 1963 Trips to Monono9 Henganofi 9 c:rnd Chuave 9 E::istern Highlands and Chimbu Districts. Niugini Caver ..1.(3)g 77-860 * * * NGE-PELIMAT C/WE9 LOS NEGROS ISU1ND9 MANUS DISTRICT Geoff Francis 7(Lolak village is on Los Negros Island (Manus District)9 about 4 km west of Momote idrport on the Lorengau road.,. Nge-Pelimat cave hus formed in a low limestone ridge to the east of the village; entry is subject to permission by local villagerso The of the cave means fox and is quite apt, since several hundred flying foxes shelter thereo Entry to the cave is gained via a collapse doline9 containing rough9 solution pitted boulderso It is possible to climb clown into the doline on one large boulder which leans against the side.. From the base of the doline a low roofed solution leads off to the north westo The main way on is down a boulder strewn slop0 in the other directiono At the bottom is a high but no.rrow chamber7 its mud floor shows signs of periodic flc0c1ing.. A short scramble up n guano covered flowstone slope on the eClstern side gives access to another high chnmbero A rope would be needed to re2ch the floor of this chamber. The other way leads off about 3 m above flcor level 9 into a smaller chamber with well developed solution pockets. These are of flattened spherical shape, extending up to 1 m into the walls. There are also larger recesses, separnted by smooth bedrock projections. Beyond this point the cave form changes to a narrow vertical fissure9 with
PAGE 23

254 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 0 ........ 0 .. . prominent line of verticu.l jointing9 be2ring between 345 and 355 .. This has " fayqured:the develcpment of high but narrow passages, which. have been locally .. breakdown or ea lei te deposition. NGE> PELJMAT GAVE rve}1ed by iyeh d ,,.. 8"" p ; ' '•"""' . C. Son. : . a:oiJa ,.,, ""r'. . ., c. "t / ( J [h} ,,.; • i(_ •

PAGE 24

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 2 NUMBER 4 255 SPELEO PERSONJ\LITY KEVAN WILDE . . . Most cavers in dontt know each other personally-., --So in this new section we will provtde a skt;::tch oL some of the more prominent cavers around., And who. is more prominent thah the Wilde?. Kevan iHan Wilde would have it that he was }Jorn Birmingham in 19469 and after leaving school .he worked in a factory before joining the constabulary" in Birminghc:im at--the age of 19.. Two ye<'.:lrs foter h.e moved-:to the Tasrpapian ;poli.(;,e" force9 a.nd in March 1968 he joined the same establishmorit in . Here he. moved all ottei<:.fhe country before resigning iri 1973 to go on a czwing lrip., Later in 973 he joined Carpentaria Exploration Company as a geological field assistant9 this being his substantive position .. (Hairvs longer'nowadays9 by the way.,) Kevvs caving career.commenced in Tassie in 19709 and cont.inued.nt Mendi in 1970-71 o '72 must have been a good year9 for apart from becon1ing matried9 . he met Van Watson accentally in the Chimbu.. The pair joined f orqes and sb started a profitable caving pnrtnershipo Kev reckons that he about caving in th'e Chimbu., Mrso Bev Wilde might say obsessive.. Wilde anc:l . Watson scored an :impressive number of exploratory trips in the Chimbus not the le.:ist of which was Bibima., The new depth record. firmly placed PoNoQo caving in inte_rnational sbnding o i72 wets also the year prolific writing o.bility surfaceclo He has t'"' now provided .valuable cave descriptions9 as well as publicising caving. here. Hi.s ma.in.Jnteiest lies with vertical caves9 o.nd his search for tl)e elusive hole in the world Q continuoso As well as the Chimpu9 Southern and Eastern he has caved around Bereina and Madang., Kev rffayed a major role in the organization of the v73 Muller Range expedition9 a.nd to him must be given much of the credit for itssuccesso the P.,N.,Go rep for the v75 British show (vthe Porn he calls it)9 and wi.llbe in the field for. six months if the trip goes., Otherwise hevs a starter for the New Ireland expedi ti ono Vertical holes9 expeditions and writingo That leaves cave art -:a field in which.he takes a lot of interesto Kev has a number of papers behind him or in presso On present indicntions hev11 have more descriptive cave art work done shortly than any other writero It wciuld not be nice to list his vices -sufficient td stntG thtit he has his share., But one word of warningg donvt ever follow Wildevs street directions ... itvs not his forteo * * *

PAGE 25

256 NIUGINI C/\VER VOLUlVIE 2 NUMBER 4 PQN .. G., SUBSCRIBERS ro NIUGHJJ -CAVER VOLUME 2 BMN-9 ;:,G,opdqn Bl\TES9 Bob BOURKE9 Michael and Jean BOWDEN9 Nick BYVlfATER9 Jcyhn :_ COOPEH-9: -I9n, FAR1\JSVV:ORTH9 1J:irn: FRI,NCIS9_. _.()eoff GALLA$CH9 : :Har91d. GEOLCGICAL r.SUIWEY HoQ" GIDDING.S9 Rick HOLDSWORTH9 David HOLLAND9 Chris KIOC/-\ID9 Peter and Di KIDD9 David LEADLEY9 _ Allan and Muriel l\!JAYDERRY9 Mike MEIER9 Hans • MIEGAL9 Daryl MOUNT Mu ry..,. J KNIGHT9 Dick NOONE9 Mike" NUM9 David __ PARKER 9 F:te d, PUBLIC L IBHAHY READ9 Kev BYJiN9 Neil SANDERS9 Bill SPHOD9 Tim STIDIK9 Jeff VAN AMSTEL9 John WILDE9 Bev and Kevan PoOo Box 4259 Port Moresbyo (Public Service Board) PoOo Box 3169 Mt" Hagen., DoAoSoFo 9 Kerav9to. _ PoOo Box 3769 Wiri_ $erviC0$9 Po Oo Box 6789_. Wewako Vudal field Station9 ; PoOo Box I;:la Mptors9 Po Oo Box 7129 , Rabaul Papitalai High School9 P.,Oo_Box 1469 Manus.I DoAoSoFo 9 KeravaL Eal1'1oBo PoOo. Box 7789 Moresbyo . Po Oo Box 623 9 Goroka., _. (Land$ Depa:rtment) . PoOo Box 45059 Universityo (Chemistry Department}:---Malabunga High School9 Po0o9 Rabaulo Law Faculty9 PoOo Box :48179 DoAoSoFo 9 PaMoBo 9 BuVUSSi9 Kimbea , Malmaluan Trar'ning Centre9 P" Oo, Box 90., RabauL Cox Johnston & Co. 9 Po Oo Box 1739 Habaul:o P oOo Qox ,73 9 Panguna o ( Bougciinvil le. Co:pr)er Ltd .. ) . Vudal Agriculturo.l Col lege9 .Keravato E.,NoDo Anthropology Department9 Po Oo Box 48209 Uni ver:sity c ,-; Goroka High School9 Gorokao Law foculty_9 Po Oo Box 4817., Vni versi tyo, :. Department of Forest.s9 -P oO,, Box 50559 )3o:rokoo Wildlife Section9 DoAoSoFo 9 PoO:o Box. 2LJ;1J9 , CoDo PaOa Dox 31619 Port Moresbyo PaO., Box 59839 Boro_koo CoD,, (Lands Department) LAoL9 PoOa Box 279M;t., l-bgeno Sub-District l\mbuntLEoSoDo Vuvu High Schoo.19 00 Dox 679 RF,,_9 PoOo Box 24179 Konedobuo-C.,Do PoOa Box 419 Kuncliawao Chimbu District., (D-0AoS0Fc1:) PoOo Dox 10559 Gorokao (Goroka Technical College) OR Carpentaria Expluration Coo 9 PoOo Dox 11311 MaclangQ Last year a list of cavers and subscribers to was publishedo There were 39 cavers from 12 c1istrictso This year there are 34 individuals from 10 districts.. Of those 349 20 people were on last list crnd only 13 are in the same placeo Little wonder two czivin9 clubs have collapsecl in the sixties with such n mobile expatriate population: There is a concentration of cavers in Moresby9 Babaul and throughout the highlands9 so perhaps we should consider another go at more formal .groups? Tho i?NGCEG must be the only cc1ving group with a newsletter 9 a librc:iry 9 some gear but no f orm::d structure o END OF VOLUME 2


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