Niugini Caver

previous item | next item

Niugini Caver

Material Information

Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
serial ( sobekcm )
New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

Record Information

Source Institution:
Australian National University
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
Resource Identifier:
K26-05658 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5658 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Karst Information Portal
Added automatically

Postcard Information



This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text


Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication.


0 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 1 Niugini Q.aver is the newsletter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group. The PNGCEG is an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Volume 3 Number 1 • Price '' . Editor Typist Production of Last Number __ A_'_ February, 1975. Quarterly. 50 cents per issue. $A2.00 per annum. R. Michael B,01;1.rke ,;, D .A .S .F., Keravat, East New Papua New Guinea. Jean Bourke Michael and. Jean Bourke and Jim Farnworth Toktok Bilong Eclita Olsem Wanem Long Bihaintaim? ••.••••.••.•.•••••••••• 2 Membership of the Austrnlian $peleologicul Federation •.•......•..•••••••• 2 Iaro River Cave, Southern Highlands District. Howard M. Beck • • . . . . • . .. • • • I+ T11e New C:QP-tributors •.. . • • . . . . . .. . • • • . . . . . . . .. • . . . . . . . .. • . . • . . • • • • • • . • . • • . • 5 More Caves .of the Lelet Plateau -New Ireland. Kevan A. Wilde ••...•... •. • 6 Subscriptions to Niug,;:ini Caver • • . • • • • • . . . . . . . • • . . . . • • • . . . . . . • . . . . • • • • • • • • 12 The Caving Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . . . . . . . . 13 11Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 1973". Reviewed by Iial Ga]_lasCh ••••• . • •.•.••.•.••.......•.•••.•••••.••••• . • • • . . • • . . . . • • • • • • • 1 5 Correction Niugini Caver 2(4) ••.... .... . . . • . . • . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . 16 An Approach to the Establishment of National Parks in Papua New Guinea. M .... ,. A 0 H.ill .. '. •. • • • . • • . • . . • • ..• .. • • • • . • • • • • • • • 0 • qi • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .• • • • • • •. .. • • • • • • 1 9 Speleo Personality-: Jim Farnworth ........................................ 20 Further Discoveries in Obungerrun Cave, New Britain. Jim Farnworth ••••••. 21 Be Cave, Madang District. R. Michael"Bourke . • . • . . . • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . • . • 22 The Aggtelek Cave System of Hungary and Czechoslovakia .•.....••..•.•.•••• 22 Overseas Subscribers to Niugini Caver' volume 2 •••••• H ................... 24 \.f v '' I\ i\ /",;" Jim F.srnwort.h tald1'.lg n. survey reading in .Singoinga cave on the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain. He is using a Suunto clinometer to measure the inclinu.ti.on of the traverse line. Photo by Mic}?.ael Bourke


2 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 TOKTOK.B110NG EDITA oLSEM WANEM LONG BIHAINTAIM? Or, in other words, what is the future of caving in Papua New Guinea? ' Caves are jJnportant to many village people as spiritual places, as hiding places and shelters, and burial and art. sites and as sources of water and food ... But caving as an. orgqpized sport has mainly been an activity for expatriates. Of many New Guineans explore caves for the sake of exploration, but in general they do not "push" the cave nor do they record their activity in writing., MO'st

Pho 92 1263 NIUGINI CAVER N E W G U I N E A D I S P 0 S A L S P90" Box 71? RADAUL" PAPUA NEW GUINEl\o (Advertisement) 92 TI 31 ah. ARMY2 NAVY9 /UR FORCE MILITARY SURPLUS MERCHiiNDISE Ex: Aust o Army J /Green Shirts New-used condition Sizes 11" $5000 3.00 All cotton Knife Fork Spoon 3-piece combination set. Aluminium Alloy non-rusing 65c set used condition Army Steel Dixie. Good/used condition . 95c Khaki Webbing Haversack 13 x 13" x 4" New $5.50 Convas Typo as above Plus 2 Front Pockets Rings for Tying on $5 .. 50 new J /Green Basic Pouch New 65c J/Green Cotton Trousers Thigh Pockets for extra item storing Size 26" -34" $1 0 50 ""." $ 2 0 50 Army Slouch Hat Good condition Puggaree $6.50 .. $1.50 Cotton Drill Shorts Used and New Sizes 24" 42" . Khaki9 Navy2 J/Green2 White Australian Giggle Hat $1.75 J3lack Leather Ex-Army Boots Repaired as Necessary $6050 $8 .• 50 Vinyl Poncho New $5.50 303 Bayonette As new with Scabbard $13.95 Without $11 5 9 x 7 9 _ Vi ny 1 Groundsheets or Sun Covers $2 .. 50 only Webbing Straps Large Assortment Blanket Straps9 Padded Harness9 Spiders, All Complete 50c to $1o50 Good used and some new condition Webbing Belts Australian $1.80 U .. S .. Pistol Type $1.50 Good/used coridi t.ion Nylon Mosquito Nets Ex Army 72" x 36" x 3611 As New $7w.50 Drop Nylon Net 36" x 7211 x 7211 Drop New $5.-.00 WE M/1NUF11CTURE TARPAULINS AND HAVE A REPAIR SERVICE PRICES QUOTED DO NOT INCLUDE POSTAGE OR AIRFREIGHT WRITE ,\ND ASK FOR DETitILS OF OUH FULL DISPOSAL RANGE * * *


4 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 I.ARO RIVER CAVE, SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS DISTRICT Howard M. Beck The Iaro River cav$,:::knQ:wn:::::J:.o .... thE3._ 1.q.c:a;I.s" .. in the gorge of the Iaro River in the Southern Highlands District at an alt-itude of approximately 1500 m a.s.l. The nearest village is Pulupare south west. It is reached by following the track to Quari from the Ialibu to Kagua road. Neil Ryan was the .. .first:-.cav.er_tQ __ .rep,o:r:t thi.8 eripn.no1.:1.s.cave. He visited it about five years ago while working ir1 a..s. a kiap (Ryan, 1974). Roy Blackham and I met up with Neil in Mt. Hagen and started caving with him. The first in October, 1974 Roy, Neil and his wife Janet, two PoID.Irlf noncavers Pulupare .. eigrrt;. .dr;iving. We arranged iers.the-.:.llo:wing morning to carry Roy's cine gear down the gorge. Roy was going to do a film for publicity back in the U .K. --.. ......... . At Tobiu something like 3000-4000 cusecs (85-113 cumecs) was thundering from an entrance 55 m high by at least 24 m in width. (See map) We immediately abandoned .any-ideas' of exploring this, th$_ C.J.l:)?!'.e:t1t. __ force of the river was -tremendous -and it was bending huge trees j nmmed in the river . Howeve.;r, up: tothe left, above. a -6 m climb another large entrance was seen. A large passage led from here around an oxbow to join the river passage at roof level: about 30 m in. From here a very impressive and._ yielded views of the river 45 m. below'. . . A side passage, pointed out by the locals who came with us, led to a few hundred feet of large boulder passage, some of it extremely welL decorated. . : . Thes\3 led ... even*'ually to an upper the gorge. .. traverse of cave filming en route, then Roy returned via the upper entrance while_+ recbvered the ropes from the climb. On the way back Roy passed many more Cave en:crance s, any ot ... wh:l9h .. 0.9:1Jld .. .. tl'le .. .. • ... ' lack of time forced us to abandon thoughts of further exploration Dr survey ........ _ We are hoping to return to carry out a high grade survey and explore the many other entrances. We understand that the sinks not very far up the: . gorge, but the size of the entrance makes one' boggle passage .. IIDlst be_ like.. . . : : . REFERENCE .... ,,, : '-'.: ' Ryan, Neil ( 1974). Some Caves in the Erave, Kagua v.nd Kutuou Areas of ..... the Southern Highlands and Gulf Districts. Niugini g(1): 142-146. c/o British Expedition, Sub-District Office, Telefomin, W .S .D., P .N .G.


o ;.-. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 5 Q 0 .,, t:t .. ,,,,,,e, _____ _ 0 t So t..f.. le \ ..... '"."•l .... .. THE NEW CONTRIBUTORS Howard Beck is a member of the Craven Pothole Club in the U .K. He came. to P .N .G. in '74 to prepare for the British Expedition later this yea:r. He has been living in Mt. Hagen, and is the Australian liaison for the trip.. Previous expeditions have been to Norway. Mike Hill was the assistant superintendent of the Kosciusko National Park in N .S.W., which the Ya.rrangabil:cy-and cavi.rig areas, before becoming the director of the P .N .G. National Parks Board in 1973. He has done some caving in N. S. W., but is not keen on caving in undeveloped caves. Jim Farnworth is an ex Yorkshire caver .who around Europe and Australia as well as the U .K. 'Qefore coming to Bougainvi,lle in In P .N .G. he has been caving on Bougainville1 New Britain and New Ireland. *** J


.. .,. . 6 NIUGINI CAVEH VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 MORE CAVES OF THE LELET PLATEAU -NEW IRELAND Kevan A. Wilde Vi}}hz the elet?n You might say. Well, after Mike Bourke and Alan Ke]J_er had a look they thought it might be worthwhile fielding a major eJs..'"Pedition in July-August of this year. So, whilst at the A.S.F. Conference in Brisbane, we hod talks with various interested parties and decided to have another look, but further east and at a higher altitude than Mike and Alan had gone. Actually. the idea of anbther "recce" was conceived a long time ago., .but we needed some .... ti.1ing to talk about beer in the evenings. Anyway, Jim F"arnworth and I weI"e asked to have a look, and we did. The aims were to. collect as much data as possible on effluxes, location of ca:Ves, attitudes of localpeople, to select o.n nirdrop zone, to find "going" caves and to get futo the "highri country north. ea.s-t of Limbi....-1 village • . Qin:. Trin. Jim and I flew from Rabaui in an Aztec on the 1 Oth J onuary 1975, and took a bus from Namatanai to Dalum on .'the north. east coast. (See map) We met a medical orderly there who kindly let us sleep in the aid post.. Dalum is nc:;d to the Dalum River which is an efflux, but more of that later.: We spent tuo day9 trying to _find someone to carry for us, but no one was interested. . H0wever we made use of our _time by. inspecting a number of effluxes along ;the :. . .we were kindly showi: by Jim Grose :nd ex M.H.A\ .. r.iifluJtes were observed at Kimidan, M.alum Pass, Kam1r1ba No. 1, K_p.rri1r1ba No. 2, Lasigi, Da:;Lum, and Pum Hill •. More are reported to at Lemeris ,. which is reputed to be a very large. flow, at Katingan Aid Post, Pulalogin and Bulu. It is also reported that there are fresh water seepages along the beaches and resurgonces out at sea. Flows. of. those observed by us .. varied from about 1 cumec to 8 .. {.gU.estimated) nnd are reputed to flow at a stronger rate when there heavy .tqin on the. plateau. , The second at the Aid Post Jim and I went and had.-a look at the efflux which was resurging from coralltne limestone about 200 m upstream from the rnnin road. Jim went back later with a torch and followed the stream for about 15 m but it was getting tight so he left it for later. That night (the 11 th) Jim nnd I decided to give the idea of porterage a miss and to carry the gear up ourselves. Next day we walked to the beginning of the Dalurn-Limbin track set off. Ths first 600 m (in altitude) consisted of terraces in coralline-type limestone were spaced vertically at 50 m intervals.... N6 major sinks or depressions it.Jere observed below this altitude (not many above either). Between 600 m and 900 m the mo.rphology changed to cone karst and the limestone became more like the reol thing. The bush, until this altitude, had been typ:Sjl,cal rain forest, but grasses and bracken were predominant at the 900. m _level (induced grasslDnd caused by burning off). The track continued by traversing cones and avoiding 6.epressions until we reached Limbin (about 900 m a.s.L}. Time .taken from Dalum 1.Jas about 5 hours carrying 25 kg packs. A fit person with no gear could do it :Ln about hours. Just north east of Limbin we o:hserved a suitable airdrop site. -it P.O. Box 1055, Goroka, P.N.G.


tEtET PLATEAU*""' NEV IRELAND. CovncrfJ. (fnset) ===. :; ..... 1_'


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NTJNBER 1 . At Limbin we met a guy called Ger.son (an ex policema1l Md a friend of Kevan' s) and a fellow by the name of Tihoti Benjamin and his brother Pastor Edward. Tihoti and Edward were most helpful and the people were .full of genuine hospitality and friendship. A house and food were immediately provided and I explained the purpose of our visit. We also met Samuel Gevo who is an elder and cultural leader of the Limbin people. The rest of the day was spent discussing the area and finding out if there were any ct1ves in the vicinity. We also established that the 11high0 country was called Putbiliko. . The following morning (i1onday 1 Jth) we were taken to Lemetrakabit cave (132) a little under a kilometre east of the village which turned out to be a relatively small cave in an 80 m deep doline with an entrnnce at 900 m a.s.l. The cave was taking a small stream and developed in a northerly direction with the limestone dipping at about 1 o0 • There W[\S about 60 m of passage and an 8 m verticD.l drop into a collapsed shaft with water seeping through the debris .at the bottom,.: No go. Vfe then went to La.ram cave (133) which 1tJaS situated about 1 }zm: the Limbin-Bunaring walldng track with thE? entrance in the south west co;rner cif a large doline. The cave was small .and collapsed in nature and not worth further exploration. To the left of L.33 was a small dug-out cavity used to .hide from .the Japanese in World War II. . After lunch we weht to Latkiang cave ( 134) . ,about 1 . 5 towards 'Dalum from Limbin. This cave was situated in a doline with a small stream flowing over the edge of a 5 m VE:;rtical drop. into [L 'chamber. There if?., a drop of about 10 m into a collnpsed shaft, and a. ?trike passage of abo11t 15m :in length thqt developed into a squeeze ta"k:ing It may go. The entranceis 820 m a.s-.1. We left the area and :returned to Limbin a little disheartened-. We had young village lads -to show us the tracks so we decided to head for the 11liigh" country the following morning. . Tuesday the 14th. Jim discovered that he had left his. ncloggervt'-at Latkiang cave, so he set off to retrieve it and I.went to LirnbinSink (135) a short distance south west of Limbin village, which turned out to be choked with debris. Nearby is' a spring that supplies tl)e village with water in the dry season. Jim re'turned and we set off for Kanambu cave (136) which is about 1 km along the Putbiliko (high country) track and a short distance along a right hand fork. The entrnnce was at 900 m a. s. L; the cave dropped about S m along a .sloping floor and was taking a small stream that sumped. No go. Our guides then showed us the way to a smalJ_. hunting hut o:ri the foothills of the "highH country; we were now about 3 km north east of Limbin village. (See map) We co-ld see the edge of PutbiJ_iko ,and tried, in vain, to find the track. So we dumped our packs in the hut and started cutting our way through the .' reigrowth (Uggbh) in a generally north easterly direction. ,After about three hours we were on the edge of our target at approximately 1100 m. q.. s .1. The : place looked really depressing, and as usual it was I? dmm with nain, ;and we decided to give it a miss and go back to It took us about 20 :ntlnutesto. walk back to the the usual 1z5 P .N. G. cutting ratio). We then cut our way down into a . depression to the south east of the hut (unnumbered)) but found no penetrable cave system; by this stage we were fed up with cuttipg tr.acks and getting nowhere •. Back at the hut we decided that we should have ':, another go at the Uhigh" country, so we sent our little guid,esbMk to timbin


NIUGINI VOLUME .3 NUMBER 1 with the rope and caving gear as we planned to travel light and as fast as po:ss ible whilst looking at the potential. of dolines between cones. The following day it took us 36 minutes to walk back up the 200 m on to the edge of Putbiliko. We cut, in a north westerly direction, across the top of the ridge and traversed north easterly down the side ch,ecking out four dolines as we went (137, 38, 39, and 40). The first three did not "go" at all whilst 140 was a definite sink with a shaft and looked as though it might "gon (the preceding three were blocked by red clay) • We continued cutting in a north easterly direction to two sinks single depression (141 and 42). 141 is a possible 11goer0 , but rock sounding gave the distinct impression of a mud floor. It was getting late into the afternoon and raining heavily so we set up camp between the two sinks and then set off in a north easterly direction to the top of a ncone" at an altitude of 1200 m. The area was shrouded in low cloud and we could not see much, but we had the distinct impression of being on the edge of a big drop which we thought might be the beginning of the drop-off to the coast. 9 A few things about the "high" countey:The area is cone karst in nature, or no exposed limestone and when it is exposed it is highly fractured (no d; contributing. to the features) • The bottoms of the dolines were genera:J_ly at an altitude of 1150 m and the cones are generally 50-100 m higher •. A characteristic of the area is collapsed shafts and blockage by debris and red clay transported off the sides of the cones into the depressions. There is no surface drainage whatsoever and the bush is thick, being the usual rain forest type on the and a solid mass of vegetation in the depressions. Between the cones valley-tJipe depre.ssions which are closed off by small saddles which connect the. adjacent cones and it is here that the .water usuaJiy sinks. Jim and I found that the depressions and sinks seem to get progressively deeper further int.o the "plateaun and that the valleys, and cones, are linear in nature (that is, . travelling in lines) • ; That night it poured down with rE\in ( as usual) and continued t.o do sp the next day (Thursday 16th). Jim and I started walking back:at 0745. hours. was still raining heavily and we were impressed by the amount of, water sinking into the depressions and shafts that we had located the day before. We had previously thought that the clay could be very porous and that the water merely percolated down into the limestone, but it was gushing along nnd sinking _at the . saddles. The fact that this must have been happening on the whole of the Lelet struck home and that there must be incredible volumes of water gathering underground. We marked the track that we had cut the day before.whilst walking out, arriving at Limbin at 1100 hours after a short rest of thirty minutes at the hut. It had only taken 2f hours to walk the whole That afternoon Jim and I attended the opening of the new United Church building at Limbin, the. accompanying ceremonies were both Christian and tradit ional with services and choirs, traditional dancing and "tumbunns11• About twenty pigs and tonnes of taro were cooked 11mumu11 .style with bananas and scraped coconut as ... as. We were given a goodly :f>Ortion of. pig, taro and barnmas which we ate with relish (best lunch of the trip). The dancing, singing and eating (plus some drinking) went on into the night.


10 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 The next morning, the 17th, Jim and I decided to walk to Lenkamin village and have a look at Mike• s breathing cave (131) (Bourke, 1974). We left Limbin at o645 hours with enough food and gear for two days and a reasonable hole. We stopped at Lat be be hamlet on the way where we met .. Lakuna, Mike' s former guide, who told us that the "Hol i gat win" was closer to Latbebe than it was to Lenkamin, so we decided that it would be goo<.l if .Iie could act as guide. This he agreed to do. (The walk from Limbin to. ]jatbebe had taken 45 minutes through regrowth and gardens; the track ho.d Q'ontoured its way round cones and down into the odd depression; but only one on the south west side of the track, a large doline with exposed limestone cliffs, looked as though it had potential.) We ascertained that Meruklu cave (131) was situated a little further on from Lowasama h.amlet and we set off with Lakuna. We arrived there, after about 25 minutes walk, and met an elder by the name of who is said to know many caves in the area ancl who, in turn, introduced us to Sition Lasiong who said he would accompany us for the day and show us around caves, including Meruklu. We walked in an easterly direction, fpr about 20 minutes, tmtil we arrived at a large doline where we were shown a small cave entrance at the bottom of a very small and collapsed sink. The entrance was immediately followed by a crawl for about 10 m, a wet squeeze that bee rune tight and a duck with breathing space. A strong draught was coming through the cave and it should be worth revisiting in the dry season.. A very short distance tq the east is a second hole (L31a) of the same name which also has. a strong a tight entrance and a series of squeezes but is still going. Both these cayes, presumably because of the wind are said to be inhabited by "tambarans" •. A short distance east of Meruklu is . Kabotlabangabang ( 143) which consists of a free climb down a 5 m shaft, a crawl, a traverse over a deep pool, a short climb and a large collapsed chamber with a possible high level passage. The floor of the chamber .is covered with collapse material, silt and guano with a crawl-way through a hole which sump's after about 5. m. Worth looking at again in the dry season •. Just east of 142 is Kabotlabangabang No. 2 (144) which is a good looking shaft of about 12 m that drops into quite a large, collapsed chamber with a mud seep in the floor; some of the water, however, diverts down a small passage which deteriorates into a squeeze with, water. It was raining heavily at the time so we decided that it should be left for the dry season. A possible n gQ:;r". From Kabootlabangabang (got it in again) we. went to Kanembigin (145) which, sadly, was our last hole on the Lelet. The cave is situated about 1 5 minutes walk south west of Lowasama and is a good clean 15-20 m vertical shaft with a crawl-way leading off the bottom. At the time of exploration it was taking a lot of water and we decided to leave it as the rain was getting worse. At the top of the shaft, at the rear of the entrance, is a high level muddy squeeze that opens out into a second shaft with a sloping mud floor. The cave. was by far the best we had seen and definitely worth a return visit. All cave entrances in this area were at about 950 m a.s.l. The Latbebe-Lowasama area differed in three major ways from the Limbin-Putbiliko area; the.first being the presence of black humic soils and the second that the dolines had grike-like structures between them which we believed indicated cave development. The soils in this area are porous and easily washed away and this could be significant. There ff


NrLJGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 11 was also more exposed and less fractured limestone. third most obvious was that the caves were more developed. Jim and I had a long talk with the people at Lowasama and they informed us that there were many more holes in the area and that higher up in the mountains towards the south was an area called which they claimed had shafts. They also informed. us that the. area had many walking tracks used for hunting. We cquld see the beg:Lnnings of Tumbumpo from and it looked very broken and quite impressive •. As it was still light we decided to return to Limbin. We there just before sunset and made ourselves comfortable for the night. _ The Jno:iming of the 18th saw us heading down the track, townrds Dalum, . a , . little sad at lef}ving such fine people and a little disappointed that we had not found any really deep caves. As usual it was pouring down with rain, but it only took us 2 hours 45 minutes to Dalum. When we arrived we had a good clean. up. i11 the refreshing waters of the River after which we went over the road to Ron Smith' s place, a gu..y we had met the previous week, and he took us to Lamerika plantation where we met Dave Larkin •. Dave has .a keen interest in caves and diving and he told us that there are freshwater resurgences out to sea along that part of the coast. The following day Dave took us to Buangmeriba cave which i.s located a short . distance. north of Konogusgus village at the rear of the' plantation. The entrance to the cave faces to the west (estimated) nnd leads into a dz:y chomber some' 20 m long and 1 5 m wide with. virtutlly no decoration with the <:;xceptfon of a centrally plaqed _ chamber is located behind .the. first ond is con nected by ... a--short .crawl-way. The chamber is partially collapsed ond has ahopen roof. In the centre is a structure of stones and wood sa.ic1 to be used in rnin making ceremqnie s. Silhouetted and stencilled , :Ln'red c]_ay crcotl appear qn the walls and ther0 are:.-.. ",.Th?ttitiai chamber is collapsed with almost no roof at cll _and is the roopt for flying foxes and bats. caught .the bus to Namatanai that D.fternoon and stayed the night with Rod Oweris, a and his wife. On the morning of the 20th '-we .flew back t_o RabaUi a:rici'had i'.in evening with R.M.B. discussing the trip and the proposed expedition. Conclusions. Although the trip was not productive in terms of deep caves much valuable information and data were collected that should prove to be very useful to the July-August expedition. Jim and I crone tcJ the opinion thD,t the expedition should concentra:te firstly on the Lenkamin area where Mike Bourke. and Alan Keller explored three. shafts which were still. going at over 30 m (Bourke, 1974)! Attention should also .be given to the Lowasama area and TUl!lbUmpo should be systematically explored. The Limbn area may support" deep caves., ;QUt;On the -evidence available, it is.doubtf\:tl; ' Although and depressions visited were rx1pre often than not blocked by de br•is and alluvial. clay, Putbiliko warrants preferably by a number of lightly equipped parties. The fact that there is almost no surface _drainage on the Lelet qnfl so

12 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 caves, however, may not develop near the surface and altitude may have to be sacrificed in order to penetrate them • . There are two major faults (see map) and many minor ones (Holmen, 1970) on the Lelet. The two main ones are accessible from the LenkaminLimbin area and these should be explored as there are quite large resurgences wherethey join the coast at Lemeris and in the region of Kimidan respectively. It is interesting to note that at least three of s deepest caves, Bibima (..;.494 m) (Wilde and Watson, 1973), Kanada HeiowaHeia in' the Muller Range (-314 m) (Montgomery, 1974), and the Hole ( -170 m) (Wilde, 1973), exist on faults. A further argument for .: concentrating on the faults is that the drainage is probably selective and there may be sufficient. flush the caves out. 1 There is no doubt, then, that the potential for deep caves is there, but the problem is locating one that is not blocked by debris and/or clay. In the final analysis it will be a matter of luck and systematic surface exploration in finding an entrance that gives access to a large system. REFERENCES Bourke, R. Michael ( 1974). Some Caves of the Lelet Plateau, New Ireland.. Niugini Caver g(3): 212-221. Holmen, P. D. (1970). Geology of New Ireland. Bureau Mineral Record 1970/49. Unpubl. Montgonery, lfoil. R. (1974) .-Cave Mo.rB anc1 Descriptions in 'Jnoes, Julia M. (Ed.) Pu1:ma New Guinea Exnedition NSRE 1972 S.R.C.pp. 39-54. . Wilde, Kevan and Watson, Van ( 1973) • Bibima Cave, Porol Escarpment, Chimbu District. Niugini Caver 1( 1): 2-9. Wilde, K • .A. ( 1973). The Hole, Porol Escarpment, Chimbu District. Niugini Caver 1(3): 67-69. . ... ""•' : :' :;,, ' :. , :' ::.,: .. ::::"" ; : .: .. ,:., ... ,:.:.,_,.,: . . . ... .. . . . " ... In the last issue it was announced that subscriptions would be raised to $3 per annum for Volume 3 ( 1975), because the magazine has been running at a substantial loss. A has been discovered and it is now known . a pFofit of about $46' was made ror 197 4. Hence there is no need to increase the subscription rate, and it will remain at $2.00 -per annum. .Anyone who has overpaid will have the excess credited to them. Legal action is being planned against the newsletter's accountants, provided certain technical difficulties can be overcome. Thanks for your continued support. The Editor . "


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 , Two themes reoccur in this issue' s scene. One is that caving has restricted by the wet season which is particularly pronounced this year. The other is summarized in a line from Geoff Francis: nrt Is a real problem being ' the oniy speleo here. u A.S.F. Bev and Kev Wilde and Jean and Michael Bourke represented P .N. G. at the conference. Kevan and Michael presented papers on the rock art of Aibu,ra cave and, pseudokarst caves of the Gazelle Peninsula respectively. We in the' speleo sports7 with a little help from some' Austral:i-a.p cavers. who are veterans of P .N .G. expeditions, and managed to put in the .second, best time for the course. Not bad considering the number of bottles of cider, consumed beforehand. After the conference we went on the field trips to Mt. Etna-Limestone Ridge in Central Queensla.YJ.d and Chillagoe west of Ca.irns .. Bougaimrille. Hans Meier writes: The caving scene here is still g:oing slow, although prospects are improving. Local starters are hard to we (Abraham Yombon and Hans) went out to Nenduma in mid-November .dur::L.Yl.g a Tull in the wet weather. We placed a nurn.ber of polystyrene blocks in an attempt to water levels during wet After t}?.e which ones have been washed away. The next thl11g is to get practice in p.bse1I111g and prussiking. Once we have some experience with ropes we cmi tackle openings in the cl?-.ff f.ace at Boromai. I don't expect to go into the lower areas of Nenduma until after due to the chonce of flooding. British EJ92,edi tiono The British Sports Council have given $S, 500 for the trip. This is in addition to the $1,500 from the Everest Foundation and the each member must put up. The Royal Geographical Society has yet to come good, although money has been promi.s.ed. Howard Beck and Kev Wilde go into Telefomin and the Hindenburg Range in as nn advance party whilst Roy Blackham stays in Hagen to organize the main party in. The main party plus vast quantities of cargo fly to Singapore in May courtesy of 'the R.A.F. and then they will probably get a boat to Madang. The organizing committee has selected the following target areas: 1.. Hindenburg Wall, Ranges and Plateau 2. Lake Vivien in the Star Mountains 3. Lake Kopiago area 4. The head1tTaters of the Stricklruid River: Eastern Dick Knight recently visited a rock art site at Nambaiufa while Rick Giddings writes that he has visited a few of the more accessible caves in the Eastern H?-gl1lands. East New School trips to the Iuvare ca:-ves are becoming :fashion able. In November, Chris Holland nnd other teachers. from Malabunga H.S. took a total of five groups of students out to the caves., Chris has found a few new caves at Malabunga.


14 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 In December Michael Bourke and im __ Farnworth visited Obungerarn cave in the Bainings Mountains. (See report this issue.) The surveying trip turned into an exploration one .after -.a.series of duck-unders were pushed to reveal more passage. Exploration was stopped by. a 6 m pitch. The cave is getting quite deep now, being at least 500 m long and 100 m deep. The new road to Malasaet village means that it is possible to visit the area in a two day weekend -but preferably not . in the middle of the wet Manus. In January Geoff Francis managed to survey six caves, the being Pumpulyun (1250 m) which he negotiated in a canoe. Apart from the rain, Geoff has been experiencing difficulties with the villagers. As the mining companies have been working there, villagers expect payment for showing you around, even if_ there's no carrying involved. On one occasion he paid a. bloke $2 to show him over a. cave, only to have the "guide" refuse to go inside because he was afraidt Muller Range E?ffiedition. Yet an..other expeditiont Julia James and Neil Mont gomery planning a return trip to the Mullers in July-August 1976 .-Another joint Au.stralian-P.N.G.-New-.Zealand effort seems to be in the making • . New Ireland Expedition. In Janu,ary Jim Farnworth and Kev Wilde did a tenday trip to the Lelet Plateau for further reconnaissance for the July.,.August expedition. The caving was a bit disappointing because of very wet. conditions .. Nevertheless they further worthwhile areas as well as finding an air drop site and making a number of contacts on the coast and the plateau .. They .also obtained other ne&ded information on effluxes, accommodation, transport etc. (See report tl'lis issue.) Walking ,time in from the nearest is only six ho1?:I's. The expedition itself is falling into shape. Two meetings were held in Brisbane and one at Chillagoe to thrash out plans. At this stage there are about 15 potential starters from Qld., N.S.W., Tas. and N.Z. The trip will be in the field for a bit under a month. Michael Bourke is the leader and Lex Brown from Brisbane the co-leader. Southern Highlands. There has been little activity up this way since the 1973 Muller Range expedition. However in October, Howard Beck, Roy Blackham and Janet and Neil Ryan did a trip to the impressive Iaro River cave. (See report this issue.) Howard's reported 85-113 cumecs is a bit hard to believe (perhaps, 10 cumecs?), but it must be one of the most impressive river caves around. Cavers. As always the expatriate caving population is on the move. Spme of last year' s movements were as follows. Ian Cooper returned from study leave in England and transferred to Mt. Hagen; Jim Farnworth shifted from Bougainville . to Rabaul; David Hcldworth is on study leave in England for a year; and Chris Holland has moved to Lae. The Kidkaids and Mike 1lavt3 gone :fin:ish from U .P • N. G. and Alan Keller has again returned .to Australia. New arr:i.1/afs are Geoff Francis on Manus and Malcolm Pound in Moresby. Van Watson is now studying to become a "draiva bilong balus11 in N.Z. and he and his wife ( !) are managing a fair bit of caving and climbing, it appears. R.M.B.


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 15 np APUA NEW GUINEA SPELE.OLOGICAL EXPEDITION NSRE 1973 11 Reviewed by H. Gallasch "To the. deepest hole in the wO'rld n. This was the theme of the 1973 Niugini Speleological.Research Expedition, the record of which has recently been presented by the Speleological Research Council Ltd. publication Y.1Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 197311• Whereas in many countries the emphasis has turned from exploration to conservation,. ;the quest to explore still prevails in the ambitions of many people as evic1.enced by periodic reports bearing captions such as the above. In recent years the eyes of many ardent cavers have turned towards Papua New Gui.11ea. Even those areas of the country that are relatively well known have an exotic appeal to the outsider. When he is a caver and hears reports of virgin. country, huge dolines, large rivers that disappear underground and efflux many kilometres away, and most tempting of all, the.huge depths of limestone up to 2000 mthick in high rainfall country, his curiosity and enthusiasm is irrepressible• This may result in a group of dedicated enthusiasts organizing_an "expedition". There have been previous speleological expeditions to P.N.G., but some have lost part of th0irvalue by being poorly documented• No published com prehensive reports are available of the 1965 Australian Star Mountains Expedition or the Japanese expedition to the Chimbu and Southern Highlands in. 1971. Not so .. with the 1 973 expedi tiofi to the Muller Range. A collection of informative articles by various members covers the whole range' of expedition activities. Caving in P.N.G. involves rather more than the.visiting speleo is accustomed to. Apart from a few favourable areas in the Chimbu, Eastern Highlands and on New Ireland, and near some of the major population centres, access is a major problem. Some of the most prdmising areas of limestone are in fact completely uninhabited and virtually unexplored. There is no access to these areas but by walking; often making your own track as you go, except perhaps by helicopter. Once you are on foot in the rainforest, on the limestone at an altitude of 2000-3000 m where the rate of travel may be only a few kilometres a day, where there 'is at times-continuous rain but rio surface water, and where the field of vision extends perhaps 40 m into the m.oss laden forest, you begin to realize some of the difficulties as.sociated with caving in P. N •G. In fact without a formidable amount of pre-trip organization, it is unlikely any caving at all could be attempted. After the initial planning a preliminary trip or at least a good aerial reconnaissance using aerial photographs is essential in delineating obj-ectives. Then comes the onerous task of organizing transportation of people and supplies. As final access is by walking, supplies must . either be air.dropped or brought in by carriers. This then raises problems '6f'rect'Uitmerit," communications with the carriers and maintenance of their well being. The supply. of sufficient food often becomes a major organizational objective. Adequate medicol supplies first a.d knowledge in the _party are' ess_ential. D.A.S.F., Keravat, E.N.B., P.N.G.


16 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NU1"1BER 1 In the publication,under : @.• aspe..cts .have been adequately covered and listsa.regiv.eri for surface camping and personal and group caving gear.-: :UsefUl discussions on equipment, food and underground photography are included •. As a prelude to the section on the caves explored is an introduc-:tion to: the geology and physiography of the area. The survey of published reportsonthe area indicates how little research has in fact been done in the Muller Range. The largest section .:Ls necessarily that on the caves explored, 38 of which are recorded and described ih some detail. Al though none of them were record breakers, a depth of.' 300 m plus was reached in Uli Guria, with pitches of 45, 123 ,'' 33, 55, arid and in Kanada Jfoiowa Heia. Only in a few caves was there any significant horizontal development", but then a number of side passages remained uiexpJ,.ored. A notable e:lcqeptioh to the pothole type cave commonly encountereclwas Kmiada Atea_, a .huge rivercave.. The Atea River, estimated to: be flowing at 12 cumecs when visited, drops over a series of waterfalls into . a large . doline, . from where it could be followed into a cavern for 200 (This figure is incorrectly_ reported in the book -the survey was actually -108 m. R.M.B .') Scale drawings o.,ccompa'1y descriptions of all the more extensive caves. It is pointed out that cave depth potential is up to 2400 m. Most sections are. ills"t,rated wi tn. a variety of photographs, some quite. good but others. lacking quality and a .nur:,1Jer of candids like 11the porter's dogn which certainly add nothing to the, report. The most interesting caving shot. (reproduced on the cover) is prese1J.ted three times from different angles• But the difficulties involved in caving photography in P .N. G. are im..mense,, as all who have tried it know. The blend of factual recording and personal experiences makes :for easy reading, -however detract:lng value from the report as a scientific record. But perhaps it is too much to expect such a .record as the members. were apparently fully occupied just getting into the area and finding and exploring: caves. ' Human interest anecdotes probably have. little :Lmpact on but. certain experiences do have a value i.n presenting :Situations likely to be met by other expeditions. This report is recomiended reading_ for all . cavers contemplating explorat()ry work in P.N.G. Often speleos turn up with pre-conditio:p.edexpectations arid nonconditioned physique. Certainly can be very 'but the rewards are tremendous, not only in caving but in the magnificent country and i'nteresting people encountered. (For address for buying the book cmd price see advertisement on the opposite _p age.) CORRECTION NIUGINI' CAVER ;2;(4). In the arti:cle "Trip Reports, -Some and Notes Relating to a Number of Caves in the .Sinofi and Henganofi Areas of'.the -Eastern Highl,andsn by Kevan A. Wilde on pages 250-253 of the previous .. , the 'author erroneously ;ret' to the SONOFI area as the SINOFI area.


NEW GUINEA LAND OF CAVES IT'S ALL HERE! Reconnaissance, planning, expedition log, cave maps and descriptions, flora and fauna, physiography, geology, future prospects, area map, etc. plus over 50 photographs. IT'S NOT JUST ANOTHER EXPEDITION BOOK!! It's the first of its kind detailing the frontiers of cave and Karst exploration in New Guinea. Read abou.t the latest expedition.! ORDER FOR M NJUGINI SPELEOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPEDITION 1973 The Speleological Research Council Ltd., P.O. Box 235, Kingsford, 2032, N.S.W. Australia. I wish to receive this b o o k for the s peci a l pre -publication price (post) free of Aust$5.00 (US$7.50, UKf3.00) per copy. Name Address Country enclosed please find cheque / i n ternation a l money order for$ .. Postcode .........•...... being p ayment for . .............. copies . Also a v a ilable from the S R C L td. "The Explora t ion and Spelegeography of Mammoth Cave, Jenolan" by J. R. Dunkley. $3.00 (post free)


CAVES THROUGH THE AGES text by Julia James and Margaret Dorrell, drawings by George Hangay a 14 page colouring in book with a simple story suitable for tots and adults alike .'i'J

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 19 .AN .APPROACH TO THE ESTlillLISHMENT OF NATION.AL PARKS IN P .APUA NEW GUINEA M. A. Hill scepticism is frequently expressed by many .People as to the chances .. Na,tional .. Park .. Guinea. One thing is certain -that the conventional approach to NatiO'nal Parks .. a,s represented by countries such as U .S.A., Australia and New Zealand will have little success in Papua New Guinea. It is, therefore, extremely important that a system and an approach that suit the conditions existing inthe countr,y be developed for Papua New Guinea. The main problems in the way of the conventional approach are the land tenure system and the dependence of the great majority of the population on the natural environment for the provision of food, building materials, medicines, articles of adornment etc. In. an effort to overcome these problems the National Parks Boart:l has developed its own approach. Basically the approach involves the sharing the various uses of the land concerned with the customary owners. When an . area is recommended for a national. park to the Board the proposal is fitted into the Board's list of priorities for investigation. Investigation commences with a preliminary visit by the Board 1 s investigations officer who visits the villages of the customary owners concerned and introduces the con cept of national parks and conservation and tries to explain the aims of the Board. Subsequent visits are, made: .and negotiations cormp.enced,. The number of visits required depends on the progress or lack of progress :tnthe negotiations and varies in each case. In its negotiations the Board seeks a long term conditional lease over the land required for a national park. One standard condition is that should the government ever decide that it no longer required the land for a national park then the lease would become void and ALL rights to the land 'would automatically 'revert to the customary owners. Allow;ance for a regular review of rental ( ev,ery ten years for instance) is also included in all leases. Other the lease depend upon the rights to the land which the owners wish to retain. Many of the traditional uses of the land conflict not at all with the establishment of a national park. Gathering rights, hunting rights (by traditional methods and .not shot-guns), gardening rights etc. may be quite acceptable in certain cases and the retention of these rights by the lessors will be written into the lease. On occasions it will happen that the customary owners wish are tfie establishment of a national park.. In such a case negotiations are t.erminated but the door is kept 9p.U:-fo.r ... a renewal of" discussions. at. & date. This approach has now been used in seven different areas that the Board is interested in. At Mt. Wilhelm full agreement has been reached and the establishment of a national park is ?nJ.J'de]?ende!?:"t: C>I1 .. dra\tling up of a formal lease by the Department of Lands. In four of the othersiX areas .. has been well received and considerable progress made towards a successful cbnc0usion of the negotiations. In the other two a sympathetic hearing,,was given but land pressures may well preclude any agreement being reached. P.O. Box 5749, Boroko, .. ,


20 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 _With. special refereiice -io-the eb':nservatien or cave$,_ if the ovme.rship of a cave is in direct relation to ownership of -the :land on which, the entrance is situated, then this approach will need little or no modification. _ We still way to go but we we are on the right road to the establishment of a viable and. world class_ system of national parks. A flexible and sympathetic approach to the customary owners will greatly assist the attain..;. ment of this aim. Wl:th,qut the full agreement of the customary owners there can be no effective national'parks or reserves. :SPELEO PERSONALITY JIM FARNWORTH Jim was in : in Blackburn, Lancashire in the U .L (yes, another one}. Some: 16 years later he joined the caving club in the f actocy he was doing his apprentfceship as a fitter turner. From there one caritiot write a separate n:ccou.nt of his life and caving as they _are intertwined. Two years later he graduated into the I-iappy Wanderers Caving and Potholing c;tub who i"anged' ov-er the Yorkshire. dale,s. , His first trip with them was down Gaping Ghyll which 'includes an 108 m sha.ft -:-. mi rope ladders. _ ( Tnat dates :him., doesn 1 tit).;: This s:maI.l'-group of a cavers didn't have many rtlle:s ... :but you risked .. exptilsion if you didn't go out on Saturdays and end. . .i .. In '64 Jim joined a trip to the famous Casteret 1 s Ice Caves in Spain. • From then onwardr;; he managed an nnnual trip to Europe's caves including Yugoslavia, Greece, Italy, J3ulgaria and France. In Greece he got down Proventina. and Epos. . ;. . . , . . Corne J7t_.::when a mates were going to India_, Jim decided to go as as .However plans were changed en route, and he continued on to India 1with a.nothet ca\fer.. At -this stage he didn't know what came next, so_ he bought a paperback wo:dd .atlas. A few more legs brought him to Perth where he s_ettled for a while .. :b'efore' moving on to N .S.W. Of course, he went caving in both states. At Christmas '72 the Hbalusn transferred him toBougainville where he.teamed with the resident speleo, Hans Meier. Two years later Jim moved to Rabaui.which he has used.:_as a base .f'o.r exploring the local holes and a trip to New Ireland. He is a starter for the t75 New Ireland spow. Jim's caving interests are wide, ranging from exploration, hydrology, and surveying to photogY'aPl"lY• He likes to know where_ every passage goes in: a cave, and-to account' f6r every >lE\.st cusec of water." But mainly he just likes to go caving. R.M.B.


Q. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 21 FURTHER DISCOVERIES .. IN OBtJNGER.AM CAVE2 NEW BRITAIN Jim Farnworth On the afternoon of Friday 6th December, 1974 Mike Bourke and I left Keravat for a weekend v s caving. in the Baining Mountains of the Gazelle Peninsula. We drove to Malasaet village at the end of the newly constructed road and parked our vehicle. A steep descent of' 3 50 m to the Torio River and a. climb up the other side of the valley brought us to;Alakasam village (600 m) at dusk. We spent the night in the haus kiap there. The following morning two men, Lomagar and Sakum, o.nd a school boy arrived t() guide us to Obungeram cave. Mike had visi tecl it twice before. After two hours of following small bush tracks, we descended a small valley into a shallow depression with a go cm by 2 m entrfillce in the The entrance dropped 6 m into a chamber. We descended the pitch on a rather hairy ha.'llboo pole. The pass age leading off the chamber followed the dip of the bedding. The floor was covered with large slabs which have fallen from the roof 2. 5 m or more above. These slabs occasionally reduced the passage size to a crawl, although its true width was about g m. We passed through a constriction and emerged on a balcony overlooking a chamber. Here we left our guides killing off a colony of bats Md we climbed down through the chmnber. The passage off the chamber narrowed to a rift-like passnge with a trickle of water coming out from under.the boulders and runningacross its water worn floor. The P9-Ssage changed direction at this point o.nd followed the strike. 'It lowered and narrowed into a phreatic type passage with

22 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 .,..::SE CAVE 2 l''UillANG R. Michael Bourke Be cave is located about 1 km past Yagaum Hospital some 13 km by road WSW of Madang. It is on the north side of the .road and a walk of several hundred metres from the tradestore o.t Banup is required to reach it. Peter Booth of Madnng had previously explored it and mentioned it to Kev Wilde. The villagers say that Hmanyn Europeans have visited it. Kev Wilde and I explored the cave on 6th October, 1974. The cave is located in coralline limestone. It has o. N-S orientation. It is basically a simple stream passage with a few cusecs of water flow. We entered via the efflux entrance and waded, crawled or swa.m for 250 m to where the passage branches. In places the water is over 2 m deep and in two places it became necesso.ry to go through duck-unders which were not quite sumps. Moving in the wo.ter is enjoyable, and makes a good trip. The passage is up to 4 m tall and wide, al though average dimer1sions were about half this. One hundred and fifty metres in, there is a higher level dry passage. At the brrmch 250 m in, the right hand passage is low and contains many stalactites. The water mostly comes from the left hand branch. We did not explore further because of a torch failure. As it was, we were dressed in only boots and shorts with a torch each. We also explored Wlother cave, the entrance of which is some 300-400 m upstream of Be. The entrn.nce is on influx one J and the villagers say that it. is the upstream entrance of Be. The stream passage was dry when we visited it, although pools of water were present. The cave is several metres tall and wide, and has a rocky floor. Sta::Lo.ctites reach to the floor. We only explored it for 80 m. If the two connect, passage length would be 300-400 m. In Be cove, crickets, smDll fish, spiders and bats were seen. The villagers catch bats in this and other caves. Di.,iring Wor.ld War II, the people hid in the upstremn cave and another one from Allied bombs and the Japanese. According to the villagers, there are a further two caves in the immediate nrea, giving a total of five entrances in cill. '.f-hey Glso say thu.t there are many other caves in _the general area. Because of the very easy access of these caves from Nadang, it would be good to see further explorntion and documEmtatio"n. . .? Keravat, P .. N.G. The following is extracted from a brochure on the Agctelek caves. It is published by the Tourist Office of County Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen in Hungary. This article represents the first of a series on overseas caves o.nd caving regions. The ma1n part of the system is situated in Hungary and a small part on Czechoslovak territory. The Aggtelek karstic region is bordered on the south by a flint-covered lower area that slopes towards the karstic regio;. RainfQLl sweeps along the flint -which is far more hard than limestone c2.rryirtg it down into the depths through sumps cleveJ_oped at the :limestone-border. The water covers n


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUJ:vIDER 1 23 distance of a few kilometres until it reaches the main entra:".1.ce of the cavesystem where it joins the collecting m0:in; finally, after having covered severoJ __ kilometres.underground it again comes to the surface o:t the Josva source which abounds in water, and through the rivers Bodva and Tiszn it is linked with river system of the Danube. Relics of Prehistoric Man. There are many indications that the front sections of the cave were known o.nd inhabited by prehistoric rrwn, although probably 6nly temporarily. No traces of Neanderthal mc::m. who lived during the Ice Age and is generally known as a prehistoric caveman -have so far been found in the Aggte1ek cave system; on the other hand, there are many indication::; that neolithic n:ian lived there and made tools and weapons out of bones. and stone by skilfully grinding them for this purpose. The pottery baked by neolithic man in Hlmgary bears peculiar, incised adornings. Since these pots were first found in caves in the BuJ

Download Options


  • info Info

    There are only PDFs associated with this resource.

  • link PDF(s)

Cite this item close


Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.


Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.


Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.


Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.