Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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NIU GIN :CAVER Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication. -----=---


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 25 Ni:.rqirii caver is the newsletter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group. The PNGCEG is an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea, and is an associate member of the Australian Speleological Federation. Volume 3 Number 2. Price Editor Typist Maps Production of . Last Number April, 1975. Quarterly. _50 toea per issue. K2oDD oi $A2.00 per annum. R. Michael Bouike, D.AoSoF.9 Keravat, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Jean Bourke Jim Farnworth Michael and Jean Bourke, Jim Farnworth and Harold Gallasch Contents Toktok Bil6ng Edita on the Highlands District •••••••••••• Hells Gates Cave, Henganofi, Eastern Highlands District. Kevan Wilde Editorial Note on Hells Gates Cave ••••Ooo••••••••••••o•••• Two Small Caves near Henganofi, Eastern Highlands District. RJ?ad ••+•. New Terr.itories at Henganofi, Eastern Highlands District. Jim Lynch ••••• use a.f'. Mist Nets. .. -.• :. •••..•.•••••••• o o • ., • '• •• -. •. • ... : •....................... Some Caves and Rock Shelt,ers in the Kainantu Area of. the Eastern Page 26 28 31 31 -32 34 Highlands. F Parker: •••••••••• • ••••••• ! • •.• •:• .•••••••• 35 Aibura Cave in the Eastern Highlands District. Kevan A. Wilde ••••••••••• 45 Membership of the Australian Speleological Federation •••••••••••••••••••• 46 Three Caves in the Yonki Area, Eastetn.Highlands District. Mike Wainwright 48 Highland Caving Meet 50 The New Contributors •••••••o••o••••o••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 50 PNGCEG Badge •• A Speleological Bibliography of the Eastern District. R. •.•.•.•••••.••• ,, .•.....•. •:• •••••••••••• •.••••••••.••• Australian'Speleo Abstracts The Caving Scene •••• Papua New Guinea Karst Types. 1. Tower Karst. R. l"lichael Bourke ••• •••• Note on the Photo in the Bushgear Advertisement ••••••••••••••oo•••••••••• Photos in Niugin_i Caver Biology and Paleontology Symposium ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Bibima The Second Descent. Kevan A. Wilde ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• An Aerial Look at the Lelet Plateau, New Ireland. R. Michael Bourke ••••• Tenth Biennial Conf -Australian F.ederation G Kevan A. Wilde Speleo Personality -Fred Parker . . . •• 0 ••••••.•••••••.•• _: •••••.•••• 0 ••••••••••••• * -x-* 51 53 54 57 58 58 58 61 62 63 64 Cover The first chamber in Bibima.cave at about 250 m down. Bibima in the Porol Scarp is the deepest surveyed cave in the southern hemisphere. See article on p. 61 on the second descent. Photo by Howard Beck. * * *


26 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 TOKTOK BILONG EDITA FOCUS ON THE EASTERN HIGHLANDS DISTRICT Agal.n we bring together a series of articles and a bibliography on the one district, this time the Eastern Highlands. I have never caved in theE.H.D., so it is difficult to edit such an edition satisfactorily.-I encountered the usual problem of different authors using different names for the same feature, espec-ially for Henganofi. Despite the 34 entries in the bibliography, there is not an extensive literature on the caves of the District. However articles in this issue cover the known caves_ fairly well. All the areas in Champion's ( 1968) list are covered. Limestone is not prominent on the geological maps of the District, particularly in the northern half where the highway, major settlements and most of the reported caves are. South of Okapa there is a belt of limestone that continues almost ta the Papuan coast at Kerema. There are also reasonably large outcrops south of Mt. Michael. The general impression I have is that there is a series of scattered outcrops and caving areas throughout the District. According to my count, some 45 caves have been reported which is hardly startling. Apart from Hells Gates and the Lamari River area, the caves are neither extensive nor deep. However cave art is very widespread and burial caves are fairly common. There appears to be a lot of room fat finding more caves in both the established areas and in the south of the District. Hen9anof i was one of the three areas that the PMSS concentrated on in the early sixties. Kev Read, who was the keenest caver in the highlands at that time, wrote as fallows for the 1963 PMSS Goroka Branch Annual Report.: "It would be difficult to overrate Henganofi as an exciting caving at ea. Deep, dangerous river caves connecting huge caverns and mystifying side entrances all add up to give what rust be one of Australia's most thrilling known caving areas."' All seven caves given by Champion (1968) covered in three articles inside apart from 11GouffreLar11which he gives as "200 ft. crevasse cave; tributary stream". Perhaps it is part of Hells Gate'? Much of the published literature refers to archaeological work by J. P. White at Aibura near Kainantu, at 'Batari on the Lamari River and at Kafiavana rock shelter -south of Goroka. Aibura is probably the most written about cave in P.N.G.\ Kev Wilde gives a and a map inside. Fred Parker in comprehensive article pr.ovides descriptions from 11 areas in the Kainantu region, including the very impressive Lamari River caves. Rumours of sinkholes in the highlands so deep that bodies could not be recovered from them are common -perhaps it is the same incident repeated in various ways? Inside Fred documents a doline near Obura where three murdered Chimbus thrown in 1963 and only one body recovered. Other areas in the E.H.D. nbt covered in this issue arc as follows: White (1972)gives descriptions of Batari cave and Kafiavana rock shelter; Parker (1970) describes six caves the Unggai Division near tho boundary of the Chimbu; Parker (1974) gives information on caves in the Yagaria division near Luf a; Brass (1964) mentions two caves noar Okapa, an unnamed one b'eyond Okapa and Esindona cave near Ilafo (pp. 175, 176, 200) and refers to caves on Mt. Michael 197); and Leahy (1936, p. 232) mentions cave-dwellers in the side of a gorge. I cannot trace the exact location of the last one. •


NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBEn 2 2? Finttll1 • word or warningo Pa.rker•s and Wainwright's artic.lee were written in 1964 Read• a in 1963., oo information on acceea and .Y111P.g•rs• attitudes ia lik0ly to be soinewhat inacourate now. Se_:. o ..... .. -.. . ...._ --.. ........ •••••• ... .__.. .. _ ............ ..... ..... --...---:---• ....... . -.--.... __ ..._..._ ... ........ ...


28 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 HELLS GATES CAVE3 HENGANOFI, EASTERN HIGHLANDS DISTRICT Kevan A. Wilde * History. The Goroka branch of the Port Moresby Speleological Society visited Hells Gates in a series of trips in 1963. The trip reports are held by and two of thorn have been published (Read, 1974). The author and others visited the cave in August, 1974 (Wilde, 1974) and again in Marcf:l ... 1.9.75. The cave is frequently used by the local people to hunt flying foxes (Tambara) arid is well known by them. So well known in fact that two of the formations Neita and Neisoba have been given individual names. Neita is a collapsed stalagmite whilst Neisoba is still .io. situ. Our informants stated that the formations were considered to be mythical pPnple, but were unable to provide any further information. Local mythology .accounts for the. cxistoncc of tha cnvo in the following manner:There were onca two skeletons that were chased by two women over the mountainsBnd down valleys until they came, exhausted, to the site of Meremere Yiapinka (shaft). The women werG beating the skeletons with sticks, and in their haste to got away, they struck the rock with stone axes and the rocks opened up forming the cavG. (The account is, in fact, more elaborate, but I had difficulty in translating and intend to return and interview an elder to obtain a more detailed description.) Description. Tho names used are the local names with the exception of the main chamber, Tambara chamber, was named by the author. Entrance to the system is most easily gained through (bat) Tunkunke entrance, which is taking a small stream, Kirirnif and is steeply sloping for about 75 m where a vertical pitch of 11.3 m is encountered. This pitch can bo rigged with a ladder using a wedged log as a belay. This log is used by the local people for tying on vines to descend hand-over-hand when on hunting trips. A small, muddy chamber with no formation follows, where the system changes its westerly direction and takes up a northerly ono for some 50 m. In this section there is a very distinctive stalagmito with white calcitic covering. A stream ontors at this point (unexplored) and there is a high level passag8 after 20 m (unexplored). Tho passage then takes a south westerly course for some 90 m and leads into Tambara chamber. Tambara chambor is approximately 50 rn wide and has a steeply sloping, guano covered floor (see survey). It is used as a roost by flying foxes (un identified), the population being of the order of several thousand. A large number of pink leeches inhabit this part of the cave and there are numerous species of insects. The roof of the cave varies from 10-20 m (estimated) above floor level and the main stream Meremore Yiapinkn travels along the westerly wall. The stream flows in a north to north weste.r-ly for some 140 m in all, along a well developed stream passage. Of afunga straam enters this passage after some 70 m and remains unexplored. The survey of the main passage was abandoned at the sand bank whore the roof is low. It is planned to survey this section in the dry season. * P.O. Box 1055, Goroka, E.H.D., P.N.G.


.NIUGIN1 CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 29 Travelling upstroam of the main chamber for some 100 m is a weil developed stream passag. Meremere which leads into the bottom o.f a 50 m deep, collapse $haft., The shaft was not surveyod due. to the volt;.ime of . water (a .sur vey will.:. b.e carried out in tho dry season) and tho dimensionS'. are only estimated. About half way al_ong this passage, almost ag.ainst---the nor-therri wall, are the two for mat ions known as: Neit.Q_ and ]!,Q,i.,Q.,.ba. Mer.?m_e.:r.e :f!apink.e, is subj Get severe flooding which iri"turn blocks tho floor of Tambara chamber according to local informants. Kirimifamu passage could f lood-comphlely. ; . . The namo Murifinka for the cave us6d previously (Wilde, as this is a general term for any cave in the. Kafe language. number of local names that ref er to this cave I suggest that European name Hells Gates be employed for record purposes. '" '-. /References. Seo bibliography. ON HELLS .GATES CAVE 1974) is incorrect As there are a the original .1: Adco.rding to thG Pf%S rGports the river flows into the Hells Gates entrance wh.ich .Kevan marks on his map as 50 m (ost.) shaft. From all accounts this entrance extromqly impressive. Their reports also refer to two other caves, Blue and Blue Potor appears to be a passage in the cave and a tributary of Lethe. D.Jos seems to be the Susu Tunkunke pass-age of tho cave. "Karata" (actually Bob Bates}. uses the name f'lurifinka for the Tunkunko entrance, and Hell t s Gato or Tinti.JJ.l?.angkai for the Hells Gates entranc'e. His account of the formation of the-caves is similar, to one recorded by Kevan, but more involved and a woman who availed of an immodest liberty with a sleeping spirit. H? records tho.t the Heriganof i caves first became known to Europeans a Patrol Pfficer visited them in 1937. Read and MacGregor (1967) investigated HelJ.s Gatos as a ta.Urist cave and concluded that it is not suitable as sucho * * * TWO SMALL CAVES NEAR HENGANOf I, EASTERN HIGHLANDS :DISTRICT K. Read * On Sunday 31st March1, I visited two small near Henganofi. The.: Tomb.; . Three kilomotres past Hc:nganof i on the right side of the road can be seeri sharpJ.y fluted limestone outcrops. At the base of these is a collapse entrance and a Icing dry rivor passage 3 m wide and 4.5 m high. Thirty metres in is a low rock wall with a human skeleton wrapped in a blanket lying beyond it. There is some reasonable formntion near the entranco. Source. .Three hundred metres above is a similar entrance and passage. After 45 _m a squeez.e is negotiated and the passage seems to end, although there are some tree roo'ts and a strong draught.. retl!rnin.g my torch failed (I .. w9s .alone) but I wns carrying waterproof: and a safe return was made. * P ,,.(J. Box BcJ'roko, P • N .G.


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32 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 NEW HIGHLANDS DISTRlf.I Jim Lynch * On Sunday 21st July, 1963, Cl.iuG Champ:Lon7 Don and Jim Lynch set off from the junction of the track that leads to Hells Gates and the back road to Luf a to examine the out lot of tho River Letr1e •l The local villagers had given assurances that thero was only a large pool from which water This was the point at which Lethe was supposed to emcrgsG On crossing the drainage ridge (which actually is the doline which forms: Hells Gates, D.J.s, and Blue Peter),, we procoodod down another ordinary ridge for a hundred metres or so when we were confronted by a marvellous limestone outcrop that extended for approximately 800 m down the centre of the valley on our left. Since our prime objective was the examination of the probable outlet we continued down to that point. Our guidos showed us tho track ciown a ridge which runs parallel to the out crop of limc;stone_,. The; limestone is on the left hand side whilst going toward the outlet. After approximately 1 hours walking we came across a pool of water at the bottom of this lirrcstorie ridge pr2vious1y mentioned c. It was as the villagers had said but tho geology of the area suggested possible openings higher up in the rock face. On close ex2mination, four of these were located.. The openings were relatively small (60 cm x 60 cm) but once inside the area of comfortable move ment was increased. Each cave t0as very similar in structure. All had a drop to the floor of 3 m or so but it i.s possible to descend without too much trouble. Once inside exploration was terminated practically immediately. Every cave had still deep wator in it and progress for any apptociablo distancG will be impossible without the use of a raft of some .description. (Note: in the River Lethe in Hells Gates, a similar situation 0as bhcountered, and li-lo1s were faund to be a very satisfactory means of transportN) The mouths of these four cavos are all within a 20 m radius of the actual outlet and it was apparent that all intorconnectod. By what means is not known as yet. It may be possiblo to go through this little system by using the waterways or the river may go under the roof and make progress impossible. The water is at least three metres deep as test divas went to this level and no bottom was reached. The actual size of the caves inside averages 1.8 m in width and 1.8 m from tho ceiling to the top of the water. Clive and I swam to a point 9 m from the entrance of one but were not ovorkoen to go any further as the cave turned sharply to the loft and it was a little unsafe without light. -The water was very cold. These four caves have tho suggested title of The Maze. The next part of this report will not be terribly accura.te as to exact locations of caves, potholes and dolines because no provision for notes brought along and also there 1.JJas so much of interest seen. After finishing with The Mazo we decided that our route back to Hells Gates should take us roughly ovor the top of the 1:$..mestone ridge. This track up this * Present address unknown.


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34 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 way was very vague and obviously used vory little •. After walking f.or a good 15 minutes, the track skirted the edge of the limestone outcrops and.moved off to the right aJ#ay l:Jdg.o we wanted to .. J;.x.arn.ine •... At t.his point the guides were very definite that we should not leave the track. They assured us that no caves were on top but lJ!B decided to look anyway. This ridge is wholly limestone with very long grass growing on the. top and The sto_no protrudes out from the grass evGrywhere. There is no track of any descripti'on and the going was difficult and rough. On the top a small depression with a few bushes in it was sighted and when examined revealed a pothole which went down for 1 5 m. The entr an cc is only 60 cm x 30 cm but insido it opens out to approximately 90 cm x 90 cm. One can. climb safely down for 6 m but the next 9 m will require ladders. We wore without any so we couldn't go any further .but a small passago can be seen leading off at the bottom. Suggested name f.or this p.oth6le is Flat 3. About 20 m away another pothole was discovered, this one being about 1 .s m x 1,8 m antranco and going down for n good 18 m, a fow degrees off the verti It is possible .to got down but again we had no equipment so no exploration resulted. Again a passage could ba seen leading off at the bottom. I should the need for extr8me cate when walking across this ridge as the long grass could ciasily concoal completoly a vertical pothole. Th.ore is a good ch.ance of other holes on this r{dge but we didn't look for any as the villagers seemed very anxfous to have us WhGn we left .the ridge and returned to the track wa travelled for about 20 minutes up toward the main ridgo (the starting point) and camo across a doline with a large opening 'to a cave. It was roctangular in shape with two possible belay points. Ono would have given a ladder drop of 23 m sheer and the.other, 1.5 m sheer. A cave which is formod in a large fissure goes off "at the bottom. A small stream flows into this cave and it looks very promising• The dimensions of the opening nre approximately 6 m x 3' m.. (This cave is markod on the map as .bg,i Ed.) On the way back to the drainnge r'idge and Holls Gates we. sighted six definite dolines and three probable dolinos. Application forms for obtaining permission to mist nets for trapping birds or bats may be applied for from the Chief Wi!dlif e Officer, 0 .A .s .F., P.O. Box 2417, Konadobu, P.N.G. •


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 35 8Jr1E CAVES AND ROCK SHELTERS IN THE KAINANTU AREA OF THE EASTERN HIGHLANDS F. Parker * 1t11 The followihg d(3scriptions of .. caves result from a patrol into the Tairora and. paJ;ts of the Iturua and Dogara Census Divisions during August-September and a to the Sonofi, Aamu Gorge areas on 2nd to 4th October, 1964. AREA .. Lo'calltv. South and. southeast 9f Musabe villag'e north of .the and about 5 km east and 1 .5 km north of Sonofi rest house and 2). Access. About 1.5 km past Sonofi rest house on the way to Okapa, there is a fork to right which follows the croek upstream for about 100 m. A clear walkfog track continues on for about 5 km to Musabe vil19gej past SonofiNo. 2. DescriPtion. Th.ere are a number of small river:c:.avGs on tbe wostern slopes of a creek _The three visited and were of little interest in the way formation or lqngth •. The first is ten minute,E)' walJ( west of. the. main Musabe village and commoncqs: :with a small creek emerging-.from a sump under the: north wall nGar the entrance •• The ;creek con tinuei/ for. l.5-1 Sm where there is a. swim necessary for: thP next 30 .'m .or so past a collaps o them on .. to where the creek omerges ,from, the cave. Tho other two c'aves are small creeks draining into the main one, and each impassable after' the first few metres. I bGlieve that the pooplq concoD-ling dry caves which have been used as refuges in times of fighting and evading patrols. to Villagers o The caves seen were of :to--the pQOplc who showod them to us. However I have good reason to believe that dry caves which they used for tornporary c;l.welling places in past times_ we:re con cealed from us. No legends wero regarding the caves seen. History. None of tho caves soon have been used as refuges one .of the caves not soon was used as a refuge for the whole village .during I. Skinner'$ patrol described under Sonofi area. Prior to that it had often been used during fights as a hiding place. SONOFI AREA. TAFORAHABI CAVE Locality.. Ncnr Sonof i villag,e and rest house, about half .way betweon Kainantu and Okapa on tho present Okapa road, in the Kamano Census Division (see maps 1 and 2) • . ,., -------_ .. Access. The actual cave opening is about 150 m north of the l:JP' a small strQam which crossos the road 500 m the Kainantu side of the house. It is not visible from the road but the forested face of the steep limestone ridge can be seen. *Wildlife Section, O.A.S.F., P.Oo Box 2417, Konodobu, P.N.G ..


36 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 This is a rivGr cavo about 180 m long, formed by a small permc:mcmt crec;k-wearing a passEigc through-Tr limC?stono ridge, roughly at :right angles tp the axis of the ridge. Thero are no side passagos but there are a few ledges on onch side at various levels. Apart from these ledges, the creek on the cave floor all the way, and in tho dry season it is possible to walk throgh cave without entering the water. The passage varies from 2 to 9 m high and from 3 to 14 m wide. There are many openings in the roof and a collapse, all of which load to the outsido. The C2VO is formed in hard, bluish metamorphosed limestone. Relation to Villagers. Tho cave is very well known and there seem to be no metaphysical properties attached to it. The men walk through it roadily for the fun of it and occasionally to catch small bats and swiftlots. The native name for the cave which was offered on this occasion is Taforahsbi. It is reg3rded as a good shelter in time of fighting. History a A ledge about 15 m insido the mouth, about 6 m abovo the creek bed and on the west side of the cave shows signs of habitation to some dopth. The ledge measures.about 7.5 m by 4.5 m and by virtue of its position is very easy to defend. It has undoubtedly been used as the living place when the cave has been used as a rofuge during fights. In 1947 f.\.OoO .. I. Skinner chased a largo group from Sonofi No. ! village into the cave after they had killed a policeman named Baru. Not knowing that there were numerous exits he guarded tho cave mouth for more than three weeks bolieving the poople to be trnppod. Since then the has boon visited many times by people from Kainantu and Okapa. There.are a fow charcoal and ochre paintings in hollows in the stone immediately to the east qf the openinga The upstream opening presents no signs of habitation. Natural Historyo Because the cave is so short and has the creek running through it 8.nd two entrances, there is 2 certain amount. of life in the cave?. There are? odd small bats (none colloctud) and nasting swiftlets. Water frogs were hoard calling in the cave. Ins@cts arc common inside. The village people report a type of mammal living in the cave and claw mcrks were soon at the mouths of small holes in the wall. (See Wilde (1974)on other caves at Sonofi. Brass (1964 p. 127) mentions a big cnvc near the; road at Sonofi 8.nd other caves in the neighbourhood. AS f\REA Caves arc reported from the Asiempa area. The locality is believed to be near Asiempa village on the Noroi'cranda-Okapa road Aviana or rGst house, 30 km south and 3 km west of Kainantu. NORE I KOR 1':\ Er-I Locality. In a small limestone outcrop on a ridgo between Kaurona plantation and Norikori plantation (see map 1). Access. By tho Obura road and Banta Loop Road to Norikori plantation, from which the outcrop can be seen. The ridge is about 20 minutes' walk south of the plantntion.


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38 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 Description. Small niches and lodges among the lumps of stone used by the people as burial ar cas. The largest is on the left sido .of thG track up from the plantation snd is the first largo piece of stone encountared on the way up. This one is used for burials at present. • Relation to Villagers. The men are not very willing to show visitors to the area because of its current use for burial and resulting spirit occurrence:. They will try to divert you from currently usod hollows and show you to a couple of useless shelters on th8 top of ridge. There is probably much mythology associntad with the nron but the people nrc not prepared to discuss this matter much. History. Not known -has very raroly if over bean visited by Europeans before this year. It hns been burials for at least three generations. Natural History. Nil -the stonos are in kunai coverod ground with a f 8w taller shrubs around tho largo stones. BARABUNA AREAQ AIBURA CAVE Locality. On the Kainantu-Obura road, about 2.5 km south east of Barabuna Rest House (sec map 1). Access. From Barabuna No. 2, which is about 3 km by road south of Barabuna Rest House, there is a small leading westwards along a ridgD then down to the cave. The distance can be covered in about half an hour. Oescr iption. A small . 30 m cave through a small outcrop of limestone which projects through the surrounding creok f lnts. The cave has three entrances plus a halo in tho roof, and three small sido passages which arc silted up and lead nowhere. The cave has a roughly horizontal flQor and varies from 1 .5 to 4.5 m in height, and a similar variation in0width. Villagers' attitude. f\ village existed near the cave until rGcEmtly and the cave is well known to the people. Thay ,aro quite willing to show the cave to pooplo. There seGm to be no supernntural associations with the c3ve. The cave is known ns Aibura. History. Until the village was moved from near the cavo to the presont site of Barabuna soon after the first patrols stopped fighting, the cave was used as a refugo in timo of fighting. It was probably first visitod by a Europonn in 1961 by n1ex Vincent of S.LL. and socn again in 1963 by Virginia Watson, wifo of Prof. J, Watson. (Sec articlo by Wilde on Aibura this issue and papers by J. P. White.) Natural History. There arc swift lets living and nesting in the cave. OBUR f1 l\R EA . Locality o There is a sinkholo south east of Obura and a cave opening about 1.5 km south of Obura patrol post (see map 1).


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40 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 f\ccoss. By road fro,m' Kainantu to Obyra, Post. A walking track to tho south Gf::l.St renches the sinkhole., while the toad cont}'nues on south. This passes the small Descrl6tion. Thci sinkholc was not spon but is to be over 30 m deep' po9sibl.y' so"' m. This' cmtm;'.3. t:ht:: slopGS of a limestone r idgo about 6 km south cmst of'. thC? post •. , ,Thero arc ledgGs on the sidqs and during. rain some water onter:s. fibqut 1. 5 km to tho wost thc:ro is. a small emergin.g spring which tb from below tho sinkhole. The spring from a jumble of broken $tono, behind which there? is reported to bc ... a which con way to 'the of sinkholo. The spring is attho foot of. tjle limc;stono ridge into, which thb sinkholo drops. The Lsmnr i Rivar land bridge described under Lnmari c6ves ...(s2c bolow) is still fu.rther west, where this bolt of limostono is cut by the Lomari Ri'vor. 'The, spring opening was not investigatcd bcc9usc of lack of It looks as if is a passage with a few squoczcs .through tho stone at tho mout,h'9 aftor that the passage may do anything. History o In 1963 three Chimbus wore killed necir Obura and the bodi'cs tha sinkhole. Police mado many attempts to bodies but duo to the depth of the hole, cquipmen't was inadoquatc. Evcm_tually a Buka policeman, Larius, was lowerod on 6. rope nnd oolJ,.octcid _,one body which was cau.ght" 'an ... 8. "ie.dgc cibou"t 30. m Bt:!low this. tho hole appeared tD"cbntinue indofinitoly. Thu resultant fot was interrupted whom a Chimbu killed ono of thG Obura men bn trial on the main street of Kainantu. It is not safe to take a .a pativo from anywhore west of Henganofi) into the Obura area. Groups intending to visit the aroa ploaso r!otc. Even if tho native.taken comes to no harm, the visiting group will got no co operation fromtho Obura pcoplo if a Chimbu accompanies them. .RIVER Locality.. The Obura land bridgo; is over ttiG Lsmari Rivor 'about. 3 km south west of Oburo. Post. There is anothur land bridgo across t,ho. LG:JTinri tributary on the .wnlking track bctwocn Himarat3 ond Or aura ... Thoro are two caves and somo burial holes on the left bank of tho Lamari about 3 km wost of HimarCJ.ta village (smJ map 1). Access.. From Oburo. Post, thG Obura land bridge can bo ruachod within an wqlking by cutting across country down to tho rivor then following it downstream. The Larnnri caves can be reached by waiking to about half way between Obura and Himarata -about an hour r':1;om Obura then cutting down to tho r iv or and following it downstream. Thure is a tots! of about 3 hours' walk involved. Tho Himarata land br idgo is on tho patrol walking track between Himarata and oraura, but distance is not known as the writer ciid not visit this. Doscriotions: The Obura Land Bridgo. This is tho ond of a stoop limGstono ridge which projects across the river. Thu rivor runs undor the end of the stono in a large curve, totalling) ahout .m in .. longth. Thc1 river_ courso c::an bo followed under


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 41 tho. stone if thore is nci flooding. The stone comes down from the east sido and in the c2stcrn wall tissures cut into the stone for varying distances but these contain nothing in the way of caves. Bats and were present in thesa but no spbcimuns woro taken. On the right bank of the river immediately below thebridgo there is a limestone faca.with a hollow above a lodge some 3 m abovo ground level. This contains paintings. Tho shelters under the face contain no traces of former inhabitation, since the floors aro covered by fioodwaters quite often. Lamari cavcis: ( Ikonar and Kibuari). The two cavos beside the Lamari River are? tho o-ne sy.stcim, mocting nbout 400 m in. The lowor cave is in a limestone face nbout 1 5 m nbovc: the rivor level, on the lc::ft bank. Tharo is n large entrance concealed from tho river by a large mango tree and some scrub. The ontrnnce is about 9 m wido by about 4.5 m high, and this largo cavorn proceeds at right angles to rivor d{ruction for about 90 m to a collapse area about 30 m across. This is below a pothole, and water drains in a hollow above which isabout 12 m abovo the cavo floor. This aroa is inhabited by many swiftlots. The cave thc.:n continuos in thu same direction ns a silted up small passngc, including two 23 cm horiztonal squeezes, for at least rinothcr 140 m. Tho cavo then slowly opens up and is a large 6m x 6 m passage for about 550 m when a vory extensive collapse area 90 m x 45 m wide is encountered, 1.:.tith mud, woter falling constantly from a hoight of over 36 m from the top cave. Precarious climbing over slimy boulders and large blocks of stone loads to ariother 400 m of cnve which is level and easy going and quite large. Then one encounters a large chamber 60 m long in which a medium bat congregates Gt certain times of the yoar. Thero nro mony trncos of villagers venturing in t this far for bats9 via the top cave. fiftC?r this chnmber tho cnvo becomes smcil1cr ond continuc?s on for 27 5 m. Them tho roof mC?ets the floor quit o 2bruptly, ond there is a small sump which was impassablcG A tomporary creek runs through this whole cavo during rains. This bottom cave is still young and active, and there is little formation. far ns the village people are concerned tho lowor ontranco is not passablG. The upper cave has an entrance in a cliff about 30 m above the lower cavb and a further 180 m downstream from the othc:r cave. f1 very lo.rgo passagu o.t least 12 m wide by 7.5 m high continues in for 640 m in an approximate straight line until it meets the other cave per the medium of the lnrgc collapse area already dcscribod. This cav6 is by far oldC?r and has extensive but not clean for mat ion, and many small side tr ibuto.ry pass o.g t!s which .'1r e now b oing sealed off by formations. These sido passages contain much in the way of holictitcs ond straw stalactites, all white or tr2nsparcnte The collapse area was explored twice but on the uppor level there scorns to be no continuation of the upper cove produced. Thero is however much seepage from the roof and perhaps a former pothole thoro has been soalod up with earth and stones. The 3rc2 oround the collnpsc fc2turL1S nll sorts of worn side pDssogos Gnd muddy wotcr filled hollows, but' none of these lc8rl 8nywhoro. Climbing round here is dangerous boc2usc of tho slippery mud and unst2blo stones. .This upper entrance is used to 92in entrance into the lower cave by th2 nntivos. The Himornta bridge has not been seen but apparently thoro ore paintings of some interest in nearby shelters in the stone. The course of the river can not be followed under the bridge.


42 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 Rolation to Villsgurs. This is most intoresting, for whon Messrs. Thomas and Whifc vis.itod the ores, they wc;rc; accompanfod by Himnrata peoplG who gav-c their names for the cavos and offerod the information that the cavern could be entered to hunt bats. The Himornta people own the top cavo and enter this for bats. HoLucvor when the writer visitc;d tho cnvos, Numbairn men accom;.. pnnied tho visit and gnve tho nn.mGs. of Ikonnr. for tho lower cnvo and Kibuari for the upper cavo.' The) NumbniJ:'.a pooplc Olun tho lower C8VO and havo a story • of their ancestors being able to enter the lower cnvosomc generations back to hunt bots. The story is quite clear the two friendly villages have each owned a cave; end forn:icrly could enter the bnt congrogn_tion past .the junction -of thr.:i two pnssogos but the lowor pass3go is. now silfi:d up. 2nd.Tm;.. passable. in tho days of mutuai hunting the two villagos have ronliscd thnt they were both getting animals in the one oran aftor entering by their sc:pnrate respoctivo cmtrances, it is now not .. realised that tho two caves moot. I was accompanied by the trembling old luluai of Numbaira whon we first ontercd tho lower co.Vo. Mtor we had nogotintod the difficu1t silted up lower passage and reached tho bnt areas past the collapse, the luluai 6ompl6tuly w6nt to piocos when fresh pitpit torches and lcnvos woro found on the Lntor when the top cavo wns explorod and its point of connection with the lo lmvor cavo found, the .writer returned alone: along the lower passage: to the mouth of Ikcnar whore tho carriers wore establishing camp at the mouth. My emorgenco • caused to take to tho river. The lowor cove, Ikonar, has an unfricmdly spirit-known as Sirobon according to tho mon of Numbaira who attached thGmsolvos to the A painting 8bout 30 m inside the cavo, on the southorn wall, is supposed to be a solf-portrait by Sireboa. Both caves havo earth floors nnd aro ideal for shelters but have not apparontly been much used -probably because of tho above ond other metaphysical beliefs associated with tho area. Small hollows across the river from these cav2s, aMd to _the south in tho cliff facc;s bordering tho river, are used for burials. Histoty. Apart from traditional butial in nearby rock fissures, thoro scorns to be little in the way of habitation of the main caves. said above, both hGve goo cl cnrth floors although the lower cave? is subject to flooding in times of rain. Poter White found no promising traces of habitntion despite ovc1r 1 • 8 m dtepth of soil in of the? cove floors. The visit by Whit c: nnd Thomas early in 1964 wns tho first to the caves by Europeans. Neither was penetrated to ony extent on this visit. The history of tho two lend bridges is not known. The Obura bridgo hsd not been visited by a European before. Natural History. Bats ncnr tho Obura land bridge have been mentioned snd small bats and swiftlots live in the mouths of both the Lamnri csves. Somo bats wE:rG colluctod. Deep inside the L:::.:mo.ri caves there is a lo.rge chctmbor in which a mcdium-l2rgc specics of bat, probnbly a fruit bnt, lives in numbers at timos depending probably on thoir annual migration routos chasing thoir food plants. Insectivorous bats nru generolly fairly pormancnt dwollcrs in caves; fruit bats migrato to find food so aro presont in a given aron at regu lar intervals. Only about a dozen of those largo bats wcro present in tho chamber and none wore? caught. Nothing is known of any hollows nC?or the rata bi{dge where there could bo animals.


NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 43 KORHNGKf1 f1RE/\ Caves are reported by Petet White near Korangka (see map 1), which is reached by the road from Kainantu through Station, past Omaura Mission turnoff and on out past plantation. White reports limestone outcrops and a cliff face in which there are three openings all in a vertical line, with 30 m between the top and bottom caves. These have not yet been. GXplored, and natives report many more caves in the area. This is borne out by tho caves and sinkholes found in limestone country on the road to Korangka, and 6 km from Korangka, in the Onaningka arpa. There appears to be an cxtonslvo limestone region worth investigation in this area. On tho road to Korangka described above, about 1 .5 km past Onaningka village to the north of and adjacent to the road (soe map 1). Ocscriptiono The area to tho north of the road 1 .5 km past the village is a plntoau with numerous dolines, of which throe have sinkholcs. None was oasily axplorablc, but one which wns entorGd soon becamo too narrow to negoti atG. In a small creek about BOO m to the east the collebted water from these dolines comes up from a sump but there is no means of access into the caves below and linking the dolines. About 3 km past the village and ton minutes' walk down into the valley to the north and along a small tributary creek on the other side of the main creek, there is the emergent point of a small creek: from a cave. The cave was entered and is negotiable through water for some 270 m bofore a collapse seals it off. A perennial straam runs the longth of the cave. Thero is no formation at all. The cave is in tho process of erosion by water. History. Nothing known, although the claim that they hid in the rivor cave during fighting timos. However there is no floor to the cnvo nnd the whole is subject to frequent This was the first European visit to those coves. Natural Historyo Crabs and other water life were seen in the creek, but they were obviously washed in with the water ond are not natural inhabitants of the cave. , Pinkish leeches with white speckling dorsally and about 3 cm long woro seem on thG cavo walls. UPPER RfiMU GORGE bocality. North east of the Swiss Mission station, about 16 km by road north east of Koinantu (sec maps 1 and 3). f,ccosso The two entrances to the main cave are about five minutes' walk from the Swiss Evangelical Mission. Tho lower exit from the river cave can be ranched by pa$sing the mission station and less than 800 m further on.there is a dirt track to tho left, a CoOoW. trGck lending to marked sites for the Upper Ramu Hydroelectric power station. This trsck climbs a ridge then drops half way down to the Ramu. The first creek seen to the west is that emerging from the river cave, while another small cave is about 1200 m downstream on tho left bank of tha river. Vertical limestono cliffs on tho right bank were invosti•


44 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 gated but no caves wero found. 0oS3_gription. r.s can be socn from map 3, ono cave (No. 1) drains a number of small crooks, and this cove was followod in for about 90 m in which there wns a drop of at least 30 mo largo pormnnont crook pours into this cavo and omorgos presumably on tho other sido of the ridge and nbout 90 m lower down. The emergent cave (No. 2) mentioned undor above has boon visited previously by Poter Whito who says a lnrgc crook emerges from it. With equipment tho cave can be followed to the odgo of n 18 m drop into ,n deep pool. Thero is o f nult line followed -much cutting action has rosultod in the cave being up to 3-4 m wide and up to 15 m high in places. dry entrance (No. 3) about 450 m to tho south was followed by myself on a provious 0isit for only 30 m without oquipmcnt and o drop of 6 m stopped that trip. a passage in tho west wall not f nr from the entrance was followod for 30 m to whero it droppod suddenly into the m2in rivor cavoo Undoubtedly this second cntronco connects u with tho o.ctivo cave!' probably below the drop which stopped oxploration of the rivor, but it could join tho river cove at o high point not noticed while the river cave was being nogotiatod. The emergent cavo (No. 4) on tho slopes was not investigated for lack of timo. small cave (No. 5) from which emerged ci small stream was go.tod 1200 m down the river nnd olmost at r iv Gr lovcl, and led in through a number of wo.tory squeezes for about 18 m to nn impCJ.ssablo sump. i, high vorticnl limostoric cliff on tho cast sido of tho river had no real caves although there appoarcd to be cavo mouths at two points. Crossing the river itsGlf was a major job, and should not be triod in time of flood. Historyo The first European to report on tho coves wcs Mike Wainwright (soB orticol this issue). from that oxploration, I do not know of any other European visits to those cavos. ThGrc 2ro no sheltored sites 1.;1hcr2 habitation is possible, either in any of the cnves seen or in any of the cliffs Histor_y. In the wntGr c3'0o noo.r ths mission, a frog of unknown spacic::s Luns taken deep in tho c nv o by Miss Whiting. The frog is e Hy lid a tree frog -but as it is a juvenile it is difficult to diagnose its species. It is probably recently metamorphosed from a tadpole washod into the cave with tho creek water. In some of the pools of water, small Hydra were seen. Duo to the steep wc.lls of the cnvo nncJ tho high flood levol, thc:ro Luns no other life soon. Bots wcro soen in the water cavo, at the drop so it seemed that the oxit could not be too far away. Nono collected. In tho small cave near the river itself two species of frog wero collected n f ow yards inside the mouth Rann qrisoo, a terrostriLll river frog9 and sp.9 a trc:ic frog. fi number of bats were also collected in this same small Villagers roport caves along the ridge from the Swiss Mission above towards Yonki Domo near the villages of Isontonu, Yauna and Sosoentenu. Those arc said to be small niches etc., used for buriols, and here may well be shelters as well (see mop 1). REFERENCESo See bibliography. t


NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 45 CAVE IN THE EASTERN DISTRICT Kevan fi. Wildo * .......... This article pctrt of a longer paper on the art at Aibura ontitlod 11Notos on tho Roc.k /,rt of f\ibura Cavo, Kainantu, Eastorn Highlands District of Papua New Guinon". Tho paper was prcsontod at the 11 th Biunninl Conference of tho [, .s. F., and will appear in the Proceedings of that conf orcmca • • • 0 • 0 •.••••.• _ Locntion and Topography o fdbura cave is situatod 19 km south southwost of Kainantu, _ds the crow and 35 km by way of tho Obura It is a short walk from Karata,_an cixtonsion of aarapuna village in tho Kainantu of the E.H.Do It is about 1600 m a.s.l. and is located in a small swampy valley which drains into Kondanauta Crock, a small tributary of tho Lamnri River. Tho area surrounding tho isolated limostono bldck in which the cavo is con tainGd is undulating. Treos aro almost completuly nbscnt from the aren. "Pitpit" gross is the only pronounced vcgotation• The arcm is swampy with the exception of a small section of drained and cultivated land oast of tho limestone outcrop whore shrub regrowth encl inducod grassland arc prcvnlcmt .. Historyo Human habitation and use are immodiatoly obvious on ontering tho o covo by tho abundance of charcoal drawings and white cloy paintings that appear throughout. It has boon ascGrtainod by artifactual ovidenco (White, 1972) that was first used some 4000 years ago. Thon followed a period of 2000 years abandonment or infrequent use. f\ second phase of oxtonsivc use cqmmoncod nbout 1000 years ago. A wido variety of artifacts discovered by White his proposal. Postholos indicato thnt some form of structuro, a shelter or dwelling, was orcctod insido the cave during this second phaso. 1972). It was probably first visited by Europeans in 1945. In 1961 it was noted as a possiblo archaoological site (Wbito, 1972). White visited flibura and _ cGrricd out arch3cological research during 1964-65. (Whito 1965a, 1967a, 1967b, 1972. White and White, 1964). Tho cave is apparently rogul

46 NIUG!NI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 n {\bout thr.e_o '' .. .ngo., childron: of Bnrapuna village came to [1ibura cave? to play. Whilst thoy wore playing an oldor from the village came down ana told thorn to stop playing tho .. cavo because; it was dangorous. Tho cavG was thon hoard to say the following (dinlcct), 'Bitori mau ori pompu urau (Rciughly this moans 'I am going to close.') With that, all ontrancos of the cave scclod thomselvos, and the wnlls bogan to closo in, tr2pping the children insido. Tho parents of the children to t ho cavE' whon they hGard what had hoppcnod, and brought freshly killod pigs and cookt?d vcgotablos in an offering, and bogged thu .tcr.roloase their childron. The cave remained closed and occasionally tho children could be hoard crying and shouting _for holp, until fin ally only one child romninod. L2ter he too diod; and tffc cr"ying stopped. Some weoks lator cavo opc:nC?d up again. Tho paronts wcmt ,inside and rccovorGd ths b6dies of thoir children. They were carried back to the village where thoro was sadness nnd mourning.-" Taka also related that the cave was usod, in tho time of. "tumbuna" (ancestors) and during his lifetime, by the wohlon of tho village during the act of childbirth. This was corroborated by other informants who also said that tho alcove on the western sido was used for this purpose. It WEl.S also said that the cov o was used 6s a place of refuge during tribril warfare against tho once traditional enumios, tho Tsaiora. Local pooplo account for the blackening of tho roof nnd walls with the story that tho Tsaiora onco sot fire to the grassss that grow the outcrop. Taka said that the cave was occupiod at tho timo, and that all the possessions 6f the occupants wore dostroyod in the ensuing fire. Cave The cave is wall dec6ratod with paintings. (For a full doscription soe Conforcnco papor.) Conservationo with many of the other pnriotal art sitos throughout the highlands, been vnndalizod by local youths. It is obvious that sites lacking in 'tambus' arG abused by village children and in some cases by Europeans too. Perhaps schools could bo mndo owore of tho catastrophic destruction of this aspect of local culture? Studcints should bo made awarG of this tragody and bo educated towards prcsorving those unique, valuable and beautiful assets of. their cultural heritage. REFERENCES. Sec bibliography. * * * rEMBERSHIP OF THE WSTRi'ilI/1N 3PELEOLOGICi\L FEDERLTION The P.N.G. Cave Exploration Group has boon occoptod as an associoto member 6f the Australian Spoloological Federation. A subscription of $5 has to be paid annually the Group is ontitlod to rocoivo publications of the Federation. Because we arG not full members, everyone doos not receive the Federation's publications. • ,Q


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48 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 THREE CAVES IN THE YONKI HIGHLANDS DISTRICT Mike Wainwright * f1bout 16 km on tho Kassam side of Koinantu is a Swiss Evangelical Mission. • Roughly a kilometre to the north is a volley in mot.amorphosed limestone tiJhich runs approximatoly east-west. The valley contains a number of sink holes with an active stream cutting back up the valley to the west, that is, loaving behind the earlier points of entry of the stream into the ground. Thero are two major caves, the first of which is now taking the streamflow, and is located in a predominant troclinGd depression immediately north of the mission ("Wosscx cave"). Tho second and presumably older cave, "Swiss cave", lies about 200-250 m down the valley in a similar patch of trees. There is a small ox-bow cave system some 75 m up the valley through which the stream slso flows {soo map). I visited the cav cs briefly on two occasions in r1ugust, 1964. Wcssox cavo. The ontranco is large. Com. Works have partially blocked the stream that flows into the cavo, and hove a largo pump installed n metre or so nbovo it. The best entry is down the left hand oponing which drops about six metres down an inclined possagaumy to meet the stroamway. This flows off to the left, lending to a scrios of gours, potholes and inclined wator scoured passage ways. Theso lead to a rift chamber down which a bit of rock climbing is needed to bypass a bC!autifully eroded potholo on the left. Following the along the rift, a pool has to bo crossed by a short swim. The way on leads off the right down an inclined passageway. This soon gives way to another beautifully etched pothole for \ilhich a 6 m ropa would bo needed on the return trip. Beyond this the stream follows tho rift into n large chamber at the end of which the stream drops through the floor into a 12-15 m pitch. This was not descended. This end chamber is very improssi\{;O and like other sections of the cave is cut by dolerite dykes ranging from 2 cm or so to o metre in thickness. The dykes are discordant with tho bedding of the limestone, nnd tho grnd.lation towards them of the limestono becoming marble is Thare is also discolouration towards tho intrusive margins of Thero are not many stolactitcs and not much evidence of altornato routes. I saw no bats, but there arc small amounts of guano. The total length explored to the pitch wos about 120 m. The str cam disappears to tho right ot tho base of the pitch and nppeors to follow another rift. The stream is soid to reappear on the othor sido.of tho hill and to flow ns a surface crook to the Ramu River. This being so, thoro could well be 600 m or more of passage. The system d0scends fairly stcGply, but no depth estimate was made. Parts may be subject to flooding. I gained the impro.ssion the cave follows a generally north-south trcmdt I have named the cave "WcssGx" after the large English caving club. Swiss cave. This one is dry but it may well become active during heavy rains. The Gntrancc is very impressive. flt one time the stream must hove flowed down a 12-15 m oven, now only partly remaining. Near the bose of the * B.M.R., P.O. Box 283/aa, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, fiustralia.


...... .... ' ' 49


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 avcn the large entrance leads into a boulder chamber, and the main streamway descends into n lofty rift on the right. This contains some very fine formations. The rift chamber is very large. In parts the formations are covered -in a thick deposit of guano. ,-Thero were some bats present when visitod. To follow the streamway it is nuccssary to climb down to the bed. This leads on to n dolerite dyko which cuts. '8 large oval chamber. ,. The streamway comes out half way up the chamber, and again thdtc appears to be no alternative but to hnv ff 10-..1:2:0 • m; of ladder to descond into the base. This stopped r.ny progress in that direction. Climbing back from the floor of the stream bed, I noticed a small ox,-bow passage on the lGft han.d sido which roappears further up the rift. I did nb.t inv.ostig-nto this thorot.Jghly. Back at the entrance chamber, thero is a small muddy passageway with fine formations, including helic'tites. The pnssagG leads off to t.hc loft up an inclined plane. .This shortly drops away into another.large rift plane. Either of main rifts might easily connect up with th(f. system. "Swiss" cave may be .. o. suitnble name • • J ' • l t .'!' i "4 . 1. 'Editorial Nete. "Wessex cave" appoars to correspond 'to Parker's _ave'' ' Na.:1 an-C:t cavo" to Parker1s cave Nn. 2 •. Parker hns not Wainwright1s small ox-bow cnvo up tho valley, and Wainwright does hot mention s 3, 4 and 5.. Thus there are at least six caves the area if "WC?ssex" and.".Swiss" aro considered separate caves. * * * MEET Thore are about 30 cavers in P.N.G. How mnny have you over met? The?' tion of cavers P.N.G. hns promptod mu to sou if anyono would be intereste.d in having n rncwt in' tho-llighlands for a few days over Christmas, possibly.:nt 'Kulidiawn. We could have n day of talks and slides nnd gotting to know our followod by a day or two caving. If you nro intorested or are prop9re,d-.t,Q help out with accommodation or organizing a trip, plc:oso drop me a lino. r.1i clocin ones, wc:lcome. Jim Farnworth, P.O .• Box 163, Rabaul. ' .. " ,.,. () ** * THE NEW CONTRIBUTORS Jim Lynch was a memb.or of thci Goroka branch of the PMSS in the oar ly sixtfos and did somo cnving in tho highlnnds during this period. Mike Wainwrioht was 3 8.M.R •. _gds)logist working in P.N.G. in the cnrly He did samo caving in the .. bofore returning to f1ustra.'1in;; : ... * * * '\. PNGCEG BWGE Several years ngo Bev Wilde designad and produced a badge for the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group proposed by Kev Wilde and Van Watson. The Wildes havo produced a numbGr of thG badges which can be obtained from Bev nt PoOo Box 1055, Goroka, or tho editor. The badge features stylized mountains and a cave. It is done in black on red and is quit2 handsome. * * *


NIUGINI Ci1VER VOLUfVlE 3 NUMBER 2 51 f\ SPELEOLOGICr.L BIBLIOGRriPHY OF THE HIGHLliNOS DISTRICT Michael Bourka * (;I f,llen, Jim. (1972). The First Docnda in Now Guinea l1rchaeology. r,ntiguity .g 1 so-f9o. • i\non.(1960). Csving in New Guinoo. 3. /,non. (1962). ii Our 111an in ffow .2 ,!J,_,S .S. (8) g 3. f\non. (19?). Coll.apse in Tunnel Dcfoys the Ramu. P.N,&o P_ost-Couric:r, Sept. 27, 1973g 14. f1non. (1974,1975). The Cavin'] 149 l ( 4) g 24 56; l ( 1 ) 1 " Bnin, Jo Ho C., DoEo, ctnd R. Jc (1970) .. Geology of the Kubor {inticlino -Cc:ntr2l Highlands of Nc:L: Cuinoo." Bur. Ros. Record 1970/79. Brass, L. J. (1964). Summary of tho Sixth Expedition to New Guinea ( 1g59) • Bull r'1u._.. Htr::.t, .:ZI ( 1 .q_ s-21 so * Champion, C e R. (1968).. Caving and r

52 NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 * 11Kakata11 (1972) (Bob Bates). Through 11Hollrs Gate" to New Guinea's Henganofi Caves. Monthl,,'l 43 (6) 54-55. Leahy,-M.-(1936)" The Cc:ntrol HJghlo.ncb uf ffow Guinea .. Geogr_. ]. • 229• 260 .. MacMillan, J. Jo and Malone, E. Ju Geology of tho Eastern Central Highlands of Nc:w Guinea. BY..• flLO..• _.B.9;_:>. Dog_. 48. Munstqr, Peter (1975). Wo Found Clues to PNG's Past. PoN .. G .. Post-Courier, May . 23' 1975 * p 2r k G ;r ' F 0 ( 1 9 7 0 ) 0 c Q v 8 8 District, Now of the Unggai Division of the Eastern Highlands 1.. ..:Le! • 2J?.t:2LS:2. ( 5 ) 11 3 -1 1 5 • * Parker, F. (1974). Report on Some C2vcs in the Yngaria Division, Lufa Eastern Highlands 1(2): 184-189. Polach, H. [\.,, Golson, J,. and Lovc:r:-ing, JoFo9 anci Stipp, J. J .. (1968.). f;NU R2diocnrbon Dato List IL 2 .. Q.(2) 179--199. Road, J .. R .. L. and Jo Po ('i %?) , in the Chimbu and Eastorn Highlands Districts. Note on Invc:tigation No .. 67404. Goolo Sect., Dept. Lands, Kon2dobu. UnpublD * Read, K. (1973). Somo 1963 Trips to Hcngsnofi, and Chuave, Enstern Highland.sand Chimbu Districts. f=2''?E .. J_(3)g 77-86 .. *White, J. Peter (19652). in New Guinea: An Intorim R,eport. ]. .. ..2.s." 40-56. Whit o 9 J o P • ( 1 96 5 b ) .. r,nthr912ol. in Papua-New Guinea. furr ent White, J. Peter (1967a) o Ethno:-,rchse:.:ology iri 1\121.J Two Examplos. li(9): White, J .. P .. (1.967b). faim Bilong Bipo. of the Guinea Highlands_ Investigations Tow2rds a Prehistory Dissertation, Unpubl. * White, J. Peter (1972). 01 i1rchacologicol Excnvntions in the Eastern Control Highlnnds, Popua ffow Guinea. Torra f'1ustralis .f.. Dept. of Prehistory, Aust .. Uni., Conbcrrao (With the following appendices: Freedman, L.. Human Skeletal Remains from Aibura Cavo, Now Guinea; KGy, C. The ul:-the; Finr1(J r,5_bura:, Pl:::inc D. Fauna from the Basal Clay at Kafiavuna; Schmid, E. and I. The Formation of the Deposits at Kafiavana: The Results of n Sodimcntory Analysis, (with comments by J. N. Jennings and R. M. frank); Wheeler, Jo M. and Litchfield, H$ Poilen of Somo Samplos from Kafiavanno)


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 53 * White, J. Poter and White, Carmel (1964). A New Frontier in Rock-f,rt in Papua-Now Guinea. ..Illustrated London Nov. 14: 775-777. * Wilde, Kovan r1. (1974) • Trip Reports, Some Logends and to a Number of Caves in the Sinof i and Hcrigci.nof i /\reas of the Eastern Highlands. Niugini CavGr Wiidc;. K. :r\o. (in pross). Notes on the Rock firt fiibura Cave, Kai'nantu, East_qrn Highlands District O'f Pnpu s Now Guinea• E..g_. 11 th Biennial Conf. Hust. Speleo .. • . /is always I w'ou,ld greatly appr c?ciato nny omissions to the list. * Papc;rs marked thus would be of groat or interes't to most '-cavors. Perhaps you aren't intercstod in about in or carabid bot parasitos, or bot auditory mechanisms, or archaeology, or fauna from or geology of the Kubor anticline, or Cape It is also conceivable that you nron't intorostod in chasing up nn article on archaoological excavations in tho Eastern or ono on karst variation with altituci8, or geology of Saruwagod Rango, or cavo art from tho Trobrinnds. But pcrhnps you Or perhaps you ore intorosted in an aff account of tho Muller Rnnge pxpedition, or the importorco of communications n cave: roqcuo, or 2n orticlC?. on c2rbido lamps, or covo or cavo safety. The place to obtain tho rof crenco for the 3rticle that interests you is Spoloo Abstr2cts. is now produced annually by the Sydney Spoleological Society o.nd contains nq,str8cts. of the f1ustrolian and P.N .G. speleo logical lite:rntu;ro. You certainly cannot personally .obtciin cill arthe caving litor2ture published in Australic and PoN.G. But you can to and when you find an article you aro interested in writo to tho editor of Niugini Caver who roceivos many public2tions from r,us_trnlin on. nn exchnngo basis. Ho simply forwards n copy of the article to you 2nd you aro able to keep up with new idoas as well as anyone who belongs to o more rogulor coving society. Each ycnr of /", (one: or two issues) contains over 1000 abstrncts. ThorC? are six sections, viz. ca0es (by statos), and anthropology, physical and earth scic..:nces, conscrv at ion nnd tDur ism, technique and clocumcntntion, nnd mis cellnnoous (mostly humorous nrticlos). For cnch article abstractod, the titlc::, author, publication dctnils, number of maps, photographs and dingrnms nrc. givun os well os n fow lines on the article. The lntost issue of (1973. ?th issue) is now avoilable from 77 Woodfield BoulGvardo, Caringbnh, N.S.W. 2229. It from P.N.G. covering 8 wide range of subjects. Back issues sinco the tion started in 1970 arc 2lso avnilnblc, rates on request. For anyone intorostcd in the speleological litoraturu from and P.N.Go, be they a regular caver or n specialist, Di1strglian Si;wlqo f,bstr::tcts is good value at $2.50.,


54 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 THE CAVING SCENE Bougainvillo. Hal Gallasch had a look at a few dolines inland from Lanahan on Buka Island in May but nano led to caves. British Expedition. The main party arrives in June. The group coming by sea with tho gear has sailGd, and includes Jim Farnworth' s brother. In ;, pr il Howard Beck and Kevan Wilde went into TGlefomin to do some reconnaissance for tQe main trip. The trip is going really well, nccording to Kevan. Firstly they... had a lookat a limestone massif 3500 m a.s.l. called f\iyung .De Born. Nothing there. Then they wont to the Finim Tel Plateau on the Barhmen Ranges which looks very promising. They found three dolines about 180 m across and 120-150 m deep, sinks, risings9 shafts and horizontal caves, none of which they had time to explore. This aroa seems to have 1200-1500 m depth potential. Howard and Kevan have just returned from a patrol covering the bottom of a fault controlled volley a couplo of days1 walk south of Tolefomin. Kev was raving about the area last letter. 11rbn, 20 good looking holes with entrances pitches from 20 to 70 m deap! Wa rec.kon. thoret-s. about 1 OOO m between sinks and risings. Wo cut our way along tho bottom of the valloy and in about two hours walking time we got 20 halos! I reckon we will come up with some. 50 or more going holes in the recce alone. I'vo never seen anything liko it. Leaves the Mullers for dead, mate." They are going into the headwaters of the Ok Agim on the Hindenburgs before going back tQ Finim Tel to finish off tho base, cut a few mpre tracks and find moro holes. fit this stage they are surfaco exploration, cutting tracks, and huts. Howard cut his leg rathor badly with a bush knife and had a day walk out over two ranges to got 10 stitches in the leg. Kov had been getting information on cave art in the aren. Central In February 6rod Parker took a group of people from the Uni. including John Dodd, Dnvid Holdsworth and Ca.milla Huxiey, up to Javavere. He took a Y party back in fVlarch whon thoy visited Old cve. Tho party includod Mo.lcolm Pound and Fredt s seven year old daughter Vivian. f\ccording to the Dooo villagers, there are a lot of caves in the next valley over from the known caves. Dovid Holdsworth has boon taking parties up to Sogeri to look at tho rock art thore. Chimbu. In March Howard Beck, Roy Blackham, Dick Knight and Kevan Wilde Bibima -only the second timo that the cave has been bottomed. (See report this issuo). A few weeks later Kev walked from Chuave to Lendo looking at sinks on the way up, and had a look at Kirove cave. Together with Howard Beck, Linda Harrison, Dick Knight, Helen Wilson, and another couple Rex and Rona, Kov did a trip to Irapui the same weekend. Eastern Highlands District. In Match Kev Wilde got up to Holls Gates, and surveyed the cave. (Seo his description this issue.) Does that bloke ever work?


East New Britain. There were twq trips in March. Michael Bourke, Hugh Coulter, Vic DEfnt, Jim Farnworth and Tim Sprod went out to the Rembarr Range looking for caves, but werG givcm a bum stoer by the so the par-ty rc;tircd to do some rope work on the limestone .cliffs there. fit Easter 'Colin Cranfield and Malcolm Pound joined Michael, Jim snd Tim for. c.i t.r.ip ... :f6: ..... a ... '.:new cave beyond Gaulim. ngain the guide come good. The, party was taken a with a tiny overhang at the; bottom instead of the promised cave! So ..... thoyfcll back to the Malabunga pumice caves with Nick Bozaat. Malcolm pushed cave No. 4 and got in another 30 m or so. Manus District. Geoff Franci.$ in the ....... : .. "I:r.l'. •. :.f"ebrunry he visited NgEJ-Polimat to wator samples studies. Peter Daniels joinod him in March to go out to Loniu tci collebt'..,more water and to introduce Pet Gr to caving.. ComG f1pr il and Michael Bourk8 Joined Geoff and Poter for an Gvcning trip to Nge-Polimat for more samples and some photographs. Geoff roturnod the following day to collect his water bottles. Lator in the month Hal Gallasch, Julius Crowin and Geoff did a trip to Loniu. They absGiled into a now soction and surveyed it. It was found that it is possible to get into the new section from the oldor section without going over the drop. Naturally Geoff got moro water samples. During May Geoff went out to Sunni and "was lucky to find the caves still They have bulldozed .... ___ roiscd reGf, passing within 2.0 m of Towan cave nnd 60 m of the a small cave with 20 m of pnssnge and two soil-f illod entrances were exhumed and almost immediately But I suppose there is a positive side to it. 55 f1t the provniling rato of Manus road construction, spoloos will be able toi drive to Bunai by 1990 He coliuctod quitp o. f ow wnter samples and found that the groundwater nonr Kohin is brackish. New Iroland: Expedition._ ... Plnns nre well advanced for the July-l\ugust trip to tho Lel:et .. There will bo :Jl or 9 participants. Sponsorship has been coming along woll will cut the oxpcmsos considerably. In April Michael. Bourke, Jim Farnworth and Tim Sprod hnd nn aerial look 2t the plntcau •.. The flight was very intorosting apart from the fact that tho plane son. (Soo report this issu o.) ' . . ,W1;3st.ern HighJ;ands Districtd Ho.ns ond his wife went up to Hagen aver Easter and endGd up doing somo unexpoctod ca\!'lng• One was a well known river cavo. The othor ones wore about 16 km out of Hagen towards Minj. Tho caves were fairly small and nothing spoctacular9 except. that there wero ings in one of them. They consisted mainly of.human figures, snakes and a mosaic. Hans heard a fow stories about 'the caves and found the villagers , very willing to show them the cnvos. Ona of the caves was usod as a burii:ll place. R.M.B.


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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 57 Pi'1PUfi NEW GUINEr\ Kr;RST TYPES o 1,. TOWER Kf1HST R. Michaol Bburke * . In Papua Now Guinoa are to b0 found a variety of 12ndforms developed on limostono known as Kerst landforms are those whore soluticiri.ptbtossos nr:e dominant. Because they nro often rugged and unpopulat.ed, thoro is little develbpment near such aroas and one normally only sees them from tho air. Bqc:::'aijs8 they aro so interesting, I will be publishing a series of plates :tho difforont karst landforms to be found hero, starting with tower Williams (1973) defines tho karst forms to be found in P.N.G. as followsg n. Minor solution f c:oturos o Ho stntcs tho.t solution f 1Cif6s. (Rille.rikarron) and solution turinels appear to be the most common. (See photo on the insidEJ of tho back cover from Chillagoo). Crevice karst is another minor solution f oaturG. B. Doline karst. 11fircas of scattC?rod, separate, circular 8ncl sub:.;;.-circular depressions occasionally occur, porticulnrly on the floors of major dopressions and L\long river turraces.11 C. Polygonal knrst. "This is the most widespread type of karst landscape in New GuinGa. .3t Js _ chqractqrizod by o .limestone surf ace that is completely pitted by adjoining closed doprcssions; the tOpogrnphic df\li.dcJ's bf which produce? a crudoly polygonal network. In detoil polygonnl karst shows many stylos, but the styles merge form; thus no strict division of types is possible. The following 1. An undulating surface inciscid by close-set doprossions with like channels leading to roughly control stream-sinks. (Honeycomb karst) 2. Pyrnmid-and-dolinc karst. n terrain of close-set bowl-shaped depressions with intervening, concave pyramidal residual hills. 3. Cockpit or cong katsL (Kegclkorst). f\ sea of rounded conical hills with intervening gullyed depressions or cockpits. 4. Emin tower karst. relief dominated by stoop conical and cylindrical towbrs with rounded tops, but inset with intervening dopressions. 5. Arote-and-pinnaclo knrst. A spectacular terrain of almost bare, subvorticol, snw-toppod ridgos, rct.iculntQ.ilJ.,P.A(JP•. The precipitous ridges or nretes sometimes ronch 120 m high and rise dramnticnlly nbovo deeply incised closed depressions and gullys •11 Photo 1 shows tower karst in tho Emia valloy, south west of Poroma the Southern Highlands. According to Williams (1972), the Emia typo of tower karst is quite widespread in tho and seems to occur in strike belts where * Keravat, E.N.B.9 P.N.G.


58 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 bedding is thicker bhd where local relief is greatest. It is also known: from 3l'ound Koroba. Photo 2 shows the classical tower karst type, in this case a tower in Malaya. The towers rise several hundred metres out of the flat alluvial plane and striking. Tower karst is from southern China Vietnam, Cambodia, Thniland, and into the Malay Peninsula. It is known from other areas in Asia as well as in tho Caribbean (Jamaica, Cuba). Caves are commonly found at the base of the towers. The classical Chinese drawings of steep hills are of tower karst. Photos 3 and 4 are from Chillagoe in north Queensland in an arid climate. /"\gain thG towers rise out of n plane of non-limc:stone rocks. TherE? is a tourist cave in the bluff or tower in Photo 3, and n car can be seen outside the cave's entrance. Photo 4 gives a close up view of nnother tower and the solution tunnels can be seen quite clearly. (Photos by author.) REFERENCES, Paul Wo (1972). MorphomC?tric Lnnlysis of Polygonal Knrst in Now . Guinea. .. Bull. 761-796. William.a, Paul W. (1973) Variations in Knrstlandforms with New Guinea. Geograph. Zeitschr ift Beihofte, Er dkundlisches Wiss en, ,llg 25-33:. * * * NOTE ON THE PHOTO IN THE ADVERTISEMENT The phtot shows karrenfie.J.d development {nn oron of limestone with solution f oatures) from one of the bluffs at in north Quoonsland. Both rillenknrrGn (siriipHf solution rills up to 3 cm deep) and rinnenkarren (natural gutters and knife odgqs 10 cm or greater) can be soon. Photo by Ro PHOTOS IN NIUGINI The dGvelopment of most of thG prints usod in Niugini Caver is dono by Colin Madden from Keravat Sonior High School. Colin can turn n print with poor contrast into a good one suitnblo for publication -and he often-tms to as the photographs 2.r o somotimes taken under unfavourable conrJi tions. Thanks Col. BIOLOGY AND SYMPOSIUM The South F1frica Spelcwlogical f\ssocintion has cidvisod that an International Symposium on cavo biology and paloontology will be hold in South Africa in August 1975. A contact address for those intorastod is: P. 0 • Box 4 81 2 , . C/\PETOWN. South BODO.




NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 61 BIBIMA -THE SECOND DESCENT Kevan r1. Wilde * On Saturqay tho.Bth March, 1975, Bibima was bottomed for only the second time. The descent was carried out by Roy Blackham and Howard Bock currently of Mt. Hag9n; aryd Dick Knight and Kevan Wilda of Goroka. No one led the trip we just wont. Tho first descent of Bibima, thp deepest hole in the southern hemisphere (-494:m or 1,620 ft)jwas made on 5th and 6th August, 1972 by Van ;E3ill Sar.idrprs, Tony Mnddern and Kevan Wilde (WildG and \JJntson, 1973). We al.l. met. and overnighted at Kundiawa with an early morning start. The Mai Road js now almost completely non-existent so wo had to walk from the highway up to. the entrance which took about two hours -porters were hired to holp carry the gear up to the entrance (2,100 m a.s.1.). We riggGd tho.first and second. pitches (six and thirty nine metres with one continuous longth of Bluowator III ropo with two covering bolays at thG top of tho socond pitch, and commencod the descent by about 1100 hours. The remainder of the with tho of the 'Passion Cooler' (which was ropa-rigged) were with tho samo tackle as tho previous descent and we wero at the bottom by 1615 hours. The ascent took.a little over six and a half hours nnd wo wero back nt the top of the six metre entrance pitch by about 2300 hours; thus cutting the origi nal time by more than ninG hours (without survoying). Tho wholo trip, in fact, could possibly bo reduced to loss than nine hours We were all impressed by tho immense proportions of 'Lucifers Quarry', particularly_ on the way out, with the slog up tho stooply sloping and collapsed floor. Howard took quite a lot of photos for his home club journal and was quito impressed by the formation in the chamber pro:ceeding 'JumarlubE:' pitch. By the we had dG-riggod nnd haulGd nll the genr up the forty f ivo metros of shaft to the entrancG we woro all a little weary and beginning to f eol tho chill of tho cool, night air of thd Poro! Ranges. Our rucksacks were not to be seen, anywhere, and we later learned that they had been removed by the porters for safety -so we loft the gear at the entrance and sot off for the highway where wo had loft Dick's .car. Wo wore back in Kundiawn by 0145 hours on tho Sunday morning, very tired, but ngroeing that it was a good trip. f1lthough the trip was madG in the 1 wet' therG was not .suff iciont wator to cause us any concern (probably due to the small catchment arc: a). The only problems encountered were the slipping of the sheath and abrasive woar on the now Bluewater III rope. Tho slipping of the sheath caused Kevan' s whalotnil to jam about 10 m off the bottom of the second pitch and ho had to transfer over to Jumars and prussik down. Reports from England say that 'Bluewntor is not all that it is cracked up to bo1 , and they might be right. REFERENCE Wilde, Kevan and Wntson, Vnn (1973). District. Niugini Caver 1(1) g Box 1055, Gorokn, P.N.G. Bibima Cave, Porol Escarpment, Chimbu 2-6. * * *


62 NIUGINI C;1VER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 i1N f\ERir,L LOOK f;T THE LE LET PLriTEr\U 2 NEW IRELf1ND R. Michno! Bourke * In which we inspoct thu plateau from tho air -sight a useful lake -take a numbor of photographs have an unexpected swim when tho plane crashes in the ocean -visit Lomorika plantation -and return to Rabaul in a rescuo plane • . . . . . . . . . . Early on the morning of 26th l1pril, 1975, Jim Farnworth, Tim Sprod and I flew over to the Lelet Plateau in a single ongine aircraft piloted by Les Mitchell. Tho impression of the plateau from the air is the massive; block of limestone that rises up to 1400 m from the sea. Tho cliffs on the south west coast are quite improssivo, and arc up to 500 m high. The highost part of tho plateau -above 1000 m a.s.l. -is extremely rugged forest covered karst country. It looks more like honeycomb than cone There is 100 m or so between the ridges and the bottom of the dolines, and crossing this country would be difficult. Wo sighted one of the largo dolines ovident on tho aerial photographs. The north cast edge of tho high country is dissected by large gullies and would be oxtromoly difficult to traverse. Wo also sighted tho hut Kevan and Jim stayed in up on tho high country. It nppoars area they visited was not tho best for doop cavos. Of course when you are on the ground in tho forest, it is difficult, to know where you aro. The track from Dalum and Limbin would not go ovor tho high country as markod on tho map. The top of the platuau is real devil country. The wren around the villages is about 900 m n.s.l. and is moro open. It is quito gentle by comparison -although I do not recall thinking that when we walked across We could recognize the villages we had previously visited. One important discovery was that thoro is a small lako in our proposed dropping zono east of Limbin. This could bo a good water source provided it persists in the dry. The country is cam? karst, but the cones are not particularly high and they are not continuous as are the ones in the Kikori area of Papua. Just as we woro about to loavo aron for the trip back the ongino stnrted to humbug and the cockpit soon filled with smokoo After putting out a m2yday call we managed to cross the island to tho north oast coast, losing altitude rapidly. Les tried to roach .Lamerika strip, but wo woron't suro whore it was. In any case the engine died just before we reached tho coast, and we had to put down in a hurry. Los very skilfully got us down in a bit over a metro of water about 25 m from tho beach. Unfortunately the plane overturned when the front whool hit. Los and I endod upside down under water. It took some time to free ourselves and got out. Apart from bruises, the only injuries wore cuts to Jim and myself whoro we broke the perspex windows to got out. There woro a few anxious mumonts while we searched for each othor from the opposite side of the plane, unaware that everyone was out. Jim got a truck to Dave Larkin's plantation, and wo got a radio message to O.Cofi. informing thorn of our safety. By this time a rescue plane had landed with police and a doctor. Dave has offerod us his truck and use of his house for the coming expedition. After getting the plane nshorc, we flew back to Rabaul. reconnaissance is very useful -but preferably in a twin engine planet * D • f"1. S • F. , Ker o.v nt , E o No B. , Po N. G o * * *


NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 63 TENTH BIENNH\L CONFERENCE SPELEOLOGICl.L FEDERflTION A. Wilde * The 1 Oth Biennial Confarence of the Australian Speleological Federation was held at the University of Quoensland in Brisbane botwecm the 27th and 29th of December last year. Jean and Mike Bourke and Bev and Kevan Wilde represented P.N.G. There were some one hundred cavers gathered from all over Australia. :The conference people were, in the main, housed in the Union College and a lecture theatre was provided for the papers. Papers were quite diverse and covorod 8 wide range of topics, but there was a large sGction on pseudokarst (whatever thnt rGnlly is),, Thero wc;;ro papers relating to geology and geomorphology with an interesting 11travel guide" on "Cave and Karst nroas in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga11 by John Dunkley.. r1 guy called Les Hall gave a very intorosting pnper on E1 bone cloposit at Marble f1rch,.-N .. S.W. -and -a -second nRoost SelGction of the Eastern Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolo2hus l!}CQ..ELtJ.Y.llus" jointly prescmtcd with filan Young and Andy Spo.te. There wore a number of papers on tho Chillagoe cavos and karst which is receiving a lot of attention as a "new" caving aren., fi t1.10rthy paper, .. Etna ConsE?rvation ... a history of nrbitrGriness", carrying the long fight for the protection of Mto Etna and LimGstone in Central Queensland even further, was given by Lex Brown.. There wero many moro. f\ndrew Pavey showed his caving movie which was roccivcd with both onthusiasm and criti cism. Anywny, he's won a grant to make a film on Kubla Khan (Tas.) on the strength of it. Mike Bourke gave a paper entitled "Pseudokarst C3ves of the Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain, 011 which doscribod 8 number of Cc'.JVOS in volcanic ash and theorizod on thoir formation and development. I presented a paper on the rock art of f'dbura caVG in the Eastorn Highlands which included some local legends and a compnrison with Kuncliawo. sites. Thnt about sums it up. fill in all, a quite considerable contribution and we look forward to seeing the rosults in print. f,ndrow and f1nne Graham, who more than capably organized the conference, are optimistic in guaranteeing the early publication of the proceedings. The last but one evening consisted of a huge feed and gallons of grog at the "Cavemans' Dinner" held at the Union College mess. A fine meal was presented and no one left tho party hungry or sober. On the last afternoon were the speleosports with a cunning duck in a lake, rubber tyro and sacking squeezes, ladder and ropo pitches up the sides of buildings and a stream passage and chimney in a water drain ••• charming. Woll, after everyone had completed it was decided that the P.N.G. mob wore pikers and that wo should have a go. So Miko and I (tho worse for three nnd a half bottlos of cider), Lox Brown, Pnulinc rkMnhon and Peter Shaw commenced the courso, finishing but a short time behind tho leaders. Thero wero a of trips aftor the conference to Kompsoy, Chillagoe, Mt. Etna, Camooweal and New Caledonia. Mike, Joan and I wont on the Mt. Etna trip and the twQ mon continued on to Chillagoe. We visited a number of the well known caves in those nroas. Prior to the confcronco I hnd been to Tassie nnd done a trip to Kubl2 Khsn! Genghis !

64 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 SPELEO PERSOW,LITY -FRED P/1RKER The first thing that strikes you when you me:.:et Fred for the first time is his ago -or rathor lnck of it. You have heard about him for ages and read his papors, so you anticipate an oldish bloke. Instead you are confronted with a fellow in his thirtios with boyish looks and a big grin. Ho wos born in Moerut, India, in 1941 After high school Frod came to P.N.G. as a kiap. He was postod to Bougainvillc firstly, and thon the Eastern Highlands in t 63. In OctobGr that year_ he was transferred to what is now tho Chimbu and in 168 to In lato 1973 ho joined Wildlifo Section at Konodobu and is still with the didimon -although Fred insists that ho is still a kiap. In 1960 he mot Gordon Bain in Port Moresby and joined tho Port Moresby Spoloological Socic::ty. Howovor hG didn't start caving until early '62 tuhc:m he visited caves on Bukn. His renson for caving not originol -the caves arc thoro nnd of courso they had to bo explored. He has cnvod whGrovcr he has been posted. As well as on Buka and Bougainville, he haE? cavL:d on the Short land Islands in the Solomons, in a number of areas in the E2st2rn Highlands, in the Chimbu, in the Dk Taub caves in' tho Western in the Stm M0untoins, and moro recently nt Javavciro out of Port Moresby. Fred has mado two trips to the Star Mountains and Hindonburg Range. In 1970 he visited a fow areas in N.S.W. Ho was a mombor of the PMSS and the Goroka Caving Club, and is a member of tho Sydnoy Spoleologicnl Socioty. In 1965 Fred wrote: 11My ca1Jing is done primDrily from tho point of view of mapping and oxploring nll tho c2vos in a given aroa, and preparing roports for the use of archaoologists, zoologists or cavc1rs who msy need them. I do all my exploring alone, or with ono other person. TI1is moons I trovol nt my own rate, keep loads light and do not havo to conx a group intn exploring when thoy 8Te more intorested in eating, drinking or being merry." He Dlso goos caving to collect biological spocimonsa Ho is an amateur zoologist of distinction. Ho is particularly interested in snakos, lizards and frogs. Howovor ho has also mado ciollections of bats, both from inside and outside c2ves, an cl insectE? c t1 book 11Roptiles and iimphibians of Bougoinville11 is in progross, and ;:mother "Snakes of Now Guinea" is planned. He has a number of biologicol papers published. Systomotic recording and publication have boon Fred's groatost contribution to P.N.G. spoleology. His paper on the caves of tho Porol Ranges published in 1967 by S.SgSo represented the first major systematic report on n P.NoGo cnvc area. This has boon followed by n number of othor pnpors on cavGs of all tho areas where ho has caved. He is happi2r in horizontal systems than vortic3l ones. Frod married his wife Maria in 1967 and hns a son and daughter. He is an auction froak (Froakus aucti.ofJJJ:.), 3 compulsive attendor and bidder at public auctions. He has accumulated a room fillod with buys which will bo useful 'one day'. In the middle of an otherwiso intelligont conversntion,.-ha is likely to break into a monologue on whothcr it was a or a Nycticoiusho collocted from a certain cavo in May, 1964. But apart from that hc1s a nice bloke who has made a major contribution to caving in P.N.G .. R.r,1.B. C


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