Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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.. ;s . , . . ::.-: :::. . . . CAVER __ NEWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP 3 Number 3 October, 1975


NIUGINI VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 Niuoini Caver is the newslettGr of tho Papua Now Guinea Cnvo Exploration Group. Tho PNGCEG is nn informal association of persons ongogod in speleology in Pnpua New Guineo9 and an associ8to mombor.of the Spoleological Fodoration. Volume 3 Number 3. Price Editor Qucirterly" 50 toea por issue. K2.00 or per annum R. f"lichsel Bourko9 D .. ;1.SoF o9 Kor2vnt9 East Now Britain, Papua Guinea. Jean Bourko 65 Typist Production of Numbor Michnel and Joan Bourko9 Jim Farnworth9 Harold Gallasch, Colin Cranfield and Tim Sprod. Contonts Pago Toktok Bilong Edito Focus on Manus 66 P.N.G. Spoloological Bibliogr3phy. R. M. Bourko 66 Christmos ••••••••••••••••••e•oo•o•o••o••••••••t••••oo•o••ooo•••••••••• 66 Karst on Manus Island. G. Francis ••o••••o•••o••••o••••o•oo••••••o••o•••••• 67 Papua NGw Guinoa Karst Typeso 2., Honoycomb Karst., R. Michael Bourke ••• oo 74 Caves of Manus Island. G. Francis •o••••••••••••••n$•••••••••••o••••••••o•• 76 Speloo Porsonality -Gooff Francis 92 Rival 92 Cnvos and the People in Central Manus. B. Pawih ••••••••oo•••••••••••o••••• 93 The Ldgend of So-osnh Cave. P. Pius 94 The Legend of Was Was Meri. Pokolou ••\225•••••••••• 95 The Coving Scene ••••oooooooooooocooooooooooo•oooooaooooooooooooooooooooeooo 96 f. Brief Look at Ccives and Caving in the Commonwo21th of Virginia9 U.S.110 Co We Bennett 99 i'\ustr2lian Speleologicnl Federation Code of Ethics, 0000000000 .. •••oooo••••• 102 Corrections Niugini Cnver .;!(2) ••••••••••••• 103 Cavo St8.fllps ••••••••••• o o .......... o o. o •• o. o o ••• o .. o .. o ••• ., o o o o o o •• o o o o., o. o o o o 10'.3 Free Maps 103 Stop Press -New World C2vo Depth Records. .. Mnrtyn o••••o•••••o•••oo••••• 1DL'.f Tho Now Contributors 10( Distribution of !iiu_g__ini Caver by Country 10ii *' * * Covar Photoorapho Looking out of the ontrance of the Pokohol, Central M8nUsr This is tho .arch section which only t2kos. stroam flow nftor he2vy rnino Tho vci.dose roof c2nyon partially filled with lcrgo stnlactites can be soon. Bornord P2wih is the figure the water with Julius Popoi in the right foreground. Photo by Geoff Francis.


66 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 2 TOKTOK BILONG EDITA FOCUS ON MANUS Just south of the equator lie the Admiralty Islands of Manus9 Los Negros, Rambutyo and numerous smaller islands. Together with the far flung Western Islands, they form the Manus Province (formerly District). Until recently Manus was a speleological unknown to outsiderso The geomorphologist Paul Williams had visited karst areas in central Manus and on Los Negros and reported briefly on the karst forms and caves. Hal Gallasch had described Loniu cave and David Holdsworth included two photographs from Loniu in a glossy pictorial. The situation is quite different now. In the last two years Geoff Francis has numerous caves on Manus and Los Negros Islands. In this issue he gives brief descriptions of 53 caves from four karst areas as well as an outline of the geology and karst of Manus and Los Negros. Ho also mentions caves on Ndrova, Rambutyo and Nauna. As well as these, the gnological map shows coralline limestone on Pak and four of the Western (Mal9 Sumasuma, Aua and Wuvulu), so caves may occur on the$e as well. As elsewhere the caves often feature in local lr,gends. Inside four legends associated with Manus caves are given by three high nchool students., Other aspects of the caves are their use as places of refuqe? especially during the heavy bombing the islands received during the last W cooouOC)O(;O.,Oo•o•• Eastern Highlands Province ooo•Ooeoooo••• .......... . Manus Province * * * CHRISTMAS MEET 1-(1) g L(3) g 1(4) g z(3) g 2:(4) g 3(2) g l(3) g 1 8 55 116-119 204-205 243-244 51 "".'53 91-92 Ro Mo Bourke The proposed PNGCEG meet in the Chimbu at Christmas looks like being on with a few starters from Rabaul and the highlands. Anyone interested please contact Jim Farnworth, Kevan Wilde or Michael Bourke. * * *


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 67 KARST ON MANUS ISLAND G. Francis * I. GEOLOGY-OF MANUS LIMESTONES Manus Island is situated on the Outer Melanesian Island Arc, near latitude 2 and longitude 147 It is elongated on an east-west axis9 following the orientation of the island arco AlthoLlgh Manus is composed mainly of vol canics and elastic sediments9 limestones are represented to varying degrees in most.geological-formations. . . Manus .karst has received comparatively little scientific attention. (1952) ciarried out a geological reconnaissance of the island, traversing several karst areaso He suggested that the large closed depression at Kari was of tectonic origin9 formed through collapse.into an intrusive cavityo Thompson believed that the limestone had been covered by.a thin mantle of Pliociene volcanics, which failed to conceal the former karst topography. Kicinski and Belford (1956) studiod the microfossils iM rock collected by Thompson. On this evidence they postulated an unconfqrmi ty be_tu1een the limestone and.the overlying elastic sediments. . Williams (1974) made a reconnaissance of the Los Negros and central kars.t areas, and gave brief descriptions of these areas in a broad survey of 'New Guinea karstso Williams considered that limostone residuals in the central 'area were being exhumed from under a covGr of Plioceno lavas. A geological survey of Manus has been carried out by Jaques and Robinson (in prep;.) The following account is based partly on their work and employs the stratigraphic units proposed by Jaques (pers. comm.). Petrographic names for sedimentary rocks follow the of Folk (1968)0 Tinniwi Voicanicso Extrusive volcanics of middle Eoceqe to lowei age form the geological basement of Manuso The extrusives includo lavas, agglomerates and tuffs, predominantly of andesitic composition. lenses of limestone andtuffaceous lithic arenite are intorbeddod with the canics. In those limestone mombors where depositional structures have been preserved, the rocks are algal-foraminiferal biomicriteso But in the vicinity of intrusions the limestones have been heavily recrystallised and range from mictosparites to coarso grainod marble. The volcanic and elastic members of this formation have also been locally indurated and silicifieda As the limestone lenses rarely exceed 30 m in thickness, karst development is very limited. No are known in the limestone mombers of this Dremsel andYirri The Tinniwi Volcanics havo been intruded by intermediate rocks of midple fvliocone ageo The intrusives range from qu?rtz diorites and to dacite porphyrieso There were several phases of emplacement (Kirwin9 1974). Mundrau Limostoneo This formation unconformably overlies the Tinniwi Volcanicso The limeston8s aro compact_croam to grey algal-foraminiforal * PoDo Box 1469 Lorengau9 Manus Province, P.NoGo


68 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 biomicrites, with 10% to 65% allochem grains embedded in a matrix of limo mud. The allochem grains are mostly algal plates and foraminiferal tests of calcarenite size. Occasional biomicrudites with larger grains aro present and there are some fossiliferous micritos with less than 10% allochem grains. In a few localities detrital intrasparudites may be found. Their intraclasts consist of broken biomicrite fragments, cemented by sparry calcite. Thero aro also rare recrystallised limostones. The Mundrau limestones range from relatively puro carbonate rocks, to muddy biomicritos with a hydrochloric acid insoluble residua of 20%0 In additions occasional horizons of chert, calcareous lithic arenito and pobblo conglomerate are intorbedded with the limestones. Most limestone samples have an acid insoluble residuo of less than 7%9 consisting mainly of clay. Quartz, magnetite, pyrite and fragmonts of silicified volcanic rock aro commonly prosont in the sand and silt fractionso Bodding in the limestone is extromely variable. Somo outcroos are massive and whilo others are rhythmically bedded, with individual laminae only ono or two centimetres thick. The bedding planos ofton contain concentrations of insoluble residuos1 and some stylolytos have dovelopedo Those appear to be secondary features, formod by pressuro solution. Dips on usually vary between 15 and 45, but in some southerly areas the bods dip very stoeply. The directions of dip aro normally away from tho central intrusive complex. The stratigraphic thickness of the Mundrau Limestone is highly vari ablo, but in places reaches 200 m. Lauis Sandstoneo This formation consists almost entirely of elastic sediments, ranging from middle Miocono to lower PliocGne ago. ThG sodimonts include calcareous tuffaceous lithic siltstonos, mudstonos9 pobble conglomerates and some poorly sorted cobble and boulder conglomerates. Sodding is woll developed in tho finer grained membors which often contain foraminifora and marine molluscs. Generally the facies become moro finely to the east. Lorongau Basaltc Basalt and mndosite lavas, tuffs and agglomeratos are present in eastern Manusv Tho formation ranges from middle Miocene to Pliocene age. Its older members are unconformally overlain by Lauis Sandstone9 but scattored outcrops of the more recent flows unconformally overlie the elastic sedimonts. The Lorengau basalts havo in somo cases boon hydrothermally altered. Thero are occasional lenses of sandy foraminiferal biomicrite interbodded with the extrusives. Naringel Limestonec Raised reefs of lower Pleistoceno ago unconformally overlie Lauis sandstone and Lorongau Basalt in easterly The Naringol limestones are mainly algal-foraminiferal biomicritos and algal-corallineforaminiferal cream to orange in colour. There aro some biomicrite-biosparito transitions, where tho matrix consists of lime mud and sparry cement in equal proportions. Intrasparuditos are also represonted and there are occasional algal-coralline with organisms preserved in growth positions. The Naringel limestones are ofton highly porous9 particularly the coralline materials. In some cases it proved impossible to etch specimens in the


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 69 field, since acid infiltrated the rock immediately. Large pods of sparry have formed by tho infilling of voids up to 40 cm in diameter. Vughs lined with coarse, pointed-spar are well exposed in tho quarry near Naringel • . The limestones are generally pure carbonate rocks, with an insoluble residue of less than 6%. There are some local concentrations of terrigenous mud or manganiferous minerals in primary cavities. Many samplos contain high mag nesium calcite and_ some are dolomitico The dolomite usually occurs as sparry cement9 though in rare cases the matrix has been recrystallised to form fine grained replacement The insoluble residua consists of clay, with skeletal grains of quartz9 magnetite, marcasite9 pyrite and pyro-1usi te. In some cases the ferruginous minerals have been weathored to limonite. The limestones are usually in the few locations where bodding is evident, the dips are generally loss than 15%. Both. physicnlly and chemically the Naringel Limestone varies considerably over comparatively short distances. Quaternary Coral. Slightly raised fringing rnef s of upper Pleistoceno to Holocene age are well dev8loped in easterly areos. They consist partly of reef rock and partly of unconsolidated coral sands and coarsor detritus. reef rock is largely coralline-algal biolithito and biomicruditoo There are also intrasparudites formed by the recementing of broken organic material. In addition to corals and Lithothamian algae tho limestones contain molluscs and larger benthonic foraminifera (Jaques pars. comm.). The late Quaternary limestones are oxtromely porous and permerible, evon though has been much precipitation of sparry calcite in primary voids .. Quaternary Alluviumo Sands9 muddy silts and muds9 primarily of t8rrigenous origin9 are widely distributod.. They occur as estuarine, lagoonal, backswamp or floodplain deposits, with occasional higher lovol terraco remnants. Near Lorengau the coastal plain is underlain by more than 25 m of u-nconsolidated sediment (Weber1 1971) .. In areas with volcanic hinterlands9 the sands are often rich in heavy minorals .. Regional Structure and Tectonic Historyo Manus originatod_as $trato in the lower Tertiaryo The vulcanism was associated with crustal stresses created by plate movement. The island is situated on a small southerly moving plstelot, which is intorocting with a more rapidly wostward moving Pacific plate, along a subduction zone just north of Mnnusp The resulting westerly drag has formed a series of very prominent tensional faults, NE-SW in orientation (Kirwin, 1973)0 There is also a set of compressional faults tronding NW-SE, In the vicinity of faults, jointing is usually para-llel to the fault lineamentso Where major faults are closely spaced9 faulted blocks have been considerably tiltedo The tectonic movements were initiated in the Oligocene or Miocene, and have continued through to the Pleistoceneo The thickness of the formation implies changes of relative sea levol during deposition9 but their nature is uncertain. Tho main area of deposition was in a tectonically controlled passago of NW-SE trend9 situated east of the main volcanic island. Kicinski and Belford 0956) hRVe suggosted that there was an interval of and probable erosion, between the formation of the Lauis Limestone


70 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 and the Lauis Sandstone. This conjecture was based on foraminiferal dates for the respective formations9 rather than field observations of the contact. But dated samples were obtained near the top of the younger formation9 a considerable stratigraphic distance from the contact. The basal members of the Lauis Sand stone are usually unfossiliferous conglomerates. Foraminiferal dating of a sample collected from the base of this formation near.Derimbat suggests that there is no real faunal break in the sequence (Jaques, pers. comm.). It seems likely that during the middle Miocene9 volcanic-derived elastic sediments were deposited .beyond the growing reef complexes. Sedimentation continued into the upper Miocene9 in some cases on the reefsc The main uplift occurred during the Pliocene to lower Pleistocene. Thompson (1952) believed that the Kari polje was too large to be adequately explained in terms of karst processes. He suggested that it had developed through collapse into an intrusive cavity. Drainage patterns south of Mundrupurio indicate a ring fracture about 1 km in diameter. But the fracture is largely outside the polje and much smaller than the latter feature. in the south, the depression is by a series of NW-SE faults, but large vertical displacements are not evident. It thus appears that the polje is basically an erosional feature9 though the erosive processes have been influenced by geological structure. Williams (1974) considered that the central karst area UJBS being exhumed from under a cover of younger volcanics. Field observations of the contacts indicate clearly that most of the adjacent volcanic rocks are older than the limestone. The Mundrau Limestone overlies a steep9 irregular and eroded surface of Tinniwi Volcanics. There are only scattered outcrops of Lorengau basalts in the highest topographic positionso The basalts usually overlie Lauis Sand stone or Tinniwi Volcanics rather than the limestone. Consequently there is no evidence that karst forms have been inherited from a pre-volcanic phase of development. II. KARST AREAS OF MANUS ISLAND 1. Los Negros Island.. Los Negros is a smaller island at the eastern end of Manus. It consists of low volcanic and limestone ridges which trend ENE-WSW, following a fault system.. The ridges are often separated by estuaries and alluvial lowlands. Steep sided raised reefs of Naringel are present at Lolak and Loniu (see figure). Much of the karst consists of rough, pitted limestone outcrops and large floaters.. Filamentous algae play an important role in the development of these forms9 which have been termed nphytokarst" by Folk tl &• (1973). Where phytokarst is well developed the limestone is a deeply corroded skeleton with numerous sharp projections!) which are treacherous underfoot. Solu tion pipes and wells penetrate the rock for considerable tree roots often follow partings or solution pipes into the limestone. Small root grooves criss-cross the surface of some outcrops. Areas of bare karst are dissected by soil floored corridors which follow fractures. The corridors are mantled with brown earths up to 1.5 m in depth9 while elsewhere small pockets of dark shallow rendzinas separate rock outcrops. On the ridge above Loniu Cave, crevice karst with corridors up to 10 m deep has developed.. There are a few closed depressions9 usually elongated parallel to


.! NIUGI NI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 71 the ridges. Occasional springs issue from the base of the ral.sed reefs, where Naringel Limestone is in contact with late Quaternary corals1or sediment. As' the Quaternary Coral disp:l.ays similar solution sculpture, the is not very obvious in the field. . Along estuaries like Lhniu Passage and Was Was Meri, .the limestone forms vertical or overhanging cliffs which bear relict mnrine notches •. The most pr'om inent is a double notch with nips at 2 m and 4 m above mean high water level. The double notch is in .height9 even where re-entranl coves extend back at right ta the main shorelineo ) / 2. Bunai. At Bunai, c?n the south eastern corner

. .... "'"'-...... " ....... '\.. . .. '"" ..... "A .; • !• -.,,,.:-.....::-<\...,' ... ... KARST AREAS OF MANUS ISLAND . ' . J. 0 (J ' ,, { \ . ,. .. ....... '\.J 4 MANUS Bayam River 3 Central . 2 Bunai . • ., & ti. -0 ' ' '"l.!i,;). f}'$. l3!t 1.N Loniu 1B i Lolak : :, "''""'!!>'""': 0 t ,./ O 10 . .. !II-,--,I &4 111=-kilometres . ' . . . " ... '.


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUM8tR 3 73 South of the polja is an area of f luviokarst where tha Worei River flows alternately through large caves and alluviated blind Smaller rising on the adjacent volcanic hills frequently sink at the limestone contacts. Lateral undercutting by the Worei has formed vertical or limestone cliffs whi-ch ate encrusted .with white liQhens. There aro several aroas of cookpi t karst with gullied closed depressions up to 1 50 rn in depth* fHthough some cone hills present, very few of the depressions have developed entirely on limestone. Tha terrain is an intricate mosaic of limestone and hydrothermally altered basement volcanics. After rain ephemeral surfaco flows aro channelled down the gullies and disappear into eink$ which vary from bedrock passages to shake holos and boulder piles. Each deprosaion usually has multiple stream sinks, but. only a small proportion are penetrable. In soma cases a of stream sinks is situated along the same drainage line. Their respective degreos of evolution suggest that there has been an upstream migration of sink sites over The lower sinks only receive surface flow aftor prolonged when the capacity of the most recent sink is exceoded. On a larger scnlo this process may lead t.o the dismembering of cockpits; a numbor of cockpits havo smaller depressiens nesting within the main one. Between Droia and Ta\JI is an area of "degradeq" cockpit karst, with gullied limestatte. hills and flat floored depressions mantled with nllogonic alluvium. The of these depressions is controlled by a fault syste;-;-i trending Small CU.ff foot caves occur at the base of the limostono s In a few cases streams in the cockpits and flow across the alluvium tc sinkan the othor. side. Alluvial terraces 7-1 O m. above the present ophomor21 ch2nnals are repre$Gn'tad. ln savetal Most of the karst is with mid-height to tall closed forest,-wi-c1'f has an irregular canopy,. "'lluviatad cockpit floors often support sago swamp forests and there are some areae nf regrowth. The dense and irregulttr f o:r:ost cover makes air photo intepretatior Jho U.S. Army 1 :25 OOO topo"" graphic maps a number of serious inaccuracies: major .stre-am sinks aro misplaced by up to 400 m, Qlosed depressions are .. as-normal while other closed depressions are shown where nar.o exi'st. 4, Western• Mundrau Litneetona outcrops in narrow discontinuous bolt near the Bayam Rivelr, south western Manus. There are occasional cone hHls and cockpits, elongated along fractures; numerous large corridors give much of tho topography a linaat gharactor. Major allogenic rivers have eroded tho down to bssew;e,at and the belt without sinking. Other Karst ,A,;Jrniraltx On Rambutyo Island 75 km ESE of Manus9 a raised reef similar to the one at 8una1 extends far severnl kilometres along the east coast. lt is reputed to contain small caves. Nauna 100 km 2.:::st-of cons,ists or limestone whieh has been raised up to 1 OD m above sea level. Pinnacles end solution wells are present (White and Warin, 1964) ii> The pattorn of intersecting characteristic of Manus is also evident hero<.t . Thero are thus goad pq$Sibilities for cave develoi:)ment.


74 CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 REFERENCES folk, Ro Lo (1968). Pe$rology of Sedimentary .Rockso Hemphills, Austin, 170 PP• talk, R. L., Roberts, H. Ho9 Moore, Co Ho (197:3)0 .Black Phytokarst from Hell, Cayman Islands, British West Indies. ..e.o • ...!:!.!1. ]i: 23512360. Kicinski, F. M. and Belford, (1956). Note on the Tertiary Succas.sion and Foraminifern of M'anus Island. fil.!l 1Ll!it Rep. l..: 71-75. Kirwin, Do J. (1974). Preliminary Report on the Geo\ogy of the Central Manus Is. nporphyry" Copper Deposits. Aust. Anglo AmericFJn? pp. Thompson, J.E. (1952). R.eport on the Geology _of Manus lsland9 Territory of Papua and Now Guinea, with Refer.ence to the Occurrence of B auxi teo Bur. '.!iu• .BsiQ.. 1952/82 (unpublished). Weber, B. (1971 ). Groundwater for Lorongau Town ly, Menus District. .0. Investig. 71 .027 (unpublisped). White, w. c. and Warin9 O. N. {1964). _A survey of Prosphate Deposits in the South West Paci fie and Australian waters-. ..!:! filu. ...!:!.!1 • ..' Williams; Paul W. ;(1974). Cave and in E2st New Guinea. Internat. Congr. Speleol., Stuttgart, 1969. * * * PAPUA NEW GUINEA KARST TYPES. 2. XARST R. Michael Bourke * The two plates opposite show honeycomb karst in the Ra.ulei Range of New Britain. In the upper photograph the land surface is dissected by a deep ravine. The lower photo was taken from a altitude. Honeycomb k2rst is the name applied by P. W. Williams';to subdued co.ckpit o.n Mt. Kaijonde. The surface can be as an undulating sl.Jrface punctuated by innumerable rounded basins.. Thi:? divides between the depressions form a network as does a honeycomb, hence the It :occi1rs on the Le let Plateau of New Ireland, in the Range, Mountains and Whiteman Range of New Britain, on Mt. Kaijende in the Enga P:rovince, in the Darai Hills of the Gulf Province, in the Hindenburg Ranges; ahcrprobably in many other areas such as on the Keriaka Plateau _of Bougainville. (Photographs by nuthor}. * 'Keravat, P.N.G. * * *


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 77 CAVES OF MANUS ISLAND G. Francis * The number of caves on depends on the definition of cave which is employed. A compl'.3te list of 1all small cavities seen by the writer would run to several hundred items. In genf3ral the following list is confined to penetrable passages at least 1 5 m in A fE?w exceptionf have been made fo.r. overhangs and small cavities which have anthropologicaJ or prehistoric sig.nificance. LOS NEGROS ISLAND LN1. Loniu cave. A large phrGatic system with four entrances and :abbut 500 m of passage; usod as a rough, undeveloped tourist 9ave by the owner. (Francis, Gallasch9 1973). Holdsworth <.197,q) giv,es two photographs from Loniu. LN2. Ngai-Loso No. 1 c:,avo. About 20 rn of pas3age blocked by a terminal rockfall; may formerly have been connected with cave (sGe map). LN3. Ngai-Loso No. 2 cave. About 20 m long wLth sloping floor of mud and rubble; blocked at the end by formation (see map). LN4. No. 3 cave o Similar in form bil ': sornewhc:it larger than No. 2 cave9 has been walled off int.o chnmbers by the devo _:Jpment of formation (see map) 0 LN5.:• Mau cave ... A small cave with a pool near Loniu Passage. LN6. Ahlu cave. A large phreatic system with one entrance near Loniu Passage and another higher up on the ridgoe LN7. Nge-Polimat cave. A phreotic system witf about 1 50 m of high narrow passages which terminates in a water fillod ri ft9 S:J tuated in a small collapse doline on the ridge opposite Lolak. Described by F12ncis (1974b). LNB. Ndran Akohau cavo. Has about 150 m of pr1eatic passages, generally contains flowstone cemented shell.s9 si tuatoc near inner end of Was Was Meri (see map). * P.O. Box 146, Lorangau, Manus Province, PLATES The upper one shows road construction, Manus style• The romains of a' sm'all cave at Bunai which was destroyod in May by the ro2d construction can be seen on the right. Tho road passed within 20 m of Towan cav3 and 60 m of the Kohin doline. (Photograph by G. Francis). Lower. Geoff Francis takes the temperature of :: tuater sample collected from a dripping stalactite in Nge-'.lalimat cave on Los Nc;ros. The samples are being analysed as part of a geomorphological study. (Phot: by Ro Mo Bourke). '


............ ---i r T . ...... ................. ---, ....................... > •'* , .. : •.•.•.,:: .:. . •..••• . :::... . .;. . MOR-PHOLOGICAL SYM BOlS FOR CAVE MAPS .bedrock .wall unsurveyed outline outline at a different . l. t . Ot . . . .. . . d i i \ vertical c.avi t.y up verbcal cavity down roof canyon outline only, detail shown flowstone veneer on bedrock --chaf\ge of roof level flowstone wall, bedrock not flowstoneptan. section stalagmite:-_plan, section stalact. te-pliu) section mud or earth wall mud or earth sand vertical drop i:1 floor change of floor slope pool perennial watercourse in termi Hent watercourse grav_eC cobbles, congt_omerate fill .? ... collapse blocks .; .. ' ,-: ....... guano .r, . < :. • timber , driftwood


NGAt-LOSO ---.. "5 74 8.Pawih G.Francis Grade 2 metres No.2 B 10 , CAVES ' ...


80 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 LN9. Parakeipu cave. A small chamber with a squeezo entrance and ro4grf, pitted limestone near entrance to Was Was Meri. LN10. Puko-eng cave. A large systom with several vertical two Papitalai people have disappeared in there and thus entry is forbiddeD• LN11 • Degedi lis cave. H ns long narrow phre atic: p nssage situated on ridge above Was Meri. . ' ' BUNAI { BU1. Palang cave. About 70 m of narrow phroaLLcpassago, partially unroofed by solution and situated in hill behind Bur:ni. BU2. Kohin cavo. A phreatic network with 130 rr of passago leading off from a small collapse doline; ono entrance is 02lled Nambu1kap and was not known by the locals to bo part of system. BU3. Lower Kohin cave. A small solution passags oxtending at least 20 m into the limestone bolow floored by elastic so:iment containing shells; small flow of groundwater through irregular cc_ld possibly bo pushed by n rnicro.;..b od. BU4. Towan Two small bedding plane chamb :1rs,, one on top of the other map). BUS. Poywih cavo. A mo'd'ium-sizod1 weli docora.t Jd chamber which slopes downwards (see map). BU6. Narnbw2tap cave. An oxtonsivo phreatic sys:Gm9 situated in a hill at the northern end of tho raised reef. CENTRHL MANUS CM1. Wakil cave. Stream sink which sometimes t J:os iurfaco flow; a rockpile collapse developed on fault9 penetro.blo for 50 m CM2. Marang Ngnt cave. PI stream pRssago about 10 m in length through which the Ti-i River entors the Keri Poljo? the middl: sections aro too doep to wade. (see CM3. Wasuu cave. A.n intermi ttontly activo vado: .(1 .cavo with 50 m of small passages; situated beside Ti-i Rivor downstroam from f Ngat (see map). CM4. Wapuu. A small partially unroofod arch wiih entrance long takos flow from Kari Rivor during peak runoff (sos map). CMS. Ndrompilu cave. fl vadose cave with"60 m oi passage; stroam flows through an incised on a small tributary of the Kar1 -River (soo map). CM6. Lehlihia caveo l\ vndoso cavo with planed rnilings nnd channel grooved pillarsi about 40 _m long, just downstreorn from CMS (sec map).


NOBAN AKOHAU CAVE under rock .. .. --'"'; . "l-;. t

G. Francis Grade 2 . ,: .. CAVE


Surveye4 20/1 /'75 K .. R Frt1,""tdS 2


84 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 CM?. Ndrompahna cave. .l\n ingrown meander cave 75 m in length, situated on small tributary of the Worei River, slip off slope of sediment extends up to planed roof. Pulmondrol cave. Vadose passage on small tributary of Worei ; CM9-. The Pokohoh. . Large. arch about 180 m long, unroofed in the by collapse; ono active stream passage with terminal takes Kari River out of the polje. CM1 O. Ndrehinti-i cave. Resurgence to Pokohbhf can be followed upstream for 50 m to sump. CM11. Mukou cave. Stream passage 200 m long on tributary of Woroi River; extensive collapse. CM12. Ndrins cave. Dry former river cave 180 m in length, above Kopunei; lat'gely modi by c:rllapse. v y • • i"':;. ........ .. -" CM13. cave. Major sink of upper ltlorei River, about "l5tftf m-iong .. -...... . and averaging 50 m in locally. unroofed by collapses to form karst windows. CM14. Rahamusinen cave. Large river cave on.Wo:rei downstroartr from Kopunei. CM1 s.. Tswasiu.. /:\rch about '.60 :m in length "ortworei Rive;!' downstream from Rahamusinen.: CM16. Tiniwai cave. on Worei River downstream from Tewasiu. CM17. Motonenis cave. River cave about 200 m in length; on Worei downstream from Tiniwai. CM18. Matndt'umok cave. Large river cave with 300 m of passage on Woroi River near confluence with Awah. CM19. Ndrokapulal cave. Stream passage 150 m in on small triqutary of Worei. CM20. Matdrahuur cave. Stream passage on small tributary downstream from CM19 and just upstream from Worei confluence. CM21. Ndrelei cave, On small tributary of Worei River; has about 150 m of passage with rockfall at downstream end; lower end of cave only takes flow after heavy rain. CM22. Metdrohorki cave. Former sink for Worei River, now only active during about 500 m of passage terminating in collapse which has fot'med karst win probably connects with Pumpulyun. CM23. Last cave on m of passage negotiable by canoe upstream fr-om resurgence.


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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 91 CM24o Pukonknrahnt. Fault controlled corridor with overhang on limestone capped ridge east of Pumpulyun9 somo s:-:iall solution passages leading skulls on ledges and in solution well furthor downhill. CM.25. Pundroh. Cliff foot co.vo 15 m long with beddi!J9 plane roof3 in cockpits SE of CM24o CM26., Big Snmsau cave. Resurgonce in cockpi; wost of Pundroh; could be negotiatod under low wator conditions. CM27.. Li ttlo Sam sou cave. Ro surgonce just sr1uth of CM26; at least 50 m of a_ctivo stroom pnssage with old9 sediment chokod Josurgence. CM28. Overhnng lodgo noar Cr-127 !f cor:tains CM29. Loptahun cnvs .. Rosurgonco of small sboam near Drapkapilal River; nctivo stroam pass ago ancj older passago which only takes flow nfter very heavy nbout 80 m of cavo9 could bo pushod furthor ur cJer low wat8r conditions. CM30. Matandru covo.. Sink of Dr8pknpilal ponetrab1o for a long distance undor low water conditions. CM31. Kumburuoo Resurgonce for Matandru noar Woroi two holes above resurgence appear to sc2ling polo er lasso woulc be needed. CM32. Drangut cave. Rosurgonco in cockpit ncnr Droia; penetrable for 20 m. CM33. Drangut Sink cave. Sink for CM329 penctrablo for fair distance under low water conditions. CM34. Mata-ah 02ve. On south sido of Woroi River upstroam from Mataworei? about 35 m of passage. CM35. So-osah cave. A small 6 m in Jongth9 with large stalagmite at in valloy of Losa River onst of Tawi • . CM36. Porsos cave. Narrow covo about 25 m ir longth, developed along fault near former sink for sm nll stream .. REFERENCES Frnncis9 G .. (1974n). Tourist Cnving on Los Negros Island9 Papua New Guinea. $USS ll(B)g 77-780 Francis,. Gooff .. (1974b). Ngo-Pelim2t Cave, Los Negr:::;s Island, Manus District. Niugini Caver 1(4): 253-254. Francis, Geoffrey (1974c). Karst f\rnas of Isl::::nd, T.P.N .. G. r.1.S.F. Newsjotter 65: 7-9. Gall8sch, H. (1973). loniu C8ve9 Los Nogros Island, Manus District. Niugini Cnvor 10-13.


92 NIUGINI er, VER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 Holdsworth9 David (1974). Madang/ and Manus Islando Papua New Guineno Robert Brown and Williams9 Pnul W. (1974). Cnvf1? nnd K:::irst r1reas in Enst New Guinea. • .itl Intornat. Congr. Spoleol. Stuttgart, 1969. SPELEO PERSONf.1LITY -GEOFF FRi,NCIS I Geoffroy John Francis from Sydnoy? st and speleologist; born 19479 scholarly in manner; quiet by n2turo. Geoff did n B.A. at Sydney Univorsity9 starting in 1965. After this he worked at Jenolan caves as a guido as ho wns not for othor field jobs. Later he worked at Vit .. Kaputar N0tional Pork as n rar!rJor. He studied ox tern ally from New England Univorsi ty9 and in 1973 vtmt full timo holding casual jobs only. In March 1974 ho como to Papitalai High on Los Negros Island as a volunteer. Ho is currently doing o rfosters dogrne extGrnnl ly from U. P. N .G. on the Mnnus knrst. He plcms to go finish at the enci of '7 5 and finish off his M.n. Next year he may start on a Ph.D. in N.s.w .. He started caving about 15 years ngo o.nd six rs 290 joinod tho Sydney University Speleological Socioty.. In NoSoldo he cavec at Jonolan9 Wee Jasper, Cooleman, Mole Creek, Wellington and Cliefton. His interest in geomorphology started when people started asking him questions whor he was a cavo guide. The interest blossomed in 1972-73 when ho did a stud; on the Wellington cnves. f1 paper on this enti tlod "Evolution of the Wollingtor Caves landscape" has been published in Holictite. Geoff has really put Manus on tho mnp cavo wise. Before ho started caving thero, only a fow caves had been reported. Geoff set about an active programme of finding, exploring and survoying caves .. Ho has rrcorded some 53 caves from Manus and Los Negros I slands9 identified the main caving rogions and. pub his findings. Most of Gooff' s on Monus has bcon done with his students as he has found difficulty in convincing o.nyono else to come out, apart from some of the nuns at the high school a few timos. His mair. caving interest is now geomorphology, although he once koon on oxploratJono Underground he spends his time surveying, collecting wator samples, cave sdiments and other specimens for his geomorphological studies. As well as on karst geomorphology, he has been studying his local environment including sojl profiles9 the ocean and the botany of the forest. Geoff had hopod to join the British expedition this yeai as the P.N.G. scientific represontativo on the trip9 but this appecrs. impossible. R .M oB o CLE01 S RIVf1L Your editor receives caving magozinos of nll but one received recently featured something one doesn't soe too often a nude caving centrefold. The model -unfortunately a mnlo had his privato ports hidden by his wet cell. The mngazine was.the Motropolitnn Sooloologicnl Society Journal9 Doc. 1974. * * *


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 93 CAVES AND THE PEOPLE IN CENTRAL MANUS --Bo Pawih * .The Legend of Wasu-u Caveo This story comes from the village of Kari, Central Manus9 which is surrounded by mountainso Around the village you will find caves, and in them are underground streamso Long9 long ago there lived in the village. a rich gardener by the name of Onglourou. He had in his gardens many yams and he worked the garden by himself 9 from morning to evening for several month3. One day while working in the garden, he found that some of his big fat yams were missingo He didn't worry much about it that day, but was surprised to find more of this happening on later dayso He decided to catch the person who was doing ito On the following night he took his war weapons and waited in the bushes behind the garden. Late in the moonlight night a devil who looked almost like a man. The reflection of his body in the was like a mirroro He jumped up and down singing as he went in search of yarns. When he was very close the gardener stood up and shot the creature with of his stone-head spearso It gave the devil a great blow, and with a loud cry of pain he jumped up and ran towards the mountains. His body was later found changed into a snake, lying at the entrance of the Wasu-u Cave. This cav= was th2n believed to be the house of the devil. The Story of Kopuneio During prehistoric tim:s a tribe settled on the mountainside which is now called Ndriaso {), man named

94 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 THE LEGEND OF 50-0SAH CAVE P. Pius* rich man one• lived with his son at Mataworei. -One day-he decided to his dogs' When he went into his store room he found that his dogs' teeth were all falling off because the fibre string which bound them was rotting. He wanted to find something to store his dogs' teeth on. He decided that the pitcher plant was suitable for this purpose.. Leaving his son at home, he took his stone axe and headed off into the bush. After walking searching for hours he found a small pitcher but was amazed to see that the pitcher plant had ashes on its leaves. He thought it must have come from.a house or village nearby. Forcing his the undergrowth he came to a house which was alone in the bush. As he approached the house a girl called Aluh stood at a distance and called out 0Are you a human being or a masalai?" n1 am a human being9 n he replied. uThen come in and have something fo eat with me and my old grandmother9 she said. The.fDan went in and ate. After eating he took the remaining food home in a pallet dish). When he came home he took the food and gave it to his son to eat. After the son had eaten he asked his father where the food had come from. Hie father told him everything, and went on filling the pitcher plants with dogs' teeth". The son left, saying that he wanted to return the p2llet9 and returned along the way that his father had told him. As soon as the young man and Aluh for the first time they fell in love with each other. After returning---the pallet .. the son went back to his father. Aluh however followed secretly and saw the yo_ung man's' house. A few days later she stole away from rer grandmother and came"to. liVo young s home9 which means in custom that they After their marriage feast they lived happily Lntil Aluh gbt pregnant •. Then" the you-ng man decided to look for other girls to have sex with. , One day he met some girls who lived on a misty hilltop above Mctaworei. Every morning he stayed with them, returning in the afternoono Aluh got curious so she secretly followed him one morning and found out all. She came home angry and after i.1.JOrk"."' ing a plan she slept. One day her husband woke up late. While he wa[ still sleeping Aluh took a canoe paddle. and went. up the hill to where these maidens lived. When she got there still asleep. She took the paddle rnd pushed it into each girl's anus9 However she forgot to wipe the blood off the tip of the p_addle and b:r.ou-ght it back to its place under the hc;use. When the husband awoke he ate and then he went up the hill. When he got there he saw that his friends were all dead. So he came back and saw blood on th& tip of the paddle. He realised what had happenEd and went in and beat Aluh up so badly that she made up her mind to run away. After packing her belongings in a small sago s-trsiner (basket), she went into thE busho She was ashamed to go back to her grandmother so she headed in another diioction9 walking and.weeping. She came to a small cliff at So-osah. She called her forefather's wishing to be a stone and her home a cave. She changed intc a woman shaped stone and still remains in th8 cave. When the young man faun( the stone, he felt very sad. * P.O. Box 1469 Lorengau9 Manus Province, P.N.G. * * *


NIUGil\il CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 95 THE LEGEND OF WAS WAS MERI A. Pokolou * . . ;>.:. . ... 1 ., The story is about, two girls and their grandmother. They lived in a cave by the lagoon which is now called Was Was Meri. The girls' names were Hinipong and Hinimei. As a custom these girls were dressed in traditional clothes and taken into a hut; in the cave. Their ears were cut and they had to stay in the cave until the ears were cured. One. day they were tired of sleeping and told their grandmother that they wantedto come out and wash. So their grandmother took them out and shook the ashes out. They_ sat under the big lime stone rocks. The two girls jumped into the lagoon and each time they went into the water their legs began to turn into the tail of a whaleo Every time they come up they called out to their grandmother9 "Look at and their grandmother luas very proud of them. Slowly their whole bodie.s were changing.. The next time they jumped in they changed into whales and swam away o They swam around Los Negros Island and south to the place called Pere. At that time the head of the village and his men went out to throw their net.. They left it in the sea and the girls who were whales swam into it and got stuck. The next day the fishermen found the whales and took them homG. They cut up the bigger one arid shared it among the village people. The people.sent the little boys and girls to fetch when they arrived at the place the smaller whale was, they found a girl. She was weeping and told them to go away. They ran back and told the headman. He went there to see if the little ones were tricking him and saw the girl who was young and He took her to his house and married hero Later she gave birth to a sono The boy grew up and used to pl2y with other 1i ttle boys. Once they called him n son of a fishn and he ran crying to his mother. Then one day everyone went to the gardens except the headman's wife and son and one old womano They went to ask for help from the old womano She gave the son some spears and told him to throw a spear in front of them and there would be lando They thanked her and walked to the beach; he threw a spear and there was lando They started to walk and behind them wns sea. He did this many times over until they reached Naringel. They came up and started walking to W8s W2s Merio When they reached the lagoon the woman hid her son among the flowers and went into the cave. The grandmother asked who it was. Hinimei called out her own name but the grandmother could not believe it. She went closer and let the grandmother touch her. Then granny knew that it was Hinimei, and heard the child outside. She sent her granddaughter to bring the child in. The old woman was Very happy. When the boy grew up the grandmother said that they would have to make a feast for hime Villagers who were invited were told that after they had.eaten they should excrete into leaves and wrap them upo Later on khe boy's father and people came and joined the others who wore still enjoying themselVeso When : the boy's father and his people went9 they were given the leaf parcels which they thought would be food. When they saw the excrement, they realised why they had been given this rubbish. These people are now dcc:id and the cave is covered with At Was Was Meri you can still see the rocks where the girls jumped off. * Box 146, lorengau, Manus Province9 PoN.Go * * *


96 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 THE CAVING SCENE British Expedition. Howard Beck and Kevan Wilde completed their two month reconnaissance trip in June having gathered a lot of information on the area for the mnin trip. By mid-September the deepest cave explored by the 26 man party was Agim Tern at 180 m deep. The main chamber in this one is about 60 m all roundo The longest is Selminum Tern in which 13 km of passage had boen surveyed with more to go. Much of the pnssage is very large9 old and phreatic with recent vadose invasion. There is artwork inside an engr2ving of a bird, some abstract patterns, and two human figures in a white mineral. The system also boasts a possible archaeological site and a large marine vertebrate fossil in limestone. In the Finim Tel area the party explored a number of sinks and shafts, but nothing went deeper than 80 m. They have collected a lot of cultural material and that the expedition is already a success from a biological point of view. In the remaining few months of the it is planned to visit the fault controlled valley area and Wnm Tigiin9 and possibly the Star Mountains. The expedition forms the cover story for May/June number of Descent. Central Province. Several trips to Javavere were made in May-June and a group of seven people is quite activeo A resurvey cf the Old cave has been com menced by Malcolm Pound to train cave surveyors. A trip to a reported limestone outcrop at Kwikila 50 km down the coast from Port Moresby was unproductive. East New Britaino Over the June long weekend Colin Cranfiold9 Jim Farnworth and Tim Sprod headed into the Bainings to revisit Obungeram cave. The cave was pushed to end and Jim did a rough survey. Cave depth is a respectable 102 m9 making it the deepest explored cnve on New Britaino Leigh Glee son visited a small cave near Nag ail village on Mskada Island in the Duke of York Group in Septemboro Over the Indeoendence period, Jim and Leigh went into the area in the Bainin9s. They entered a number of shafts and saw others on the ronge ab ave G 2l8vi to H0Lt1ever lack of drinking water hindered exploration and forced them over the range to Wilambimki. From here they walked ta the west ccAst at Poncio and flew back to Rabaul from Open Bay. Eastern Highlandso Things are pretty quiet in the highlands now that the Wilde has joined the Brits. However in September Michael Bourke, Gary Higgens and Dick Knight had a look at the art at Kafiavana near Goroka and took a few photogrnphs. There are some access problems 2t Kafiavana now. Manus. In the May holidays Geoff Fr0ncis went to Drain in Central Manus, and got washed out again. However he did manage to push Metdrohorki cave for 500 m to a rockpile which could possibly be negotioted with a rope. Geoff feels that the cave almost certainly connects with Pumpulyn which would make the total system nearly 2000 m in length. Since May Geoff has mnde one trip to Ndran ahd two to Loniuo He writes: "I'm beginning to regret the choice of Loniu for a long term solution study. The public transport system here is worse than ever and I often end up walking there. Also the yob tourists keep knocking over my drip


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 97 New Ireland.. Over July-August an 8 man party spent a month exploring caves on the LGlot Plateauo Over 100 were explorod9 the deepest of which was 102 mo The longest pitch was 81 mo A number of rivor caves were explorod for a rospect able distancoo In the villago aro2.(800-1000 m aos .. L) .caves wore scatterod b otween the conos. :: (fh ... f':"lfii:J' Cab ove 1200 rn) 9 numerous caves wero found in every karst but they usually chocked off after :.a pitch or :two., Despito tho f:dluro to exploro really deop ones9.the party: remained convinced they were thoro., Only n tiny fraction of tho k8rst pl8t-oau was exploredo Ono of highlights of tho trir wos to stand on the edge of the plnteau and lC16k .. 2t.. oa1unronly a few kilomotros oway and over 1200 m belowo --A numbor of interesting leoends wore heard. CJne of the mor.o unus.ual finds :w2s 89mo h':lifn'c2n lJ.ohos deep :.a.Tiglit,--:hor'izont"0l caveo Hou.Lthey ,90 .. t; th.ere is ... El ..... Oh 'tl'Yo way out .soma of tho pcrty had rlook nt. t-ho Dnlum Rivo.r ci:O'rlies out of 0 They werG not pushod . Another'ing. :cavo visited on the coast contnins human bonos and art9 and is used for magic. Overall9 it was o hassle froo trip thnnks to the ossist2nq.a g.i.ven the part.Y ... by _Dave Larken 8nd tho Lolet P?oplo.. .. .In July had n look at 2. burial ..... .... ;Namatanai. .. It c.ontnins comp lo to skoletons. At Silom ho. ted. the big bat previously visited and Rnot;her ono just. the Foi'fowing, .th.e .LGlet tion Glee son visited .:.!\row into E1 numb or af smell but intoresting caves near Metoran Planned Yet another expediti.ort4 A Tasmaniq-Quaonsland based trip is planned for J next yDar ... The ft:.'.rget area :::f9:"$tf11 be .. frlg -:decided but-8 rofurn to the U::ilet -13 .. o:t;': ..... i t msy go '-to the Lavani Valloy o A 6 to 8 man term is onvisaged. The leader9 Dnvc Gillieson9 says that an"y, PNGtEG cavers would be welcome .. The 176 qn. al though the lo ad er s11 J"Li1i a J.amtfs_: antr .. Moil :.:l'fltfn tg_omerJ';o:r-(;J irr •. I :heard that the proposed Ameri.can trip is progressing CoK, ... 9 so wo may see them O'ut hero before too long.. . Southorn Highlandso In 1'1ay _ .. knrst enginee:ring oxpert9 Boris Po.rlin9 visited the 10 .. .. r ag2 ,Ri\10r' area. Thay found 2 possiblo .. rEJsurgence for tho river_ sink that drains the \.t.Jaga., It is nbout 12 km south east of the dam site areo!) Gerry found anothGr SGrfos Of C8V88. uJhich appearGd fo be' e:))tensiV8o ),n the 11.b.GGhiVeti areo ( toumr karst) no;;r Mendi he found a 3 m sink". .... ' ... ... Now Coledonia .. Vory little caving is done in9 or at least described from9 the rest of tho Pacifico However, in a 7 man party from spont about 6 woeks exploring, and .documenting caves in New They m2naged to' 11do'" most of the major C2V8S. and w:ill bo publishing Q comprohonsive report shortly.. The trip wns m.m'red by an accident in which the lendor g Dave his


92 1263 Ex: Aust.. Army J /Green Shirts New-used condition Sizes 11" -17t" $5 .. 00 ... 3 .. 00 All cotton Knife Fork Spoon 3-piece combination set.. Aluminium Alloy non-rusing 65c set used condition Army Steel Dixie Good/used condition 95c Khaki Webbing Haversack 13" x 13" x 41t New $5.50 Convas Type as above Plus 2 Front Pockets 9D' Rings for $5 .. 50 new on NIUGINI CAVER PoOo Box 719 RABAULo PAPUA NEW GUINEJ\ o 1/Green Cotton Trousers Thigh Pockets for extra item storing Size 26" 34u $1050 $2050 Army Slouch Hat Good condition Puggaree $6 .. 50 $L50 Cotton Drill Shorts Used and New Sizes 24" ... 42" Khakis Navys J/Green, White Black Leather Ex-Army Boots Repaired as Necessary $6 .. 50 $8.,50 Vinyl Poncho New $5 .. 50 303 Bayonette As new with Scabbard $13.95 Without $11 95 (Advertisement) 92 7131 ah. 59 X 7v Vinyl Groundsheets or Sun Covers $2.,50 only Webbing Straps Large Assortment Blanket Straps9 Padded Harness9 Spiderss All Complete 50c to $1., 50 Good used and some new condition Webbing Belts Australian Arrrry $1 .. 80 U .. Pistol Type $1 .. 50 Good/used condition Nylon Mosguito Nets Ex Army 72" x 36n x 36H As New $7-.50 Drop Nylon Net 36" x 72u x 7211 Drop New 00 WE TARPAULINS AND HiWE A REPAIR SERVICE PRICES QUOTED DO NOT INCLUDE POSTAGE OR AIRFREIGHT AND ASK FOR DETJULS OF OUH FULL DISPOSAL RANGE * * *


r l NIUG!1NI CAVER 3 NUMBER" :3 . J ,} A BRIEF{/LooK AT CAVES AND CAVING/IN: THEcoMMoNwEALTH or VIRGINIA, i. , ),: 1: . .. ,J. Wo Bennett * Virginia was one of original thirteen found11d by Brl. tish and with the westward expansion from tho eastetn _cosstline lryto the B\lue Ridge Mountsins (a very old chain running roughly north south for approximately 1600 km and located:/approximately 300 km inlsnct frorn: the coast of. the {\tlantic), began caves in rocks making Up those mountains. As early\as 1630 Virginians ... from cave ... ' earth and exploring the coves that of:. the . -stcintrcmce r_oom9 and an occasional snake, including the harm loss black rattler9 may also be0found there. Because the temperaturo of Vir94hia qnvos i$ between 10 c and 12 C, never venture very far underground (and Salamnnders9 cave crickets9 spiders, snd bootles9 along with stone flios aro found even far within our caveso Unfortunately, the increased human cave traffic is taking its t911 on these crenturese Sev6ral species bats close to extinction9 and pollution of ground wnter is destroying much of the insect life. Efforts aro being made to stem this fatal tido and in some areas are meeting with success. * 4620 Hanb0ar_Aveo9 Richmond9 Va 232269 l ••


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NIUGINI C/\VER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 101 RASS9 or the Richmond Area Speleological Society9 is an affiliate of the National Speleological Society and. was chertered by National in 1948. It now has approximately aa members and services to its members and to caving in general, along with fellowship and information to and for all interested caverso The NSS has more than 100 local chapters or "grottosn throughout the U.S.A. Richmond, Virginia9 the homo of Rf.SS and our magazine Light' , .is approximately 240 km east of the Blue Ridge Mount:_:ins. Most caving in this area is done through organized groups who al:'e usually ,3ffiliated with the NSS o Most trips aro taken on weekends and involve driving the cave areas, fortunately a majority of which is dono on Interstate roads, ab.Jut 2t hours away. Because the Virginia caving area is close to several populous cities, organized caving is now facing its greatest challenge ever in this country •. Many people are now who know nothing of consarvstion, equipment, safety, or caving courtesy. Unfortunately, many well;,. known and easily reached cnves are now virtually destroyed by these careless, unknowing mobs. One Virginia cave was recently cleaned out by RflSS volunteers and over 2 tonne of tr2sh (mostly beer cans) were removed. Another weekend saw a popular C8Ve with less than 1500 m of passageway containing over 50 pecple at the same Organized caving is now attempting to depopularize caving by m8intaining a low profile, limit: news and magazine coverage of caving and c2vers, nnd discourage recruitment of new cavers. We also are trying to educato those people now interested in caving. Only this can save what caves we havE left. RASS also organizes caving trips and so.entific exploration and evaluation of cavei in our area. A meeting is hold once monthly where Society business along with (hopefully) an informative program is presented. Wo will qualify members in such areas as verticnl and underwater caving, providing training sessions for those purposes, and we also maintain a Fieldhouse within the caving region as a base of operations and meeting Normally,. a Rf;SS caver is equipped with a f:ibregloss helmet, bross c2.rbide lamp, coveralls, boots, and a possibles bag. In the bsg are his secondary and tertiary light sources, water, food, first aid supplies,. lamp repair Id t and spare parts, and reserve carbide. Most of our crwers now carry spare c2rbide in prefilled lamp bottoms with screw-on lids. Electric lighting is increasing in popularity. Vertical caving is also in vogue and the vertical caver uses a rapple rack fastened to his swiss soBt. r.scensio:i is nccomplishod with either j umar s or Gibb' s ascenders. Women a.rG 2cti ve and make up 2 largo percentc:1ge of both the membership, governing bodies, and caving p8rticipantso Richmond area cnvers follow the activities of the Papua New Guine2, New Zealand and Australian cavers with interest and, I must admit, n great deal of envy. Exploring virgin caves and making sub stam:ial contributions to the expans ion of caving is becoming rarer and rarer herec Gnd removing trash and spent cnr along with erasing graffiti from tho walls: is becoming all too common. Hopefully cavers in are2s with newly devBloping and doveloping systems will learn from our mist8kes nnd protect and preserve the n;1tural resources that they have. This is an open invitation to our fe llouJ ca113rs. If and when you ever come to our part of the world, please don't hesitate call. filthough wet re thousands of kilometres from the caving areas you know, yodll find Virginin caves wet, muddy, cold9 dnrk, dirty, and beautifulo * * *


102 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 SPELEOLOGICHL FEOERf1TION CODE OF ETHICS The tederations expects thnt the following ruleswill guide the actions of members of Societies. 1. (1) They will, in reporting their work, avoid and discourage .exaggeration and unwarranted statoments. (2) They will in publishing their work take particular care to acknowledge other peoples' .contributions to the work involved, either as clubs or individuals9 published work, personal communicntion or whatever. (3) They will be discreot in disseminating informntion thnt might endanger caves. In particular they should not bro2dcast their knowledge of entrance locations or routes. 2. {1) They will treat guides and other officials of tourist caves courteously and rospectfully. (2) They will endeavour to be courteous to th::: genoral public, but will defend caves from the attentions of the u1instructed where this is deemed nocessory for the protection of th} cave. 3. (1) They will carefully observe the establish;d rules of good camping conduct especially in the removal and proper disposal of rubbish. (2) They will bury their faeces when camping bush conditions9 but should avoid the catchment areas of caveso 4. (1) They will have specific or tacit approval from the owner or guardian before entering private property or caves reserves. (2) They will follow normal local practices r}garding gates on properties or reserves. (3) They will not, except in cases of emergenJy, presume on the goodwill of owners in dry are

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 103 (3) They will take. care to avoid disf'iguration or destruction of cave decoration or cbve. Disturbance should be conf'ined to tracks. In arens of clean flowstone floor, muddy clothing or boots must be removed end only clean clothing worn. Tracks should be rigidly adhered to. Helmets should not be worn in the vicinity of stalactite clusters. (4) They will not under any circumstances lonve fsoces in cnves. They will prepare themselves boforehand or, when underground9 make provision for the removal of fneces. (5) They will take stringent procautions to isolate all artificially introduced organic wastes from the cave. 6. (1) They will, when visiting on area frequently visited by another club9 do all in their power to co-operate with that club. (2) They will conduct disputes in a restrained and gentlemanly manner. 7. (1) They will behave responsibly in environm3ntal matters. (2) Tfrey wiTl endeavour to protect the of f,ustrnlia. * * * CORRECTIONS NI UGI NI Cl\ VER 2!i1) The article by "Kokata" (not "Ksraton) referrod to on p29 and p52 was written by Rick Giddings9 not Bob Bates as statado Another article on the Sonofi caves in the EoH .. P. wos received after this issue went to press. It (1971) (Lynn Giddings). Sinofi Cave a look at Papuq Guinea Post ... Courier. f.pril 199 1971 p3. * * * Collecting stamps that feature caves or k2rst features is a hobby some cavers indulge in. In the PoN;G .. districi series issued last the 15 cont stamp is from the Chimbu and shows Mt. Elimbari with a typical round house in the foreground. Mt. Elimbari has a sheer limostone cliff hundreds of metres on the western sspoct and is quito a spectacular Caves found there have been disappointingly small however. This stomp appears on the front of the 1975 telephone directory along with t"he other 1 a stamps in the district series. * * * FREE Mf.PS r1ccording to a note in The Drum in the Post-C Jurior recently 9 the De fence force is giving away lots of old World War II mapso They con bo obtained from Cnptain Poter Bates-Brownsword9 Post Office, Wnrds Strip, Waigsni. * * *


104 NIUG INI Cf, VER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 3 STOP PRESS .. NEW WORLD C f, VE DEPTH RECORDS M. Martyn * News from Neil Montgomery in The French have connected Pierre Sto Martin with s higher ontrance adding approximately 100 m, depth now 1270 m o PSM beaten by Gouffre J.ean Bernnrd, which wns connected to its resurgence cave. Depth nbout 1300 m. PSM regains title when Bristol cavers connect it to Peroau to give a depth of about 1400 m. (Reprinted from 1• Sx;dnoy Speleologicol Society 12,(9)g 216.) * 2/101 Clovelly Road, Randwick, N.SoWo 2031. * * * THE NEW CONTRIBUTORS Chuck Bennett is the secretary of the Richmond hrea Speleological Society in Virginin9 UoS.f10 He is the editor of their magazine, Light. Mike Martyn is the Journal representative for the Sydney Speleological Society. Bernard Pawih is from Kari villago in Central Manus. He is currently studying Form 4 at Papitnlai High School and has caved on Manus and Los Negros Islands. f\nna Pokolou is from Lolak village on Los Negros. She is a Form 4 student and Head Prefect at Papitalai. She is also the first female to write for Niugini Paul Pius is from Mntaworei village on Manus 8nd is currently a torm 3 student at Papi talai. *** DISTRIBUTION OF NIUGINI CAVER BY COUNTRY For a spacefiller here is a list of countries where Niugini Caver is sent together with the number per Papua New Guine8 55 •o•••o•o••••o••oo•ooo 54 New Zealand 00000000000000• 9 u.s.A. •••••• a United Kingdom 000000000••••• 5 France ••••••••o•••o•••o•ooooo• 2 Hungary \22500••••••• 1 Kenya o•o••o•••o••ooo•o••oooo•o 1 Switzerland 00000000000••••••..__._1 1 36 * * *


BUS G AR PTY. LTD. Suppliers of Cave, Bush, Snow, Ice, Rock, Canoe, Orienteering & Cross Country Ski Gear. Mail orders supplied interstate or overseas. Please send SOc for Catalogue. 46 Hardware Street, Melbourne, phone (303) 67 3354


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