Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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K26-05662 ( USFLDC DOI )
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NIUGINI cnvrn VOLUME 4 1 Niugini Caver is the newsletter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group; an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in PoNoG. Volume 4 Number 1 Editor Typist Production of Last Number March, 1976. Quarterly 50 toea per issue. K2.00 or $A2.00 per annum. R. Michoel Bourke9 DoPoI., Keravat9 East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Jean Bourke Michael Bourke9 Japeth Morris, Stanley Bongbong, Endi Pais and Stevo Freeman. Contents Papua Now Guinea Karst Types. 4. ArSte and Pinnacle Karst. Jo N. Jennings 2 The Search for the Deepest Hole in the World Goos On and On. Kevan A0 Wilde 4 on the Cave Biology of the Hindenburg Mountains. P. Chapman ••••• 14 The Caving Scene 15 The 1975-76 PNGCEG Highland Meet. R .. Bourke •eo•• .. ••••oo•••••• 17 Old Copies of Niugini Caver ••••••• 19 Darua Muru9 Chimbu Province: 194.m Doep and Still Going. R. Michnel Bourke•••••••••••••••••••'••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 20 Angunga Sink9 Chirnbu Province. Kovnn, A. Wilde and Tony White •••••••••• 23 Cave9 Chimbu Provincag The SLlrvey. Yonge •••••••••••••• 25 Proliminnry Notes from a Biospeleological Trip to Now Ireland. P. Berqn •• ••••••••••••o•••o••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 27 A Solution Cave in Volcanoli thic Ar.eni te -Lihir Island. H. Gallasch • • 31 Corrections Niugini Caver A(4) 33 Speleological Prospects in Smallor Islands of the Manus Province. G. Francis •••••••••• •••••• 34 A Trip to A Cave on the Snake River9 Morobe Frank Salt •••••• 36 Speleo Personality -Michael Bourke ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••o••••• 37 The New Contributors 39 * * * 1 Cover Photograph. A passago in Se lminum . Torn9 tho long cave on the Finim Tel Plateau west of Tolefomin explored by members the Btifish Speleological Expedition to P oN .G,, last year. Tho cave -is ovor 20 km long and establishes a new southern hemi sphore length record.. Many of the p as.s.ages.' in the cave were very largeo The figure is Dainok9 one of the expedition's carriers. (See article on page 4 on the Photo by D., Brook. * * *


2 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 ,, .. PAPUA NEW GUINEA KARST TYPESo 4. ARETE AND PINNACLE KARST J. N. Jennings* This is amongst the most striking of karst landscapes. Because of the difficulty of moving in it, little is known about it as yet. So far it has been described from certain mountain ranges between Porgera and Tari, including Mt. Kaijende, at elevations of 2600 to 1500 m in the cloud or moss forest zone (Jennings and Bik 1962; Williams 19699 1971, 1972, 1973). Nearly vertical and practically bare walls of :limestone, sometimes more than 1 00 m high, jump out of dense forest, mainly to form narrow aretes or to break up into needle-like pinnacles. These sharp ridges chiefly run along the strike of the rocks and at right angles down the dip, forming joint-guided rectangular patterns. Along with forested, lass sharp ridges, they surround forested closed depressions, together forming one kind of polygonal karst. Though the closed depressions may be simple cylinders, 70-100 m across and more than 100 m deep, they also include more complex forms in which several chasms and gullies join. Therefore Williams (1971) suggested that the name 1arete and pinnacle karst' should replace the original name 1 arete and doline karst' given to it by Jennings and Bik (1962). The rock walls have very large semi-circular vertical drains9 up to 2-3 m across, ribbing them and sometimes leading into shafts at the cliff foot. All known occurrences of arete and pinnacle karst form strike belts within broader carbonate rock zones, suggesting that they depend for their formation on particularly favourable geological conditions. They certainly require thickbedded 9 chemically pure and mechanically strong9 but well jointed limestones for their development. Nevertheless it seems on present evidence that they are also tied to particular bioclimatic conditions. Jennings and Bik (1972) suggested that these cool9 perpetually wet, yet richly vegetated high levels in the .tropics may provide optimal circumstances for carbonate rock solution and karst evolution. The rocks in the instances known are Miocene in age and uplift of them probably set terrestrial attack in progress in the early Pliocene so no great span of geological time has been available for the creation of this most vigorous topo.graphy. REFERENCES Jennings, Jo No and Bik9 M. Jo (1962). Karst morphology in Australian New Guinea. Nature 12!!. (4833)g 1036-1038. Williams, Po Wo (1969). Cave and karst areas in east New Guineao ..tb.l..o.2:t.• Kongr. Spelaologie Stuttgart M 31/1 -331/13. Williams9 Po Wo (1971). Illustrating morphometric analyses of karst with examples from New Guinea. . Geomorph. 1_: 40-61. Williams, P. W. (1972). Morphometric analysis of polygonal karst in New Guinea. B_ull. fu?.Q.o Amer. 761-796. Williams, P. W. (1973). Variations in karst landforms with altitude in New Guinea. Geogr. Beih. _gg 25-33. Photographs. The upper one shows a general view of aret.e and pinnacle karst on Mt. Kaijende looking NE. (Photo by J. N. Jennings). In the lower photo a closer view of part of the same area can be seen. (Photo by E. Loffler). * Australian National University9 PoOo Box 49 Canberra9 A.C.To 26009 Australia. * * *


--i THE SEARCH FOR THE DEEPEST HOLE IN THE WORLD GOES ON •.•• AND ON . A Short and Informal Acco .. unt cif-Neui'Guinea .1 75 British 'Spe:leological Expedition :b'o (Papua New Guinea • .• • • • 0 •• Kevan A. Wilda * . Af' the 'recce' was completed-.. 97) 9 . I (iJent dowp to Port to meet the expedition members arid. H6wnrd :ierti'a'ined in Te lefomin. We raced arounq Mor.esby for three or four,. days sor:ting. out .various aspects of adminis tr.atior:i government departments an.d seto.f.f for Telefomin on 21 st After' there9 WB s'et Up our maih b.a'88:tn. an administration' house_ kino.Jcy loaned to us by the Assistant Pr'Ovincia( The. gear was flown ir".l;r ten tonnes of it, by several DC3 and the first week we about the mammoth task of sorting it all out. . . We discussed the ins outs of the and plans made and remade. It was firially decided that we would field the entire in the Finim Tel Plate au area for about two weeks o This was to serve as a P. N .Go orientation period and to everyone up for areasc Also,'of course, to look at some the features 'discovered' on the recce. (For maps and recce dstails seE!Wilde (1975)). It was decided thatthe F,ault Controlled Valley (FCV), where we believed the deep caves were. likely tb be,' should be. left until' everybody was fit and fully acclimatized. ... '1. We had already partly constructed a major base on the so an advance party consisting of Mike Farnworth, Jack Sheldon and myself off over the Barhman Ranges to complete ito The remainder of the group followed a few days later. Before long we were all settled into a r(Jlatively cbmfort9ble situation and getting into it, but none of the holes would gb. flood feature sumped9 .the $hafts chopped off into chokes. ond the big holes .such as La BuLim Tern and t Girthoil1 made magnificent free hanging 90_:1 ZO m abseils into choked, juhgle-covered doline floorso were becoming and more disheartened, we began to think we had made our first A party of four9 consisting of the original. party and Dipk Willis, set off for Fugulil De B am. After thrqg fo four dci-y s of c.uJting we got to the ' .. i ' Left photograph. A passage in Finim Tetr?, . an. a6tive. stream cave that takes part of the Ok Finim. The cave is c. 1 200

6 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 summit area and set up our camp9 at about 3000 m (plus) a. s. l. 9 overlooking tile plateau and main base •. At. such a high altitude it was cold an9 miserable (4 c at night, 14 c during day) .. , The ascent was hard9 steep and slow, th!'.Ciwgh thick scrub and stunted vegetati6n. A number of prominent and promising do lines were cut to and explored. A few caves were located, none of any significance, the deepest being about --30 m at the most. It may-he possib le9 however, to claim a souther:n hemi-sphere cave height The results wer.e becoming more and more depressing. _ In the time we tiad an aitdrop (one of . on the plate au) which 1i fted e-vf?.ryone' s spiritsg a 95% recovery, b'4;t 86me very near misses nearly hit the camp .and the spectators • .; • quite amusing. Steve Crabtree (Crabby), the geologistj some others were taken a .large do line, west of 'Gi,rthoil' and shown a cave high up in its side .• _ 'ihe local guide told them th-at the name of the cave was Selminum Temo It out to an old, but quite active• horizontal.cave system that did not appear to go. 'Disheartened they went down to the bottom of the doline for luncho Whilst.talking and eating, John Buchan, the expedition's doctor, noticed the leaves thrashing around near the doline wall. A quick investigation followed and Se lminum Tern proper was 'discovefed' • They were staggered by the massive, virgin, phreatic passage, often 3b m wide and 30 m Charged with enthusiasm, they raged through the suddenly it would appear to close down, then equally as suddenly, it would open-up again. On and on they went until they ran out of time. The news quicklf spread that a major cave had been found. Before long a large party set 6ff to, and a camp was established on a ledge9 on the cliff face near entrance of the upper system. Daily trips of ten hours became the norm, and the cave took shape. The upper series was connected to the phreatic mazes below the main passage were discovered and the system was carefully surveyed and explored. But every internal shaft9 one after_ another, surnped and our hopes of 2 deep system were once more dashed to the gfdund. On one of the photngraphic trips we accidentally discovered that we weren1t the first humans to the cave when an engraving of a bird was found on a rock slab a short way ln. Also a number df groups of engraved or scratched paralle 1 lines, some other sm ail p aintirigs, a pair of possible faded human figures9 chert flakes and l?emainS of 'bomb6ms1 ' were observed for ,s.orne.thing ... like 150 m into the cave. (A artio1e will be published on art and possible archaeological sites.) Selminum became more and mote exc.i.ti.n.g •.. f.'Li,ke .. Farnworth and Paul Evsrett were ao&h to find the fossiliied of a large marine vertebrate loddtedwell into the The remains were later removed by Dr. Wells (University of Adelaide) for study, and eventually they will be installed in the natioha1 museurn.iri Port Moresby. Meanwhile, another river cave Wctl< Kaakil Uneibo Temll was 'discovered"' west of the base by John O•Dono(ran$ andvisiohs of 2 connection were formed. We did in fact get to within 60 joining the two systems, actual connection evaded us. The cave of approximately 2 km of high ri ft9 river passage and small, joint cpn_tro11ed, high level passages. The cave was nevertheless impressive although laok,:ing in formationo


NIUGINI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 7 Filming, surveying and exploration were going on in earnest when 'Crabby1 ;' fell off a 6 m high slab of. l:' in Selminurn Tern. A 10 hour rescue followed9 the major cave rescue in P .. N.G.9 and he was taken out on to the camp on the ledge where he. was treat.ed by' the doqtor •. Suffering from a fracture of. the skull, lacerations and concussion, he remained on the ledge until fit enough. to walk to Tifalrnin and be flown out to Telefomin. A tragedy that kept him out nf caving for the remainder of the expedition. But he was able to do a magnificent job of administration at the main base. In the meantime9 more shaft bashing a.nd explora tion of the surface revealed no mor.e mnjor caves. Exploration of Selminum Tern continued daily with discoveries of 300 m (plus) of being common. As Independence was approaching9 we decided that most. of the main party would return to we had already spent more time than originally intended on the Finim Telp but it was worth it. A small keen party stayed behind with Btook9 the leader9 to carry on the good work with Selminum Tern and Wok Kaakil Uneibo Tern. Chas Yonge, Chris Pugsley and I set off for which we intended to partly explore on the way back to Telefomin. It proved to be an excellent cave with a large? impressive chamber and passage developing down-dip in a number of fairly small pitches. The stream'was purported locally to resurge some 600 m . below as the Ok l:\gim, but after -150 m we were stopped by, a sump •. Down-dip We off .back to Telefomin very disappointed9 but pleased with the trip, having found the deepest We all arrived back at Telefomiri in time for the Independence Day celebrations9 and a display it was Representatives.frbrn all tho 'min' in full traditional exciting and cbloutful The day's celo brations were climaxed wi tti a .Pig kill,., mumu' , aod. feasting, which the expodi tion . after a diet of kniited were than willing to parti6ipate in. Finally the Australian flag was lowered for the last time • . As decided to split up and other areas which we considerod had better depth However9 Sid Perou, the expedition cameraman and film director, decided that his filming' t going too well and that he was behind with his sequenceso Frank Binney, the one American on the trip, had rosigned from his position as assistant cameraman, and also decided to leave.the expedition. Accordingly9 we docided to head back to the Finim Tel to catch A couple of wSeks filming brought Sid up .to and we aet off back to.Telefomin. Some of us had a look nt a few burial sites in the Tifalmin Valley on the way back. Back at Telofomin, Chris and Chas had done a great job of sorting rations and supplies for the remainder of the and groups formed up for a go at the other areas .. -. a large, group for the FC V9 and smaller ones for the 'big ho].es' south of Urapmin and Warn Tek9n; The St8r Mountains w2s discussed9 but we decided against it on the strength'of the results of the 1965 Star Mountains Expedition (Hallyar9 n.d.' and Shepherd, 1968). Also the and organization, for the possible results9 wss. cfonsidered to be too formidable., Anyway, an advance party, consis.ting of fHan set off for the ok Nang to Up q base .for ferrying the stuff through to the FCV. Whilst, he sent news of large caves and mass.ive resurgences at about 1500 m (plus) 9 very encouraging considering the recce hRd shown that the sinks were at mately 2500 m. He also sent news of largo of water resurging out of the


8 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 . beddfng in out.crops of limestone• We couldnt t limit to ge't moving • .. . Tekan of Chris and Chas; who were to be.joined later by f\ridy E:avis,: :the deputy leader, had set off. • The area looked good on the recently obtained aerial photos with large river sinks and impressive looking ,altitude. :People started to move into: the FC V now and on the -way up we looked at the risirig.s in :the -NonQ area, mosf and of the order of 5-1 G cumecs too'. Having well estab'lished the Mong Base, we decided to descend Tina Bu Tom9 an impressive? fissure-like shaft adjacent to the clearing -on the track that eventually leads to the FCVo f\lan9 Pete Gray9 Howard Beck9 and myself, watched by a large of viliagers had encouraged me to shoot a few flying foxes, madci our way to edge of the hole. We it with a 200 m rope and one by one9 led by Peter9 we abseiled down. We were all equally impressed by the 160 m (approximately):.i almost cotnpldtely free hanging pitoh9 with curtains of water cascading out df the bedding. Completely open to daylight9 it was the most sxhil arating abseil' any of us had doneo At the bottom there was a large chamber, but t.he water sank into a mud choke on the far wall. Knowing that it could nover happen agnin9 I shot a few flying foxes, whilst Howard and Peter prussiked auto I followed, and about half 0ay up noticed that the rope was fraying et ono of the points of contact with the rock face (a pro tector ha,d' off'). I 'hauled the rope up\? tied a figurn-of-eight and con ti"''lled. the -as.cent, reaching the ::top in an all up 25 minute pruss.i'.k. once at the tape, it was obvious that longer reached the of:the and Pete abseiled down on td tho lodge and re:-belayed it with a second rope. On tho way up Alan strucka glancing blow on the head by a rock9 dislodged by Pete ascending above him9 but he was not badly hurt. . A few days 1ater9 . tho FCV porty of about eight was established at Mogond

NIUGINI cnVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER The next day Alan and I went down the shaft. I remained on Pete's ledge whilst Alan descended the next pitch. Alan salvaged the sorry remains of Sid's sound recording gear and we went back to camp. Feeling depressod about the holes and worrying about Petet s accident caused a major lull in morale, but Jim Farnworth and Roy Blackham arrived on the scene to choer us up. Explora tion between Anawoltuman and Longlang (Camp II) kept us busy for a while9 with John and rushing off and finding halos, but still not a single going hole. When are we going to got a big one? Th8t was the question on everyone's mind. I was beginning to think that wo had made a mistake, but still clung to my theory that the big ones would be on the faultse At setting up Camp II9 reports came back of a good looking hole that was still going. John O'Donovan 2nd Roy had boen down to about -100 m9 John said th8t it looked roally good, but w2s dangerous duo to piles of loose rock perched at the top of some of the pitches9 In the meanwhile Andy had returned from the Warn Tekan patrol and wanted to field a trip to the Star Mountains with Mike Farnwortho Some of us objected strongly, but they went anyhow., Wo hnd '3ickness in the camp with several of us down with bacterial dysentery9 and some SRT phobia, plus a few scares with Pete1 s near accident and fraying ropos. Our morals was low and getting lower9 because the holes wore not going and we were in 'nevor again' country which was wet9 cold and miserable9 but nevertheless Who Donny' s hole might just go. So Donny and I decided tn do i trip with a pilo of ropo9 a few ladders and some bolting gear. The hole proved to be rift-like9 and impressive9 taking just the right amount of water. fin exposed traverse near the entranco9 which Alan and some othors had rigged previously9 loft us ovor an 80 m pitch which we descended to the previous lovol of oxplorntionQ Here9 we were left: on a lodgo9 above what appearod to be another longish pitch., Donny troversod out and rigged the rope off a couple of bolts9 also :riggEid by t.lan et aL Roy had proviously pointed out that tho ledgo was o natur2l funnel for any rockfalls and that it was a most dangerous spot. He was right too., We abseiled down what proved to bo about a 50 m pitch? which was followed by a series of short pitches9 that finally led us into a tight rifto Donny crawled down a narrow squeeze and came back with tho news that tho was, in his opinion, still going9 but only for the little people., We reckoned that wo were down 200 m or so. We had a bite to eat and noticed that the wator was beginning to increase9 so wo set off up and outo Back on that lodge again I was waiting for Donny to come up the ropo9 when suddenly from nowhere camo n large rock which struck me with terrible force across both It hurled me off the ledge and spun me around on the I recovered and swung back to the ledgeo In great pain I attempted to stand up, but my legs wouldn't bend without causing considerable agony. The rock had carried on striking Donny a glancing blow as he had arrived at the ledge. My only thought was that I had broken at loast one of my legs. Donny shouted.. 'Go on9 get on the b •• "". rope o' But um were in trouble" 0 ur lights were being extinguished by the increasing cascades of water which had no doubt caused tho rock to fall in tho first place. but getting


1 (} NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 calmer9 I encouraged Donny to wait until I got my small battery lamp going. This safely .effected I slowly up tho rope. Finding the going difficult9 I was forced to take most of my weight on my arms for the whole of the 80 m pitch. Donny followod9 being prepared to tnndem if necessary. Without light for most of the way up9 he must have had a bit of a time with it. I got myself safely into the rift traverse and Donny chimneyed past mao I couldn't_ go any further9 my logs hcd packed in alt.ogether • fi quick discussion and I crabbed into a bolt9 whilo Donny sGt off out for help. fin hour later he reeppoarrr:id with some' hot coffee and a tin of cigo.rs9 wondorfuL John 8 uchan strapped up my logs with rope nnd .a couple o? splints and they hauled me: 01.J't., What a team9 another efficient rescue., Within a short time'. they had roe b:ack: :in,. bed at campo 'No broken bones, 1 John declared9 'Just some very nasty swelling.' I was out df sGrious caving from on and hed to with hearing news from my bed. There was another trip down Langlan which was the name given to the going hole, by John Buchan9 who was now getting renown for his ability in tight. places9 and one other person. John managed to get to the top of another pitch9 but it was decided that we would give it a miss because of the risk of flooding and the danger of falling rockso in the meantime, Howard and Pete had come up with another goer9 further east., The new shaft_ was named Torbil Tom after the creek that enters it. There were several trips by several people down this technically difficult cave with over twenty pitches, each with a couple of bolts because of the lack of natur2l belays9 and many hairy traverses with tight take-offs. Alan pushed and pushed himself until ho was nearly worn out. But each day people would come out of the hole, walk back along the muddy9 miserable track and report that they had only pushed it for 50 m or so. Tension set in and morale was again at a low ebb. Hore we wers with a going cave but not enough fit people to push it. Just at the opportune moment (as usual) I managod to say the 'right' thing, 'What you want is some hard Now Zoalander or they'd be in and out in no timeo' The effect9 in fact9 was like holding a red flag at a mad bull and I certainly deserved the torriblo ear bashing th2t followedo After many long and hard trips the lads bottomed it at about -360 m. They had spotted a high up, with another shaft, and decided that it may get them past the constriction that had stopped the descent of the first. At this stage, Chas and Chris rolled up9 just what we needed, some fresh blood. (We in fact, asked them to come up via the radio.) They set off down and pushed the second shaft, but it unfortunately joined the first shaft lower down. They came back disappointed9 but pleased, after a long and rewarding trip. Sid and a full team followed up with a mammoth filming 2nd derigging tripo The hard work was really beginning to show and I think people were really looking forward to gotting outo But we all still wanted to geta new hemisphere depth record at I_n the meantime more surface exploration was taking place9 and people were cutting further east along tho valley. Another good looking hole was discovered, but it was almost time to start pulling out, However we had a look at the halo first and it was anothor had doscended the first pitch and come


NlUGHJI er.VER VOLUM.E 4 NUMBER 1 11 back with the good Noel and I followed up with a quick trip down and descended a couple o_f pi tches9 .still (Two weeks had elapsed since my acc1dent and I was now ressonably mobile.) We were down about -80 m9 but I apprehensive a,bout continuing9 I think due to my nccident. Sid wanted most of us down the Nong for filming9 so a party of five stayed b,ehind to push i t9 . including f1lan whose cori,Jt ant energy and drive won him much respect. So a camp (Camp III) was sot up near the hole, uJhich still remains unnamed, and most of us set off for the Nang. {1 couple of days filming the resurgence cave and the incrediblo_outcrop resurgence that supplies of the water for the Ok Nang spw things to an endo Standing and looking at the resurgences9 in the order of 5 ... 1 O cumecs at normal level, confirmed my continuing belief that there were somo very deop and extensivo systems in the FCV and an concentrating on this area Glono9 would have an excellent chance of tu.rni119.up the real thing. Finally9 we were back at TGlefomin waiting the return of tho party from \ : Finim Tel, the Stars, and the remaining five in the FCVo for news (we had radio contact with the Finim .Tel and the FCV) we sat around disc.ussing trip and the final pull out. Andyts party was first in, no new b0t a thbroughly rewarding trip with a couple of new species of cave fauno. Second to como in were the Finim Tel mob 9 no connection of Selminum Tern and Ok Ka.aki1 Uneibo Tern, but they reckoned on 20 km plus for tho length of surveyed passoge in Selminum _Tem9 which clinched a southern hemisphere length record. Finally the team from tha FCV turned up, with news that .the last hole went -380 m9 making it thp deepest of the It had been .another hard9 tight and technical c2veo By the 25th November wo were all back in Telefomino that remained now was to move out. about four and a half months in tho fiold9 we were some what disappointed about tho lack of real depth9 but highly what can only be described as a vory successful expodi tion. There c2n bo no doubt as to tho stsggoring potential of the arcao In tho short time, rel8tively spoaking9 that we were there wo doscendod about 150 and 50 or more caves wote surveyed and/or explored. Tho doopest caves were 380 m9 360 m, 200 m and a number of shafts wore around 150 m (subject to confirmation). Total length of cave. surveyocl would probably bo in oxcoss of 30 km, but less than 40 km. BRIEF 0 F POTENTgL Star Mo!Jnbins.. Our party bnsicnlly follouJod in the foot steps: pf. .tho 1965 Australian St2r Mountains Expedition, and no now discoveries but Andy Eavis considers that tho fault behind Bonstead Bluff could be rewarding. Maximum depth potential would be approximately mo Finim To.l_. It wns appnrent th2t significant9 vertical dovelopmont is unlikely due to imporvious shale bands being lGcated .beneath n relatively shallow layor of limestone. Depth botwoen sinks and risings but something in the order of 500-600 m can be expoctod. Fugulil.. f1pp2rently the ,limestone massif9 known as Fugulil oo Bern;' is-'the product of massive faulting followed by 0 slik 2nd slide process on tho top of


12 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 a band of shalo. Maximum potontial between the summit of the massif and the resurgences below the wall must be in the order of 2000 m (estimate). But because it is sitting on shale9 it is unlikely that there is any development to that depth. Resurgences at plateau (Finim Tel) level confirm this. The back slopes however aro cavernous and it is possible that extensive systems do exist. Ok Area ond the Big Halos. It is my opinion that this area has lent potential for cave dovelopment9 but depth of ovor 600 m is h thorough oxploration of the area was not mado and wo are not sure whether we actually got into the area of the big holes or not. (Due to nn error in tho geological mape) Between hero and Fugulil there is a very high range (3000 m mately) which 6ould well support deep systsms9 but nothing is knowno Fault This must bo ono of the most promising nrens in the countryo Thoro is 1000 m plus known elevation between sinks and risings? and the limestone dipping at 40 towards the rosurgGnces. Thero are numerous shafts in clean9 solid9 groy to whito, marino tortiory limostones located along a major fault with good catchment and run-off. Apart from the Nang, there are other resurgences on the Wall sido" Their al ti tudo is unknoum9 but from sor ial photographic interpretation, it seems that they would bo located around 1500 m to 2000 m 2.s.1. It is my opinion that the FCV drnins into the 2nd thnt the honeycomb karst south of it drains below the Wall. Our party pushed for a total distance of only 5 km eastwards from l\1ongondabip and the altitude of the vnlloy floor was soon to bo grndually incroasing. The potential thoreforo should incroaso Forty two shafts were explored, and although only three showed substantial vertical developmont, I believe that concentratod oxploration of the area would rosult in tho discovery of a great number of deop and significnnt caves. Warn Tekan (r1o_Q Enga) o The mops incorrectly show W3m Tekan as boing si tuated a short distanco NNE of the headwatQrs of the Sopik River. This mountain is in fact a sorios of peaks two of which aro known locally as Mop and Engao Warn Tekan (correctly known as Warn Tigiln) is a short distance wost of Tolofomin and north of Feramino Tho potential of tho aroa could bo considoroblo9 but a detailed reconnaissance would be necossory in order to establish elevation betwoon sinks and risingso Dovolopmont could be hampered by bands of shale, but this is by no means conclusivoo Two shafts of ovor 150 m woro explorod9 but both systems sumped. Local peopleo Little has boon said about the local pooplo bocnuse it is my intention to write more fully on this subject olsowhereo Sufficient to say hore that the porters employed by us woro reliable9hardworking and very hospit2bleo They worked in very difficult and demanding conditions, carrying very heavy loads and remained cheerful and willing throughouto Without thorn tho expedition would not have been possible. The village pooplo themsolvos were equally as hospitable and helpful9 and likewise without thoir co-opor2tion and friendliness we could not have achieved our objectives. The Bioloqyo My knowledge of biulogy is almost nil, but I can say that the expedition was an incredible success in torms of biology. A largo numbor of new


NIUGINI er. VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 13 underground and surf.ace specie$. of ,insect wero the senior biologist on the trip, was seen to be rushing around collecting in every crack and cranny9 and he is very enthusiastic about the results. To concludo thon9 I would ltke to point out that this nccound is very brief and obviously biased. It is so en from my involvemont in tho trip and does not cover many of the events that took place Glsewhere. My apologies to persons not mentioned in the report. t1 full report of the expedition will be publishod later this year, followed by a popular o.ccount and the release of a full length film. nu information collocted on the expedition will be made available to the Papua New Guinea Government • . REFERENCES H allyer, T. ( n.d.) An of the First Crossing of the Australian Star Mountains9 1965. Microfilm PMBB3. Pacific Manuscripts Burea9 Australian National University. Shepherd, M. J. (1968). Australian Star Mountains Expedition Central New Guinea, 1965. Transcript Proceedings lib. Biennial f.Q.of.. Speleological Federation; 136-139. Wilde, K. A. (1975). New Guinea 75 -British Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guineag An Account of the Reconnaissance in the Hindenburg Ranges and Area. Niugini Caver 2.(4)g 1'11-118. * .. * CANVAS & CORDAGE L T D Corner Ah Chee Avenue & Matupit Street9 Rabaul9 P.N.G. P.O. Box 4769 Rabaul. MANUFACTURERS OF TARPAULINS, AWNINGS, TENTS, BOAT CANOPIES9 PLASTICS AND CANVAS GOODS, RAINWEAR AND SHOWER CURTAINS, DOMESTIC AND COMMERCIAL UPHOLSTERY ....... •• .. ( Advertisement) Phone 92 1446 WE REPAIR ••••••••••••••u P.V.C. and CANVAS RUCKSACKS, TENTS ETC. WE MAKE •••••••••••••••••• RAINWEAR (COATS AND TROUSERS) TO ANY SPECIFICATION (WITH/WITHOUT CAPE9 SLEEVES) -ANY SIZE. Tough and ideal for bush •••••••••• WRITE OR CALL FOR A QUOH1 TI ON •••••••••• ***


14 NIUGI NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 NOTES ON THE CAVE BIOLOGY OF THE HINDENBURG MOUNTriINS P. Chapman* Two impbrtant factors decide the type of cave community found in the Highland caves of Papua New Guinea. They are the quantity of food present and the stability of the habitat. In cave passages liable to sudden violent floods9 there are few safe places for land living creatures and the community consists mainly of bighly mobile species, such as long legged spiders and crabs, which can escape to safety during floods and return to feed on the flood debris when favourable conditions are lished. In habitats with a regular high food input, such as the guano mounds beneath bat roosts, there is a stable and varied community of organisms which spend their whole lives in security and plenty and which therefore have no nesd of special adaptations for cave life• But the animals of most interest to the biologist are those living in pass-. ages deep underground where food is carried in only during occasional floods. Here ... is adapted to a '.wai"i;: __ q,r:id pounce' life styleo.The inhabitants survive long periods of starvation because they have a slowed down living rate9 with little movement and slow growtho When floods bring in long awaited food (bits of leaves arid twigs and the occasional surface animal)9 the whole commun-. ity springs into action, eatirig to bursting point and using their suddsn surfeit of energy to mate and lay their eggs settling down once more to the lorig wait. Many of the species which make up this latter community entered the cave in an early stage of its development and have since disappeared from the surface landscape. Thus the deep cave of ancient caves can give an insight into the climate and conditions operating on the. surface many tens of thousands of years ago. Predictably, many of the oldest caves in the Hindenburg Ranges have produced the most exciting finds. Bern Tem9 close to Telefomin9 contains a population of strange white polychaete worms stranded when the rocks were lifted out of the sea. The worms are now living at 150 mo (Editor's noteg Bern Tern is the cave referred to as 1 Grent Cave' by the 1965 Star Mountains membors.) Selminum Tern on the Finim Tel Plateau and Okemimal. Jem. to the northeast of the Iram Valley both at about 2200 m altitude have a bewildering variety of 'living fossils' such as pale eyeless beeties9 slaters and millipedes which .. w.ere.. prop.q!Jly driven into the cool underground environment when the ice sheets retreated at the end of the last glaciation and the surface climate became unbearably .. wa.rm for. themo * 36 Northumberland Road9 Clifton, Bristol 89 United Kingdom. * * *


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 15 Bougainvilleo In January Hans Meier was all set to take a group of students out to f\lenduma when political situation on Bougainville deteriorated and the trip was called off. However in February he got out there Michael Kiap and Kama Dow. Recause of the wet season9 the lower areas of the cave were t tambu' 9 but the dry sump still showed footprints from the prevfous trip so this area is quite safeo On the way out loud shrieks were heard. Investigation revealed the noise to be coming from a bat in the process of squeezed to death in the coils of a Chimbuo M2ry Jane Mountain from UoPeN.G. three weeks excavating at Nombi rockshelter in the Ghuave area in December, this her third trip to the area. Michael Bourke9 Tim Sprod9 Chris Pugsley, Tony White, Kevan Wilde and Chas Yonge spent a week caving in the Porol Ranges Chwave area over Christmaso Caves visited luere Irukungu2i9 Darua and flngunga. Darua Muru and flngunga were pushed further but not bottomed. f\ report on the trip and description starts on page 17. E;:ast New Bri taino In Robin Bain and John Mugsford took a party out to the Iuvare caves and introduced a number of the party to caving. In December Stanley Bongbong and Michael Bourke headed out to the Rembarr Range to look at reported caves9 but the trip fizzled when the guide was unable to make it. However on return to Ker2vat9 a previously cave was 'discovered' right on the ag station where they The cave is developed in deposits and is some 250-300 m long. There is a water flow-of 30 m /min (17 cusecs) in it 2nd it cont2ins numerous bats9 insects and a few snakes. The stream mnkes it quite fun to o>

16 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 1 Anticipated cost ex Rabaul is K160 per person. There are six definite starters at this stage, three from Tasmania, two from Queensland and Tim Sprod from Rabau].. The leader, Dave Gillieson9 is looking for _another four. cavers, preferably from_P .. :N.G. Interested people should contact the P.N.G •. Liaison Officer, Tim at Box 1391, Rabaul. . . . I. .heard that plans are progressing for this year's Muller Range trip •. JuliaJarries iri.:Sydney is doing .the organization .. -. . 'Manus .. ,Geoff F:rancis, Leonard Jonli and Pius Liou went out _to Nge-Pelimat on Los !\iegr.os in late. No_vember.; and descended the 20 m pitch to the pool at the end of the cave. They were carrying a powerful light and made a number of discoveries .. There are fish (gudgeons) in the pool a_s well as hermit crabs .. The pool may be deeper than Geoff's pre-vi-ous 20 m Morobee Like th? We$t Sepik9 West New Britain and Gulf Provinces9 there are probably plenty_ of caves in the r1orobe Province but because of difficult access9 very isdane there. However Frank Salt has been doing a bit of caving up .Snake River way lately. In November9 Paul Wotjkowski and Frank visited the art and burial sites there and the well known large cave at Marpos In a six hour trip they did not explore all of the cave. (See page 36.) New Ireland. Petar Beran visited 14 New Ireland caves in November on a cave fauna collecting trip. As well as getting up to the Lelet Plateau9 he visited three previously unreported caves, (See report page 27.) West Sepik.. Kevan visited a rock shelter in the Frieda River area recently. The shelter9 which is in agglomerates9 is a possible archaeological site. Cavers.. Port Moresby has had a great influx of cavers of late. Randell (Clive) Champion9 who was caving in PoN.G. in the sixties and wrote the PoN.G. section of the .8.2.[ Handbook,moved there from Melbourne recently. He hopes to get back into caving here and will be around for two years at least. Any speleos in Moresby are invited to contact him at the Housing Commission.. Alan Goulbourne should be with Plant and Transport there by now. He came out for the 8 ri tish trip and decided to stay on for a while. Bill Lehman is another new arrival. Bill is a Tasweigan who will be with Posts and Telegraphs in Moresby for a few years. Bernard Pawih has moved from Manus to Moresby to undertake studies at U .. P.N.G. Bill Sanders has come in from the bush (was it Ambunti?) to the village courts at Konedobu. Other Mew around the country are Alan Olden who is a British caver now in Rabaul and Ftank Salt9 also ex England9 who is in Bulolo. Jim Farnworth is back in Rabaul after a stint in the highlands and joining his wantoks in Telefomin. Kevan Wilde is back in the bush at Frieda River again after spending most of last year caving. Gordon Bain has gone finish from Moresby to Hobart after many years of residence in Moresby •. Gor:don was the principle initiator of the Port Moresby Speleological Society and s moving force for many years. Geoff Francis has left Manus to Sydney9 leaving Pius Liou to keep up the exploration.


NiUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 17 JHE ;1975-76 PNGCEG HIGHLAND MEET R. Mich ae 1 8-ourke "* The caving part of the trip extended from 26th December, 1975 to 2nd January9 19760 P:irticipants were 01ichael Bourke, Alan Olden and Tim Sprod from New and Chris Tony White9 Kevan Wilde and Chas Yorige whci had just' returned from the British expedition. After a most pleasant Christmas Day at the Wildes' Goroka flat9 Alan9 Chris, Kevan, Tim' I headed out to Hell's Gates near HenganO:fi on Boxing Day in the W{lde 4x4 We the 11 m pitch in the Kirimifamu Stream passage with a ladder, but did no't descend.. Rather we abseiled into the very impressive Meremere Stre8m (See l(2): 28-31 for description and map.) . The entrance was rigged in tuo pi tches9 the first being 20 m long and against the rock f acs and the second a free 31 m drop giving a depth of 51 m for the entrance.. (We knsw it Luas 3,1 m whe,n 1 broke the 30 m tape when I abseiled down -I wondered what Kevan was shquting about.) From the bottom the pitph is certainly impressive with somo 35 m.J/rniri .. (co 20 cusses) of water coming over it when we were there. Kevan finished off a of surveying at the base of the entrance (see map) and then we moved downstream to Tsmbara Chamber and Ogafunga Stream. Kevan had not been up this p2ssage before.. It was followed for about 150 m to tuhere the passa.go closed dmun and it became necessary to go.through a squeeze at floor level. Tim h2d a look at th.is9 but we pu_lled out without all . g,oing through. The passage contiriues o \J.le exited via the Kirimi famu Stream passage., There are a lot of flying foxos and insects in the cave as well as more leeches than I have ever seen anywhere before. It would be interesting to find out whether they are related to the recently described white troglobitic leeches from Javavere (Richardson9 1974)0 The villagers hunt flying foxes regularly appnrently and gain access via both ontrancos9 negotiating the pitches on bush A fitting cave ta stnrt our tripe The following day Alan left us to return to R8baul ond we were joined by Chas and Tony to bring th8 party to six. We drove to l

18 N IUG I NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUrER 1 It is an old resurgence about 740 m long with very strong strike control. The cave nrt and bullet scars at the entrance are most interestingo The villagers used to hide in the cave in times of tribal fighting but did not penetrate far inside until Fred P2rker explored it with themo Now they go right through including the sump. Chas? Tony and Tim went down to the stream at a lower leyel and found it flowing with a chocolate coloured stream. Outside we found the Kwi to be very high and so we hurried back to Kundiawa in the Toyota. Another hairy trip above the Kwi and Chimbu Rivers along the narrow slippery track -luckily Kevan was as scared as the rest of us, so we took it very cautiously. On Tuesday Tony and I walked up to Darua Muru (1The Hole')9 an unfinished deep cave past Pari Village previously estimated to be 170 m deep (See NoCo 67-69 and article this issue rage 200) We got down a number of pitches past the ptevious limit of exploration but ran out of rope nnd were stopped at the top of a 7 m pitch at 187 m down. We surveyed our way out (70 stations), not an easy job in the tight? twisting, muddy passages towards the bottom of the cave. We exited at about 12.30 aomo after a hour trip. We got to sleep in Pari at about 3.00 aomo and spent the rest of the night thereo Wednesday was spent washing gear, recovering9 sleeping9 transcribing my very muddy survey notes9 and drinking in the New Year -for some at any rate. Thursday we drove back to Chuave and walked up to Nola Village (1750 m). Kevan descended the first pitch of Angunga Cave which he had previously noted but not gone down (See NoCo 2(4): 249-250.) Howevor his 45 m rope was too short. That GVening Chas and Tim did a hour trip down the cave and got to about :ftf.X m. deptho From the base of the first pitch9 a pnssage leads off which becomes tighto This opens up into a large river which Chc.:s reported sumping downstream .. f...o'1. 0 H) A 30 !J:2.) : '".:!!.. {HE.1..L.S .. A1"\ HEJJuAM s.P., ASftf.JJ t-1 i 'i tJ b S. Sc.AL l: JOOO __________ ... __ ,_,, -------......a


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 They surveyed.their-way out. We spent thenight in Councillor Nomani' s house and. the 'haus man'. The villagers were greatly concerned for Chas and Tim1 s but were more or by our nonchalance. Nomani is the 'papa bilong graun' and tried to chargs K10 ror the visit, but we held to the standard K2. There are stream sinks and shafts all over the place in the Nola area. 19 Tony had a look at one not far from Nola and also a cave entrance (Pata) visible from the village. The latter is a largish chamber with flying foxes inside. Friday was the last caving day. KGvan and Tony went back to Angunga. They followed the big stream downstream for a few hundred motres before turning back to finish off the survey. Tho cave is still going strong and is potentially several kilometres long and several hundred metres deep. Another Chimbu cove that will have to wait. We moved back to Goroka in two trips and finished the trip with an evening at the Goroka Club. Saturday Tim and I flew to Lae for the return trip to a days later Chas9 Chris and Tony flew to Moresby on their way back to England and Kevan headed off to Madang another stint up Frioda River way. The consensus was that the trip and the caves were most enjoyable. I had hoped th2t we would bottom at least one of tho two deep unfinished Chimbu caves ( 1 The Hole' and r1ebile). Instead we extended one and found a thirdo At least they provide an excuse for a return trip. The potential for exploration in 'known' and unrecorded caves is amazing9 considering the attention the Chimbu has rGceived compared with the rest of PoN.G. The Chuave area is particularly promisingo REFERENCE Richardson, L. Ro (1974). A New Troglobitic Quadrannulate Land-LGech from Papua Haemadipsidae s.l.). Linne an..... Wales .22,( 1) 57-68. * * * OLD COPIES 0 F fJIUG I NI CA \fB.. There is n steady demand for back issues of N.Co These are most welcome as many are from libraries and other institutions where they should be preserved for many years. They also help to keep the books balanced and are part of the reason the subscription remains 0t the ridiculously low price of K2 p.a. However stocks of some issues are very low and ono number .... iff. ' oxhaustedo So if you are throwing away old issues when you go finish or clean out the attic9 it would be greatly appreciated if you could pop them into an envelope and address it to the editor. The first issue has been (third printing) so all back issues are available except Volume 1 number 2. Some are now in very short supply however. All are priced at 50 toea or 50 cents Australian each. * * *


20 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 DARUA MURU2 CHIMBU PROVINCEz 194 m DEEP AND STILL GOING R. Michael Bourke * Darua Muru is an unfinished deep in the Chimbu that explored in early 1973, to an estimated depth of 170 m. Wilde (1973) used the name 'The Hole' as the local name was not known to him at the timo. The present description follows a 11! hour explorat6ry and surveying trip by Tony_White9 Chas and myself on 30th December, 19750 Darua Muru (= the hole at Dorua) is located about one hour' s walk in .a. westerly direction from Pari Village which is north of Kundiawa. Our Yohn Danga9 gave the owner GS Dngugopnpaagu although Kevan earlier recorded him .as Siwio .The ontrnnce is just bolow a saddle and a steep sided gully into it. states that a permanent stream flows in it9 but it was n6t flowing at the time of our trip. Some m from Darua Muru is another cave a pitch about B m insido. It is said to have been used to clisposG of unwanted persons in the past. The villagers told us that Bill Sanders and Tony Maddorn descended it and found skulls insida •. Tho entrance proper of Darua Muru is 3 m high and 4 m wide. At first the cave descends stoeply with pitches of 11; m9 8 m, 5 m9 4.5 m9 and 10 m before a long 70 m pitch is ehcountersdo In the passage just before the 70 m pitch, the cave twists an.ticlockwi se through 27 0 . This is not clo ar on the plan o The long pitch is a beauty. Tho only protection required nt the top just below the tie off on a column. The pitch is clean and not quite free most of the way. There is a sloping ledge about; 45 m down 11 • After tho long pitch a number-of shorter onos of 5o5 rn9 10 m9 10 m9 3 m9 5 m and 3.5 m follow. The roof is very high here and was estimated as 25-30 m but this may be way auto We picked up a srn all stro om at the bot tom of the p-i tch and this continued to the limit of oxplor0tion. Tho passage width nnrrows. The abseils down the 10 m cascades are most p18as2nL AftGr the cascades one moves through _a_._tig!}_t .. taH. r:ass.agoe At. about the 3e5 m pitch the floor changes .from limestone to sand and mud as the gradient of the cave easeso A 5 m pitch follows. Beyond this the roof height drops to a fe0 and tho passage bocomes quite narrow in plo.ces .. There is n muddy watormork on the walls 1 .7 m above the floor level which is not very cheerfulo .. _ ... _-, Wo stopped by lack of rope at the top of a pitch estimated at 7 mo The last survey point was the tip of a large rock in the middle -0f the passage. Tho cave is 187 m deep and hos 236 m of plan at this point9 although tho straight Iino distance from the ontrc:ince is only 127 m. Cave development appears to be down the dip. The earlier estimate of 170 m was protty accurate to they explored although they over6stimated the length of the long pitch. Darua Muru is about 194 m deep and still going. It is well worth finishing a.nd it makes a most enjoyable trip. It is_ cur:.r.e-ntly the in. PoN .. G. It may re:ach 300 m although tho umy it was this appears unlikely. REFERENCE. Wilde9 K .. Ao (1973) 67-69. The Hole9 Porol Escarpment9 Chimbu District. Niugini Caver * *


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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 23 ANGUNGA SINK2 CHH18U PROVINCE . : •. ; , Kevan A. Wilde * ond Tony White ** _ ::'nn;,.the last two dnys of the Christmas '7 5 Chimbu trip we had a look at the shn/_t-,n_oted by Wilde (1974) nenr Nol:a Village at the b.ack of Chunve. The shaft, known has strong poss:ibi'.li ties of connecting with Kiowa Riv,er system witfrpq.ssible depth potential _of ':300: m. Loc2"1 legend {12s it that both Angunga and Nola Sinks are rsiated Cave •.. Between tho three systems there is a valley w_ith a number of dalines and :stream sinks, running NW to SE for some 5 km with a drop in elevation of about 300 m. An extensive river system could exist between Kirove c:md Kiowa, thus e stab:li shi ng legend as f8ct. ThE;J entrance to Angunga fAl3rip 200 m from Nola Village. Kevan abseiled down th: first pitch on a 40 m but it. wns too short. Tim and Chas rerigged the pitch and set off down what turned out to bo a clenn, free hanging; wet 44.5: m pitch that led into a narrow; but -h-igh9 rift stream passage •. They' followed. the passage for 250 m to a 3 m climb o After the next short secti.qn 9f narrow passage they Gmerged, as in o caver' s dream9 into a rapid flowing ri.yer pass age S-10 rn wide end 10-15 m high9 ,the floor covered Lui th limes-torro !ancf sand-. stone boulders. A quick trip them to an apparent r:3ump9 \whilst the up stream section; kept going o After 80 m the passage became narrow with deep water. They tri.ed f3'.lilimming9 but it '.provod impossible 1.11ith.--thoir w.oter filled clothing. Sn they and out from the climb • . '\. / The following day "wd-.aescetide.d .. a:octcnn.t:tnued survtiying in from the 3 m climb. We carried on to what was believed to be the sump and decided to chock it out. After submerging ourselves in the deep, still water 8nd peering nround the cor ner, we discovered that the passage :continued without diminishing in size. continued exploring, nnd surveying along a well developed stream passage with no sign of closing On the. right a splendid flowstone cascade was noted. Running out of time and : apprehensive of continuing without _support, we turnetj back and surveyed up the mr.dn pnsscge to where the water became too fast tq nbgotiate without wetsuits. Altogether some 250 m of side passage 250 m of main passage were surveyed. It is almost certain that the systems of Kirovo9 Angunga and Kiowa are rolatqd. Provided they do not sump, an extensive system can be envisaged. (Kirove is known to sump, it may be possible to push the stream in Angunga as far as KLowa is.known to be fairly extensive and is unlikely to sump. As is of of only 50-60 m between the surface nnd the main river p assc:ige in Angung 29 i t•<',Cnn be expected thot there are nume;r ous vertical wet pitches tdbe would roquire a well equipp8d party of five or the dry season nnd the bould bo substantial. The Chimb u is by no caved out, and the prospects ore exciting. B_g'ERENCE Wilde9 K. A. (1974). Trip to Gomea and Noln Villages Area9 Chuave, Chimbu Di.strict. Niugini * P.o,. Box 1055, Goroka, E .. P.NoGJi''.: ** 89 Leek Chnse, Hunslet9 Leeds 109 * * 4


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NIUGINI C/WER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 25 MEBIKOMBOGO CAVE9 CHIMBU PROVINCE: THE SURVEY Co Yonge * On the Christmas Chimbu trip 9 the opportunity w2.s taken to survey Mebikombogo. Fred Parker first to describb the cave and applied the name Mebik to.ito (Parker9 1967)0 Wilde (1973) also gives a description. Petar Beran. \lif?i ted the cave in November9 197 5 nnd collected fauna as far as the duck., Mike Bourke and I did the surveyingo 45 m from the complex entrance9 a led leftwards and steeply .downwards with the dipo A discernible noise of running water was emonating from which served to endorse Kevant comments that the system could possibly mnre extensive (Wilde9 1973)0 On teturn T6ny9 Tim and I investigated the pass2geo Following tho dip passage down wards9 we soon encountered a small which was free-climbabls9 and beyond we could see a water-lashed_ A of inlets entered at the point including one large one heavily rihnrged with sedimento We deduced that the water was baing taken directly from the river as we were now level with it. The complexaggtegation of inlets led shortly to a sumpo From.the:prissage leading to the water, we cqntinuod nlong the main passage which i'ri general headed e.'.:lstwards on the strike CJ.l though t2king o slightly upward trend of around 2 o A change in seoti.on and. we were in a low9 uni forrn arched pas sage with n shingle floor of black r.oun.d'eff:xs.nopebb le so This had the slightly worrying ntmosphere of the phreatictunnel sure enough a short under stalactites confronted uso We 130 m from the entranceo ' the duck9 the passage becomes its lorgast and mnint2ins its 1 lean-to1 section virtually until the end of the cave9 producing et ons stage o 120 corridorof constGnt dimension and undovi2ting in directiono Although we were ' progressing 'upstream' 9 the wator flow was oxtrcmoly slight 2nd the oxistenco of th:ree mud soaks indicated the presence of a lower, dr8in2ge o L2rge st;ilngmi te bosse's ... 1frm upstream of the duck h2d been undermined extensively 8t some st2ge during the cave1 s development leoving P false ceiling of clinging calcited boulderso There is a c2lci fied 1 bombomt ( firostick) at one stage o On the bend before the 'corridor' (just before B on the survey) 9 o up for some 25 m brings one into the series described by (1967)0 It wai difficult to see the offsets which he ascribos to 02rth tremors as one large 1 organ pipe' formation has been slit along its ontirety and displaced bodily by a few centimetres and healed bV recolcificationo L2rge and stalactites littered around are likewiso congealed into o frozen chaoso All this can bo seen by popping up through the plugholo in tho lDke described by Parker (1967)0 REFERENCES Parker, Fo (1967)0 Caves of the Porol Ranges betweeh the Chimbu River and Chuave9 in the Chimbu District of the Eastern Centr2l Highlands of Now Guineao Communications Occasional P2per Noo 2 pp20-27o Sydney Speleoo Soco Wilde9 Ko flo (1973) o Some Caves of the Kundiawa f-\reao Niugini Caver j_(4)g 95-103. * 29 B2nkhouse Road9 Sheffield 69 Engl2ndo * * *


. ..J


NIUGINI VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 27 PRELININr.RY NOTES FROM r. BIOSJ?.ELEOLOGICf;L TRJP ro NEW P. Beran* The biospeleological work donG by the British Speieological. Expedition iri the Telefomin aroa (July-November, has shown the caves in the highlands a rich f0un2 including mqny troglobitic (species that spend their entire life the cove)o I was interested in comparing this fauna with the fauna of lowlond C8VGs9 especially the fauna of numerous caves of the Bism2rck Archipelagoa a short st8y in New Britain9 I went to New Ireland and over 15 days I visited several points on the oast coast and the Lelet Plntoau9 including 14 caveso This is the preliminary report on this trip. My tuns gr6.ti:t1y aided by the earlier explor2tion of Now Ireland caves by Michael Bourko9 Harold Gnllasch 3nd other Australian and PoNoGo resident caverso (See NoCo 2(3)). The .plan for my trip w2s largely b2sed on the informstion in li4Jd_gl_Qi f.?ver. ThG help of Michael Bourke was extremely valuable. Following his suggostions9 I chose for my study the 2re8. includod in tho quadrsngle Rntobu Plnnt2tiori-Sohuh L2morika PlnntGtion-Kalili Plant2tion (see map). The following cavos were N30, Kabase Cave2 .?_phun Village.. See description by Gnllcc1sch (1974b) o This 400 m long cavo hsrboured (24 .. XI .. 75). about 700-800 bnts (3t leost /J.-5 species including 2-3 flying foxos)e hbout 200 m inside tho cave (temp .. 26 c) tho following were b ats9 ccive cricko ts9 Schizomyda (spider-like pods), centipe'dos9 spide.rs9 two species of isopods9 worms9 diplur0ns and interesting C"3T.8bid beDtloso Thousonds of diplur3ns (primiti\.iG insects) livo in the guano. N24. Tumsduit (1974c) gives the n2mo 2s Mornbunge .... Tumaduit7 but my gui.,de Elind2 SGk0mnon told mo thot is that s2mo ro .. Ho pronouncod tho nnms of N24 2s It is 2 sink where a 'riv.or enters n cnve about 15 m higho Thore 2,re two entrancos superimposed a It is possible to enter through the upper ontr2nco9 about 1 O 'm 8bove tho lowor9 to Lucdk about m going to tho canyon9 to follow it some 20, m more down the wnll.o; .Jhe. '1Dngth of the cove has not been established. In the dry part about 30-40 -.sn1a+_Lbnts. ,YJ.ere qying togethor with about 10 flying foxes and :several swiftletso I spiders9 isopodS9 diplurans!I small_ beetles etc. .--..... :.J. -" :'. _, N22"' ttmro!:b;;;,9na(.}:Ji:} 3 0 $& t" G0ltr::sch (i, f EJr doscll:ipi;.iansre . 0.b1w t:ompotatw.rq.s (21 oXI '._lQN'J 2505 and 24o3 respectively., These two caves are si tuatod: close to .. goth.or on the same stream. There were sev eral bats9 both insect 02ting ones /and flying foxes9 insideo Spiders and other arthropods wore tt)n faunn was not "'.Qry intarestingo The. engrav ings no or the eillr_nnc6 of Umor.E\h have been damaged .ln and 1975 by visitors writing their .6wn names over ,the ancient engraving so ; N21. Belik Cave2 Bolik Plantationo This was by Gall6s6h (1974b)o There are many bnts9 including flying foxc1s 9 ffis:"do and. s:i.pproci8b le amounts of Institute9 Bldo Ruski 19 Sofiap Bulgariao /


28 NIUGINI er. VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 guano. Crayfish-were seen in the river. Non-cavernicolous beetles (carabids and catopids) and isopods were collected on the guano and dn N16. Ririe Cave, Knru Villageo Gallasch (1974b) describes this cave as 1Karu Cave'. situated about 2 km SW of the Ksvieng-Namatanai and KaruKonogogo road junction and is oasy to findo My guide insisted that the 6ave' s name is Ririe which also tho area nameo The cave is a resurgence with interesting fauna, especially in the dry side passage o. lhe temperature was 25.4 I collocted one carabid beotle (tho s2me as in K'ribase Cave?), spiders, several Schizomyda9 amblypygids (spider-like arthropods) otco on the guanoo tour or five flying foxes were obsorvodo N14. Mromon Cave, Silom Villageo Bourke and Gollasch (1974) doscribe this cave under the name 'Silom Cave', Gallasch (1975) uses the name Moramon .. Only spiders were collectedo My guide Malua told mo that during the war many people used to hide in the cave. N13o Lemotura Caves Silom Village. Doscribed by Gallasch (1975). This is situated very noar to the edge of the m?in ro2d and is very easy to visit9 but it is not very interesting biologically. Pholcid spiders were collectedo The temperature (27.XI .. 75) was 25o0. &: f OOO OOO f r-,,,.r.ll"\•.J -'-' J( , t ;...A ------i._J -... -... - • l1 .J. I • • .4.. r \ o ... r ' o "'J 1c ....v "'; F oJ ..... o I G . /.. Co.. /L v; s ; t ol N 1 \:'


NIUGINI VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 29 . N34, Minim Cave, This large cave is not included in the list of Bourke and (1974), It situated at about 100 m a,s,lo in a cliff not far tho toad nt Lsmerika Plantation, There is ono big chnmbor, 50-60 m in diametor and sevorril dark and short The ontrenco is about 25 m long and 15 m high, More th8n 4000 bats, including hundrods of flying foxos right up in tho coiling11 were obsorved, Thoro is thick gucno co\Jered' by "thousands of scarnboid and somo carabid beotlo9(like .. the ones in Kabase Cave) nnd stapl4ylinid __ boEJ.tlos9 ccintipgdos9 spidors9 crickots etco The urnturo was 25,0 , N32, 'K2,miriba 1 Konogusgus Village,, Wilde (1975) used the namo Buangmoriba for this burial 62voo Mombors of the 1975 New Iroland Speleological Expodition visitod it onp recordod the name l

30 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 first As it is this cave seoms to be less interesting .. o: .... -c .. , for biospeleology thah K<1nemsraborunda. The tempo:raturo was • Some non02verhicolnus .. insects a11d snails were collocted. SUMM/\RY f1ND CONCLUSIONS Jn 8 short trip (20.XI -14.-cave.$ wore visited on New Ireland. Apart frbm n littlo oollocting done by R. Mi Bourke9= the first collections of cave fauna from the island wora mode. Of tho caves visited, 12 to the limostone (0-200 m a.s.l.) nnd 2 are on tho Lolet Plnteau (nbout 850 rn o.s.l.). Thoro is about 6 c diffepence betwoe_'.l :the coastal and plateau caves. <' Some of the cnvos visited (Knb ase, 08.nmin, Ri'rie, K:Jnomornborundn) offer quite fnvournblo -onvironmonts for troglobites nnd in other areas would harbour a rich troglobitic fnun2. In foct9 their fauna is ronlly rich, but does not seem to contain nny terrestrial troglobi.tos,. unlike th,e Chimbu and Telofomin cave fauno. The most intorosting water fnuna wns found in Danmin Cnve. Somo of the C

NIUGINI Cl\VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 31 .. "..: J .. 1, ' ," ) • . .'.,. " .. H ' Gallasch * . . .,:,s;"' .... , .. :::; orr--tfrdbtk1'l to Lihir Island, some 60 km northeost Ireland, mention was msdo near the ,.airstrip •. 10 minute drive through 4rl_pturni .-0.fHrnestone lod ncross to the other the r2.vine. .. crO\Ei.sing Dnd following the -crest downstream for sevoref . .,mqdreametros, a .plscd w<'!s found whore it was ;possiblo to .. climb "' down ,the t9 .the.stroam bed o Noc.r the limestone. stroto. w2.s crossed but the re-sh of tho gnlly and the stroam bed had :ctoveloped in a wonthorod basaltic f\ little f\Jt;ther down.stroam the creek went underground through vegetation encrusted 2tch. stnlacti tes hung from the m above the streom .. _(Diagrmrv2). The fir.s.t. ch2mber9 30 m long. by1 9.5 m wide9 led to a pilo of boulde:rs over which the '9trecim c2scnded into 8' d)ectp;'t'pool ('Diagram 1). This filled the whole width of thc,{::-cavern nnd wns the fv.r.thes.:t extontof nll provi.ous exploration. However it _1:i;.1qs found possible to WFJde thro-ugh tho nock doep 9 chilling we1ter. t1 fter 10 m .._the.-pool h2d shnlloweid and the stro '.1m skirted e.n 18 m high fillod ch2mber . the pass age DgniG narrowod. Somo 3ff-_m fup_the,r on the ncifrow high pnssage out on the crest.: of 2 t1.n:itE'.rfi:ill. ThG verticnl fall wos estimated to be ab;fJ'ut(' 1 5 m. Here the ca\)ern again \openOd to a largo ch2mber of total height of perh0p:S:',30 m, with the s'tre.CJm oxi t thliough 2 pnssoge opposi ts the waterr::;.11. :ful'ther ,:p:rogress would only l:Je possib•ti:r::9y rope ovor the lip of tho fnll!> -.. .. '"f1'lttrom;Jh s tn s .notao i.u .. Jm nl E .. s.!' ... .. l?'. limestone9 apnrt from occ:asio.nal. follon flowstone, wns notedo This led to a of the. t .. section). Aport from. strata of' retjen't the 'fotal cfeptfra-f"lhe cave ha? . •' deyelopep. i[l Tayered strata of :,Y._Olcanic type rock. i I nterbedde'd wi tll laye.,:rs. . a fine tuffaceot,1s b'eos .. a weathered: sandy. matrix .con rounded_ _ These.,.,?ould:efr'.s, from. _ _t,p . :---p mor.e, .. l..fl dran;iater9 to be .. weathering.o.ut from' a soft background .. 'were exarriined by .. at the .of lancf and .:identi fied as v.olcanoli_thic areni te. ... ......... ---"It composed largely . of whi-ph . ": . oqscvring the_ grain giving __ a ,, Th_i s contains sma1_1 __ 9m6u:nts _of_ chio;c:i te;, b efr)d ug tto tb per cent of augile "and''-hat-nblerlde\ .. >some Also are large number's' of i:f0rams tahd. calcite fragments (Hr per :\Of rqck) 9 C9adry rordham, wh,o i's studying forams9 has identfied the fol.lowing species the _sam:p_l_,: g_. coltrata, Q.• tumida9 c: Q.o .. ...-:1.,.-SpJ1aeto1dinaliops1 s s4bdeh1scens ... ......... .. -." (. ... -.-'/! .. .: ... ".'" ..• .. • ... _ ..... '. '. "• ; .. "ip{/i . i . . . : .. r -the roc.l< a latest Miocene to Pliocene age ( N1 : \\ i older than . the .. JJuaternary age assigned to the volcani.c.s of , , . I .. >;.:f.: ... , ."i((. \.' '<'.?.:_ ,, . . i . * Keravat1 E'lNoB., P.N .. G. i. \ . ; \ L ! r ;


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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 Lihir Island on ttie 1 geological map of The presence of the forams means the rock was undoubtedly deposited under marine conditions close to a volcanic terrain. It is relatively fresh9 much of the glass having only just devi tri fied." The cave is said to emerge on the coast9 about 1 .2 km away 9 at sea level. The entrance at stream level would be about 35-40 a.sol. Immediately upstream from the limestone bridge, a path leads down the side of the gully to the stream (Diagram 2). Two caves are accessible from here. The first is a high cavern through which the stream flows under the natural bridge. This is about 25 m long while the bridge above is much narrower. Although lime stone was not found in this cave9 stalactites hahg from the ceiling of the arch. On a level with the ceiling9 a second cave has developed in the arenite conglomerate (Diagram 3)o Here again the strata contains sized rounded volcanolithic boulders in a soft weathered matrixo Near the roof is a narrow layer of black sando The depth of this opening is only 3 mo Due to the apparently shallow depth of limestone on lihir9 there is little likelihood of true limestone caves being found. However the possibility exists of additional caves in the volcanic arenite and tuff deposits and there could be caves of direct volcanic origin. Strata in Diagram 1o Ao Limestone Bo Soft tuffaceous arenite with boulders of hard volcanolithic arenite Co Sandy tuffaceous material Do As for 8 L As for C Fo AsforB * * * CORRECTIONS NIUGfNI CAVER 3(4) There were a number of mistakes in the last number of N.C.9 most of which occurred because of difficulties experienced with the paper offset masters usedo Corrections are as follows: p106 p107 p107 p107 p110 para.2 para.1 para.4 para.4 para.1 line 1 9 n. o. a chamber 900 by .!ID. by 450 feet ••• 0 line 3; line 1 o lines 9 line 1. parao2 lif:; /if para.3 line 3. Selminum Tem. 0 • o o and ll issues." and National Capital District9 not Province. ''. o. and found a couple of stream sinks which were descended for c .1 50 m to sumpstt. p110 para.2. The heading is Fugulil De Born, not Aiyung De Born. p112 para.5 line 3. The grass is not sub-alpine as the author stated. p138A. The scale on the map is 1g10009 i.e. 1 cm= 10 m. p143. The second reference should Davies, H• L. (1973).. 1g250 OOO Geological Series -Explanatory Notes. Gazelle Peninsulao New Britain. Sheet 58/56-2 International Indexo .full:. Min. Res. Geol. Canberra. * * *


34 NIUG INI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 SPELEOLOGICAL PROSPECTS IN SMALLER ISLANDS OF THE MANUS PROVINCE G. Francis * This note follows the. study of all available air photographs of islands in the province and consultation with villagers from thoss islands for which there is no There are three maih types of outlying island in the province. Ao. High Volcanic I slands.o Islands of this type (Lou9 8 aluan9 Rambutyo) are composed of extrusive volcanids11 mainly Quaternary in age. They range from fifty to several hundred metres iri elevation9 and some like Rambutyo have raised reef so The latter is a possible cave area (see map),. •. Raised Coral Islands. The only example in the province is Nauna9 which is 100 m high. Such islands may contain extensive systems of phreatic caves. A number of examples from the Trobriands have been described by Ollier and Holdsworth (19689 19699 1970). Thus Naura is probably the best speleological prospect among the outlying islands. C9 Lohl Coral.lslandso These are low lying9 usually extending only 2-4 m above mean high water leveL Some are composed of coral, like Ponam and other islands along the northerh barrier reef o Elsewhe\e. the low islands are cays of unconsolidated coral sand, like Bipio Even if the island is solid coral9 there is still no prospect of finding penetrable caveso Coral of late Pleistocene to Holocene age is highly porous9 with many large primary voids. Gonseque.ntly it is so prone to collapse that it is unlikely to support sizeable caves. Most extensive caves in raised coral islands have developed in limestone which has been iithified by the precipitation of carbonate in prim8ry voids9 where solution takes place mainly along joints of faults. nearly all caves in raised coral islands are of phreatic origin, formed at or below the water table. Often these caves have no penetrable surface connection until they are partially un['oofed by collapse9 or exposed by backwearing of the reef marginso As the.water table is controlled by sea level, and usually slopes gently upwards towards the centre of the island, any caves now forming in low coral islands are water filled. It is only after the islands have been raised and the caves partially drained of phreatic water, that there is a chance of finding penetrable systems. Small caves are present on Ndrova Island7 which has a core of Naringel Limestone extending 15-20 m above sea level. This is probably the minimum size island likely to have caves. Larger' sy:stems will only be found in higher islands like Nauna. -REFERENCES Ollier9 Co D. and Holdsworth, D. Ko (1968)0 Caves of Kiriwina7 Trobriand Islands9 Papua. Helictite 63-720 Ollier9 C. D. and Holdsworth, D. Ko (1969). Caves of Vakuta9 Trobriand Islatids9 Papua. Helicti te 1.(3) g 50-61. Ollier9 Co Do and Holdsworth9 Do Ko (1970). Some Caves of Kitava9 Trobriand Islands, Papua. Helictite 29-38. * 29 Yellambie Street, Yowie Bay, NoSoWo 22280 Australia. * * *


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36 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 1 Frank Salt * The following is an account 'of a trip in November 1975 to a cave near Marpos Village on the Snake River in the Morobe Province. An American9Paul Wotjkowski9 and I made up the party. The C$Ve consists of a'rift eMtrance giVing access to a low phreatic passage which, after a few opens out into a fairly large chamber with some attractive large formationso Going down the chamber for, 50 m or so9 we came across a small hole in the left hand wall out of which came the lovely sound of water. A shdrt low passage brought us to the head of a pitch of about 8 m. We quickly descer:ided this into a fantastic stream passage in a white limestone that was almost like marble. Near the base of the ladder9 the stream fell down a shaft of 5-6m with a force strong enough to_make the climb down very diffi culte Haweve:r;-B r.ift opening.half a metre or so froai the bottom of the ladder access t6 c\)beaut.lfully decorated dry o;

CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 37 chambers before t dr-oppe-d down. into the stream once more. The passage continued getting lo.wer unti.l it lvas a I.ow qr awl and the roof met the water o However this turned _out to be only-. a low -duck and was passt::id by an easy dive t.o give access to a second duck :after a few metreso . After this the stream passage returned to a comfortable siz_e and we pre_ssed on at high speed to where the stream came out of. a jumble.-of sharp boulderso From he-re a crawl down a narrow rift enabled us to get up into two large9 very shattered9 boulder filled chambers before dropping back into the stream passagR qgsin. A short waterf8ll wos easily climbed and the streampassage, smaller in size but stiJl carrying its full load of water, was_pushect for .SC?yeral hundred m\3tres to a large, dnrk The nir here ?nd stream came up at an angle of about 15-20 out of a narrow muddy s[jmp. -We probed. around but no obvious way on could :be found.. In view of the been underground for over we moved out of the cave taking no more than a quiok glance at the numerous side pas.sage so No attempt was made to survey the cavo but we estimated from pacing that we had covered nearly 2000 m of passageo From the entrance Paul walked down to the river bed and about 400 m below the cave found several large cracks in the bed of the river out of which came a large volume of water. This was undoubtedly the stream from the cave again. Having found where it comes out9 all we have to do now is to find where it goes in9 and find a more cave to connect the two ends. * * * SPELEO PERSONALITY M ICHAEt' atlURKE . • • • . • '; ,M.ike Bourke is about to leave Papua New Guinea., One wonders which country will. be nex.t tp .tJ8.nofi t .from his varied speleological abilities. .Many cavers a few footpr.ints when they move on., Amongst things Mike lea0es behind caving journals. He started caving in 19679 aged 199 with the University of Queensland Speleological Society whilo in his second year of an Agriculturai His confirmation came the same Christmas when9 while on a bushwalking trip to Tasmania9 he spent three days underground in Exit Cave., The next 2-! years set the pattern of Mike's diversified caving -active weekend caving with UoQ.SoSo9 major a conse_rvation campaign, biological col1ection9 society org:anization9 and publica• tiono Mike caved extensively at Texas and Mt. Etna in Queensland and had two major trips to Camooweal. To date he has caved in nearly all Queensland caving areas. He was heavily involved in the campaign to save the Texas Caves and Mt Etna anci later was to be the moving force in getting the book Mount Caves underway, In 19689 while secretary of U.QoS.So9 he resurrected the society's newsletter9 Undero Apart from Queensland and Tasmania9 Mike has caved in Australia at Buchan, Yarrangobilly, Cooleman9 Kempsey and Ashford. He has visited caves in Indonesia and Malaysia as well. After giaduating in 1969 he eventually took up a didiman' s p6sition with D.A.S.Fo at Ketavat near Rabaul. He has worked on tropical food ever since. He is close to finishing his Master's Degreo at the and has published several papers on his work. At Keravat Mike suffered the usunl Papua


NIUG I NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 Ne.w: Gt,:Jiq$a speleo-malaiqe .. no one keen to go caving wi tho Despi.te a in late'"1 970 when he cJ ec1ared 9 ' .. o one l8st major trip and that jwi.lLbe the :e:nd' , Mike managed th.e. years to develop contacts througho:ut Pap'.ua and generate enough local enthusiasm to ma.intain $.teady cCaVing o: Most ::-o:f his: activity :has been in .N8-W B,ritain and New Ireland9 but he ha$ also caved in

NIUGINI cnVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 1 THE NEW CONTRIBUTORS Petar Beran is a Bulgarian biospoloologist who has boon caving and studying cave life since 1955. Ho came to PoNoGo last year to participate in the British expedition. As well as caving on the expedition9 ho visited caves and collected cave founn in the Chimbu and on Now Britain and New Ireland. Apart from Bulgaria and PoNoGo9 Petar hos in Franc89 Rumania9 Yugoslavia9 Czechoslovakia9 Groece9 Turkey9 Syrin9 Iran9 Hungary and England. He gained his PhoDo last yoor studying Bulgarian cave faunao 39 pavo has many yo2rs of caving bohind him and is a member of the University of Leods Speleological Association. He was the leader of the British Speleological Expedition to PoN.G. in 1975. Amongst other things, he led an expedition to the Pierro Sto Martin in France. Phil Chapmnn came to PoNoGo ns ono of the biologists for the British expedition in 1975. He spent much of his time on the trip collocting specimens. well as PoNoGo and England, he has cavod in Vonozuela whon ho was the biologist on tho 1973 British oxpodition thoreo Joe Jennings is the Professorial Fellow in Geomorphology at the Australian National Univorsity9 a member of the Canberra Speleological Society9 and a former president of the J\ustralian Speleological Federntion. He is a distinguished karst geomorphologist and is tho nuthor of a book Karst as well as numerous paperso Ernst Loffler is an fiustralian geomorphologist LiJho has done extensive field work in New Guinea. Ho is currently writing a book on tho geomorphology of New Guinea .. Chris Pugsley is a member of tho Sheffield University Speleological Society who came to P .. N .. G. for the British expedition. Ho has also caved in the Chirnbu and Eastern Highlands. Apart from tho U.K. and PoNoG.9 Chris has caved in Morocco, Bulgaria and France. His particular interest is cave biology. Frank Salt is an ex British cavor with many years caving bohind him. In 1963-64 he was involved in tho proposod 1965 British Expodition to P.N.G. that turned into the 1965 Australian Star Mountains Expedition. Since arriving hero in 19759 he has done some caving in tho Morobe Provinceo Tony White is a member of the University of Leeds Speleological Association who came to P.N.G .. for the British expedition and who stayed for some caving in the Chimbu. Other overseas trips have been to France. Ch ns Yonge is also a member of the Sheffield Univorsi ty Speleological Society who came to P .N .G. to particip





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