Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
Creator:
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Publisher:
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
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K26-05663 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5663 ( USFLDC Handle )

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NEWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP Volume 4 Number 2 June, 1976 Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication.

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NIUGI NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 Niuoini Caver is tht? newslei;;ter of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group9 an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in P .. NoGo Volume 4 Number 2 Price Editor T:t,pist Production of Last Number June, 1976. Quarterly 50 toea per issue. K2o00 or $A2.00 per annum. R. Michael Bourke9 D.P.Io, Keravat, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Jim Farnworth Jean Bourke Michael and Jean Bourke, Jim Farnworth9 Tim Sprod, Hal Gallasch9 Japeth Morris, Anna Majdanska9 and David Smith. 43 Contents Page Toktok Bilong Edita Graun Bilong Husat? 44 Recovering the Fossils from Selminurn Torno R. Wells ..... •• ••• ••••••••••• ... 45 The Panamecho Carvings9 New Iroland0 Lindsay Wilson ••••••••••••••••••••• 47 How Jacquinot Bay Carne to Be. c. Palo, So Kotak and E. Guamaga •u••••••• 55 Lernore Cave9 Kandrian Area9 NeLu Britain. J. Talinge ••••••••••••••••••••• 55 Piri Caves, West Sepik Province. L. Wo Bragge ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 56 The New Contributors ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 62 Map of Cave, West Sepik Province. R. Hutchings •••••••••••••••••••••• 64 A Basalt Lava Cave9 New Britain. T. Sprod ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 65 Speleo Personality -Hans Meier •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 66 The Caving Scene •••••••••••••••o••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 67 Where Does Niugini Caver Go? ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 68 Papua New Guinea Karst Types. 5. Crevice Karst. G. Francis ••• .... ••. •• 69 Some Points and Guidelines For Recording Rock Art Sites. Kevan A. Wilde • 72 Photographs Wanted ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 75 Some Caves and Rock Sholters of the Yonggamugl Area9 Chimbu Province. Do Cole ••••••o••••••oo••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••o•••••••••••••••••• 76 Some Recent Literature 79 Corrections Niugini Caver ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 80 Papua New Guinea Subscribers to Niugini Caver Volume 4 ••••••••••••••••••• 81 * * * Cover Photograph. Part of "Passage of a Thousand Wounds" in Irukunguai (Irapui) in the Chimbu. This is exceptionally beautiful and probably makes Irukunguai the best decorated of the recorded caves in the country. The passage is named for the numerous iron oxide deposits that surround small stalagmites on the floor. Note that the figure (Kevan Wilde) is bootless. This is the usual practice in this section to protect the delicate rimstone and crystal floor. (See N.C. 1.(3):70-74 for a description of the cave.) Photo by R. M. Bourke. * * *

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44 NIUGI NI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 TOKTOK BILONG EDITA -GRAUN BILONG HUSAT? Having done most of my PoNoGo caving in the lowlands and in remote parts of the Southern Highlands? I was quite surprised when I encountered a minor cave access problem in the highlands last yeare The question of access to caves rarely arises in the lowlands? aside from Bougainvilleo However in the highlands it is an aspect of caving sometimes calling for considerable diplomacy and patience0 It does no harm to remember in all areas that cavers have no rights when it comes to access and prior consultation with ths "papa bilong graun" is wiseo The only problem with this little homily is the need to find the "papa tru" ! On the subject of In the highlands it is the practice of the cave owner to an entrance fee to visitors. This practice has in encouraged by ce.rtain c.avers9 provided the fee remains moderateo For this they have come in for criticism from other cavers9 mainly those from overseas9 who have felt that a caver has every right to visit any cave for nothing. The practice seems to have gotten somewhat out of hand in places9 with villagers asking such exorbitant fees as KS per head per cave. At this rate caving becomes an expensive sport9 .especially when exploring a large number of minor cavesl My.feeling.on the subject is that a reasonable fee9 say K2 per party per major caves. is. fair enough where this is what the villagers expect. This seems to be much of the highlands-I gathero However exorbitant fees should not be paid. If the owner persists with the dcmand9 the caver would do better to decline to visit the .caveo Some careful 1'tok gris" on the relative magnitude of caves in other areas or .an explanation as to the difference between a one up tourist caver and a.regular caver may be useful in converting the owner to your frame of mind. Future cavers will not thank us for encouraging high feeso On .p.age 81. of this issue there is a list of PoNoGo subscribers to this issue of . .N.Co. Just. as when the last such list was published in N.C. 1,(4), it is noted that there is a concentration of cavers in Port Moresby, on the Gazelle, and in the. highlandsoA.t .that stage I suggested that perhaps another go at more formal groups should be I took the issue up with various active cavers in all .three centres-9 but without much positive response o The scattered nature of'. the caver's and the future plans for departure .of many of those on. the. Gazelle. seem to preclude any formal groups in these areaso How ever,, I remain convinced viable group in Port Moresby could once again be established. The interest shown by Y.H.Ao parties in Javavere is an indication of the potential intere.st in the The problem remains that Port Moresby is isolated from major caving areas9 but this problem was overcome by the cavers in the sixties with their charters to the highlands0 A formal caving group in the capital city may offer the best hope for local spele6logy in P.N.G. in future years. It would also provide a home for the library and modest finance .and equipment inherited from the PM.SS? the GCC9 and the PNGCEG. R .M .Bo * * *

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NIUGINI CAVER 4 NUMBER 2 45 lE:COVC:RING THE FOSSE.S FROM SELMINUM TEM Ro Wells * Dro Wells was invited to join last year's British expedition to collect fossils (some vertebrae and ribs) embedded in the walls in Selminum Te'm Cave. The following is an extract from a letter ho wrote home on his return to the Tabubil mining campo It is reprinted with permission from Newsletter Q.(4): 48-509 the publication of the Cave Exploration Group (South Australia) Inco I have arrived back in Tabubil with the fossils and my life. In retrospe6t9 it was an exciting experience9 but at the time .was quite frightening. I flew out of here in the helicopter on tho morning of Thursday 13th November9 19759 up the valley of the Ok Tedi to the northo We then flew along the face of the Hindenburg Wall9 a massive limestone escarpment between 450 ond 1500 m o In one part of the wall there is a cave9 actually the efflux of a river system that I was to enter from the other sidGo The river no longer flows out of this hole which is about 120 m from the top of the cliff. The pilot flew the helicopter within about 6 to 9 m of the cliff face so I could see right down into the caveo We then swept up over the top of the walls the trees looked about 2 to 3 m high9 later I found they were at least 30 m9 and down into the valley of the Ok Finemo The cavers' camp was in a clearing in the forest above the river on the main walking track between Tabubil and Tifalmino It consisted of two native huts with plastic sheeting for a roof and a leanto for cookingo The ground was very swampy and we sloshed around in mud and slush up to our ankleso The beds were all on wooden platforms abovG the ground and the floor consisted of lots of logs laid side by side o I stayed overnight here and set off next morning to walk to the caveo The camp was at 2550 m and I found the climb up another 300 m very tiring9 particularly as one is walking either in mud and slush or balaricing on moss covered logs 2 or 3 m above the junglo floorc rt took me two hours to get to the cave9 which is twice the time taken by the cavers and the native porterso finally reached the helicopter pad on the edge of the dolineo The pad was built to rescue an injured cauor, but he eventually was well enough to walk out. 120 m below us in this immense doline was the enttance to the caveo The trip down was extremely wet and muddy and tue climbed up 30 m on to a ledge where we camped the night. We entered the cave about 2o00 p.m. passing under B small waterfall and climbed down a big boulder pile into a cave the size of Mullumullang. It differed in that there was a large underground river and several waterfalls which we had to cross and pass under respectivelyo The passage was 21-24 m wide with ceiling heights of 24-30 m. After travelling through this for about 106 km we came to a muddy slope and down against the wall were two small holes that lead to a 24 m shaft about 1o5 m in diametero The walls of the shaft consisted of a sharp cherty limestone and towards the base the walls were covered with masses of mudo I.had asked-that the cavers bring a safety line as I was not all that experienced with jumarso The safety line reached only half way down the shaft to a point where the main climbing rope had cut a groove in the limestonea This aspect did not please me9 but when I got to the bottom of the shaft9 not only could I hear waters but to my horror I noticed bubbles on the ceiling, indicating this aroa had recently been completely * Flinders Adelaide9 South Australiao

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46 UGI NI CA VER VOLUf-'1E 4-NUr118ER 2 I had another 30 m to gq 9iong a narrmu rift and through an empty sump to the fossil siteo I felt somewhat uneasy and docided to forget the photography and concentrate on the removal of the fossilso While I was working9 I thought I heard the note of the str.earn below me change slightlyo I stopped working and the caver who was with also stopped and listened. He assured me it was OoKo as he had caved a lot in the wetter areas of England. Then a sudden roar started like an express train co"mi ng through a tun no L I jumped up and started running and towards the rope. Still the other caver said it was all right, but I asked him to bring the cameras and the first bag of fossilso He ran past me, placing the camera bag on a ledge and dropping the fossils. He jumped for the rope and disappeared up the shafto I had tied my harness on the bottom of the rope as another caver had wanted to pull it up later to use it. It seemed to take an eternity to undo it and get it ono By this time the roar was deafeningo I reached for the cameras but these had dropped into a slot in the flooro I jumped down9 grabbed them, clipped them to my harness and grabbed the climbing rope just as the first rush of hit the tunnel. I did not have time to rig the jumars properly and somehow I managed to climb fairly fast hand over hand up the rope to a small ledge where the other caver was hanging. Then my light went out! He continued his ascent showering me uJi th great lumps of mud as he scrambled up the hole 0 Once he reached the top9 I could readjust my jumars and in the dark9 climbed to the point whore the end of the safety line hung and clipped on to ito Finally I reached thG top of the hole exhausted0 The noise in the main cave had reached a crescendo and we hastened to make the 1 .6 km trek back to the We had one light between us and a rucksack each. The first waterfall was 2 raging torrent and we had to pass under it and avoid being swept off the rocks into the rivero Just as I was under the waterfall9 Tony• s light went out. He passed me his rucksack and I sat clinging to the rocks with ons hand. In total darkness ho managed to climb down the ledge beside the river and •. I then edged towards the light and passed him one of the rucksacks? we then continued towards the entrance with Tony moving forward and shining his light back so I could move up. Tho second waterfall was O.K. but the river had risen considerably. We found the narrowest point and by linking hands we could the other bank while still hanging on to the other side. The current was very swift and it was difficult to maintain a footing but we crossed it and made our way out into the pouring rain and climbed 30 m up greasy poles to our perch on the cliff. The ordeal had t8ken five hourso I had lost my equipment except thn camera and worst still, there were three other people dotim in another part of the cave called the Phreatic We were sure they would be drowned. As fate would have it9 they had gone c different way and avoided most of the flood and finally emerged two hours after us. Tho next day I did not feol like going back9 particul?rly as it had poured with rain most of the nighto Howevor9 two of the more intrepid cavers said they were willing to investigateo They recovered a lot of gear and a considerable portion of the accessible fossil material. They fou;-id the. passages we had boen in had flooded ta the ceiling • The fossil is in the limestone9 that is9 it is of Miocene agoo It looks mammal like and I think it is a marine creature9 perhaps a primitive ')' * *

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 l'tiMBER 2 47 THE PANAMECHO CARVINGS2 NEW IRELAND Lindsay Wilson * Panamecho Village is 84 km by road from Kavieng and is built on the edge of a rocky shoreline on the west west coast road skirts the village9 and gives way to a steep slope studded with limestone outcrops -within a short di stance becoming a sharply ascending escarpment9 r.i sing in places to almost a hundred metres above the shoreline. This escarpment formB a massive amphitheatre in which the villages across the mouth. the top of the limestone wall are a number cif jagged clefts wh{ch have been used for the storage of artifacts by previous In all oases access is difficult and dangerous9 in some cases necessitating the use of ropee (see map)o It seems probable that at the time artifacts tt1ere placed in the recesses, people were living on a site clbis by. Near the edge of the escarpment, low stone walls divide an area into squares and rectangles suggesting the boundaries of village house plots. Similar walls are found inland from Medina on the east coast9 and they seem to have been a common method of indics.ting divisions between home sites. A village situated on top of the escarpment uould be in .an excellent defensive position9 while good land for gardening is found close by. The present residents of Panamecho use the land on top of the escarpment for gardening as no suitable area ex.ists on the narrow coastal strip near the villageo A,t the beginning of the German administration of Nciw Ireland numerous communities lived on the lower mountain slopes where the soil is bettero German rtkiaps0 enforced movement to coastal sites to ensure plentiful labour for road building, and also to make administration easiero Early in 19739 Benson Bamba:i, headteacher at Panc-1nwcho primary school9 assisted 'by villagers, descended from the top of the oli ff to a recess of a 'few metres down. They found the malanggan figures still upright against the rear wall and facing out ta the Bismarck Seao The smaller pieces rested at random on lower levels. Considerable numbers of bleached bones tt.J8re scattered on the floor of the platform although only one skull was in evidenceo Sections of bamboo stored to the rear held particles of burnt bone and ashes -the opening in each container plugged with fibre and leaves. The w,ooden s'culptures? , in removed to the village and placed in a temporary display house',. It is obvious. that existence of the burial cave has been known for some time9 but a combination of traditional tambus9 the dangerous means of access and a lack of incentive to the has largely left them undisturbed. An exception was the sale of two pieces to an Australian in 1968 (Figures 8 and 9) -these were removed without publicity. The price was said to be $100 each. Enlarged photographs.ware sent to the villagers and the drawings were made from these. The remarkably good condition of the carvings at th3 time of their removal from the cave tends to belie their age. Clearly they tt1ere made before the intro duction of steel tools9 placing their age in excess of eighty yearso Rot and * Keravat National High School9 Keravat, EoN.B.,

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48 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 bor8rs have affected some parts, but the general detail is very clear. In all c-:S'.]f:> fibra9 representing hair (Figures 1, 2, 3, 4) has decayed and some of t;1l1 stJ:.;porting cane framework with it. An exception is the mask (F"igure 3) ttJho::.o framework is damaged but largely intact. As might be expected almost all pigmont has been removed through partial exposure to the elements. Some tracfJS of black and white are evident in places, although the general appear-2ncD of the t110od is greyish-white. The sea-snail operculum used widely in New I rcJ J.and for eyes of alanggan figures is still in plAce on .several of the carvingso The broken parts are shown in the drawings, and in the main occurred whore ths grain of the timber ran at rightangles to the direction of the An example of this can be seen on Figure 7 where a beautifully intricate snake motif curled about the body. Parts of it can be seen around the neck but the other sGctions have broken away completely. Figures 6, 7 ,. 8 .have arms missing, and Figures 7, 8, and 9 show damage to finely out ribso Close examination of the carvings does not reveal any sign of the use of sharp cutting tools9 indeed the flowing lines are in contrast to the modern carvings i.:1hich appear angular and stilted. It must be assumed then that the commonest method of carving was used here. In essence, it is better described as "burn and scrapen. A carver would have a stock of sticks split from exceed ingly hard timber these would be prepared well ahead and vary in thickness from a few millimetres up to perhaps four centimetres. The ends of several sticks Luould be kept smouldering in a fire throughout the carving process, and applied to the softwood used for carving, in appropriate sizes. F'or example a small stick would bo used for the hole in an earlobe, the carver blowing gently on the end to produce glowing coals which .. would burn into the timber. The char coal was scraped away with a sharply ground shell and progress checked before tho process was repeated. In this way, shapes could be refined indefinitely. The smooth surface was achieved by scraping with shells, or filing with sections of "102f0 coral. Contrary to popular belief p stone adzes (or clam-shell adzes) were not com monly used for carving. Clear ly9 their crude performance would not be suitable for carvings of the type illustrated. Older villagers agree that the adzes and axes were employed for hacking vines and light timber, and that their use was extremely limitedo Sharkskin and a leaf with an abrasive top surface was also used for finishingo Only the softest timbers were used for Malanggan carvings, both for technical reasons and by virtue of the fact that they were never ere .. ated for pcrmanencyo It is highly probable that the Panameoho scultures were created in this way. Searing in mind that several of them are nearly 2 m in height and sculpted from one massive block of wood, the technical achievement is astonishing. The com plexity of the designs, and aesthetically pleasing appearance, indicate the work of master artists. Such was the importance of the Malanggan rituals, that a whole village would contribute work and produce, over a period of many months, as the commissioned artists created their pieces. Each stage in the creation would be marked by traditional payment or a small feast, leading eventually to display of the carvings and the main ceremony. The artist was respected and honoured and took pride in craftsmanship and creativity. The lengthy period covered by the preliminaries to the main ceremony is

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N t D.TAUL IS. fANAMECHC BISMARCK MAP LOCATION OF PANAMECHO VILLAGE 'ID tJ, TABAR IS. STONE. WALLS INDICATE OLD VILl.AGE SITE, EXISTING GARDENS 1D REAR. f) u IS. --13URIJ\L SITE -ACCESS FROM TOP OF ESCARPMENT. SECTION SHOWS LDCAT\ON OF BURIAL GAVE. \NOT 10 SCA\..f.) SOUTl-1 WESTERLY OUTLOOK --

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NIUGI NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 53 underst-andable9 . when the immenl3ity of the artist's task is consideredo That the 'result of the months of concentra.ter;:I effort. was .destined for swift destrue .. tion.i& difficult for a European mentality to comprehend. It was usual for ritual carvings to b.e destroyed by fire immediately after the ceremony. Place ment .i.n :secluded 0 tambu" places appears to be unu$Ual. Efforts to discover the significance of the carvings in Panamecho so9iety were largely fruitless. It can be assumed that the pieces fulfilled the same purpose in Malanggan rituals as those that have been carved in more re,cent times. These ceremonies are well documented elsewhere. Some of the carvings display characteristics commonly seen in pieces in museum collections9 and are fairly typical in execution to pieces collected last century in other parts of New Ireland. Figure 5 is more unusual -it apparently represents a Maningulai (a species of eagle) and at one stage held a snake in its beak. The ornate mask ( F"igure 4) was identified as Malis. The wooden headpiece surmounts a. body made of fibre, the figure being displayed in a rec'iining position with arms outstretched. Lewis (1969) identifies the same type -aa a Gas Malanggan in the Notsi language area of the east coast • . Villagers at Panamecho generally agreed that Emos Gamela was likely to be the most knowledgeable in regard to Malanggan ceremonies. He gives his age as 56 .years. Although regarded as a "big mann locally, he freely admi,ts that. he has no knowledge of the carvings. There is no man living at Paname.cho who has spe.:cific :knowledge of the use or type of the Malangganso Emos was able t.o give the generi,c namenmaru" to Figures 19 2, 39 and 4, but .this name is used widely throu,ghout New Ireland -for ma_skso The author contaqted Paseng O'f Panafau Village on. t,he east coast -he is reputed have an excellent k.nowle.dge of Malanggan types and designs. Although he was able to recognise !Tiany character istics, and specifically name Figure 4 (Malis)9 he was not able to supply any more information9 other than note that Figure 5 was of a type peculiar to ths west coast peopleo Paseng is estimated to be more than 70 years oldo Emos was asked why the Malanggan carvings had beem removed from their eav.e. His answer was emphatic, indicating that the power of ''hig men who comm:f..ss ionecl the carvings9 and their successors, no longer influenced the. Contaot with Christian missionaries, the inflt.Jen.ce of the government and the existonce of a cash economy made the reasons for Al though flanggan was still practised in modified form9 .the young people did not toke it seriously. They had no respect for the traditional values and cus toms, or for that matter, the sacred place so They were no longer afraid to dese. orate places that had long been protected by the "tambu" of Malanggan. Older poop1o who still held to some of the values of the past were ridiculed. Er.10s considered this state of affairs to be deplorable-, but did .. "not feel that it could bo altorede In regard to tho carvings purchased .from villagers in 1968; it is likely tbat the universal disregard for customary beliefs amongst younger men, coupled with 2 need for ready cash and a willing buyer, led to the removal and sale of the artifactso It is significant 1;:;hough9 that the_sale took place with some secrecy o Young Papua New Guineans are encouraged in school to be active in preserving

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54 NI UGI NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 thoir traditional ct,.11 ture o Most schools have positive cultural programmes oriuntatod towards learning about cultural history and sustaining interest in rnodcirn cultural form.s. Pr.obably this is another factor involved in the removal of the artifactso Curiosi ty9 and the considerable interest in Papua New Guinea r:1rt, timu.ld make them highly desirable additions to the village. Since .they hnvc bc;en displayed in the village, the carvings have attracted numerous visitors, mainly Europeans, who are charged a substantial fee to look at the pieces. This is 2quated with.traditional usage by the argument that new carvings are by custom hidden from sight until ceremonial payment is made. They may then be ViDWGdo The carvings are displayed in a facsimile of a cu.stomary display house, but with nn fron roof as a concession to the elements. They are in the temporary custody of' two brothers, Ti tilip and Esau, upon whose property they were found. This does hot imply that the brothers have ownership rights.. In an effort to comply with tradition, and astablfsh ownership before it was uncertain, the P2ronts and Citizens Association of the school purchased the carvings through payment of two pigs and a small amount of A. feast was held to cement this arrangement, and the skull and a container of Hone fragments from the cave buried in the village cemetery. It is planne.d eventually to .build a permanent display house in the grounds of the and_ move the carvings to that site. :"A number of attempts have been ma.de. to purchase the carvings from the villagers. One was by a government instifafbion and others "by individuals. These attempts have been rejected by the people 'in favo'ur of retention in the village. Fi. cultural proporty preservation ordinance;:: would prohibit export of the carvings in any case. The delicate s'tate of preservation of the artifacts is cause for concsrn, and it appears that they have deteriorated fur.ther since being displayed in the village. Thay been sprayed for eradication of borers, but rot is well advanced in some carvings. They are adequately sheltered, but in close prox irni ty to the sGao Their value to. the people of New I re land and the nation is substantial.. There are. no comparable examples of 1''1alanggan art in Papua New Guinea, and they would nppear. to comparo well with similar examples in European and American collections. It is undbrstandable that the people of Panamecho wish to retain this link with their ance.stors9 but regrettable that they do not possess the expertise to pre serve tha carvings for future generations0 RE'FERENCE Lewis9 H, (1969)0 The Social Context of Art n Northern New Ireland. Fieldiana: Anthropology ...: 1-186 0 * * * DO YOU KNOW that the Batu Caves just outside Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia are probably the nest known caves in South East Asia? The caves are open to the pub lic and feature two Hindu shrines. Their fauna has been described in a nl.Jllber of paperso There exists an extensive literature on Malaysian caves, karst and fauna. * * *

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NIUGI NI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 "55 HOW JACQUINOT BAY CAME TO BE Co Palo*9 So Kotak*9 and Eo Guamaga* In the past9 Jacquinot Bay was not a bay& it was a foresto At that time there was no salt watero An old woman and her grandson live.d by thems;elves far miJay from the other people o When the woman prepared food (taro leaves) she would put salt on her food but not on her grandson's. Her food tasted better than the boy' s and he asked her where she got the salt from9 but she would not tell him. So one day he hid when his gr8ndmother went to get the food and followed her. Sho and opened a hole in the rock to let some salt water out9 then closed it 2hd went homeo So he opened the rock himself9 and the salt water poured out 2nd down ths valleyo All the people were drowned and the villages washed but tho anim2ls still live in the seao Some.dogs are still living in the sea. and be caught in nets (porpoises}. The cave where the salt Lvater came out is sti 11 there and the salt water in the cavo is deep. The name of the place is Pelaumatana which means "where the sea came out0 in the aengen language. It is about half way between Pomio and Malm al., It :ls possible to see the cave when we are about one kilometre a.WC:Y ... from ft. Pomio 0 •• . • fli .-P alaumatana • / J acquinot . Cave .. 8 ay Malm al ''''\ Palm alm al :.> \ Airstrip * * * o Villageq N C. Palo LEMORE CA VE2 KANDRIAN .AREA2 NEW BRITAIN J. Talinge * This legend is about the very largf:). cave about 1.5 km away from my village, Kumbum village in the Kandrian area o.f West. New Britain. I ns.ide the cave it is really very dark so that you can't tJ.mlk .in a light. When we want to go into this cave we need to get a lamp, ,._tor.eh or fire before we go in. Duririg the SGcond World War9 people from my village and some villages around the area came over and hid themselves in this huge .• A legend goes like thiso A long9 long time c.;go the cave was bi.Jilt by. a .. the name of the snake was Lemore and the cave is named after the snake. Tho poop le hnve always believed that th,e en eke. built the cave. The cave is situated clo.se to the beach., When any visitors come9 we boys take them there and show them the . Every part of the cave is rrJ.8a8 out of stone and big trees grow on top of it. * * *

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NIUGI NI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 L. w. Bragge * Thc'following isfrom a report written in June 19649 when the author was a petrol officer stationed at the Green River Patrol Post. Oe•eeeeo•o The Piri Caves, which occur in limestone outcrops9 are 2f hours' walk ENE uf Terauwi Villsge. This is 5.;..6 hours' walk from Green River Patrol Post (see Map 'I):. The Piri area is owned by two Terauwi men, Nimbiva/Angamia and Kwaini/ The actual rights exercised by these two appear to be those of owners or However the.whole population of Terauwi Village has the right to sloop in the caves and to hunt the bats. Access to Piri from Terauwi is as follows: 55 walk along an uncut bush track over slightly rising ground; 33 minutes walking upstream in Liwo Creek; 40 minutes walk on a rough bush track from the bank of the Liwo to the first cave. Cave 1o The flbor is composed of clay and fallen blocks of limestpne. The section A to D is wet with water dripping from the ceilingo The only light in this section comes from C and the cave mouth. Between G and H the floor has 2 dip in it. There is a stone shelf at X and Y. A.t Y there are charcoal drawings and at X there are marks scratched into the ;tone., (See Map 2) C0ve 2. This is located 5 minutes walk ESE of Cave 1. The floor deposits consist mainly of clay with occasional pieces of fallen limestone. The floor from J to K is clear of stone and appears to be deep clay. The cave mouths at 19 F and G are piled high with fallen stone and rubbleo Stone work was found in this c2ve. (See Map 3) Cave 3. This is a small cave located on the bank of Abara Creek, 6 minutes vialk .-from Cave 2 o It is subject to flooding trom the fave 4., Located on a hillside above the west bank of Abara Creek, 20 min utos tirnlk NE and upstream from Cave 3o It is on a steep hillside about 45 m ', above Abar8 Creek. Tho cave floor consists of clay and ash. The chipped stone found abouto m below and to the SW of point A. The is. still occasionally. usedo There are skulls and an old suit of cane armour insido., An old jaw bone was found in a small room. (See Map 4) Cave 5 •. This small cave is on the west bank of Abara Creek 15 minutes walk further up the creeko It is $Ubject to flooding from the creek. Cave 6. Located on the hillside 90 m further upstream and to the west. It is 6..m above the levE;Jl,of Abara Creek and is 90 m from the creek bank. The floor. is. clay._ and ash with a 9reater proportion of clay than the floor deposit of Cave 4. (See Map 5) The floor plans for the cave maps tend to indicate that the caves are narrower than they actually are as the walls seldom rise vertically. * Present address unknown •.

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Nl ...... " '. ... ,, . •• d • • •• .......... ...... P1RJ CA'V:E..S • • •• • • • .. • •• •• • d •••.. ._. \ •• • KAM SR lAP •• ! TE.RP-. V\J • •• \ \ Jl..v1A (H"rt"r) Au1A zl -I . . .. . . . ... 0 5 10 15 20M I 1 I I I Sc.ALE J: 600 APP RO)( SKETCH ONLY L .VJ. 8RAGGE MouTH \ \ ' M''P 1 Lot.ATION OF PaRI CA.VES WrsT 5EPIK PROVINCE o a "'* ' e aoK11 I I I I i \ t: s 3 +.sto ••• .. •• WAt...1<1Nc::; f

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MAP 3 N 1 Moun., MAP 4 FiooR PL...lil\N CAVE 4 ' ' FouNO MAP'=> 3+4 o...__ __ .,;;;;;s __ _____,., o M I I I \: 300 /\PPR.OX ONLY L.V SAAGC(E ///;, STONE: ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' \ (/ K FL.OOR

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' ' P&...AN N SKULL. ' ' ' Fac.1.

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Pos51BL.E Liz.ARO

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NIUG INI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 61 Cave Scratchings. Cave scratchings or engravings were seen in Cave 1 at the point marked X on Map 2. Thay are located in the ceiling of a ledge where the floor level is about 60 cm below the level of the ceiliDg of the ledge. The scratchings in the stone are deep enough to be felt when the fingers are run over them. They are plentiful and seem to be in an untidy unrelated mess. Those given in Figo 1 are only a small section of the ledge ceiling. The ........ people claim to have no idea who made the scratchings. Cave Drawings. These were found only in Cave 1. They have all been done in charcoal. The local people have no idea who made the drawings, but probably sssociate them with the legend of a hermit who was believed to live in the cave at one time. All of the drawings are on the ceiling of a ledge in the wall (point Y on Map 2). Th.ey are closer to the cave mouth than the scratchings. The original drawings are all faint and difficult to see. The larger of ttn two lizards seems to have. been recently retouched with charcoal (Fig. 2). Tho two lizards seem to be drawh over the top of snake, but this is difficult to sGe. Tht-) snake shows only as a smudge. The larger of the lizards is facing thG cnve mouth. Both of the lizards are about 45 cm long. There are at least him moro lizards, but these have flaked away from the ceiling to a large The other drawings (Fig. 3) are nearer the cave mouth than the lizards. ThGy are very faint indeed and it is difficult to tell whether the sketches are complGtely accur2te as the thickness of the lines is difficult to make outo Thore are probably other similar draw.lngs present that I could not see. Stone Worko This is located in Cave 2 (see Map 3). The floor of this soctinn of the cave is fairly moist and clayed as the floor level lower in this s8ction of the cave than in the remainder.rif the cave. The stones in the structurs seem to be firmly embedded in the cave floor. They are unshaped but to have been chosen for their flatness. The purpose of the structure seems to be water catchment. 'The mouth of the cave at point I is piled high with fallen blocks of limestone so the cave floor sbpos down from tho mouth. The end of the stone work nearest the mouth cam:... moncos the base of the slope. The large flat stone standing on its edge between the cavo wall and the inside wall of stone channel would certainly catch t•Jc,b.ir if w3ter came in through the ccive mouth. The channel itself seems to have nc purpose unloss it was to direct water into a vessel at the other end of th:i chrnnol. At the point marked K on the floor plan (see Map 3), ther•e are the oossible ruins of two similar channels. !;J1i.1-iped Implemontso While I was climbing the steep track to Cave 4, I found ::; chipped implement made of a siliceous stone (probably chert). This was found c'ppruximatoly 30 m below Cave 4 and slightly to the downstream side of it. I think thd it is most likely that it was originally in the cave and has been w2shcd or knocked down the steep slope to where it was found. The local people did not rucognize it as a man made implement. This type of stone is not used in any implements now or in the remambeisd f .tjh 8R8a ail. for st9fie but Sot;J!d no. f.'-int o:r Hefta several pieces of qifartz b:Jare FBtinB iA eaves 1t 2 ans 9, some

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62 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 of the pieces. from Cave 6 seemed to show signs of having been worked. All the stones found tuere on the surface9 no digging being attempted. Human Bones. These were found in Caves 4 and 69 bo,th of which seem to have been used for burial in the recent past. Only one skull was found in Cave 6. In Cave 4 over a dozen skulls and a colloction of human bones were seen. The skulls were nearly all on a natural stone ledge on the cliff face. With them was an old suit of cane armour. This W8S probably left with its former owner as an expression of his fighting prowess. In Cave 4 there is a small opening in the cliff wall (point X on Map 4). Beyond this opening9 which can be climbed into with little difficulty7 there is 2 small stone-like caveo In this _room there is the remains of a skeletono The skull wns missing (it had probably been removed after the body had decomposed and bot:-:n put on a high rock ledge somewhere) but the jaw bone was still .in the roomo I oxamined this and found that the bone was a dark brown colour and was soft to touch. Only six teeth remained in the jaw (three molars on each side). The rost of tho teeth could well be still on the floor. The molars were very worn to the outside of the jaw. A number of measurements were made on the jaw bone these were compared with a "normal0 j aw0 The measurements were quite di ffc.!rent. * * * THE NEW CONTRIBUTORS Lauria Braggo is a former patrol officer with many years experience in .remote 2roas of the He.has visited caves in a number of areas. David Cole was based in Goroka in the early sixties and caved in the lands at that poriod w.itn the Goroka Caving Club. After leaving the Admino9 he j8inod the University of Washington archaeological project. Emanuel Guamaga is from Malakur Village9 Pomio Sub-province, E.NnR 9 and is a fourth form student at Vuvu High School via Rabaul. .fti.L..Hutchings is a former member of the Cave Exploration Group Austrnlis)Inco He did soma caving in P.N.G. in the sixties. Stnvcn Kotak is from Matong Village in the Pomio Sub-province of E.N.B.9 2nd is 2 fourth form student at Vuvu. Palo is also a fourth form student at Vuvu. He comes from Pomio Village in EoNoBo ;i ornq_9 T ;:ilinoe is from l
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PosJTJON oF STONES AT Po1NT () DowN H 1 L'-51...oPE f MourH oi:-CAvE CAV WALL K. I C..AYE z CA\/' MOUTH

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&C"-1.1: 1: eoo M-'GNETIC NORTH """"' Et4TIU.1'4Cll -.a.3 0-D, LOCATION MA.P (S0o'f5ov"T'' 141.EAST) 3 TELEFOM\N SUB PROVINCE ..... 'WEST SEPJ K SCALE:-\: 240 0 2 4 b & 10 12M ......,....... ............. _...., SuR.vEvlt"o Bv :-R. ""'o K.81..A.cK (2//0) US\NC HANO COMPA&S ANO 5TEE'"L TAPE C.R .G. GRADE :m. DRAWN BY:-R.HUTCHINCiS (Z6) .. ? .. /? 0 l.EGE"ND 1=A&.L.EN RocK.'i> -............ 5UR\llEY 5TA1\0M ,/"'-. 15M HD."'•aou Muo F1.oo" 51.oPE or F1..00R RooF \-hc.wT I <::::::J F1..ows To'** 40,,, , . > J , L,...... ) .,,,..,,,-'::::1-<'J i1J )) \. ENTR .... NC:lt *""' f \_,, .... ..... I FAOM CoLLF\'PSG. ..t:: 1_J_ l I --..!.. VIE\../''E:" VI CJ ENTRP.,,NCE 1*4 12 M. VATICAL A-A., To C1:u:s::K 45-60c"1 F1.00A LEVE"L.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 A BASALT LA VA CAVE., . NEW BRIT'il!-l To Sprod * A small cave has been found in a thick sequence of basaltic lava flows from Turanguna (South Daughter) outcropping bohind the Talwat Primary School on the Praed Point road near Rabaulo The entrance is 2 m wide and 1 m hi.gho Inside9 the cave opens up to 2 m high9 3 m wide and 8 longo The walls and roof are rubbly9 suggesting that they consist of a flow bottomo Tho cave ends abruptly in whGt nppoars to be cross-section of the flowo Lava fragments of up to 20 cm width cover the Tho suggested mode of formation is phreatic explosion9 that is explosion drivon by superheated stean formed from contact of groundwater with hot lavao A noarby cavo of larger dimensions was described by Fisher (1939); he rn_:;cribed to it the same origino This cave can no longer be found and has apparently boon blocked by sediment. Fisher went into the cave9 collapsed from lack of oxygen and had to be dragged outo Fisher (1939 p37) describes the cave as followsz "Two small eruption centres associated with Tavurvur Lfatupij/ are f9und on the flat land respectively 1,100 yards s.Q_utheast and 880 yards NNE of the centre of the .. Just north of these Lforme/ craterlets in a small gt.1lly9 a hole with an aperture of 25 feet diameter has been blot.tJn out underneath. .a lava flow. This hole is the mouth of a considerable c2vity9 thG floor of which near the opening is only three feet or so above sea level o The accumulated steam pressure b0low has forced an opening at the side rather than bursting its way upwards through the heavy overlying lav
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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 SPELEO PERSONALITY HANS MEIER Born in Switzerland in 1940, Hans came to Australia in 1961 and to Bougainville in 19680 He loves the place and has lived there since theno An industrial chemist by profession, he is employed by Bougainville Copper Limited a research chmnisto Hans and his English wife Elizabeth have acquired one to date o I ntorGsts' et.her than caving include swimming, bushwalking and lately fishing o For a long time he had a latent interest in caving,but'it never 1tookhim furthor than tourist caves. Then in 1971 he met Peter Robertson on Bougainville and boc<:"iTIO involved in some 11real" caving., Together they surveyed and explored i-Lmdum2 Cave n8ar Kieta., Over the_years9 he has visited the cave on numerous trips and has caved in the Rotakas area of the island0 He has also caved near Mto Hagon and in Victoria in Australia at New Guinea Ridge of all He is ambitious tD visit the Keriaka Plateau again as his earlier trip failed when :i:-r1unico.ticns with the local villagers broke down. . He has done a little rope but doos not consider himself competent with SRT for underground usage. : 1nns hew publishod articles on Nenduma and Kovava Caves in Niugini Caver., Liko other keen isolated P.N.G. cavers, he has experienced the usual :r:i Jf r.o ono to go caving with. He has tackled this problem by trying tc l8cnl poopls involved in caving. His efforts have met with limited success iJc: 12v:::r football and othor diversions have tended to limit the interest shown,c 1:'. r:ls:J has a problem not usually encountered in P.,N.,G .. -access to Nenduma is tcuchyo Anyone wandering the bush on Bougainville is generally suspected cf '.eking for copper or spying for B .. Col .. -activities no longer. favoured by Ccntr2l Bougainville villagers .. ,. Maier is not amongst the most cavers.in P .. N .. G. -but he must bo ono of the most persistent,. For five years he has been systematically 0xploring 2 few cavern on Bougainville and has been the enthusiast in a small and unsb.:ib lo group9 even if it was down to one member at time-s! Hi.s policy of grabbinr; anyone who shows oven a slight interest in caving and taking them out to Nonduma has paid offo And who knows? His persistent efforts to get local p8ople interested in caving may give rise to a speleological group in Bougain-villo when the sport fados elsewhere. RoMoBo * * * DO YOU KNO\JJ -that numerous lava tubes are reported from the Hawaiian Islands? They are up to 6 km long and occur up to 2440 m a.s.l. The tubes form in bssalt9 usually by the crusting over of lava rivers., Lava caves are also known from Kenya, Australia (north Queensland and western Victoria), continGntal LicSoAo9 Western Samoa9 Korea9 French Polynesia9 Canary Islands9 CCJmoroun9 E8ster Island9 Zaire9 the UoS.S.R. and other.countries. They are ovon suspected on the moon! Lav8 cnves feature decorations such os stalactites and stalagmites as arc found in limestone coves. They are formed by dripping lava when the cave is formed. Unusual features in lava cavos include levee banks.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 67 THE CAVING SCENE Expedition,, Members of last year's trip have met with a tremendous response on their return to the U,,Ko There have been numorous newspaper articles, SG1JCJ of LJhich were rather distorted unfortunately9 and a number of television interviews" There are at least two companies interostod in tho film,, The Royal Society are going to devote an edition of journal to the exp3diticno The deputy leader9 Andy Eavis9 tourod after the trip and s;Joke and showed slides in Adelaide9 Canberra9 Hobart ::.md Sydney o No news has yut reached P&NoGo about the final lengths and depths of the discoveries" The rooort should ba out late this yearo C8ntr2l Malcolm and Alison Pound and a small party went out to Jav2v8ro in oarly March for a surveying tripo The survey of Old Cave is coming stoadilyo In early April Mal took a party of 43 (!) from the YoHoAo The trip tuas an introductory one for most of the people and some expressed an inter est in returning. Bill Lehman and Mal plan a trip out to Cape Rodney soono Chimbu. Things are very quiet in the Highlands letelyo The only activity 1.ur:s a quick trip by Doug Rogers9 Kev Wilde and a gir 1 calbd Sue C?Ut to. Irukung uai in May. It was Doug' s first caving trip. East New Britaino Michael Bourke9 Jim Farnworth, Hal Gallasch, Alan Leadley, Alan Olden and Tim Sprod did a trip through Rururunga9 the longest pumite cave at Keravat9 in late March. The water was quite high at the time and part of it was blocked by flood debris -a good sporting tripo The party followed .the creek upstrurnn for a few kilometres9 but apart from a lot of pumice boots9 the only find was a small pumice cave some 9 m long,, This brings the total number in the area to four, the others being in welded tuff o A month later Michael, Jim and Tim surveyed Vun2raksn, the top cave in the weldGd tuff9 and a kilometre or so of creeko The troverso down the creek was interesting -it must be one of the few creeks flowing upstroam! raybe I should have picked someone a bit shorter than Tim to sight on to with the clinometer. Tim came across a 6 m lava tunnel near Praed Point not far from Rabaul recently. This is the first recorded lava tunnel in PoNoGo f\1utier Range Expedition" An advance party of three will go in late July for two weeks before the main party comes in on 10th August., They will be in the field for a month from then" Aims are to look at areas which are considered promising on the basis of the '73 trip and aerial photography interpretation., There tuill be about 15 people9 mainly froin Sydney, although it is possible that some Neiu Zealanders9 an American and some Canadians may como" Kev Wilde will be in on the trip for a few weekso The will initially divide into two and look at two areas one at the extreme end of "The Cheeson and the other in the Camp Horatio area. The groups may combine if one area is much more promisingo Leaders are Julia James and Neil Montgomeryo Anyone intorested in the trip should write to Dr. J. James, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Sydney, N.S.Wo 2006, Australia. The cost ex Koroba is K300o The party will bo taking 1200 m of rope together with climbing equipment. ThG trip is being run

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68 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 with as little organization as possible, in contrast to the earlier Muller trip. Not much sponsorship has been soughto Porters rather than airdrops will be used to transport the gear into the base camp at Gororoo New Irolando Lex Brown recently gave a slide show and talk to cavers in f1t:ilbourno and Sydney on last year' s le let expedition., The report should be out in the next issue of NoC. -hopefully. This year's Lelot trip will be going into the field in a few weeks. There are seven starters for the entire trip at this stage9 with people coming from Queensland, PoNoGo and Sydney. Dave Lorkin and Tim Sprod are the PoNoGo reps. Michael Bourke and Jim Farnworth will b8 joining the trip for part of the time. The plan is to spend one or two days looking at the Dalum Efflux and other rJffluxes on the way ino Then a base camp will be established at a permanent u101tcc::' iJDint on the high plateau at Kandalum. The party will operate on the , i plab:rnu out of this base. Let's hope one of this year's expeditions will 0 500 m doep hole at least. Bibima has had its fair share of the record! ._9lqmon Islands., Unlike P.NoG. there has been very little interest in the J':'}_crnc.n Islc:inds' cavGs aside from a few local cavers in the islands over the ye: ::s. This yoar however members of the New South Wales Institute of Technology Society will be a reconnaissance trip there to investigate tho pctcntial for a full scale expedition in eighteen time. The trip i:J b1Jing organised by John Weir who did some caving there a few years ago. That's the scene theno Heavy on overseas expeditions and light on local some action out of Moresby and on the Gazelle9 but very quiet else uk1CJrco Let's hope there's a bit more to write about by next issue" * * * WHERE DOES NIUGINI CAVER GO? The last issue of N.C. for 1975 was sent to the following countries: Australia 000000••••••\22500 62 copies Papua New Guinea ••••••••••••••o•o•• 59 UoSoA 000000000000000000000000000••• 9 New Zealand ••••••••••••••o••••••••• 8 England •o•••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6 France •••••••••o••••••••••••••••••• 4 Bulgaria, J apan7 Switzer land • • • • • • • 2 each Canada, Cuba, Hungary, Italy, Kenya, Rumania9 South Africa, Venezuela ••••••••••••••••••••••••••--1. each TOTAL 162 * * *

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 69 PAPUA NEW GUINEA KARST TYPESo So CREVICE KARST G .. Francis * nThe country on to the spurtop (2025 feet) th8 terrible broken limestoneo If one could imagine somo immense cor&l suddenly thrown up several hundred feet abovo soa-lr:::JVG19 it would prob2:::1l; forcibly to mind the ,type of country through Lt.1hich we LJOre now 0_1or!d:1g ,. Such an upheoval might mean -that the coral would becomo fr tfully snd largo fissures would This was exactly L:Jh3t soGmod to havo happe:?n2C: in this The linGs of fissurGs ran south-uJest to north-east9 snd s: .. c.cr:d::.nei in these cracks I could see that the dip WRS about 1s0 to tho south-wosta Th; clefts running along the strike wero not rGguloro Though the limestones wore covered with dense forest, very little soil was to be seen9 and the roots of thG trGos clung to the rocks and among the decomposed loaves. Weathering had causod ti '' :i::ccks to bccomu very jag ged, with sharp razor-like edges jutting out. Ono carrier tu-day received a nasty wound in the leg owing to a fall through some rnuts which covered a crevice underneath.0 (Austen9 1926). OOOOQO()OOO Crevice karst is terrain which has been dissoctCJ:-l by 0ystEJms of solutionally enlarged fractures. These fractures vary from 2 m to 20 m in dopth and are up to 5 m in width. The smaller fractures are known as " s0 while tho larger ones are called "corridors" o Well developed crevice s fo.Jnd in the 0?.rai Hills, on Manus Island and in several othor parts of P ua New Guineao (Jonnings and Bik9 Williarns9 1971)0 Wilford and Wall havt:1 described similar features in Malaysian karst areaso In the Fitzroy Wostern Mustr8lia there are systems of enlarged fractures up to 7 m wid8 8nd m deopo typo of torr2in has been termed 0qisnt grikeland0 by Jc:in11ing:-: n11d SuJoeti:1g (1963)o The enlarged fracturos may h8ve bedrock floors jLlt often partially filled with soil or In the humid tropics ccov.ice karsts aro densely forested with the treas growing in fissures. bBing generally taller than the onos on the dissectGd surfocaso Thus crevicod terrain often presents 8 d ccopti vely love 1 a:::ipo ar c-:::n-:o L;1hcn viewed in the d istcmco or from tho air. Logs end othor orgoric materials fell into the fractures9 =cc2sion2J.ly forming false floors \.Uhich ara tro:::ichrJrous underfoot. Even soil er;::' sediment floors are sub ject t': f:ubsij::.:ncc caused by solution of the limestont.; :::long the soil-bedrock intorf :-:ct:J" Cro1Jico kar st of ton dove lops along two sots of fr:0:.:::tures which intorscct at ::--.i.n!.,t .snrhJs9 fcrming networks lt1hich aro rectangulm' in plano The specific form th2t an orea of crevico karst takes depends partly thG orientation and spacing c...? fr::,_ctures snd partly on its stage of evolution. Wt-,ore fractures aro closely sp2ccd9 finely dissoctod notworks with narrow grikee small blocks In the D2rai Hills9 Australasian Petroloum Company geologists have surfncos on which it is to tako two consecutive stops in 2ny given direction (Williams9 1972) o Where fractures are more widely spaced, t, .. 10 residual blocks are larger., * Robb College9 University of Now Englcmd9 Armidale9 ;JoSoWo 235.1 o Australia.

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70 NIUGINI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 Within an area of crevice karst, there may be variations in the depths of the enlarged fractureso Thus grikes and corridors can torminate in vertical drops or blind walls. In some cases vertical fissure caves make up part of the crevice network or occur as continuations of the enl2rged frnctures. Both Jennings and Bik (1962) and Williams (1971) hav8 noted that crevice karst is often found along level surfaces in major valleys and cockpits. In Central Manus the enlarged fractures in these locations have formed through solution by groundwater moving slowly in a horizontal plane., f-\ few grikes still contain groundwater9 though subsequent stream incision has loworod groundwater levels and exposed many crevice systems. Once exposed, the crevices collect fall and surf8C8 flowo Vertical and overhanging walls often exhibit solution ripples. Parts of the walls are undermined by solution, resulting in collapses which drop chock-stones into the crevices. The crevices are widened by these processes and in the later stages of development the surface consists of pinnacles arranged in rows. These pinnacles vary in sizo according to the original spacing of fractures and depth of croviceso It is not certain whether 1thor crevice karsts have evolved in this wayo uJilliarns (1973) considered that crevice karst was bost dGveloped at ele v:JtLms from sea level to 300 m and did not occur above 500 mo But he stressed th
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Crevice karst in the middle of the Kari polje, about 800 m N.N.W. of the Pokohol, Central Manus Island. (Photo by G. Francis).

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 73 SOME POINTS AND GUIDELINES FOR RECORDING ROCK ART SITES Kevan Ao Wilde * Since Niugini Caver commenced publication, there have boen twonty nine rof'.Jl'r:mcos to rock art in it. Most of these have been casual in na.ture9 but some h2\JC beon more significant, whilst two articles have boon devoted entirely to the subjocto In most cases the material has been tantalizingly brief and in conse quenco inadequate. If a site is worth 8nd mrst sitas are9 then it is worth recording in a manner that will be of uso to persons carrying out research in this particular field. Accordingly, I have drawn up a of guidelines mainly based on Specht (1975)0 Dro Spacht, who is tho of anthropology at the Australian Museum, describes tho current matorial from the wsstorn Pacific as being inadequate because of poor reporting. Althc tho following points are perhaps incomplete9 if followed should provide sufficiont data to be of V slUE o 1. Tho prGcise location of the site should be recordedD (Where possible vandalism is likely tho precise location should not bo given9 but can be recorded and lodged either with the edit6r of NoCo or the Anthropology DopartmEmt of UoPoNoGo) 2. GGological context should be described including a briof description of the general regional goelogy. 3. Describe the type of site; that cave, rock shGltGr9 boulder cluster, cliff-face, or overhang.' UopGr photograph. A villager examines rock art f
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74 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 4. Description of topographical context; that is. valley, ridge, riverside, coastal', mountain, hillside, etc. In addition briefly describe the regional topography. 5. State land use; that is, habitated, cultivated, hunting and gathering, trade route etc. 6. Give elevation (even an estimation will suffice}. 7. D8scribe techniques used. To assist in the classification of technique, I have presented in full a scheme reproduced from Specht' s paper which should encourage consistency of description • .-. ENGRAVED---..........._....._ __ ....._.,,_ FRICTION __ _....,_ __ .,,._----.. _,.,_,,,__,.,_ ROT A TI 0 N t t SCRATCHED PERCUSSION DRILLED (single stroke) i or ABRADED POUNDED or (multiple strokes) (direct) RUBBED (broad area removed) or PECKED (indirect) __ ,.. ___ MECHANICAL .DELINEATED l t STENCIL or IMPRINT WET PAINTED or DRAWN B. Colours should be described and materials identified wherever possiblet that is9 charcoal, whi ta clay, red vegetable dye, blue mineral, etc.. Where only . one colour occurs in a design, it is said to be monochrome; two, bichrome; more than two, polychrome. 9. f'1othod of applying the technique such as drawing with charcoal, painting with finger9 blowing dye/paint by mouth, painting by imprint, striking with stone or pointed instrument, scratching with a sharp instrument, cLftt1ng or abrad ing with a sharpened object, should also be described where possible. 10. Form (design), motif, size and character of the art should be described as cloarly as possible. Identification with the recordert s conception of form. such as fish-like9 shield-like etce, is permissible7 providing it is remem-. bored that this does not reflect the original intentions of the artist. Where possible reference should be made to previously recorded material and photographs included. Description should be adequate but simple, taking into consideration whether the art is believed to be abstract or representational. Specht points out that context is the major criterion not symbolism. Currant interpretation of design by persons inhabiting the area is sometimes vnluable9 but mainly its relevance lies with their conception of the form and not the artists. The re-occurrence of motifs and superimpositioning should also be recorded.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 75 11. TtJe .recordiqg of legends. and myths are ... valuable .. to the .preservation .of the culture9 but are of no value in assessing the nature of rock art unless it has been executed within living memory. 120 The condition of the art, rock' surface and environment should be described; th2t is, whether the art_ is faded, exposed, protected, located behind the drip-line of the shelter, cliff or cave9 subject to wall-wash, located beneath an area of active deposition of minerals, or partly coveI'ed by moss or algae. 13c b'here possible a survey or sketch should be made of the site and the art should be described in its relationship to survey points and the morpho logic2l charactGristics of the rock surfaceo failing this the extent of thu sito and art should be described. 1 t1.() F5.na1ly 9 but probably most important, the prohibitions, customs and wishes of tho currently owning the site should be respected at all times. dofines rock art as "Rock art includes all marking of pre humon origin on natural or prepared rock surfaces, except where it can be that the markings are a by-product of a manufacturing activity 1]r:rc1'.::tcd to any designs at the site .. " The author would appreciate any correspondence relating to rock art sites within Papua New Guinea as he is currently preparing a paper on the which is to be presented at the International Congress of Speleol6gi Shoffield next year. Spocht9 J0 (1975). Rock Art in the Western Pacific. Unpubl. mpnuscript. The Austo Museumo Sydney. * * * PHOTOGRAPHS WANTED Got any interesting photographs of P.N.G. caves, karst9 or peopl8, insects, bats, art, etc. in caves? Niugini Caver usually runs five photos per isscle and ;.Jhotos are needed for publication. Either slides or prints or negatives can be used. Prints should preferably be exactly 8" wide and about 511 or so high. They should show a lot of contrnst and be printed with a matt ..... ... . All contributions welcome. * * *

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,...) I NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 SOf'ilE CAVES AND ROCK SHELTERS OF THE YONGGAMUGL AREA2 CHIMBU PROVINCE Do Cole * Tho following is condensed from a report written in the mid sixtieso ..... , ..... _boC .. E\t,io..Qo The northern backslopes of the Porol Range, east of the Chimbu Rivor9 5 km north of Kundiawa. 0 Ar._Qpscriptiono The liml:lstone is tertiary ,and dips 30 to 40 on the northern backslopeso The strike is roughly east-west. It is slightly south oast botween Kerowagi and the Chimbu Gorge and turns slightly northeast between tho Gorgo and Chuave. A vertical scarp terminates the backslope with a cliff faco up to 150 m high. Some outcrops of marls and slates are found in the landslips on the southern base of the See Brookfield and Brown (1963) for a good description of the geology of the area •. The northern backslopes are devoid of trees between the Chimbu Gorge and Mebik. The cover is kunai grass rind much of thesteep slope has been used for gardening. North of the Kwingl Rivet, the ground rises rapidly to tho foot of another series of limestone outcrops. This area is wooded with heavy undergrowth near the Kwingl and garden area mentioned above. pESCRIPTIDNS OF CAVES AND ROCK SHELTERS The caves and rock shelters will be described starting from the Chimbu Gorgs and ending with the rock shelter Au-Kombogo east of the gorge9 directly across tho Kwingl and slightly southwest of the Gorama rest house. 1 o Vertical pothole. Name unknown. It is approximately 50 m west of the lower track on the edge of a kau kau garden and is mark8d by a small clump of f_::.rush <> Tho vertical entrance is approximately 2 m (east-west) by 1 m (northsouth) o The cave falls vertically beyond the line of sight in conformity with the strikG of the Porol Limestoneo An ostirnate of the depth is 20-30 mo Villagors believe that the entrance leads to a horizontal cave of consider able length. They claim that they have the drop in search of bats and birds. The cave has not been explored by the Goroka Caving Club (GCC). It is highly likGly that it is related to Yerikomgui, the entrance of which is some 1.5 km east of Yonggamugl No. 1. 2. Goro-Kombogoo Wilde (1973) uses the name Kur.akombogo for this cave. He also refers to it as Gora Kombogo (Kura Kombogo) (Wilde, 197 5). It is short but interesting with two ontrnnces, one of which lies within 5 m of the lower Kwingl track and approximately 100 m from Yonggamugl No. 1. The main entrance is marked by a large gum tree. The low entrance (1.5 x .6 m) opens rapidly to a ledge approximately 1.8 x 2.5 mo A test pit was excavated by Peter White from the drip line at the entrance into this ledge. After 2.5 m the floor of the cave drops about 1.5 m to the main level over a distance of 3.5 m. * Present address unknown

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NIUGI NI CA VER VOLUfl'.IE 4 2 77 I oxcnv2ted a small test pit 6.4 m from the entrcmce 8t tho foot of a largo .brnJ;l.der. The the intense archaeological attention is the obvious signs of habitation in the form of soot on walls and coiling and a thick deposit of ash on the floor. This deposit is ovident throughout thG cavo' s length which is unusualo As well a great number of charcoal drawings have been found on the walls. The drawings are in the. form of cross hatched linesa The general dim-ness of the cave as well as its rather obscurGd entrancos ly weaken the chances of it being a rich archaeological The recent history of Goro-Kombogo, as told by the inhabitants of this aroa9 . is that it was discovered about 80 years ago when a man u'.JS burning :Jff the steep slopes which fall to the Kwingl River. It is said that tho cavo was used as a refuge during times of tribal fightingo A shield uias ovnr the ontrance bJ further conceal it. 3. 8 Small_Rock Shelter Used for Camping by the GCCv This shelter is formed by a slightly overhanging ledge which does not provent a heavy fall of top soil from the steep slopes above. It was a house sits at crne: located between Irukunguai and Goro-Kombogo. A fish trap is still intact on a ledge nearby am::l tlia mandibles of pigs are hung on 8 limb 8 few metres north of the level area.. The site is not suitsblo for excavation directed towards anything but the recent history of thr:i srG3o The influx of clay and the influence of weather is too great to nfford a permanent doposit o cultural material. 4 and 5. Two rock shelters located between Jrakc.:nquai and Mebik" The floor of No. 4 is too steep to allow a permanent cultural but No. 5 is more promising. A large boulder has fallen on to the floor9 probab 1y c;wi te recently9 and would have to be removedo Although this is not the most promising site in the area, visiting archaeologists should takG a look at it 2'.-,> a potential site. 6. Mabiko This is a long and interesting strike cavern., foa cntranco large and soot covered. There is a considerable depo::}it Clf ash on its well as a ledge behind the first entrance which conteins soma .. cultural in the form of bits of charcoal. There are some rather interesting drmJings ir charcoal and white clay to the left of the entrancea Two test pits have been excavated at the cave mouth. One was by Peter White snd the other by the authc.-: It was found in both cases that penetration of.heavy clay had reduced the arch ological possibilities of this site. Further in0estigation of this cavo could however be profitable especially of the large level ledgo in the rear of the main entrance chamber which may have escaped the clay penotration., llildo ( 197 uses the name Mebik Kombogo. 7 • Bogan-Kombogoo About 400 m beyond Mabik on tho main track south of t! Kwingl River is the entrance to this unexplored caverno The ontrance is low ar0 well washed with clay. It does therefore not provide much archaeological pater , tialo Beyond the entrance, the cave opens to whaf might prove to be mi interesting passage from a speleological. point of viewo Tho passage extends south from the entrance for about 30 m and then a i!.,,5 r.1 vortic:.;i1 is cncou1tered. Beyond this point no exploration has been attor11ptedo ViJ.lage people

PAGE 37

NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 claim however that the cave is long. Near the cave's mouth in the twilight 2:-: 29 a number of small deposits of heat fractured stones were found. These c::ro s8id to be connected with the killing of pigs but no ethnographic follow up h2s been made. Co Au-Kombogo.. About 60 m southeast of Bogan-Kombogo, the first of two Lrg2 rock shelters face north across the Kwingl Rivero The second shelter, 30 m further east is also called Au-Kombogo. These shelters are perhaps the most interesting from an archaeological point of view of all the shelters 2.nd cove mouths described herein. They are large9 open to sunlight, protected from woather, allow little penetration of heavy clay and have level floors. Boyonc! the dropline the ground drops abruptly to the banks of the Kwingl about 30 m belO\JJo The main track running parallel to the Kwingl crosses the entrances of these shelters only a few metres belowo The shelters provide a sufficient, platform to contain cultural deposits of considerable volumeo Some signs of recont habitation are evident. 9 and 1 O. Singga-Komoogo and Ogle-Oglao Directly "across the Kwirlgl River from Au-Kombogo No. 1 and opening on river level is the rather charming entrance to an unexplored limestone cavern Ogle-Ogla.(Wilde (1975) refers to this as Ogioga Kombogo).. Entrance is via a small corridor to a large daylight chamber. The Kwingl enters the daylight chamber from the east and leaves to the west, causing 8. setting within tho cavern. Above the river a number of terraces of light soil show sign of habitationQ There are some paintings on the walls of the cm1eo Northeast of this daylight pass2ge9 a small passage leads awBy. It tJ.Jas followed for 60 m or' so and shows every promise of continuing. Southeast of tho day light chamber, a small passage leads down a clay bank. and seems-. to endo However by rBmoval of a pile of heat fractured stones, a passage w2s ' found which is very narrow but opens to a larger passage. It is rather puzzling why the passage has been blocked by the inhabitants of the area. Although time has not allowed exploration of this passage, it may be worthwhile. Reports have boen received which state that a number of ground riverstone objects have been found in Ogle-Ogla. Singge-Kombogo is a second entrance to this system about 25 m above"OgleOglao It has not been explored. Brookfield, Ho Co and Brown, P. (1963). Struggle for Land: Agriculture and Group Territories Among the Chimbu of the New_ Guinea Highlands. Oxford University Press. Melbourne. Wilde9 K. A. (1973). Some Caves of the Kundiawa Area. Niugini Caver l(4);95-103Q Wilde, K. A. (1975). Rock and Cave Drawings of the Singganigl and Kwinigl Valleys of the Chimbu Gorge Area of the Chimbu District of Papua 'New Guinea. Occas. Papers l!l Anthropology 4: 534. * * *

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NIUGI NI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 79 SOME RECENT LITERATURE A number of publications relevant to P.NoGo speleology have appeared recently0 Som8 of these area Proceedings. Tu.oih Biennial Conference Australian Speleology Federation. Ed o A" Ld a Gr ah am. ( 197 5).. This is available for $A 5 from the Uni vor si ty of Queens land Speleology Society, c/-The Union9 University of Quoensland9 St. Lucia, Qld. 4067. The proceedings include five papers on pseudokarst including "Pseudokarst Caves of the Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain, Papua New Guineau by Ro M. Bourke on pp 16-190 The other P.N.G. paper is "Notes on the Rock Art of Aibura Cave, Kninantu, Eastern Highlands District of Papua New by K. Ao Wilde on pp 57-68 o 0 ther papers include "Preliminary Speleology Reco;inaissance of FiJ'i. and Tonga" by Jo Ro Dunkley on pp 107-110 and 0How Well Off is Australia for Caves and Kerst? A Brief Geomorphic Estimate0 by Jo N .. Jennings on pp 82-909 and "Pseudokarstg Definition and Types0 by K .. Go Grimes on pp 6-10 .. nRock and Cave Drawings of the Singganigl and Kwinigl Valleys and the Chimbu Gorge Area of the Chimbu District of Papua New by K .. A .. Wilde. Occ2si.onal Papers lD, Anthropology No. 49 1975 pp 5-34,, .Anthropology Muse,um, University of Queensland. This paper is an expanded version of the one published in N .. C .. .f.(2)&163-180.. The complete Occasional Poper may be purchased for !A2.75 plus postage from Dro Po K .. Lauer9 Anthropology Museum9 University of Queens l2nd9 St&: Lucia9 Qld. 4067. Surface postage for this publication is $A2. 1 So Thero are 1 O other papers in this number including one on tattooing from Goodenough Island and another on the ecology of subsistenco on the Wopkaimin Mountain people of the District. -The Australian Museum's publication Austr8lia NcJtupal History 1..(6) is devoted to caves of Australia and is a worthy addition to any caver's library. Papers by a number of well known Australian cavers cover the following aspects: history9 exploration9 mineral decoration9 geomorphology9 fossils, rock dating, 2boriginal man9 ecosystems and conservation. This number can be purchased from the Australian f'luseum9 PoDo Box A285, Sydney South9 N.S.W. 2001. for $A1.45 (P.N.G. and New Zealand price. Other overseas countries $A1.70). Ancestral and Prehistoric Sites in the Purari River Basin. Ed. P. Swadlingi Depto of Anthropology and Sociology9 LJ:"P:N":-Go 1975.---y;;-this monograph Ms. Swadling lists recorded ancestral and prehistoric sites from the upper reaches of the Purari River system to the south coast of New Guinea. Most of the sites are in five highland provinces. Many of these are located in caves or rock shelters. One is struck both by the number of sites that have been gathered in the P.N.G. Archaeological Survey File, the source of this information, and at the same time by the paucity of information t'.lhen the actual number of sites that must exist is considered. It is gratifying to note that the information published in N.C. is being recorded in the Surveyo The cover features the Spider Woman Gerigl Arnbu" from the Chimbu, first published in NoCo 1_(2).,

PAGE 39

80 NIUGI NI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 PoNoGo has featured in the British caving magazino Descent recently. Number 31 (May/June7 1975) included an article on the coming 1975 British trip and included a number of photographs from PoNoGo Ltlith ono of the Iara River Cave on the cover. Number 32 included an article on thG coming (1975) lelet Expedition giving a brief history of caving expeditions to PoN.Go (as distinct from expeditions .f.m. PoN.G. as in .!b.. British Caver Numerous newspaper articles on PoN.G. caves in tho Island Trader (Rabaul), Highland (Goroka) and in Austrnlian9 British and even Bulgarian newspapers have appeared in the last yearo Most of tho articles rofer to the British expedition. * * * CORRECTIONS NIUGINI CAVER 4(1) p4. The photographs were printed upside downo The 0 left photograph" is the one with two figures in it. p27 para. 5 line 1. This line should read: N22. Umarah and N23. Kistobu2 Kolonoboi Mission. See Gallasch (1974a) for descriptions. p38 para. 2 line 3. The Muller expedition was in 1973 not 1972. * * * C A N V A S & C 0 R D A G E p T y l T D Corner Ah Chee Avenue & Matupit Street9 Rabaul, PoNoGo P oO .. Box 476, Rabaulo MANUFACTURERS OF TARPAULINS, AWNINGS, TENTS, BOAT CANOPIES9 PLASTICS AND CANVAS GOODS7 RAINWEAR AND SHOWER CURTAINS9 DOMESTIC AND COMMERCIAL UPHOLSTERY 0000000000 (Advertisement) Phone 92 1446 WE m::PAIR """"HOH•••o•oo P .. v.c. and CANVAS RUCKSACl
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NIUGI NI CA VER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 2 PAPUP, f\iEU GUHJEA SUBSCRIB.ERS TQ, NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 Greg BATES9 Bob Geological Survey, PoOo Box 7789 Port Moresby9 NoC.D. PoOo Box 3169 Mt0 Hagen, BOURKE9 Michael c:i1d Jean CHAMPION9 Randell COOPER9 Ian FARNWORTH9 Jim GALLASCH9 Harold GAULH1 TEACHERS COLLEGE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY G IDDINGS9 Rick GOULBOURNE9 Alan HARRISON9 Linda LARKIN$ Dave LEADLEY 9 Alan LEHff!ANN9 Bi 11 D.Pcio9 EoNcBo PaOo Box 19379 Boroko9 NoCoDo Vudal Field Ststion9 PoOo Box Nuw CnginoGring9 PoDo DoPoia9 Koravat? EoNoBo PoOo Box Rabaul9 EoNoBo 329 Mt. Hagen9 WoHoPo Box 1 6 3 9 R ab au 19 E o N o B o HoQo PoOo Box 7789 Port Morasby9 NoCoDo PoOo Box 6239 Goroka9 EoHoPo PoToAc Training School9 PoDo Box 70169 Boroko9 N.CoDo Chuave High School9 Chimbu Province. Lamerika Plantation9 P .. Oo Box 469 l
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