Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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CAVER NEWSLETTER OF THE PAPUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP Volume 4 Number 4 1976

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NIUGTI'H CAVER. VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 137 is . the .newsletter of. the ... Papua. New Guine.a. Cave Ex:plora tion Group, an inforinL:l association of persons engaged in speleology in P.N.G. 4 Number Price Ed.it or December, .Quarterly 50 toea per issue. K2.00 or $A2o00 per anmun. R. Keravat, &st New Britain, Papua New Guinea. Jean Bourke Toktok Bilong Ed.ita Bai 1'1itupola i G.o.Pinis Nau. •••••••••••••••••••••• PrelimL"'lary Report on the 19?6 Ex:pedi tion to the MJ.ller Range., I\:ev a:r1 A. iv ild e .. . • • • o o •. :i I) • • .. e • •. .. o • a •. • • =-o ,, ... " • • • , • • • • • • • o • • • • • • • . • • • • • • •• 1976 New I..reland Speleological Ex:peditiom A Preli...111inary Report. T. S1Jrod .... ., .,. o ., • ...... c !> • .; ., ..... ....... ., •.•• ,,, • • .. " •• i • .......... tl o .,. ,. .... • • o '.c ci • • e • • A Brief History of Speleology in Papua New Guinea. R. Michael Bourke ... The Caving Scone .., ,. " ... .., .......... ., • 6.. Doline Karst. E. ••••• , •• , ••• 1111e Ne.-.-r Contributor 1$ ... o • o ... .,. •• ,, ., ...... .; .. o • • •• .-o ••• • • ., ......... c:. ••• o ...... , , •• Some Rock .A11cestral and Prehistoric Sites of the Hindenburg Range's imd TifaL111in Areas of th,e Telefomin Sub-Province; with Bxi@f .Notes Relating to Associated .. wgends and IYtrthology .. . Kevnn Ji .. o vJilde. " • a"' .. • .. ., ••. o " ,, •.• <> •.•• .,. ... ., •••••.•• ., o ....... • • ., •..•••• " •• , .... • ••• • • • Caves of New Calodonia and the New.Hebrides. Page 138 139 141 1M149 151 152 155 R. -Y.d.cl1ael B.ou.rke .. o • ............ I'; ..... 4 ...... o.•. e •••• o.. •. • • • .• • • •.•.••• •..•••••• 165 Letters to :t.he .-Ji}iitor ......... ,,_.., ... .,., ................ ., •••.•••••••• ,, • .,. ••••• •.. .... 170 An lumotated :Speleological Bibliography of the Solomon Islands. R. Jvli.cho.el Bourke and J. R. Weir1 e • ., ........... ., •• ., •••••• "............... 171 Speloo _Personality -:Mal Pound ..... o ••. ,. ................. ""D••••••,.o••e:••••••o 174 ,. Kevan Wilde copies an engraving at SHo 1 P SoJJrd.num Tom.? Hindenbu.-rg Range. The engraving is said to represent u 11kaweln (hornb:i11) and has been picked out in black in.l<: on the photo for clarity. A corkdn runoilllt of distortion is due to the angle from which tho photo was taken (soe Photo by Chris Pugsley,,

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138 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUl\iE 4-NU:MBE'.R 4 TOK.TOK BIIONG. EDIT/i BAI MITUPELA I GO FINIS NAU Next month and I will be going finish and ha.11ding Niugini over to J\hlcolm and Alison Pound together with the PNGCE.G library an.d equipment We'll.be sitting in .Australia for a bit before heading over to Europe and• Sheffield for the International Union of Speleology Congress and a "liklik raun11 Our Australian address will 120 James TOOWOOMBA. QLD. 4350fl ii.USTRALLL I1m very pleased that N.C. will be continuing and wish Ma.lcoLu and Alison as much pleasure and satisfaction with it as we have had. The maps and cave descriptions of the old Port Moresby Speleological Society from Chuave and Javarere yet to. bepublished and there are the reports from this year 1 s two expeditions as well as the usual articles from active P.NoG. so it wo:uld been a great pity if N .. G." had faded at this stage. Besides which, our work 1rom the Gazelle has to be written up yet and a journal of high standing is needed f-or this (ho-hu.111) J . The. new address for N. Co c . }) .o.. Box 3824, PORT MJRESB 1) J\PUA .NHI GUINEA .. You may be wondering about Volume 4.? nwnber J.. This issue is devoted to the t75 Ielet expedition, With JO photographs and 1'I pages of maps tmd 39 pages of text.? itts a rather special edi-tion. It is with the printer now and should be out about the same t:L-rne as this issue. It is being sold for K2.50 (Aust $3) a copy more than the annual subsc-ription .to Ne C. .we 1rc sending it to all subscribers to N .. C. and asking that people who thi..-r:il'.: it is worth K2.50 ($3) send this to me or I.ex Brown as we have put up the money for the issue. On the subject of money, it is -necessary to raise the subscription to N .. C. as I ai.'n several hundred kinn out of pocket this year" The new rate will be KJ.50 p.a. or equivalent in Australian dollars (Aust. $4.00 on tod9y'q_ rate). When the P.MoS.So folded at the Gnd of 1969 there was K178 left in the bank account. I wrote to tho bank enquiring about this rocently and recoivod in reply the balance of the account K2.18. rrho rest has gone on chequos drawn on the account (by whom?) and bank chargos. 1hat1s it for another year. Herry Christmas from us and may 177 be a good caving y0ar for the PNGCEG. R .. M.B. NIUGINI CAV.ER VOLUHE 4 NUHBER. l+ 139 J?RELIHINJ\R Y REPO[r ON THE 1976 . EXP ED UJ.QlL1Q... THE HULLEJ.1 RANGE I-Cevan A. Wilde The People. Juli.t: J araes (leader) Y. Neil Montgomery (leader), I\evan RanclallKing,-stuart McCc:nn, Neil Hickson, Halcolm Handel,:, Peter_Ruxton, Dave Rothery and Richard Wil wn,:, all from Sydney except for The T:1fil. From about 27th .July to J _9t $eptember 1976. T'.q,e. Objective.. {1) the track to Camp locate and explore major shafts :in the imm,:3diate .the f:ault controlled glade where two. Uli Guria ( MR.105) and Kanada Heiow.a He-ia . ( HR118) were ex_plored and surveyed to over 300 m depth by the Niugini Speleological Hesearch Expedition.? 1973 (Montgomery.? 1974).. (2) Cut.into the south-east corner of 11The Cheese!! (11Em10 is the real name) with the ultimate aim of exploring the stream sinks located on aerial photographs after the .. 173 t:rip {see Map 1 in the 1973 report)" The Results. We didn 1 t make the Horatio area nor the stream ;_:>inks.? but the area .. t7.J b; promis-ing with many f3hafts and a capping: of siltstone to provide the ru..11-off o Deepest shaft recorded at Mamo was -76 m. Some 4-5 km of passage was explored and surveyed in the At8a and the main passage ;ms pushed . for . about JOO m until exploration became hazardous without dinghies and telephone communi cations. Total known length of the main Atea passage is now q,bout Li50 m. . The advance party went in about a week before the main expedition but 1rere confused by the porters as to the true location of Camp Horatio. When.the main pixty arrived it was split into two one group went to the corner of i! The Cheesen and the other to push through t,;y Horatio-. After a few dnyo and shaft bnshing;i a couple of members had a look at the Atea ( MRJOO) 10.ncl 1 . .rere able to get into a' high, dry upper entrqnce (noted on the 173 trip) along the eastorn wall on the Atea Doline. It was decided pull back to the Atea, establish a camp at Lumbi;i and concentrate the expedition's resources and manpower on an all-out exploration push of the Atea. The Atea Kanada!I which is the correct name as opposed to the Kanada Atea used. previously;1 is possibly part of a master system with many stream inlets.? and a complicated network of vadose and phreatic passages, A river passage flowing fro};} the north-east was explored for over 2 km and may connect with a stree111 sink east of Okaparu (?).. The complm: conr.Ji:::rtr3 of dry })hreatic and recently stream invaded 9 phreatic pai:::sapi;e0 with inter connecting levels of some 2 km in total length. Accordinc;ly :Lt io env:Lsaged that the cavo may continue with many by-passes to.the main r:i.ver pac;;;sace. The Atea IUver wa .. s found to be accesr3J.ble from a number of the side paf3S. and in two cases through h:tgh level 1d.ndows :[\)llowoc1 by an abseil of some 15-20 m. The first doscent into tho main pcwsage revenlml a relatively placid . P.O. Bo:< 105 5 Gorolca J .• !I. P • P. J\r. G.

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140 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 1TUMBER 4 that was negotiable by swimming upstre.am to the limit of the 173 explora tion. (The party located the end of the original traverse rope hanging above the water.) I estimated stream flow to be less than 2 cumecs. The original report quotes 12 cumecs, but exceptionally dry weather was encountered this year and the original estimation may have been slightly exaggerated. (I111 stick by our '73 est:imatel Editor) The second high level window gave access to a point apprmdrn.ately 130 m downstream and adjacent to a waterfall. At this stage the Atea was presumed to sink into a deep shaf't. However it was. found to disappear into a slot some 4 m wide, .only to reappear further down where it flows through a series of potholes some 15 m wide and of silnilar depth (?). The passage is of the order of 20 m high and 10-15 m wide and is thought to be the original river course. It serves as an overflow for the slot which is probably a more recent course. A large chamber is encountered at this .point. Heavy rain and a consequent rise in river level precluded further exploration of the main river passage. In any case, it was decided that dinghies and. telephone communications would be reqUired for a serious push. It is interesting to note that even after heavy rain, both the side and main streams were relatively safe to although somewhat frightening, but it was obvious that the entire system could flood to the roof logs wedged high in the roof testify to this. Erosion and sedimentary deposits on the walls reveal that the main stream flows regularly at a deP,th of greater than 1 m above. the level at the tj.rne of exploration and is capable of reaching a height of 2 ... 3 with occasional flooding to the roof 15-20 m above the floor level. High level ledges may provide respite during floods and fixed traverse lines wHh regularly spaced emergency camps would be necessary for serious and continued exploration,. I . Conclusions. Underground exploration and surveying vas followed up by a surface traverse and survey to the IJali resurgence. The tentative results firmly establish the Atea Kanada's vertical potential to be in the order of 1000 m over a distance of some 2 km. No substantial vertical development was encountered during the exploration of the main passage.? therefore pitche2 of considerable length may be anticipated before more substantial horizontal development is achieved. Thus the chances of sump are considerably reduced and, in any case, the possibility of high level by-passes is favourable. A number of the e:xpedition members consider that there is a relatively good chance of a connection with the shafts in the Horatio and fault controlled glade aren.u \There the proven potential is in excess of -JOO m. Whatever the case.? the prospects of a 1000 m deep cave are stimulating enough to warrant a major expedition. The Atea can only be described as being both challenging c.md exciting, and must be one of the most promising unexplored caves in the world. July-August 1978 is the time.and the Atea ICanada is the target for the next expedition. Julia James is the organizer, Neil Montgomery will probably be the underground leader and I will be the P. N. G. liaison officer and adviser. HEFERENCE Montgomery.? N. R. (1974). Cave Maps and Descriptions. In J.M. Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 1973. S.R.C • .9 Sydney. * * NIUGINI GAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 1276 -NEW IBELAND SPELEOLOGICAL fil.7PEDITJ:ON: A PREl:tIMWARY REPqRT T. This article is a personal summary of this year's IBlet expedition. We -hope the full report)! with cave surveys and descriptions, will be published Ni;ugini Ca;ver next year. The 1976 NISE had ten starters. They were Dave Gillieson, Jill Rob Canty (all University of Speleological Ralph Page ( Chillagoe Caving Club)' Neil Hickson (Sydney s.s.).? Stewart Wilson (uL/uLU.1..1.,_,.J. Caving Society and U.Q.S.S.), Mike Bourke, Jim Farnwo::th.? Dave and Sprocl (all PNGCEG). Mike and Jim only crone for the first week.? while Dave managed to get down a couple of holes on the coast, due to pressure of on his plantation. Rob had to leave on 12th July, also due to pressure or work. So six of us saw out the whole trip. He left Rabaul on 27th June and soon discovered Rob's map readin? later to prove invaluable. He i;aa. to navigate for. us'. ship cr;s owner had neglected to tell the captain where we were going.* 1Je made it thoub.a, and Dave Ie.rken picked us up and transported us to Lamerika -our base for the first week. The next morning we split into two groups and went lookin for hole:s• We wanted to check out the resurgences on the coast, and the biggest of was the Dalum resurgence. One group went to explore Dalum.si while the r?st or us decided on Pum Hill. There we folU1d an impressive entrance ( previously reported as Prunp Cave (N10) by Bourke and 1974) cascading out of it and down the hill. However, the cave got quickly and also kept splitting. We pushed each branch until it got too tight and then vrent to look at some others. None of them were any good.? altho':gh at Iemeris we found a 10 m hole on the beach, and Mike stumbled across a. raJ.nmaker1s place, with clam shells.? hurnan bone.s ru:1d some very old Halanggan carvings. The others had been some way into Dalwa whJ_ch turned out to be a large of a cave in many cases filled with water to depths exceeding 20 m no sign of .a It eventually sumped upstream, but is undoubtedly a large cave taking a lot of water from the plateau. Many of the small side passages were not pushed and there may be a way on. Some 600 m of passage was explored and 2Lr2 m surveyed. After the first day word spread locally that we were looking and we were offered many holes. All those we saw after that were good ann we ':'ere drawn to commenti...11i;-1 on the desirability of coming to New J_reland for a one day on the and the next caving. Those.which we did see were Meab1n ( 1Jreviously reported as Mamarabin (N11) by Bourke and Gallasch, 1974), an impresslarce collapsecl belled shaft with large passage full of batfJ off from.the Merakambilin.9 whose entrance is another rainmaker 1 s place, and i...!lu.ch has four passages at the bottom of a 10 m ladder pitch.? with to:tal in excess. of 350 m and two passages still Danrnin (reported by Beron, 19 t')), a beauti ful cavo with a lovely river palrno.go at th0 bottom which unfortunately sumps very soon. There is a fair bit of \ntter in it and we went d.ownntream fully prepared -* 686 Sandy Bay Road, Sandy Bay.11 Tasmania,11 7005. Australia.

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11+2 NIUG INI CAVER VOLUME 4 Nll1,:1BER I+ in life\J 2,ckets a __ 0_g11J i:V'. inner tubo) tied on a rope.. the river flows through :rockpiie 11hfoh may be pushable it looks unl1kely" Damr:.in was surveyed a:..-:; 171,,, m long and 60 m deep., . On 1 st the advan::e iJarty set off for the Lelet The party consisted of Mike, Neil and myself a The idea was to get to Kandah::117 .our cmnp rdte and water source, that nip;lrt :Lf pos3iblo, to prepare the crnnp f o::: the main lie had our own gear and sevural extra loads,. and. Dave was eoing to drive us to Limbin. Unfortunately it poured n:igbt bef oi-o and vrn were only abl ,3 to get a bit ovor half way in the We llo.lked the rest and on to Lenkordi:. ;;1e m9t with Lakuna, who had greatly helped last, year1s expedition.. to Thorr.as,. r.:;,nothor Of the IJl"DVlOUS yeq_r IS. gu1d0S .si We Ql3COVGT8d a maj O!" error.,..... the v.JatGJ:' SOU:CCO we wished to camp at lias called Iababat :-not •' The next morn..i.ng the:;."e were some problems about mcmthally a i;,oluctant guide uas provided -Nau,, He had been told by Lakuna the Lelet equiv2lent of 11 You go to the top of the scarp and take the fi.rst right -c-an 1 t miss :i. t,, 11 Unfortu ... 11ately he did and wG spent the night back in Next day no5-l and I became the roarguard party as the whole expedition moved 1..1.p to T.n.babat.. Mike and Jim at this stage returned to Soon wore comScrtab1y established in campo we employed thrne camp assistants .si Thomas.? T/1nLU1 and Stephen. We soon di1:;coverec1 tho.t only a handful of people from the villages ""' the hunters know their 1my around the high cotmtry. Thoma:J was one such pors'on and we later employed Lentu.q,ne; who was also a hunter. They proved invc..luable and the other two "';rere also ve"Y!y although Liman man.a0ed to get Neil and Jill lost one n:ight by taking a short cut,, At first ue tried doline bashir1g and Stewie Rob and I 1Jere heartened when our first hole yielded about m of passage e However P Dave .si Ralph and Neil bashod 14. dolines the sa:me day without a decent We soon realized these tactics uero not and decided on heading for proniisinQ: looking :featu:re.s on the air photo,s. It was then that we discovered that only Rob was capetb1e of accurately navigating -v.Ji th air photos. Stm1ie and Jill all tried and all ended up goinG in circlc.=s. !foil and I to oven try and Do:ve uao his thesis "'.ri"ork. this change of tactics, wo still :spont n largo amount of time check small holes in do lines. Tost of thutn chokod with mud, fJtal or rock bo:fore going too far, e.nd all took large amounts of wator when it J:'o .. inod ... even the smftll est and. na.stiestt. We. developed two main theories tho t.fr:ie wont on: (a) The holes with the larger dr8.ina.c;e systems leading to thorn weie moro likely to zo, anc.1 (b) All the holes have smal::L ent:rm1ces.si but proba1.Jiy joined up rmdercrolrrd and it . was just a matter of finding one that we could get through into tho big stuff under there. Althouc;h we muot have entered somewh8re between 100 and 150 holes, only six of them were considered worth taggingo The three beot ones are Sunamokolo. ( IBJ), Labapivilis ( LS6) nnd I.rnrreragamas ( L87) q Sunamokola has two large ntreoJn passages . flowing into it,. which are normally dry. There are thi"'ee entrances -o. walk-in passage to a 10 m pitch, a 15 m shaft and a 22 m large shaft. The first two pitches lead to the bottom of the third after a 6.m climb. From.therG a large rift ch.smber J.eads cl.own to a then into stream passage with a 6 m pitch immediately after .. The passage :i.s 2 m by J m, clean.? in beautiful smooth limestone and every pitch had an ob-v:Lous tJ.o off right next to it. Unfortm1ately it leads into a large;i mud NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 143 filled sump chamber. Prcvisional length is 470 m and depth 78 m. The entrances to Ia1 apivilis and Lemeragamas were discovered with only a few days to goo Labapivilis proved a great cave to explore; it has three apparently unconnected entrances anct involves some very sporting climbs and crawls. Unfor tunately just after the Jhird passage. joins itj flowstone blocks off most of the way on. Surveyed length is 129 m and depth is 43 m. Lemera.gamas was discovered by Stewie on a lone reconnaissance while everyone else was having a rest day. The entrance is tight:r as is the first pitch which Stewie amazingly free climbed. The last four days of the expedition were used in exploring the cave. On the last day :r it had been pushed to 652 m and 97 m in depth. It 1.m:J decided to put two parties in; Dave.si Stewie and Jill to survey and Neil and myself to push it as far as possible. We went to the top of the last pitch -a 15 m estimated waterfall pitch into a chamber -and went to place a bolt. Unfortunately 1.re then discovered that the new drill in the bolting kit was not the right size for the bolt. So we returned behind the survey party7 derigging. Lemeragamas is by far the best thing we saw and, where we loft it:it was still going strong and getting bigger. It so far has six pitches (none very long) and three belayed climbs. Host of the hwever.si is gained in walking pass ngeo Although we were disappointed in not pushing it provided a high point for the finish of the expedition. It could go a long way and is definitely worth a return trip. We ended the trip convinced that there are deep cave h. 0:.1 the telet but finding them and getting into them will be difficult. The expedition.si or what was left of it after Neil left for the Muller trip and Ralph stayed at came back to Rabaul on 24th July after spending a day at Dalum resurgence relaxing and washing ropes and gear. We would like to acknowledge all those who gave us help during the trip. In Dave Larken provided a great deal of assistance.si in money and material although he wasn1t able to get down many holes or even on to the plateau. mi laik tok 11terJc yu trun long ol man bilong IBlet. Thomas na Lentuang, tupela man i save tru long ol pas in bilong bikbus? na mipela hamamas tum.E1.s lon"' wok i.nmtaim ol. Stephen na Liman tu i helavim mipela na mipela laik tok 11 tenk yu11 long ol. 01 man i karim kago na ol man i helavim mipela long olgetn narnpela samting, mipela laik tok "tenk yu11 long yupela tu.. REF ER.NJCES Beran, P. ( 1975). Preliminary Notes from a Biospeleoloeical Trip to New Ireland. 27-30. Bourke,. R .. M. and Gallasch.? H. ( 1974). Cavoo of the Now Irolund DirJtriet • Niug1n,i

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144 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 R.. Michael Bourke Han has been in Ne-tl Guinea for at least 27 OOO years (l-Jhite .].. • .') 1970) i and has presumably been lJ.slng cave.s for much of this time J so it would be some what pretentious to write a histo,ry of cave exploration in Papua New Guinea. Even to compile a history of caving by Europeans would be a near impossible task for hundreds of Eu:ropeanu have explored caves in the century since they started settling i.n the coi.E1t:::_ ... y. However I shall attempt to record the activities of speleologist,s in P eN .Go, that is ;i people who explore caves as a sport and record their findings. There were speleologists in the country before 1960J but there is no record of their caving activity, if indeed there was any.. In April 1957 an .American wr?te to David Taylor :i an Australian caver based in Port More:3by 7 seeklng information on .:-:aves here,. Taylor did not give any specific information on caves in :1is reply :i but he did c:tate that 11People who have seen the nwnerous entrances are too concerned with keep3-ng alive to be bothered with exploring them or even plotting them11 The first step taken in the formation of the Port Moresby 1(3peleolocdcal Society (P.M.S.S.) was the meeting of John Barnaby (ex s.u . .s.s .. f and Bain (ex W.A.S.G.) in December.? 1959 1960). The first formal trip of the Society took place in January.? 1960 when an eight member party led ,by Gordon Bain went looking for caves near Dagoda southeast of Port Moresby. In the words of the ' 11 The trip was completely unsuccessful11• However before the month was out.? the first trip had been made to the caves beyond Javarere Plantation. The idea of forming the Society iw a Division of the Youth Hostels Association of Australia was eventually discarded and the Society emerged as a separate entity.? although close ties were maintained with the Y.H.A. A total of 20 trips were ru11 in the finrt yeo.r, 19 to J avarere and 1 to Clmo.ve in the Highlands. '11his and future highland trips .from Port Moresby were run as follows: A DCJ charter was arrtmgod from Port Nor03by to Goroka c::.nd spare seats on the plane filled by members of the public. Profits from the charters helped finance the Society. 'I'ho Javarere trips averaged eight partici pants each and Old Cave was surveyed on one of the tripo. neports of caves on New Irelandj the Western and the Mumeng and Chuave areaE1 were sent to the Society by members based in various parts of the Torri.tory0 Gordon Bain became the Society's secretary/treasurer in 1960 and in 1962 he uas elected as president. Bain was the key member during the first four years of the Society1s existence. In December a comprehensive report was prepared for the Australian Speleological Federation (A.S.F.) Convention nnd the P.H.S .. S. was accepted as a member subject to certaJ.n constitutional changes. D.P.I .. , Eoravat, E.N .. B., Papua New Guinea. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 145 "1961 was a rather unrewarding year in the Society's history and.? while exploration of the Javarere caves continued, the group did not function too well as a Society" 1962). There were 11 trips during t61:; mostly to Javarore with two to Hombrum Bluff. At Javarere the Art Gallery Cave was surveyed. The first issue of the Society's newsletter Talk-Talk was produced. Thero were also 1 trips in 1962 8 to J avarere and 3 to Chuave. One of the Port Moresby members Kevin Read>' transferred to Goroka in late 162 and an act:Lv0 Goroko. based g;oup was started. Gordon Bain represented the Society at the ltth Biennial Meeting of the AoSoF. at I\empsey in December.? 1962. Activity during the first three years of the Society's exir.Jtencc had been predominantly at Javarere, although there had been five trips to Chuo.':o up to January 1963 (Bain.') 1963a) s However in '63 activity shifted to the lughlonds and there were only three J avarere trips. A Goroka branch of P. M. 3. S. wo.r> formed in January and was very active in that year (ReadJ 1963). There were 10.members and Kevin Read wasthe group's motivating force. There were numerous trips to Chuave and Henganofiand a number of surveys were done:> including Kaimomo Cave. Discussions wore held with the District Commissioner in Gorolrn. concernj.ng the tourist potential of the Chuave caves. Three issues of To.De-Talk were pro duced in Port Moresby and, one included a review article on the Chuave area (Bain, 196Ja). There irere also some tri;:::.s to other areas in the Territory. In M'o.y, Chris Borough organized a trip fron{Keravat to the Baining Mountains of Now Britain, although no caves were entered; Borough led trips to the caves noar Buo..ng (Morobo District) in August and September; Laurie Le Fevre took a party to caves near Baiyer River west of Mt Hagen in December; and Fred Parker was active in the Bougainvillo area at this time (Parker, 1963). At the 196J annual general meeting of the P.M.S.S., a Goroka based com mittee uas elected and the complete records of the Society were sent to Goroka. This committee folded in mid 1964 and the records were returned to.Port Moresby. About this time the Goroka group started using the name Goroka Caving Club. The Group was quite active in '64 and there were many trips in the then Eastern Highlands District. Fred Parker was particularly active and did a lot of explora tion in various parts of the E.H.D. and Porol Range in 164 and 165. Members of the British 162 Gouffre Berger Expedition planned a British Overseas Caving Expedition to New Guinea lasting some 3-Limonths commencing J.n June 1964. It was planned to send 12 British cavers to Now Guinea togetheir with some' Australian cavers (Bain, 196Jb). Bain suggested that the trip oper1:1to o.t r.o Chuave Porcrera and the Star Mountains. The trip did not but out or it the 01965 Australian Star Mountains Ex:pedi tion. 1"1lia consintod of six members three from Australia and three from T .P .N .G. Th1eo of tho 1rnre . cavers. 1 tittle caving was done and the cavef3 explored wo:r.o not largo (Shepherd, 1974). . There was little caving activity betw.E;1en 1966 and 1968 •. Frt!d some in the Chimbu. Harold started mcplori1-t:to:n 0:1 Ireland in and thi3 has continued up to the present timo. The most ;J:lgn:tflcant about th:Ls period was that by Ollior David Holdrmorth _ j_:n 'I1robriand Islands. They maG.e a number of trips to the 1slands 196? 1971 an; published the results of their work in a series of paperG in and otner

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLill1E 4 NUMBER 4 journals. In May 1968 Chris Borough and Kevin Read investigated a large efflux cave and an enormous doline in New Brita:Ln (Borough, 1973). The Port Moresby Speleological Society was resurrected in early 1969. Charlie Iegrady.? Chris Borough aLd David Num were the committee members. Meetings were held regularly during thn year and there were a number of trips. There were at least t-wo Javarere trips, another to Cape Rodney, and two charters to the high lands i.Jhere Chuave was visited. Members started using native names for caves about this time rather than giving new names to them as before.. The revival did not last and the P.MoS.S. did not see the decade out. THE P. J\l G. C. E.G. t 970 .... PRESENT There was not much activity in 1970. Neil Ryan continued caving in the Erave and areas of the Southern Highlands which he had commenced in 1969. Michael Bourke started caving on the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain and joined Harold Gallasch in trips to New Ireland. In 1971 activity sktrted to pick up in a number of areas. Kevan Wilde and John Van .Amstel commenced exploration in the Mendi area .and .. a small group operated out of Mendi for some time. Hilde started caving in the Chimbu towards the end of the year. Members of the Explorers' Group of Nanzan University in Nagoya,$) Japan ran an expedition to P.N.G. in 171. They visited caves. in the Ch:imbu and Mendi areas and did some biological work. On Bougainville Peter Robertson started visiting Nenduma Cave and a t:;roup visited the many times that year and surveyed it. On the Gazelle activity continued and some significant finds were made such as Obungeram. Two trips were run to the Raulei Range of New Britain. The impetus of the previous year continued in 1?2. Wilde tetlt11ecl up with Van Watson•in the Chim.bu early in the year and, together with Bill Sanders and Tony Ivnddern,$1 they explored a lot of caves in the Porol Hange. In August they bottomed Bibima at 49Li. m creating a new Southern Hemisphere depth record and put PoN .G. in the :iJ.1ternationo.l limelight. Publicity from the trip xosvlted in contact being made between cavers in the islands and the hlghlands. Ji1lie:'. James's (S.S.S.) trip to the highlands in May laid the groundwork for the large Huller trip the following year. Bob and Viv Vincent made a number of trips to Javarere and did some surveying there. Activity continued on the Gazelle Peninsula and New Ireland, Bourko's reconnaissance trip to Ora Cave in April led to the third overseas expedition to P.N.G. -the 1972-J U.Q.S.S. New Britain E-q'.)edi tion. The s:L"'C member party explored the giant river cave and double doline in the middle of New Britain in December-..January. One of the members developed an infected leg which necesi:-d tatGd her boing carried out and resulted in much unwanted publicity for caving (Bourke .9 Early in 1973 Niugini Caver commenced and the name nP.N.G. Cave }.!::J:plora tion GroupH'1 first proposed by Wilde and Watson, was used. The most s1gnificant activity that year was the 26 member expedition of Australian, P.H.G. and Hew Zealand cavers to the Hiller Range. As well as turning up two caves over JOO m deep and other' deep caves, numerous others were explored eventually a book on the expedition published (James; 1974). There was some in the Porol Range$ including trips down two deep caves that have still not been bottomed; John Bywater did some caving out of Madang; Mike Noone commenced NIUGIN:t" CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 147 caving at Javarere3 and there-were three trips each on Bougainville and the Gazelle. .As \iell a party spent several weeks looking at caves and the hydrology on the-Haga River in the S .. H .. D. for the Commonwealth Department of Works. 174 uas the only year between 1971 and 1976 without an expedition, but therG was plenty of caving activity.otherwise. Geoff Franci.s started caving on 1''.fanus. Over the next two years he managed to explore, docurn.ont and mo.p a large m.m1ber of caves in three karst areas on Los Negros and Manus Islands with the help of a band of high school students. There was the first wlot reconnaissance trip and others to New Ireland and Lihir Island; and thore were 10 trips on tho Gazelle and 4to Javarere. Nike Noone attempted to get n speleo group going at but without success. In the highlands things wore quieter, but there were at least five trips in three districto, incluc1in2; one to the impressive Iaro River Cave near Erave. P.N.G. was representoc1 • by four cavers at the Australian Speleological Federation Conference in December •. Thero were two major expeditions in '?5, the British one and the Lolet trip,_ both of which were preceded by reconnaissance trips. They are too recent to require a summary but both were succes3ful, particularly the large British one. Otherwise the year was much the same as for '?Li-with a high degree of activity on Manus and the Gazelle and some activity on New Ireland and: in the Malcolm Pound started caving at Javarere and there were some six trips there. The year finished with the .. C.E.G. meet in the hif;hlands. Another two expeditions came here in 176 -one to the Ielet Plateau and another to the Huller Range. The local trips were restricted to a limited number of areas ;dth activity confined to the Gazelle, Javarere and Bougainville. S m'.ll,:IlL.11. Y AND . DIS CUSS ION Speleology in Papua New Guinea conunenced in 1960 and. ims based in Port Horesby. In ti1e first three years,$) activity was mostly confined to Javarorc with some trips to b'lit in 1963 most caving was done at Chuave and Hene;anof i. In 1964-5 there we.s most emphasis on the Porol R.::mge. It. b SUGgested that the failure of :_the. '65 Star MolUltains l!-:XpecUtion to f:i.nc1 cant caves resulted in reduced interest in P.N.G. caving for a nmnber m years, both :tn P .N .G .. and Australia. In the period 1966-69, the most f3igniffoo.nt acti vity 1,ras the: Trobriand Islands and caving was in the doldrums aside from Gome activity on New Ireland and the short lived revival of the Port Moresby Spol<::Jo logical Since 1970 caving has been characterized by Slllc1.ll active c;r<)Upn :Ln cl. number of centres motivated by one or two keen individuals. Tho othor fonturo of rocont years has been the there have been S8ven ovor t.ho la::it yoar:;. Prior to 1970 the only published systematic information ccunEJ frorr1 Ch1uwo, tho Porol Han.O'o and the Trobriand Islands. This has now boen to Dougcd.n-.;-. . ; ville, the Gazelle Peninsula,$) the Southern Highlr111ds,p Now Irolt1.nd, tho hhr:3torn Highlands c.nd ll:k'ln'Lls and the published infor:nmtion. on f:trrrt monM.onod nroa:J has been consolidated. The production of Cgv0.r. by Mlchaol Bourke E.ll1d hir.:i Jean has been a unifying fo.ctor over tho last four yoo.rs. As w0ll o.s acting au a vehicle

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NIUGINI CAVER. VOLUME 4 Nt]-,1BIB 4 for c1Gscribing the caves and caving activity and articles on cave related sci ences.? tho newsletter has drawn attention nationally and internationally to P.IT.Ge's caves and their VD.St potentialy and has stimulated caving activity. No montion of overseaf; visitors aside from the large 81'..'}Jedi tions has boen made. Over the years thero have been a number of visitors or residents who have boon involved in cave related studies. Some of these were Hobart Van Deusen.? Joe Jennings.? Peter Whitey Susan Bulmer.9 Paul Hilliruns7 Balazs Denes and :P_eter Dwyer. It is risky to predict the f'uture but expeditions of. mostly oversea,s cavers should continue. The Americans have been threaten5 . .ng to come for years perhaps they will one day. Local caving will probably bo restricted to fewer areas with fower expatriates in the country. 'rl:te recent increase in participa tion by Papua New Guineans is likely to continue. The future for P.N.G. speleo logy can be nothing but good! AClG\JOWLEDG EMENTS ! .......... 4 w-q ....... I kwe made much use of the rmpublished reports o.nd correspondence of the Port Hore,sby Speleological Society and the Goroka Cavins Club throughout as well as articles published in this publication. Host of the old timers gave me informatton on early activity.9 although no other caver has seen this article prior to publication, Bain, G$ a. (1962). A Word From the Preddent. Cave Talk-Talk 2(1)z1. """! Bain, G. a,. ("196Ja).. Chuave.9 Eastern Highlands District, Neu Guinea o. first report.. Qave Talk-Talk J.( 1) g3-9. Bain, G. a. (1963b). Expedition to New Guinea. !E. Newsletter 20, Supplement.94 PP• C J. ( 1973) • A It:1.rge Cavo and Do lino near TuJ.{e Pomio SubDistrict, Brito.in. ,ll.;!yw,,1.JJi 1(2) :25-26. Bourke, R.H. (1973). 1'ho '1972-J U.Q.8.iS. New Britain .Ex:pedition. Niu.r;i.11). C.a:v.s;r. 1. ( 2 ) .... ;a . Jo.moo, J. ( .). (Editor). Papua New Guinea Speleological I:x:pedi tion NSRE . Speleological Roseo.rch COlmcil, Sydney. ParkeJ..";; F. (1963). Notes from Bouc;a1nville. P.IJ.S .. 3. ('1960). The Port Moresby Speleological Society Roport for the Third Bienn.i<:tl Conference of the Australian Speleological Federation. Unpubl. Read.9 r=. J. (1963). Annual Goroka Bro.nch. Talk-Talk J.(3) ,Jhephord, H. J. (1974). The 1965 Star Mountains Expedition. JJ;i.ufini 2 ( !;. ) 2Lj.C-2LjJ • Hhite, Crook, A. W., Ru.xton;i B. P. (1970). A late Pleisto ccme Site in the Panuan Hibrrhlands. Proc. Preh:.otorical Soc. • .J.. --------""' .......... NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 149 THE CAVING SCENE .Central Province. In June Randell, Ruth and Henry Champion, Mivai,. and Alison.and Malcolm Pound did a weekend surveying trip to Old Cave at Javarere. The long river passage was surveyed and the party sighted an eel and a ffsh in. the stream. The Pounds returned in July with Ian McCabe to continue surveying. The upper chamber was tied in with the two entranc0s. Alison and Malcolm took a party of 15 up to the cave in October for a "tourist trip. East New Britain. Michael Bourke and Hal Gallasch took Randell Champion on a quick trip through Rarururunga at Keravat in Jv.ne. Randell was duly .. imuressed by the cave and bats. He suggested that it may be a maternity site of the large numbers of bats and the presence of in.the. The following Sunday Jim Farnworth, Tim Sprod and Michael Bourke returned to the cave to complete the survey. length was about 300 m. A munber of stream flow recordings were made. A note was made on various members of the rich fauna encountered in the cave -including a nine legged.spider Jim claimed to have seenl .,, ....... :"':'" .. ,. ...... In the big earthquake of 19th July, a hole appeared in the ground near Tavurvur Volcario near Rabaul. A shaft 5 m x 4 m at the top dropped m to water level, Tim Sprod descended the shaft in July and again in October together with 11i.chael Bourke, Vic Dent and Don Flanagan. The feature was surveyed and' Vic . ..nd Don dived the water iJ.1 the bottom, but it was too hot to swim in at the bottom -at least 60 c. It appears that the earthquake opened up a pseudokarst cave to the Tim and t1ichael also had a look at the nearby cave in the lava (This was erroneously reported as being a lava tunnel in The Caving Scene Michael and Tim drove out to the Rembarr Range to look for reported caves in October. Three small caves were visited. The first seen, Ramarau, is set in a cliff face and was used as a shel.te:r in the Pacific war by the villagers. It was used to cook people killed in ba.ttle in the "tumbunau. Lines painted on the wall were said to represent warriors eatenthere and there is cave art inside. Phil Johnson and Alan Olden joined Michael and Tim in a search for caves in the Rapitok and Guulim areas in November. The sum total of a frustrating morning• s searching for people and holes was a 6 m long tunnel. Enga Province. The Mink River stopped flowing, leaving a completely dry$ exposed river bed on 20th October; according to the Post-Courier of 5th It is highlylikely that the river is in karst country and has gon0 underground. . Muller Range Expedition. This year's expedition concentrtttGd on thiD impress ive Atea Kanada (see report p139). Some 4-5 kxn of passage Wc)l"'O aurveyod and plans are already under way for a large international trip in '?U to push the Atea. Following the expedition some University of Technology !ta.f .. member1.1 00mplained that the members had explored the ca.v-e the w:tahea oi"' the local villagers. This has been denied by Kevan Wilde. The Direotor of Cultural .Affairs, Mr. John Haugie, appeared on a NBC Contact programme following complaint tmd stated that overseas cavers mey have to be prevented from coming to P.N.G. to explore caves if they do not respect the wishes of the cave owners.

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150 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 New I.reland • Members of the .' 76. expedition to the Le let Plateau explored a number of caves on the coast and the high plateau, the deepest being about 112 m (see report p141). Hal Gallasch visited some previously unreported burial caves at Ra.mat Village near Nam.a.tanai in October. Jim Farnworth has.been.living on Ne.'w lately and he and Hal had a look at Karneribuk, one of' the rainm.akor 's 1ll the same month. Jim has also visited Danrnin and the burial caves at Lemeris. At the request of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the National Parks Board, Michael Bourke prepared a detailed submission on the suitability of the Plates;':a national park. It was recommended that the Plateau may be suitable, principally because of the karst types. It is unlikely that the proposal will be followed further at this stage because of staff shortarres in the N'.P.B. From Nigeria Petar Beron writes that one of the beetles he in New Ireland caves has been identified as a new species and both species of shrilm_)S he in Danmin are new ones. North Solomons Province (formerly Bougainville). Hans Meier did a flight the Plateau in Jtme and saw a number of the large dolines there. and Hans did two trips in August out to Taroku, a previouslyunre river cav:; near Urumovi Village. Things are. looking up in the 11 e.ilan bilong san krunap lately as there are now a nwnber of caving areas within easy reach and sufficient keen bods. An informal group called the North Solomons Cave Exploration G oup has been started and they are putting.out a newsletter. .. Peter Corbett and Hans went out to the Urumovi in October aJJ.d got into a further two caves, one of which is said to be the upper end of1 Taroku. For the William Asigau, Harry Rehtla and As:;i.gau Tau joined Hans and the party investigated two effluxes and were able to enter a cave a short distance at one them. later in November Malcolm Pound, Hans and Harry returned to Taroku with Lawrence Sirapui and John Birepai and pushed the cave to the limit. T.hey the cave and recorded a passage length of 771 m. The councillor at Urumovi has requested Hans to approach the provincial government to obtain permission for trips to the new area. Soloi:ion Islar;ds. A group of seven from the N.S.W. Institute of r.rochnology Society led by John Weir made a br.ief trip to the Solomon Islands :11 Ju:ie-July to look at the potential of two li:rnestone areas, Ort Just inland.from the capital Honiara, two river caves were located and surveyed, , Many more river caves are believed to exist further inland but; Iirrifted time did n?t permit searching in these areas. A small portion of the north-east coastal ll.Illestone belt was investigated near Buala on Santa Isabel. A fault-controlled vertical cavo was found near Kolokofa Village, about 9 km inl[:tlld from Buala. A comprehensive report is to be published in the NSWITSS newsletter. West Sepik Province. In October Kev Wilde crone across a rock art site at in the headwaters of the May River. It is in a sandstone rockshelter. has su:r:veyed recoi:ded the art and prepared an article on it. He says t.ne 1l1 the Frieda River area is in conglomerates not agglomerates as he previously reported (The Caving Scene N. C .If.( 1 ) ) • R.M.B. * * * that NIUG INI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 151 PAfUA NW GUINEA I)NlST TFFS. 6. DOLINE ISM.ST E. i} Deline karst occurs over virtually the whole altitudinal range in Papua New Guinea. The lowest occurrence has been observed by the author in the south-eastern part of the Fly Platform some .30 km north of Mabaduan at an altitude of less than 10m. Here the nearly flat alluvial plain is densely pitted with numerous shallow saucer shaped depressions swampy or filled with water about 40-60 m in diameter. The alluvium is underlain by limestone at a depth of about 1 m. '.rhe depressions represent dol:i.nes which have been sealed off by the alluvium and which must have developed when the limestone was exposed to the 'atmosphere. The doli11es appea.J." to be all inactive and the whole plain is undf3r water during most of the wet season. Doline karst near sea level has also been repqrted from the Trobriand Islands by Ollier (1975). The largest concentration of dolines, ho'lvever, is to be found at higher altitudes. They are particularly prominent on the swn:mit plq:teaux of the Muller and SaruwagedRanges but are distinctly different in appearance. While on the Muller Plateau the dolines are more like large bomb craters with diameters of the order of 100-.300 m and more, with nearly vertical side walls (Photo 1', 2), on the Saru.waged Plateau the doline.s a.re much smaller, generally saucershaped, and resemble closely the dolines found in ka.rst areas of the temperate zones (Photo 3, 4). The Muller Plateau dolines appeB;r to be formed largely by collapse due to a very active underground drainage system, also indicated occurrence of dry valleys and large undergrom1d rivers rising from the edge of the plateau with large discharges of water. According to the Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition (1974) a great numbe.r of these dolines are developed in calcareous s_iltstone w:hich oyerlies purer llmestone. The more active solution processes in the purer limestone lead to undermining, formation of cavities and eventual collapse of the siltstone forming the roof. The Saruwaged Range is like the Muller Range -essentially a structural plateau formed on horizontal to subhorizontal sheets of no calcareous siltstone is present here. The largely detrital Miocene l:Unoritonc ir:.i massive, well bedded and over 1 OOO m thick end forms a spectacular cl.Uf to the south towards the Markham graben. The plateau surface is much more irregular and rounded hills rise some 300 m above the generalplateau level. In the highest part around Mt. Bangeta the relief has been accentuated by glacial e:ror:Jion (Photo 3). Dol:ines occur over the entire plateau but are most connnon along drainage lines (Photo 4). They also appear to be more common in grasGland nreus thnn under forest but this is probably due to the fact that they can not bo rornlily identified under a dense forest cover. The majority of dolines observed in the field nre rolt1.tively shallow saucer shaped solution dolines (Photos 4). However, nenr th0 odgo of the plateau some very deep (more than 40 m) collapse dolines nre dovalopod, * CSIRO Division of I.and Use Research, P .o. Box 1066, Canberra City, A. C. T. 2601. Australia.

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152 NIUG INI "CAVER VOLill'1E 4 NUMBER 4 Solution dolines at similar and of similar appearance have been reported by Verstappen . ( 1964) and Shephard . (Unpublished ) from the Star Mountc:.dns •. The predominance of doline karst in high altitudes and the virtual absence of other more tropical karst types has led to suggestions that tropical karst landforms are replaced by temperate karst in these high al ti tuc1es? possibly due to reduction in the rate solution processes with decreasing terr1peratures (Jennings and Bik, 1962; Williamssi 1973). 1.Ihe presence of doli.11e karst close to sea level does not invalidate this however; a gradual chonge from a tropical karst type to a doline karst with increasing altitude has rrot been observed and it may well be that lithological conditions such as relat1ve purity of the limestone are of greater importance than climate. REFERENCES Jennii."'1.gs, J. N. and Bik.? M. J. (1962). Karst Morphology in Aur3tralian New Guinea. Nature J.2a:10J6-10J8. C. D. (1975). Coral Island Geomorphology -the Trobriand Islands. 2!• Geomopph. l!E .12.(2) : 164-190. Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE ( 1974). (Ed. J. M. James). Speleological Research Council.? Sydney. H. Th. (1964). Karst Morphology of the 8tar Mountains (Central New Guinea) and its Relation to Lithology and Climate. 2f.. Geomorph. llE Willfams1 P. W. (1973). Variations in Karst Ie.ndforms with Altitude in New' Guinea. Geogr. z_. Suppl. Photo 1. Apia Sink a collapse doline on the JYfuller Range. Dry valley to the left. (Photo by author). Photo 2. Surface of Muller Range pitted with collapse dolines formed on calcareous siltstone which overlies purer limestone. Photo 3. .Saruwaged Range with sha.llow saucer shaped solution dolines on floor of glacial basin (foreground) and Mt. Bangeta (4121 m) hit:hest peak of Papua New Guinea. (Photo by author). Photo 4.. Plateau surf ace of eastern Saruwaged Range with numerous small solution dolines preferentially along drainage lines. THE NEW CONTRIBUTOR John Weir is a me..1Uber of the N.S.W. rristitute of Technology Speleological Society. In 1974 he did some caving on Santa Isabel and San Cristobal Islands whilstworking in the Solomon Islands. He recently led a trip to Guadalcanal and Santa Isabel Islands. Sizes 11" 17!" IKB,. SO g K'?"' 50 K6"' 50 :>=piece combination Aluminium alloy nan-rusting 65t set condi t.ion ... Goi)d/used OtJndi tion 9St. X 13n X 4" NSl
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NI UGI 1i) 92 1263 P .D" Box Tt RABJ\UL Pho 92 7131 ah@ PAPUA NE:W NEW 1'riv SHORTS . _ NAVY WHITE KHAKI GREEN SIZE .21u 4ott K3.50 I USED K1 .so K2.50 CIVILIAN SHORTS s IZE 2on .... 26" 60t -K1 • 50 -40" K3.SO ; tEATHtR BOOTS EX ARtV!Y REPAIRED AS REQUIRED I t . I l • ' IG;l LJ LJ. 0 ' • 0 ARMY GREEN.SHIRTS •. . GOOD CONDITION K19.sr1 CONDITION K5.,50 SIZES 12" 17-i" AS . GERMAN ANO Al'lERICANSHlRTS.ALSD-.AlL SlZtS K4.5El .... KS.SO""' K6.50 STAI Nl.E:SS sn:n. CLASP KNIVES EX ARMY K1 *50 NIUGINI CAVER VOUil1E 4 NUMBER 4 SOME: ROCK ART, ANCESl!JAL AND Pfi.EElISTORIC OF T1JE fiWJ?ENBIJRG AJID Tll?ALI'Wf NW OF' A;HE TELEFOM.Jl! sUB-movINCE; WJ;.TH NOTgs ;RLAIING. TO ASSOCIATED IIDENpS A=TID MXTHOIOG y 155 Kevan A. Wilde * The following report describes a number of rock art, and. historic sites along the Hindenburg Ranges and in the Upper Tifalmin Valley. The sites were visited and by the. author and men1bers of New Guinea 175 -British Speleological to Papua New .. Guinea between 1'hrch 001d November, 1975. The rock art is described in some detail whilst the material relating t.o areas of . ancestra.l or prehistoric'. interest appear in note form. This is the f'irst record of these aside from Wilde (19?5b),. and there ho.s been no .a:rchaeologica.l research carried out within the area dealtwith in this report. Brief mention is made of myths and legends associated with some of the more significant caves. The sites are listed from east to west and cover an area from the most easterly.portion of the Hindenburg Wall to Telefomin itself. (Ex:act locations have made available to the Niugini Archaeologi_cal .. Survey, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, U.P.M.G., but are not included here in the interests of. conservatiop..) The area dealt with.(again from east to.west) is inhabited or by the Wopkeimin, Tifalrnin, Urapmin and Faiwolmin groups of the Mountain Ok or Min people. .A more complete paper will appear in the Uew Guinea 175 Ekpedition report. DESCR:t;RTION OF SITES . 1 • Sel.aj.num Iem (Upper cave ) ( CEXt) 1 As this is a very significant site it is proposed that it be dealt with in some detail {see cave survey and Figure I A and B). Approximately 40 km west of Telefomin and 15 Ian west-south-west of Bufulnrln ( Ti.falrllin), nearest village. Amanabi:p; and 10 Ian north-east. of Bultem (Wopkeimin). Ele,,ation approximately 2500 m (est). This site ha.s two areas of interest; a large mainly dry cave and an overhanging, smoke blackened cliff face (see cave survey which shows the first 250 m of a 14 km which are located in a relatively large some 2 Ian south-west of the main Finim Tel clearing (see Wilde,19?5a). The two most obvious features of this site are two. man-made pits (Figure I A) both located in the zone of permanent darkness and remaining a complete enigma.. The pits appear to be ancient (?) and may have been uc;ed for storage pits ( ?) or traps (,?); or, what seems most likely, they may have had a magico-spiri tual function ( .? ) • Although there were no hearths observed within the in'l:ierior of the oave there are remains of burnt wood and "bombom" torches. The entrenoe area is comparatively dry with very little current deposition taking place and the soil * P.O. Box 1055, Goroka, E.H.P., P.N.G. 1 National Site Survey Code, U.P.N.G.

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156 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 profile appears. to be deep. The overhanging,, smqke b _ lackened cliff face to the . south is d;:-y and appears to be well used. The writer i.fris iriformed that the cave featured strongly in the--local mythology (see I.ege-nds:and and that the cliff face could bE'. as a.,. cooking and sleeping place whilst hunting, _but the cave itself was prohibited. -2. Selminum Tem (Lower) ( CER) Site 1 and 2 are actually connected by very constricted passage and are a part of the largest cave 11discoveredn by .the expeditio:q, (Wilde1 1976a). The fact that expedltion members . were not" the first humans to.enter the cave was a surprise to many. There is,. however, substantial evidence of. intensive use and penetration up to a distance of 150 m past the zone of permanent darkness,,but local informants say that they do not enter the cave because of harmful spirits. (No objections were made to our entering it•) " The points of interest have been listed below and 6an be related to the cave survey. ( 1) An engraved bird, .said by local people to be a "kawel" (hornbill), scratched into soft, weathered calcium on a large, upright slab of limestone (see cover photograph) and following the natural cracks and morphology of the rock surface. , A number of parallel scratched lines occur on the adjacent slab. (2) Incised and parallel lines. (3) Engraved lines of no apparent form to the writer. \ . (4) Faded.)} almost indistinguishable and enigmatic motifs e2cecuted ;in, an unknown white mineral (possibly weathered limestone). The faded. appearance and the protected nature of the pq.intings Bive the impression of antiquity. 2 (5) Two further paintings also executed in a whlte (.A) a vulva ( ?) with a filled-in plectrum shaped form below followed by ttw small ,filled-in elliptical forms -less thnn 0.5 m abo v e current floor2level; (B) a f'orm of no apparent meaning to the writer but possibly phallic , and similar to (6) Two extremely faded paintings of possible anthropomorphic form and executed in a white mineral (as above). These figures are very difficult to distinguish and accordingly have not b ee n photographed or -copied. The lower figure which is approximately 4 m above floor level appears to have bent upraised 11arms11, and an open circular "headn with radiating lines surrounding ity and a f'illed-in i--ectangular and elongated 11body"; no 11legs11" are visible. The second f:tgure is 1 m abovo and to the left of the first; and consists of a 11stick-like11 linear form with an open circular "head11 and outstretched linear 11arms11 and The 11body11 is alao linear.? open and elliptical in shape with a styli, zed penis. . Both these forms are located beneath an area of calcium carrying water. lt is interesting to note that both figures are s:im.ilar to others observed at the Aibura site in' the Tu.stern Highlands Province (Wilde, 1975c). 2 Uncorroborated opinions of the writer. , SELMINUM TEM Finim Tel. Plateau. Hindenburg Range. Telefomin S. P. --. strecLm @pool =-=mud. .:.:;:. Su.n d. "\. drop CJ sLa. b slope Site No.1 T -r .,._,_ ,_ I b-a.c.k 0 e.x.ca.va.t ion • pit ,J fr uf\surve.'.:/eu di t 2 sl.+e LI+ roe,k. u.r t or O.nc.estra.L s'19n1Ficance. SuR.vE.'f-t, SRool< ,i t<:\'75 L.Q.,C., C,d 56. Pi.t 2 81 5 c..onnec.tion to lower co..ve. 0 Dt-44>" l<.A. Wilde 2.&.7.7b.

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Site No.2 -Deline SE.c.. TION r 4 m ! OTJ_so(IY\ PIT No.1. Site No.1 -Selminum Tern /) . 4:-{// . 1 ,•, d',' --1 J T 1m _L __ _ Ske.l:::c..'n '!lhu.1it19 p1n'1tl•n o.f e.n9ra11 lr.9!i on !>l<1b. C,....r --A-1...c..m--_,.1 For Loc..Li:hons pit's. t a\'-'t C.(11.1. sor-V'e9 Rock Art, Ancestral & Prehistoric Sites. B. A. t..uid.th a I: ull1 1 S r 5 t....rr. Pain!:mo e.:t.eL(.) in o.. ,,."11\e.r-11.L . ir.. LU\q rk. (e,) uY1 i" L.e.ogth Fig.I. l< I/.;/ !HUG INI CAVER VOLUME . 4 N UMBER 4 (7) Charco a l and d ecompose d wood en and che r t flakes that may be the product of tool-maklll g ( ? ) wer e obs erved in the same area• Dried and unidentified faeces alongside smal l flying fo x and :mammal bone s were observed under a small overhang adjacent to t he chert f l ak e s . (8) Excavations, the purpose of which are unknownj but a p pear to be con siderably ancient. 3. Do}.ine (Name i.f any -unkn own) (CFC) A doline site south-west of Sites 1 and 2 with a boulder c l u ster l o c ated in its base. Two anthropomorphic or forms ' possibly represe11ti no liza rdtJ and engraved ru1d possible c:l.nthropomorphio forrn occur-, It ,is interesting to note tha t lizard-l..ike forms occur at Site 7 and were observe d b y Craig (1968 ) on r ock faces in the Wopke.i.min area (below the Hindenburg Wall). They h a ve a l s o been observed in the Westiern Highlands (Bulmer, 1966) a,nd in the .Eastern HighJ pur l s (Wilde9 1975c; 1975d) and also in Iria.n Jaya (GallisJ> 1957b). A re.cording of 11lizarcl-J.ike11 forms was made by Bragge (1976) at the Piri Cave s in t h e Wes t Sepilc Province. The bent 11arms11 characteristics are similar to. a series o f anthropomorphic forms recorded by Hallyer (1965) on the interior walls of the 11amowk11 (:in Tifalmin ::; Spirit House) at Bufulmin. Also present at this site are a nwnber of enigmatic linear designs (see Figure I B), but some have a simila r a ppear nnce to bird tracks. A human skull was observed on one of the ledges. This site is in a similar environment to Sites 1 and 2 which are located i n the lower montane forest used by Wopkei'n .. in hunters. (First reported by T. Hh:Vce and recorded by D. Brook.). fu.. Skel Waap nnal ( CEP) Approximately 2Likm west of Telefomin and 5 Jun west-south-west of Bufulmin -the nearest villag e being Amanabip and located at an elevation of appro::d . 3nately 2000 m on the main Tifalmin -Tabubil traditione.l trade rou.te. A rock s h elter formed by a large l;Unestone sle.b on the edge of a large c1ol5ne. Well protected , dry and smoke blackened with evidence of intensive use over a long period of time. IDcated in the lower montane and used for shelter whilst hunti n g : 1 D d ga tber:Jng or travellj_ng by either the Wopkeimin or Tifalmin groups. ,. 2 Wok Dubim 'te.!11 ( CJW) Approximately 1f'5 km west of Telefomin and 1.5 km wes t of t h e B u.:L'u lmin group of villages. 1.Dcated in the habitated zone of 11kunai" v alleys . T hi• r t e sists of a burial cav ity in a limestone cliff face, \ J . i t h a 11 unb recent burials said to have been persons of the Winurapmi .3 l illo contact fight over a stolen gourd containing highly priz0 iicr g 2 Uncorrob orated opinio n of the wri t er. 3 Cre..nstone (196 8 ) refer s t o such grou Tif alm.in valley b y a Ferrun i n g r o up a n w .. : :r ntly ores ' l out a r e now known a.r the Bu.fulmin . 'b. e

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160 NIUG nu CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 6. Approximately 18 km west of Telefomin and 1 km west of the Bufulmin Viages and consisting pf a limestone overhang located in an identical emrironment to Site 5 A smoke blackened overhanging wall with a dry earth floor located mainly• behi..11.d the drip Tv.ro elongated, narrow and split river stones i:ere observed at the site, and from their appearance could have been used as.strikers or crushers (?)j it seems that these stones were the river f?r a specific purpose as no other similar stones were seen !a in the geologi cal sequences. A number of human bones had been placed on ledges and wedged into solution features,, Some art in the form of three red 11 diamond" motifs,. one diagonally "crossn motif and a linear charcoal design of no apparent form to the.wr11.1er . is present •. rt is of interest to note that White (1969) observed a set red ochre "croix enveloppe" at the junction of the Tumbuda and Strickland And red "di&"'nondir motifs have been observed in the Chimbu area of the F.astern Highlrulds (Bulmer, 1960). "Cross" motifs have .also been at Kainantu in the Eastern Highlands (Wilde, 1974), in the Western Highlands (Bulmer, 1966), and by Gallis (1957a) in Irian Jaya" 7,, At Tem I-1u:n ( CET) See site Not' 2,' Wilde (1975b)a Concentric circles and "cross11 motifs executed in and white clays ochre occur at a rock shelter on a cliff face.at Jnikia De Bom 12 km west-north-west of the Frieda River copper prospect (Wilde, 1976c} •. 8. Name Unkno"\ill ( CES) See Site No. 1, Wilde (1975b). Bal Kurinon or Bal Kuun Luun Ttm ( CEU) See Site No. 3, Wilde (1975b). 1 0. Ag:ifn. IplaJ. ( CFD) A small damp fissure or roek shelter near Agim Ttm (Wilde, 1975a p117) for sleeping and cooking whilst hunting "saga.am" (flying fo:i;) •. :unsuit able for archaeological excavation (?) due to dampness and its little used appearancee 11 • Karimuk Imal ( CEX) See Site Noe t_,, Wilde (1975b). 12. Dabandu ( CFA) .Approx:ixn.ately 12 km west of Telefomin and a short distance from the :Malakaamin garden area; this site consists of a rock shelter located in the base of a NIUGTIU CAVER VOLUME I+ NUMBER. 4 sink•hole with smoke blackened walls and a nmnber of curTently used hearths. Situated at an elevation of approximately 2000 m in the lower montane forest and used by the Tifalmin-Urapmin groups as a base for 1 J, Mokf';ytryt :rnwJ. ( GFB) 161 Approximately 1. lan north--east of Site 12. A rock shelter located along a limestone cliff face in a valley floor -smoke blackened and well used with a number of currently used hearths. F.nvironmentally similar to Site 12. .14, Imal ( CEY) See Site No, 5, Wilde (1975b). 15, }\ruku Neng J.mal (CEZ) See Site No, 6, Wilde (1975b). 16, tgp.glang Ima.l ( CFE) A reported, but unvisited, rock shelter 2 km east of Site 15. 17, Miben Tlm ( CF.F) Approximately 10 km south-south-west of Telefomin and consist:i11g of a large resurgence cave that flows into the Ok Ket. A number of bones calcited into a ledge in an open collapsed feature between two parts of the same system (reported by A, Golbourne). IDcated at an elevation of approximately 1500 m near an old and abandoned garden area, The bones are said to be those of persons from a clan known as the Alkelmin, who by legend are said to have been destroyed by sorcery. A short distance west of this site is an old abandoned village area which according to informants was inhabited by the Alkelmin. DISCUSSION There can be no doubt that the area supports a large number of sites that are suitable for archaeological investigation. A number of other sites apart from those reported here are said to exist, but were not visited by the eJcpedition, It is the opinion of the writer that many other rock art sites are to be found within the area dealt with in this report, but are either 1llu01own to tha pe'Wle (as with Selminum Tem (L:>wer)), or more likely, are considered to be 11amemtem" (prohibited caves). It is also the writer1s opinion that it is unlikely that such relatively advanced and involved art forms could e:>tiot at ao fow n number of sites, and that such a level of parietal nrt could not boen attained without mor.e intensive activity. More exploration arid further studies are obviously required before any positive conclusions oan be dro.wn. Craig (1968) noted a number of parietal art sites z::i.mong the Wopkoimin and Atbalmin and he states that the urt forms normally occur in charcoal, but ochre paintings were also observedo This conforms with the writer's observations, but Craig alsostates that charcoal and ochre drawings occur on rock surfaces,

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162 NIUG nu CAVER VO LU1'1E 4 NUMBER. 4 -never caves, which is inconsistent with the writer•s,obf}erva tions .. Belminum T4m (Wopke:Un4t) and At Tem Lv.un (Bufulnrln) are both 'cave sites. It is interesting to note that Craig1s informants .plac.ed no ma.gico;.. spiritual signi.ficance upon the paintings and drawings obseri"ed by him. The paintings and engrayings found in Selminum Tem. feature inthe local myttiology (see Iegends and Jiythology) and are obviously -'!'ifalrn.in people seemed to place no such value on the rock art sites in their valley. In all cases it was stated that the art had its origins beyond living memory. Craig (1968) also recorded a number of bark wall paintings amongst the Wopkeim:i.n and Atbalmin which a.re very similar to those recorded at Bufulmin by Hf yl;la:( 1965). Craig postulates att tendency towards dynamic repre:3'eiitation11 o.nd a possible correlation with hunting and food gathering economies with a nmental outlook based on magic which seeks to obtain results through action ••• n. But, as mentioned above, his i..ni'ormants denied any magico-spiri tual significance. They also informed him that the act of drawing an:dpainting was a form of entertainment and a means of passing the time11 But, it .is the opinion of the writer that there are several categories of art within such a society: this opinion is based on the consistency with design e+ements i...11 adjacent areas, and the significance of some of the locations such as inside the namowk11 (spirit house) at Buful:min and on the walls of a cave, and well withill the zone of permanent darkness, such as Selm:inum Further more the fact that the art is associated often with burials is indicative of magico-spiritual significance rather than an art for art's sake attitude or that: the was merely passing away ti.m.e. . . .. Several references have been made to similar rock art fdrms and styles, 'in thiS report and the prelirninarJ report by Wilde (1975b), and comparisons have been made with rock art throughout other areas of Papua :New Guinea a..11d Ir:Lun Jaya, but because of the limited amount of material available, no proper attempt can be made at correlating the styles and materials or geographical .. distribution. Probably the most significant factor to date is the consistency of the occurrence of 11lizard-like11 forms throughout the Eastern ax1d Western Highlands, West Sepik and parts of Irian Jaya ... LEGENDS AND MYTHOIDG :{ An unusual factor of the "min11 is their claim to a common genesis and alinost universal belief in .Afek4, an ancestral heroine of great importance (Quinlivan, 1951+). Apart f'rom laying the basis of law and custom she was responsible for the creation of the spirit houses and associated In order to do this she had to travel long distax1ces and it is said that on many occasions she chose to travel beneath the ground, and according to legend it was in this manner that many caves were created (Wilde, 1976b) Selminurn. Tern is such a cave. Some of these caves she designated to be the domain of spirits, prohibited access to them, .and they are known as prohibited hole). lmy future expeditions should respect these 11ta"Ubun caves and permission for access should not be expected and the wishes of the people respected at all times. 4 The mythology surrounding Afek is secret cult inrormation and should not be openly discussed with non-initiates. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 163 f.ek is also held to be responsible for the creation of underground routes designed to serve as access ,to 71 Bagela.t11" , the place of the dead:; and the sacred holes/ caves knmm as n a.11emternn serve as entrances to the nroad of the deadu (D. Jorgenson pers. comm.). It is also believed that the souls of the dead mani...; fest themselves in the form of flying foxes and inhabit cavos even though flying foxes aro hunted and eaten for food. Apart from the Afck myth, there are others that refer to spirits occupying caves (see Wilde, 1975b), and the fact that the Faiwo]Jnin believe that their ancestors emerged from a karst fea:turo on the ranges (Barth:; 1971):; is all strong evidence as to the cultural significonce of and karst features in the Telefornin areu. REFERENCES Barth, F. (1971 ). Tribes and Internal Relations in the Fly H0adwn.to!'::). Oceanic. il Pt. 3 : 171-191 • Bragge.? L. w. (1976). Piri Caves, West Sepik Province. Eb1.W'Jt1,i tt(2) s. (1960). Report on Archaeological Fieldwork in the New Highlands. October 1959-Ms.y 1960. Mimeo .Anthropology Dept., Un:i .• Auckland. 29pp. Bulmer 1 s. ( 1966). Prehistory of Australia.11 New Guinea Highlands. M.A. Thesis, Auckland University. 190pp. Craig.? B. ( 1968). Bark Paintings and Rock .Art of the Mountain Ok. Mt:PJ.dnfl. .( 11): 595-597. Cranstone (1967). Some Boards from A New Haus Gal.ic, K. w. (1957a). De Pinfeloe-Grot Nabij Tainda. ..tJlfl1Qfl, 1 ( 2) : 11 8-.12 8. Cralis, K. W. (1957b). De Grotten Van Jaand. Niew-Guinen 1(1) Hayllar.? T. (1965). An J.1.ccount of the First Crossing of the Star Mow1taim3.? New Guineao .ll...N. U. Micro film PMB 83. 268pp. Quinlivan, P. L. (1951r)• .Afek of Telefomin: A Fabulous Story from NGw Guineci which led to a Strange Tragedy. White, J. P. (1969). Rock Paintings from the Strickland River, High ... lands, New Guinea. ,SciGn1• Soc. 1.Q.:3-7. Wilde, K. A. (1974). Trip Reports, Some I.egends o.nd Rola"lJ:tng to n ; of Caves in tho Sinofi and Hengnnofi Arons of the Et.,1,crtc1"n Highltl.ntlc;;i. Caver g_(4):250-253. Wilde, K. A. (1975a). New Guinea 175 British Speleologioo.l liJ>Cpod:tM.011 to Papua New .lm Account of tho Roconnaissonc0 in the) Hi11do11btt:r"6 Ranges and Area. Niugin,i Caver i(4) :111-11S.

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164 NIUGINI CAVER VOL1J1vJE 4-NTJ1vJBER 4-Wilde.9 K •. A. (1975b). Some legends.? A Cave Ji.rt Site.j) Burial Caves and Rock Shelters with Possible Archaeological Potential in the Telefomin Area of the West Sepik Province. Niugini Caver i(4) :119-122. Wilde, IL. A. ( 1975c) • Notes on the Rock ill"'t of' Aibura Cave Kainantu Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Proc. Tenth Bien.11ial .Aust 1Speleo Fed. pp 57-68. • . • • Wilde, K0 11. Rock and Cave Drawings of the Singganigl and E:winigl . Valleys and Ch:unbu Gorge AX'ea of the Chimbu District Pap11c;. New Guinea. J:apers in t)nthropology No. 5-34. lmthropology Mu.seum, Urd.-V"ersity of Queensland• K. A. (19?6a). The Search for the Deopest Hole in the World Goos on 0 •• and" On A and Informal Account of New Gu:inoa 175 Speleological .Expedition to Papua New Guinea. Cavet Wilde, IC. A. ( 1976b) • New Guinea 175 3 British Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guinea -Anthropology. Unpublished rfmuscript. Wilde.:i Ko A. (1976c). A Short Paper describing A Rock ittt Sito in the Miarunin Area of the Telefomin Sub-Province.si West Sepik Province, Papua Now Guinea. Unpublished Manuscript. (Advertisement) Corner Ah Chee Avenue & Mntupit Rabnul_p P.N.G. P. 0.. Box l.i.76, Rabc.ul. Mll.NUF ACTTJRERS OF T.f\11.P AULIN.S 5 AWNINGS, TENTS, BO!i.'r CANOPIES 9 PLt1STICS AND CJ.,NVAS RATINlT.Aft AND SHOWER CURTAINS 5 DOMl!-STIC AND COMMERCIAL D"PHOLSTERY Phone 92 141+6 WE REP.AIH .. ,, o .. o..... . . . .. • • . . P. V. C. and CANVAS RUCKSACKS:; TEN11S ErC .. WE 11!1KE •• " o ••• ......... o o • • • .. R!'i.INWEAR (COATS AND TROU:<:'::EHS) . TO .A.NY iSP.ECili,ICli.TION (WITH/HITHOUT CAPE9 SLEEVES) ANY SIZE. Tough and bush woarl WRITE OR CALL ll10R A QUUI1AT ION NIUGINI CAVER VOL1J1vfil Lr NUMBJi:n. 4165 C.AVES OF NEW .C.ALEDONLi AND 'lfil ,N11W.,JI,;g;I\J:"P . n.. 11ichnel Bourke large of Now Caledonia and smaller rn:rnocintod nro located some 1600 km east of the Central Queenslan.d coast and to t.ho north of t.he Tropic of Caprieorn. The climato and vegetation is sub-tropical. o:rigi:nal inhabitants are. Jv.Jelanesio.ns but people of European dosco;nt aro now numerous as tho Helanes:i.ans with smaller Folynesian;i Indo:n<3sinn and corrnnlUl:i.ties. Limostono is not particularly prominent ori 'New Cnlodoniu but the islands have attracted the attention of European cave \3X:plorors 'Lime. There nre a nurn.ber of Fronch cave.rs in Nomnoo:, the islnndG 1 cnpitnl.v nlthough they a1"e no le:nger very active. They do not seem to havo producod nruch litorafatro. aside fr.om -a short report in 1961 or 1962 L"'1 a French publicn.t1on. '.I11ere have boon three Australian ex:pedi tions to New Caledonia. Tho fir1.:rt wo,rJ :ln 196263 when throe Sydney cavers spent several months thero and visitocl f:tvo a.ror..w ( Hay1laI' t , .fkl• :i 1965 9 Hmnil ton-Smith, 1965) • In 1965-66 a O mnn from "visited the isla11ds 1966). They mapped the Grottor:J D 1.Adic) mid vis3:ted'othtirareas together with four local cavers, but publishod no roport. In 1974.:..75 Ll 'soven member party from Queensla..11.d e.nd Tasmania molUltod nnothor oxpedit1.on and produced a cornprehensivo report (in press)., I two weoks in Now Cu1edonia and. the Hebrides in July-August .i' 1976 and vici:l.tod two cavo aroas in Nmt CalGdonia. The main caving areas nro as followc: Some 14 km by road inland from the township of Poyo. lios tho most fari1ous cave o:f Now Caledonia. It is known locally as Grotte;.;1 D 'AcUo ( tho cave at Adio) although I was told by the local chief that thG native nroue 1a Ka.luirer (IJhon. Kaludra) in the language. The cave is justifiably fw.nous,. There are at least two entrances. It throe lov-8ls and may be 8 km long. I .followed the river passage f'or 1500 m or without reaching the end.. Itr exploration we.f3 stopped by a number of deep pools at which I batLlkod as I tms on my own. The cave has a 11 classicaP form and it is easy to see why it is so fmn.ous locally. 'Th.ere are complox passagos noar the entrance i.;here one could easily become lost (and some visitors have). 1110 otrearn passage continues on end on. It is well decorated with flowstone and bnts are numerous in places. Kaluirer is located near the bnso of one of fou:e :impressive limestone towers. Thore is a Youth Hostel ( 11 do J01mo1Jr3011) hut at the entrcmce and it is a ver-y picturesque campsite,. 11earou-N;lndhh1 Some 5 km west of Houailou ( prm1otm,cod Woilu) on thci no:t•thur.wt coast there is a .catholic mission at Mearou-Ninclh:i.n. A outcrops occur south of the mission and in at lo:,u.rt'. emu occur. Those wero ur,ed aD burial rJitos in found inside the caves and ornall crovicos. Tho outcrop:.:1 nre aui to similar to tho;.::e in northo:rn l1ustrnlin CL;J :Ln Tho limesto:no is dooply flutod nl though :1.t nn as the Queensland E\ron the vogotatton of v:tno

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166 NIUG INI CAYER :VOL'm1E 4 NUMBER. 4 scrub is reminiscent of that on tb.e Queensland outcrops. : Other areas. Caves occur at a of other locations, but I did not lmve time to visit these. There is a limestone plateau inland from Kournac on the southwest coast. Caves up to 500 m long are known from here. Geze (1963) describes a cave ho followed for 430 m to where he encountered a deep pool. Hayllar tl al. ( 1965) . reported a large cave at 15 km south-east of of Bou.rail. Sanborn (1950) refers to caves at Nepoui (north of Poya), and Boupouparis, .both on the south-west coast, but provides no details. Inland from Hienghene, tower karst and caves occurs There is a tidal cave about 18 m d.Gep and 9 m high near here (S8Jlborn, 1950). The Loyalty Islands and the Isle of Pines consist of raised coral. Tourist caves are reported on the Isle of Pines. Hayllar ._. (1965) give a report of caves on Lifou Island i..'11.cludi..""lg burial caves that they explored. A cave legend from Lifou was recently published (lmon, 1975). J2.iscussion. New Caledonia is an interesting place to visit, although it is quite overrated as a tourist destination and is unbelievably expensive. I doubt if it is worth an.other major overseas expedition given the potential of other Pacific islc:mds, espocially P .N .Go However the caves nwJco it worthwhile for a smaller group;1 particularly if they were to concentrate on one or two of the lesser known aroas, such as Koumac, and thoroughly explore these. the New H ebrides Condo1ninium consist of a long chain of islands that ru.,,'1 almost northo..south. They are north of New Caledonia and some 2000 km east of the north Queensland coastline. The native people and the cl:Lmte are similar to those of P.N.G" France and Great Britain (;) ad1ninister the although inde p e nd e nce .is on the way.. Q.unternary limestone is prominant on a munber of m1d occurs o n almost all of theme; The islands are quite recent geologic ally and tertia r y CJ.[:n limestone only appears on Espiritu Santo. I did not m oo t or h ear o f active cav ors thero.. Caves on Efate and Espirito Santo were visited by :members of t he 1 9 65-66 li.ustraliai."'1 expedition that visited Ne-v1 Calodon5_a. There arG a f e w i n cide ntal r e f erences to caves in the literature. I was u11able to do any caving during my s t a y the r e J mainly beco.use of tra..'11.sport probler11s. Notes on reported cave s a r e as J2iri.ill_!-2ik'l19.q This is the lar g 00 t island in tho g r o up and the aclntlnis tra tive centre is Santo. The eastern bn,lf consists of raised reef l:Unestones as do tho smaller islands off the eastern and southe .rn sides. Miocene li.1110..,. stone in nine locations on the western half according to the . 1975 geological mo.p.. Access to these areas would be difficult. Sanborn (1950) refers to c avos at Segond Channel (east of Santo) and at Hog Harbour, but he gives no details., The Australian party visited a series of caves on the northern side of an island south of (Hmnilton-Smith pers .. cor11s.). M1.ewo and Pentec;ost. About half of Maewo and most of Pentecost are limestone. describes a lava cave on the west coast of Maowo., There . , 1 \' , I '•' ": ... 0 C E. A IV: . . • i ' OJ '1, I I I I ' I I ',, ',)•\',"I , .. , I Sl..lt:.\f -P..IJ:!1'. $

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I I I 168 NIUG1L1"I CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 are two passages. One is short and he explored the other for 50 n to a collapse. Malekulu. Most of the northern third of .the island is li.mestone. Caves were r0ported at Ten Miel on Espiegle Bay on the D:orth-west side. I was told of engravings in these. Caves were also reported at Isle de la Grotto on the west coast and at Atchin near the Orap River on the rtorthL.,.east side (not 1:..tchin but on Malekulu itself). A11br:m!• This island consists entirely of quaternary volca."'1.ics. On the north there is a long cave with a lot of ligtiid guano ite It is f orraed under rather than in the lava. NEW He!RIO.ES lfmeyj,. f;n. acT,ivo lava tubo was seen during the 196J-65 eruption of 1969 p61-62, cited by Wallace and Hebda, 197Li-). Efate.. Much of the isla..Dd consi;t;Of limestone and in fact the water supply for the CondominLnn capital!/ Port is derived from a Caves were reported near Mongalau vilh.ge on the west ' coast; at Siviri villagG on Undine Bay on the north coast; and near the Ebuli River on the east coast. Geze and the Ji.ust:ralian party visite tho river cave at SivirL Geze (1963) gives a brief description of the cave and reports it to be at least 100 m long. He states that villagers collect fresh w ater in the first chamber. The Australian pc_rty also visited a large cave on Mont111._rtre mission near Port Vila (Hamilton-Smith persct comm.). There is said to be a large cave on the north-west s:l.de of Moso Island which is off the north-west coast of 1!-:fo.te. Grotte de Markua and Grotte F e l e s on IBlepo. Island;;i 1-1hich is off the west cost of Efate, contain cave p aintings and engravings 196 p63; 1972 4J-4Li-; Hebert, 1962-65 p86-8?; Speis er :i 'l 923 p23 • Cited by Specht J 197 /.h ) " Raised reef limestone fringe the island6 Thero is a burial co.ve nt Sufu ne<:-::.r Dillon 1 s Bay ( Geze :i 1963).. The cave 1s smo.11 and contains NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 169 skeletons of at least 200 persons. Geze suggests that the slcolo ton date from epidemics following diseases introduced by Europeru"'l arrival Discussion. Geological conditions do not appear the f orma-tion of very large caves. Nevertheless the impression from m y l r ance is that caves may be reasonably numerous in the island • not the place for an expedition intent on new records 9 but o p arty with a few weeks to spare, it could be rewarding. The i 1 nd , ive and have many similarities with the smaller islands in P . N . • widely spoken whilst English and French are the official langt..Ulgs , , ' For a caving it would be worth spending some tirn t ro .d g oes around the island and access is therefore fairly good. Both l'vfa 0 ulu and E piritu Santo have promise although transport around the islands w uld a v e to e via workboat or canoe. CKNmyLEDGEMENT S Dave Gillieson of Brisbane and Jean Pierre Sioret of New C a l edon an Museum n d Nomnea Youth Hostel provided a lot of i..71.formation about caves of N e w C a l e donia which greatly facilitated my visit. Barry Wenghtman at T agab e Agrioultural i hool}l staff at the Water Department and Geological. Survey of the Condominium and various ville.gers provided information on cave location in bhe c w Hebrides. Elery Hamilton-Smith of :Melbourne gave me a copy of 1 . pape:r . ' he assistance of these people is acknowledged with thanks. I EFERENCES gj( f* • . ,....,. Anonymous ( I.Bgends from Ll.fou. Son of the Earth. Pacific 25 ( 1) :44. l'an ger.? J. (1966). Recherches archaeologiques awe Nol.Nilles-Hebrides. .:: 59-81 • G ranger;;i J. (1972) • .Archeologie des Nouvelles-Hebrides. Societe des Ocs _a:n,i_.;.l. t ,s Publ. No.JO. ORSTOM, raris. oze, B. Observations Speleologiques Dans le Pacifiqu, • Irunilton-Smith!il EQ (1965). Some Cave Fauna from New Cale donia. 1.(1) Sydney. Speleci. Soc. ayllar, T. Andrews, w .. and Hawken, A. (1965). New. Caledoni QoIP.IJillllicatio;g... 2(1) :8-16. Sydney Speleo. Soo, ations J , I oration .. I 'lbert s: Bo . ( 1963-5).. IBs M3gali thes Sculptc3s e 1' N.s. Ji. u.. Ebu.de Moore;; B. P q ( 1966). Australian Biosp e l eological Expedition to N e w C a l edonia .9 1965-1966., li.l\ctitQ ..

PAGE 19

170 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME NUMBER 4 Ollier.9 Co D. (1969) .. ' Volcanoes. M.I.T. Press, London. Sanborn.9 Co C. ( 1950). Bats from !Jew Caledonia, the Solomon Islands, and New Hebrides. 2.1(36) Specht, J. (19711-). Rock Art in the Western Pacific. Unpublishe.d manuscript. Speiser.9 F• (192J)., Banks-Inseln •.. Ethographische Materialen aus den Neuen-Hebriden.und den Kriedel.9 Wallace9 P. and Hebda.? R. (1974). Iava Tube Caving. Th2, Canagian Caver . ( 1) LEI'TEfiS TO TJIE EDITOR ppien1ific Society The Council of the Papua New Guinea Scientific Society has requested me to thank you for copies of the Niugini .Qrn and to compliment you on the fine standard of tho journal. The Council hopes .this excellent work will be main-tained. J. White .9 Secretary .9 Papua Guinea scientific Society, Port Moresby. Essil Find in Selminwn Te'm Thank you fof,the copy and offprints of Niugini Caver Volume 4, Number 2.. I was;H little worried that the opening sentence may have . given the imnression that I was invited to Papua New Guinea by the'British Speleo logical In fact they had reported the fossil find to the Geological Survey in Port Moresby. It was through the generosi.ty of the Geological Survey and the Ok Tedi Development Company that I was able to make a rapid trip to Port Moresby, then to Tabubil and subsequently to Selrainum Tem to a::t:7:rive just as the British Expedition was pulling out. I would be gr,p,teful::if you could publish my acknowledgement of the support given by these two agencies in the.recovery of the oldest recorded vertebrate remains from . Papua New Guinea. On the completion of my current study of the specimens they aro to be returned to Papua New Guinea. Rod Wells, School of Biological Sciences.? Flinders Univorsity, South Australia. CIRCOID SPELIDIDGICO ROMANO We would be very interested to have your publication piugini Caver; therefore we would like to know whether it could be received by us in exchange for our half-yearly one. called Notiziario Del Circolo.Speleologiqo Romano. By separate 'cover we are pleased to send p;. so11e recent issues of our publicationi. Franco Il Segretario, Circolo Speleologico Romano.9 Roma, Italy. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 171 R. Michael Bourke and J. R. Weir Until recently there ha. s been little interest in the caves of the Solomon l n lo.:nd8 by Ii f tb .•, . . .. " _ .. . 1 view o current interest:1 publication of 1 1 Jl.og_w0:l b.,101.i.ography seemed appropriate No claim as to . 1 t _ spe eI 11 I tl " c• c uni ed Nations Special F1md Ur;iversity South Pacific:; Suva. J:Zlgravings .in Fotoru.ma Cave, Poha.River, GuaqalcCl.11al. Alltim.9. J .. (1967). Solomon Islands BiSIP, 1965-68. Regional Photogeological Interpretation of the British Protectorate. Aerial Geophysical SQryeys Froj ect. UNSFof limestone and karst photo-geologicai mans oach island included.. ... for ( 1969)" Prophetic Vision in the Solomon Islands. ( n Notes N9li Sc:ly.Jj .. Reviewed ilrchaeo1ogical exploration in caves canal Island (from Davenport, 1968): on the Nelu_j"). in Santa .Ana and Guo.dal-Cyolone damages. P.Q.G,.t,fic Islands Monthly 43(1):230 F.ollow.ing a 100 knot cyclone in December0 1971 ' r1 -t r , c t 1 ., . on k::ian a .1:il1a and Santa ,a -a ina, most of the people are now livi..11g in caves and leaf shelters,,. /\non. ( 1975) !' Notices and. News. ASF Newsletter '-6 ""1 o H . . . •-+ . $ • oeonnaissance trip to SolomonIslands by NSWIT planned. ;,non •. (1976) The Scene. :67-68 and g1/1.9-150. Heeon1!-aissan. ce trip by NSWITSS to investigate potential for full •:1cf:'IJ t'Vloir ... Two yve.... 'l C'.ld .. . d . •) -.i.. x'• l. -,,,, .1. cailuo surveye near Honiara and a vertical cnvo oxplorod Inland Bua.la.? Santa Isabel. lritish ( 1969). . Roport of the .Intordopnrtmontnl Com ... .L tt'-
PAGE 20

172 NIUG nn CAVER VO LlHvIE 4 NUMBER 4 Coleman, P. J. (1970) •.. Geology of the Solomon and New Hebrides Islands, as Part of the Re-entrant, Southwest Pacific. Pacific Spience 289-314. Maps!show limestone areas in the various islands of the S.I. Coombe, F. ( 1911). Islands of Enchantment: Hany-sided Melanesia. MacMillan, London. Art site on the walls of a house in front of.a cave, Santa Ana. Davenport, W. H. (19'68)11 Jmthropology in the British Solomon Islunds. 11( 1) :31-.34. Archaeological excavations in three small shallow caves on Santa Island. Artifact:s and pottery found. :Excavation in cave in Poha Valley.? Guadalcanal. Gleeson, L. (1976). WJ:len Tasmanian Caving Becomes Too Rigorous. Southern Caver 8(2):7-10. caves on Santa Ana and Guadalcanal, quoting Jmon. (1969) and V:i.ncFJ (197 4) • Green, R. c. (1970). Unpublished Field Notes. Solomon Island Cultu.re History Project. Visit to cave "nearly one mil& long11 on east branch of Nambalue River, Nendo Island, Santa Cruz Group; engravings in nNaxnbule:in" rock visited another cave_HNambwe ne.menqombu11 high on cliff face in Nambontaepe Bay. Grover, J. C. (1959-62). Phosphate Guano in Caverns of the Floridas Group 1960. Report Noa 37 in British Solomon Island,.. Geological Record ;.g90-92. Descripti9n of 11 caves containing guano deposits on Small Ngella and Sandfly Islands; riiap shmi:L-rlg . cave 1ocali tfos. Guppy, H." B, ( 1886). Notes on the Characters and Mode of Formation of the Coral Reefs of the Solomon Islands. Royal. .fili.:bll. 2.1:857-904. Evidence of fluctuations in sea level during'the Quaternary is cited in cavernous and notched weathering of uplifted &'1.d sunken reefs. ,Hi,lder, B. (1955). The Cavesof tho Black Stalagmites (Solomon Islands). April 1st, Series of visits to large cavo near Egan Bluff, Mboli Passage, on Nggela Island in 1954. Bilder," B. (1961}. Navigator in the South Seas. Percival Marshall,11 Londoneo Chapter 19, pp191-196. Visit to cave near Egan Bluff .11 Ngella Islc.nd (see abovo). Hil:J...? J. E. (1971). Bats from the Solomon Islands. l• Natur.?-1 Fistory Bats collected from Rj_ba Caves King George VI School, Auki7 J:hlaita Is .• Hugo.11 D. (1974). Tho Hock l1rt of Now Guinoll and Northern Melanesia. Unpubl" B .. li .. Hons. thesis, University of Queensland .. Survey of' rock art of New Guinea and northern Melanesia. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER I+ 173 Mnap T • Co (1966). Partial Revision of th c 1 d ( Insects g(J):648-6S 5 • e ye opo iinae Dipterag Nycteribiidae). p655 • Insect speci.YJ.en collected from Weste"" Ca't'"e .1. .v , Kolombangara. Pn:rko:r, F • (1972). Notes on Some Caves of Shortland l• Sy,9.ne;z: ,Speleo. .. 16(10):271 _276• Island, Solo111on Islands. caves fr'Oni two areas on the oost f d -""' side of Shortland Island. (,; -aTu"la iscussed and map of one cave givon. J •. (1:975)._ .Rock ilrt in the Western Pacific. review that includes three Unpubllohed Manuscript. on and cave sites in the Solomon Islt.md13 • ( Potorunm probably on San Cristobal)• on Nondo ""'. engr.aved si te"s and one; puintod one ;i R. L. { 1961) Ex:plan t N t t A of' Santa Isabel _• Briti h Sa lory oiels o .L.l.Ccompany a F.'irst Geologfonl ivbp . . , . s . o omon s ands Protectora to Ov G l cmd liiu Resources 8:127-149. ._ • erseap .. (1 1" G1cion1e :unestono areas described; limestone generally of pinnacle form oology map shows limestone. lJnivorsity of Sydney, Dept Geolo .,. "'nd G b ( 6 ) SF.:1.i".1Ce of Parts of the• Cmitrafy !9. • ., toctorato Colon G 1 . he Bri ti..,h Solo1non l,slo.nds ProI.)c)co.nn • • 4 11 1P.--P.• Resources 6(3) aissanco geo ogy of S E Sn t I b 1 1-. Limestone outcrops mentioned fu i Ha t:;i ta. and. West Gu:Ldalcctnal. n.nd geological ma of lvhlai t . an a ua e.• Distribution of limest.ono do.scribed; . .. 1 a, r g:omorpholo!7cal aspects of limestone nroas Lir , ' t e kar..,t near AU.kl. and alonr.r Malo.u'u ru1ticlino .10 s one areas described !'Ind l , f . 0 • • l"""'rct -r,,.,1 d f . H . -u. geo • map o W. 111ont1011 of ....... "' -•-u an . rom oniara • Seo (1974). Caving in the S I I l Do scribes cr.::i.: v; _,_ to two o omon s ands. Southern Caver 2.(1.,..): 10-. -v cavoc:< wl1e,...e the' i1 R. -f F.r 0 ... 1'u nn rnn 1vor surfaces not fnr rom loniara. '"" :; W • C • and Warin.9 0 ,, N. ( 1959-62) of Ph h t ]) South .... -rnc,t p f d . t . • 0 u onp a ,e eposits in . •; "\;) ac.L J..c an .H.US ralian waters -Bellona I 1 1 R t in Bri -r,1sh !jolomon Islo...11ds. Geol Record ,, .7 2-8r.. s ru1C.. eporNo. t• -,:;. • . :;. '.!011 1thadt limestone is cavernous and-pinnacled os the is o.n • on tho sonwnrd mnrgiru; J. R. (1974). Some T.4""',estone c __,_,_,,J. aves J..n the Bri tirJh Solornon tectorate. :.fg,by-.dnth 6gJ0-31. Three tl'e -:-•t +> p a . .J.. J. "':lCJ.nJ.. y OJ. Buala, Sroita Ysnbol b:toly S:Uctavbels seel'n in the Puepue River which ontoro tho son nt c.U1 .cis o a Is and.. IDU KNOW -that a hodng is . . ... 1 ... on the oth 0 . . c. • a . 111.11mu tha. L hut.:1 1(){0 nhc1rtrJ1" on ono . . c' n , er h)o ,that it CQU negotiate ito hilly nt1tiVQ \mll..:mg vlsewnere? Tney1 are well known in tho u s 1 b. t 1 ... It .. " ' ., repartee' i'ror el . h • .1. •' u c1 .. 0:1:1 Llt:)C;i11 .t rr sew ere.

PAGE 21

17Lr-IUUGINI CAVER VOLUME 4 NUMBER 4 SPELE..D PEP30NALITY ... MAL POUND Having statod that M. D. stands for Malcol.rn David rather than medical doctor, and that was born in Ivblbourne in 1950, one can proceed to details of his professione Which is that of Civil Engineer. In narticular he speCializec: J.n 11Ydrau.lics snd has an interest in kc,-i.rst this being a of sanctioned cave destruction. He is . employed in Port Moresby by o. private enginsering firm and maintains a healthy disrespect for public servo.:i:1ts and other parasites, Ho wont through the shop at the University of Que,onslo.ndJ and it 1.ras there that his caving caree!' corr.JI1enced.. His first trip with tho University of Queensland' Speleological Society (UoQ.S.S.,) -vras to Kempsey in northern New South Wales at Easter.'I 1968. It was to be the start of mc:.ny more. Froni then until he crone to P .N oG$ in January .9 1 975., Mnl visited :many areas in Queensland 2ind N. So 1:L As well as the reglllar aroa3, he in minor areas such o.s ll.shford in 'No S. Tlo, Hyberba (granite caves).? Darrigo .'I. Noosa (sea caves), Raglan and Brc..cewell in . Central Quoensla.."1d and the not-so-minor Kompsey area. He visi tod many caves around Mole C1ook in Tasmanfo. at Christmas 7 19Tl, whilst working in the area. He also v:Lsi ted 1 s 11longpela hol11 Exit in Tasma....11ia and has caved Ct.t Jenolan and o billy in N. So W,. Sinco orr;lving in FnN.G. last year,Mal.J1ae ggi:, the Port Moresby caving scene u.ndenvt::cy again leo.di.ng rnimerous trips to the Javarore caves beyond the Musgrave River. 1-1e was a m.emb.{;r of the 1 975 New Ireland Expecli tion and has also caved on New Britain ru1d Bougainville. I Mo.11 s enginee:-.:'5.ng backgrond comes out in his caving interests.. He likes to Bo.nufacture and 1 ,rri to up such exotica. as an tr electror'lic slave lmi t11 f o r flas h guns as woll as more conventional items li.l\:e ladders. He has applied his_ hydraulic enginoerint; to spoleology with ci study at Stockyard Creekat Kempsey" Ee :1_8 also en undeT'grom1d surveyor and photographer. Whilst competent using Singlo RopG Tochniquss,, he is happier in horizontal systerns, preferably when one cnn stand upright" 1J:5_s abilities also extend to .other aspects of caving. In the U.Q.S$s . in 1968-69 he h eld position of 11 outingE; officeJ:?11, _the u.nfor:tJ.m.ate. fellow who the c av:J.rig tJ: ips.. He was the S ociety librarian iri 19?2 6 In 1972 cmd 1973 he edited the5.r magazirw D o11rr Under h:i.s stewardship, the newsletter ::Lmprcyod in H:.Ls editorial and litGrary abilities will be ago.in . put to the test next year i,1hen he take:::-; o v e r Na1 wc..s. rmrriod last J ?eh:'.'uar:r to .:::. f ello w BrisbtLno caver.:i Julson BmTows.? an entcm101og:1-st who 1:1111 no do;u.bt reform his bncholor ways o His characteristic mop of hu.ir procnr.iously ov01:.. his brow. wd his grin. will be ovidont in P.:U.Go caving f o r some time to cor:10., JJ_ieo.dy Mal1s contribution to speleology h oro J.nd.:icate::-i that ho will be raaking hfo mark in P .N .G. as he did in hiu n ative ilu:.:;-C.ralie .. ,, RoM.B. E1.JD OF VOLU1V1E 1-i.


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APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.