Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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serial ( sobekcm )
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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K26-05666 ( USFLDC DOI )
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PAGE 1

. , .. .1. Volume 5 Number 1 July' 1 977 Publication of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group Registered at the General Post Office, Port Moresby for transmission by post as a Qualified Publication.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER Niugini Caver is the pub.li.c.a.t.i.a..n ... ... .J2.apua New Guinea Cave ExploratT'Oii'Group, an informal association of persons engaged in Papua Gwinea. " •"', <•• .... *" c ,,, •.• . .;,.,• .. • f• ,. ... Voiume 5 Number 1 . . Quarterly . . July, 19770 90 issueo K3.50 per Pound o. Box 3824,. Port Moresby, 1 Nationai Capital District, PAPUA NEW GUINEA Assistant Editor Alison Pound ,. . ' Prodqction of This Number ____ ,__ Malcolm and Alison Pound, Allan.and Chris Gqulbour,neo Contents ' . . . .. .•. " ... • ......... .... ....... ,..._ ..... ' Toktok Bilong Editaoo••oo' ....... E r r a t o Ni u gin i Ca v er V o 1 um e . 4 N um b er. 4 '!, •• o •• o ••• The Greatest Caves of Papua New.Guinea :.as:a .. t December, . Ra Michael .. Bourkeooooooo•• Heport of a .Brief ReConnaissance of' the Porgera and "Mount Kaije.nde Areas" of the Enga Province 11 . K e v a n A • tJ i 1 d e • • • • • ,, o • ,, • • " • o • • • • ,, • " • • " ,, • " • ., c. • • The New' Contributor: ••• ., • .,,.o ••.• o ,;." 11"'. •. " •. o • ., •• • •••• Leviathan Cave -A l c,,,, o.e "" o. <> •••• o-, Notes on Ho ••• Th_e s.ritish New Guinea S-pe1J3ological Expedition" _1975 ; Reviewed by R. MichaEil Bdurke The Caving Scene . . ... . . ' . . ' ... . . . •'•" .... .....,.. ,.,.._ . .,-,4..... ,,,.; ._. .. ;.:,, . ..., .. .... ,,..,,,._,. ,, •..;,• ... ,,,-,,,.,. •' ...... •;:!+ ...... , ..... ,.,. .... 2 2 3 18,.. ;.< 21 22 25 27' 29 Cover Photo9rash• . . . Lookir1 straiGht down into the giant doline near Tuke V.illage, East New Britain. The white winding line at the bottom of the "Ts ci large streamo The dolirie has never been descended but is est'frnated .to be 200.,.300 m Far further information on this dOT'iri'e, r.efer the article by R. M •. Bourke in this. issue 3) and the article by C; JC> Borough Caver 1 ( 2) 2 5..., 2 6' , • , ,_ I . -" . •, Photograph by Ro M ffourke.

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2 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 TOKTOK BILDNG EDITA This is the first issue of NiuQini Cavpr to by the Pounds in Port Moresby. However, you will still notice a lot of Bourke work in it and this will continue for some time as he writes up the results of his cave studies. We hope standard of produbtion is as high as in previous issues. You will have to bear with us for the first few issues as we experiment with various means of reproducing maps, diagrams, etc. This we are using electtohic stencils to produce the two maps and in future issues we plari' to try several offset processes. It is noted that this issue is very late in publication p_ue to a large number of reasons we hope to be up. date by the ehd"' ' of the year. Of course, this depends on receiving copy from all those people around Papua New Guinea who make 'the cavirg news -the subscribers of this magazine. So keep that copy rolling in Remember if your trips aren't published in Niugini Caver, th; sweat put into your caving exploits will 5e wasted as the information gained will be lost on your departure. The Papua New Exploration Group library is now with us in Port Mor8$by and this contains much of interest to with a great deal of data on Papua New and from around the globe which have been received in exchange for. library is ,all with sen in by cavets and all Anyone is we 1 come to come to o u r f 1 a t a t F la t ' 3 , L o t 4 9 S e c t. J. on 8 4 , P rut h Street, Port and brouse through the Preferably ring first (25 253204a,h. we are listed as Surveys) in case we are out or ind).sposed Cavers passing Moresby are welcome there is a spare bed available as soon as we take maps off it. ERRATA TO NIUGINI VOLUME 4 NUMBR 4 Preliminary Report on the 1976 Expedition to the Mulle . .r. Range. . . . ' ' Kevan Wilde reports that the correct computed for the . vertical between the sink and assumed risinQ df A tea is now only -750 m and not -1 boo m as in the based on an estimation by Neil . . . ' Some Rock Art Ancestral and Prehistoric Sites of the Ranges and Tifalmin Areas of with Brief Notes Relating to Associated Legends and Mythology. P. 155 Sites are from West to East and not as reported. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 3 I THE GREATEST CAVE_..S OJ _PA.f2 .. UA _NElJ_GUI .. NEA AS AT .. R, _ 1976 Ro Michael Bourke * At the request of the Commission of the Greatest Caves of the International Urilon of Speleology, I have prepared lists of Papua New Guinea's deepest, longest caves etco The -data is presented here with soma. notes on how.these on a world widebasis. Unless otherwise stated, all figures are from surveyed data. rt is. up ,to date as at the end. of 1976. I have not done a comparison with other caves of the Southern Hemisphere as I feel Papua Now Guinea's caves are into the big leaguo now and this comparison can be forgotten. It can be noted that, with one exception, P. N. G. the Southern Hemisphere record for every 6ategory. For example, of the 1D caves in the Southern Hemisphere documented as over 300 m deep, 5 are in Papua New Guinea including the deepest. The category where Papua New Guinea will never hold the record is_highest cave. Most of the high caves in the world (over 3000 m A.Sol.) are in Peru (Courbon9 1972). The following abbreviations are used in the Tables: 1965 Star Mts. exped. 1965 Australian Star Expedi tio.n 1972-73 Uhiversity of Queensland Speleological Society New Britain Expedition 1 973 NSRE NG 75 1975 .NISE 1976 NISE Muller 76 E.H.P. N.S.P. soH.P. 1973 Niugini Speleological Research . Expedition to the Muller Ranga Sri tish Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guihea (1975) 1975 New Ireland Speleological Expedition 1976 New :Ireland Speleological 'Expedition 1976 Muller Range Expedition Eastern Highlands Province North Solomons Provirics Southern Province West Sepik Province Thers are now 24 .documented as 100 m or more deep (T9.-""ble 1). Exploration is incomplote in four of these 120 Jariws Street, 9 . Queensland, 4350•

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 and also in Lamoragamas on New Ireland which is just under 100 m. Papua New Guinea's deepest, Bibim?, too prominently on a world basis. Courbon and Chaoert (1J75) list 50 caves over 575 m dGep9 so come about ?Oth ,deepest. h,_or.i_g.,:o ... __ There are 11 _ 1 in Papua New Guinea (Table OmaJ-: south-east o.f in Southern Highlands is also long (Van Amstel, 1973) but it has not beon . survoyod0 Parker (1973} reports that Taema Cave at Lanahan, Buka Island tiis said to bo at least three miles longn so this may also exce.ed 1 km. Selminum Tern is equal 36th in wotld and ten couhtrias have :Longer caves according to the li.-st of C6urbon and Chabert (1975)., . g n 9,,E:l 9 t : _ _p t q 1J e s e Tw e t y f iv e p i t c h e s of 5 0 m or 1 on g er ha V e no hi boon report13rfl'Table 3). Basod on the list of Courbon (1972) the 232 m pitch in Tina Bu Tern would have been the 14th, longest in th s world had it been reported Lara CJst chamb ors. I hav 8 'listed only two very e chambers but ..-604-8 reported (Tabla The wa: not included in Courbon's (1972) list. He maximum dimonsiono for a number of large chambers and his data that there are only thr6e chambers largor than.the Bouga1nv1lla These were Torca dol Carlista, Spain; La.Salls do la Gouffre de la Pierre Saint-Martin9 Francs; and in Italy. Ths latter is only just largor than the Bougainville qhamber$ . . . i If one also included vertically walled dolines or shafts, the situation is diffqrent as some of very large For example Sima Major in Venezuela is a single huge with a total depth of 314 m and 405. m, of (Urbani si 1976) • El sotano and Las Golondrinas in Mexico are similarly ?f huge dimensions. The huge doline near Tuke Villagesi New Britain is estimated as 200 m deep with a diameter of 200 mat.the base comments in Borough, 1973). Tho Southerh Ooline of the Ora uvala in New Britain is 150 m by 120 mat the baso9 110 m deep and is cdntained in a uvala 268 m (Bourko9 1973a). These two dolines provide access to horizontal systems. Tina Bu Tern in the Nang Valley south of Telefomin is a shaft 50 m in diameter arid 232 m on the highest side (Beck Goulbourne 1976). The Sting,Finim Tel Plateau9 Hindenburg Range is a shaft 110 m by 82 mat the and 158 m deep (Eavis9 1976b). Hj:_ghest caves0 Four caves recorded. at over 2800 m aos.L b 8 en . r ep 0 rt 8 d (Ta b 1 8 5 } 0 Th ere a r 8 1 3 c a v 8 s . i n . t h 8 . LI DI' l d h J. g h er than Papua GuineaYs highest9 F4, accdrding to Courbon (1972). There are a number of caves in the Hqratio and Mamo areas of the Muller that are about 2700 m ais.l. but exact NIUGINL CAVER VOLUME. 5 NUMBER 1 5 altitudes will not be known until more work is done on the NASA satellite photographs (J. M. James, per. comm.). b.. d .. o)ine?• Nine large dolinBs are listed iri Table 6;, Unlike these have not documented as systematically and,many other large ones exist. There is a very large doline a few kilometres north-west of Pomio and another near Nutuve Pission ::'on New' Britain ( Bou;rke 9 1 973a}., Other large dolines are the Keriaka Plateau of Bougaihville and the Saruwaged Range •. Doline surveys on the ground are very difficult and will have to await photogrammetry for accurate measurement. dimensiorrs quoted in Table 6 are taken from aerial photographs. The largest of Papua New Guinea's dolinesare significant on a 'world basis but it is difficult to decide their ranking at this stage. are uvalas than Ora in the Yugoslavian karst (J. N.' pers. dolines near Koripobi Village on Bouga1nv1lle and Tuke Village on New Britain must rank as amdngst the hlorld's greatest. 1.a7g est __ There are a number of large natural bridges in Papua New Guinea, but measurements are few. It is often difficult to distinguish between a natural bridge and a cave• There is a largo natural bridge over the Mubi River a fdw kilometres south of the junction of the Mubi and Waga Rivers iri the Southern Highlands. The bridge was estimated from t'he .air as 120 m and 200-300 m long. The cave mouth into which the river.flows is about 15 m tall 50 m wide 1973b). . . . . . The Qra uvala in Nl:lw Britain is split into two dolines by a n at u r bridge • T. he bridge is 2 0 0 m 1 on g , 8 0 m wide and 1 5 O m from the bottom of the uvela to the top of tha bridge. The cave mouth at the efflux end of the bridge is 20 m high and 22 m wide (Bourke9 1973a). .. . • . . Tobia in the Southern Highlands should perhaps be considered as a natural bridge as the local villagers use it as such to cross the Iara River (Ryan;_: 1974). , , . The pbura Land Bridge spans the Lamari in the Eastern Highlandso The river runs under the bridge for 460 rn and can be followed if there is no flooding (Parker, 1975). Verstappen (1960) quoting Montagne (1949) gfves an example of a natural bridge and und8rgrou.nd 'river in Irian Jaya. The bridge .is formed over th'f3 deserted course of the LJorok River a of the Grand of the Salim River. Elsmore gives the entrance as 90 m high.

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Cave T?ble-., __ 1_. -. j)EEPES_T Location Depth (m} Explorer-s References .. -=t=sr--. -1 • Bibi ma 2o Terbil Tern 3. Camp III Hole 4. Kanada Heiowa Heia s. Uli Guria 6. Tina Bu Tern 7. Langlang Tern H. Darua Muru 9. Owillfore Tern 10. UliUi ,. 11. Agim Tern 120 Mebile 13. The Sting 14. Girtoil Porol Escarpment 494 Chimb.u Province Fault Valley 354 lJestern Province Fault Valley 330 Western Province Muller Ranga 314 SoH.Po Muller Range 314 SoH.P. Nong Valley 277 lJestern Province V. lJatson, K. Wilde LJilde and & others (1972) Watson {1973) NG 75 lJilde et al. ( 1 976)=--NG 75 1973 N5RE 1973 NSRE NG 75 LJilde et al. < 1 s 1 6 r=---c--= Montgomery (1974) Montg9mery (1974) . Beck and Goulbourne ( 1976) -Fault Valley Western 200 NG 75. Wilde et al. (1"976}=-= Porol Escarpment Chimbu ProvinGe Feramin area lJoSoPo 1 8 7 ( 1 -) Vari au s -( 1973/75) 183(2 ) NG 75 Muller Range: 182 1973 NSRE S.H.P. South of Tifalmin 167 lJoS.Pci Upper Chimbe Valley Chimbe Province Hindenburg Range western Province Hindenburg Range Llestern Province 160(3) 158 156 NG 75 Ao L. Brown Llo NG 75 NG 75 \.Jiltje (1973a) Bourke (1976b D. Brook pers. comm. Mqntgorner.y (1974) ---Yonge & lJilde (1976)Brown (1973) Do Brook pers. comm. o. Brook pers. comm. 15. Cave near Koripobi Village 1 52 ( 4) F. Parker_ (1963) Parker (1970) Is. 16. Fungi Tern Mt. Wamtakin 142 NG 75 Eavis (1976a) 1 7 • La B u um _ Te m 18. Selminum Tern 19. Lili Mulmulum 20. Ariyorba Tern 2-.1 • Low at k us me r i Lemet Silot 22. Obungeram 23. Atea Kanada 24. Kabase 25. Lemeragamas Ll.S.P. Hindenburg Range 138 Westein Province Hindenburg Range 137 Western Province Range Mt. lJamtakin w.s.P. Plateau New New Muller Namatanai area Plateau New Ireland 130 122 102 102 (5) 1 00 ( 4) 97(6) NG 75 NG 75 o. Brook pers. comm. Brook comm. 1973 NSRE Montgomery (1974) NG 75 Eavis (1976a) 1915 NISE Brown et al. (1976)__. --=-= R. M. Bourke J. Farnworth J. Farnworth pers. comm. & others (1971-75) 1973 NSRE Jo Mo James Muller 76 pers. comm. Ho Gallasch (1974) Gallasch (1974) 1976 NISE Sprod (1976b) ( 1) to 187m. Exploration stopped at. top of pitch estimated as ?m. -(2) (3) (4) ,. 5} .,-(6) Descended to 183m; estimated depth 26Dmo Descended to an ,estimated 160m; cave cDntinues-., Not surveyed. , Over 1 OOm deep; exact depth not known roof is too high for estimation. Desdended to 97m; exploration stopped at top of pitch estimated as 15m. O'I 2 H c [;) 1-1 2 H n J:::> c:::: f1l ::0 c:::: 0 r c:: 3 f1l U1 z c 3 al f1l ::0 ...::. z H c c;-f t-1 z H n J::> c:::::: f1l ::0 c:::::: 0 r c 3 f"'l U1 z c 3 OJ f"'l ::0 -..)

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8 (i) .-I .0 ro, I..c cnE c...._.. OJ .......I I tt g .,...; .. co (j 0 .......I NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 • E E ::i.. 0 0 0 0 H • CD Cl) H • (i) 0 0... ,.-.... N U) (''.:J'', .. 0 .::::!" • ,...; \.0 !'-10'\ 0 0 I LlJ 0 N OJ OJ 01 0 c c ro .,...; a:: :> 0 01 H !'-10.. ::J ..D c CH OJ OJ u .. c (J) .,...; Q) :r:3 E ::J c .,...; E m'" :;::>....._.. 0 0 0 -:;;:t .. c Q) Q) u E c O..•r-1 H :> a:l 0 CJ H (J) CL w :J .-1 ..0 a E (:..J•r-1 o..c 0.. u .-1 m ::i--. 01•.-I c ::J ::J D.. ::i.. co .-I E Q) Q) ::J H HH I-I.._.,. CJ) I-0 N ,,,.-... Lf) e'en w \.0 H 0::: C'-Q) CJ) ;:t. z H H CD m t"l r-1 . tL C'-r-1 m ::J o:-E u.. (D CJ1 c a:l 0:: ,,.......... N ......_,. 0 .ti"J N N l\:1 CD H a:l H CD :;;, •.-1 a: >-H Q) E o,.-... :.01.::::1" .. ('C CT'> 0'" .._,, 0 0 lD CD en c ' ct1 . h:: _..... ._--!:'-Ol '",....... ._,;Lf) en .-1 u c co H !..i... .......... o8.::::I" r(1) 0'\ .,...;'" (j ....._.. c (tj'(J) H H 1,.1 .. .' Q) .. c 0 .. . CJ a 0 0 lD r-1 C'cm 0'" Cl)...._.. .. !'-IH CD ill ..0 •.-1 0 Q) a::E Cl) H Q) ..c .. c 0 0 ,,,,..... U)o8lD .. C'-i:-i i:-i m Q) .o•.-1 . I om..a:: s ('m 0 0 0:-0.. :C'-" 0 0 Lf) • CJ) H a) .-I .-1 .,...; :> c co u H C _ CU •r-1 • co o.. en •. :Jen 0 0 CD 2 m .-I Q) :r: c ..-I Q) (I) UH •.-1 ............ .-1 H H co ct1 c :J CD 0.. ::i.. .-1 CCI ctl ill u :3 c ct1 0 ::J c.,...; 0.. CT'.l ill 0 :r: co E ::J • t'1 • lD • lD u c Q) z • lD (J) r-1 u c co Cl) H H Li... G) c 0 Cl) .. m 3 o8 ,.-.. H Q) t!"l Q) u ('-.::i.. ..-I O'I H r-t ._.... m 3 .......... 0.. ,--.. n (I) \JJ o H 01 ill '" ..c ._... .,... C 0 H 0 CJ .. (I) o8 ::i.. _ H co OJ CI! • E E ::t.. 0 0 u a H • co CJ) l'-l 0 C) 0 CL Lf) ('-Q) Gl m (I) (I) ro 0.. Q) E a Cl),_ . CD E .-1 E 0 G) Cl Q) • ..c Cl) .. H ill ,'Cl) 0.. ctl ..c 0 .. CJ 0 :;iu o.. r-1 • •.-1 ::::>3 Li... CJ z E CD :\: .. 0 lD N .-1 co 'U H C _co Cr-1 OJ (I) UH c ::J >.--! ::J D.. E ::J 0.. ;'""' N ....._.. N 0 N D N N 0 I .:::j" 0 _ c (J) Q) (j E c (L•rl H :;;, '1J ma c Cl t-i ('j (I) 0.. .-1 w [j) ::J H.• r-1 .D 0.. 0 E m " f-1 .,...; .::i.. CJ) 0 ..c ::J .. o..u roz co E •.-1 .D •r-1 c.o E en m c _ co CJ) (I) >-CI! CJ) r-1 ct1 OJ E > ro +:> u ('j • o Q) Q) CJ1 0 c c cD •r-1 a: > 0 CTlH f-40.. ::J ..0 c CH OJ CD '1J .. c (I) •r-1 Q) :r: 3 ,,........ E ..-I o ill.,...; .D I-::i.. •...-l cum ::i.. ru c 0 :::i O'E (J) 0 r-tn . ........,,, u ..c ..-a 01 G) c >ill .ill .-1 :> H Q) ::J . . :> (,') ro c ) ' u ::J. NIUGINI CAVER VdLUME 5 NUMBER 1 9 klrg7st Beck (1975) estimates the river f owing Tobia \Iara River Cave) in the Southern Highlands as 85-113 m /sec. This exceptionally high rate has not been measured but even if the .flow is a fraction of this, it is an enormous flow" Average dry season stream flow in the Atea Kanada, Muller Range, s.H.P. i.s estimated as 12 m3/sec. (James !J. .].., 1977). : Mea$rements of the tiver in Ora Cave, New Britain, of 4.0 and 5.7 m3/sec were made in December, 1972 January, 1973 (Bourke, 1973a). river effluxes from a cave entrance in a cliff face 1.5 km away in a spectacular 55 m waterfall. Borough (1973) gives stream dimensions for an efflux cave Tuke Village, New Britain that indicate a stream flow 75 m /sec. From Borough's the author has estimated the flow as more like 4-6 m /sec • I have seen only a few figures for overseas, but ncithing to compare with ths large flows found in Papua New It may be that Tobia contains one of the greatest underground rivers known in the world • The longest reported underground river that can bs negotiated by boat in Papua New.Guinea is in Pumpulyun Cave, Manus Island • Hero the passage can be followed up.stream by canoe -for 1250 m (Francis, 1975). The Ok Sibul in the Star Mountains of Irian Jaya flows underground for 16 km. Dye placed in the river emerged in the East Digul four hours later (Brongersma and Venema, 1962 p77-78). Pa__eua __ 9E3.Ve The ho-ttest reported water in a Papua New Guinea cave is a pool in a pseudokarst cave near Tavurvur Volcano (Matupit), New Britain. The temperature at: the surface has at between 47 c and 40.0c on different occasions. The water at the bottom of ,the pool is too hot 'to swim inand is at 60 c (sprod, 1976a). The longest cave is Rarururunga, Keravat, New Britain. It is 250 m long (J.Farnworth, per. comm.) and is in welded tuff. Of the described caves, (Irapui} in the Chimbe is probably the best decorated (Wilde, 1973b). The cave with the most exotic decoration would be a 15,m long hot cave ih one of the craters of Tavurvur V6lcano, near Rabaul, .New Britain. The cave is beautifully with a variety of yellow, orange, brown and green crystals of volcanic origin (Bourke, 1972). The cave with the most rock art in it? Probably Ak near the Chimbe Gorge, Wilde (1974) describes the art. The cave with the most interesting history in my opinion is Matarai on New

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Table 3. LONGEST PITCHES ...... _ .. .... ........ 1 • Tina Bu Jem 2. Tina Bu Tern 3. Uli Guria (The Shot 4o The 5. Girtoil 6. Lambolubung . 6. Uli U i (Pendulum Shaft) s. 9. A nawol Tern 1 D. La Buum Tern 10. The nz40 Pot 1 0. u li Mulmulum 13. 14. Darua f"iuru 15. Obi Tum Tern 15. Fungi Tern 1 7 •. eb,.i,l e 18. Owill fore Tern 1 9. Uli Oogua Tern 21 •. Uli Guria (Absolute Rip-off Pitch) 22. Hells Gates (Murafinka Shaft) Location Length cif Pitch (m) Nong Valley Western Nang Valley \.Jestern Province Muller _Range S.H.P. 232 ( 1 f 153 123 Hindenburg Range . 122(Z) \.Jestern Province Hindenburg Range 113. Western Province .Lelet Plateau New Ireland Muller Range S.H.P. . Muller Range S.H.P. fault Valley western Province Hindenburg Range \.Jesterri Province Hindenburg Range Province fV\uller Range S.H.P. f11uller Range s.H.Po Porol Escarpment Chimbu Province Tifalmin Valley lJ.S.P. Mt. Ltlamtakin lJ.S.P. Upper. _Chimbe Valley Chimbu Province Feramin area lJ.S.P. -S.H.Po area w.s.P. Muller Range S.H.Po . Hen.ganof i area E.H.P. 81 81 EtO 76 73 (_3) 73 73 71 70 68 68 65 61 60 58 55 51 23. Gagogangama Porol Escarpment Chimbu Province 50 23. Langlang Tern Fault Valley Western Province 23. Tum Dabom Tern Fault Valley Western Province 50 50 Explorers NG 75 NG 75-. 1973 NSRE NG 75 NG 75 1975 NISE 1973 NSRE Mul1er 76 NG 75 Local villagers NG 75 NG 75 1973 NSRE 1973 NSRE Various (1973/76) NG 75 NG 75 Ao L •. Brown. W. Sanders (1973) NG 75 19_73 NSRE NG 75 1973NSRE Local villagers and various local cavers J. James V. Watson and Ke1 Wilde (1972) NG 75 NG 75 Reference Beck and Goulbourne (1976) Beck and Goulbourne (1976) .Montgomery . ( 1 97.4) Eavis (1976b) Eavis (1976b) Brown et al. (1976)=== r1ontgomery ( 1974) J. Pl. James pers. comm. lde et al. (1976)=--= -=-=" Brook (1976) Eavis (1976b) Montgomery (1974) Montgomery (1974) !.Jilde (1973a) Bourke (1976b) D. Brook pers. comm. Eavis (1976a) Br,own (1973} Eavis (1976a) Montgomery ( 1 974) D.Brook pers. comm. (1974) Bourke (197a) LJa tson ( 1 973) LJilde et al. ( 1 976 )=-= lJilde et al. . == -$7""';tt i::--(1) not descerded. ( 2) Ea v s gives the pitch as rv 4 0 0 feet (1 2 tJ 111 ) rv iri the text but as 440 feet on the mapo (3) An alternative hang is D z t-1 c CJ 1-1 z H n J::> c::::: r1 ::0 c::::: D r c 3 r1 Ul z. c 3 OJ l'l ::0 __:. z 1-1 c c1 H z 1-1 n J::> c::::: f"l1 ::0 c::::: 0 r c 3 fT1 trl 2 c: 3 rn r1 ::0 __:. -l.

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Table 4. LARGEST , __ .• ----'l'TdM" -==... •. .,.,...,_ ....... ,., .... .. ...... ,........ ___ ... ......_ ... , -r=r===e=--""'e = .•. .....,. .. ::t:e --------•. ---. -........ Cave Location Length Max. Max. Reference ( m) LJ i dth: -. H eight ( m ) =--="'r"'-u ...... -••• • • ........... =. '17""7" -=r ._,,_. -'• -====-= .... ------,...._.., .. __ 1 o Gave near Koripobi village. 274 137(1) 152 F. Parker .Parker Bogainville ( 1953) ( 1 970} 2. Matapara New Ireland 43 Local Bourke villagers '(1974b) 30B 60 -r -'l'"Z';>t :e=-'hn: --ttr--. --e-=t'7 ........ ---............,. ---;::... ... ,.,... .,. ..• ( 1 ) .Cava Mouth is 107m wide and 91m high. Table 5. HIGHEST CAVES -;= • '1et=-c=..... -.-__ ., :=-;c ;;;;e --== ....... -........ --.1 •. 2. Cave F4 , Small unnamed cave 3. Ariyorba Tern 4. Fungi Tern Location Mto Fugubil Province Ookfuma Plateau Star Mountains Mt. l.Jamtakin LJ .. .. Mt .. \.Jamtakin Ll .. 5 .. P .. Entrance Altitude (m) --r=-2990 2850 2800-2850 2800-2850 _ ___,.._.,,,_,,,_ __ ....., -e-r-=m- • --=---"t""Y---=-==*'= Explorers NG 75 1 965 Star fts .. Expedition NG 75 NG 75 NG 75 RBference -Do Brook comm. -Hayllar (n.d.) D. Brook pers .. commo Do Brook pers. comm. D .. Brook pers .. comm. _. ---n -ee--..,.... -,-_____ T3ble 5! LARGEST QOLINES .. ---et rnr =-=... Dolins Location Explorers Depth (m) Re_ference Length (m) LJidt.h (m) ---= . ...... --.. .,.,,, .. 1 • Ora ( f) Nakanai P1ts New Britain 268 90ff 2. Doline near Koripobi 193 613 Village,:, Bougainville Is. 3 • Doline 1 Ookfuma Plateau 90 800 Star Mountains 3 • D o 1 i n e 3 0 o k f um a P i"a t ea u 9 0 8 O 0 Star Mountains. s. Doline near Tuke Vlllageioo-3oo(2Joo Nakanai Mountains New Britain 6. MR201 Muller Range S .. H.Po 250 400 560 1972-73 UQSS N.Br. exped. 420. F. Parker ( 1963) 80.0} 1965 Star Mts expeditiono SOO NG 75 ) Bourke ( 1973a) Parker (1970) Shepherd ( 1969) favi.s (1976c) 400 c. Bcirough . Ko Read {1968) (19731 . 400 1973 NSRE 7. Lelet Plateau New Ireland . f1ontgomt;r (19 4) . 6. -MR208 9. MR202 J 20 300 300 -. CoHo.Co Shannon Muller Range S.H.P. 800 250 pers • com1 19 N.SRE Montgomer Muller Range S .. H.P. 400 200 1 973 NSRE (1974). . Montgomer: (1974) ( 1 ) (2) ...... ... _.,,..... ... Ora is a Uvala (a Complex cl.o,sGd depression with more than one h.ollow). It consists of two dolines with a bridge a er.ass the centre. Dimensions by R. M. Bourke from aerial ob&ervations. Borough (1973) depth as 450 m. z H c C) H z H n J::> c::::: f'11 ::0 <::::: 0 r c 3 f'11 en z c:: :::s m f'11 ::0 tN N z H c CJ H z H n J::> c::::: fT1 ;:a :C::::: 0 r c 3 f'11 U1 z c 3 OJ r1 .:::0 ' \'l*czz .. , ..

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 Ireland. It was used to house prisoners of-war in the Pacific War (Bourke, 1974a). Very little has been reborded about cave history as perceived by Papua New Guineans and no doubt there are caves with more interesting history that.have not been written up. Discussion. Some of Papua New Guinea's caves are definitely world ClaSS, although there is Still a long way to go to be Up with the really big ones for deepest and longest, The amount of exploration and documentation that has occurred since 1971 can be from the data presented. It also highlights the pioneering work of Fred Parker and the contributions of the expeditions, especially the 1975. Btitish expedition. Most of Papua New Guinea's greatest caves are f6und in th8 Highlands with a lessor number on the large islands of New Britain, New Bougainville and Manus. Jennings and Bik1s (1962) suggestion that high tropical mountains may provide optimum conditions for karst evolution appears to be more every year. 8=ck_nowledgements. Dave Brook, Jim Farnworth, Lex Brown, Julia James and Kevan Wilde provided unpublished data, Lex Brown commented on a first draft of this articlo. I Footnote. In a number of articles consulted, information on dePths Eind lengths was not given in the text and had to be scaled from small scale maps. This information should always be given in the text tog other 1Ji th al ti tu de, at least for ea vos over' 2000 m a.s.l. I would appreciate receiving any corrections or additions to these finally I have listed a number of caves that require further exploration or surveying. These are as follows: Doep caves: Owillfore Tern near Feramin, West $epik Province; Oarua Muru, Mebile and-Angunga in the and Lem8ragamaa on New Ireland. Long caves: Eastetn Highlands; ths caves at and Lonahau9 Buka Island; Ornai near Mendi. Large river caves: The cave and doline near Tuke Village and Ora cave9 New Britain; Atea Kanada and Tobia, Southern REFERENCES • • H. M. Iara River Cave, Southern Highlands District. Beck9 Beck, JJiu_gini _t;;a v er:. l ( n : 4-5. . . . . . . . H. and Goulbourne, A •. (1976). The Nang Caves. In Brook, D. (Compiler). The British New Guinea Speleological-Expedition, 1975. Jrans.ritish Research 8ssos. }(3,4):145-147. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 15 Borough9 c. J. (1"973 ) A Pomio Sub-Di"st = t Large and Doline ric ' New Br1ta1"n N" .. near Tuke Village 8 k c • iunini Cav 1 (2) 1 o u r e ' R .. M • ( 1 9 7 2 ) . o .....,....,._..... • . e r 2 5-2 6 • ASF N .. Cavoa of New Britain -A. ___ .. 57 g 3_6 • . PrGliminary Report. Bourke,_R._M. (1973a). The 1972-3 U N,,, i u gin i C? v e_r 1 ( 2 ) 2 7-4 3 .. • Q o S • S • N e w Britain Expo di t ion • Bourke R M (1973. ) ... . . Ll • ! o • Speleo-hydrolo . 1 .. ( ... a3g).a River, Southern _Investigations o_n tho ' is rict. Niu_ini Cavor 1 B o Ur k e R r,1 ( 1 9 , 7 ) """ 9 • 1 • 4 a • at a r a i p o r1won Cave, New Iroland. Bourke, R M (1974b) •, r1atapara Cava, New Ireland. Nil;lini Cavqr Bourkej R. Mo The 1975-76 ( 1) 17-1 9 • PNGCEG Highland Meet• N.il1__gini Bourke, R". M= (1976b). Darua Muru Ch" . . a n d S t 1. 11 G o in g • N u.n i n i . 4i_m( b u) 0 p r o v J. n c e 1 9 4 m D oe p B -... e,r . o 20-22 rongersma L D .. • ' • •and Venema G r (196 ) thf? Hodder and. . L 2 • T9 Th? of .... ..... . G. Readett. , . n, Dndon, Translated by A:' Brook' D (19.76) • Th:e. Finim .R • .. . . ... ... . . . . . The British New Guin6a In.Brooks o •.. (Compiler).-. British cave R p ological Expedition 1975 Brown, L. (197;-)-b-.--=l , .. esea_rc::h Assoco ].(3,4) :165-175 •. • • e l o Cave Down U d ( .. Brown A L ' -n er 11. 1) :22-24. 1 • •si Bourke, R M and Sh , . of the c. H. c. (1976), Lelet Nu!_g_ini f!l ver j; ( 3): 87-136 nd Speleological Expedition• . Courbcin, P. (1972). Atlas Dos' . . et Coumes. A pt' PiDii enCe, Goufj'res M_onde • v ioud Cm.irbon, P and Chabert r ( ) , . . S_Eelunca ' Lio 1975 • Les Grandes CavitGs ........ • . Mondiales. A .. J .. Th Sepik. In Llamtakin Plateau and Upper Speleological British New Guihea. . R esearc;h ].( 3 , 4 }: ,:37 _ 1 Traris • _B..}. tish fa vc:; Eav1s9 A. J. (1976b). Girtoil . The British New Guinea Brookp D. (Compiler) T:t(3.n s • Bri ti 'sh Cav R S p eleolog lea 1 Exp edition 1975 • . _____ ,,__,__ -e . eseareh Assoc 3 (3 .) 9 . o Eavis, A. J. (1976c).Thc--::--_ -:-:---" ,4 :163-164, The British New Gui Star In Brook, D .. (Com .. }J? • Cave ea 1 ,E( tion' • E ls m 0 r 8 SI R 0 . T 0 ( 1 9 4 5 )-... . ---'-:-"" ' .,........9. l ' -J 9 4 ) g 1 5 7 ou• 1 6 0 0 D e Now Gu1noa's Mo .. wellers. National Ge .' . un and Swampland . .. l?J?.'( 6) 670-694 •

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NIUGINI 5 1 16 Francis,. G. (1975), Caves of Island. _Nj-u_gi11i Caver ;2.(3):77-92 Gallasch' H •• ( 19.7.4). caves of the Nama tanai Area Of N Bw I re land. .. \:! g S! v 8 r: .?. ( 3 ), 2 2 2 2 2 8 • . . Hayllar, T. (n,d.) An Account the First Crossing Gf. the Australian Star Mountains, ,Pacific Manuscripts Bureau.Microfilm PMB 83. Jam e s , J , f1 • , King , R , H • and M on t g o m er y , N • R , ( 1 9 77 )( in . p r e s s) A tea Kcnada • U.elliillEl 2): . . J en n in g s , J • N • and B i k , M • J • ( 1 96 2) • I< a r s t M or p '.• o 1 o g y in A u s t r a 1 i an N e tiJ Gu i n ea o l\l a.. t .1.. 9 4. ( 4 8 :3 3 ) : 1 0 3 6 • .,,1 0 3 8 o . Meier, H. (1975). Nenduma cave, Bougainville Island• Niugini Caver 3(4):137-1300 . . . . ' Montagne, D. G. (1949). Geologie en topografisch beeld, II. Ilid '3,Ej. !S_ol' • n d,ll ;eh 8.E d s is 1?.291..0:.D .!2 ll..RE;. J 973_, Speleo. c;oun,; Sy'dnoy: 39-S4. Parl """"' . . . Shepherd, M. J. {1969), star Expedition Centr.'al Now Guinea, 1965, 1l!:1. flU'f.• J3dm;_., Goolwa, Sth. Aust. Dec., 1968, p136-139 •. Sprod, T. (1976a). 0olcane, . Rabaul. Unpublished report, Vulcanological Observatory, Rabaul. Sprod, J. {1976b)i 1976 New Irsland Expedition: A Pro J. imitla ry R op o rt.; !:!J.LJ.9.tr:ii fa v.J!.r 1 ( 4) : 1Lf 1-1.43. Urbani, F. ( 1976 ) .• Poli.sh-V enezuelo.'n Expedition Studies Sarisarinama Caves. NSS News ... NIUGINI CAVER v DLUME 5 NUMBER 1 . 17 Van Amstel 9 J • (1973) C .. H . h • aves in th r1 • ,lg lands District N. . .. e iend1 Area South H. Th. (1960):7;-:ni Cav,er em in the Malay Archipela Observations on Karst 0 1 I.Ja tson $ V • ( 1973) G go• l• T:i;:o_E • Geog_raphy 14: 1 opment D. t " agogangama C --• is r ict. Niunin' . . • avo' Porol Es car ; . . . wd . . . Caver ..1.(2):46-47 pment, Chimbu i .... e, K. A. (19.73) _. .. ... • N . . 8 • The Hole p 1 . 1(3)0 6?'-691 oro Escarpment Chi b. • • LJ.ld -== 0 • ' . m u District i e, K A (197 ) . • 0 . 0 . 3b • I rapui Ca v \Jild e Hiugini Caver .1 ( • E scarpmsnt' .Chimbu ii K. • A. (1974) l\'ot s . . IM es of R k and Kwinigl and Burial Caves of the • . !,l..J,.!J.:L Caver 1_(2) :163-1BO y, of the Chimbu District. Wilde, K., Gra P . . • Th y, •• noulbourne A . . The Controlled •I and Buchan' J' .( 1 976) e British New Guinea . n D. (Com il ) T:raQ_s •. British C . Speleological Exped. t'. p er • \Jild . .. .. . ave '..,se
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18 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 THE DORGERA BR I E F .8 s_c_; ON NA I"# S ... N C,,, _,,:___ --= .. 9f .. A,, _____ . F THE. ENGA_ . ,_,....,_ . E AW AS .. 0 .. =-... Aj'JD MDU.NJ...K.A).JE,N.Q. __ L ' "--" " Kevan A. Wilde** the 7th May,.1977 a.., April a short trip to the name and s were twofold; to geologist, Ron d from Goroko. aim . . tion to field an Porgera area by would be.a feasible and (B) to establish i area by road from Mount j en de and t.he expsdition into, e 1 ical potential of Moun . . t blish the speleo og . ex a .di"ng limestones. surroun t ic possibld to . o much as i a d Very favourable ln S n Gn. via LJapanaman The rBsul ts we:;e. b road from Mount . .' drive' in good field an Porgera. The ontir: section of road Wabag, over high standard weather taking 0 and Laiagam being. of r. . • a four-wheel between Mount Hagon ntional drive . i• recammended t ble for con\Je .. na oxperience, 0 and is sui a p a Nsw Guinea dr1v1 -L: am and Porgera. l:ri"ve ahd some apu . ction betwoen aiagc . . 0 ' h t 'tortuous se . . for the somew a . . . . . . tho sou'th-westei;n . . . . -.... ad ascends. steeply , and then taking a From Laiagam ro Valley to Timundan Villagofhorn limits of 8 sid_e of the it traverses point re.achi;id by south-wester y l' . tone plateau• The >lg d continues towards relatively nat .. order of 2 65,0 m. Th\ ly . past the road being equally s past Tibinini the ridges of Kaijende,.winds b:ing approximately brokon sra. The total distance Village and hours to driva. 80 km, and taking -n at the Porgera of intorosting days looki a trip to. the . . . We a couple on Wednesday the 4th we m aa Asenda), . Kaijehde (locally;known loologicial p6tential. summit a ,r Ga o . . o . 11. ,y e b 1 i shin g l. t s . s p e . . t o of t h o P or g a r a t er y bas l c a. ' . . .. . .. morn 1 n g mi s o d . b l y view o, v . . th ough th.e cloari.ng .; . d by the inci;o l Looking upwardsb very excited and that ri.se almost Valley wo LJOre.-:'.8 . b .. dding pinnacled poa
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20 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 sreams (asriril photograph interpretation), among a considerable a rea of pinnacles and • . Mount Faiam1s apparent i s in the order df 500 m, and Mount Lapwap, as previously mentioned , is known .locally to.have many caves and shafts. A considerable a rea of plateau limestone, up to 3 OOO m plus is reported t o th0 south-west of Porgsra but is unmapped. Aerial photographs s h o w well formed and numerous dolines and faults with sinking streams a n d many lakes and The potential of this area is unknown, but looks very impressive on the photographs. In general extensive cave de\felopmont is likely 11 but I am doubtful as . tci 1.,1hetho r substantial verticnl is p ,ossible becauso of'" intorbedded shalss. The entire tHG3 is satisfactorly covered by aerial photography. The l.Jabag Sheet of tho Papua NeLl Guinea 1 OOO Geological Series (SB shows tho geology (incomplete) and an accompanying geological report is 6 vailablo. The Porgera limestones have. bo e n mapped as thG Tibinini Limestone Member (after the villagB of the sam e n a m e ) a nd form the sp e cta cu la.r Faiam Cliffs 9 'whi eh bound the h sad of the Porg era \/alley and tho southern, flank of the V alley near Tibinini . \Ji11age' <> The Tibinini limestone rriembe r \upp e r oligocen e to" middle tccnsists of fine grained grey t o white limGstono which. is massive to thick bedded with intorbods of m arl a nd som e chalky bods crowded ,with macro-fossils including coral'9 and the Laigap beds consisting of grBy s h a l s s a n d sol t ston us (Dow .and others, .1972).. Abundant f a u 1 ting a nd som o folding is apparent with the limestone Kaijend e dipping to the south .. ConclLlsions: The Kaijende -Porgera area is a U = n ftn OlJ"n ;=1-h 8 D n 1 y . 0 th 8 r t i m 8 t h 8 8 r 88 ha S b 8 8 n Vi Sit 8 d by 8. C 8 V : B r (to tho writer's knowledge) was by Prof. Pnul l.Jilliams 'but no substantial c aves wore discovered by him (l.Jilliams9 1969. ) • . J . A short expedition of about two Weeks duration concentrating on the slopes Mount Kaijende and the Mouht Faiam . and Lapwnp , areas could. be most. rewarding in terms . .of._ largo cavos and . a 11 t ho are as a r o within t wu to t h r o o days w a lk, o-f Po r g or a. The plateau areas would .have to .be c.onsider:ed too extr:rnsive for an oxpedi.tion of such short duration'11 but should b o considered a prime P0NoG. 'home based' expedition target for the future. E F_E 8 f:.N E S Oow1,-0,., Bo et..aL (1972) Goology of the South Sepik .Region9 Now G u i mm • 8 u r .. r'1i n o r • R e s our .. /.\ u s t • B u 11. . 1 3 3 ( PT JG B u 11 ., 4 ) o P. \.Jo (1969) Cave and Karst in Eastern New Guihea. , . , P r o c o 5 C o n • Sp e l o o " ( s . tu t t g a r t ) , 1 9 6 7 o NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 llllflAutsrA.rP • vu .. .. _ llibf17 THE NEW CONTRIBUTOR rn m Simonds is the Honorar . . . . Group of of the Nai:robi bas d V ing.in 1964 and was one of comme nc ed his K onya n up that,year. He has ea e m embers of th Africa and published a K enya and e lsewh rs ar ic es on Afric a n c ves. 21

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22 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 L sV I &}.H0.f1_ .. VJ_. .. -: .... B .. .. LA_Y,,B,. __ T__U BE OF INTER NAT I __ D_iLAJ_ J.MJJ ... E]lU}\ll..gf :Jim lJ. Simons) . 10 r-rnr, n rH!HJ ' main cave. i •• n t'trrn .. VA riot The pr 1 .•. e tunn.t:Jl of Lev ia th l O 1 .5 ..m diam et er a n d 1 a n Ca v e ' w 1 t h m !!'\ n Y. explored from an ash arge. enough to permi t Cl htJ up ct1 vol can n' down stream• tc one di r y b en eat h thm 1 , rH>tiJ 1nrn11 ..., . o a l . ... nr Llii:1 r vlngle pass.age length Of 8 y 7mpenetrable;1 btJUld1:1t' r1:.P.,.' in two places by c 11 . 111., This great le i I ' -! boulders. had to beoundapste.kentra nces' where link n:;,,, J, F1 1.ml y b r fH'I and 2 o er a en d" d r:Hr;1 hhr h th -• km segments., Ten oth 9 ivi ing the pasatHJ .1,f'l'hn r e c a v e line b t er col lap s e en t r a n , . . . . • ' ' d s ection.s :I the, eh . of provides entr c C!l.r n t.:>. l
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24 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 long liquid guano crawl in bouldere marking the present •end' to the cave. A dissapointing finish to a lava cave, though it is suspected that the tube continues much further beyond this choke as many kilometres of lava still lie ahead, Geologically the cave exhibits some fine lava tube features. Not only are the passages of.unually large dimensions, varying from smooth ovals to high canyon-like areas often with 'key-hole' cross-sections rather reminiscent of vadose stream passages (which technically they are), but many lavatites and •mites abound. Large 'box-1Jork 1 areas of sharp pointed 1 ti te, blades are common and the lowe:ir end .of the ea v s contains a profusion of curly 1pipe-stem1 and lavamites built up of solidified lava pellet upon Lava columns are elso present and some of an incredible blue-grey colour have been noted. Small ropey lava pavements, often forming solid seals in small pissages, were of a fascinating salmonpink colour. Of particular interest are a series of unusual lava outgrowths Dn the edge of a bench which are dendritic in character and greatly resemble ferns. Burst blister formations were obsorVB'd in both the walls and roof in certain passage sections, the former consisting of pockets surrounded by solidif iod jagged lava protuberencos and the latter by deep pearl-shaped scoops where lava had trickled out at the lower end and down the Long benches marked formor levels of molten ,flow and in places coalesced to form nqtural bridgGs and tubes within tubes. I Secondary formations, probably of, silica, were not common but of surprising length and beauty -a yellowish to orange colour being prevalent. Both stalactites and stalagmites (with some 'fried-egg' examples) and some long columns Biologically the cave was only briefly the capture of cave.life being undortaken by the zoologists. Three types of insectivorous bets were taken, species of Rhinol9,Eh'Is,, erU.. and ]:ilE.P.2..Sl.d..r.9_'2. -the latter f o i;mi ng a la-;98 co o ng at 'tfi
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26 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 .NUMBER 1 Pas6age upwa.rd.s slD?e high g ( \ . } . lake JIOMA CAVE \ ' Drawn: H. Gallaach \\ \ la ga Offshoot with 450 upwards sl.ope Offshoots Ylth 450 upwards slope Narmaf :reache's point ••. -. :p. ... ' :,.• .:. : ;:.';.,. ... * * * ........ Ca\.'.e decoration oelinaatss water in the A . x Estimated height • ' "(rn) I O 1 o 20 30 '\,,.,..._:' I I I 40 m ,J baachae ) . NIUCINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 27 ..... "}.1 .. V= NE:\iJ GU:tN.f!:A EXPEDlTION1 1975 Reviewed by R. Michael Bourke * .Brook, .U976)(Compiler). The Britiah New Guinea Speleological Expedition, 1975 British Cove Aasooiation Tra'nsactions . . -=:illf ., ' Avn;ilabl.e from D. Brook, 40 .Broadgo te Creecimnt, Hare forth, Leeds, Kingdom for. .50, including surface postage. Air mail Tile report".cif the British speleological expedition to Papua.New Guinea:has been published just over a year after tha completion of ii the most ambitious speleological expedition ever lounchedn (to quote the foreward). The raport,is substantial in both content and size with 127 pages plus 3 large It follows the now format for'expedition reports of diary, caves and karst special studies and expedition reports. The diary (D. Brook and H. M. Beck) is concise and well writton and after reading it one has a general picture of who did whnt and The sketch maps of expedition routes are not:referred to adequately in the text and finding the locations is not easy, especially as the two sketch maps are 14 pages apart. . . . . The section Caves anrl Karst rightly occupi'es much of. the report, a third in fact. It consists of regional .setting . Crabtree and A. J. Ea vis) and .descriptions of caves and karst for each of the 11 regions the expedition (various authors). Co.ve descriptions o.re brief :ond generally ndequo.te and are not cramped by numerous, of minor caves. They are quite.uneven however. Thus the Star Mountains (A. J. Eovis) is descfibed in deto.il although only a.few minor caves were found, whilsti cave descFiptions from the Fctult Controlled Vo.llsy (K •. Wilde and others) are very brief and contain material that belongs to the diary. I thought the more important cove and other discoveries could have been given more .emphnsis17 perhaps in the FoI;eward. One:i only finds out about the 232 m pitch in Tina Su Tern at tha map and neither in the: text :nor on the map could I f i1;1d thG) length.of Selminum Tern, now the longest recorded cavo in thm Southern Hemisphere. The.cave maps o.re generally well dona, Gepeciclly mlminum which is on a large sheet contained in a folder. No oon1i1t cave numbering system was used. In the Fault Control! Voll numbers (DOOP 001 stce) have bean alloootod to r features but in the Urbpmin region the prefix D,nnd n unit * 120 James Street, Toowoomba, Queensland 43501 Auetralic.

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28 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME NUMBER 1 (01 '? 02 otc "} were A mixture .. C?t the. olq and S. units is used throughout the" ,report which is o. pity as s. I. units nre standard in Papua Guinea and the BCRA Transactions requests them to be. used pos.s.ible. Generarry-t'Fie metr.:lc:-' e1,quivalent is given inbracket$ for each figUreo' The conversion factor used for feet-to (x tho exact conversion (x 003048) seems to have used. Thero ore four papers the'epecial "studies section: The and Co.ve Development of Finirn TeT (D. Brook)9 Sp8leobiology (P, Chapman); Tolefomin Anthropology (K. Ao Wilde); and The Language and Origin of the Telefomin and Their Neighbours (P. s. verett). The first three papers" are. comprehensive and technicEally eound, as far as I can judge. One can that they.will be fr uontly quoted in the futureo Chapman takes an ecological to the cave. biology rather than simply descriptive. Wilde's paper consists of a description' bf the local mostly taken frcm other authors, and, original recordings of legends, rock•art,, ancestral and. prehistoric sites as published in ( 4) o I imagine that the enlightened attitude to Papua-N!lW 1'.iUJ. Tn the fiolci and evident in the publication.is largely a r ult Llilde's influence. Everett's adds little new information on the Te1efomin languages .•. His theories on the origina thfhl pG3aple would have better dmitted as he does not seam ewara nf the body of l'iterature on the prehistory of the highland , \ The expedition.reports finances; commun tione; food report; photography; documentary film r m2dical report; and notes r ni h off the publication. Thet are sound and make good relad:t &d. Qh I would query the need to provide sd much detail. On cc icn severe damage occurred to a rcipe going ovet a clay in which a sharp boulder was buried ... a situation ta be watch f"n by others using S, R, T, The documentary. film r.ep ort ( S. Perou and N, Pluml y) is unusual and Ths final not1J t e that histoplasrn6sis testing showed that two membere ovidance of histoplasmosis infection in Papua New Guinea. There are 22 photographs in the book and on the oovor. Te hnically they are all good9 but I felt a greater diversity ubjn t would have given better as most rire underground hot 1n Selminum Temc Perhaps the proposed book will offer a gr tru photographic range? Th0ro are quite a number of errors in the book that hculd VD boen picked :up by the editor or compiler. For' example' on th r:tr t ga (p117), and Niugini are incorrsctlyp thm r r nk Salt was organizing the Star .:0:xpedi ti,qn ( 1 rJ mj the length of Irapui (4 km) are givan ,incorrectly th rof Watson and Wilde (1972) is givsn Llild6 (1972)0 On fi ru e is located near Madang and Strickland is spolt incorr c ly. Thu names Now Guin8a and Papua. New Guinea are usod intt:no oc1bly NIU(HNI throughout without M the nams British Niw the old name f nr To expedit1on te1 credit tc1 th g r. ea t r1 x; ha preperat on. It s pure VtA VOLUM S NUMBER 1 purist might argue that titl i unfortunate as this is iQM ri nt apaleologioal ! VI y gnod nd is a fl\/Um r ttJith riwalr:l tAt!d ir1 l r 111n111 r'd t Since this is 1 for 1977 and the month 1 is quite a lag the caving scenw since the thara Provinceo Thete ha b'" Village caves TJa.vavGre) th:e8 to a Fow trip111 tc1 tho [')cm this year,. mostly familiarisatlo s, nd CJ'tlu1 hydrolcigy done. The J n ut survGying and reopsned so access is n w •. has at Robinson Ri.ver sb we'\x h easier. Jim Fc:rnwo,rth i now in tho future. p . ear of caves in that area East Britain Mike Bowrk d lT181lf51tok "tl'rcia in January a 5 headed out tu day want as a caviri da sho . o oo a some 'naw' caves. Tho four pro\Jicrnsly guide and although thG last one for the da ng in all were small 1 on g a n d ha d n n i m I:) r o s s i v G ,...., . t . y .: 1 R5 a p 1 to k N o • 4 w a s s o me 8 0 . m . affl . . .. , . i;:;n ranee m high All fo h d t c uxing at tho ontrance. Tho u"d • " ur a s reams but empty stomachs overrulad e was keen to show ten morG be.quite on the Gazolle . . . . . for cavin9 there6 Tim S rod an active few years now off to England finish.and he and Anne' are and the Bourkes gohe fi . tarnworth out of the aroa in rssidsnce and o Australiaj Hal Gallasch is . . s a rumour of a new cave near Gaulim. N UJ t I l o m on ? P r o v in c e • Ha M . . .. . . 1;'rTfii1 Boiumai 3fi"cr fo M n\ hes achce here, with 1 Pound was in Kieta area is ver,y good, visited Mahatai with at the of tho d :r y i a Pun a w hi c h i the . . . n e v l o c .c a s i o • A r o c en t 1urod at about 5 sink of a rivor lwhich t . . . . :n average weathGr. ThG oa,..t t 2 0 m but t h 1 8 i o d 8 f i t 1 . . . . ,.. .+. Y 1 by th 1 . c • ni e y a cave for a dry onnce i: in the face 10 m t noy has shifted to Panguna with B C L th , • o • o SCJ 8

PAGE 17

30 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 5 NUMBER 1 Northern Solomon's caving be quite active now. .P.F. gv ir:iqc.i o Hal Callas eh went ea v ing at Madang recently and explored and sketcherl two caves; one near Yagaum Mission Hospital and one near Omuru Station. The latter is a cave which has a potential length of several kilometres. It entered through one doline and followed for several hundred mettes until stopped at the top of a waterfall. Several kilometres furthr::ir on the stream crosses ,.the bottom nf a 50 m deep doline which couldn't be descended without adequate equipment. Kevan Wildo reports some ••••••• knocked off his car from outside his front door. He recovered the vehiclB but they kept his caving gear which was (maybe the locals are developing an interest in caving after all?) Kevan and Ron Britten have been on a reconnaissance to Kaijende (see report this issue). . . The September ca.ving meet is g.oing to the Chimbu wherf:l 'thGy LJill concentrate on Angunga (sink) near Chauve .which was partly explored in December 1975. This sink provides access to a river cave which may connect with Kaimomo .(Kio.wa) •. Total depth potontial about 300 metres and. the distance :between _Afigu.nga and Kaimcimo is .. about 5 km. The system also extends and is a good sporting wiil be coming from Sydriey for this trip in anyone who is interested ih going should contact Kevan Wilde at once. The Geologi.cal: Survey have asko .. d us to assist in the of a limestone gorge cin the Ok Monge where it is prop:o:sed. to construct a concr.ete arch dam to supply powor to the copper mine. They think is a collapsed natural arch it' is not possible to without 0srtical climbing equipment. A group of ten cavers from Barcelona, Spain plan to come New Guinea in July-August 1978. Thoy are 'interested in exploring deep caves and have their Bye on c:in aroa around Koroba which has not bsen looked at by cavers yet, Tho /\TEA . 11 97 8 trip fr orn Sydney organised by Julia James and K?van: Wilde will be in the a;rea at the same time. The Spaniards are interested in having local speleologists join their sxpedition0 Tho Editor' would be greteful to receive. brief 'ieports on n c i: iv it y _in Papua • New Guinea as an aid in preparing this co 1 um n ., This information also goes into the PNGCEG Library and formsvsry valuablereference material for future cavers in this country. The nBxt issue is planned tp be published in August-SGptsmber.in order to catch up the backlog, $0 material for this column should arrive in Port Moresby before 31st August 1977.


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