Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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..; iJ I IN I 1 . . Niugini Caver is the publication of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration. Group, an ihformal of persons in in Papua New Guinea .• Volume 6 Number 1 Price Editor eroduction oJ Last Number 9 1978. Quarterly K1.00 per issue. K4.00 per annum Malcolm Pound, P.O, Box 38241 Port Moresby, Natirinal Capital District,. PAPUA NEW Alison Pound M. D. and A. A. Pound, N. Stewart, J. and J •. Atkinson and A, Goulbourne. -.. . ..... ..... Contents . Page .. .. -... ' -.. Cover Photograph., o. •" ••• o ••••• , o ........ o. ".,... 1 Tok t o k 8 i 1 o ng E di ta • • , • • • • • • o ' • ,, • • • • o • • • • " .. •• • • • " " • • , • 2 Art of Cave and.some Cave and Rock Art Sites of the Sortof. Area, Kainantu Sub-Province, Eastern Highlanas ProuiQce, Papua New A. Wilde,, ................................. P•••Q• 3 A Papua New Guinea Cave Recording System, M. Pound •••• 14 Report of a Brief Reconnaissance of Part of the Cromwell Huon-Peninsula, Morobe Province. Malcolm D. 27 Back Cover Photographs, ••••••••••••• ••••••••• o••••••• 32 Caving 35 Speleo Personality -Allan Goulbourne ••••••••••• o••••• 37 Speleological 38 Photograpb The cover photograph shows aseotion rif the walls of Ofafunga Cave iri the Sonofi Area of the Eastern Highlands The photograph forms part of article by Kevan Wilde. The article starts on page 3 of this issue and is fully described on page 6, Photograph by B. Wilde • .. ... ..:,


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBEH 1 TOKTOK BILDNG EDITA Caving Expeditions to Papua New Guinea 1978 would appear to the year of the year of the expedition as regards organised. caving and. in PNG. year are corning from Spain, France, Switzerland, United New Zealand, and Australia spend varying of.time investigatingthe caves of this country. The size of expbditions varies from a French group:of two, to the Austraiian Expedition to the Muller Range in sixty people are expected to participate. The aims of these parties also vary, some people with modest aims are the more well known areas, while groups tend to head for the remote uith depth potential. For these areas tht'.1, logisfids time and effort is required to ensure that the expedition runs srnootbJY• . -. In the ticms of. the i;, to ,?et .a.s ?.u.:_des,_ JOb 5 ci,.i they have don.e As crtJ"te-fl'tj".L'tl9BFfntc the rural areas, the local people are taking up cash ring and the Job.of carrying is cominci less to them .especially if it means b .ng away from 'home with an.J3Xpe_dition !or weeks. This coi,11Kunded in lirnestone areas. by a relatively low population clcn::.'>cy with few ;JSOple who of the area to be vi81ted. The young men are often more interested in s village to'gt to a town and generally little .. of the rough ltme'stone areas of the expedition, h. the lorial people us8ally avoid. This trend can be .. b><'pr::cted to continue. . . cbAse6uently, the arrangement of trips is changing from a ksy system using locally recruited carriers to a system using drops to camp' areas with only a few local for . g ing etc •• This works satisfactorily.for expeditions as it f reos the leader from having to deal with large numbers of and it Ls not as the cost can be spread bvor number of people. This hits the.small locally bae -groups hard however, as cannot af the of air drops and have to make do with a few only, carry slr supplies in themselves or have to cave in areas close to :roads. rc L3 to be hoped that the can continue. make the effort to visit the more remote areas as yet unvisited by hcipe that all of these ... •. a_f.rui .... enjcyable time in Papua New Guinea. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUM8EP 1 ART OF CAVE: AND SOME CAVE.AND ROCK ART SITES OF THE SONOFI AREAi KAINANTU SUB-PROV1NCE2 EASTERN HIGHLANDS PROVINCE2 PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Kevan A. Wilde* .ABSTRACT A detailed is of the rock art of Ofafunga Cave, near Sonofi Village, Ka1nantu Sub-Province Eastern Province,_Papua New Guinea .• Techniques: styles and are and the forms compared with other sites the Sonofi area, areas of Papua New Guinea, and Irian Jaya. A legend relating to the origins of the art and function of one of the sites are The relative age of the art and possible cultural erences between the artists themselves is briefly THE SONOFI AREA Location and a6cess Sonofi Village is located within grid square CN6292 on the 1 : 250 OOO MARKHAM Topographical Sheet Papua New Guinea Access is b Okapa Road; Sonofi being 4.Bkm• along the first rignt The is centrally an area of insignificant limestone with a surprisingly large number of moderately horizontal cave systems. Access to.the caves and rock sites is by both foot-track and vehicular roads from Sonofi itself. . ' ang. Top og raph_y Miocene sandstone9 tuff, and lava 1970) typifies the general geology1of the area with m+nor outcropping of being local to and its adjacent environs and to moderately rugged hills surround the Sonofi river valley. 'Pitpit' grasses predominate along the valley,_whilst rainforest covers the tops of adjacent hills and ridges. The area is well cultivated. and there are a of 0illages and hamlets scattered amongst the grasslands. Elevation is approximately 2,DOOm a.s.l •• Recent History The caves of the Sonofi area have .been visited by Europeans from time to time for almost a decade. The indigenous people seem to have abandoned these caves ih recent tirnes9 but used * P. Do Box 10559 Goroka, E.H.oP., Papua New Guinea.


4 NIUGI0I VOLUME. 6 NUMBER 1 them for refu 8 of tribal past. No h been carried ou.t at the S..1.. es locus. • t . as 1 .f the appear suitable for excavation, bu as Severa o ....., t t dug the author is no tes pi s were • THE ART ----.. . Llhi lst a cornbina ti ()r of ii. a hd polych:ome charcoal (dry) and observed pt other dealt uith this the art at -0 f 8 f Lino a 8 i ;t 8 i 8 e x c l u s i v e l y pain t e d { r Y.) c tl r . _ t _ 1 .. . . beinq mainly linear e ins Ye. Throughout this paper the word _' v i efers technique of both wet and dry __ as t Painting (wet) = an actual Uo/ing t 1 in .1-his cuse red and yrs..LJ.mJ LChres and or c ays ma eria , L . • • 'th th f. or come form of mixed lJi th water and appli-ea W.l"' , .e _. 1 . 0 e.. in h o ti"ng (dr;) = anactual drawing cechnique u01ng brus • ain . , f t n iQ after this case sticks of charcoalo The classi ica io 0 Specht (1975). Clas si f i ea ti on a " ahd forms which Th e f o 11 ow i n g i c'., c s si i c a on n l r s -V • I t i s not 8h0u1 d be read in con J u c t ion w 1 t h r '."J L! _,__ : s . I _ . . . . . . _ . within the scope of the author to a seer cain. tt1e t . intentions of the or to identity nafure of the No attempt is made to detail the ar+ such as 'leaf' motif or -8 descriptive aids and are a.s. in abstract and representational arL forms. at all the sites th here• _ . . Local in'formants-uhab'lteh. to the origin and muc!ning o.f _ e ar , an to leg.end .. Figures I 51 I I and_ill t d a male anthro-Fi . I(a) shows wh3t could be interpera as . h with what appears to be a stylized 9la9s penis. is a 'stick-like' over a chair. of filled-in ""w7 th vertical lines cctending f ro_m the apice0 \see F -9 y .. ' .. . t (-J 1 and I.II (a) to (i) show a. number of va. riati. o.ns Fig II 0 0 -. ... 'bl ;rl forms. The author of anthropomorp!1J.c and 1 possi tions but the is not able to p1ovide: any inuc.1-pera . t1 d .... al _ or n) ear to have9 or _8 fa. rm_s 'ta.: lst (1 'J An interesting feature is the char a c er .LS 1 C$ f.; .L. • . . .• shapf3 of the 'h-c3nds' in _ NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 5 Fig's II(g)9 III(e)1 (f)-and (g); Fig II(h) appears to be incomplete (?). Fig's II(b), (c-) and (1) are faded, whilst the others are 'fresh' in indicating a greater difference in age (?). Figures IV and V Fig IV typifies most of the major distinguishable that, appear at the Ofafunga site; (a) and (b) being varfation"s pf the 'leaf' motif (2), and (c) to (e) variations of . with •sun (3); whilst (f) to (h) are . v a r i a t ions of ' c r o s s ' m o t i f s ( 4 ) • Fi g I V ( i ) s hows c i r c 1 e s. : ::::. (filled-in or open) connected by. a single vertical line, and (j) and (k) can only be as enigmatic. .. Fig V shows eight variations .. :of horizontal chains: invert.ad_ up:r_ight, open':le:d..;.in triangles (5). :Ffg: V(a.-) consists of inverted, open. triarigles with sh.ort vertica-1 lines : .. extending ... from ... the. :a.p.e:ci.S,; F.ig-V{b)" is simile;l:i;-, l:n.1t.the : triangles are and the vertical lines .joined a single horizontal line. Fig'. V(c) consists of upright and -. inverted triangles which are filled-in and :.form a -hor'izontal -chairi, (d) appears to be an incomplete of (c). Fig V(e) shows two horizontal chains of triangl-E3s _consisting of one upr_ight and one inverted line of triangles filled-in joined at apecis by single, vertical lines. Fig V(f) is similar to (c), but with a horizontal row of dots above . the top chain of Fig V(g) consists of a chain of and (h) a horizontal chain of filled-in, inverted triangles; a row of dots and a horizontal form a above the 'bases' of the triangles, and vertical lines extend from the.apecis and terminate in dots. Be-occurrence of Forms and Motifs Unfortunately time and conditions did not permit an accurate study of the re-occurrence of forms and motifs. Mowever, as a general observation the motif that re-occurs the frequantly is variations of the triangular design. Anthropom orphid and/or zoomorphic (?) forms occur very frequently. of circular motifs are predominant, whilst 'chevron' (6) designs are few; 'leaf t motifs occur ocassionally, but 'cross' motifs are relatively numerous. Circles joined by a vertical bar are quite common, but not frequent. .Although the forms and motifs are similar to others observed elsewhere (by the author and others -see footnotes) the Ofafunga art to have an and purpose of that be unique to this particular siteo Other sites in the Sonofi area (which are dealt with later)_ display a number of similar forms and motifs which are painted (wet) in clays and ochres.


I: I. i. fHUGINI VUL E Cl NLJi:U 6 DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF THE BRT AT OFAFUNGA For ease of description the walls of the cave have been divided into sections (see survey) from 'A' to 'K'• These sections were taken from' convenient survey points. A vertical section was not made of the roof due to its height above the current floor level. Section A -8 No art. St?ction 8 -_I:; 2.4m right of survey point 'B' appears a complex linear tjesign of no apparent form to the author; which includes a circle with •sun-rays' of type Fig IV(d) with an anthropomorphic form (Fitj II(a)) to its left. Immediately above a further linear design consistino of an upright line with alternatively spaced, filled-in, crude triangles on either side. To the left of this is a form which is similar to Fig II(j). above the survey 1C1 are two faded forms, Fig II(b) and (o). The latter being 0.75m in height, whilst tha former is approximately half the size; above and the left is a third form, Fig II(d). 1Che0ron1 designs also occur in this section. $ C D. shows a complex linear design of no apparent form to the author, and a central 'leaf' design simil8r to Fig IV(a), To the left of this is a faded anthropomorph with exaggerated 'digits' and no 'legs t; below this i.s a faded, horizontal chain of inverted triangles similar to Fig v(a) with the exception that the centre triangle is open whilst the remainder are filled-in. Below the complex design appears an isolated and faded form Fig II(e), which is also accompanied by recent vandalism in the form of scratched A certain amount of mineral deposition occurs up to this point. Immediately iert of the previous sequence and approximately 3,0m above the floor is a group of paintings consisting of horizontal chains of triangular designs, •leaf' motifs, linear designs, the motif shown in Fig and a tfrog-like1 form aa in Fig II(k} front Cover. Section D ..... J,Om above survey point 10' are two •complete' and one •incomplete• forms, Fig's II(f), (g) and (h) forming a group with a chain of three inverted triangles to their right. 1.5m above the central point of survey marks 1C1 and 'D' is form Fig II ( i), and to its right a rectangular grid_ ( 7), an inverted tr .. _1 . -'an g . e ';) .... , d ..... n . , . i s a c ha i n o f' , -•..J. i u. i 3. n c h J:' o = m ., , -1 ' 2. o, , e . Below th ' ''Jen and inverted tr ., :; c , , • chi s 9 roup ( e c ha i i 0 f t ...... i ...., n , . n l:; ..... e ,,, .:::> 1 m , , 8 r t 0 [."' • V ( ) F i g I I ( 1 ). ). w h ""' a 9 .J.. e s a 1 1 cJ t o [ h o 1 ,.., .1:-7 -.... 1 i g a • • " • L c , due t 0 -1-", , • 0 ---1." a form impression of f -:iin , J_,_,s. 1 au:Jc :-'.DDear?nrr::. .. I mm e d i ,.. t _,, 1 . ., . g o l d e r t he. n t h o :-, ': ' J_ • . ,, ,_, ,_, g .L v e s t h e et tll.y 8 f a n d Q i tu c".:' + . ., -! -. • . ,_, !..J -.n I_, l. n g 3 2 .... 0 u n d ] . .I. appea '--'-a. vl:iC lJ:'--l '') . '-. l. rs a grouri of • I • • ., l; •;t::-811 i_,l_.j(J -:0 ro:::; C' of ' • vertical eh " paim:ings con•,i nt< 1 -;:---0 • deposition 8 l n c3 . Q f t rj 8 rJ g 'j ,-... '' , . -' I 0 f Q 8 0 r l 8 8 Q f appear in r. . . . _.:;;::.;, ,. m.::her t'"' . . . . . . 'sti'ck li'l/ i f1.g \J; and an fngu r. d2signs, that -..8 or-. . I-'' -1-L> OI''" r TT() .., a P P ea r t o t h:.:::i ' 5 .c + : -1 t "'. ' . r l g .i. i j ; two I n t he a 1 c o v e ,, 0 . . . i " ,, !.J -a e l"J o I> 1 -r ' m T'ic1ht P ... t he f 1 o 0 :r t h 8 r . . -:J 0 ; s u r v e \t ro 1 n + 1 0 " , ..., . • ' 3 lS a linea.-c'ooi ' ,. .. '" ' a'lc j.Orn above upright and inJ3rtad Lnd c in of Pf,l d . a hum a n 0 • (., .. l Cl n g d 8 " _l n '.l •. ' . l i 1 - • I • i J.. 8 l n r a n l iT 3 J f 0 ..... m ' . ,) d .L L' l, J.. c n r 0 l 1 C' t ,_ • t h P. r 8 . ' . u I, • r i T T T ( '• • . " ..... "w 1:: 11 ere ls -. are d nurroer of fadaa dnd surroundinq this ':1'''1Cl . l Cl EJVron t motif so ngu1a .• : .Je nr1c: '"'n .! ., hs 8 c t i 0 f} __ L.::_f Vertical shaft """ no paintings 3.0m above •e, . t III(b) and ( )_\j y iJoin iFV ar-e h.10 Gn'.:h:::o,!J . . c 1 and e motif-' .,_ , orpno Fig's o P en cl r cl e 8 2 o b i. ;;) ..L m 1 J... c r o i ; \.I ( .; \ ,_ • a r e t h f • . • m a o v s t ' ' e c e t re ' ,. . ..... , , ; . w l t h h arms and motifs u1 -'Ft.,..iGT s own in th , . u. i _,_; , . " . ( •.• 1 . • ( , l al Qo ' r-i::rue re la ti onsh i o tcJ .. b)' tJhich are '"' occurs J.r• the qec+-. 2 -, , .c.,c.J ,..,1_1 00h i' .1-. m 0 t . f . . '-' -,_, l 0 n 0 rr r.., . . "' ("_,I I -z a L l 0 n ' l C o n s l s : n q 0 f • -;; ..J 1 " 8 '" .. \, u u :-: v : \J J o .: .... t: r r 1 • 1.5m t th , r -cwo concenti:ic c;i , ,' ..... , is a o e _;_,;f c of and -,J_ .... e.-.:, a1 ic • E3i .. vs ., g r o up of m o t i =s i n c 12 . " a o \! s s u r v e v o r, r-1 i. -r,.;-" _.:;,,! .. ..:.:.... ,, t . -' u i n o '" • .. • . ' ...... , c " ' s a mo :-rs to Fio -\Jfi'-)_' vl.L.iSS' .".:ts_in I\J(g1 th motir'"' Tn tt-_, 1 , ..... 9 a ff:ea ... 1u-:-1':"'. n. i -1 " 1 _ree f! .L 1lP centr ,... ' • ' r_,.,_-'Q r • form . th ' e or this OT'"UD '"' , --. ...... "' ,, d circular w l I a I m s r b e n t . ' _, I.... ! ,, I I cJ 1. 0 l f. a :, ;-i r 1,, -1 . f t . I J l n a 0 0l.Jn1.J 2 T' r• ,. r;; -l-+1 •. 1' j '"' ..., ...... _, f"> l K 8 ...L u c... '..J t.1 L l,! (_ 8 :i Section G ..,, 4 0 . h "' • m r lg t 'J . .s u r v e y p o i n t t r; i r: l r-z commences a 0 8 q u 8 n c. J ,, 2 b u \J e -=-., 0 "., 1 of i . . ence of oa'..ntinoo i•I-.. o. c a cl t e snow n i n the . ....,_ 0 w. 1 l :; i ' cc c u :r a b o 'l i::) .i. he h 1 f th • , -c, s e tois a chain of ho_llow above i-lg V(h) b t ... u ,Jricnglc" r I 1' B 1 . . ' u w i t h o " t L h . , ' " ct r, c, L o i:.s s i m .; 1 a r e ow this Hrnre is f , L. e sir1g.LL nor oTta -, , Fig V ( ) . a u r c n er t r i,.., no' i 1 ,.., ....., ! • I .J.. nG o a , t i u t LJ l t h f i 11 ea. . . ' . . . c I_; .L J. a E' P_ .. • .l..rrn t-d mi 1 a r t 11 gr -1 n ' M -., 1 . • ' --w . cons._ iting of two _,:;: , --3 co eh . rioht is similar to ?i trr'' •sun-ra•s' --o a number of • . g \dJ • To one riqht ,._o Lf-', y c u 'orm wrlangular desion q.; -;1 G i.l.0 gruUP are a and.a ' .i..r'"-s ._,..:.mi...Lar to_ FioL=' \11'r'-b,' _.J ( t . " rn 0 \.; 1 r 0 n 0 _. t . =:! ' \ } a n [' g ) r i an g 1 e s i o i r..., e r:l .r.. t h ...... . ...:::i ls l n g of four .o, -1 1 i ... . . . , 1 , aL 8 ::ii: ._ T -"--eu-1r• Pr e c e e d i n c g ro up i 8 " ; _ t i;., ';' : 1 the 1 e f t of t h 0 • ' The ti1all cc_intinues w;.:..h o . ..., ., ... 2nthropcr;1c Fi 'l .TII ('I for anoth t .L \.;, varia L.lonc; of' tri . , . -':::i ..l l I" . ElJ: wo metros 08.".'+ .J..• ' _.angu.i_aI' 'c -..:> '-' vll8 solution hol ,, C) .... ,'..J' ano amongst


NIUGINI CAVER. VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 these there. ar'e .'motifs, including; a 1'ie:af'•,' motif, " open circl,es connected by a single vertical lipep Fig !V(i) • The t leaf t motif appears to b.e superimposf3d over a t'r-iangular design similar Fig V (b). .. ... This :"section continues with a number of linear designs, anthtopomotphi, 6ircles, circles with 'sun-rays', triangular designB1 and bisected 1chevroris' -Plates 2 and 3o Less .• than a metre to the of this sequence is a small alcove containing a of designs of the types in fig but are executed in both vertical and horizontal chains •. Section H I Immediately right of survey point 'H' and approximately 2.5m above the floor(between two areas of deposition) is a group\ • of faded, and apparently older chains of triangles; two upper ones being similar to Fig V(a), but whilst the two lower ones are similar to Fig V ( d). Above and t."o the left of triangular designs is a line of •stripes' an angle of about 60 across'. a horizontal 'sticklike 1 f or:m: w1 th exaggerated 'digi t.s t. To the left and above this' is. a circle with an interior fill Gonsisting of 1 chevrons.', and above that 9 a vertical chain of filled•in Below and to floor level is a cbmplex linear design with intensive superimposi tioning, thus giving "the impres'si.on' of being 'drawn'}. over separate periods (?) • . Among group is a m6re looking tleaf' motif, and.• to the right a faded form similar to Fig II (i) ,: but with a ... filled-in 1head1 , and •arins1.bent in a:d_ownwardsattitude at the 'elbows t .. Section I -J . .!. : Consists of an alcove containing chains of triangles of the shriwn in Fig V, filled-in and with 'sun-r a y 8 ' , t 1 ea f ' motif s ' cross t motifs s i mi 12 r to Fig ' s I\/ ( f) . and (h); :.concentric circles with .'spokes•, linear. and dotted. designs, and a number of anthropomorphic forms are in the main similar to Fig III(g}. The designs are tpo complex to be described in detail and photography because of the curvature and uneven morphology of the ro.of,. Plates 4 and 5 show details of the rooF sectipn, and Plate 6shows an aiea of the wast wall. Section J -K Is . su tiated above the 'chimney t and there are seve'ral . . . anthropomorphs which are similar in to those recorded previously; circlescircles with and a of inverted and filled .-in triangles. NIUGINI CAVER Section K ... A I 6 NUfVJBER 1 9 Is the main entrance area no active areas of de os' ' . the cave d th . P l t1on were obse d .. the d . e abov8 de.scribed; art . rve on. the walis of'' .. rip line. No part of th h. locat13d well behi d permanent darkness e_ camber is beyond t'h .. n . • . e zone of Tefola Cave O'TH ER S ! T t S IN, THE A RE A' I . . Locafe'd, te th ... . • ground; a small riv: current. Sonofi 'singsing' (d .-. ) . . passage Th . .... r cave with some 200 . ancing .... have b. • e entrance are.a n l m of horizontal . een used frea tl " ... orma water l l .. .. had been fh informants rPf to and 80 .. .. .. • . e past for refuge cJ . •.. e dry A polyc.hfom'e may. be. of t:ibal ... appears on form painted interest. right th . e and wall. of the . t . L) in. clays . . . ere are a numb f . . en ranee: and 'h. linear charcoal (dry) cilmost Kekeronunga Is the n a ni e g i. v a ri. .i.. . • . . . . village of the . lO the limestone cliff at th , . .. , . a name. .the monochrome (dry) c?er of which includ displays similar to F. (. dGsigna and eh . e inear or s,)but painted in of triangles .and some 'chevrons• and oth . I ic forms s ' sur, ys' b ers painted (wet) . ! ome drawn• with eh . , ' a ave a narrow resur in clays. Under a small by a dog wh h. genes cave is an anth overhang claimed is recent cir accompanied memor . . . e ers to have bee . . n in appearance . ( Y • Col ours p r 8 s 8 n t . . , n ex e c. u t e d b. 8 f 0 r 8 12. . l s presumabl , th are reds y 11 . ving ochre) andybla6k re(shult,pf mixing 9 th: pink c arcoal). .., cay with red A overhung . . . . magtic? spiritual siggfrfcn the.cliff is said t.o h pas if a p b. . anceD-Informa t . ave would and unclean ( that in the overhang and . t?ke the carcass to tl .. ) the owner cooked ch,ere living off the under the the ledges enter . er seven to ten da es which was assum.ed. that thi below and hys hle would leave slau ht . s,ri ual d th. imse f. It g eat witho c e ?Wner of the . i . . Informants sai. d t .. r..a

r 'l j: 1, 1: II ii C/ Ii I i ji 11 II II II.I I i !I /r d II :1 11 ii Ii 11 1 [) NIUSINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 Isiabinunda Sink or Shaft An apparently dry sink-hole reported to be located on the crest of a limestone hill a short distance north-west of Sonofi. A legend relates to a male and female spirit who married and had a young daughter. two 'maselai' lived on the hill near Isiabinunda:1 and are responsible, by legendt for the 'drawings 1 / and paintings (ound on the cave walls and rock faces in the area. _Because of tho height of the above the ground it is said that the spirits wote able to fly. When the daughter up and became of age, her parents allowed her to marry a young, mortal man of the Oiyana people, and they Sonofi to live with their daughter and her new .husband. The latter part of" th legend is probably of modern origin (?) in order to give an explanation t.o the absence of 'spirits s.ince. the bre?king of traditional davt:f .... 1tambus1 (prohibitibns). The lodal that a noxioU$ gas Ao is emitted ftom the sink-hole and for this reasbn there. According to local informants there are many. ;more sites in the. area that have not visited by. :Europeans. A site. , 2-3km north .... wes.t Of .Sonofiis reported (pers comm). Some o'f these are said to be 1tambu' and permissiqn for the authcir to visit them was, butfirmly refused. The Ar.ea Committee has taken over the Ofafu.nga sitezi and an"y . •. negotiations should bs made through them and the village elders. No attempt been made at the paintings hlith in this paper as it is bQy6nd the and of the authoi. Villago that ail the painiings in the area were 'befdre memory. of Ofafunga c,ave 'are well 'protected and dry,_ but many of the paintings faded, thus indicating ancient origin. There are a Mumber'of designs that to be of more recent df their 'fresh' . appearance, and are ovef older(?), morci faded ones. Whibh may indicate .that has been explriited over widely separate periods (?). . . .As previously described, .the art of dfafunga Cave is wholly executed in monochrcime charcoal using dry 'drawing' whilst clayi arid ochrs wet painting t.echriiques'and charcoal 'drawings' are :side by. side at other two sites Although ths are as well protected (being to as at the Ofafunga they ara weli preserved and 'fresh' in appearence, thus suggesting' they are of more recent. \}[ \11 ' ,v -6 1.J:'JbEn 11 . the chains of t . are qu t d . . riangles the st. 'YI. es of. the tL.10 s.i tes . J.. e issulilar in t -question of whe':her the na .Lure 6 Which poses the inters? ting groups arL can bs attributed to two different RECORQING MEtHoos The pai'nt. .ings photo L i le no s;. n-gl:e . . f i . 9c:tp11ed using a 3 5mm through-theo re LSX and 125 A.SA bl ' An elect-ron'ic' flash r-18 v:. . . ack and white film 't u ice was Used for . • si s was surveysd with a ur:i.ination. The cave nearest degree, and a an_inclinometer to the . .. . . ape to the nearest centimetre. .CONSERV.A TION The Ofafunga :ei te b... . . . . and 0 • ; een $BFlDUsly Vand l" d r ,-apua New Guinea. youth. c, . +-• . a ize ... by. t.uropean and in some C . s their names on the rock U t th . ; . ases over the trad"t l . n i ere is satisfactor . . i iona drawings. it,the and a formula traditional Attit d of protection remains with the (prohibition) to corn-let ud?o varyFrom complete 'tambust author attempts to Whenever possible an c e s t r a l s i t e o a n d t -i. g l o c al e l d er s t o pre s er v e ility amongst develop a sensa of responsib-unique cave and rock d . . awards then perhap"' . Pa p . ' r a w l n g s s u c h a s t h d . . a_ . er may be preserved for Lh .b . ose in this of Papua 'I r • . t... 8 enefit. of futur . . . _ f\i8W rUJ..neans tOT' th 8 generations exact locations of th; e of conservation the si es described here ara not A C_KN OLJL ED G Er11 ENTS The. author wishes to tha k . , '' . with the Dick 1\fiJ.grt of Moresby for River for.reading the dr work, also Ron Britten of Frieda assistance with th h taft, and my wife Beverley for her . e P o ography.. . . .[OOTNOTES (1) Figures and forms showin . . . . . . . . . . characteristics or 'tt 1 ' g possJ.,ole exaggerated sexual Gorge and Kwini Ak Kagamugl1 the. of the Sirnbu JlJ"ld ey in the Kundiawa Sub Sub Province ?ul1d:' ]975a), at the Aibura site in the in the West Sspik Provi' 1975b), and at the Selminum Tern 'Lizard-like' forms ha l nee, near Tslefomin (Wilde 1976) (a th ' ve a so been ob d ., • T u or!, and at At Luun . 't serve the above sites elefomin Sub Province (W"ld em s1 e, near Tifalmin River (Braggs, 1976)0 1976),.at the Piri near Province (Bulmer and Bulm ! Kup in the Mto Hagen Sub Moresby Sub District 4)P and near Sogeri, Port been made of such forms ms! 1936). A record has also in rr J c ian aya Galis, 1957a).


CAVER VOLUME 3 NUMBER 1 12 (2) 'Leaf' motifs have been observed at the Ak Kagamugl and Aibura sites {Wilde, 1975a and 1975b), and near Sogeri (Strong, 1923) and (Williams, 1931), the author has also observed tleaf' motifs at a site near Obura. (3) Variations of circular motifs, concentric circles with 'sun-rays' and circles with spokes occur at Ak Kagamugl and Valley sites (Wilde, 1975a), at Aibura (Wilde, . . 1975b), and at' Kafinvana near Gorok9 in .the Eastern Highlands ProVfoce (White, .1%7), \J illiarns ( 1931 ) recorded concentric circles at Sogeri, as did Galis (1957a) in Irian Jaya. such . forms have also bee'.1 recorded in the Chwave area of" the Simbu Province (WhiCe, 1967). They have also been observed in the Mianmin area of the TelEifomin Sab Province (Wilde, 1978).' ( 4) 'Cros.s.1 motifs of a similar nature ,to those rehorded here are known to appear in I rian Ja ya (Gali s, 1957b), and have bEien observed at Lende (author) in tne Chuave . c .. Province, and Lambe:rt (1967) reports almost idEintioa1 forms' at the Likding site on New Hanover. •Croix Enveloppe1 have been observed at the junction Cf Strickland and Tumbudu Rivers (\Jhite, 1969), and 'Maltese' crosses near Saigavo VillS:ge in the Morob'e Province (Gallasoh, 1974}, (Vial, 1.936) and (Mc Williams, 1936). 'Cross' motifs also occur at Batari in thEi .Eastern Highlands Province (White, 1967), and at the Kum River ite (Bulmer and Bulmer, 1964).. (5) Chains at triangles similar tb the ones in Fig1s 0(c)1 (d) and (g) recotded at the Ak Kagamugl and Kwinigl (Wilde, and have been observed by .the author at a of sites near Chuave, Lende, They also occur in the Nambaiyufa area of the Eastern Highlands province (Mackay, 1968) .. .. . . . (6) motifs nccur at the Ak Kagamugl and Singganigl and Kwinigl Valley sites including the Chimbu Gorge (Wilde, 1975a), and have been observed by the BUthor at a number of sites near Chuave. Also at the Nambaiyufa sites (Mackay, 1968) and they have .been recorded et the junction of the Strickland and Tumbudu Rivers (White, .1969). . . (7) Rectangular grids have been xe6orded at the Ak Kagamugl and Kwinigl sites (Wilde, 1975a) and have also recorded at the At T6m Luun T6m site near Tifalmin (Wilde, 1976), and in Papua (strong, 1924). .. : :, . ' v OL ur"lE 6 NIUGINI L'""'A. VE,R '13 REFER ENC.ES Bulmer, s. and sulmer R. 196 ... . < .. ,: Australian New H; hi The" of the 6 ( 4 ) pt• ; 2 .. 3 9 ... 7 6 • , g . d 8, • . A me r i ea n Ant h r op o 1o9 is t ' C • S • I • R • 0 • ' 1 9 7 0 g The L'c;tnd:s of .. t her . . . Area. CS!RO Land Res d n '• GS>.F.cika and. Mount Hagen . . . . .• an negional Surv . D. R Gallasch H 1974 " S . .. • iv. ee. No. 27 Cave;:, in New Guinea. Galis, K. w. 1957a De p f 1 Guinea S tudien, ( 2 ) Na bi j Tainda. Neuli!_ Ga 1 s ? • lJ • 1 9 5 7 b . p e Gr o t t en V 2(1) 22 .... 23-. an Jaand. Neuw Guinea Lambert, R. J, 196 7 0 St d. . . . . •. . in New Hanover. Rock Two .Sites Macka . . . . • 489 492. .Yr D. R. 1968 g Rock Shelte p . . . . District, New Guinea. Annual r c;ilntings Nambaiyufa, Chimbu and Art Gallery (Pa the Trustees Public Mc William p w Guinea), 18, . . ' N.D. Disposal. f th . Morobe M t e Among the Buang Guinea• ,.., ( ' ). .0 -3 9' an a ed Terr l tory of New L " . -. 42 Specht, J. 1975 : Art i . • . . .. Manuscript. The Aust n the Western Pacifc.Unpubl • ,useum, Sydney. • Strong, w. M. 1923 0 Rock p . t' . Papua (British N;w G . ai)n ings from the Central uinea • Man 2 3 A t. 1 .. " St . -.--' .=-= .• r ic 8 119 185 186. rang, lJ. M. 1924 0 M . R . 0 Man. 24 A t. 1 0 ore ' Paintings From •. -' :i r ic e 74 64 -68• White, J. P. 1967 Taim Silo . . . of the Panua Ne89G tion TowardS a Doctoral Thesis at A t utnea Highlands. Unpubl . e . us ral1 N t . • White J p 1969 . .an a ional University 2 Vols ' • • Rock Painti f • lJestern Highlands New G . ngs .rom the Strickland River Guinea Scientific of the Papua ' -., K •. A. 1975a Rock and Cav D . . . Valleys, and Chi be. raw1ngs of the Singganigl District of Papua New. Guineam u Area of the Chimbu H .. rit_broE_ol A nthrop ol , M • Occasional Papers in no. 4 -!:r -":34. ogy useum, University of Queenslandg Llilde K A 19r7cb 9 • • 0 Notes on th . Kainantu? Eastern Hi hl d e Rock Art of Aibura Cave, . Proceedings 11th Papua New Guinea. Speleological Federatio on57erence Australian PP 68.


14 NIUG!NI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 Llilde$ K. A. 1976 : Telefomin Anthropology. pp 204 216; In Brook, D. (Comp.) •.. T.he B:titish New .. Guin.ea Speleological Expedition9 1975. rtans. Brit. Cave Res. Ass.9 3(394) : 117 -242. --' -. """'" K. A. 1978 : Brief Notes Describing Some Known $ i g n if i ea n t A n c e 1 $ . Cu 1 tu r a 1, Pt eh is tor i c and Rock A rt Sites Within and to Prospe6ting Authority 58 (Frieda River Copper Ptnspect) 9 Llest Sepik Pr6vince9 Papua N e w u in ea J N._ iug in i Ca V_fil' 1 t o b e pub 1 is he d • . -Personal C.orrinitJ'nica"tion Dick "Aiyura '.Higfrschooi, Aiyura, . Eastern Highlands Papua Williams, F. E. 1931 : Papuan Journal of the -Anthropological fil. 121 --1-55. " -"A NEW GUINEA CAVE RECORDING SYSTEM After nearly of being the P. N. G. c. E. G. I section ori individual PNG caves is in a shocking mess. This is not due to any lack of material in the but due to lack of a system storage. There is a danger that i.rreplaceable material could be lost simply beca1./s'e it i 8 a tatty piece or" pa"p er. . In an,attempt to solve this problem and introduce,some order to the system, I propose to establish a card filing system for ca:ve. records. It will initially cover all new cave . but will I hope, be extended to cover the existing records. To save unnecessary paper only caves over 10m would be For each cave it. is ta record the following: a. Name (preferably the local name, pievidus names) b • _p r o vi n c e ( s u b-p r o v in c e et c • ) . . . c. Map Reference (referred -000 topographic series) d. A'cc.e9s to cave-;(road 9 walking ... distance, time) -e. Owner,. of cave (owner and village) .f. Attitt.Jd'e,;.of owner (e.g. owner friendly, access -.fee.) g, T.ypg;of. ,cave (active river cave etc.) h • S i z e of c a v e ( 1 en g t h , . d. ep t h ) . i. Potential (unexplored leads etc.) . . . j . S ta t e of s u :r v e y ('i"f s u r v e y e d , s c ale 9 a cc u r a c y , refer en c e ) It is iritendecl that standard card forrns would be prepared and copies would distributed to resident cavers and expeditions for completion as caves are found. These would be returned to the Liprarian for Anyone who is interested should contact the editor with their comments on. the above. In the. next issue I l"i-ope to include a form for further -w u <( (!) z ::::> lL .. ...... ....... 0 c 0 V> OJ E CJ) _g a lJ l..L . Cl c E ' \ ("") \ 0/ ,, __ g I ,_ 0 0 ' 3: \ 0 \ 0 4-(Y) u \ ' u ,, 8 ---0 0 ((f'j ui N ii z OJ -0 <( N 0 a; "'O -, cd 8 a u t/) .....:t "'O r... (!) (.!) (.j en co r'


Fig. I Nat drawn to c d h Fig. II


d e f h Fig. IV Fig. Ill


a b ttftttttII c d nm e f •••••••••••• g Fig.V




. •\ " : i . OF A BRIEF RECONNAISSANCE or PART OF THE CRm1lJELL RAfJGE . _ _ r::li)_R 0 EJ E PR 0 V I N C E Malcolm D. Pdund* 2n G December and Thursday Bth December, 1977 Wilde and m yself made a 3 h o r t trip to the Cromwell Range _ ; _ : : t h e H u o n . P en i r1 la ., Th e a i m s we r e t o ha v e a b r i e f l o o k a -i; U : :::; .=.\ 2 . ' c a t o e s ta b 1 i s r : t h e s p e l e o l o g i c a 1 p o t en t i a 1 a n d t o e s ta b L . s h the f E asibility_ n f getting an expedition into ths area. : 0 area air9 flying to Sialum Patrol o n Coast the Peninsula with Talair who run a d epending ori demand u sing Islander or Twin Otter ; h 8 f a r e is K20 each way for a flight of about 25 minuteso There ' w ell stocked' trade store in Sialum which appears to sel.l rnCJst i'c : n d items at c heaper than Lae prices. From Sialum, we L dalkod up over the most impressive coral terraces to Kalasa Miseio n or1 to tJetna Village at an al ti tu de of about 720 metre s vi2 2 four tiiheel drive track. lJe camped the night at : r haus we negotiated for guides and carriers int8 . • : ; , _ 1 rn o u n ta i n s • I t i s p r e sent 1 y f ea s i b l e . t o d r iv e f r o m S i a 1 u m t n l n 3 c ;-J m f en by f o u r w h e e 1 d r i v e v eh i c 1 e a n d i t i s exp e c t e d t ha t . _ 1 e f 2 w ye a r s c ' n e w i 11 b e a b l e t o d r i v s t o lJ et n a V i 11 a g e fl: um a village were given four .tjuides and carris r a :0 had in fact requested two and had bought enough food and for t.Jo only) under the leadership of Zarin. LJe additional food 6f kau kau and taro to supplement the arid commenced our walk at 0800 on the Sundayo Wo :;2.J_o-1u d a traditional trade track that goes over the high , _ :i..,.iCstone pla tec:.1 u to I ndagen about 3 5km to the west south west . . L in. the first 4 km this climbed to about 2100 m up the Faes of : -, s c a r p " P . f t e ma n y re s t s , we r ea eh e d t h e t op a t a b o u t 1 4 0 J o At the 1ower levels 9 we had occasional good views across terraces to the sea but higher up we were in thick cloud _1 obscured everything. lJ e had an easy ua lk of about 5km the top of the plateau to the first grassed depression t h= call Gonma where we set up a comfortable camp in the . ._. ::3 t on the western edge • M onday, we investigated the large grassed depressions . . to camp. Gonma was looked at first and there is indeed a : --. '.c ; 1 :-:-: s E_; t r earn on the eastern edge of the depression flowing i 11 C.-< 1 • _ :1c\ .. mtr enche d about 5 metres into the floor of the depression f} : 1 l' f 1 o o :..' of the depression a pa rt f ram the stream channel i s ;. e t quit e boggy and gives the impression that the stre a m J,, U . Box :3824, Port Papua New Guinea.


''" ' is'just from ths flat areas. The stream consisted of several sections, each of which sunk into a clay/gravel choke, impossible to The flow observed was about 25 litres/second. The clay banks of the stream ate collapsing and the resulting debris bein 1 removed py the stream. The large doline in the south 9f the is The form 6f the depression suggests that it was oncJ a lake established on an impermeable clay filling has been. drained by subjacent collapse through -the clny o :Some weathered limestone was observed on the eastern side: of clearing e The o1d lake theory would explain why this depres3lon at an altitude of 2240m'.was The next large j3pression we_ visited was Tiba, 2 kms to the west9 which on the air: photographs looked a .much better prospect. The main stream corning has a stFeam channel entrenched about 10m_ int-::r the.,dolinecfloor;11 whiGh is of clay. The dried clay ori tn.e Veget,3cion show.a that the. deep channel floo:ds occassionally 9 per:hap$: d:Je to q-clc;ty slide blocking the narrow entrance. h3lf Qf this depreesioo was also flat with swamp grasses and :no. defJ.ned channels4 The entrenched stream channel picked up seepage from ti1 is are a o hie t raver .s e d across his c 1 ear in g to the well dafined sink against a cliff in the south east corner. This turned .0-ut. to be .an.Jth-er clay choke with a couple of small overhangs under the. rock whiqh ap.peared to be .a. fairly soft, weathered lime,stqne. Trere app.eared to b.e a major joint in the limestone. that th:e was lo,cated To the south of here on the edge .. of the clearir g was a red pool 1 which the gu.i,des would not let us approach as Jt .was tabu. The guides axplained .that the clearing was::•the horn.a of the Rain Spirit and that being there would stir up the Spir::.ts., Sure enough as we the clearing it started to thd first rain of the_ tripo camp; through the the said that all' the dolines in.thearaa had no holes 13nd water just sunk into the soil or into small blind pools., tassowaries (and other birds) have trouble getting su:i tau e gravel for their crops . in limestone are as , judging by the E:i z e of the p ebb 1 e s ,, ( 5 0 mm ) in. their. dung • lJe located a likely lonking dep:ression about 300m west of the camp on the air photo;} caphs. lJe set. off for it on a compass bearing but lobated nothing so maybo it was just a vegetation featureo On the. way back to camp9 we f:ollowed a blind valley .-to tho north and came upon a small stream which sunk into a gravel choke in veiy impure Jimestona. Tho guides said that the large clearing 5 kins to the south west. that they called Siwi.mgiza was similar to Tiba with nd enterable holes so we deoi ded to return to hletna the next day checking cut a good looking sink system on the wayo Next morning we broke camp and headed off along the track towards Uetna until we came to a point where a ridge headed off to the left behind L.ihich tr1E: map a'.nd the air photographs showed large NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 depressions which we headed down into. The first depression was with logs and vegetation so we didn't $98 the bottom, but it appeared to be no good as. there pronounced surface channel flowing into it. lJe continued down behind the ridge uMtil the depressions finished and we t:.rere walking down a flat floored valley with no stream channels. It any water straight irito the ground. At this point we returned to the main track continued towards Llstna checking out very small clearing on the way, which had no holes. The trip d6wn the escarpment was worse than the trip up due to the heavy rain, but on arrival at Wetna had a beautiful1 bath in the creek .followed by a delicious meal of pineappl .. e ' cucumbers and sweet corn by the local people. . The morning (Wednesday) continued down to sialum we paid off our carriers and.spent the afternoon on, the beach waiting for a lift to Paradise Springs Inn where we spent the after a QOOd meal and a swim in their po61. The morning we were.back at Stalum and after some problems wheri we thought that the plane wasn't coming, we were on our way back to Lae. On the return flight, the pilot went over the top of the . . Cromwgll Range and the height of the range is well illustra.ted. by the fact that the plane (an I slander) had to make several' largB loops to dlimb to sufficient altitude. From the plane we had good views of seoeral, treeless depressions and all . appeared similar td few we had investigated on foot. Nb surface water was noted either in of the clearings or in the deep gorges cut into the escarpment. All of the depr:es.sio.ns noted (which cover the plateau surface) either treeless , forested, had gentle slopes and flat floors, so it appears:. enterable.holes will be far and few between due to thick soil cover. The pilot flew to the south west tb show us the clearing adjacent to the River and the river appeare,d " be a very placid stream of low velocity which itself on the surface except for once when it cut under a -limestone ridge. This to be i sump. The southern from limestons plateau down oh to older, softer sediments is very On arrival in Lae, Kevan left for Goroka to for his holidiy in and I returned to work in Prirt


30 ER 1 GEOLOGY OF THE CROMWELL RANGE The maJ.orit"y of the .C.rbm1.i.1ell Range .consf:sts of the Kabwum Limestone Member bf the Gowop.Llmestone though this into Gowop Limestone to the east and the Song River Calcarenite to the east. Alqng the coast the limestone is overlain by the Wandokai whith rises to approximat-ely 700 met:i;es. The entire area is underlain by the. Finisterre Volcanics which outcrop to. the soDthof the range. The overall shown.bnFigure 2. The Wandokai Limestcine of Quaternary {s a of regressive and reef domplexes which developed during rapid uplift 'and subsidence of the northeastern ftinge of the Huon Peninsula •. This gives the formation its distinctive feature bf 'terraced linear outcrqpst This formation to a height df over 700m and presumably overlie's the older limestone at "depth. The trans.gressive components _represt3nted. by the :terraces a:re' develop.ed by do'w)i .-Paultin.g .of an elongate southeaqt .tending c::oastal at the same.time that the main pait .of 'the Huon was The terraces.are full at small excavated when each terrace was at a previous sea J.evel no larger cave? or depressions occur •. There is very little surface water and all the coastal are very small compared to the of their drainage. The Song River.'it'e appears to. be. less to erosion thah the other limestone and the relief in, this is much subdOed. The photbgraphs large .?_urfp.ce depre.ssio2s or any karst Though the 1700krn , it appears to have no cave potential. The Limestone covers 23Dbkm2 and mostly .. an\ to eroion$ standing out in cliffs of up to 1000 metres. The total thicknEBS is estimated at 3500 metres. All the large deprassions and sinkholes visible on _the aerial. photographs 069ur in this formation. In the east on the. . Cromwell this forms an elevated which from inland of Sialum9 Tising to the south to Mt. Bangefa at 4121 metres, This plateau exhibits.numerous large and sinks. The only large stream is the Mongi River9 a. siuggish stream whfch flows to the east and south east, _gciing underground in at least one location. further to. the west of the Cromwell Range, plateau has been dissected by large such as the Kwama, which which have cut two large necked valleys."To the west af the Kwama, the topography: on the limestone displays no visible karst features and consists of steep sided dissected ridges. The Tipsit which. th G. outcrops mainly in the Kwa . . .,...;;:; _8 .. owop -Limestone and Cromwell andmaf Valley the south of the t h . . . orms undulating count It o ave minor cave ; ry. . appears structure af the area is that of a tilted fault blocks f 1 . series of northerly faults of. small d. lo . ar_ge size •. Numerous high angle normal . isp acement occurJ Although _the . .i.s . t. h . . . of the underground d . Y 0 t 8 north si the d1rect1_ on rainage is t to the coast 'iri the north to th t,M so ain and may drain or to the K lJ am a . Ri v e r in t he . . on g i R iv e r t o t h e south , occurs to all thiee may be that drainage limestones. 0 8 ou 8 8 from the adjacent The best prospeoots for f indi _,,..,. . ... edges of the limest'orie . . . ng would appear to be the . overlooking !0rming the Cromwell Range R i. v er ad j a cent to pin di u •. e y ad Ja cent to I n d age n or the Mong i .• . PROSPECTS OF. THE CROMWELL At first Cromwell R . . .. . potential for deep eaves with er to have . surface drai.nage . high . f 11 . a_ ge -limestone relief SI no a . large resurgences at sea although we saw much . reconnaissance, saw no caves So it appears that in theence of water running underground. there, that due to at, the caves may be difficult to gain entr to soil cover, may be plateau and indeed oury not be true of the whole the south) and us of) caves near Pindiu a long way frtim our area We h d. but these areas were as this was where the . d a this area top of the a epressiona_ were closest to the greatest. n w ere the depth potential was . REFERENCE Robinson G., P. (compiler) 1974 1:250 OOO Gedlogical Series Notes Huon-Sag Sag, Papua New eo ogi?al Survey of Papua New Guinea Australian Government Publishing Service. Guinea


32 N I U G I N I CA V ER V 0 L urv1 E _, N U i j Wandokai Limostane Timbs.Rivet Conglomerate LEGEND FOR GEOLOGY MAP Qw Cavernous limestone reef inter with calcarenite and. vo.lcani.c-all y-deri ved sandstone. Qpt limestoneclasts crudely bedded, poorly sorted•' Song tms Fine calcarenite andinterbedded calcilutite, well bedded, moderately sorted. Kabwum Limestone Member Gowop Limestone Tipsit. Limestone Pindiu Sandstone Kwama n Basalt dip 5 -15 -..J._ normal. fault. Tmgk Biomicrite1 well bedded, more poious and resistant than Tmgo. . . Tm go -' A 1ga1-f or am in if er a 1. bi o in i er it e , crudely bedded or massive9 minor . Tmp Soft whiteto.brownish -white micritic limestone, calcareous shale, lignite. Tmq Sandstone and siltstohe, tuffaceous, partly well bedded, poorly Tmk Porphyritic basalt. Tu Ultrabasic rocks9 peiidotitg dips0 45 lineament ---geological boundary BACK COVER PHOTOGRAPHS. Upper.Photograph: A view the large depression of on the Cromwell Range. Note the incised stream which out of swampy grasses in the distante and sinks in a clay choke in front of the camera. The Floor of the depression is entirely. clay and roGk outcrops occur only on the sides. Lower An aerial view west along the Cromwell Range. Note .the depressed dotted limestone plateau ,in, the foreground tJi th the bottle .... nec;;ked Kwama Valley separating from eroded'-idges behind. Photograph permission of the National Mapping .i q flIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 lfl !k ............... • .. --...... ...... ------' ..... c MWELL RANGES PENINSULA H GEOLOGY. AP 33 . ! \ FIGURE ?-


34 N!UGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 -. \ .. """ ......... \ x '\To co . . RANGES ,HVON PfNIN'SULA TOPOGl?APflfC MAP. BISMJlRCk SEA . / • _ ....... ,. ....... _ ....... Ko\c.fA,Q .. , . 1 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 35 THE CAVING SCENE Central Province several caving trips have been run recently to the caves near Ooae Village across the Musgrave River, apparently several large parties from the The Four Llhe.el Drive Club and the scouts have also visifed the ThB Pounds visited the old copper mines at Mt. Diamond with a view t6 a study of the cave's by Alisbn who is also the Assistant Secretary of the New Bird Society • A Search and Rescue Group has been. reorganised recently by the Civil Defence Organisation and seveial of Port Moresby HighlandBLlith Mike toP .• N.Go and at Aiyura in the tas'tern, Hi:ghlands; and .the tran,sfe.r of Allan Goulbourne to L8:e, caving scene in the Highlands is very active. At Easter a caving meet was organised in the Chimbu and this was attended by Plike Bourke9 l\evan Allin Goulbourne,, Malcolm Roy Blackham, David Pease, wives and families. Useful work was carried out in the Lombi1a System at Nola Villag(3 near Chauve and in the Berema Cave on the Porol s6arpmento A.full account will appear in the issue •. : ) n. ea r:l y May Micha e 1 B our k e , ,A JJa n Gou 1 b our n e a n d Kevan LJi 1 de spent a .. weekend in the Obura area south of Kainantu inv.estig_ating ca_ves previously reported by Fred Parker . (Niugini Caver 3(2): 35-44). The main object of the trip was to explore and survey the system. Parker gave lengths that indicated that the system was over 2 km long. The not located_ till late on the Sundayj when an bf was. expiored. The ca0e quite i.mpress'ive and access is. ,11ow easier (1-1! hours wa1k) than vi;si ted it in 1964 o Whilst to locate the latga system, paity visited , Tu feita. Cave (nThe Obura Land Bridge0). This was found to he ?Orn long rathar than the reported 46Dm. A typing errcr in the Fortunately the cave's: beautiful on the Lamari River and a r1ch rock art site nearby o.o'mpens_ated for .the 35Dm climb up the cave to the ve Another cave investigated forms a efflux. It i$ said to be part of the system into which the bodies of thr.e fT,!Urdered chimbu men were thrown in 1963. The system was for to where it blocked. One branch contained some decoration, including many helictites. No


3 6 N I U G HJI CA V E n V lJ L lJ f''i r.= 6 lJ lJ 'I bodies were found nor was there a Chinese trade store inside, much to the disappointment of one Obura man accompanied the party in search of cargo. Michael and Allan Goulbourne returned to the area in June to Tuweiwu near Obura and have a look at the land near Himarata Villageo In June Allan GoulbourneJ 'together with Neil cowple of the Atea mah weht out to fihd the Kaugua River Cave. After spending a lot of time trying to cross a tributary riyar. didn't find thebave but they did find fine vine. bridge the and located bilong. -91:-"'aun, _who knows of eaves worthy _of a revisit. . Nori:;h solomons Provine?. . Hans' '.and his group have been very active in the North Sblomons,lately though we hear with regret that Ian Wobd "has f •. In April, consist_in,9 of Ia,n _Wood11 .. Bi.11, Streeter, !ffed_:orrrre/ Harry Rehtla, Dave Bulman,. Peter _Bowden I and (ranc.fs . s 8.mosa . spent . tw.o days on Buka Island inves tiga:ting " Teama tav;e near. Lanahan Village. They reported that -Teama Cave (Jioma Cavq: reported'by Hal Gallasch if"! Ni.ugini Caver a't:?-wJ11p 20Dm.but that t,f}:e system._ of if can made. , rn.:J-8.riua.ry, a trip of eleveh went to Urumovt near , Mi:ssion and explored a shaft in a doline discovered o:n a previous This was about 10m deep and led to 25m of pas sag e. wh i c h pro b a b 1 y can be pushed f u :rt he t • They . . . entered.,C3. ne.wly found, nearby efflux and a small T1\f8'r cave. A f_urther .. trip of: nine to get mor.e people caving was run:to.the outer of Taroku Efflux Cave. A trip ;f ten Fetifi.rn'ry, led to th.8 passage at. the base' of the:.' shaft i :n the a b o v e d a 1 in e , being extended for: 5 0 metres: of low uncom_fortable .. pa_ssag.e .. which_ eventuall_y of the party went to look at the area above the .. They: found a bollapsed 30_ . metres across and 8 metres deep containing a lake. The local. guide; A:ndreas, exp+ained t'ha t there used to be a hole 'in . :: the bottom of the doline until 1976 when a large sak sak the hole and this poss{bly blocked the shaft; The doli"ne is said to dry out in dry periods but fills to .. brim rain. ! NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 37 Overseas Visitors Two Frenchmen, Roger Parzybut and Patrick. 9 are arrLving in Port crnth July. to GOroka where Mike Bourkep: Allan Goulbourne. and will introduce to the A sma.11 group bf cavers frorri the . E3rit_i_sh under Plumley are on 1st July.arid investigate resurgence caves beneath the. Dave Gillieson from arisbane is coming to Papua New Guinea looking1for caves which washout .from Pleisto6ene glaciation! be by his wife apd fellow Jill. Dr. GleM Campbell from df of the •f .. New South Wales is coming to Papua New Gul.nea soon to study the local cave:fauna. Lastlyi but by no means least, has commenced. A small party under Kevan lJilde has just :re-turned from the Muller Range where they have been cutting tracks and generally preparing for the main expedition. This expedition, though mainly Australian, also includes cavers from New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, America and the United Kingdom. The main party gpes in aarly July for two months. SPELEO . 1.;. . . . _i... . .. . . . . . . . . • , ' The fit.sf irnpr-ession onf:l has. :on .m:eet1ng Allan is'his stat.ure. He stands jus't. under 2 al though be'i:ng a'h' En.glishhe would 4 roods, 1. 7 4 fa t ho ms a n d 2 ::r i n c he s ( or . t her e ?bouts ) • . . . _. . . , . James' Allari Goulbourne born: in Liverpool. iri 194'7. profession, he is a teac.her of, mec.hanical. engitfeering. He worke.d.with the Pla.nt.and.Transport Authority ir-r Port'Moresby in is Lecturing in his field ate of Technology in Lae. He is married to another Chris.' Allan started, caving in .Yorkshire. in 1969. and has done much of his-caving there with theLeeds University Society. He has caved in the various other karst areas in and in expeditions to Pierre _st. Martin Spain rind Morocco. He came to P.N.G. in 1975. member bf the British Expedition'of that year. As well as caving in the various areas:visited by the British he has made a of .. the Doae Caves (Javawere) near Port and has caved in .the Simbu.


38 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 1 His speleological is developing new equipment. manufactured titanium racks and rbpe walkers for British Expedition. At the moment9 he is -testing the strengths of various caving ropes and is working on a new abseiling device based dn hydraulic friction. Other interests include stockcar racing? expanding his command of :itok pisin and rockclimbing. Allan uses this latter skill in caving and has his bolting and climbing to a high standard. . . However Allan Goulbourne has to offer, P.N4G. spelsology than developing new or his climbing ability. Underground he is a leader and a His safe style breeds confidence and inspires other cavers to follow. It is this that needed in now to push to the l i m i t t h e flu m e r o u s u n i s h e d c a v e s ex p 1 or e d i n r e c e n t y e '1"fl/F. As a member of the British Expedition9 Allan has mada a significant contribution to Papua New Guinaa speleology. rt is to h "oped that he will make an even g:reater mark as a member of the P.N.G.C.E.G.. SPELEOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS Would you like to be regulary informed on recent works in Speleology or Karstolpgy? Nothing_ is easier: a subscription to the semestrial publication compiled the Commission for Bibliography of the International Union Speleoldg. y Speleological Abstracts. Speleological Abstracts was started in 1970 to fulfil a decision of the 5th International Congress of Speleology and has appeared regularly for 8 years. Speleological Abstracts is: bilingual publication in French and English . . a presentation6f works concerning the world or karst in general made accessible to the editorial staff. presented as short abstracts for works of general interest and titles for works of local all with references. most of the works can be lent out or photocopies made . ...-. It is possible to subscribe to Spaleolog{6al Abstracts at any time • A n nu a 1 Fee Swiss Fr • 1 8 • 4 US$ 8 • P F r enc h F r • 3 5 .:. Please write to: Commission de . Union Internationals de c/c-. Universite de Neuchatel9 , 11, rue E. Argand, CH-2000 Neuchatel 7, SLlITZERLAND.


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