Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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serial ( sobekcm )
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
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K26-05671 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5671 ( USFLDC Handle )

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 39 Volume 6 Number 2 September, 1978 Quarterly K1.DO per issue K4.00 per annum Caver is the publication of the Papua New GuiMea Cave txp oration Group, an informal of pers6nsengaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Editor Assistant Editor Production of Last Issue Malclom Pound, P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, National Capital Papua New Guinea. Alison Pound M. D. and A. A. Pound, N. Stewart, B. Finch. Contents Cover ••••••••••••• ••••• Toktok Bilong Edita •••••• ••••••••••• ••• •••••• 40 Some Caves of the Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea . . D. K. Holdsworth and c. Oliier .................... .... 4.1 World's Longest and Deepest Caves A. A,, Pound ......... o ..... •• S-7 .. Surveying Notes Mo D. Pound ........ ., ..... " o .. ., ... ., •• 11 ••• •• •• 61 Errata ................................... * ............ o ...... o ...................... 62 The PNGCEG Easter Simbu Trip R .. M. Bourke ...... .,. •• o.. ••• 63;'. Berema ... Porol Escarpment A. Goulbourne •• ...... oo•;; ..... ,; ........ New Cont rib u t o.r s ...... " ... ............ " ... o ... o ....... ., ...... ., ........ • •• 6 6 A Guide to Back Issues of _Niusiini CavE A. A. •••••• 67 Caving Scene ................... ...... 11 ........................ -.. I> ..... ., 11 ............... 70 Cover Photograph. A he l i copter shot of a large cave entrance .. in the Keri aka limestone on Bougainville in the North Solomon's Province. This cave has been visited by Fred Parker (ref. Helictite : 63 -67) and the entrance is reported to be 107 wide and 91 metres high ( a metric conversion of Imperial estimations). Inside the entrance opens up into a chamber 137 metres wide, 274 metres long and 152 metres high. Photograph by Hans Meier.

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40 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 TOK TOK BILONG EDITA Cave Rescue In Papua New Guinea In the last year, the National Emergency Service has revitalised its Mountain Rescue Squad with the main aim of establishing a volunteer group who are available at short notice to go out for mountain rescue work. The group is a mixture of nationals and expatriates and the eventual oim is to train the national members so that they can carryout all the functions in the future. It is pleasing to note that half of expatriates involved are cavers, though mainly non active cavers. A of light aircraft crashes has prompted the revitalisation of the group and assisting in locating aircraft crashes will be the main use of the group. Use of the group for other functions such as search and rescue for lost bushwalkers will bs minimal, especially away from Port Moresby due to the cost of getting the group on site. For most of these other functions, the police and local service organisations would be available in the area required and as no e9uipm7nt or skills would be required,1could be utilised immediately. Though not set up for use in cave rescue work, undoubtedly the caving members of the group could be used to assist in cave rescue All previous cave accidents requiring rescues in this country have fortunately occurred on well equipped expeditions, where the cavers and equipment have been available on site effect a rescue without delay. No small local caving trip has yet experienced an accident requiring additional cavers, etc to affect the rescue. from in most cases cavers are just not available, in any case if required. Cavers should keep in mind that the Civil Defence described above does contain cavers who could be used for a rescue. However, additional problems are the cost of getting such cavers on site from Port Moresby and.the"timeinvolved especially if the accident occurs in one of our more remote karst areas. Until a better rescue system is devised, cavers should take extra care while caving in Papua New Guinea. Overseas expeditions should include cave rescue equipment (particulary a stretcher suitable for underground use as none is available in Papua New Guinea) in their supplies and try to ensure that their group is of sufficient size to effect a rescue if necessary. * NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 41 SOME CAVES OF KITAVA, TROBRIAND RAPUA NEW'GUINEA *D. K0 Holdsworth and Co Do Ollier** Introduction The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated 160 km off the northeast coast of P.N.G., north of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Kitava the most easterly island of the group9 is approximately 7.2 by?4.D km. It is 24 km east of Wawela on the main island of Kiriwina, though 80 km by sea from Losuia around the north coast of Kiriwina. The population is approximately 2,000, the being subsistence farmers and Fishermen. No Europeans live on the . island. Yams, taro, sweet potatoes and bananas are the ma7n garden products. Fish, chickens eaten, and pigs are used in ceremonial feasts or Hsing-sings • Kitava is served by occasional boats, but cannot be reached by air. A Government work boat is based at Losuia and calls.at irregular intervals of a few weeks, the journe from.Losuia taking about five hours. far in their canoes, and the ceremonial Kula trade involves Journeys to other Trobriand islands, the Amphletts, Oobu and the Islands. The authors spent four days on Kitava May, 1969, and lived in a house near the village of Bomapou. in the north of _the island. A further visit was paid to the south of the island in 1971.Trade tobacco was used as currency to pay for food, and to pay guides and carriers. A trade store.has.been established since our visits, 1km from the main of Kumwageya, and payment in be acceptable in future. Children appreciate being paid in chewing gum, known throughout the islands as irP.K.". Very little English is spoken on the and we were fortunate in having the company of Mr. Gilbert Heers who speaks the Kiriwinan language Geology Like the other islands in the Trobriand group, Kitava (Fig. 1) is an uplifted coral atoll but has been raised higher above sea level than the others.' The island is saucer-shapBd, with the old lagoon now forming a swampy basin in the surrounded by a fairly flat rim the old reef which reaches a point of 142 m. * University of Papua New Guinea, Port New Guinea ** Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. Australia.

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42 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 w I figti 1 KITAVA I Q i:s: ----... L---• F"ig. 2 •Cave •Village NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 43 There are at least five main terraces on the island, separated by almost vertical cliffs in many places. Each terrace represents a different phase of coral reef development. The terraces do not represent jerky phases of uplift of the island relative to sea level. Rather? there has probably been steady uplift of the land during the Quaternary period, but during this time there have been wide variations in sea level associated with the growth and decline of ice caps in polar regions, and the terraces mark the local resultant of tectonic uplift and glacioeustatic sea level changes. Freshwater springs occur only near sea level and9 since the villages are nearly all on the top of the island (for the best agricultural land is around the old lagoon)? freshwater must be collected either from rainwater or carried laboriously by the women from the shore. A fuller account of the geomorphology of the Trobriand Island caves in provided by Ollier (1975). THE CAVES Inakebu Cave (Fig. 2) Nearest Uluwai. Meaning of Unknown. Geomorphic position: Close to the rim of the island, the entrance being on the inner side. None. This is a complex cave for the Trobriands. There is one large cavern, several narrow elongate chambers, several high but small chambers? two pits and a few narrow squeezes. Two circular sinkholes close to the entrance are open to the sky but clearly in line with the cave. Immediately inside the entrance the cave bifurcates. On the western side is an elongate passage, sloping down to the north. In this part of the ,cave there are fragments of human bones, a bailer shell {Melo sp.), a small shell {Anadara sp.) and a broken shell of Tur50 argyrostoma (probably broken for food). This association of bone, bailer shell and small shell is the same as we found in Vakuta (Ollier and Holdsworth, 1969a) and suggests that this part of the cave was once used for funeral practices. On one side of this chamber there is an elongate pit or rift about 3 m deep, and at the termination there are many shelves and rimstone pool edges indicating a series of falling water levels at some time in the past. The cave is now dry. To the right, or east, is a more irregular cave which was probably used also for funerals, although the only evidence we saw was a possible 11cryptH or artificial barrier of stones on the eastern wall, and in one place a large clam shell (Tridacna gigas) perched among some stalactites. This might be a modern intrusion9 it might be a spittoon, or other feature, but

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VER VDLUME 6 NUMBER 2 • 3 . ,. '"( Fig-.. 4 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 45 since we found a similar clam shell containing human bones in Kuvwau, Kiriwina9 we think it is probably a funeral shell. Beyond this cave a small entrance, partially blocked by a boulder9 leads to a high chamber with many stalactites. There is a small, minor chamber on the eastern side. Next comes the squeeze passage for 8 m leading eventually into the main chamber, which is dominantly an irregular phreatic cave. The walls of this chamber are covered to a great extent with large symmetrical scallops up to 1 m across and there are bellpits (Wilford, 1966) in the roof. The cave is modified by considerable collapse and by speleothem formation. There are several good stalactites and columnso Parts of the floor are carpeted by excellent, pure white9 crystals9 all cemented together. To the northwest there are two extra chambers, elongated but not parallel, indicating some sort of structural control. There is also a pit in the floor of the main chamber which is elongate along some sort of fracture. It is about 3 m deep, with vertical fluting on the sides. The feature of greatest interest in this cave is the cave art. It is the first discovered in the Trobriand group and, indeed, there are very few examples in the whole of Papua New Lakabopolu-Bomatu Cave (Fig. 3) Nearest village: Bomapou. Meaning of name: Laka means grave; Bomatu means east wind. Geomorphic position: Close to the sea and not very high above sea level. There is a local story that a man out hunting urinated close to this cave and died soon afterwards9 so the cave has since been avoided. The entrance to the cave is through anunroofed rift about 3 m wide, leading to a roughly circular cave. This was a collapse chamber9 but the debris has become largely cemented together by flowstone. There are numerous stalactites and stalagmites. Portions of the solutionally shaped roof are preserved9 with large summetrical scallops suggesting a phreatic origin for this cave. It is possible to walk all around the edge of the and partially under the debris •. A small pool of water is present on one side of the cave. Snail shells were found in the cave, but no bones9 pots or larger shells. Ua;;lila C53ve Nearest Ubutubutu. Meaning of Unknown. Lla means in. No legends are attached to the cave and our guide (Nigidageda) discovered it accidentally about a year ago while hunting for cuscus.

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6 2 Fig., 6 7 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 47 Geomorphic position: On the outside of the rim of the island, about two steps down9 a few feet below the top of. a nearly .. vertical cliff over 30 rn high. Access is not and it be extremely difficult to find without a guide. This cave is a small shelf about 3 m deep and up to 1 m high, divided by small columns into three thambers9-two of whidh contain pots and bowls. We discovered more untouched pottery in this cave than in any other we have explored. Although many of the pots have broken -apparently they break in place under their own weight9 possibly when moisture softens them they appear to all present. We left the pots as it will be much more valuable for i specialist iM pottGry to examine this Find in situ. The pots were large, well ornamented, and apparently of the same kind found associatGd with other cave burialso There were many human bones in the cave, including skulls, coccyx, ribs and vertebrae. Ribs and are not commonly found in the baves there may be something unusual about the burials in this cave. Thefe was also a wooden tray, which was very and decomposed, but nevertheless associated apparently with the burials and not a later Perhaps the dryness of the has enabled wood to sUiVive for a long time, but it do.ea rather suggest that the burials cannot be of very great age perhap:s a few hundred years 1s all that can be allowed. The pots had turned green and had lost some of their on the exposed sideso The sides were fresh had clearly etched Yousuma Cave (Fig. 4) Nearest village: Obulabula. Meaning of name: Suma means pregnant. Geomorphic position: Naar the sea.and close to sea level9 backed by steep cliffs. None. This ii a fairly large cave9 but some light penetrates to the. inner end. Although there is a good deal of there are also many original cave surfaces which scallops up to about 1 m across9 indicating There are also many bell-holes (Wilford9 1966) n.tha A major joint is visible in the roof of.the cave. It appears to have some.bearing on the 6f cave, it is not patallel to the main length of thp The to the cave is along a 'fairly low b.ounded on each side. by heaps of debris. The debris must be climbed and thE;Jn . . descended to two further chambers 9 one in. line with. ,the ent ranee and the other evidently a side passage. rt that cave was originally a simple branching. phreatib, passage which 'has. since been modified by rock-fall, al9ng the line of the major joint. Large numbers of. flying foxes and smal-1 bats live in the cave and there 'is deal of ,Natives 16ccasionally visit the cave to. hunt flying. foxes. lJe also centipedes9 spiders and cirabs. .

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48 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER .2 To the north of the entrance passage and over 1 m higher is a cave with several openings. It has been a funeral cave. A few fragments of pottery and bones were present and several shells Strombus Tridacna and Anadara sp., all of which are edible and probably were brought to the cave as food. Also present were four small gastropods of Melania sp. which live in Fresh or low salinity water. Labakewa Cave (Fig. 5) Nearest . Wapaiya. Meaning of Unknown. Geomotphic position: Near the crest of the rim of the island on a small cliff facing inland. Legends: See Kausi below. This ia a small rock shelter about 4 m across the front inwards.for 6 m and up to 1.5 m high. Inside9is a line of stones which appears to be the remains of a barrier which formed a crypt, similar to those found on Vakuta (Ollier and Holdsworth? 1969a) and Kiriwina. This cave was very rich in pots and bones. One intact pot was taken from this cave hy a native and is now in the possession of Mr. G. of Vakuta. Other pottery frag ments1 many of them large and similar tb those in Wasila Cave9 were collected by Dr. F. Gerrits early in 1969 for the Port Moresby Museum. Bonesare still and the cave is remarkable for the cbncentration of skulls. At least 20 were visible but the cave is floored by a mixture of bone and pottery fragments and there could well be more skull fragments. The skulls had no peculiar injuries as far as we .. could determine and the teeth wert:i in Temarkably good condition. One shell of .Godakia sp. was found. There is said to bi another cave nearby, with no but we did not have time visit it. Kauai Cave (Fig. 6) Nearest Kadauli. Meaning of Unknown. Geomorphic Near the rim of the island. Kausi is a bwala (literally means house), .that. is a place where the ancestor of sub-clan or dala is reputed to have emerged fr?m the gr?und. A woman called emerged from this bwala. She had two sons ahd two daughters. they grew up the daughters and the mother made pots, . while brothers fished. _On one occasion a boy: brought home fish, and was giving it to his mother when the girls grabbed it and ate it raw. The brother became vety angry and the girls were so ashamed and frightened that they.fled to Labakewa Cave where they hid their pots. They then made the sea disappear by magic and ran to the referring to the Islands).-The brother followed them,. but was caught 'and drowned when the sea came back? and he was turned into a stone on the shore, which is thefe. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUf;IE 6 2 Kausi is a collapse depression with overhanging walls forming niches or small rock shelters. A single fragment of pottery and a skull suggests that this cave was itself used once as a funeral cave. Kousuma (Fig. 7) 49 Kousuma is the name of a cave on the land of Moileta north of Lalakaiwa village. The main entrance is a steep-sided cylindrical collapse hole about 5 m deep; but a side passage leads to a smaller entrance to the south-east. The entrance chamber descends steeply, with a rubble-covered floor for the most and then a number of unclimable rifts are found. One large rift reaches the surface and a shaft of light illuminates the A minor passage to the east leads to a climbable slope, which leads to a lower cave and associated chambers. part of the cave has extensive and fairly spectacular stalactites, though there are few stalagmites and little flowstone on the floor. A number of including skulls9 testify to cave burials. Some bones are encrusted with dripstone. The Rev. Ralph Lawton of Losuia collected a fragment of pottery with indented ornament from this cave on one occasion9 and also an implement of polished quartzite. Kouya (Fig. B) This is a depression elongated roughly east-west and about 5 m by 3 m0 About 50 years ago Kouya was a cave9 called Yamoi from Lalakaiwa village can remember it being filled in. The cave is about 500 m northwsst of Lalakaiwa village. The cave is a bwala (legendary place from which the ancestors of the sub-clan or dala emerged)9 but there are conflicting legends about this oneo Yamoi first woman to emerge was called Bokaimwau; Oauiya, who lives at Okabulula9 says that Ilayuwa was the first woman to emerge. Eighteen metres from Kouya at the base of a la:ge tree is a stone1 foreign to Kitava, called Inabulula, was used by the first people of this dala to bring calm in times of rough weather (the coast near Lalakaiwa is very rocky dangerous). About 120 m to the northeast is a group of megaliths such as are commonly associated with bwala sites. Although there are many stories of filled-in where there is no cave at bwala sites, Kouya is of particular interest as it is the first example we have come across where this really happened. Bokaulawola (Fig. 9) This cave is located .about 400 m from the megaliths . Lalakaiwa villageo It is roughly circular about 5 m in and opening to the west. It is a low rock shelter on the inside of the rim of the island.

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50 W'\ -to t.E r f"igllt 9 KDUVA --o la'lfffl'afl Ji !irc111nirt. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 51 Bokaulawola is the old burial place of the Milakaiwa dala from Kouya. The cave now contains four skulls and various other bones, a clam shell which was overturned with many bones underneath it, and fragments of pottery. Busikaraga (Busi means go down; karaga means parrot in Kiriwina language9 although there are no parrots on Kitava.) This is a real cave rather than the usual rock shelter used for cave burial. It is situated in the mid-slope of the island east of Lalelao Intense flowstone deposition obscures almost all the original rock surface, and entry to the cave is gained by weaving a corkscrew path through the narrow gaps between columns and A lot of stumpy stalactites have grown around roots. At the time of our visit the formations appeared to be dead. However, they may possibly revive in very wet weather. This cave contains no pots or bones. Yavakuta This is a small cave close to the rim of the island on the seafacing side, east of Lalela. It consists of little more than irregular pockets in the cliff face, but has a roof of stalactites, and some columns dividing the cave into sections. Many bones are present, including skulls. Pottery are of the ancient type, suggesting that cave interments took place a long time ago. A canoe prow also has been used in one cave as a container for bones. Our informants said that this was an old prow9 but we are inclined to think it is not of very great antiquity. There is no longer any trace of white paint, but red paint is still present. In a small cave about 20 m beyono the canoe cave there was an even more remarkable interment. Remains of a wooden box about 45 cm long and 8 cm wide were found7 with half-mortice joints. Questions later revealed that a wartime burial took place in a box, probably an ammunition box. Olukwaleku This cave occurs close to the rim of the island on the inner side. It consists ot many small ledges1 with many bones and some clam shells. Two pots have been taken recently from this cave. They described to us as black9 ratherconical pots9 and in fact sounded like Amphlett pots. However since no Amphlett pots have been found in any of these caves before1 we think they are probably old pots of an unusual type. One pot was intact, the other broken.

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HitUJtNI CAV(R on ' , led,sc. .f'o\\ or &lh. 0 r rig •. 1 o I G.ULA GU 11!!11 Crio:u t;i, 6 NUMBER 2 Uegh Wtaod. . NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 53 .. Tubwalova This is a small hole in rodk which holds water. It is about 1m across, is used to soak leaves from the coconut palm for two These are tised in the manufacture of skirts. Wapaiya In the middle of this village two new cave openings appeared earlier this year (1971) after heavy rain. A large disc of earth collapsed, almost as a leaving a cylindrical hole about 3m in diameter and 2m deep. The walls expose a deep terra rossa soil with soil structure or horizon differentiation. A little to one side of this large hole is a smallerp irregular hole leading down to a small irregular solutional passage in limestone. It would have been intriguing to investigate these new caves, but the people have tried to fill them with rubbish, and entry would have required extensive digging. CAVES IN THE SEA CLIFFS A of caves, ledges and rock shelters have been used as repositories for human bones. The following list of sites is in sequence from the coast near Kumwagea to the coast east of Lalela. Kiligulagu (fig. 10) This is a sea-cliff cave near about Bm above sea level, in which there are remains pf many burials. There are virtually two storeys, a high and a low level, not interconnected. Of particular interest are the burials in canoe prows. Canoe prows were cut off and used as containers for bones. The canoes were from Kitava and appear to have been old. One intact one remains on a very inaccessible ledge, and fragments of wood that were possibly canoe remains are present on another ledge. Two canoe prows were collected by Dr. Gerrits some time before our visit • Some limb bones have been partly inserted into small holes in the cliff face so that they stick auto It seems probable that this is a feature of the later desecration rather than an original burial feature. Another interesting feature is the presence of bones painted red (probably ochre). It seems that in the days of tribal fighting a party of men from lJawela came to fight members of the Lukwasisiga clan from Okabulula. One man hid in the cave of which provides an admirable ambush. clJhen the lJawela men followed him, he killed them one by one, until the remainder were so reduced in number that they gave up their attack and fled back to Kumwagea, where they were killed. Their bones were placed in the burial cave along with but to. distinguish them from local peoples' the bones painted red.

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54 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 Bomagem A shelf about 2m above sea levelo A few bones of Kitava pepple are presento was also one.canoe prow9 but this appears to be a prow is modern (it has a nail in it). and there is no indication that it ever contained bones., 9kawasuya This is a small shelf 6m above sea levelo Bones and a clam shell are present. There used to be a prow, but this has been collected by Dro Gerrits0 T hi s i s -a s rn 2 .-i. l .s n' .r::-a 1""' o LJ _._ n1 ' v l 1 ,., 1 cw L aoo e sea GVB-o H are present, Gaid to bs of peoplo :1 .• .imwa g Dao few bones Okaioivioa.vi __ .. _. Th{s is a small sholf about 3m above undercut and inaccessible \.Ji thout a pole or lad d sr., A f sw bones a r 8 present and thBrG used to be 2 canoe sincR co,locLed b o ,. ---'"-;_,I_,:;;_ y ro Gerrits .. Q i k u The nearest vil go io Lalelaa Tho name is givon to (-; m ,., 1 1 c ,., 'V D n rj n !11 e l v ! ' " b "' . -.> 1 • -.\ t.:, 0 a .._ 0 -e s a Jou r, um '.J .Jove s e 3 ,,1_ o \J 2 J_ in the sea C l l f f c:> y t "1 '< ... , 0 IC' :'.:'.l • ., Q p •"\ -. t • "1 I ' . • • 0 ,, 1 .. : , : ,; '"' ed. "' e ;:, en ? i n c .L t1 c..:.... n g v CJ rt o b r a e rib s and P e lv '"""' f •. ) r") n r::i D I n !"'"' 0 ' . I • ., ' , ' ..,. .... w L 1 C ..::, o , -11 s '-' c a v :J o u r i o. ..L s u 3 n n v e s o o n t h o s e bone s 8 r •::i lJ '' l I ,..., 1 1 \ • ,..., ;-, :-, ,-, n .L rJ n j l• -'. < t • t l " (, '-' c... • --/ c_, t::i, \; ;; r.:J. i • v fi I 8 Y iJ (J t l 8 T: 8 0 l,i 8 8 ffC :;_, I' 'J b 0 d i 8 S h 8 V 8 bePn ,...,,,..,crc-' ..;n l-'-.1 ,..., ' . ...,,...,th LJ '! l-' _,_ L • _J .;.. 1 . '.""' 1 1 s w n Li e c.\ 1 or l,. , a n -c l e u 8 u a l b u 11 d l e of bones brought in t.:ecor1dary On the other hand there was,onG small slot that contained many skulls so t6gether they must hnvs been out in with0ut any and tha QISCUSSIQN Goomo2:'ph ogy ____ ,, ..... I n our pa Pers on the c a v o s of I< L:-i w i n ::.i. ;:rn d l' 2. k u ta ( O 11 i er and qoldcwo.,...+h 1 t""'cn ,.., ' 1 ! ii ..1..Jw' .L Vil:;< '.;Oe;a I .;;ilJ.J ') we lrJ.VG remc.rkod how W8 were th8t th3 caves ohowed no unusual features due -co .. tl:e natu:r: of the parGnt .cora19 or peculiarities of origin Us thought we might find hollo1.i.1s .. -ced rrorn the ccr0"! pc-,-=-: or ... ,t leG.st t .,. ls --N.. . ,__, I ._, (-v J _to the oec.i, but instead UG found normal karstL., caves .. Bas1cslly the ln?g?r caves_we!e formed as short tunnels fairly close to tho Wi:1to:-u1ble9 but not opening to th2 sea and modi!ied since by: of coilapse and rl11; the smalier caves wero merely hollows or shelves$ . NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 55 The smaller caves of Kitava a.re like others of the Trobriands. They can occur at the top or bottom of cliffs, or on Irregular ground. However, the are considerably different$ for they present features of deep phreatic i.e. formed below the watertable. The large Bymmetrical scallops and bell-holes must have been fbrmed when the caves were completely full of water1 and the blind 0alleys1 irregular gradients and alternation of large chambers and in Inakebu all suggest phreatic activity. Yousuma has a shape9 but scalloping and bellpits indicate phreatic origin. A number of caves are ciose to sea level, but they need not have formed at sea level9 and perhaps a fall to the present sea level merely exposed caves that were already formed. The lens of fresh water held in a island extends for a considerable depth below sea level. The caves may have formed in this situation, the fresh water possibly passihg through caves and emerging as submarine springs. The caves have been modified later by collapse structurally controlled in Yousuma and by secondary deposition. beposition of stalactite, stalagmite and rimstone pools is still active in many ca0es, though some ones like are now dry. The initiation of new collapses at is a valuable observa tion, as very seldom one have the opportunity to see the actual beginning of cave formation by collapse. The small amount of collapse contrasts with the formation of Kwaivau Sopi on the island of Kaileuna where a cenoto formed very rapidly (Ollier, Holdsworth and Heers, 1971) • On Kitava there seemed to be a possibiliti that we might find several generations of caves with the different phases of uplift of the islando This was not found, but the possibility is still present, although less likely now. On the islands of Kiriwina and Vakuta we made a fairly comprehensive exploration of the caves and probably missed only a few9 but on Kitava there are prbbably many more caves to be found. The Cave People In previous papers Ollier and Holdsworth, 1968a, 1968b and 1969) we who used the caves as chambers, and when; who made the pottery; whci built the megaliths, which appear to have bean funeral monuments originally; what the relationship between:the sub-clans (dala) and their alleged places of emergence frqm the ground (bwala) which are sometimes caves. On Ki tava we. have \'all, these questions, plus . the. additional problem of who painte.ct the eave pictures. Cave burials .in canoe prows have not, so far .as we know, been reported before. The canoe prows appear to be old, and di ff_erent in style from those of pres8ntday canoes, ,but expert opinion dn this matter await future work.

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56 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 On Kitava there seems tq have been a genuine dread of caves until very recently. Soma discoveries of bones and a s.urprise to the local people themselves, as was the .discoy.:.. of cave paintings. The present inhabitants rlQ not to be connected directly with either the art or the burials. The pottery found in the caves on Kitava is of a similar and age to that found on other quite different thit of the present day, and of ririgin. A number of megaliths are present on Kitava which at one time were funeral places. For some the people no story whatever, while other megaliths are used for magical purposes which seem to be of secondary Sams of the Kitava caves arB bwala or emergence holes. Kouya, for instance a\ bwalo -a mythical place of emergence 6f the ancestors of a sub-clano The cove is posaibly associated with a nearby group of megaliths on land called Molisilasi, and with a magic stone called Inabubulap 18m northwest of Kouya, which was used by the first.people of the sub-clan to bring calm weather in times of stormsa Our second to Kitava coincided with the Kula voyage a trade voyage; Except for the very old,. vary young, blind or crippled, all the men of Kitava were away on tha voyag8. We used women and children as guides. Although some old rnsn were quits helpful, we possibly failed to learn all the legends of the caves. We havB discovered no association between the cave pictures and other features; it appears that cave burials were made in the same cave that the are in, but in a different' chamber, ahd quite possibly by diffGrent people. All these things suggest the possibility that the present inhabitants are not the psopls who did all the things connected with the caves, but displaced an earlier (thiogh simiJ.ar) people,. The only cluo so far as to thatime of these postulated people from the dala linsso Eech sub-clan can trace its rincestry vorbally from mother to mother back to the first woman who emerged from the ground to found the dala. This takes about 25 generations, or perhaps 500 years. Could. the iromergence from the groundli refer in reality to the arrival of tl1e present inhabitants (by boat) who wiped out any previous occupants, perhaps 500 years ago. There is a large enough sample of bones .for an expert to wcirk out tho sort of people who are buried in''the caves, and dates could be obtained f:rom shel.l an'.d even tJood. Investig .... atioris of pottery stxatified sits will alio give spms clua eventually as to the date of the cave burials. The . caves of. Ki taya pr.ovide, a .... lot of work' Efhd hold out prom{se of a lot of discoveries for investigators. NIUGINI CAVE.R VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 57 Ackno1Jledgements Lls gratefully the help given to us by Mr. C. Sihgle, M;. and Mrs. Ward, Dr. F. especially Mr. G. Heers who first discovered the cave art in Inakebu and whose fluency in the local language was of immense value to our .expedition. c. D. Ollier gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Explorers Club, New u.s.A.u which assisted the of the 1971 visit. References Ollier, c. D. 1975 : Coral Island Geomorphology -the Trobriand Islands. z. Geomorph, 1.2 : 164 ... 190. Ollier, c. D., Holdsworth9 D. K: 1?6Ba :. Caves of Kiriwina, Trobriand Islands, Papua. (4) : 63 -72. Ollier, c. o., Holdsworth, D. K. 1968b : A Survey of Megalithic structure on Kiriwina, Trobriand Islands. Arch. and Phys. Anth., 3(2) 156 -158. --. Ollier, c. 0.9 Holdsworth, D. K •. 1969 : Caves of Vakuta, Trobriand Islands, Papua. Helictite, 1(3) 50 61. Ollier, c. D., Holdsworth, D. K: 1?70: Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua. Hel1ct1te, o 29 -38. Ollier C a Holdsworth, D. K. 1977 : Caves of Kiriwinat Papua New Guinea. Niugini Caver; 33 Ollier, c. o., Holdsworth, D. Heers, G. 1970 : Cave Paintings from Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua. Helictite : 79-88. Ollier, c. D., Holdsworthsi D. Kesi Heers, G. 1971 : CAves of Kaileuna and Tuma, Trobriand Islands. Helictite, 9 : 29 -48. Olli er 9 C. D., Holdsworth 1 D. K.,. Heers 9 G. 1972 Stone Structures of Tuma and Trobriand Islands. Arch, and Phys. Anthrop. in Oceania? l 50 -55. LJilfordg G. Eo 1966 HBell Holes" in Sarawak Caves. Bull• Nato Spel. Soc., 28(4) 179 181. -LONGEST AND DCEPEST CAVES OF THE WORLD A. A., The. following table lists the longest.and each country for which data is readily This is based one published by the French Speleological (Chabert? Cont'd on page 61. * P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

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LONGEST AND DEEPEST CAVES OF THE WORLD COUNTRY ---------------Afghanistan Algeria Argentina Austria Australia Belgium Belize, Boliva Brazi 1 Bulgaria Canada .Colombia .Costa Rica Cuba CzechoslovG kia East Germany Ethiopia Equador France Great Britain Greece Guatemala DEEPEST CAVE Boussouil PlatteneckeishohleBetgerhohole Khazad-dum Bernard Umajalanta Corrego Fundo Raicova dupka Arctomys Cave Aire Santa Ana Jibara Zasocie Tula Kiliwisa no 1 Tayos Pierre Saint-Martin Ogof Ffynnon Ddu Epos ElOjo de Mal Pa{s 505 m 879 m . 329 m 140 m 130 m 195 m 372 m 523 m 280 m 170 m 242 m 263 m 64 m 186 m 1332 rn 308 rn 442 rn 240 rn LONGEST CAVE Ab Bar Amada Tafna Brula Eisriesenwelt Exit Cave Han Saint Hsrrnan's Cave Umajalanta Mateus-Imbira Duxlata Castleguard Cave India Perdidos Domica jaskyna Baradla barang wirnmelburger Schlotten 1220 m 3887 rn 2500 m 42000 m 16000 m 5720 rn 3785 rn 1620 m 20540 m 11200 rn 131GO rn 1237 m 26000 m 25000 m 2400 m Sof Omar 15100 m Tayos 4900 m Dent de Crolles 35600 m, Ogof Ffynnon Ddu 38500 m Glyphada ou Vlyhada 3400 m Veronica del Rio 7900 m Candelaria ___ ,. ____ , -. COUNTRY DEEPEST CAVE LONGEST CAVE Hungary Vecsembukki-zsomboly 245 m Iceland India Iran Ireland ItaJ.y Jamacia Japan Kenya Korea 5 Laos. Lobanon Libya Luxembo,urg Madaga:scar Malagasy Morocco Mexico Namibia Nepal New Caledonia New Zealand Norway New Sough Cave Parau Carrowmore Caverns Moote Cucco Morgan's Pond Hole Byakuren do Leviathan Faouar D'ara Bukarrna Sainte-Barbe Tolikisy Tng'hobeit Sari Agustin Haras1b ;-l ;\ / 60 m 751 m 144 m 922 m 186 m 450 m .305 m 622 m : 1 01 rn , 40 m 160 m 700 m ,612 ffi' 1:10 m A dio 120 ;'m Harwood Hol-e-St.ar light ':957 m Cave Rag.gejavre-raige Bibimq 575 m 494 m -------Baradla barlang Oamica jaskyna Surtshellir Pgrau System Piaggia-Bella River Cave Akka do Leviathan Bilremos Jefta Bukarma-Habibi Moestrof f Niah Wit Tamdoun Arroyo Harpan River Cave Adio Gardeners Gut Cave Okshola-Kristihola A tea Kanada . 25000 m 1970 m 1364 m 11800 m 14000 m 5633 m 8000 m 3500 m 8000 m 4200 m 8330 m 2250 m 4000 m 8350 m 3200 m 7550 m 7205 rn 1479 m 3900 m 10100 m 9500m m . c.n IXl 2 H c: G1 H 2 H 0 )'..::> c::::: fl1 :::0 c::::: 0 r c 3 fl1 CJ) 2 c 3 rn fT1 :::0 N. 2 H c: Gl H 2 h-;f:, cJ j;::> c:.:: fT1 :::t:J ' c::::: 0 r c: 3.rri CJ'\ ; 2 c:: 3 co ri': :::0 N (J1 '

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60 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 61 1977) but is supplemented from other publications and E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E personal communications where appropiate. The length for the 0 0 0 Cl LD ..:::!" 0 0 Ln Cl 0 0 CJ 0 CJ CJ 0 C'.J c:o A tea Kanada is preliminary. ..:::!" 0 0 0 0 c:o \.D 0 0 N 0 0 CJ CJ "1" 0) 0 Cl 0 0) CJ 0 LD 0 I:'-t"'1 0) 0 U") Ln r-LO co CJ N Cl t"'1 Ol Reference N Ol co N ['-0 0 0 Ol N rt') LD 0 ['-0 ['-0 N \.D N """ Ol ...... N Chabert, c • (1.977). Les Grandes Cavites Mondiales. SgeluQca supplement no. 2 I m > c co CU co . ....., u OJ SURVEYING NOTES (f) . . co rl 0 0 .. .:::t.. ..c ..c Poundi; w ..c 0.. 0 .,..., (j) . :a co •.-1 M. D. :::. rl (1j H -0 Q) 0 ..c E H c:::c Q) Q) c 01 H )(.) E c co co u :::. > (f) Q) .c Q) •.-I E ru . ....., :J The Australi.an Speleological Federation have recently co :J •.-1 rl 0.. H . U') .-1 .. CU 0 ..a a ...... •.-1 (f) E :J 0 >. co ..c. c c (j) E H CCI CCl N published the latest edition of their •cave Survey and Map U') 0 (f) 0 CCl rl :r rl :J (.) •.-1 rl •.-1 .-1 n E co H .:::t.. z standards' (Anderson et al. 9 1 978). lt is not proposed to w .a co :J .c u :J (lj C..:J 0 H •.-1 Q) E .. Q) .c. 01 (fJ I t:J 0.. rl .. c .. 0 (.) rl >. rl . ..0 co •r-1 c. 0 N 0 co reprint these in Niugini Caver but copies may be obtained z 1-1 rl OJ •.-! 0 c (lj. 0 0 rl .Cl :J Q) > . .-! (f) VO rl 1-1 >. 0 •.-! co •.-! 0 •.-1 < •r-i .Cl 0.. .,..., :o CU -0 . ..., >. 0.. rl >.. :J co >O Q) from the Australian Speleological Federation by writing to ...J E u E E a::: E cc: 0 :r: _J .z. 0 c:::c 0 L.. CJ") t:J U') 0.. E: The Convenor, Survey Standards Commission, Bruce Welsh, E E E EE E E E E E E E E E E c/-108 Queens Parade, East.Newport, New South Wales, 2106 E E Australia. ['-t"'1 0 LD 0 t"'1 N co l..O 0 c--0 0 C"-..:::!" \.D LD 0 c:o U") co co t"'1 N t"'1 \.0 \.D t"'1 co if) -tjco ..:::!" t""-N ..:::!" r:'1 co N n 0 r:'1 n ...;:;j-\,.() It is hoped that all resident cavers will obtain a copy of these standards and adopt them when preparing cave surveys and maps. Use of these symbols will greatly assist c speleology in this country and solve the problems which arise •r-i ro •.-1 when each to adopt his her standards. . c. (I) person appears or own H H •r-i Q) c co 0 rl > ..-t E: .. •..-t ro Overseas cavers visiting this country will in all probability CU (f) Q.) .. u Q) the survey.standards that they are used to in their c 0 Q) .. c 0 r-i use own w \N .c. :> c co H .,...., :J c co .c co country. As the new Australian Standards are based on ::::i Q) r-i co 0 CJ") en -0 0 0 E ;o E c:::c . •.-1 Q) u (f-.::. f-1 >. co .c. co systems used in other countries and are quite similar, this t .. c :::. ID Q) .:::t.. Q) (ij c 1C c . .., is not expected to problems. en Q) co ..... 1:) 0 U') .:::t.. 't""') ro •r-1 Q) cause any (f) f-1 Ci-. f-1 ..c . ., :J ..-t ct1 u f-1 .Cl co . U') • m 0 ct1 0 0 co 0 .. ..c rl 0 .:::t.. co co .::. w 0 .::. .c. 0 .::. H 0 co <( Q) c en (f) en f-1 }(f) .I was fortunate enough to receive from the recent French 0.. 0.. r-i c (j) 0 .. -0 1-1 0.. .Cl Q) > (f-•.-1 en o visitor-a 7Topof i1 t, which is distance measuring w .-t Q) •..-t :J r-i en Q) 1-1 0.. co Q) -0 Q) q_ f-1 H rl a a w •..-t •.-1 0 :>CO a (l) •.-1 :o CO c .,...., ::J •..-t Q) ro co 0 device, used in French cave surveying,, The unit consists of d E: :3 E: ...... ::3 0.. :r: c:::c 0 0 z CJ") 0.. a metal box containing a reel of cotton sewing thread which ... is fed out over a length measuring mechanism. It is .used by en attach.ing the end of the thread to the first survey station -0 c and traversing alorig the cave f.rom station to station in co the usual manner. leaving the cotton thread stretched rl co >. (I) 0 (I) 0 1:) c. between stations. The distance between stations is determiried Q.) 0 1-1 •r-i c ct1 co c •..-t f-1 co co E •..-t as the difference between the readings of the ..... rl 0:: (I) (f-r.-1 CU r-1 f-1 ::::> measuring mechanism at the two stations. The in >-0.. co co c <( H •..-t co (l) Q) co error a::: ' 0.. 1:) Ol 0 •ri 0 Q) c c •r-i >. :J C..:J rl distance determination due to stretch or shrinkage of the I-•.-! c ::J . c E .c c N Q) co co (I) m N Cl) Q) z :J r-i (lj .. H (lj 0 .. •.-1 .. -0 N 01 •r-i .::. n:: Q.) . 0 H cotton thread is expected. to be small as the thread is of =1 f-1 •.-{ r-i H Q) E rl :J aJ •H ID c c c f-1 U') c::r: c (I) 01 •..-t low stretch and is used only' in clean condition. Of 0 m .c 0 0 :J o. 0 0 0.. 3 3 co 0 :J :J m U1 Q) Q) :J co once u 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. a::: en tn U') CJ") CJ") II-I-...... ::l ::l ::::> :3 > N course, care is taken to maintain ju.st enough tension on the thread to maintain the thread in a straight line between stations. Apart from the ease in measuring the distanceg the 1C-P. o. Box 3824, Port f1oresby, Papua New Guinea.

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62 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 thread betwaen stations is an aid in determining the bearing and vertical angle between the stations as it may be used as a sight wire. I used this device on several occasions now and find that.it !or fast accurate surveying, whtch is what is required in this country. If necessary, a cave survey may now be attempted by one person. On the completion of surveylng the.used thread.may either be removed or left in place. It.is considered that in most of Papua New Guinea's caves which are likely to be visited on very rare occasions and which are active and contain large amounts of organic matter, the thread can be safely left to rot in the cave without any detrimental effects. In those caves where visits are where the i$ unlikely to rot away quickly or if time and route permits the thread should be removed on completion of survey operations. Refe:t8nc8 Anderson, E. G. et alo (1978) Cave Survey and Map Standards. Australian Speleological Federation Newsletter Autumn 1978 No 79 {lift-out) * ERRATA Volume 4 Number 4 Papua Guinea Karst Types 6. Deline Plate the back cover shows the Atea Kanada on the Muller Range, not the ,Apia Sink. The Atea is the sink (with an apparent _river flowing into it) 2Dmm behind the huge collapse doline MR 301 Volume 6 Number 1 Art of OfafUn98[:ave and some Cave and Rock Art of the Sonofi Area, Kainantu Eastern Highlarids Province, Papua_New Guinea. The cover photograph showing a section of the wall of Cave accidently printed upside down. Scales were omitted from all the plates inthe article. The relevant scale for each photograph are: Front Cover PhotoQraph 1/10 approx. scale Plate 1 , 1/10 approx. scale Plate 2 1/10 approx. scale Plate 3 1/10 approx. scale Plate 4 1/8 approx •. scale Plate 5 1/8 approx. scQle Plate 6 1/8 approx. scale * * NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 THE PNGCEG EASTER 7B SIMBU TRIP. 63 R. "Michael Bourke* Narr.ative A party of six PNGCEG spen't the Easter 1.ong weekend (24th ' 26th 1971:?) Jn the Simbu (pr.eviously Chimbu) pushing two partly explored caves. The team consisted .of Roy Bladkham (Madang), Michael Bourke {Kainantu), Allah Goulbourne (LaB), David PeaBs Malcolm Pound (Port Moresby) and Kevan l.Jilde (frieda Rive,r/Goroka). A lsa. in the party were 11basff camp caverstv Joan and Marie•Anne Blackham and Chris Goulbourne. Kevan Wilde organised the trip. On good Friday converged on Goroka, picked up Councirlor Nomani .and various Nola drove to Chuava, to Nola Village (about an hour from Chuave) got underground in the system. This cave was previbusly investigated in 1??5 when the name Angunga ,Sink was used (t.Jilde and l.Jhi te9 .1976). rn 175 we. descended the 44. 5rn s-haf t known as A ngugu (not A-nguhga) 9 followed a passage for some 250m to emerge 0as in a cav,er1s dream into a rapid flowing river passage 8-10m wide and 10-15m highlV (t.Jilde and LJhits, 1976). The river_was ... 1 f.urther but left for a Hdry season11 because of .,41et conditions. Thus we found ourselves back at Nola two years later but tinfortunately in anything but a dry Lombila System Friday afternoon Roy and I descended the Angugu shaft and pushed the river fpr several hundred As it was in flood at the we did not attain the previous limit of.Bxploration. Malcolm and Dave descended the shaft, taught DavB how to prussik and out. The first man out (Mal) found that. the of blue watet rope was almost worn through, so it had to be 'rebelayed before. Keyan came up. told us t.h:at the river i"n the cave sank several hundred metres from Nola in a cave. This sounded like an easier way to enter tha so Allan and I to We were taken to a river.known as Nolombila (No = river) and saw for the did iMdeed ehter a cave Together with 9f we followed the stream_ undergrot.Jhd along a decf?nt sized passage tj.11 we reached HKilaH This was the ex.tent to which the villagers normally entered the cave . to hunt' for f 1 yin g foxes A s ma 11 s t :ream . entered the system on the right hand side via a 13m high. Outside the cave, this stream is used as a drinkin9 water source for the village. It is likely that this is the explqred Read in the * P0 D. Box Kainantu, Easterri Highlands Prov., P.N.G.

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64-NI UGI NI. CA VER VO LU (VJE 6 NUMBER 2 The entrance area: .of the system is complex and there are at least four Some rock att was seen just outside the entrarice. A tributary stream, Nolangomo, enters the system several hundred metres inside the cave. This is :said .. : to sink near Langomo several kilometres also explored two older passages in the upper part of the system, one of "which nu.mukululauH houses insectivorous bats::. Afte.r leaving the villagQrs, who then returned to the entrance,: we> river again and pushed Some:50m on we! moved .. through a section where the cave narrowed a.nd it bec.ame necessary to swim briefly through .the river. A short. distance, on we r,eached the passage that led to the base of AngUgu sha f't. Kevan •,s party had descended Angugu that morning 'and pushed river. They had roped the section that had stoppBd our party the day and followed the river for hundred metres further till again stopped by another narrows section;, After meeting up, in the river passage, the two .parties. fallowed the river upstream an,d exited at the river,, influx •. The Narrative It was suggested by a local pastbr that caving was not . desireable on Easter Sunday. So Dave? being the 11new boy\1 W3.s sent down Angugu to recover gear at bottom and then Kevan, Chris, Joan, Marie-Anne, Dave, and Malcolm spent the day looking for cave art near Nola and at the Simbu Gorge •. Roy and I9 being of .a frame perhaps, drove to Masul Police. Station on Lhe highway between Chuave and Kundiawa,: walked to, the top of the Porol :Scarp. of there .and investigated Berema Cave (see report, this issue). Sunday we Goroka and enjoyed a Chinese meal The following morning, the Goulbournessi Blackburns and I drove home together. The Pounds flew back to on Tuesday. It a trip with soma ex6iting discoveries. We now have' explored at least 1000m in the Lombila system. The likely Kirowa is some 200m 19wer and .. severaT: kilometres away, so a great system awaits further , A very good relationship has been with the Nola people. It is hoped C1 party can return_ in th.E3 r'dry'." seasona, perhaps ove_r the June long weeke'rid. Be re ma, is very worthy of a return trip • • , •.. • .• 1 . W i ld e , • K. A • . a n d . hi hi t e 9 T. 1 9 7 6 ,A n g u n g a S i n k Chim b u " Province. Niugini CaV8f9 : 23 24. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 BEREMA POROL A. 65 Respecting the wishes of some of the Nola villages with whom had been ITTeant further exploration of . Lombila System. We were determined to get underground, even on Easter Sunday! We had the strongest possible af cavers within striking distance of Highlands for some time; and an upsurge of exploration could herald a eriai s sa n ce n for ea v i ng within P. N. G •• In 1976 I had called in at Masul, in the Sina Sina Dis{rict to look up the parents of ,Ben Kaupa9 whom I had met in The villagers then spoke to me of nearby caves; and the following day we headed up to the top of the Porol Range exhausted but gaining a view of an impressi.ve entrance taking water. When our work in Chuave was brought to a halt, I thought of this hole. Hit's only twenty minutes from the highwayJn I extolled the others. Roy Blackham, Mike Bourke and I drove the short distance up the highway from Chuave to Masul. Lle parked the car in the police station; and an obliging police officer valuables in the offide. My original informant, Papa Kaupa, was away. John, a villager from Nola, had come with us,: however. His wife was-from Masul, and he was able to introduce us to Bal and These two guided us to the cave. We crossed the 'Highway from r1lasul police station and headed north up the range. There were numerous tracks. Following the obvious upward ones would make location fairly straightforward. ntwenty minutes 11 stretched to an hour and my associates were alarmed by one of our travelling companions, who asserted that we had only 'three kilometres to go before we reached the cave. He claimed that as a high school student, he had recently surveyed the route. An hour and a half after starting9 we arrived at a massive slab just below the top9 with a two man shelter which I recognised. Another ten minutes found us in a series of depressions on the back slope, into _the cave entrance. . . This is a gaping mou.th, sloping back about 15 below a cliff face. On the left side a small stream runs over clean limestone and boulders to a climbable drop. On the right, a muddy slope ends in a pitch. Upstream a short way, most of the waterJ _ enters another shaft. Having decided to try our descBnt:-via the stream's routes we diverted all the water down hole. We then began to move down_ over the boulders. The cave had been visited byF. Parkerj who was kiap in the area, In 1961 he estimated the entrance as 165 feet

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66 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 (50m ). This estimate proved to be quite accurate, but pro b a b 1 y not in q u i te the way Fred had rri ea n t o A ft er a short climb (15m) we arrived at the first pitch, which would make easy free climbing in drier conditions. Mike and I 3 m(3tres to the first l.edges us:ing a. classic te.xt book: belay, then reb.elayed to an eyehole be.lay point. (The .cave abounds with h.olds and anchor points). We then continue.et down. 1 Sm. to the next ledge. from this ledge we travelled 4m tothe left on the rope to the main waters come in. LlB were now in a tall rift very clean, wet and This time we tied off to a jammed tree trunk and abseiled last to the end. of the in all. the down-was with the odd jammed boulder to dlimb under of over. Ue arrived at a pitch. was overhung where the water went down11.estimated to be some 30 40 metres but. keeping clear. of the water would involve traversing the fragmented back wall. We had insuff icient rope for this9 and so we reached our deepest point (about 60m _)., The ca;:ve shows -no signs of closing down; is very clean . and w.a s h Hd .1 On our way out we the main stream back to where it goes underground.,. From the ledge above9a passage went back to the muddy slope oh the right of the. cave mouth. It could bs rigged with just 12m of rope and was quite dry. The water is said to resurge just above village 400 metres below, so the. cave has considerable potential. ihvited back to look 'at hole .. a yet UQVisited by Llhsn the next is on this hole (Berema), particular care will have t6 be takeh, not only:to rig out of the but also to avoid the nature of the limestone cutting the rope. NEU CO!\lTR I BUTOHS Allan Goulbourne Although Allan has caved extensively in this is his first article for Niugini Caver. Allan commenced his PNG caving with the 1975 British Expedition and _has since. caved in. the Highlands and Port AlisonPound nof a kesn as wife of has visited a few caves in PNG and Australia. Mbst 6f Alison's for PNG caving are not in the field.of:exploration but in the typing and production of Niwgini NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 A GUIDE TO BACK ISSUES Of NIUGINI CAVER Alison A. Pound* Volume 1 Number 1 Reports on the exploration of Bibima PNG's deepest Information an the Hindenburg Wall area Caves of the New Britain Area Loniu Cave an Manus Island pages 1 18 Back issues available Volume 1 Number 2 . . . covers the 1972 73 u.Q.s.s. New Britain Expedition Four trip reports or caves in the . A report on Afaruru Cave in Morobe. Province pages 19 -52 Photocopy 67 Volume 1 Number 3 . This issue is focus on the Southern Highlands Region andcovers a variety of topics including a speleological hydrological report on the Waga River pages 53 92 Photocopy Volume 1 Number 4 Focus on the Chimbu Province (now Simbu) and includes a bibliography of the area . Also trip reports for a variety of caves are presented pages 93 136 Back issues available Volume 2 Number 1 Contains an index to Volume 1 An article on burial caves in PNG More from the Southern Highlands . and an article on the Oobora Caves, Milne Bay pages 137 158 Back issues available Volume 2 Number 2 Two articles on cave art. The first engrav;ngs from New Ireland and the second covers rock art in the Also more on the caves of the Southern and Eastern Highlands pages 159 -190 Back issues Volume 2 Number 3 focuses on New Ireland covering the Lelet Plateau and other areas pages 191 232 Photocopy Volume 2 Number 4 This issue. covers a number of topics on conserve tion and gives an extract from the aGuide for the Preservation bf National Cultural It also the 1965 Star Mountains Report pages 233 256 Photocopy *P.O.Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

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68 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 Volume 3 Number 1 A.n article on the caves of the Lelet CTther articles cover the River Cave in the Southern Highlands and Be Cave in the Madang Province pages 1 24 Photocopy Vblume 3 Number 2 Fpcus on the Eastern Highlands is the major section of this i:esue The first in a series on PNG Karst types (Tower Karst) Pages 25 64 Photocopy Volume 3 Number 3 F6cus on Manus covers the karst types9 the caves and the legends of Manus caves The second on Karst types (Honeycomb Karst) pages 65 -104 Photocopy ' Volume 3 Number 4 Glves a preliminary report of the British Speleological Expedition Also an article on legends, art and burial caves in the Telefomin area Cone Karst Number 3 in the series reports from New Ireland, New Britain, Bougainville afld Enga P?QSS 105 -144 Photocopy Volume 4 Number 1 types(4) Ar@te and Pinnacle Karst More from the British Speleological Expedition A' report of the 1975 76 Highlands meet and reports of three Chimbu caves pages 1 42 Back issues available 4 Number 2 Karst types(S) -Crevice Karst of how to record cave art sites Also information on caves from New Britain (Lemere), West (Piri Lima) and Chimbu p$ges 43 84 issues Volume 4 Number 3 The report of the 1975 New Ireland Expedition to the Lelet Plateau. A full. coverage of the trip inbluding descriptions and logistics pages 85 136 Back issues available Volume 4 Number 4 report of the 1976 Muller Expedition of speleology in PNG Rock art and prehistoric sites in the Telefomin area p?ges 137 174 Back issues available NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 69 Volume 5 Number 1 Lists the longest, largest etc by way of caves iri PNG Also a preliminary report on the Pct"'gora Limes pages 1 -30 Back issues available Volume 5 Number 2 A long on the caves of Kiriwina, Trobraind Islands covering the caves and their legends with a section on the geomorphology of the area An article on Holloch, Europe1s longest cave pages 31 -60 Back issues available Volume 5 Number 3 The report of the 1976 New Ireland Speleological Expedition. It follows the standard form with major sections on physiography, cave descriptions and logistics. pages 61 101 Back issues available Volume 5 Number 4 This is devoted to the 1976 Muller Range Expedition and covers the explorations of the group, contains surveys of the major caves and many photographs. pages 102 128 Back issues available Volume 6 Number 1 A detailed description of the rock art in Ofafunga Cave with photographs and diagrams A report on a reconnaissance trip to the Cromwell Range on the Hu on Peninsula. pages 1 38 Sack issues available All back numbers are K1.00 ($A 1.20) each, with the exception of Volume 4, Number 3 which is K2.50 (IA 3.00). Photocopies of out of print issues may be ordered at a cost of 20 toea (24 cents) per page. The subscription rate is K4.00 ($A 5.00) per annum. Overseas are required to pay an additional K1.00 ($A 1.20) to cover the additional costs of surface postage. Please remit overseas subscriptions and payment for back issues by bank draft (Kina or Australian dollars for preference) and not by personal cheque as these are subject to substantial bank charges. Make cheques/bank drafts payable to the Papua _New Guinea Cave Exploration Group. Please address all correspondance Mr. M. D. Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresbyg National Capital District, PAPUA NEW GUINEA.

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70 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 THE CAVING SCENE Durin9 the_ Past few months, much caving activity has in Papua New Guinea. This has been mainly due to overseas based expeditions but much useful work also been carried out by the local cavers. french Visitors Two French cavers, Roget Parzybut and Patrick Cellerier together with their wives were here in July and spent two weeks in the Simbu Province in and around Chauva explored at least two major new caves near Kao Village. One weekend, Malcolm Pound from Port Moresby and Allan Goulbourne Lae came to the Simbu and Berema Cave up from Masul was pushed to a depth of over 100 metres where the party was stopped by a deep lake -filled passage which continued as far as could be seen. Another potential deep cave in the same area was shown to us by the village people. After recoverihg in the Trobriand Islands, they homa. Eight.Spanish cavers under the leadership of Montserrat Nebot arrived in July for six weeks caving in Papua New Guinea. They spent most of their time in the Simbu Province 6ut of Kundiawa up the Chimbu but they went as far afield as Porgera in the Enga. Province. dnly several caving actively the others were undertaking photography and collecting fauna. They explored 14 caves up to 220 metres in depth with one cave containing a pitch of 167 metres which becomes the longest desriended pitch in Papua New Guinea. The fauna collection was confiscated by the Papua New Guinea Government as th?Y had neglected to obtain permits for the collecting and expott of fauria. This collection will not be wasted but will be used as valuable referehce material for comparision with specimens from other cave areas. The 1978 Ex9edition The 1978 Range Expedition with about 40 cavers from Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the United States under the leadership of Julia James and Kevan Wilde spent. two months in the Muller Range in July and August. The group was divided into two parties with most cavers staying about a month. The party spent most of its time in the Atei Kanada while the second party also examined other caves in the area. The Atea Kanada was extended to a surveyed length of about 30.4km with a maximum depth of 272 + 10 metres. Unfortunately a breakthrough into the deeper sectTons of the cave was not made. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 71 The major cave on Mamo (refer Niugini Caver 5(4) for lqcatidn) was pushed to a length of B.5km and a depth ;f about 280 300 metres. This cave contained a single large chamber 250 metres long, 30 --60 metres wide and 30 60 metres high. The at the foot of the scarp were but unfortunately, no entry could be made to any caves. Much other work was dbne by the' Expedition. including the first investigation of the Lavani Valley. u. Q. Dave Gilliesoh and Jill Landsberg from the University of Queenslandare currently in the country collecting data for Dave's Ph. D. thesis entitled 'Evidence for Quaternary Climatic Change from Limestone Ca\/e Sediments in Papua New Guinea'. This research involves recording stratified sequences of sediments in major limestone caves and analysing these to establish the process which formed and deposited and by extension the surface conditions the time. They joined the second party of the Atea Expedition and have since gone on to Selminum Tern, the other major cave in Papua New Guinea that was explored by the British. They also plan to visit caves in the Highlands during their stay. The 1978 British Expeditign A small group of British. cavars is crrently investigating caves the Wall under the leadership of Noel Plumley. Twb members of this party participated in Atea Expedition. Additional Expeditions A six man team for the 1979 French Speleologiciai Expedition will arrive in November for a 2 or 3 month of areas9mainly New Britain and the Huon Peninsula. Several other groups also plan expeditions here in 1978 or 1979. P.N. G. Based North Solomons Province As usual the North Solomons:CaveExploration Group headed by Hans Meier has been active in their area with several trips to the Taroku Nantaut (Nantaut means cave in the 'ples tok' of Urumovi) for further exploration and mapping. Hans advised that the Taroku Nantaut was 1653 metres long at the end of June making this.the Sth longest;cave in Papua New Guinea (based on the list of R. M. (1977). Niugini Caver 5(1) : 8). Hans is an article on the caves of the-Manatei area which will appear in a future issue of Caver.

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72 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 2 Eastern Highlands Province Michael Bourke returned to the Obura area south of Kainantu in August together with some visitors, Helen Tew and John Webb from and Basil Williams from Suva. The party visited the cave near the Swiss Mission into which three murdered Chimbu thrown in 1963. They followed a small stream down a series of short pitches to a depth of about 50m before being stopped by a lack of rope. The development of the system (Yunamare) can be seen on the surface and the efflux .. is some 300m lower down. The efflux is said to be cave which was visited in May. Prospects look good for a 250 300m deep system, provided a party can be.fielded to explore it. Southern Michael Bourke spent two weeks working on the Nembi Plateau, a karst plateau south -west of Mendi in the Southern Highlandi in September. Whilst in the area he visited a number of caves around Embi and Upa villages and reports that deep shafts occur in the Embi area. More Information Anyone caving in Papua New Guinea is requested to forward information on this to the Editor of Niugini Caver for inclusion in this section of the publlcation. This section can be as good as the incoming information. You will observe that certain areas and people predominate in this section; this is not because this is where the only caving is going on but due to people sending in information. Apart from making the Caving Scene interesting, this also goes into the .library and forms a continuing record. of. caving and speleology in this country. So will all. those people who haven't been sending in information, please do. so. Reports It is hoped that all the overseas expeditions briefly mentioned above will prepare full reports describing their expeditions and giving all results for publication in Niugini Caver. This is important as it shows that these overseas expeditions are publishing in Papua New Guinea and their results are not lost to the country. In the Next Issueg Karst Morphology of the Eastern Star Mountains Notes on Papua New Guinea for Overseas Visitors *


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