Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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K26-05672 ( USFLDC DOI )
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NIUOINI

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6. NUMBER 3 Volume 6 Number 3 0Gikgt;Jw;iF1r 1978 Q Nov.t-emb.sr uari..er.ly K1.00 per issue K4.00 per annum 73 tliugini Cavei:: is the publication of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Editors : Malcolm and Alison Pound, P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Contents . . Cover Photographs ...... ; •• •••••••••• Karst Morphology of Star Mountains M. J. She p hard •• • •.•••••• • •••• ,, • e • " e •••••• ... e e • " • a • a • • • • • 74 The Advance Report of the Spanish Speleological Expedition 'Papua New Guinea 19?8'••••••e•••••••;•••• Third Conference on Cave Tourism and Management •••••• ••• 88 Notes on Papua New Guinea for ,overseas Visitors A. A. c a: v i n g s c:;: 8 n 8 • 0 0 ... • .• 0 • 0 .. • • . • ... • • • 0 0 " 0 ... .. 0 e " " • • 0 0 •. .• 0 • • • 0 ... .. • . • • • • • 9 9 Publications on. 8 at s /1, .. A .. Pound ,, •• • •••• e ........... o •• • • •• 1 01 Mew C d n t rib u tor s . ......... o o ., ..... o ...................... o ........... 1 01 \ List of S ubscr r s ••••••••••••• ..... ................... ... o " •••• 1 02 Carbide ..... .. ." •• o. ,,.;.• .... o .... •• o .... o .... .... e ..... • •. • • ., o ....... 106 Cover Front CoveJ?.'::. , :star Mountains The Upper. Bluff viewed from Oarai Limestones at this fault scarp which forms part of 'Lirn.eston:e. Barrier t •. . The lower phofogr.aph shows a large doline on :the Do.kfuma Plateau .. The upper part.of the Darai Limestone can be seen extending to only 15m the tjoline floor .• The. overlying beds cons1st of rocks ?Orn in thickness. This is a splendid of novered karst. Photographs by. Mike Shephard. Back Cover Papua New G'uinea Speleology This photograph shows a platform constructed by the local people for catching flying foxes .... a Mianmin delicacy. Mianmin Insurgence tave, West Sepik Province. This photograph by R •. N. Hrit.ten will also occur on the back cover of Niugini Caver ..

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74 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBtR 3 THE KARST MORPHOLOGY OF THE EASTERN STAR MOUNTAINS Dr. M. J. Shepherd* In February 1965 a small Australian expedition spent several months in the eastern Star Mountains region (Fig. 1). A general account of the expedition has been published by Shepherd (1974). , "(his account concentrates on the limestone geomorphology af the region as this may of particular interest to speleologists. Limestone is the predominant rock type occurring in the area (Fig. 2) with the Upper Eocene to .. Middle Miocene Oarai Limestone reaching a thickness of 1 OOO. to 1300m and outcropping at the sriuthern edge of the mountains as the 'Limestone Harrier' which is a fault scarp. .Limestones of Miocene age alio'outcrop as conspicuous in the southern foothills area, particulatly in the vicinity of the Kauwol and Harem Riv.ers. In the northern foothills no extensive karst areas were seen. However, during both the journey from Telefomin to the Star Mountains, in the footh11Is and ridges of' the Hindenburg Range, and on the. return journey to the north of the mairi divide, areas of doline karst at altitudes 1500 and 270Dm. THE SOUTHERN. F-OOTHILLS The writer \iislted limestone areas in this zone, which varied he.tweeh '750 and 1700m in altitude. Li th.olog1cally the limesto'n"ets "fairly pure cream, brown and grey crystalline limesto'n'es wTth siliceous horizons. The karst _type developed upon these rocks' 1n' all cases was dol1ne karst with the bowl shaped dolines not" observed to. exc"eed 15m in depth.' FieTd observations and aerial photograph interpreta-ion. indicate .. that no typically tropical karst such.as {cone karst), were present in regibn. The foo hill zone. is by lower montane forest vegetation which varies in composition from place to place but. with .stands of southern commonly . undergrowth varies in density, although rarely hampering and includes Pandanus screw pines and climbing bafuboo. A variety of trees and shrubs grow in the Valley below approximately 900 metres. Measurement.of the carbonate content of streams which issue from effluxes near the base of the limestone ridges showed calcium carbonate in solution to be. close to, .or slightly exceeding .satura'.tion point for. the. particular temperature and pH of the wa:ter., Travertine is rapidly being: deposited on the both within and outside the limestone areas, and some small streams were seen flowing * Dept. of Geography, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 75 above that of the adjacent valley floor owing to the deposition of travertine As such streams are liable to break through their levee banks and follow new courses a considerable amount df,travertine may accumulate on the valley Similarly travertine deposition has caused some waterfalls to extend downstream until they project far beyond their original position. THE STAR MOUNTAINS A complex pattern of karst forms occurs in the mountains.The major factors influencing karst development are structure lithology, presence or absence of a surface cover of ' impermeatle rocks, altitude and stage. Four different karst types were recognised. (I) Deline Karst This karst type with dolines small or moderate in size occurs at altitudes of less than 31400 metres on limestones either with no surface cover or with a relatively thin cover of impermeable rocks. Areas with this karst type A! On the outcropping limestones of Benstead Bluff before they dip northwards beneath a cover of rocks. There to be a.concentration of dolines at the junction of the limestone with the overlying shales. The doline karst here is at an altitude of 3000 to 3400 metres. B. In the southern part of Lake Krom Basin where limestones are either exposed at the surface or covered with a thin layer of elastic These vary in altitude 2300 and 2700 metres• c. In various other localities to the west of the South Ban River near ths Irian Jaya border, and in the vicinity of the Krom River. (II) Covered Karst On the subdued surfaces of Dokfuma Plateau and the northern part of the Lake Vivien Krom Basin the Darai Limestone is overlain by shales, siltstones and sandstones of the Iwoer Formation (nomenclature of Bar, Cartel, Escher1(1961)). These elastic rocks reach a thickness of up to 150 metres. The karst forms developed in these areas are both varied and unusual. A. On the Ookfuma Plateau three dolines of very large size occur, being 90 metres in depth and nearly SOD metres in width. One or more streams flow into these dolines .and either disappear down rock choked swallets or into muddy ponds. One doline has a flat swampy alluvial floor, two metres in width which .is vegetated by tussock grass in contra!t to.the sides. Where exposed' fill was to consist of sediment of clay and silt grad? with of gabbles. The doline walls, which slope at approximately 20 are mainly formed

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76 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 on ahales and sandstonea1 massive limestone may oUtdrop in the 15 .metres of the dolines. For t;.hese dolines to. have formed the overlying shales a"n:d _ sandstones have been removed py the underground drainagg._ initial d.epression, however, must have been formed e.it.her by .. the collapse of caverns in the massive limestone below; or.by slow solution at the top of the limestone. It seems likely . that )the dolines are located either upon fault li.,._nes. or upon. major joints, as both these phenomena were observed in the vicinity of the influxes. In addition to the large dolines there are a number of shallow terraced basins develbped on the rocks streams drain into smaller blind valleys.. The vegetation of these basins of a small fern, of grass and tree in contrast to the mossy forest surrounding them. As all evidence suggests that this area had never previously been visited by humans, it is likely that this vegetation type is to temperature inversion rather than. burning off: frequent frosts were experienced at night at Camp Dokfuma (3100 in one of these basins. .. Terraces occur up to 60 metres above the basin floors with up to four flights present. As all terraces slope towards the centre of the basins at levels below the lowest basin rim, it may be concluded that they are related to the stage of landscape development, in which stream gradi$nts are . adjusting to lowering base levels as doline deepening occurs. At present the streams to be a period of incision. ' In the east and northeast of Dokfuma Plateau a series of dolines of various sizes, grassy basins and a small palje. adjoin to farm a single, longitudinal complex which extends for a distance of five kilometres. This series of karst forms is similar in many respects to the 'karst valleys• described by Malott (19391 1944), These karst valleys originate by the deepening .of normal valleys developed upon impermeable rocks until they reach the underlying limestone when they develop karst and underground drainage. Whereas the drainage of the main valley is development, the may be normally. developed. . The northern most unit of the complex is termed a polj.e . .. because, in spite of its small size when compared with most European=pbljes, it has many features of that karst form. The-polje consists flat grassy alluvial floor, about 100 hectares in area, entirely surrounded by steep sided hills which rise to 250. metres above it. . . Limestone outcrops in the lower of these hills. four tributary valleys 'which join the polje from ,the riorth f.orm deep embaymehts; up to 1.Skm long; into the surrounding hills. The streams of the two northwesterntributary valleys do not reach the main part of the polje but flow into sinks in the NIUGINI VOLUME 5 NUMBER 3 "' .. 0 ; .a I G ' ., .. "" s _J,.,, I A&..4>4US . 77

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78 . I NIUGINI AVER VOLUME 6 3 STAI!? MOUNTAINS GEOLOGY MAP NIUGINI VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 79 LEGEND.FOR GEOLOGY MAP OF THE STAR MOUNTAINS QUATERNARY Qa Qs Gravel, sand, silt, mud: alluvium Chaotic deposits of rock fragments, slumped slate and shale Qpm Glacial moraine Star Mountain Tps Porphyritic micromonzonite, microdiorite microgranodiorite, minor medium grained equivalents Intrusives Mount Ian Gabbro Tpq Antares MonzonitB Tpa Gabbro Monzonite, granodiorite, adamellite, fine grained equivalents, minor tuff 1 agglomerate, lava Warre Limestone Tmr White fossiliferous limestone, partly. tuffacBous with marl interbed Member Pnyang Formation Tmp Soft, grey calcareous mudstone and siltstone with limestone Iwoer Formation Tmi Grey and black siltstone, silty quartz sandstone, rare lignite -Darai Limestone ,_ Tr . Algal-f6raminiferal biomicrite . sandy biomicrite and pelsparite near bass, minor dolomite and rare chert Ieru f"o'.!:'mation Kuabgen Group Atemin Shale Orn Beds _CRETACEOUS Kui Glauconitic quartz sandstone, -minor mudstone, siltstone, bioturgated micaceous sandstone Ku 2 Marine elastic mostly fine grained Jki Dark grey mud$tone and siltstone, sandstone, minor arkose Ja Dark grey shale, calcareous and sandy. in part Jo Black carbonaceou$ siltstone and . mudstone with concretions and pyritic and lens

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80 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 a -.... --geological boundary raul t (o,u indicates relative movement down,!Jp) lineament • , , , .. escarpment : strike.and dip of strata Geology' from: P. N. G. 1:250 OOO Geological Series Blucher.Range of Papua.New Guinea 1:1 OOO OOO 1972 valley floors. The westernmost tributary stream is the with deposits of coarse alluvium, into which it filters. tn the western part of the polJe several flow across the flat swampy floor and unite into a single stream which terminates in a sinkhole pond at the foot of a small cliff which shows signs of faulting. In the northern part of the polje a prominent scarp separates an upper terrace from the lower alluvial floor. The . deposits forming the terrac,e, which, are expo,sed in a steep sided doline, consist mainly of angtilar sandstone and limestone pebbles within a silt/clay matrix .. Much of the sediment probably originat,ed as periglacial material of Pleistocene age. Although the and of this polje is open to some the .theory proposed by Louis (1956) for the origin of ih the Taurus Mountains appears to fit the observed facts. Louis (1956) states that when insoluble debris is deposited in a concave relief form within a limestone area the base layer becomes impermeable and NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 81 pronounced karst erosion takes place where the streams which are alluviating the floor impinge upon the bare limestone, causing the limestone slopes forming the frame torecede with a cliff-like lower section. In the case 6f the polje on the Ookfuma Plateau both alluviation and uhdercutting are Streams upon the swampy floor causing recession of limestone cliffs they.swing against the hillside. It is uAlikely that the level of the polje floor is . conne6ted with groundwater rest levels, which are probably at considerable depths. More probably the level of the floor is caused by a balance between surface water supply and subterranean drainage. That this balance is a delicate one is indicated by tho highwater marks which rise to approximately 5 metres above the subterranean outlet, ihdicating that a considetable portion of the polje floor is inundated during periods of heavy rainfall. Although infilling of the polje floor may occur independently of climatic change, by blockage of the drainage outlets, it seems likely that a former period of infill, as evidenced by the 15 metre terrace occurred during the last Pleistocene glaciation. At that time it is probable that surface from the surrounding cover would have increased owing to a thinning of the vegetation and severe frost weathering would have greatly increased the amount of debris available for alluviation of the polje floor. Evidence from other of Dokfuma Plateau and the Krom Valley points to a period of sediment deposition followed by a period of incision. B. The Lake Vivien -Krom Basih. This 6onsists mainly of. covered karst at an altitude of 2,300 to 2,600 metres. Karst development has not reached the stage found on the Ookfuma Plateau, and streams flowing across the rocks drain into relatively small or blind valleys. Vivien itself, the lake in the Star Mountains, is enclosed in a small steep sided basin whose -90 to 150 metre high rim-is composed of shales and siltstones. The lake is entirely by banks vegetated with a tall grassA The grass ends abruptly at a height of 8 metres above the normal level, which is controlled. by a sink a few metres frbm the uater'a into which single outlet stream disappears. level at which the forest ends and 'the begins is the high mark of the lake. This indicates the inability the lake's to_accomodate. any significantly ihcreased flow. The banks shelve steeply . underwater. The lake prdbably a large doline similar to those on Ookfuma Plateau, whose subterranean outlet is sufficiently restricted to enable a lake to form.

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82 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 The floor of the lake may rionsist of impermeable rocks or of limestone sealed by a cover of alluvium. (IlI) Karst Adjoining the karst complex in the eastern part of Dokfuma Plateau at an altitude of 3,000 is a small area of karst which developed upon brown, crystalline limestone. This. karst style, which is a, variety of polygonal karst, is by dolines between which rise pyramid-shaped hills. The pyram+ds rise to heights of 30 to 60 metres above the doline and in one case adjacent dolines were separated by a edged ridge of bare limestone. It may.be further and inosculation of the dol1nes will lead to the. development of the Mt. Kaijende type of karst described by and Bik (1962). The latter consists of ft vertically knife-edged aretes and pinnacles of bare limestone standing like battlements around dolines covered by mossy forest of montane aspectn (pp. 1036-7). There may well be a genetic relationship between these two karst types. (IV) Karst This/kaist type, characterised by a relative minor solutionalforms, but with dolines infrequent, roe.curs on Ross Bluff (3,500 metres) and the Capelli Spitzkarren were.observed at heights as low as 3,000 metres but varied and lapies were observed at heights lower than 3,400 metres. Apart ,f_rom the of in the higher valleys of the Capella massif, solifluction would_ : have temoved much of the soil frqm the higher slopes during the last glacial period. The of this, added to the ' lack of any stablising vegetation was to bate rock surfaces to solutional processes. Any rounded sub-soil solutional forms that were present prior,to the removal of soil have heen modified to f Spitzkarien and ridges and grikes of intricate Such lapies forms. are. or.ienta ted parallel to ,,,the . directioh of the strike which commonly runs east-west. The grikss bf the lapi's !o a of 2 but mingling with them are solutional pipes which may extend to greater 30 metres. These, are rarely associated with the infrequent shallow dolines that occur :: in the_ longitudinal J?int or fault guided .. depreeaions. Solution has been concentrated in Joints which run in two major directions at 50 and 140 • Th.ese disse6t into blocks9 the central vailey, and the deepening of the by solution has probably been increased by glacial and snow meltwater. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 83 Many minor solutional forms are present in this area, including such varieties as solution ripples {nomenclature of Jennings, pers. comm.), Trittkarren, Hillenkarren, Maanderkarren and Kamenitsa (Bolgi, 1960). No large underground caverns were discovered, possibly because the runoff which initially infiltrates into the limestone inriumerable joint$, fissures and solution pipes not become sufficiently concentrated for large caverns to form until considerable depths in the limestone are reached. The fact _that ,unlike their [uropean counterparts, the New mountains appear to have besn affected by only one glaciation may be of considerable importance when considering stages of. No signs of phreatic development were: seen in ariy of the small caves entered, and dripstone formations were very limited in extent, Most caves in the Capella Massif and at high altitudes elsewhere which were visited by the writer were partly filled by deposits of glacial. or periglacial origin which prevented exploration. KARST DRAINAGE An area 6f about s,ooo hectares is drained by subterranean channels in the Star Mountains. However, subterranean drainage is impeded beneath many .of the dolines.and beneath the dry V-9.Jirey o.f the Krom River where water rest evels in caves 30 metres below the surface. In one case a small stream was found flowing in a cave at a depth of 25 metres beneath the.Krom River bed. In the northern part of the Vivien -Krom Basin and in the vicinity of the Beroro Pass the Krom River flows at the surface when blaatic rocks are but rapidly underground when limestone is reached. However, the dry river bed is not overgroL:Jn with vegei:;a tion and at times of exc.eptionally heavy rainfall surface flow must occur, indicating an inefficient system of underground drainage. Although a quantity of water drains into the limestone not observe any major effluxes at the base of the Darai.Limestone which outcrops to the south as the Limestone Barrier. This was not surprising, perhaps in view of the fact that the limestones dip northwards in the vicinity of hugs scarp. It is presumed that the subterranean drainage follows an easterly direction towards the Ilam River, or a westerly direction towards the Ban River, along the.axis of folding. Unftirtunately, the. expedition was unable to visit these areas where major be expected. DISCUSSION The main factors influencing the morphology of karst forms are structure, lithology 1 climate, vege;ta tion and stage.

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84 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 With regard to stage, youthful forms appear -to predominate over most of Dokfuma Plateau and the Lake Vivien -Krom Basin areas which are in the stage of the proposed bycvijio(Sanders, 1921). However, the forms present differ from those of the cycle proposed by Cvijic (Sanders, 1921) in that: . (a) long before the limestone bedrock isexposed the impervious cover, karst forms of a depressional type occur which disrupt the drainage. (b) even in the most youthful stage,drainage in the Star Mountains is almost entirely underground whenever limestone is Thus it is assumed by the writer that an efficient system of underground dtainage has been more quickly in this case than in theoretical cycle ofCvijic (Sanders, 1921). : The area Of pytamid-and-doline karst of Dokfuma Plaieau cannot be related to Cvijic's cycle; Williams (1972) has discuseed the origin of karst. To the south of that area is a region of recently uncovered limestone in which many closely spaced dolines are .forming, and this area may well be in the first stage of pyramid-and-doline karst develqpmeht. As regards the influence of climate upon karst forms, although an altitudinal range varying frdm 750 to 3,800 metres was covered.during the doline karst predominated everywhere. The small area of dolinekarst is the only tropical karst type occurring in the eastern Star Mountains. This karst type has beeri described by V.erstappen and Delft (1964 pp.45 -48.) to be restricted limestones (lithological facttir) and to altitudes below 2,000 metres factcir) in the we$tern part uf the Star Mountainswithin Irian Jaya. However, the writer has established that in the Star Mountains pyramid-and-doline karst occurs at a of 3,000 metres on pure brown limestones. Nor is this .. a unique case, for Jennings and Bik (1962) describe its occurrence at an.altitude of 3,100 metres above the Nia apline grasslands in-the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Not only is the. rainfall very high in this area (probably between 4,000 and 6,0DOmm annually) but the outcropping limestone is covered with a thick growth of mossy vegetation. The pH of water squeezad from moss at.this altitude varied between 4.4 and 4.9.'Consequently an abundance of aggressive runoff water is likely to be produced. Such conditiorts be necessary for the development of pyramids and dolines in association. Given a range of possible karst styles which may develop within ce,rtain altitudinal limits, the type of karst which forms appears to be determined by lithology, all other NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 85 factors being equal. However, little research has been carried out the relationship between the physical-characteristics of limestones and the karst t'/;::es developed upon them. Verstappen (1964) states that in the western Stat Mountains and kegelkarst are restricted 6nly to limestones with a high water absorbing capacity and therefore with regularly distributed infiltration ' The writer the water absorbing capacity of limestones from pyramid-and-doline karst and from other karst styles in the eastern Star Mountains. It was found that there was considerable variation within the limestones of individual karst types, but little overall difference between limestones from the pyramid-and-daline area and limestones from areas with different karst styles. The writer believes the secondary permeability of 'limestones by which water moves down joints and fissures to be far ' than primary porosity in infiltration characteristics in a particular andg all other factors being equal, the resultant karst REFERENCES Bar, Cortel5 EschP1,, 1961 : Geological Results of the Star Central Range, New Guinea. Nova Guinea, Geology, : 39 99. Bogli, A. 1960 : Kalklosung Karrenbildung. z. Suppbd. l: 4 21. Jennings, J. N., Bik, M. J. 1962 : Karst Morphology in Au9tralian r.Jou Guinea. Nature (land.), ill : 1036 8 Louis, Ho 1956 : Die Entstenung der Polje und Stellung in der Karstsbcragung,, ,_, Heit 2, abstract : 33-4 Malott, c. A. 1 39 : Karst Valleys. Ge o l • s o c 1 r .. r __ B u l l l.} 9 .Q :1 9 8 4 • Malott, A. 1944 : Significant Features of Indiana Karst. Proc. Indiana Acad, Sci., 54 : 8 24. E. : The Cycle of Erosion in a Karst Region. Geogr. Rev .• 11 593 604. Shephard, M. J. 1965 : B. A. Honso Thesis, Dept. Sydney University. Shephard, M. J. 1974 : The 1965 Star Mountains Expedition. Niugini Caver, i(2) : 240 243. Verstappen, 1959 : Preliminary Geomorphological of the 1959 Netherlands New Guinea Star Mountains Expeditibn. Tijdschr. Konk. ned. Gen_oot, 12. : 305 .... 311.

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86 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 Verstappen, H. 1964 : The Geomorphology of the Star Mountains. Nova Guinea, Geology: 101.-156. ' H., Delft,. 1964: Karst Morphology of the Star .. Mountains and.its Relation to Lithology and Climate. Z. j! .: . 40 ..... 49 • Williams, p ... lJ. : Mo;rphometric Analysis of Polygonal . Karst in. :Naw Guinea. G.eoL> S9c. Amer. Bul_l., fil. : 761-796 •. THE ADVANCE REPORT OF THE SPANISH SPELEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION rtPAPUA NEW GUINEA 197Btr A. Montserrat* and Fo Chavarria The.Spanish. $peleological Expedition apapua New Guinea 1978n took placa from. 24th July to 13th August in the Simbu . the exploration was done at Duglpagl, where thS": base _camp was located. The Pari and Yogomul areas were also ..v'isi ted. All together 14 were explored. These were: Ouglpagl 0g1 on Va m E? di r a ,1.1 • • k s ma 11 .,cave of 11 Orn 1 en g t h , situated about.150m above. the toad from Kundiawa to Gembogl. ., o6lon This cave is situated near the right bank of the Chimbu River, about 10 minutes from the bridge which joins the. ,road from Kundiawa to Gembogl to the road which follows Rivdr Gei. The total length ism with several fossil and some active ones. These are only a.ctive acco_tding'-. to the water level in the Chimbu River. Mim Koble. This is a system by two small caves by a syphona A small follows of the flows out of the cave and into. the Chimbu River. The total length is 225m., , Maig (fil,8bile). Th.is cave was explored in 1970 by Lex Brown and Bill Sanders (Brown, 1970). They didn't reach the and estimated.the depth of the explored to 16Dm •. e finished the exploration and measured a d"ep:th of 132m. . . Kansua., Thishore is located the. Gei River. It has a single shaft _of E!B'rn., " . . . Kegs Mur. located near top of Kegs Mount a four hour walk from Dwglpagl and about 3530m above sea The hol.,e; starts with a shaft 168m deep. A second shaft of 14m allows one to reach the total depth of 182m. * Avda America 17-21 Esca Baixos 1a Cerdanyola del Valles Barcelona, NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 87 Kege Cave. A small cave with a total length of 30m situated on the SE slope of Kege Mount, at about 3500m a.s.1 •• Arnold Mur. This has a single shaft of 23m. It is located near Kegs Mur at about 3620m a:s.l •• Kokenbogua. This hole, with a total depth of 34m, is located about 10m above the road from Kundiawa to Gembogl and about one kilometre to the north of Duglpagl. It has several small pitches with a large amount of loose stones which fall easily. Pari -Darua Muru. This cave has already been explored on several occasions fwilde, 1973; Bourke, 1976). In our exploration we reached a depth of 230m without reaching the end; at this point the passaqe is very narrow. The small river flowing through the pa:sage and dowh tho pitches makes exploration disagreeable. Oarua Cave. This cave appeared to be a second entrance to Darua Muru. It is located about 10m from the latter. It was explored to a depth of 40m were it seemed to join the part of the gallery of Darua Muru. Yogomul_ Irapui (Irukungai) This cave was already known in 1964, but the first exploration started in 1972 (Wilde, 1973). Exceeding 3000m in length, it was until 1975 the longest cave in PNG. Today it is the third, after the Atea Kanada {3D.5km1 explored in 1978) and Selminum Tern (20.Skm, in 1975). A partial survey of the cave was made, but some of thepassages appear to be partially unexplored. We mapped a total length of 2000m. Irapui Mur. Just below Irapui Cave and very close to the Kwi River, this small cave of 12m depth resurges in a small excavated by the Kwi River. Of the caves visited, the 168m pot of Kege Mur has resulted in the longest single descended pitch in PNG. (Tina Bu Tern in the Western Province is regardad as having a vertical pitch of 232m which has not been descended according to reports.) Kege Mur, together with Kege Cave and Arnold Mur, are the recorded entrances in PNG. It would be interesting to complete in detail the survey of Irapui to its total length and compare it with some of the largest systems in the country. Although this cave •has been known for more than 10 years, it has never been studied or surveyed previously.

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88 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 The Simbu has resulted in a very.satisfactory outcome for an expedition of such short duration and of limited The theoretical depth potential of the Duglpagl area is of the order of The area is rich in karst phenomena. On the last day of our visit we were informed of two caves situated close to and of a cave known Welakumare near Nogar, with .an large river inside. A short trip o'f' seven days Was made to the Enga Province. Porgera was the base camp from which Mount Kaijende {Assenda) and other areas close to this village were visited. Many holes were located but not explored. This brisf note cannot be ended paying tribute to the help given by Mike Bourke, Neil and Janet Ryan, Howard Beck and Malcolm and Pound. To all many thanks. Expedition Members Jordi Canivell Cirera(UES). L. Lluis Salvador Pons(3IRE-UEC) ReferencGs Fanceso Chavarria(GES-CMB) Hans Honnegar(EIE-PCB) Alfred Montserrat(ERE-CEC) Albert Tomas{SIRE-UEC) Brown, L. Mebile Cave, Chimbu Niugin Cavor 1(2) : 50 -520 Bourke, R, M. Oarua Muru, Chimbu Province 194m Deep and. Still Goir.g ci lliugini favC;3r _(1) 20 .... 22. Wilde, K. A. (1973a). The Hole, Porol Escarpment, Chimbu Niugini C::iver 1.(3) 67 -690 ' . Wilde, K. Ao (1973b). Irapui Cave, Poro! Escarpment, Chirr.bu Districto jj3) 70 -74. ., "'1\ THIRD CDr'IFERENCE ON TOURISf1l 'AND MANAGEMENT Will be:run jo{ni1; by the Australian Speleological Federation and the South Australian f!ational Park and Llildlife ServicEh The conference themes are 1. Classification and Assesment of Caves and 2. Educational and Recreational Uses of Caves. It will be held in Mount Gambisr, South Australia from 30th April,1979 to 4th For further information and to order copies of the Conference Procsedings Mr. E. H. Bailey; 2 Boorman Avenue, Pasadena, s. A. 5042 Australia. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 NOTES .ON PAPUA NEW GUINEA FOR OVERSEAS VISITOR$ Alison A. Pound* 89 This is a series of notes on a number of subjects of interest to overseas cavers who are considering coming to Papua New Guinea. This list has been drawn up in response to questions asked by expedition planners and individuals. We hope that this will help to ensure that cavers from overseas avoid making mistakes which could jeopardize future expeditions to this country. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of overseas speleological.expeditions visiting Papua New Guinea in recent years. In 1978, there has been expeditions from Australia, Japan1 france(2), Spain and the United Kingdom. It is a critical time For determining the attitude of the government to overseas cavers. Already the behaviour of biologists from two previous expeditions has jeoparized future research in biospeleology. formalities 1. Visas These may be obtained from any of the following: In Sydney: Consul General of P. N. G., 225 233 Clarence St., Sydney. G. P. o. Box 42011 Sydney In P. N. G. High Commission, 14 Waterloo Place, SWIR 4AR London. In Brussels i P. N. G. Mission to European Communities, Ave des Ombrages 118 1200 Brussels. In other countries the Australian missions will assist but the P. N. G. commissions can give more definitive answers to the problems which might arise with an expedition.Tourist visas for up to sixty days can be readily obtained. For longer periodst a special visa is required and this takes longer to obtain. In any case several months should be allowed visa applications to be processed. The reason for visiting P. N. G. should be clearly stated e.g. to explore caves or to conduct research on a particular topic. A K100 per person fee is generally charged to process applications for research. Consequently it is advisable for parties who intend to come only for cave exploration not to state that they are going to conduct research either on visa applications or in trip publicity. However if a party or individuals do not state their intention to conduct research and do so, this is likely to.jeodardize the chances of overseas cavers being allowed to * P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

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90 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 visit P. N •. G. at all. This is not an academic point the attitude of certain government dapartments towards overseas cavers has deteriorated in recent years. 2. Research, Collecting and Export (a) Anthropology For persons planning on conducting anthropological research in P. N. G.,. The Institute of P. N. G. Studies, P. D. Box 1432, Soroka, N. G. must be contacted well before you arrive and seen after your arrival. They can advise on the Don!ts in this matter. Also see Niugini Caver 2(4). """' ' (b) lilildlifE3 Apartfrom the usual constraints regarding protected and . wildlife9 no wildlife (vertebrate or tjead and' including remains like shells.or booes) . from-this country without a permit. Details of and on collecting and research in are contained in 1.Jildlife Publication 77/7, ncollecting, Export, Research and Filming 1.Jildlife in Papua New Guinean and may be obteined from Wildlife Branch, of Lands Environment,P. o. Box 2585, Konedobu, Po No Goo When you write asking for this publication give them information on your proposed plans -(e.g. where you .intqnd to.:collect, what groups you are interested in 9 and ,t.Jha t institution you are affilated. with.). It is illegal. to import or use mist nets for any purpose a are in the above publication. If ypu do intend to 9olieot allow time at the beginning cif your trip to see 1.Jildlife Branch and confirm your written with:them and then allow three working days at the end of :your visit in Port Moresby for the processing of (c) Botanical Similar conditions apply for the collection and export of plant material and research as do for The contact for subject is The Director, Office of Forests, P. o. . Box 5055, Soroka, •• (d) Other The other main topic cif interest to cavers would be . researcih. The contact there is The Chief Government Geologist, Geological Survey of Papua Guinea, P. D. Box Port Moresby, P. No G.i If your work covers geography, then rif Geography, of P.O. P. N. G •• rf wotk covers -any areas then contact The Edl tor:, ;P. N. G. Cave Exploration Group P • 0 • 8 ox 3 8 2 4 , Port M'o re s by , P • N •. G • • 3. Q.uarar\tine A have experienced probiemswith the importing of foodstuffs. _A.s a .ba_si.c QUideline, no egg powder can be no dairy products can imported NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 91 except from Australia and New Zealand. From then on it becomes more complicated, but meat products from continential Europe and the United States are in general restricted, while most (provided they are not insect infested) are all right. Further details can be obtained from The Senior Quarantine Agriculture Branch, Department of Primary Industry, P. o. Box 2417 Konedoubu, P.N.G •• Our recommendation is that you buy most of your food here as this saves on transport costs and avoids the quarantine problem. It also means that the expedition contributes some foreign exchange to the country. Also see note 18. 4. Two -way Radios Permission is needed to import and operate two-way radios, walkie talkies and remote control transmitters. This permission and further details can be obtained from the Radio Licensing Branch, Department of Public Utilities, Port Moresby, P. N. G •• Customs may confiscate such items brought into the country without permission. 5. Firearms These may not be imported without prior permission from the Police. Air rifles and .22 rifles are included, even if they are to be used for scientific collecting. Enquires should be addressed to Officer in Charge, Firearm Registry, Police Headquarters, P. o. Box 2085, Konedobu, P. N. G •• It is recommended that no firearms are taken on any expedition. Travel 6. To Papua New Guinea P. N. G. can be approached by air from Sydney, Cairns, Hong Manilla,Jayapura (Indonesia) and Honiara {Solomon Islands). These are cities to which the national airline, Air Niugini, flies overseas. Details of overseas shipping to P. N. G. are found in npacific Islands Monthlyn (G. P. O. Bax 3408, Sydney, Australia). It gives a list of companies and their addresses with details of routes. A recent copy will give you up to date information. We recommend that at least some members of your group spend at least 2 3 working days in Port Moresby visiting government departments etc. before your departure for the bush. On return some time should also be allowed particularly where permits etc. have to be processed.,. 7. Internal Travel Road transport is restricted in P. N. G •• There is road access from Lae to the Highlands but gravel roads combined with heavy rain can make this approach slow. There is a good network of roads within part of the highlands and on New Ireland •. Vehicle hire is expensive e.g. K60 -90 per day for a Land ( a four wheel drive vehicle and necessary for minor roads). The only practical alternative

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92 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 3 is to fly. This is expensive (e.g. Port Moresby Goroka -Port Moresby K96). Particularly for large parties with large amounts of gear this can be unreliable. There are two types of air travel • firstly with Air Niugini to larger centres e.g. Goroka, Lae,Madang, Mt. Hagen using F27 and F28 aircraft and secondly with third level operators. These planes (e.g. Cessna 206 (3 passengers)and Islander (9 passengers)) fly to the smaller airstrips. There are a large number of airstrips suitable for light aircraft throughtout the country. To charter an Islander aircraft costs K165 per hours flying time and a Nomad ( 1 3 pas_sengers) costs K275 per hours flying time. A helicopter charter costs K245 per hour plus oil and fuel. Some third level operators are: Douglas Airway Pty. Ltd.,P. o. Box 1179, soroko, P. N. G. Missionary Aviation Fellowship, P. o. Box 273, Mt. Hagen, PNG Talair Pty. Ltd., P. o. Box 108, Goroka, P. N. G. Ferguion Helicopters, P. o. Box 1975, Soroka, P. N. G. An point to note when flying in P. N. G. is to ensure that your internal reservations are confirmed 2 days in advance of your departure date. Failure to do this will _ result in you losing your seats. This is another reason for at least part of your group to arrive several days in advance. Boats can be used to get to the coastal areas of New Britain and New Ireland. Once again these are not cheap and you cannot rely on a boat-being where you want it when you it. Most problems with transport for expeditions arise from the fact that they are generally trying to get large volumes of goods to remote areas. The difficulties and delays of moving large numbers of people and their associated gear within the country cannot be overstressed. Problems. 8. Malaria \ In all coastal areas and most highland regions of P. N. G. malaria is a The Health Department prophylaxis be .taken by all non-immune (this.includes overseas visitors) a The recommended drug is Chloroquine at a rate of 300 weeklye If you are intending to visit areas in West Sepik, Western, Gulf or recommended drug is Maloprim (combination of pyr1metham1ne s. 12.Smg and Oapsone B. P. 100mg) at a rate of one tablet weekly. Chloroquine resistant malaria in these areas necessiating the change. This treatment should be started several weeks before arrival. Further information.and.an information sheet for health workers HProposed Gu1del1nes of Malaria based on the Present Status of Malaria Infection in Papua New Guinea1v is available f Malaria Control Programme H. Q., Oepattment of P. O! 2249, Konedobu, P. N. G •• On return to your country origin sure you inform your doctor that you have 1n a malar1ous area shouid you become ill in the next months. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 93 9. Internal Parasites The only other parasitic disease of any importance here is hookworm. This can be treated by Combantrin {pyrantel base as pyrantel embonate) which is a one dose treatment. A course on return home is recommended. 10. Dysentery It is not a major health hazard, but is common enough for prscautions to be taken. Water should be taken upstream of villages. In populated areas, this means that untreated water should not he drunk. 11. General Medical Supplies Details of what previous expeditions have taken and used are the best guide. This information is generally listed in their reports. 12. Fatigue A point to be aware of is heat fatigue, particularly so in the lowlands. To come from a northern winter to the coastal regions of P. N. G. (average daily maximum 31c, R. H. 80%) can result in tiredness particularly when combined with jet lag. Be aware of jet lag if coming from Europe, for example, and do not plan too much for the first few days. Low dose sleeping tablets can be helpful for the first few nights. 13. Animals There is little by way of dangerous wildlife in P. N. G •• There are snakes but these are generally active only at night and so are not seen. Pythons (non-poisonous) are common in some caves. Mosquitoes can be\a problem in some areas and can be controlled by repellant. Fleas are a nuisance particularly in the highlands, and dog-flea powder sprinkled liberally around house7sleeping bags will help. Insecticide preparations suitable for skin use on people are available. 14. Earthquakes are very common in some areas of P. N. G., but they are not a hazard underground. 15. Flooding Most cave areas in P. N. G. receive high rainfall (2 OOO 3 OOOmm per annum) and many caves are active stream systems, some of which fill completely. Therefore the risk of flooding can be high. To reduce this problem most expeditions try to plan their trips for the 'dry' season. This period with geographical location. Also rain generally occurs in the afternoons and early evenings making early starts advisable.

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94 NIUGINI. CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 other 16. Relationship with Papua New Guineans It is important to remember that the P. N. G. people own the land and therefore they own the caves. Their permission must be gained before caving commences. In most villages there are councillers, committee members and/or traditional leaders. It is important that these people be told what you wish to do and their permission gained. If you require guides and/or porters these will often help you in this matter. Guides ar& necessary for you to find the caves and are generally available. It is to be remembered that most cave entrances in P. N. G. are known to the people particularly the good hunters. A guide will also stop you from entering caves which are 'tambu' (prohibited to Breaking of prohibition by. cavers is likely to result in the closure of that area to other cavers. Do not try and force people. to show you caves. The hire of porters in some areas can be difficult particularly when large amounts of material are involved. The current rate is K2 K3 per day plus food while in the bush. It is polite when your expedition is published to send copies to these people who will have helped you a great deal. 17. Maps and Aerial Photographs Topographic maps of the following scalea: 1 :100 0001 :250 0001 . 1:1 OOO OOO, 1:50 OOO*, 1 :25 OOO* are available from National Mapping Bureau, P. D. Box 5665, Soroka, N. G. Geolo9ica.l maps at 1:1 OOO OOO, 1 :250 OOO* (with explanatory notes) are also available from National Mapping Bureau. * They only cover certain areas of P. N. G. -ask for details. Aerial photography is available from National Mapping Bureau and Department of Forests, P. o. Box 5055, Boroko, P. N. G., but permission from the Surveyor General, Department of Lands and Enyiroment, P. 0. Box 5665, Soroka, P .. -N. G. must be gained before the photography can leave the'. country or be 18. Equipment and Food Carbide ia from CIG, P. o. 93, Lae, P. N. G. in 100kg drums at a rate of K90 per 100kg. It is advisible to bring all camping and caving gear as the latter unavailable and camping gear supplies are unreliable and expensive. Most foodstuffs can be purchased in the larg.er towns (Port Lae, Rabaul, Goroka, Mt. Hagen, Madang, .Wewak, Kieta). Dried meat is not usually obtainable., The range of goods is more restricted in smaller centres. Food is cheaper in the coastal towns. Local food '(tropical root crops, green vegetables and fruit) can of ten be purchased from village people but supply of large quantities cannot guaranteed. Local food is unavailable in remote karst areas which are of interest to major expeditions. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 95 19. Camping and Accomodation In the bush you are responsible for your own arrangements. See expedition reports for suggestions. Accomodation is available in some villages in 'haus kiaps' (a house set aside in the village for visitors). There are cheap hostels available in some towns. These are generally owned by churchs and are mainly for their staff when they visit town and so . it is hard to make arrangements in advance about their availability. There are also council run guest houses in some centres. There are no youth hostels or equivalents. There are no camping grounds where you can pitch a tent. In Port Moresby, a night's accomodation at a major hotel can cost between K25 K30 a night without meals. The Civic Guest House is cheaper K14 (bed and breakfast). 20. Language The official languages of P. N. G. are English, Pidgin and Motu. English is spoken widely in towns and is the language of offical channels. Pidgin is spoken throughout the islands, north coast and highlands. Motu is spoken mainly along the southern coast. Pigin is spoken in all the areas of interest to overseas cavers and knowledge of pidgin is essential for at least some members of the party. A good way to learn pidgin is by the use of tapes and a textbook. The course is called 'A Programmed Course in New Guinea Pidgin' by Robert Litteral (Jacaranda Press, 1971). The Summer Institute of Linguistics, Ukarumpa, Eastern Highlands Province, P.N.G. can be contacted in this regard. 21. Currency P. N. G. 1 s currency is a decimal' system with the Kina equalling 100 toea. Kina come as notes of the following denominations. K20, K10, KS and K2 with K1 being a large 'silver• coin with a central hole. Toea come as 20t, 1Dt, St 'silver coins' and 2t and 1t •copper coins•. The value of the Kina is variable but is currently K1 = $A1.26, K1 = $US1.47, K1 = stg0.74 (19.10.78). Banks will accept notes from major and no trouble should be encountered with well known brands of cheques. Some expeditions have found it expedient to have an account with a bank here. The Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation, P. o. Box 78, Port Moresby, P. N. G. and the Bank of New South Wales, P. o. Box 77, Port Moresby, P. N. G. operate branchs in a large number of centres. 22. Trading Hours Government offiees are open from 7.45 am to 4.06 pm and are closed for lunch between 12 noon and 1 pm. Monday to Friday. Banks to 2 pm, Monday to Thursday and 9 am to 5 pm on friday. Most business houses are open from 8 am to 4.30 pm or 5 pm. Lunch-time opening is variable.

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96 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 '23,, Clothing In the areas a short sleeved shirt and shorts plus footwear are adequate. In highland areas warm clothes are necessary (e.g. long jeans, long sleeved jumper) particularly at night or during rain. In lowland areas cotton overalls are all that is necessary for in wet highland caves a wetsuit is useful. Some sample.temperatures: Location Height Av. max. Av. min. Rabaul 4m 31C 23c Lae Port Moresby Goroka Mt. Hagen Mt. lJilhem 30m 35m 1630m 1630m 3480m 30C 31c. 26C 24C 11c 22C 23C 15C 13C 4CRainfall(mm) 2244" 4617 1197 1921 2586 further information on P. N. G.'s climate is contained in Mc Alpine J. R., Keig G. and Short K. 'Climatic Tables for Papua New Guinea' 1975 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Land Research Technical Paper No. 37. and is obtainable from CSIRD, Central Library and Information Services, P. o. Box 89, East Melbourne, Australia, 3002. 24. Mail Delivery There is no mail delivery to houses in P. N. G. and therefore P. o. Box numbers are not street addresses. It also means that mail which includes the name Port Moresby anywhere in the address goes to Port Moresby Post The f6llowing are Post Offices in the city of Port Moresby; lJaigini, Wards Hohola, Badili, and Port Moresby. 25. Seasonal Effects The major saasonal variation is in the rairifall, although parts of the country do experience a slight winter. In correspondence with P. N. G. do not use the terms 1fall1 , 'winter• etc •• Apart from the confusion as to which 'winter', for example, you are to residents tsnd to forget when these seasons occur.at any rate. Rainfall distribution patterns vary between locations but in general most locations experience a 1wet' and a 'dry' season. The 'dry' season in most karst areas extends from July to October but on the south coast of New Britain the 1dry' season is from November to April. The •wet' .and 'dry' are relative. Monthly rainfall in excess of 50Dft!m :sometimes occurs iri the 'dry• season and in of 3000mm in the •wet•. Average annual rainfall. varies from 1000mm to 9000mm but is in the range of 2000mm to 4000mm in most areas. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 97 26. Publication When your expedition has finished your results have to be distributed within P. N. G •• The easiest way to ensure that your results get a wide distribution within N. G. and amongst people interested in P. N. G. caving is to prepare an article for Caver. It is preferred that your major report go to Niugihl Caver and The Editor, Malcolm D. Pound, P. o. 3824, Port Moresby, P. N. G. would be most willing to discuss your requirements. The government is extremely to groups who come to P. N. G. and who(a) never publish or (b) publish in a fcroign magazine which has no circulation in P. N. G •• Publication in Niugini Caver does not prevent you publishing as you desire in your own country as well. 27. Contacts These' people live in P. N. G. and can give you advice and information. Malcolm Pound, P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, P. N. G. Also the editor of Niugini Caver. R. Bourke, P. D. Box 384, Kainantu, Eastern Highlands Province, P. N. G. Hans P. o. Box 731 Panguna, North Solomons Province, Papua New Guinea. Allan Goulbourne, P. o. Box 898, Lae, Morobe Province, P.N.G. The following people have led expeditions to P. N. G. and can give advice on topics. Dr. Julia James, School of Chemiatiy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Australia. 2006 David s. Gillieson, Department of Geography, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane,.Queensland, Australia. 4067 R. Michael Bourke, P. o. Box 384, Kainantu, Eastern Highlands Province, P. N. G. Kevan w. Wilde 28. Relevant Publications All issues of Niugini Caver are of interest to someone planning a caving expedition to P. N. G. but the following contain specific expedition reports. Bourke, M. (1973). The 1972 73 u. Q. s. s. New Britian Expedition. Niugini Caver 1(2) : 27 42. Brown, A. L., Bourke, R. M., Shannon, c. H. c. (1976) Lelet : Report of the 1975 New Ireland Speleological Expedition. Niugini Caver 4(3) : 85 -136. -. -

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98 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 Gillieson, D. s. (1977). Lelet : Report of the 1976 New Ireland Speleological Expedition. Niugini Caver (3): 61-101 James, J., Kitig, R., N. (1977}. Muller,176. Niugini Caver 5(4) :. 102 128. . The f9llowing are also available: James:, J.: ( compiler). ( 1 974). Papua New Guinea speleological Expedition NSRE 1973. Sp'ele'ological Research Council Ltd., P •. o. Box 2351 Kingsford, New South Llales,Australia. 2032 Brook, D. (compiler) The New . Spele9logical Expedition, 1975. Trans. Brit. Cave Res. Ass.oc. 3(3,4) : 115 243 available from Brian Ellis, 30 Main Rd., Westonzoyland, Bridgewater, Somerset, England. TA7 DEB Bourke, R. M. (1976). Wanted : Explorers for P. N. G. Caves. Australian Federation Newsletter nb. 73. avallable from Robin Steenson1 10 Binda St., Merrylands West, New South Uales, Australia. 2160. Conclusion A caving trip to Po N. G. should be a-most exciting and rewarding experience but visitors should not underestimate the logistica problems. ThG beaucratic requirements are still relatively easy to negotiate. Whether they remain so will depend very muqh on the behaviour of cave explorers from overseas in the next few years. RSlationships with the cave owners, strict .adherance to regulatibns cqncerning research, collection of biological material, non -interference with traditional or archaelogical sites and publication of results within P. N. Go are ateas that are especially imp6rtant in determining future access of overseas cavers to the world's most exciting .and deve.loping caving. nation. Acknowledgements. The author wishes to acknowledge the extensive assistanca given by R. M. Bourke in the preparation. Further comment& by F. Parker and M. Pound are also acknowledged. Request for Suggestions This article is designed to h-elp-oversEas (and local). cavers. I am open to suggestions on tbpics which cbuld included and on improvements in those areas already covered. It is h.oped to prodUce a 1ist of .low '*",cost accomodation in in the not too distant future o * West Sepik NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 THE CAVING SCENE 99 Diane Mc Evedy, a New who lived in Papua Guinea for several years from 1970 to 1973 and who retUrhed recently for a short visit, reported on the Worn River Cave Kabori Village, 25km north west of Lumi, south of Aitape in the West Sepik Province. The is a stream sink with an entrance 20m high by 10m wide •. Large are jammed in the entrance. She does not know of any:entries made to the cave. The local people say that the efflux to the cave is two days walk away over the .mountains so it would appear to be a sizeable system. Diane als6.reporti caves containing robk art in the mountains near. Dui Village. in the same area. The area has .been quiet b,u t Mike Bou rk'e , Al la n Gou 1 b our n e Tim Jonss England), and Ken Kazenjean ' (Goroka) visited Yunamate Cave in the Obura area of the Eastern Province •. This is an.active stream system and was pushed to a depth of 115 metres where the party was stopped by a very low crawl in. water that may not go. OtherentranP:es are reported further down the system. North Solomons !he North Solomons Group has work in the Kurara Valley, of Panguna. A first visit on 22nd July to the Paura area was quite successful. Caves were visited behind the Paru Paru School, in a cliff face ?Ob metres west of the schbol, and east of Paika Village. This last cav$ is a huge tunnel extending. for .. :300 :metres with a wi.dth varying from 12 to 30 metres and a height above 20 metres. A two day trip was made on 7/Bth October during which Kukuwa Cave near Paika Village and the cave at Paru Paru School were su-rveyed. Kukuwa Cave was extended and surveyed length of 888 and a depth of 119 !ho tunnel discoveBed on the July .trip has several leads off it, one of which leads to achamber 'Hidden approx 10Dm long up to 40m wide and a height in excess of 25m. A passage similar in size to the initial tunnel leads off this chamber for 200 metres. The possibilities for f:urt'her extensioris to cave are excellent. ihe cave at Paru Paru to a ;Length of .134m and 23m depth. This cave is a small active through a hill. A third trip to Suima Village. in a;ea on the 2!/22nd October located several caves. Pauraka Cave 1 west cif Suima Village explored and surveyed to a length of 343 metres and a depth of 23 metres. This

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1 o.o NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 system requires more investigation and other caves are al$o reported in the area. A trip to Taroku Efflux M2 near Urumovi Village on 12th August added 68 metres to the length of the cave above Hanging Rock Passage. The 1978 British The British cavers are now in the Western Province. They successfully climbed to 'The Hole' in the Hindenburg Wall in about 5 or 6 days. The cave behind 'The Hole' was very large at the entrance and continued downdip into walking size phreatic passages, down climbs, through decorated chambers and was choked with mud at the end. The total length was about 600 metres. The Kaakil Resurgence was revisited and the 1975 exploration was continued to a lake and a waterfall which was not ascended due to bad weather. Some caves near the Ok Menga gorge near Tabubul were explored, one system, Arem Tern to a depth of about 330 metres. Another system, Askembu, was abandoned 130m down due to water problems. The party has now moved to Olsobip to investigate the prospects there. When flying between Koroka and Tabubil, Tony White saw a very impressive shaft about halfway between Kelabo and the Strickland It was perhaps 50 metres in diameter, circular with vertical or overhanging sides, lots of bare, white limestone and maybe 100 metres deep. Jhe French Expedition Six French speleologists under the leadership of Richard Maire arrived in Port Moresby on Sth November for two months caving in Papua New Guinea, mainly in the Nakanai Mountains of East New Britain and the Huon Peninsula. They form a preliminary group for a planned major French expedition next year. A further group of three Prench cavers under Louis Deharveng is also in Papua New Guinea to collect Collembola {small insects, commonly found in leaf litter and caves. Also known as Spring Tails.}. They plan to visit Kandrian and the Huon Peninsula• Patrick Cellerierp who was on the first French caving trip to Papua New Guinea this year, is writing a book about caving. This will be illustrated with photographs by Patrick Parzbut, the other French caver on the trip and will be mainly photographs of French caves. However, he is also after good photographs of caves and karst landforms in Papua New Guinea. Anyone with suitable photographs that they would allow to be used is asked to contact the Editor. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 1 01 People Kevan Wilde, well known in Papua New Guinea caving 6ircles is leaving Papua New Guinea for New Zealand. Beverly and Anthony are to follow Kevan in December. Mary Jane Mountain, an with the University of Papua New Guinea and now with the-Department of Pre-History, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University will be undertaking field work, including work in caves, in Papua New Guinea in 1979. PUBLICATIONS ON BAT Alison A. Pound * For those of us who might wish to know something more about those oft maligned creatures -bats. I recently came across two publications which deal in fairly basic terms with Papua New Guinea's bats. The first is the more useful because it is the more readily available. It •Guide to the Land Mammals of Northeast New Guinea' Alan c. Ziegler 1972 This is published by the Uau Ecology Institute (P. D. Box 771 Wau.)and is available from them for K1 plus 14t postage (local rates, extra). The Institute has other publications on PNG wildlife but they do not relate so directly to cave fauna. One problem with the above publication is that it lacks any illustrations or diagrams. For bats this can be solved by the use of: Van Oeusen, H. M. and Peterson, R. F. 1958. Chiroptera of New Guinea. Natural Histo_!}_'• American Museum of History . : 452 459. This is by no means essential for the understanding of the former publication. * NEW CONTRIBUTORS Alfred Montserrat i Nebot is a gemmologist with the Barcelona University and Gemmological Association of Great Britain. A speleologist since 1965, he has caved extensively in Europe, as well as Africa and Papua New Francisco Chavarria is a pharmacist and doctor. He has caved extensively in Europe as well as Africa and P.N.G •• * *

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102 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS J. Atkinson, P.O.Box 3594, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. F. Aslin; 29 Elizabath St., Mt. Gambier, South Australia. G. Anderson, P.O.Box 778, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. G. Antonoff, Complex Mladost, Block 3, Uhod Bulgaria,. -l} .. R. Bates, P.O.Box 316, Mt. Hagen, Papua Guinea. N. Birge, P.O.Box 6773, Papua New Guinea. R. Blackham, P.O.Box 377, Madang, Papua New Guinea. L. Brown, 45 Nelson st., Corinda, Australia. 4075 D. Brook, 40 Broadgate Crea., Horsforth, Leeds,U.K.* D. Balazs, H-1366 Budapest, Postafiok 12, Hungary. P. Beran, Wildlife P.M.B. 2021, Jos Plateau State, Me Bourke, P.OnBox 384, Kainantu, Papua New R. P.D.Box 1937, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. I. Cooper, P.D.Box 32, Mt. Hagen, Papua New Guinea.* R. Canty, P.O.Box 128, Carina. Australia. 4152* A. Culberg, P.O.Box 36, Lindisfarne, Tasmania,Australia.* w. Counsel!, P.O.Box 356, Carlton South, Victoria, T. Clarke, D.P.I., P.O.Box 296, Madang, Papua New Guinea.* L. Deharveng, University of Paul Sabatier, Laboratorie de Zoologie, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse Cedex, France. G. Favre, 40. eh Sarasin,.1218 Geneva, Swit:zerland.; G. Francis, Robb College, U.N.E., New South Wales, Australia. 2351 J. Farnworth, P.M.B. 23, Boroko, Papus New .. Guinea. H. Portrush Rd., Glen OsmondAustralia. 5064 . R. P.O.Box 623, Goroka, Papua New Guinea. J. Golson, Dept. of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, A.N.U., P.O.Box 4, Canberra, Australia. 2600 D. Gillieson, Dept. of Geography, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia. 4067 A. P.O.Box 898, Lae, Papua New X. Les Rosisrs i 44, 13014 Marseille, w. Grimm, Jubilaumsstr 99 . CH-3005 Bern, 031/43 3fr 17 S w i t z er 1 and .,. K. Grime.s,, 45 Nelsor. St.,,, Curinda, Australia. 40751f NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 1 03 F. Howarth, Entomology Department, Bishop Museum, P.O.Box 6037, Honolulu, Hawaii. 86818 . W. Hallidayi 1117.36th Avenue.East, E. P.O.Box 36, Carlton South, Victoria, Australia" -. I.Hughes, Human Sciences Programme, ANU, P.OeBox 4 Canberra, A.C.T., Australia. 2600* . . ' o. Holdsworth, P.O.Box 4505, University P.a., Papua New Guinea. A. Harr, .50 Clover Drive, Delmont, P.A. 15626 USA.* L. Harrison, c/-Narracorte Drive In, Narracorte, South Australia.?:-8. 1 Boden St., Edge Hill, Cairns, Australia. 4870.* J. Jennings, P. D. Box -4, Canoerra, ACT, Australia. 2600 J. James, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. 2006 D. Kidd, P.D.Box 312, Mt. Hagen, Papua New Guihea. R. Knight., P. 0. Box 3260, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. N •• of Geology, Faculty of General Education, Ehime University, 3-Bunkyo-cho, City, Ehime A. Lumley, Nipa High School, P.O.Box Nipa (via Mendi) Papua New Guinea,.. ' E, Lindgren, P.O.Box 5539, Boroko, Papua New Guinea-o. Larkin, Lamerika P.O. Box 46 Kavieng . Papua New Guinea. ' ' R. Ladynski, P.O.Box 3,The Caves, Queensland, Australia. 4702* W. Mixon, 5035N South Drexel Blvd., Chi6ago, Illinois 60615 USA. H. Meier, P.D.B?x 73, Panguna, Papua New Guinea. M. Depto of Prehistory, Research School of.Pacific Studies, A.N.U., P.O.Box 4, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia. R. Mansfield, Tiny Kott, Little London, Oakhill Bath Somerset BA3 SAY, United Kingdom. 9 ' ' D. Martin, 10 Park St., Wollongong, N.s.w., Australia. 2500 R. Maire, 76, Rue.du Bosquet, 74140 Gaillard,France. D. Maritnez, Av. A. Briand Cy 83760 La Du Var, P. Matthews, 65 Frogmore Cres., Park Orchards Victoria Aust r a 1 i a • 311 4 . ' ' G. Middleton, Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Australia.* D. Nunn, P.O.Box 5055, .Boroko, Papua New Guinea. A. Montserrat i Nebot, Avatja. America 17-21 Esca Baixos 1a Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.

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104 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 G. Nelson, .P.D.Box: 94, Narrabai, NSW, Australia. G. Nicholas, Biology Dept., De Salle College, 41 Penn. USA.-3;. M. Pound, P.O.Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Gu.inea. F. Parker, 717 Ross River Road, Kirwan, Townsville, Australia •. c. Zoology Auckland University, Private Bag.; Auckland, New Zealand. A: Pavey1 45 Arcadia Rd., Glebe, Sydn.ey, NSW, Australia. D. Pease, 177, Kundiawa, Papua New Guinea. F. Poggia, 6 Coublevie, 38500 Voiron, France. J. Piotr_9wski,. 3 Cooper Ave., Croydon Park, Australia. A. Olden, Telecommunications Planning Division, P and. T, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea •. N. Ryan, P.D.Box 525, Mt. Hagen, Papua New Guinea. R. Neofit Rilsky 18, Sofia, Bulgaria.* N. P. 0. Box 218,. Port Mor1;3sby, _Papua New Guinea. G. Smith, 37 Vista Et., Caringbah, NSW, Australia. 2229 H. Shannon,.44.Mc Caul st.,.Taringa, Australia. 4068 B. Streeter, c/-BCL (8430), Panguna, Papua New Guinea. P. Strinati, 35 Chemin du Pre-Langard, CH-1223 Cologny, Swi tzer land. M. Shephard, Dept. of Geography, Massey University, Palrnerston North, New Zealand. T. Sprod, 154 Widney Lane, Solihull, West Midlands, 891 3LH Kingdom. W. Sanders, P.D.Box 998, Madang, Papua New Guinea.* P. Toomer, P.O.Box 230, Milson's Point, Australia. 2061. J. Thomas, c/o 11 Heathcote Rise, Weston-Coyney, Stoke on Trent, Staffs, ST3 6PW England.* B. Welch, P.O.Box 230, Milson•s Point, Australia. 2061 J. Weir,.P.O.Box .Madang, Papua New Guinea. K. Wilde, P.O.Sox 5, Mt. Coak, New Zealand. s. Worthington, 12 Machon Bank Road, Sheffield J. Webb, 44 Solar st., Coorparoo,.Australia. 4151. J. Wilson, 12 Munroe St., Curtain, ACT, Australia. 2600 I. Wood, 87 St Albans sf., Abbotsford, NSW1 Australia. 2046* * indicates 1978 subscription not paid. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 105 A.S.F. Newsletter Editor, 13 Mason St.,. A.S.F. Libratlan, DMR, P.O.Box 58, Glen Innes, NSLl, Australia. The Mus$um, A285, Sydney South, B.C.R.A., 2 Broad Elms Close, Sheffield,-S1t 9ST Engiarid. P.G.Box 37, Glenbrook, NSW, Australia. 2773 B.C.L., Customs Agent, P.O.Box 251, Arawa, Papua New Guinea. c.s.s., 18 Arabana St., Aranda, ACT, Australia. 2614 Circcilo Romano, 00197 Roma, Via Ulisse Aldrovandio, Italy. ' Cave Exploration Group Of East A fri ea, :P. 0. Box 475831 Nairobi, Kenya. , C.Q.s.s., 538, Rockhampton, Australia. 4700 C. E.G. S. A._, c/.-: S.,. A. Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, Australia. F.S.S., 130 Rue. St Masur, Paris 11e, Paris, France. Gruppo Speleologico Imper-iese C .A. I., Bib.lioteca Castella Postale 58, _18100 )mperia? Italy. , ' . . Geological Survey of P.N.G., P,O.Box 778, Port International Union of, Speleology, Bibliographical Commissfo.n c/-University of Neuchatel, Institute of Geology 11 rue Emile Argand, tH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland. ' Institutul de Speleologie, .E.G.Racovita, Mihail Moxa 9, 78 lo 9 Bucarest 12, Romania. Institute of PNG Studies, P.O.Box 1432, Borako, Papua New Guinea. Institute at Advavced Studies, AustralianNational Uhiversity P.O.Box_4, Canberra, ACT, Australia. 2600 _ . . .. ' Japan Association, c/-Akiyoshi-Dai Museum of History, Shuto-town, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. . Japan Speleological Society, Bunyo-Cho, Matsuyama-Shi Ehime, Japan. ' M.s.s., P.O.Box 2, Crows Nest, NSW, Australia. 2065 c/Sports Union, Australian National University, Canberra 11 ACT, Australia. 2600 __ . _ _ N.z.s.s., P.o.Box Otahuhu, Auckland• New Zealand. .N.s.s., Cave Ave., Huntsville, 35801 USA. . iNew Guinea UPNG Library, P.G.Box 4819 P.O., New Guinea. ' Natiqnal of Australia, Canberra, ACT, 260b .s.w.r.r.s.s., c/Union Box 123, P.O.Broadway, Sydney, Australia. 2067 National Museum and Art Gallery, P.D.Box 5560, Boroko, PNG.

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106 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 3 P.N.G. Bushwalkers Association, P.O.Box 1335, Boroko, P.N.G •• William Pengelly Cave Studies Trust Ltd., 16 New Rd., Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, KT2 6AP England. P.N.G.Collection, National Library Service, P.O.Box 5770, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. P.N.G. University of Technology, P.O.Box 793, Lae, P.N.G •• Richmond Area Speleological Society, P.O.Box 25594, Richmond, Virginia 23260 USA. s.u.s.s., Box 35, The Union, University of Sydney, Australia. s.c.s., P.O.Box 121, Moomah, Tasmania, Australia. 7009 The State Library of N.S.W., Macquarie st., Sydney, Australia. S.R.G.W.A., P.O.Box 120, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009. s.s.s., PoO.Box 198,. Broadw.w, N.S.lJq Australia. 2007 T.C.C., P.O.Box 416, Sandy Bay, Australia. 7005 U.N.s.w.s.s., Box 17, The Union, University of N.s.w., P.O.Box 1, Kensington, N.S.Ll.s Australia. 2033 U.QoS.S., c/-The Union, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Australia. 4067 University of Hawaii Library, 2550 The Mall, Honolulu, 96822 USA. University of Leeds Speleological Society, P.O.Box 157, Leeds, LS1 1JH England. U.S. Geological Survey Library, National Centre 950, Reston, Virginia, 22092 USA. V.S.Ao, G.P.O.Box 5425cc, Melbourne, Victoria, Au9tralia. W.A.s.s., P.O.Box 67, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia. Wau Ecology Institute, P.OoBox 77, Uau, Papua New Guinea. Division of Wildlife, P.O.Box 2585, Konedobu, Papua New Guinea. CARBIDE Various caving expeditions have obtained quantities of calcium carbide while in Papua ,New Guinea for use in their personal cave lighting. As most.,, expeditions use much less than the minimum quantity commercially available, reserves of the excess carbide have built up. Both Neil Ryan in Mount Hagen and Mike Bourke ih Kainantu have large quantities of this carbide and it may be obtained from them, prior arrangements being It is expected that purchasers would pay freight costs and make a suitable donation to the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group for same. *


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