Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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, RUg1s"tered at the G. P. o. Pert Mo,.esby for transmission by post as a Qualified. Publication. Volume Number 4 NIUGINI December 1978 CAVER


Volume 6 Number December,_ 1979. Quarterly K1.00 per issue K4.00 per annum NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4' 107 Caver is the publication of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Editors: Malcolm and Alison Pound9 P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea • . contents Ok Menge Gorge Investigation M.D.Pound ••••••••••••••••••• 109 The Preliminary Report of the 1978 British Expedition T. lJ hit e •• " •••••••••••••• ti • ., ......... , .............. " .; ••••• 11 3 A Description of the Mianrnin Limestone, West Sepik Province R • M. 8 r it ten ••••••••••••• o ......... • •• ., •••••• ;. •• 11' 4 Brief Notes Describing Some Known Significant Ancestral, Cultural, Prehistoric and Rock Art Sites Within and ' Adjacent to Prospecting Authority No. 58 (Freida River Copper Prospect)1 West Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea K.A.Wilde ••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• •••••• 115 An Anthropological Bibliography of the Telefornin Further Notes on the Karst of Lake Kutubu, Southern Highlands D.S.Gillieson and J.Landsberg ••••••••••••••• 121 Notas on Papua New Guinea for Overseas Visitors Part 2 A. A. Pound ••••••• o ••••••••••••••••••• u ••.•••• o •••••••••• 124 Th e Caving Scene •• ., • ., .... o • o • • • • • • • ...... o ••• ., • .. • • • • • • • • •.••• -1.3 O Cover Photogtaphs .... . '-.'. Front Cover_ Looking down the Ok Menga limestone gorge from the start of the iiver level traverse showing the traverse on the right bank •. end of the traverse is on the top of a boulder to the "iight of the small rapid just below where the ropes behind the limestone 'ridge'. The chocketone,which is the:,end. of high traverse, is directly above the left hand:--11f>oulder in the -stream at the upper left corner._. Photograph by See article .starting on pag? 109. BackCover . . . . . A platform constru6ted by the local people for catching flying foxes -a Mianmin delicacy. Mianmin InsurgenceCave, Nibino River, West Sepik Province. Photograph by R.W.Britten. * -:c-


108 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 TOKTDK BILONG EDITA A ... Review . o_f 1'978. 1978 has been a very successful year for speleology in Papua New Guinea with many large, international caving expeditions coming to the country; though the efforts of locally based cavers must not be forgotten. The most successful expedition was no doubt ihe Australian to the Muller Range and this was also by far the and spent the most time in the field. This expedition explored the Atea Kanada to a length of 30.Skm and so the record for the longest cave in the Southern Hemisphere returned to Papua New Guinea. A expedition spent time in the Simbu and Enga Provinces. A small, unofficial French expedition also spent time in the Simbu Province. A second, small, unofficial French expedition spent time collecting cave fauna in the Morobe and Simbu Provincese An official French expedition spent two months looking at caves in the East New Britain, Morobe and Eastern Highlands Provinces. This group was a reconnaissance for a larger expedition planned for 1979. A .British expedition spent several months in the Western Province investigating the karst. A of Japanese cavers was heard of in the Simbu Province but no details are known. Althoqgh owtnumbered by the the local cavers alsp did much useful work mainly in the North Solomons, and Highland Provinceso As well many of the local cavers participated in and/or assisted the expeditions. It is hoped that all the expeditions as well as the locally based cavers will prepare reports on their activities for Niugini Caver. This is to ensure that their knowledge is not forgotten by the local cavers but is available to future cavers in this country whoever they may be. It also means that information is readily available in PNG in English. Reports in overseas journals are very hard to locate here as libraries do not have holdings of them and they are of very limited usefulness to PNG when in a foreign language. The editor feels that such reports should be as full as possible giving full details of the expedition and including maps, diagrams etc. The reports should cover any difficulties encountered as these are useful to future cavers and the problems encountered by overseas cavers may be by locally based cavers. Reports should, where possible, be accompanied by at least one black and white print showing some cave feature of the report which would be suitable for use in Niugini Caver. Good Caving. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 OK MENGA GORGE INVESTIGATION . -Malcolm o. Pound* 109 In September the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group by the Geological Survey to assist in the of precipitous limestone gorge on the Ok Menga which is a site for a hydro-electric scheme to supply power to the Ok Tedi copper project. A was made for four cavers to spend one week on site a Geology Survey geologist in gaining access to the of the gorge as required and this was accepted. So on 24th September9 19789 a Twin Otter charter left for Tabubil car:ying the four cavers, one geologist and all the necessary equipment. The four cavers were Jim a plantation mechanic from Robinson River Plantationy Alan Goulbourne a P T A Malcolm a civil Wilde, a Frieda Camp Manager. The accompaning geologist was Greg Anderson. We were also to be visited in the field by the other geologistB involved in the hydro-electric study• Peter James, Geoff Byrne and Dick Bielefeld. Access to the Ok Menga gorge is by helicopter from Tabubil the Ok Tedi camp and involves a 12 kilometre trip the Ok Tedi and up the Ok Menga to the gorge. For practical reasons9 a camp was established just upstream of the gorge on one of the pads constructed for drilling operations carried out earlier. Four labourers were taken along from Tabubil to out camp tasks and to carry equipment to the gorge. To give the most information in the limited time available the task was ta9kled by two parties of two cavers each; party was to establish a route down the gorge at river level and the was to establish a high level traverse the gorge with the aim of reaching a large chock slone which could be seen wedged between the walls 30 metres above the water about 50 metres down the gorge. Conditions in the stream level traverse proved to be very arduous due to wet, slippety rock with few well rounded handholdS9 and much water. Due to the steep slope ofthe Ok Menga through the gorge and the resulting waterfalls and rapids, it was extremely unlikely that anyone who was swept away by the current would survive the passage apart from the difficulty of being rescued on the downstream side. The method of establishing this traverse consisted. of the leadei floating down the stream in a wet suit *P. D. Box 38249 Port Moresbyg Papua New Guinea.


110 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 and buoyancy vest on a line until a site for a piton, Of if no cracks were available a bolt, was reached. This was a dangerous task as in places the wall was undercut with a strong.Undertow which tended to suck the leader undet. Alan Goulbourne was the only person present who en:joyed this activity. Conditions in the high level traverse uere much drier though just as dangerous with the main problems beih9 the amount of vertical bush cutting required to clear a route and the . nature of the ground. This rionsisted of solid limestone on the vertical faces but elsewhere the rock was covered with a mantle of loose soil containing large the mass being held together with low fleshy bushes. This loose when disturbed threatened to fall into the river below and perhaps hit the lower party. A route was established through to the chock stone which required three pitches, the second pitch of about 25 metres .. being free and quite exposed giving good views up and down the gorge •. Fortunately this traverse was on the _right bank of the which contained many high level river cut niches.which gave safe resting places whereas the left bank of the gorge appeared to be mainly vertical rock faces followiQg the rock jointing from adjacent to the river level to the top of the gorge. The geologist Greg, was taken along both traverses and evidently gained much useful information and took many photographs of the gorge. It had been hoped to establish a connectiori between the two traverses at the downstream limit reached at the chock stone but this was not achieved as we unable to establish a line the end of the river level traverse across the stream to a point directly below the chockstone to which Alan Goulbourne had abseiled. Due to limited number of cavers and the exhausted state of the party, it was not possible to inspect the entire length of the gorge and in fact only the upstream half .of the upper section (refer map) was investigated. This area was of most interest to the geologists as this is where any dam would be located so as to provide maximum head. Very little underground development was noted in the gorge and all joints appeared to be quite tight. The sole exception was a major joint adjacent to the downstream end of the river level traverse, discharging about 8 litres/second into the stream. A.4.5 metre deep cave containing a number of flying foxes was developed along a joint on the left bank above the chock stone. As shown on.the map, the gorge is developed through a narrow belt of Darai Limestone which appears to be dipping vertically. The shape of the gqrge generally lobate, being much wider at river level than at the higher le0els and hence one of the NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 lll : . . . --:-; ic Qt 1='aul+ • • , • • O&r-. Ii (\e.c::nv\i!t.V\+ ' '?''._{'., E scarf> rY\e.V'\1-:I. \ Q.09 . Dir . =L-'1.J-'7T(" '-"'C. Clv\cl .[)'P. of' ..J'"o\A+:" .. .. .. . O".:J""lar roc..k\s i col,h.1vivM., . .. . . ,calcareous "-'L.\-Y\ ' Ol_gc.-\\ -_3r-o.1;:1 fine. .q uarl".;i::o.oe. .. Oncl s\l\-s.\one. wel-h t'"t.c.e.ssi1o1c. 3b1.1 ... O.t'\Ql '6.ilh .. tol'lC _ OK GEOLOGICAL MAP


112 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 major questions was the mode of formation of the gorge, whether it is a normal downcut river gorge or whether it is a collapsed tunnel. If the gorge is a collapsed tunnel, there may well be other tunnels elsewhere through the limestone which may allow water leakage from any dam, and may indicate major solution cavities along joints. However, the presence of the river cut niches on the right bank extending to at least 60m above the present river level, and the lack of cavities observed, would indicate that the gorge is not a collapsed tunnel, at least at river level and that most of the gorge has been cut down by the stream. The !abate cross-section may be by changes in stream volume or downcutting. The Ok is one of many streams below the Hindenburg Wall and has a surface catchment of approx 177km2. Two areas of underground drainage of 10km2 and 95km2 respectively may also discharge into the Ok Menga although no eff luxes have been observed. The total catchment may therefore be 282km2 of which 37% would be underground. Very little hydrological data is available but a stream gauging station has been established below the gorge and estimates of stream flow give a low flow of S.Sm3/sec and a flow of 40-50m3/sec. fall through the gorge is about 130m and it has been estimated that the site may be able to generate up to 40MW of power. The investigation of the Ok Menga formed part of much larger programme looking for an economic source of hydro-electric power for the proposed Ok Tedi copper project in the Western Province. The Ok Tedi project is at present being studied by a consortium headed by B.H.P. of Australia to determine if the project is economic under the present conditions. During a previous stage when Kennecott of u.s.A. pulled out of the project and the P.N.G. government continued a smaller investigation programme at its own expense, the Geological Survey were brought in to advise on the geology of suitable hydro-electric sites. They have been retained to complete these studies. Four sites were looked at: the upper Sepik River, the Strickland River Grassland site and the Strickland River Tukin Site apart from the Ok Menga. The Ok Menga scheme is the favoured scheme because of its closeness to the project area and hence would have the least c6nstruction difficulties though it is by far the scheme with the smallest capacity. With the Ok Menga scheme, the mining company would probably have to install additional dieail generating capacity-to cover times of low river discharge. The assistance of four cavers from P.N.G.C.E.G. to the Geological Survey resulted in the effective examination of the interior of the Ok gorge which could not otherwise have been easily obtained. * NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 113 !HE PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE 1978 BRITISH EXPEDITION. Tony Ju 1 Y, 1 g 8 saw the a , 1 . . Britain whose rima of four of a five team from entrance in . ry aim was to enter Era rgm, the large cave Selminum below plateau containing final arran Jment r a few days Port Moresby making LJhite flew Richard Bartop and Tony Noel Pluml h Join the expedition to the Atea recon . 8Y? owever, went direct to Tabubil to commence • naissance work in . . . LJorkih on loca unvisited by cavers. west the he investigated sites the Ok Menga and Ok Tedi9 southeast towards joined by Norman Flux he en WaO_lll Sogol?mik. Later months visited 0 n ?Ver 0 sobip and in two Wal Tem9 a most was A rem Tem9 a f load active ... e an of the Ok Tedi and 4km north west of the Ok in dipping limestone a depth of 50m to a deep w ich Norman explored to In September the refor d After six da; and the Hindenburg Wall. through vertical bush and almo tc im on rock and was reached The 50m id . t s continuous rain the target long chambe; floored down dip into an 80m guano. A stream sank into bould:rs and a carpet of flying fox the cave only to sink again q reappeared down found ending in a sand chok;or o a of 600m of passage was The Kaakil Resurgence at th b re-entered and a flood mark 6 8 ase Wall was 23m abova.the entrance! The . Sm above the was noted, to the Wall and also f series running close the sump in 1975 Pr. main c reamway upstream of ation of a 3m by the combin-threatening weathero . 0 a eep lake and main objective was then to investi t Olsobip region a brief return to A T' . ga e the n F. . rem em was thought all within 200n of each water was encountered . . rem at -?Sm but the itself plummetted a pot. Aren and reached the Ok pitchss depth df 334m. em w ic san into gravel at a . Close by a .deep hidden valley flowed the ran ?ff into the same steeply Ok Askenbu which the same of Arem Te'm dipping limestone. It 1 t f but the added comp .. ica i_on o a large :stream. A depth . of 120m was reached -1\c/-P. o. Box 157, Leeds, England. LS1 1UH


114 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 after eight but due to the time of placing bolts to avoid the water, exploration was halted at another wet pitch and the move to Olsobip was made. Throughout the time there1 difficulty was experienced hiring uides and carriers who we:e extremely reluctant to leave tracks. Operating in two groups several were t gd The waterless Il Escarpment west of Olsobip revealed visi e • k t L. ht eight b r of shafts in an area of crevice ars • 19 :ere made to between Imigabip andt B livip where a large flood rising was explored for 600m. A however risings were said to be .unenterable and art 'ended up on top of the \.Jsll at the far western end a controlled valley where two ehaf ts were bottomed using a combination of rope and vine. The final areas, the .1 d escarpments of Kaban and Emuk east Gorge! revea e a 1 sink and some shafts culminating in Gebemi Tem, a 25m diameter shaft over which the local people constructfa cano of branches to catch flying foxes. It drops or 84m a daylight chamber one million cubic metres in volume. The Kaban proper has known and considerable depth potential but the local people. would take .the for an undisclosed reason. Similarly, the main f Emuk were not reached since a large baJ,:rier of. tower ars was encountered. However bbth of could well pay future exploration. A OF THE MIANMIN LIMESTONE, LlEST SEPIK PROVINCE_ R • M • 8 r it he Mianmin Limestone is cantered on tude 4 'tOQH and Tl •t d 1410571000 in West Sepik Province of New . ongi u e . t "b taries of the May River drain Guinea. synclinally folded, table the 100 to 200 northwast. These table moun ains . d f pper Wogamush Limestone, are compose Intervening valleys that are Nibino River and Letema drained b d b arched island arc volcan1cs, are occupie Y an V . ush Mudstone all of which underlie intrusives and lower ogam The table mountains are often fault controlled by prominent boun e wi . t t• no .. t faults and fault in ersec io o• Join s, so 100 metres thick in the The uppar Llogamush is over 400 metres towards the southeast probably white to buff colouredL northwest. The limestone varies f.rom Continued on Page .12u t . Pt Ltd •• P. D. Box 747a Madang, P.N.G. *Frieda Explora Y• # , NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME.6 NUMBER 4 115 BRIEF NOTES DESCRIBING SOME KNOWN SIGNIFICANT ANCESTRAL, AND ROCK ART-sifES AND TO PROSPECTING AUTHORITY 50 (FRIEDA RIVER COPPER PROSPECT), WEST SEPIK PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEAo Kevan A •. Wilde* Inikia De Born (Table Mountain) Rock Art Site A significant rock art site occurs on the eastern face of Inikia De Born (Table Mountain), which consists of micaceous, limey sandstone (calcarenite); and is located approximately 12km west-north-west of Frieda Base Camp (see LocationMap). The art site appears on a cliff some 12Dm in length and 40 50m high which is orieritated along an axis of 30 210. Approximately 15 20m above the base of the cliff-face is an overhang that forms a well protected and dry gallery within which the paintings occur a Viewing the feature from the -southern end and progressing in a northerly direction is a narrow and somewhat difficult section to traverse which is some 30m long, and is followed by 90m of exposed.but walkable ledge$ It is, this ledge that affords access to the gallery itself. The paintings commence above an area of collapsed rock approximately 30m from the southern-most extremity of the and with the exception of a 20m section continue for 64m along the face. The ledge varies in width from 1 2m. There three alcoves situated at the rear of the ledge and beneath the oyerhanging cliff-face. The first alcove is some 4m 1m deep and 1m high and is lined with that may have been used for bedding (?). is of smaller dimensions and is also lined with palm leaves; the roof of this alcove is smoke-blackened, but no hearth was The third alcove is in the order of Sm long, up to 2m deep and a little over in height; the roof is smokeblackened and there is a in the southernmost section. Amongst the surface debris in the third alcove are charred pieces of firewood, 1marita' seeds the . flesh of is popular but element 6f the local people's betel nut shells and bird feathers. Also .. observed were tree kangaroo, flying fox and cassowary bones, which are obviously the spoils of former .. successful.hunting forays. In addition, there are a number . of discarded 2pit-pit1 (a variety of wild sugar cane .. . Saccharum spontaneum) arrow shafts, and a wooden haft""'.Pi!?ce. ' *465 Wilson•s Rd., Waltham, Christchurch, New Zealand..


116 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUMt 6 4 of a stone axe. A .number of pieces of dried wood which, according to the.writer's had been cut by stone axes, were found. scattered around the The writer was careful that nothing was disturbed. Brief Description .of the Art The is a brief description of the artforms at the Open and filled-in, upright and diagonal 'cross' motifs + upright and diagonal 'croix envelloppe1 + circles + spirals + circles + spirals t and filled-in 'crescent' motifs'+ negative and positive cassowary tracks (?) + anthropomorphic forms + and rhombic + geometric and enigmatic abstract forms and designs + paintings having elemehts found in Telefomin spiiithouse aqd ?hields (Cranstone, 1965, 1967; Craig, 1967). Techniques The informants stated that tn their opinion the paintings ex$cuted by using finger-painting techniques; or with a 'brush' made from a small stick. The former method is reported to be used for painting carved wooden 1haus tambarant boards (Cranstone, Colours and Materials Colours present are red, yellow, orange, brown and white. The writer's informants stated that the colours are obtained from certain clays found in creek beds. The clays are then •cooked1f water added later to obtain the correct consistency for painting. All the colouts used at the site appear on carved qpd s.hie1lds (A.uthor) ;-bwt it_ is interesting to note the cocn) of bla9k (charc9al) which is also used commonly on carved wooden reliefs,, a.'nd is the at New Guinea rock art sites (A.,;t.hor). The informants could offer no interpretation of the art forms, with the. exception of the cassowary tracks_; and said tt,p.t the paintings had been executed before living memory. They also stated that the site.:i..s not used or visited by thern but is regarded as something belonging to {ancestors). , There are many rock throughout Papua Guinea and Irian Jaya, but it is only of more years that a more thorough effort has be_en made :to record -them •. Because of the.lack of knowledge many sites have been irreparably by vandalism. Apart from the qultural value to the people this site may be significant in tracing LOCALITY MAPS I'=. AUSTRALIA w :::> a: ... 0 0 r .,,. C> <( l9'16 41 b 0 ';.. ., Q\ c 1' .&:. u .... 0 ., 0 .. "5 :J c c "'


118 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 the geographical distribution of design elements in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya; and even for its aesthetic value alone should be protected from any possible damage. The writer's informants; both of Urepmitabip hamlet, were Oiringsep Oanmana (the custodian of ancestral sacrae and cult-house) and Thomas Oiritning (a foreman at Frieda Base Camp). This site has been recorded with the Papua New Guinea Site Index and has been allocated the code of CFG. Fogorobe Tern -Ancestral Spirit Site This uninvestigated site is located a few hundred metres upstream of the Ok Mlia (Nena River) Gorge, and is reported to be a rock-shelter under an overhang. The writerts informant informants stated that it 'houses' a malevolent known as Fogorobe who can inflict people with sickness and in extreme caies even death. The site is rtambu' (prohibited) and is reportedly still used for magico-spiritual ceremonies, the details of which have not been fully investigated. (For location see map). Tan De Born Quarry This site (see location map) is reported to be a quarry on the side of a mountain known as Tan De Born. It is said that there is a quarry at this site which was used during ancestral times for the mining of stone for the manufacture of stone axe and adze heads. Rock Shelters and Cave Sites A large number of rock shelters used traditionally whilst on hunting and foraging expeditions and far shelter and concealment during periods of tribal warfare, are scattered throughout the whole of the prospect area. The smoke-blackened walls and roofs that form these shelters indicate use over a long period of time and testifies to their possible archaeological significance. One large rock shelter, in the Wogamush Conglomerate, a short distance west of the Frieda Air Strip was formerly used by the Paupe people for concealment during tribal fighting against the Unamo-Llabia people. This site has slightly smokeblackened walls and roof, and a number of old hearth-places. A portion of a broken stone axe was found amongst the surface debris which may indicate potential archaeological significance. There are a number of caves throughout the Mianmin Limestones, one of which is still used for hunting flying foxes. Flying foxes are considered to be a delicacy NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 119 amongst the people of this area and can be considered as a valuable. source of protein to them. The headmen a 'tambu' (prohibition) on this site (See back cover photograph). Conservation The sites are probably but a few of the that actually exist and further investigation and research should be regarded as nacsssary. It obvious from the . included and by research carried out by professional anthropobgists that there are many sites and ., cultural factors to be taken into before a in this area. It is hoped that the companies . . involved will carry out anthropological research and detail a conservation programme at an early stage, thus taking adequate steps to protect the culture including sacred archaeological and rock art sites belonging to the in the vicinity of the proposed mine. References Craig, B. 1967 : The House-boards of the Telefomin SubDistrict, New Guinea. Man, : 260 273. Cranstone, B. AQ L. 1965 : War Sheilds of the Telefomin Su6-NeLJ Guinea. Man, ]_ : 609 -624. Cranstone, B. Ao l. 1967 Haus Tambarano _Man, Z, * Some Boards from a New Guinea 274 -277. * AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE .TELEFOMIN Keva n 'A • lJ i 1 d A us ten, L. 1922 : The Tedi River District of. Papua. Geo. Jol:fr9 fil. : 5 -34. Anon. 1966 : Guinea: The Sepik Headwaters, 1963 -1964. British Museum Department of Barth, F. 1971 : Tribes and Internal Relations in the Fly Headwaters. Oceania XXI Pt. 3 : 171 -191. Champion9 I. 1942 : Across New Guinea from the Fly to the Sepik. Constable, London. Craig9 8., 1966 The Art of the. Telef.omin Area,,•.New Guinea. Aust. Nat. Hist,, 1.. : 218 -224. Craig, B. 1967 : The House-boards of the Telefomin Sub-Oistrict, New Guinea. Man9 : 260 -273. . , Craig, B. 1968 : Bark Paintings and Rock Paintings of the Mountain Ok. Mankind9 : 595 597.


120 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 Cranstone, A. L. 1965 War Shields of the Telefomin SubDistrict, New Guinea. 1_ : 609 -624. Cranstone, B. A. L. 1965 : The British Museum Ethnographical Expedition to New Guinea -A Preliminary Report. Brit. Museum Quart., 29 : 109 118. Cranstone, B. A. L. 1967 : Some Boards from a New Guinea Haus Man, 2 : 274 -277. -...,. ' Cranstone, B. Ac L. 1971 : The Tifalmin: A 'Neolithic' People in New Guinea. World 1 : 132 -142. Healy, A. 1964 : The Ok Family of Languages. Unpublished Thesis, Australian National University. Hallyer, T. 1965 :An Account of the First Crossing of the Star Mountains, New Guinea. Australian National University Micro Film PMB 83. Kienzle, w. and Campbell, s. 1938 : The Country Between the Headwaters of the Fly and Sepik Rivers in New Guinea. Geo. Journ., 21. : 232 255. Murray, J. W. P. and Ray, s. H. 1918 : The People and Languageo between the Fly and Strickland Rivers. Man, : 45 -73. Reynders, .J. J. 1962 : Shifting Cultivation in the Star Mountains Area. Nova Guinea : Anthropology, 23 : 45 73. -Quinlivan, P. 1954 : Afek of Telefomin: A Story From New Guinea which lead to a. Strange Tragedy. Oceania, 17 -22. Wilde, K. A. 1976 : Telefomin Anthropology The British Speleological Expedition, 1975. (Compiler D. Brook) Trans. Brit. Cave Res. Ass., 1 (3 and 4) : 204 -216. Wilde, A. 1978 : Brief Notes Describing some knowh Significant Ancestral, Cultural, Prehistoric and Rock Art Sites Within and Adjacent to Prospecting Authority 58 (Frieda River Copper Prospect), West Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Niugini Caver, E (4) : Continued from 114 massive coralline or fossiliferous and is probably midMiocene in age. Seve,ral dolines approximately 50 to 1 OD metres deep were noted on or near the periphery of the table mountains, but were not explored. Three caves, two of them insurgences, were found during regional geological surveys, and one of these which is-controlled by a fault intersection a potential. lateral extent of 2km and a vertical extent of at 400 metres. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 121 FURTHER NOTES ON THE KARST OF LAKE KUTUBU1 HIGHLANDS David Gillieson* and Jill The descriptioMs of karst and caves in Ryan (1974) prompted a short visit to Lake Kutubu by the authors. Three days were spent.on the lake, staying at a Haus Kiap on Wasemi Islando Tne lake lies at an elevation of 808m above sea level amongst headwaters of the Kikori River. 'The lake is nearly 19km l:ng: and 4km wide at the Mean width is about 2km. Bathmetry (Oayly, Peterson st. John, 1970) reveals that the maximum depth isabout 70m and the mean depth 36m. Mean annual rainfall-is 4500mme The lake lies between overthrust fold ridges of Miocene Darai limestone •. The limestone attains a thickness of 1000m and is overlain by mudstones and siltstones. Pyramid and doline well developed on the broader ridges. During the late Pleistocene the eruptive centres of Mts. Kerewa and Afuma became active. The activity of the former resulted in the deposition of blanket of tuff s9 agglomerates and basalts . over the NW end af the valleyo Eroded remants of this can be seen as Wasemi and other islands. The activity of Mt. Afurna dammed the SE end of the valley resulting in the formation of the lakee During extended aquatic peregrinations, the authors noted striking examples of drowned pyramidand d9line karst. Half way between Gesege and Kese villages1 a steep pinacle of limestone is just awash. This feature is not noted cin the bathymetric map. This may be a remnant of the prelake stage, when the valley characterised by alluviated karst. The presence of an alluvial fill would facilitate the development of the lake. At the present time, all ,but one of the influent streams are fed by resurgences. The following grid references refer to the 1:100 OOO sheet 7585, Kutubu. At the NW ehd of the the following streams are fed by resurgences: Name Tubagi Tugebu Kaimare ' Grid Ref etence 528990 510990 505976 Flow ( qumec). D.25 5.70 23.7 Resurges at not enterable at time of The small stream at Inu mission is not a resurgenrie (drains volcanic s ). • A t the S E end of the lake 1 San a k e Ck • is fed by a major resurgence at the foot .of :Mt. Kemenagi (662836). iC-Oept. of Geography9 Uni." of Qld., St. Lucia, Australia. 40-67


122 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 The Bebere burial caves mentioned by Ryan (1974) area series of overhung ledges along the western shore of the lake. There is little or ho sediment accumulation on the ledges. The ledges across the lake from Gesege village are still used for burials. Sisimi Cave {reported but not named by Ryan, 1974) is located at 489942, on a bend of the Soro River. It is a resurgence, and the entrance is located at the end of a fold ridge of limestone. Flow measured at o.os cumec,. Soro River flow 50 60 The entrance is at the foot of a bluff, some 400m downstream from the end of the road to Moro airstrip. The cave is fed by a series of sinks near Moro airstrip, at the other end of the ridge, and is negotiable during dry periods. The cave was only enterable for 30m during our visit. A plan and cross section are given on the next page. .. . Phreatic penaants show a strong outflow, but the elastic sedime.nts are more likely the result of periodic inundation by the Soro River. The cave was formerly for burials, but several skulls and paddles have been removed since Ryan's visit. The Mubi River, which flows past the settlement of Pimaga, passes under two fold ridges at 682910 and 717873. Jhe former cave is some 1.Skm long• the latter about 400m. Another cave is located 5 hourst walk downstream from Pimaga, in a gorge. It is suggested that further cave be timed to follow a dry spell of weather. Ref ere:nces. A. E., Peterson, J., St. John, V. P. 1970. Notes on Lake Kutubu, Southern Highlands of the Territory of Papua and New Aust. Soc. Limn. Bull.l:40-47. Ryan, N. J. 1974, Some Caves in the Erave, KaQua and Lake Kutubu Areas of the Southarn Highlands and Gulf Districts. Niugini Cayer : 142 146. NElJ CONTRIBUTOR Tony lJhi te . Tony is a member of the Uhiversity of Leeds Speleological Association. Apart from extensive expeiience in European caves, Tony has been an the 1975 1978 British and 1978 expeditions td Papua New Guinea. As well as his interest in exploration, Tony is a keen photographer. * Scnlo 1 i200 SEC'l1ION A-A NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 .. ::: ..;."" ,,. .... .:.. ... • TN SISIMI CAVE SORO nIVJSR k1PJ!UJ3U SOlVr.H.J:;;lW HIGHLANDS SUHVJ!::Y: J)SG& J\11 . 123


124 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 NOTES ON PAPUA NEW GUINEA FOR OVERSEAS VISITORS PART 2 Alison A. Pound This article follows from one I and published in Niugini Caver 2(3). Firstly I reprodurie here a 'Guide to Foreign Reiearch Workers Seeking Research Permits to Enter Papua New Guinea'. This is provided by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and expands on the notes I made in section 1 of the previous article. n In principle the Government of Papua Guinea welcomes overseas reseamh workers to this country. Some regulations had to be introduced, however, to protect the interests of the local people. This guide sets out the conditions under which a research permit can be granted and the method of applying. 1. All research workers wishing to spend more than two months in Papua New Guinea need a research permit. 2. Research workers will have to be affiliated to some national institution, like the University of Papua New Guinea, the University of Technology in Lae, The National Museum, the Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, the Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, the Institute of Medical Research, etc •• In some cases affiliation to a Department could be more suitable. This will ensure that incoming research workers will not duplicate work already done, and they fit into existing research programmes in their field. This . will also ensure that the incoming research worker can draw on the experience and contacts of others who have been working in related.fields for some years. 3. Research workers must make sure that their presence is acceptable to the local community. rt may not be possible or obtain the cons:nt of the host community before arrival in the country. It is . strongly advisable, however, that the research worker explain his purpose to the local area authority, before he commences work. He should also enlist the support and advice of the local District Commissioner who with his experience of the area is best suited to introduce him to the local and the local communities. The Migration Act provides for the cancellation of temporary entry permits and such action may be taken if complaints are received from the host community. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 4 125 4. Research workers are required to deposit copies of their research material with the archives of the Institute of Papua New Studieso This copies of research papers, books, tapes and films. 5. In instance all research proposals must be submitted to Papua New Guinea Oversaas Office, or to the nearest Overseas Post in the countries where Papua New no for referral to the Chief Migration Officsr? Port Moresby. . 6. Applications for research permits cannot be processed unless they include a full research proposal, a C V of the application and -in cases of Ph. D students -a letter from the supervisor. It is advisable to send a copy of the application to the Director of the Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies (Box 1432, Boroko, P. No G.) because it is his to between the Immigration Officer and the various Institutions. 7. Since the proceising of these applications involves the Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies in considerable administrative costs, a fee of K100 is payable to the Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies to cover these costs. B. Persons wishing t6 more than two in Papua New Guinea are normally to lodge a bond; however in the case of research workers the Immigration is prepared to waive the bond9 provided that the applicant gives an that on arrival he will deposit a return ticket with the Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, for saf keeping in a bank safe until departure. 9. It is essential that on arrival research workers call at the Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies so that they can be given a letter of introduction to the Provincial Commissionero In addition to the above requirements the Chief Migration Officer may require individuals to undergo normal immigration checks, such as medical examinations.H Some additions to this are:3 should also explained .to the relevant Provincial Government and Provincial Government permission. to undertake the work be obtained. itemo4 c6pies of the materials mentioned in this item should also be given to the relevant Provincial Governments and any Government Department with which you have been affiliated.


126 NIUGINI CAVER.VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 Books on Papua New Ginea are several.places in Port Moresby where general books on P. G. may be purchased -department stores9 University Bookshop and the New Guinea Book Depot. For those looking for books on PNG legends as well as recordings of PNG traditional music; The Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies has a bookshop with these materials for sale. The Wau Ecology Institute (P. o. Box 77? Uau) has a small range of Handbooks on PNG wildlife/ecology. A recent book that the caving visitor may be interested in is 'Geomorphology of Papua New Guinea' by Ernst Loffler. It is published by CSIRO in association with Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1977. In same series is 'New Vegetation' by K. Paijmans. Both books cost about K17.00. Supplies The three cell battery packs commonly used in European caving lamps are not generally available in PNG. Supplies Of all sizes of round batteries are plentiful in Old inner tubes are available free for the construction of waterproof carbide containers. Dress Drass neatly in public and don't behave in ways likely to antagonize the residents e.g. urinating in public, sleeping in public places. Women must be careful in matter of dress_ particularly in rural areas. where brief shorts and revealing sun frocks may be frowned on. Photography . . . . . Photography has special problems under very humid conditions. the field, film in cameras. tends to get damp.and funny things happen to colours. is strongly !hat films .ahd cameras are kept in waterproof containers with silica. gel inside. It is .. usually possible to buy silica gel at pharmacies in Papua New Guinea. • Carriers and Porters For villagers, the day starts and rinishes The time varies with the altitude and the weather conditions9 but they generally prefer to be 'on the road' within an hour or so of sunrise. rt is the usual practice to off er at . certain times when talking in the igarettes or twist be takeh in sufficient quantity for this. People especially value photographs. A polaroid camera in the field is useful for this. Otherwisa send prints later. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 127 Make sure that you take a large supply of 10t, aAd K1 coins and K2 notes to pay for carriers and tQ. purchase food. .. . Carriers usually carry 18 -20kg each, but in places they up to 25kg. They must be provided with food if . _ from villages at night. Cooking pots, blahkets, and a plastic sheet to make a shelter have to be provided in the .bush as well. Airport Buses In Port Moresby, there is an airport bus service which can be booked to collect passengers from residences and deliver them to the airport and visa It can be booked on 253317. In Lae,a bus service connects the airport and the Air Niugini off ice in town. Most other centres have some sort of transport such as taxis, PMV's or buses. Medical Addition In areas 'scrub itch' caused by mites can be a problem. Anti itch creams are useful in the treatment of bites which generally occur in large numbers clothes constrict the mites movement around beltsG The mites are the vectors of .. scrub typhus and a 1 though not prevalent 9 this : does " Treatment is with antibiotics. Civil Defence A Detence organisati6n exists in PNG and they should be adv7sed of the and intentions of any expedition. They will requost.a list of PNG and overseas contacts in case of Civil Defence can also provide you with a transceiver for emergency use while in the field. Contact in Port Moresby is National Emergency Service, Marlin House; Po De Box 9328, Telephone 25 9999. Embassy Most Papua New Guinea come from with some form of consular PNG. Expeditions and are advised to let their representative know that they are here and the services provided vary representatives but most will provide safe storage of important documents such as airline tickets and passports$ Map . The map iridicates the names and administrative centres of the twenty provinces and one district within Papua New .Guinea.


128 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 Accomodation The following is a list of lower cost accomodation. It is by no meaMe I have tried to cover a range of towns and where possible include adrlresses and phone numbers. The cost of these places varies from K2 to K20 per day depending on what is ptovided. Additions and amendments to this list are actively sought from residents-and visitots. Alotau Guest House,. P. o. Box, Alotau. Alot. 52? .... 11thern Guest House1 P. D. Box 44, Goroka. 721171 Salvation Army P. D. Box 365, Goroka. 721218 Minogere Lodge Motel, P. o. Box 450, Goroka. 721009 Salvation Army Flats, P. o. Box 343, Kainantu. 771130 Kainantu Lodge, P. o. Box 28, Kainantu. Buablung P. o. Box 1055, Lae, 424412 Klinki Lod9e, P. o. Box Las. 421281 'Hotel Cecil, P, O. Box 12, 423674 Sa 1 v a t i on Army , P • 0 • B ox 2 5 9 , La e • 4 4.12 4 8 7 Red C r o-s s Ho. s t e i', La s • 4 2 4 6 2 4 c. W. A. Cottage, P. D. Box 154, Madang. 822216 Luthern Guest House, P. D. Box 211, Madang. 822589 Hostel, o. 408, Mt. Hagen. 521865 Mapang Hostel, P. D •. Box 3941 Mt. Hagena 521286 United Hostel, c/-P. o. Box 188, Mt. Hageh. c. w. A. P. o. Box 1222, Boroko. 253646. Port Moresby Mapang, Port 255251 YWCA, Port Moresby. 256604 Salvation. Army, P. Box 4070, Badili. 253744 Port Moresby. Civic Guest House, P., o. Box 1139, Boroko. 255091 Community Hostel, Rabaul. 922325. Camp, Rabaul. 922020 Anglican Church Hostel, P. Ds Box 25, Samarai. Salvation Army Sogeri, c/-P. o. Box 40709 Badili. 282325 Teacher's College, o. Box 69, Wewak. Assembly of God Transit Hostel, Po o. Box 55, Oregerhafen Lodge, P. D. Box, Finschhafen. ll!! " • •• . •• L'".H..O "--CO O'\ 0 N • • • 'o. • 1-0J 0\ 0 "t""' C'l QQ>4fi'i!!fll<) -.-: -------........ N t'"l :.q lf'.l \0


130 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 THE CAVING North Solomons Province The December issue of the Newsletter of the North Solomons Cave Exploration Group summarises the Group's activities in __ 1978. There were eleven trips made during the year; seven-to the Manetai three to the new Kuraro Valley Siuma area, and one to Buka. A planned trip to Keriaka was called off due to flooding. Taroku Nantaut in the Manetai area is still the narnba wan cave. Official approval for the caving activities of.the 9roup_were obtained from the Provincial Government. Rolat1onsh1ps with village people have generally been excellent. village people worry that the cavers are part ? m1n1ng especially on first trips, but once this m1sunderstand1ng 1s sorted out, hospitality is excellent. It is hoped that Hans Meier and his group keep up the good work in 1979. New Britain A six man French expedition three hle&ks in East New Britain in November,investigating some of the gigantic vertical sided dolines and river systems in the karst . of Pomio. The trip was a reconnaissance for a 12 man expedition planned for 1979. Michael Bourke accompanied the team for two weeks. The first of the giant dolines explored, Gare, was near Nutuve It was first reported by members of the 1972-73 U.Q.s.s. New Britain expedition (see Niugini Caver 1(2) :2734). The rope pitch needed to descend the hole was 217m, a new PNG record for length of pitch. to the the bottom of doline was about 26Dm. River flow was as a -12 m /sec. The size of the river precluded exploration of the cave passages and these were followed only for 100m or so in the upstream and downstre?m directions. The second doline explored, Minye, was Kapgena and Tuke villages. It was first looked at by Chris Borough and Kevan Read in 1968 (see NiUQini Caver 1(2) : 25 and cover photograph of Niugini Caver The rope pitch was 270m again a new PNG record for a pitch. On the last stage of the pitch, a 75m free hang, Mike discovered French . Petzl descenders are much faster than the whaletail. The result: two burnt hands, one badly so. The river bottom was flowing at an estimated 15 -20m3/sec, it one of the largest cave rivers in PNG. It was possible to follow the river downstream in the cave for 50m or so cave depth at this point was about 366m. Upstream the river NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 131 from a resurgence, but a nearby passage was followed for 2300m before it blocked off .. One of the features of this passage large chamber 240m long, up to 130m high and 20 to 200tn wide. Truly an impressive systemJ The final of the New Britain part of the expedition was to Matalai River resurgence near Pomiq and an associated giant doline 800m above this resurgence., Because of ac-aess difficulties, this objective was not reached. Huon Peninsula After New Britain, the French team spent two weeks in the Saruwaged Range. The party explored twenty-five caves around Mt. Bangeta, only five of which were 1Dm or more metres deep. The cave was a mere 19m deep and Was at 3800m ,a.s.1 •• The area is a complete write-off for deep despite the thickness of the limestone. The only consolation is that the .. caves are higher than any previously explored in Papua New Guinea. Western Province A Br"i tish expedition has just returned from the northern part of the Westerri Province. Two members (Norman Flux and Noel Plumley) spent five months in the area. The other three Tony White and Steve Worthington) participated in the Australian Muller Range expedition and then spent three with the British team. Overall results were disappointing for the effort involved. The main objective was the Hole in the Hindenburg Wall. It took a party six days to climb 300m up the face of the Wall to the cave The cave 1-::self was 600m long. The Kaakil, first explored by New Guinea 75, was extended.In the south.east of Tabubil, near the Menge gorge, Arem Tern was explored to a depth of 334m and a length of about 900m. In the Kaban Ranges, Gebemitem, contained a free pitch of 83m at the entrance and was about 150m deep. Other areas wi significant finds were around Bali vip ,. the AmdJ. and Emuk Ranges and of Imigabip. Eastern Highlands The end oF 178 was a period of intense activity in the Kainantu district. Norm Flux and Noel Plumley, from the British expedition, surveyed Tuweiwu in the Obura area. Surveyed length 1525m which is a bit shorter than the 2200m estimated by tred Parker, 14 years earlier (see Niugini Caver 3(2) : 35 44), but still quite the Obura area, five members of the and N9rm four days pushing the. deep system near the Swiss rnission (Dravanana) . ., Michael


132 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 6 NUMBER 4 Bourke spent one day with the party. The top entrance of the system (Yunamare) was pushed to a depth before it became too low to push. The middle was pushed to a depth of 190m and a length of 110Dm before closing off. The resurgence was surveyed as 330m long. Unfortunately it was not possible to join the three sections of the system. At Yonki Michael Bourke, Norm Flux and Noel Plumley looked for caves near the Swiss Mission first reported by Parker and Wainwright in Niugini Caver 3(2). They descended two previously unexplored pitches in the river cave, but were stopped by a third pitch. Norm returned with the Frenchmen and over three days the party joined up the 'wet' .. and 'dryt caves and pushed the system to a sump which is just above theresurgence of the river. It was not possible to penetrate this, but apparently this is possible in the dry season. The cave is 134m deep and 105Dm long. Finally Norm ard three of the Frenchmen spent a day in Hell's Gates at Henganofi as a finale to their PNG explorations. Art Exhibition Bev Wilde, of the Art School at the Goroka Technical College, held an exhibition of art at the Goroka Bowling Club on 1st December. The twenty-five pieces on display (all of which wsre sold) were based on the rock and cave art of Papua New Guinea• Art from the West Sepik9 Simbu1 Eastern Highlands, Morobe, Central, Milne Bay and New Ireland Provinces as recorded by the artist herae1f and by several other individuals on numerous field trips was represented.The art forms used were mainly copper beatings and acrylics, but batik, oils, copper etchings and cast alloy were also used. Most people are aware of the many wonderfully carved and painted art forms of Papua New Guinea. However very few people other than some Nationals and a handful of academics and enlightened and interested persons are aware of the unique and diverse artforms to be found upon cliff faces, amongst boulder clusters, on monoliths, in gorges and within the caves of this topogr?phically wild country. Something of the order of two hundred art sites of indeterminate age have been recorded since the first observations by Europeans in the latter years of the nineteenth century, and it is not unreasonable to assume that there are hundreds more. This exhibition of art will go a long way in publishing more the art forms of this country and the work of forgotten generations of traditional Papua New Guinea artists whose identities have been lost in the mists of time, but are faithfully acknowledged by the empathy and respect represented in the art. (Based in part on notes prepared for the exhibition by Kevan Wilde.)


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