Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver

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Niugini Caver
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Niugini Caver
Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 Volume 7 Number 1 March, 1979 Quarterly KS.OD per volume 1 Niugini Caver is the publication of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, an informal association of persons in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Malcolm and Alison Pound, P. o. Box 3824, Port Moresby, Papua New Guir:ea. CONTENTS An Australasian Speleological Expedition to Papua Ne.w Guinea A Preliminary Report. J.M. James••••••••••••••••••••• Notes on a Very, Very Brief Trip to Omai Cave, Southern Highlands. D. s. Gillieson ••••• •••••••••••••••••••••• 11 The cave Waiya Eganda, KOroba J.. La n d s b erg , a n d D' • s • G i 11 i e s o n • .• • • ., ,, ,, • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •. • • 1 2 lJaccon t 79 A. Goulbourne ••••• o • o. ,, ••••• o .... • •••• ,, •••• ,, •• ,. • • 1 The .Pr.el'iminaty Report of the 1978 French Expedition R,, Maire •••••• -. •••••• o •• ,, .......... o ........ ,, •••••••••••••• 14 Speleological Investigations in Papua New Guinea L. c. Mouret and Berenguer •••••••••••••••• 15 Book: The Science of Speleology •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 21 Irapui Portil Escarpmentf Simbu Province. A Note to the Editor. J. M. James ••• o .. o ••••• ,, • o •• o ................. ,, ••••• 22 Solomons Cave Expl6ration Group Newsletter ••••••••••••• 22 New ••••••••••••••••••••••• P e op 1 e •••••• ,, , •• ,; • .. .. .. • ....... • • .. ••• e1 • ,, .. o •• ,, • • ... ,, • • .. • .. ... ,, ••••• • .: • 2 3 P. N. G. c. G,, Library •••• o ... ••••••• ..... COVER PH"OTOGRAPHS tront Cover -Atea Kananda This photograph shows 'the spectacular doline and entrances to perfection. Thi-8 photograph was taken by Kevan Wilde from a More information on this cave is given in the article starting on Page 2 of this issue. Back Atea Kananda This photograph shows Malcolm Handel in Deep Throatp far into the Atea. Photograph by Randell King.


2 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 ATEA '78 Ap Austr•lasian to.Papua New Guinea A. Prel_imin_ary Report.: .. Julia M. James* Atea 179 was third speleological to the Muller plateau in the Southern Highlands. In 19731 the Niugini Spsl.eclo.gical .. Research EKpedition (James et al, 19?4) made a preliminary surface and cave exploration of the area •. In 19761 an expedition returned to work on the drainage area of the Atea River and the Atea Kananda Cave. This cave was the focus of the 1978 expedition as the earlier investigation had indicated that it would be a challenging cave to explore. In contrast to the two preceding expeditions there was to be an extensive programme of scientific studies. Atea Kananda is located on a plateau (map 1) which lies between the peaks of the Muller.Range and the Strickland Gorge. The entrance to the cave is at an altitude of 1900m• and is three days trek from the nearest inhabited village• Kelabo. The expedition was in the caving area from June to August 1978. There were 48 expedition from five countries: Austra:.lia., New Zealand, USA, Britain and PNG. The scientific team cons.i-sted of six earth scientist.s._ bi.ol.o.gist.s .and a chemist. The . .o-r.g.atdzation of Atea t79 took two years, and 20 members of the rour major speleolog.ical societies were involusd• Tha expsdition obtained recognition from the follawing bodies: The University of Papua New Guinea, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, Papua New Guinea National Parks Board, Department of Lands and Wildlife Branch and the Geological Survey of Papua New Guinea. A television film was made of the exploration of Atea Kanada and a reporter from the Sydney Morning Harald accompanied the expedition. ThaDost Df an such as Atea '"Bis about $A100,000• Of this, about $A1250 was spent on for research: experiments were designed for minimum cost. The money from the following sources: about$A501000 from expedition members contributions, $A14,000 in cash sponsorship, $A15,000 from fund-raising events and the balance by donation of supplies and equipment, and by discounts on airlines, freight, etc. An advance party for the expedition worked in the area through June, organizing local assistance and permission from . local landowners. The Duna tribesmen and the advance party cut tracks and helipads, and built a base camp, creating ideal conditions for both cave exploration and research. They moved six tonnes of necessary equipment f 6r the six week expedition. The exploration of the Atea Kananda (map 2) took place over five weeks. The Riverway was the main objective, the 1978 exploration starting at the Ship Canal with a swim of 300m * School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 2006 CL <( z 0 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUrBER 1 3 E "" 2 :it:. u , !ll ' D. I ... ':it 11 ... " 0 ,, D tU 0 ... ) g ..


4 (.!) z <( Cl c z m <( a:: ,,_ <( :J UJ :E !;;( NIUGINI CAVER 7 1 ...... ... .... --......... ..,..-, ........ .. en e er w 0 ?! NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 5 tu three semi-permanent water traps which became known asthe 'Ducks•. The Ducks closed. with a rainfall of 12mm (9mm was the average daily rainfall. for the exploration period) •. Beyond ,the Riverway continues as impressive ra,pid.s and still."-.. canals to $ ,, the Impeller• In _total 1 km' of was '" requir_ed,. with .same length of safety l,ines f . through the. deE;lp section$ of the Hiverway., The I,mpe(ller was ... by-passed by a route through the Holocau'st : (a .. choke) but. the river. soon .sumped again after down .. rapids th.e .. 1.:fe.nstock, an awe•inspiring c_hamber .• AO' .. 1;1;. ,. i' alternative routethrough the Holocaust led to a furthe-:t•: 2km of cave and deepest point in Winchester, a dry floored chamber entered via a 30m pitch. For the final . of the expedition the Riverway was completely closed by flood':.:: waters. ' .. Ugwapugwa is a 3Dm high, 4m wide meandering streamway had been followed upstream for 1. 3km in 1976. 'This was beautifu+ _and easy to negotiate, but soon" changed .to give a serie .. s of: .n:iud crawls, squeezes and walloiJs in .the:,,.' . , young vadose. tr .. ench at the base of a 3Dm high passage. A .final inlet stream was reached lkm later and a few strides dn 1ie& Varagaiya •. This.phreatic in a variety of .forms .. and unusual black and orange collages of : calcite speleothems all blended to neutral colours by dus,t'. Bat bones; a .live tree frog and a strong draught indihated another but the limited hours spent did not reveal it. There are still leads in to be explored but :since a fast trip to this area 15 hours, other The highestpoirit in the Atea reached by aid climbing in ari.inlet in Much of the energy of the expedition was spent in trying ta find a by-pass to the Ship Canal so as to re•entar the River,way: close:r to the Atea J,"'esurgenc_e at the Nali. A way an was the Beeline, a high passage near.the entrance, involved a. climb into a higher phreatic passage Penny Lane which. developed into the usual A way through led to the Ooze a parallel to the Ship Canal though much; smaller than it. The systematic exploration of the intTicate of tributary passages produced three high level Strawberry Fields, New World and Primrose Hill. New World of the better decorated parts of the cave and pleasant because of its spacious passages, while Primrose Hill was yet another: phreatic maze,. different yet tedious ta explore survey. Strawberry Fields had.little to recommend it that ,it led to Series. Exploration: in the. Austral was the ieast stimulating of any part of the Atea Kananda,. To push any of the leads there involved a flounder down Ooze Cruise and encounters. with the glutinous of Yukabo and then the Imperial Mud In these _it .was not difficult to achieve. thJa quota of 1km exp1ored and ' Somewhere right the end of 'the Austral lies another entrance,. it.s .indicator being. a strong draught which .. changes directioJJ; in the. late afternoon. It would been helpful here to have had air tracers as part of . equipment. . j .. \


NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 began to concentrate on the outlying areas of Utina, Legari and Okafunga as enthusiasm for wet further of the Atea Kananda waned. The the cave are such that if given the time it could become a much longer system and the location of entrances in the Yaragaiya would greatly the exploration. Jhere is still a g1immer of hope that at same stage another breakthrough to the Riverway could be made and further papth achieved. A deal of surface exploration was done in the Atea catchment ,l.n the hope tt"iat higher entrances into the far of the cave might be found. In 1976 it was discovered that the Atea River sank 1km tipetre'm of Atea Kananda, rising below a dry gorge from a of outflow caves before plunging down a series of into the Atea Kananda doline. Several bf these immature outflow caves were explored and over a kilometre of passage found. The doline walls cave of just under a kilometre in length was found. bn rjtjges above doline and in the dry valley between Jt and the Atea resurgence at the Nali there were a number pf insignificant shafts and caves examined. Location of the sink was another of the major surface objective.a of Atea '78. This took considerably more time than hnticipated as it sank 6km up its now dry valley at 2700 -altitude. The shafted sink unfortunately was blocked by and rubble. A test with Rhodamine gave a positive at deal of effort was Utina region the showed that end of Yaragaiya was located ploseto tbe right angle bend of the Utina. No connection the cave could be located despite the tantalising of streams not far no extensive caves found along the Utina Prospecting in the is difficult and looking for an alternative . to the Atea Kananda is almost impossible. LocatioM be from below. is a small possibility that the. caves at Okafungu {Horatio of 1973) would connect with the Atea Kananda and this in Uli was revisited and all the ' questi.on marks of 1973 cleared up. Several other. deep shafts were but at the end of the expedition the best had to be left -because of flooding, a 200+ metre deep.pothole still going. Nall was aririther objective although the prospect of going a deep wet is the Atea is still impenetrable, with water gushing from a pile of at the base of a cliff. A number of caves were looked at in the Nali_gorge but all these were small. The bnly interesting one was a flood overflow cave the stream feeding the spring below dropped from a small hole the roof •. It would, however, be an extremely dangerous blimb enter this and at_ the time the cave not bonsidered to the effort, as :it probably drained rtamo. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 7 The axplora tion of Mamo itself was left until last in an resources in one drainage so that the sc1ent1f1c and expldration would be coherent. Mamo had 1n 1973 and 1976 but it was not until 1978 that a was achieved, to give the most ,and cave yet found on the Muller plateau: over Skrn Of passage it was rewarding to explore, conta1n1ng large dry pas$ages, many speleothems and one large chamber half a million cubic metres in voltime Many passages the main downstream lead be of caying in the.tropics giaphically illustrated during the exploration of this cavet when a party of narrowly escaped from a flash flood.and forced to sit it out on.a ledg? for the night. On following day two qt_h:er in an effort to increase the le'i1gth of the cava in the waning days of the expedition to out another flood. In a single day's surface on Mamo with large horizontal passages connecting adjacent dolinea, pitches down in a number of places unexplored. depths. One large . . the drainage from four streams:. and was about :aom deep. With passage several levels it looked .great; however, none of the prom1sing holes were visited again. other.areas were visited by Atea legari, a mouritain dominates the NW of the Atna catchment. rt rises to a . height of_309om plus and re sovetril shafts , found. ULt Mindu wa."s for _80m but lack of rope prevented The entrance pitch is a least 160m. Legar1 was abandonded due to lack of time ahd The Lavani valley produced several .horizoritc:l!'" sinks, some with considerable .. of passage. members of the expedi tio.n feel that it has good potential full raport of the Lavani will appear in Niug1n1 The twd major sections: Earth Sciences; including investigations of the geology geomorpholo9y, hdrolog and geochemistryof the area, and 81olog1cal Sciences; including flora and fauna surveys both on. the surface and underground. To. the s1:1ccess of 1.978 sc1enti.fic programme, a was formed to assessand co-ordinate lnd1v7dual pro:Jectso The members of the committee were ,in problem$ .. p'f out research p:r:ojects on exped1 tions, anc.1,of, field work in Papua New Guinea. N. of Australian University, P. W. Williams of Auckland and Dr. G. c. Cox and Dr. J., M. James of University of Sydney. geologica1 out by the and the by the cavers will enable the production of revised geolatjical of a wide area of the Muller Plateau. In the past many of the iMterbedded • which under tropical conditions weather had been identified as such. The . karst. f in the ar'.ea ate varied and types not expected at that were


a NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 measurements and staging provide a short of the weather the Muller! They most valuable an aid to the exploration of the the Atea Kananda. The stage measurements allowed a prediction of the river when the low section of the Riverway would become impassable saving a long swim to confirm this. By the end of the expedition it was possible to fast the low section would flood after rain and how long it would remain flooded. water traces, using the Leucophor NBS and Rhodamine . defined part df the underground drainage. Some of the water in the Nali gorge flows underground through a of 1500m. The flow rate of the Atea River at the varied between 2 20 m3/s. It is clear from and. water chemisrty studies that the Atea River in this has a complex series of underground courses with di0ision and rejoining of its waters. When a course of the river is. blocked, the water rapidly carves a new underground route. The study of the.speleogeneas in the Atea is complicated by three distinct and several minor levels development in it. A similar phenomenon was encountered in Selminum Tern, a cave about 100km to.the The 1975 British Speleological Expedition to PNG, which explored the cave, suggested that the cave had survived three.stages of orogenic uplift. It is believed that the in Atea Kananda can be explained by periods of rapid downcutting through limestone interspersed with of slower erosion through the interbedded calcareous siltstones. The_ levels in the cavs are a result of local stratigraphy. Speleothems and minerals were collected f rorn the cave for analysis in Australia. There is now a of specimens from the 1973, 1976 an? 19?8 expedit:ons and it is intended to use them for paleoclimatic work using stable oxygen isotopes, and for dating with radiocarbon or by the uranium-thorium method. Sediments_were '.or a study of the mechanisms of sediment emplacement in These will also be used to study the role of abrasion in cave development and in paleoclimatic work. The studies are among the first carried in high altitude tropical caves. A and ecological study was carried out. A of sutface flora and fauna wa$ proposed it had been intended to collect only those species associated or potentially associated with the caves. A much larger collection was made; 13 species of small and 30 species of birds including two Birds .Paradise were identified. snakes , lizards and amphibians were found. Thousands of were collected. The material collected by the biologists has been . distributed to specialists.throughout the Australasian area for classification. Already. it is rumoured that as as of the species yet described and that there are many novel 'troglobitic speciee. Very little scientific work was carried out on Mamo in the other field areas. ln Hadia Nduhongiri, however, the first evidence of human occupation of the Mamo plateau was found, NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 9 .t.he site. reco:ded. by .the University of Papua NsW Guinea. Preliminary 1nvest1gat1ons of the geology minerals .and .biology indicate '.: Yaneabogairi, the cave on Mamo, is as ihteresting as the Atea Kananda but quite Atea '78 waS'El and scientific expedition. maJor reasons for combining the two. One __ was f g. WJ. the support 9f the caving members o'f the expeqit19n, and sponsorship from people interested in' cave there w9uld have been no expeditibn andrici. sc1ent:-f7c programme •. The other .is manpower: none of the could have done-without the thousands of of underground and surface exploration and and the underground.collecting trips. r Afea 't79 found and explored s6me 4Skm underground passage: ,the 300rn deep Atea Kananda at 30 •. Skm is currently the longest cave in the Southern Hemisphere. On the Muller Plateau there is a 30.Skm and a 8.,Skm cave a"\160m shaft and a 200m vertical cave left A th?usand hectares of the Muller Plateau examined in detail and.a area partially explored. The planned scientific programme was achieved with few omission& As the Atea Report is. prs6ared and the i scientific results .collated it is agreed that Atea '78 was a great success. Plateau is not finished to return in 1982 specifically to the exploration and scientific study of Hadia Yaneabogairi the second great cave of the Muller Plateau. ' Additional Reading . Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 1973 (The Speleological Research Council, P. O. Box 253 ' NSW, ZP32, Australia.) Jarrye.s, J. M., King, R. H., Montgomery, N .. R. 1976. Atea(. Karianda. Helictite 1.1,(2) 5 -26. "' James, J. M., King, R. H., Montgomery, N. R. 1977. Mulls; Niugini (4) : 103 -128. There will be a full report published on Atea '78 and itwili be available after September 1979 from Atea t79 41 Northwood Street, Newtown, NSW,, ' Atea 178 to thank many people and firms PNG who list is. very long but we-would to special mention to the following. ', Wilde of the P.N.G.C.E.G. who organised the expedition in PNG. His pre-expedition organisation, the leading of the expedition and the contacts with the local people were invaluable. He created perfect conditions at the base camp for living, caving and He controlled the movement of equipment through6ut the Gilera Gitane, Uri Pogaibo an'd Beruwi Kambia, our No411 & No.,2 local assistants and interpreter. The many other men and women of Ouna and Huli whb us.


I :.I 10 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 Alison and Mal Po.und who easad ou-r brief sta:ys in P-or.t Moresby and accom.odated over half the: or. c •. Pain and Fred Parker who gave us advice on obt'aining permits and on ciur research Ben Probert,_the:ADC at Koroba and staff. Local Councils at Kotbba, Kelabo and Herage for providing accomodat.H>.n and: aiding with. BtiaM and Helen Telford at Atu, who after manf expedition,-Brian .us i.ri obtain,ing local for .. the features of the Muller . I Alan. Goulbourne who received our sea freight fr'om Sydney and saw its through the PNG Customs at-Lae •. Territory Airlines through their.Mount Hagen Neil _ Ryan, gave us a reduction in chart_er rates. Neil he1ped us in many -0ther ways. Janet Ryan organised our banking, and :accomodation in Mount Hagen. Our'ti;t PNG includes following:-. Lae'. Biscuit Company Pty ... Ltd• 1 for 4,000. navy Ries Pty. Ltd., for 1000kg of rice. Pty. Ltd., f6r a cost reduction in the transport of 5 tonnes of equipment. Kurumul Tea Plantations Pty. Ltd., for 50kg of tea. ,Carpe.nta.ria Exploration Company P_ty_. a reduction hn helicopt"er. rates --and the of two radios and a regular radio schedule with us. commonwealth Gases, for 200 litres bf carbide. Shell Papua New Guinea Pty. Ltd., for K600 towards fuel costs. Papua New Guinea Coffee Board for SOkg _of coffee. w.o. and 'H.D. 'wills (PNG) Ltd,, for Skg of spear tobacco sticks. Burns Philp (New Guinea) Ltd •. , for wholesale pribe on items. p • N. G. freighters P-ty. Ltd., for free transport from Mount Hagen to Mendi. Pagini Transport Pty. Ltd., cost price transport from Lae to Mount Hagen. Stores for KSO. Goroka Coffee Producers for 25kg of coffee. Tony Karas of Rotorwork Helicopters for using his weekend to get delicate_ equipment to Atea Gana Anda.__ :i Finally: ;our special "thanks: must_ gp '_Niugini; to Witt and Paul Phillips who hot only gave us us a in air but undertook] tha:mammoth of organising_ 4B *. .. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 NOTES ON A VERY, VERY BRIEF TRIP TO OMAI SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS. 11 D. s. Gillieson* On the morning of 28th October, 1978 the author, in company with Jill Landsberg and Neil Ryan, left Mt. Hagen to go to Omai Cave, near Mendi.The drive down was uneventful and we parked the car at the about 11am. We-then our collective loins and headed down the.creek to the cave. The cave was initially described by Van Amstel (1973) and his description indicated that an extensive system existed. We therefore planned a fairly long mapping trip and were suitably encumbered,. We plodded off down the creek and soon reached a rock bar which formed a cascade about 2m high. Neil said that the enttance : a shaft in the bed of the stream just downstream. To our surprise there was no entrance, just a depressed area of the bed filled with coarse gravel. We therefore headed off to the east across two shafted dolines to the top a steep slope which overlooked a small waterfall on the creekp further downstream. A scramble took usto the point where we could. see that the . went a m shaft in the bed of the stream. We abseiled in arid were standing on a deep.deposit of gravel, in front of an arched sntrance which had partially collapsed. Neil entered the cave by sliding between a collapsed block and the side-of the We moved down for 10 metres or so through a rockpile to the edge of a shattered shaft. Neil chimneyed across this to a bridge between it and another small shaft. He commented that the top of shaft was very loose and suggested that I look for another way across. By squeezing behind a flake I gained a narrow. slot which ran along ons side of the shaft and was separated from it by several large flakes of rock. I chimneyed along this, toa point where I had tosqueeze between two flakes which blocked the end of the slot. Head first was no good, so I tried feet first. At -this $tage the flake above:; me slid down and pinned my thighs, and the block below me started to rotate.I yelled for Neil and he moved to a precarious position on the edge of the shaft. Together we managed to lft the rbck a couple ! of inches, enough to get my legs free. The rock.was about 2m by 1.5m by 0.5m i.e. bloody heavy. I slowly swung and crawled back to the entrance gave Neil a;belay. back over the shaf':t, which promptly collapsed after he;. reached terra firina • LJe exited and I slowly 'prussiked up the entrance pitch. By this stage my leg was rather sore, ahd I: had to hop back up to the car which was rather amusing for a few who'd ta watch the fDn. At this point ws stopped shaking , had lunch, and drove back to Mt. Hagen, where a liberal dose of neck oil was taken to lubricate our adrenaline stiffened limbs. My leg was rather bruised and sore for about a week. Moral: Give Oma1: untll it settles If-you must go, take a hydraullc 'jack. The bf solo caving in * University of St. Brisbane, Queensland, Auetralia. 4067


12 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 quake prone areas was rather forcibly brought home • .,The previous entrance had completely filled in and a new entrance 1Dm deep excavated in the two, years since Neil had first been While they were waiting f6r me to ascend the a patch of gravel that Neil and Jill were standing on, sank 30cms. Reference Van Amstel, Jot:in, 1973. Caves in the. Mend! Area, Southern Highlands District. Niugini 1(3) : 56 58. *' THE CAVE WAJYA EGANDA2 KOROBA DISTRICT J. Landsberg D. S. Gillieson* This small cave was visited by the authors during the after math of the Atea expedition. Caves have been reported from the Tari Koroba area (Williams, and Powell, 1972)p nQ .were provided. The. cave is. located d.:; grid reference 992675 on 1: 100 OOO Koroha to'pographic sheet. rt is located in .. of a gorge, f the Naggia River breaches a ?f -the Kenegari ridge. Tha is 6,rn .. above >t.he. present bed of the river,. on. the NW side., The' limes here is well bedded, off whi to. cream, and. dips at. 40 to. the ENE. Relief on exposed ridge is 500m., --! ; • The 6a0e is reached by off -Tari e.t.Mur.i.a Village, just after the bridge. A walk of. 2km leads to the which 1s crossed belQW cave by a local bridge (permission necessary). The entrance is .. gained by a .short climb. The owner of th.e cave, Mr•. Abau Agana, nearby and can be contacted at the Guala C.M.M.L. Mission Koroba. . '. The .iS .dry$ .roomy and shows evidenc.e of io'11g roof .smoke blackened and hearths ware Local informants say that never flood&. 6ava, which is a fossil The cave basically a 5 .8 • metres wide and 4 metres high:, w:h; terminates in a of_ pool$• The sections show control. of bedding• The floor of the passage is' ,a .. deep deposit laminated? orange brown The stratigraphy is exposed in pits formed by The Rassage has a massive columns and s ta la g.m.i s ire small cliff foot caves in the vicinity and local .informants know of other caves in the 'area• Reference ;. Williams, p 0 .\J M"cbougaJ1,. I. p Powe.11, M. 1972; Aspects, .. of the Quaternary Geology of .. the, Tari Koroha Area, pap u a • J G e o 1 o S o c • A us t • j_li ( 4 ) : 3 3 -3-4 7 • ' *Dept. of Geography, Uni. of Qld., St. Lucia, Australia. 4067 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME ? NUMBER 1 lJ.8CCON 179 A. Goulbourne* 13 The 1979 A.S.F. Conferencewas held in Perth, Western Australia, and was called strangely enough, WACCON. Next timo it will be held in Victoria and called? Yes, you•ve guessed it--CONVICT 1 Starting New Vear• s. Day, the formal sessions lasted four days and we a selection of papers,;ranging from. repairing used ciaves to a preliminary report on a and modular method of surveying and mapping. Generally they were quite good, although the section and area reports up to the standard of the others. Thanks to the effib!ent work by the local group, this part of the conference went very smoothly;discussions continued in the bar, sometimes into the When the proceedings are publishedl they will be well worth reading. from my'own point of viewt I found the talks about the formation and formations of the dune caves in this area and was lodking forward to the field trips with some excitment. lt was during the finalisation of these. trips, though, that the trouble began. Three areas were scheduled for examination •. They were the Nullabor, 'north of Perth (cent$ted at and the Leeuwin Naturalists Peninsula,.. . . . cbnservation had been a major topic in most of the lectures and papers from the local cavers. The organisers had caves (abbut 12) which they considered to be liable to over exposure; and could be permanently: damaged if too many cavers descended them.; All the to,the would be required to show that they were:good cavers to the trip leaders; and go on accompanied trips. A .least ten good trips were required ta qualify for a trip down the of the special caves. Up to this we had heard lectures on, seen surveys of looked at photographs of these restricted whet our appetite, so the points system was announced, uglyscanes Amongst the most vocal were the Sydney and Queensland cavers. Many cavers from the East Coast couldn't stop long enough to view the tantalising treasures. Even if they could, they were not to be guaranteed a trip. The general was that the points system was ill conceived and if these caves were in much danger, they should have ',been banned completely. As a result the whole atmosphere of the field trips became unpleasant. Individual exploration wasn•t -it wouldn't count towards your points; Very little rea . work was achieved, even though extremely experienced cavers were assembled. People spent time in . "Baggingncaves with guides who had in some cases caved and hadn't, in some cases1 even been down the caves which they were showing to others. This situtation got so that guides were required to show one the iay. through an 'old show cave, close to the road and regularly trogged by nsruce", noick" and HHarry". One felt that, if by chance. one a new cave, one she stand back and let; one. of the. Tpcal experts take over until one had earned, suff ibien,t'' ;poitrt:s to go down and explore. lJi th the labour. and much could have been done in the way of work. could have been found and survAy$ *P:o. Box 898, Laa, Morobe Province, .Papua New Guinea.


14 NIUGINI CAVER .. NUMBER 1 completed to in existing caves. In an area which was short of cave, any work would have been an opportunity b)C:.the organisers. * '* ;JHE PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE 1978 FRENCH .EXPEDITION -)ft Rioh9rd Maire. The of six J ... L. fa:.ntolil::. X:• Goyetf . R. Maire, D. Martinez, F. Pogg1a and_G. S•yorn u (Doctor;. M. Bourke (PNGCEG) . tad in the New Britain part of . the .. :e.xpe.di tion. The exp edit.ion. between 2nd _November and 31 et Decei:tber' East New Britain, the .Hudn Peninsula {Morobe area around Kainantu Eastern Highlands Province). This was a reconnaiesan6e for the .next French expedition in visited ' al1d the trip 1979. :, In East NaW ;Britain, to the North of Nutuve (Po'mio Distric.t), shafts explored:. . . "i' 'Nare with a total depth of. -260m. The entrance pitch was . ::m (250m with the scree included) although the side is about 31 gm. T.he stream cr:_ossing the, bottom_ or_ the shaft is 8 1Dm /s. . .. 2. Minye (between Cap.Gena and Tuke Village) with a total djpth. cif -366m. The entrance pitch was . ::: :.'the:! scl:'ee included) al though the highest side is about 420m., The diameter of the shaft is SOOm at. the. top ,; " .. at the bottom. The total development 3000m with an upstream fossil passage of ?300m •. . a large chamber 240m long, 200m wide and .. . 'high. The at the bottom of the shaft (Canue ::: R 1 v er) is 1 5 .... 2 0 m / s • . In the Motob• Piovince, the Bangeta Plateau of Huon . Peninsula Although the of this atea is with a li:'tnestone exceeding 1. OOOm., the :_,_. was disappointing as all the are by soil and gJacial The small caves .. ml -1:sm) are situated between 370.0 and 3800m in. altitude. I In the Kainantu area of the Eastern !e.nter the rather e.xpensi ve Two Kina for :pe.rson, the se owner •••• ) c p of the explored parts. The fbssil large, with many bats and guano. were collected here (list -in M'ou.ret: interesting are troglaQ.i;ti.c,. ',,, . ecies) of the family ,.,St.ylonfscidae) •. The1 active sec on s been explored for about one hundr,e-d but the cave goes on up downstream. The local people didn't want to go with us in this section. . the entrance Gomia cave the r.iver resurges. and sinks :after some one huridred bwt we have not explored .are also several small caves around this or d ent: about 25Dm. Temperatures: 11.8 C water; 18. air; water flow 2001/s. 8 oratorie de Zoologie, 118 R6Dte Cedex FRANCE. . ...


16 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 (B) Nolombila Cave 8ourke(1978) describes this cave. We explored it and made a schematic map. The galleries are very large and exploration is easy. The local people wanted to the places marked X on the map but the cave goeson with the same large dimensions. Nolombila Cave forms the upper known part of the underground Kiowa river anc:J the main water sink of: the •... _ Total explored Flow: about 1m3/s. Other caves and are reported higher in the Mount Elimbari II -Caves on the north east side of Mount Ellmbari There are a lot of unexplored caves in this area, many of them near the track. lJhe:n it is not too wet, s and cars can go on to local people are quite friendly; .there.was no entry fee for the caves and no problem to sleep in the village. We explored one fossil and two active sinks 'here; we saw another sink which we did not visit. The potential is very great both in length and depth. (A) cave: a small .sink, ending in a sump. Flow:30-401/s. (B) Lincbamo sink: a 12 metre shaft in a doline, with a small str.eam joining another underground one. Upstream. and downstream thepassag9 low to Flow: water 18.0 c, air 17.6c. . .'. . (C) Pila a rather impressive. sink :(300 5001/s); we didn't explore it, but it might be possible using bolts to avoid the stream. {D) Rinimo sink {= Famundihiyibalokulomani sink): This is a fossil sink near an electricity pylon, north west of Pila village. The shaft is about 30 metres deep and enters a large chamber with some short passages in different directions. A sketch map of this sink is given. We collected some terrestrial invertebrates (list in Mouret and Oeharveng, 1. 979); amo.ngst' was c:m interesting -troglobi tic lsopod of, th.e fam11y Philo:sciidae. AVILU CAVE, SENGAYO VILLAGE1 MOROSE PROVINCE (L., o. Berenguer} rrom Mumeng {between Lae and a PMV leaves every day for Sengayo it is not too wet. About three hours on a rough track with a four wheel drive is necessary to get there. In Sengayo village it is possible to sleep in a local house an,d buy some food {good oranges). had to get a ticket (K1) the visit to the cave with a .local guide. In this cave the passages are not very big (1 -3m by 2 -4m) • After of passage and three looking onto the. undet grouhd stream, we arrived at' .-a. low passage about Sm •. long and had a on as one of our guidss wanted to stop here •. A little further reached the underground stream and followed it downstream (we stdpped at a small waterfal6) and . upstream welking in the (Temperatures: air 19.5 C, . water 18.8 C). Some 150m upstream, a collapsed area with som$ fossil. passages was and again.theriver. We stopped about. 1 OOm. further on. where the: passage .. became lower and divided passages. N1UGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 ' . NOLOMBILA 40m Ref BP953217 RL 1710 r ar949229 1555 CAVE x ' Nolang:;mo GOMIA CAVE : .... 10m 17 N


18 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 bi NOBAMO SINK ; ''; : ;; .:: .• ANENAMO CAVE ' ..... 10m NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 s. s.troom us. undergrol 'VI LU CAVE . ..( .. ..... : Ref BP981169 RL 1 _; : ----""' .'\() m z FAMUNDIHIYOBALOKULOMAfil 51NK or RtN\MO $\NK •I' i . . • 19 l;' .. '( i: . . !"


20 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 passages have not been explored. We give here an approximate map of the cave• Total explored development: about 850m. rlow: 2001/s. Temperatures: water 1s.a0c, air 19.s0c, water in the Sn•ka River outside 20.2c. Geology. We didn't see any karst landforms The rock is a not very s9lid marble {saccharoid marble with micas). The fossil system is only 2 -4m higher than the active . one. The flow was 150 2001/s. Inside the cave, .we saw some boulders of green shale and among the speleotherms, some moonmilk in a fossil passage. Biology. Some were collected: Diplopoda, Collembola, ants (a long way into the cave!), white were quite common (some are cited from Javarere, the caves of Finim Tel, and Hell'i Gate near Henganoffi). One other big cave is reported in the forest, one day's walk from the village. rINSCHHAFEN SIALUM AREA, MOROSE PROVINCE The two s sp.ant in this area didn • t allow us to find any important riaves, _only some very small ones the coastline, in Quaternary coral terraces (Wandokai limestone). The foot of the mountain at Kip, north of Sialum, is quite impressive, with its steep slopes up to 2100m, but here the limestone is not favourable for caves (very friable, with sandstone in places, and no The plateau above 2100 2500m seams to !upply 'Paradise Spring', a big Vauclusian spring (about 2 m /s t; used mainly as\ tourist bait •. __ REMARKS ABOUT THE CAVERNICOLOUS FAUNA OF : PAPUA NEW GUINEA So little is that we must be very prudent when speaking about the cavernicolous fauna in Papua New Guinea. The main contributions are found in Beron(1976) Chapman(1976). During our trip; we collected mainly fauna forest soils and some terrestial from The study of this material has just begun. We only wish to make some remarksi -Epigeic fauna and soil fauna so known in this. country that it is always difficult to state if an invertebrate is a troglobitic one or For example, many unpigmented Collembola (Ineacta) live in the caves of the Chuave (On,x.chiurus sp., Sinella sp.) but similar (?same) species-of the\\ same genera" are al'So outside, in the litter or humus. \". Ecological study of the cavernicolous fauna demands a parallel study of the soil fauna outside. However, it may be possible sometimes to specify with reasonable certainity if an animal is a troglobitic one. That is the case with the new genus of Agonini (Coleoptera : Carabidae : Harpalinae) found in Finim Tel by Chapman (1976) which is modified in a similar way to the troglobitic Coleoptera from Europe •••• ) or North Amari.ea (Rhadine). In our materia I 3 terrastial isopods have good chances of being truly troglobitic. At least we didn't find the same isopods outside, even in the litter near the cave entrances. -Mountain caves of Papua New Guinea possess a-typical troglobitic fauna, the importance of which would be interesting to estimate because many authors have claimed that tropical NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 caves were not very fav6urable for the... troglobi tic fauna. a REFERENCES I , Bain t J • H • c • 1' Ma 'ci k eh 21 o • E • . ( 1 9 7 4 ) i mu i Guinea. 1/250 OOO Series, Explanator; Canberra, -Gov. Publish. Serv., 39pp. (1978) : The PNGCEG Easter '78 Simbu NJ,ug1n1 Caver 6 ( 2) : 63 d 64 -. ' Papua.New Notes. Trip,. 21 Dow, D. Smit, J. A. J., Page, R. w. (t974) : wau, New Guineao 1/250 OOO. Geological Series Explanatory Notes Canberra, Aust. Gov. Publish. Serv., Mouret! C.; L. (1978)_: Recherches et sur le Massif Karstique de l'Elimbari _ (Chimbu Proyince -Papouasie Nouvelle Guinee). Actes Congres National Speleq, (France), 1 (1976) : The British New Guinea Expedition. Speleobiology. ' . . T r a n s • Brit (l Ca v e . R e s • A s so c • 1_ ( 3-4 ) : 1 g 2 .. -2 O 3 • G. P. (1974) : Huon Sag-Sag, Papua New Guinea 1 250 OOO Geological Series, Explanatory Notes. • Canberra, Austs Gov. Publish. Serv., 22pp. R. J., D= J. (19?6) : Markam, Papua New Guinea. 1/250 .OHO Geological Series, Explanatory Not.ea •. Canberra, Aust. Gov. Publish. Serv •• Wilde, K. A. (1973) : Notes on some Caves in the Elimbari and Chuave of the Chimbu District (4) : 110 115. • Wilde, A. (1974) Trip to Gomi d N l v A eh h . a an o a J. age reas, : .. uave• C imbu District. NiDgini Caver 2(4) : 249 250. . ' A., (1976) : Angunga Sink, Chimbu Province. Gaver i(11 : 23 24. Yosii R. (1971) : Cave Collembola of New Guinea Collected by the Club of the Nanzan University. Contr. Biol. Lab., Kyoto Univ. 11.(2) : 77 .... 80., * ..Dot<: THE SCIENCE OF SPE;:LEOLOGY Edited by T.D.Ford and C.H.D.Cullingford . August 1976, xvi + 600 pp. 50 ?f. 'this a different scientific. discipline with its application to The natural of caves are described, and the methods of ti?n are considered. in detail with discussions o.n: .the of experimental results. Examples are ': from caves .Lhroughout the world. The contributors all . authori also experienced cave;s, and .... provide sound practical guidance to field study. Press, P.011 Box 3009 North Ryde, N.S.Ll. 2113, Australia 24.""'.',2 .. 8. Oval Road, London_. Nl.J1, United King.dam. 111 Fifth Avenue, New Ybrk, NY United Stated .of-America.


NIUGINI CAVER 7 NUMBER 1 IRAPUI CAVE, ESCARPMENT, SIMBU PROVINCE A NOTE TO THE EDITOR Julia Re note the bottom of page 87 Caver Vol 6(3) 1978. Irapui Cave has been previously surveyed as it was surveyed by myself.or at least I did the recording, drawing and The surveying team was Wilde and Van Watson. The length is about 2.5 kilometres and the standard was CRG 4-58. A sketch from that survey is in the article by Wilde (1973). Since then a little more passage has been found taking it: probably to a length of 3 kilometres. ' ' Many of the passages would appear to be unexplored because of flooding has some considerable changes, to Skunge chamber. In 1972 we were extremely careful when'exploring passages like that of a Thousand Wounds becausa 6f damage to the speleothems. The Japanese expedition had previously explored this passage using the same techniques of removing boots and continuing in barefeet. Their traces .were barely noticeable. They stopped at the same point as I did because to continue would have meant considerable tothe decoration. The survey is available for comparison if required. NORTH SOLOMONS CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP NELlSLETTER Although unknown to all .but a few people who have caved on Bougainville Island, there is a second publication in Papua New Guinea ,devoted to caving, apart from NiugEnd. Caver. This, is the, riewsletter of the North Solomons -,a;,e Exploration Group. ,The newslett,er is published by Hans Meier (P .o. Box 73, North Solomons Province, Papua New Guinea)who also writes most of the reports. The newsletter has appeared since October , and approx.:. 30 issues, averaging 4-5 pages have .been produced on a nearly monthly basis. The main .content is trip all of which are for caves on Bougainville withtheexception of one trip to Buka Island. The newsletter is noted for the high quality maps of caves which are included. The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group are very active in surveying all caves that they enter. Some of the caves explored and . by the Group have been quite large. The surveyed 11ngth of Toroku Nantaut was 1653m at March, 1979 and of Kukuwa Ceve was 888m long and 119m deep. Although recent issues are dated and numbered, the earlier are not so it is difficult to refer to individual numbers. At. this time, the newsletter is produced by photocoping and " distributed to about 15 people, including the Editor of NiuQini Caver. Ih view of the excellent material in the newsletter and the very limited circulation, it is planned to reprint the majority of the maps and associated articles . in Niugini Caver in the near future. In the meanwhile, the newsletter in providing useful information on the Bougainvilla cave:s. .. S:.6tf6ol of Chemistry; Un.l versi ty of. Sydney, NS\J, Australia. Ref: K A (1973). Irapui Cave, Porol Escarpment, Chimbu Province. Caver 70-74. NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 23 Tha Editor hopes that other small groups of cavers in other centres of Papua New Guinea will learn fro th ff members .o. f the North Solomons Cave Explor mt. eGe orts of_ the d a ion roup and will pro ucing trip reports covering their ex loit . is yery good method of recording this addition forms an excellent sourcG of mat 1 f N" aria or iugini NElJ CONTRIBUTORS Richard Maire Richard was the Scientific Leader of th 1978 F . to Papua New G H 8 rench Expedition . . . uin?a• e is a geomorphologist working with the of Nice and Aix-en-Provence in Fr Ph.D in geomorphology of high altitude kar t .antche. He has a S • Al H s in e French and wiss ps. e is now working on high altit d k t but partically those in Europe the Middl Eu eL ars s generally, Guinea. ' , 8 ast. and Papua New Ri6hard will be returning to Papua New G .\ s t'f" L d . uxnea in 1980 as the cien 1 ic ea er of the second French Speleological Expedition. Louis Deharveng a biologist ,!rom Zoologie at the Paul Sabatier in T0Wlouse Fr h . interest is th t d f . . .. .. . ose special insects) both small jumping t h h" t . .. caves. ou1s was unfortunate to ea 0 • 18 oplasmosis his stay in Papua New Guinea when collecting insects from uano in Ch ' He has Just Atom this. 9 . . uave caves. 't ;: PEOPLE Dave Pearse in now in the M k t ar ham Valley and may be contacted a Barclays Bridge Construction Camp th are welcome to drop .., .. 8 wor.s every.second weekend but would be interested in• caving on his free weekends. His address is c/o • • Box 2203, Lae, Morobe Province. Kevan and Wilde have gene finish and are now in New Zealand Kevan is undertaking a university course in National ark Ranger Training. previously of Keravat has gone finish to South ralia, but it is understood that he will be returning to 8 Gazelle from time to time. P,APUA NEW GUINEA CAVE EXPLORATION GROUP. LIBRAR.Y are advised that the Editor is holding the Papua New Library in Port Moresby. This now which is a of material on caves and speleology mainl a. e o readers on request. Ths material is other caving societies which is sent in on cavin or iug1n1 but there is also much material request in New.Guinea. Anyone withany invited t r in orma or with new information to offer are o approach the Editor. '




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