Niugini Caver


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Niugini Caver

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Title:
Niugini Caver
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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serial ( sobekcm )
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
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K26-05675 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5675 ( USFLDC Handle )

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Volume 7 Numbers ,3,4 Pfay91982 Quarterly K5. 00 per volume K1.25 for number 1 K3.75 for numbers 2q 394 (together) 25 Niugini Caver is the publication of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, an informal association of persons engaged in speleology in Papua New Guinea. Malcolm Pound:i PoDo Box 18249 Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. PcO .. Box 1029 .Kainantu, Papua New Guinea. For new see page 27. Typingg Electronic Stencilsg Dave Pease Alison Pound, Ian Llood Geoff Francis, P., Ne Go Printing S. Io L. Print Shop9 Po No Go Printing Editorial •••• o ••• o •••• o ••• o ••••••••••••• u. o ••• o •••••• o. o ••••• 27 Greatest Caves of Papua New Guinea. RoM. Bourke ••••••• o••• Editor's Note on New Cave Records.o•••o••••O•Ocoo•o•o•••••• Estimation of Shaft Caves of the Manetai Are39 Bougainville Area9 North Solomons Province, Papua Guinea. Ho Meier •••• Identification of Bats in New Guinea Caves. To Pratt •• o•••o63 1978 Mini French Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guineao P. Cellerier and Ro Parzybutoooooooooo•Ooooo•••o67 Review Preliminary Notes on Bats from the Bismark Archipelago -J. Smith and C. Hood.=Ao Pound .. ooocooooooo .. 0<>0<>00000.,000000000•• Preliminary Report of the 1978 French Reconnaissance Expedition. Do Martinez, Ra Maire and RoMo Bourke •• •o•• Four Corners Project •• o •• ooooocao 000000 ••••••• Photographs 0. 0 0 0 D 0 0 0. a 0 0 0 D 0 0 0. 0 •• 0 0 0 0 D D 0 0 0 0 0 0 a. 0 0 0 0 0. e 0 0 •• 83 A PNG Overlook of the 1980 French Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guinea • R • M • 8 our k e '., • ., • o " • o " ., o •• ., •• o ... " " " • o 8 5

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26 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS Preliminary Report of the 1980 French Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guinea. JoFo Pernetteoooooooooe•B7 Cave -Locations •• " o o 11 o. o" "."." ... "."""a,,"" o.". o •• " "".," o o" o •• o .88 Accident Report •• " o" """." "." •• ., """ •• "."." 11 •• ". "11"" o" "., •••• 89 A Brief Reconnaissance of the Kandrian Area. Jo Specht11 •••• 96 Review In the Spirit of Enterprise edited by Gregory B. Stone .... A non 11 ••• o • " • ., •• " " 111 • " 11 • " ., • e " " • " •.• " " o " " ., ., " " •• 11 ••• 9 9 Caving Scene 0 0 0 0 II 0 II Q II II 0. "0 a 0 0 "0 "0 •• 0. "0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 a v a 0 "0 Q II 1 00 Post Courier Cartoon •• o o.,., o ".,.,, o ... " o c.".,"".,.," .. ., o .. .,.,., "o .. o 111 •• 105 Partially Explored and Surveyed Major Caves in Papua New Guinea., R.M. Bourke•o<>•ooooooooooo<>ooo<>oooooooaeoooooo106 The Baranannmba Anuntimpa Cave System. R., Maire and D" Martinez •• .,.,., .. " o., • ., o. o "" ... "o "." " .. "o ". "".,, *' .. ,, o .. Q •••• ., 111 Barananomba Ca VB Map 0. 0 a 0 "It" 0 0 0 "0 0" 0 "0 0. 0 0 "0 "" .. 0 0 Q II 0" 0" 0 0 0 .113 A Geological Reconnaissance of Anuntimpa Passage, Barananomba Anuntimpa System, stern Highlands Province. G., FranciS111oooooaoa•o•••oooooooooooooo••oooo A Reconnaissance of Caves and Karst in the Area, Southern Highlands. D. Gillieson and J., Landsberg •••• ., .. 116 Omai Cave, Southern Highlands Province A Note to the E d i t o r • N ., R y a n " • " " • " • o • o " ., • " .. o • ,, " .. " • " " o .. .. " " • " Q o o .. • • • 1 1 8 Cave Swiftlets. Ao ... o .. • Report of the Speleological Reconnaissance of the Levani Valley and Adjacent Area 9th August 24th.August, 1978 B. Unger and Ro News from North America.,.,.,.,.,.,coooo•ooooooooooeooooooeoooooo137 82 o o of ll o "" c; v o o o o o o "o o o o O o o o Do o o o o o o o <1 "o o o o o e o o "O "o o o 1 39 Review -Caves and Karst of the Muller Range edited by J.James and J., P., Williams ........ c••e•o•oooo•oo141 Ulur Plains Reconnaissance. Do Pease.,01100''•"•"""•""""'"'"""144 Papua New Guinea for the Holidaying Caver., •• New Safety Hint. 0 a II 0 0 0. 0 0 ". 0 .. ""Ill 0"' "0" .. 0 () .. " 0 0 0 0 0" ,. "" 0 0 0 0 Q 0 0 0 .. 0 0. '148 Cover Photo Front Cov_er Nare Doline This spectacular photograph of Nare Doline in the Nakanai rountains of East New Britain shows a member of the 1980 French Exp edit i 6 n a b s fl .f 1 in g th' e '3 0 0 m de. e p en t r a n c e "' F SS/J. F o Pern et te., Back Cover Atea Kananda This photograph shows Handel in Deep Throat• far into the A tea Kananda., This photograph also appeared on the back cover of Niugini Caver Volume -7 Number 111 P1larch 1979., Photograph: Five more photographs of Papua. New Guinea caves are to be found on pages 83 84.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 27 This will be the last issue of Niugini Caver to be produced by Ma l c o l m Pound • 0 n th e 21 s t a y 9 /f9Ef2 , I w i l I b e l ea v in g Kainantu and returning to Port Moresby for a short period of. up to six months and then off to Australia. Due to many problems, mainly the relocation of the Editor from Port Moresby to Kainantu in 1980/81, this is the first is.sue since March, 1979. This issue covers the period since March, 1979 and is covered by the 1979 subsciriptions. This issue is equivalent in size and content to three normal.issues. I apologize profusely to those subscribers who have waited patiently since 1979 to receive the results of their subscription. I certainly feel that this number is worth waiting for. The new Editor will be Geoff Francis who works for the Geological Survey Division of the Department of Minerals and Energy in Port Moresby. Geoff will be assisted by John Wyeth who is at the Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research and Bernard Pawick who is at the University of Papua New Guinea. I will also assist while in Port Moresby. Due to a rearrangement at the Port Moresby Post Office, the address of the Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group has become:Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, P., O" Box 1824, Port Papua New Guinea. The new editor plans to produce two issues a year for which the subscription will be per year. This will be due in January,1983 for Volume An extra number of Volume 7 will be published in October, 1982 and will be sent to all current subscribers. The new editor requests suitable material for future editions of Niugini Caver from all Papua New Guinea and overseas cavers. Good quality photographs of Papua New Guinea caves and karst are also requested. Cavers will notice from this number that Papua New Guinea no longer holds the record for the deepest cave in the Southern Hemisphere. This record has just been taken by New Zealand •. The editor urges all local cavers to attempt to regain this record.

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28 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 THE GREATEST CAVES OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA (DECEMBER 1980) R • M • 8 our k Four years ago I published lists of Papua New Guinea's . greatest caves as then known (Bourke9 1977). This information has now been condensed and revised to incorporate recent discoveries and surveys. The lists given are up to date at the end of 1980. All figures quoted are surveyed ones, except for some river flows snd doline dimensions. Generally figures given by the explorers have been accepted, although the depth and pitch length of Tina Bu Tern has been reduced to conform to the convention of recording depth from the lower side of the doline lip rather than the higher side. The length of Irukunguai has been reduced following measurements off the survey. Deepest Caves There are now 46 caves which have been surveyed at 100m deep or more (Table 2). There were 24 caves in this category 4 years ago. Bibima (494m) is still the deepest9 as it has been since 1972. Courbon (1979) lists 69 caves asm deep or greater in the world, so Bibima does not feature at all prominently on a global scale. Longest caves There are 22 caves with a surveyed length of 1000m or compared with 11 caves 4 years ago (Table 3). Courbon's list that Atea Kananda (30.Skm) was the 23rd longest in the world then and the longest cave outside of the U.S.A. or Europe. Longest pitches_ There is no shortage of long pitches. The minimum length for inclusion has been increased from 5Dm to 60m because of the large number of long pitches. Twenty-six pitches of 6Dm or more have been surveyed compared with 19 in 1979 (Table 4). 7 The entrance pitch of Minye (270m) would be the 12thlongest in the world based on Courbon's data. largest surface karst Large surface karst features have been variously described as dolines, doline-avens, uvalas and pits. Fourteen of these have been recorded with volumes of a million cubic metres or more (Table 5). Measurements used to derive the volumes of the giant karst features are at times approximate because of the nature of the features. Hence the volumes quoted-are sometimes approximate. The volumes of Luse, Ora and Minye in the Nakanai Mountains of New Britain considerably exceed that -of any other reported giant karst feature in the world (Courbon, 1979). Only the giant pits of Venezuela and Mexico are of the same order of magnitude as Papua New Guinea's biggest. Large underground chambers There are four underground chambers in Papua New Guinea with a volume of 0.7 million cubic metres or more (Table 6). The chamber in the cave near village with a volume of 3.5 x 10 cubic metres is the equal second largest in the world (Courbon, 1979). * P. D. Box 384, Kainantu, E. H. P., Papua new Guinea.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 29 Highest caves Six caves with entrances at 3500m a. s. 1. or higher have now been recorded (Table 7). Other caves between 3000m and 3500m have been explored in the Saruwaged and Muller Ranges. In 1976, the highest explored entrance was only 2990m. Of the six only Kege Mur is a significant one. It is 182m deep and has an entrance shaft of 168m. On a global scale higher caves than in Papua New Guinea have only been recorded in Kashmir (one cave) and in Peru (Courbon, 1979). Large Underground Rivers The limited available is given in Table 8, That some of the greatest underground rivers in the world aro in Papua New Guinea is obvious from the Table. Howevere, until more flow measurements rather than estimates are made, this cannot be more properly documented. It should be noted that the figures in Table 5 ref er to cave rivers rather than springs or resurgences that cannot be exploredo Discussion The number of significant caves in Papua New Guinea has increased greatly over the last four years, mainly as a result of exploration and surveying done by expeditions from overseas. In fact the number of caves over 100m deep and caves over 1km long has doubled. Papua New Guinea retains the cave record for all categories in the Southern Hemisphere, except for the highest cave On a global scale, many of our caves are very significant. Papua New Guinea has the largest doline in the world; sbme of the longest pitches, highest caves, largest underground chambers and largest underground and the longest cave outside the:U.S.A. or Europe. Despite the effort directed at finding really deep caves, none have been explored which are significant on a world wide basis. The deepest was. explorod by Papua New Guinea based cavers rather than by expeditions with massive resources who came with the specific objective of exploring very deep caves. Still it is worth remembering that the deep caves of Europe Mexico were explored only after prolonged effort. In my previous article (Bourke, 1977) I-suggested that the highlands was where most of the big systems appeared to be and would be This has been the thinking of most commentators on' Papua New Guinea caves9 although this was a reversal of my earlier position that lower altitude areas (500 1500m) on New Britain, New Ireland and Bougainville had much potential. The 1980 French expedition has proven that the lower altitude areas do have great potontialo Five of the six deepest surveyed caves in Papua New Guinea are to be found in the Nakanai Mountains of New Britain? as are five of the nine caves over 2km long? .the two longest cave pitches, the four largest measured dolines or uvalas, three of the four lartjest underground chambers9 and five of the seven largest ground rivers. It depends on where you look and how hard, it seems. Recording Problems are arising because various groups are using aifferent systems to record cave dimensions. For example, the British tend to take cave depth from the very top of the doline;the French and Queensland/Papua New Guinea cavers take it from where vertical gear is needed in the doline9 Sydney based cavers do not include any of the doline in recording cave depth. The French record total cave length as including

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30 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 slope length of shafts and inclined passages whereas other groups seem to use length as on to a horizontal plan. To illustrate with an The French expedition recorded Minye as 366m deep, .34oom long and with a pitch of 27Dm (Fantoli _tl. cil., 1979). The British JI1ay have recorded it as 506m deep (a new New Guinea record), 2700m long and with a 410m pitch (an equal world record). It is suggested that the recording system recommended by the International Union of Speleology Commission on be used by all speleologists in Papua New Guinea (I.U.S.,1979). Acknowleggements I am grateful to the following who provided unpublished data: Dave Brook, Jim Farnworth, Gerald Favre, Allan Goulbourne, Julia James, Richard Maire, Daniel Martinez, Hans Meier, Jean Noel Plumley and Kevan Llildeo References Bourke, R. M. (1977). The greatest caves of Papua New Guinea as at Decembert 1976. Niugini Caver ..(1) 3 -17. Courbon, P. (1979). Atlas des grands gouffre_ du monde. Editions Jeanne Laffitte, Marseille. 202pp. Fantoli, J. Lo? Goyet, X., R., Martinez, D., Poggia, F. and savournin, G., (1979) o Nouvelle Guinee 78. Federation Francaise de Speleologie, Pariso 130pp. Intern$tional Union of Speleology (1979). Report of the commission on large caves. Caving International Magazine 3: 33-36. ., Table 1. Abbreviations used in the Tables G-CC NSCEG PNGCEG PMSS PNGCEG 75 E.H.P. N. B. N. I• s. P. lJ. s. P. Ll. P. 1965 Stars Caving Club (mostly F. Parker's exploration) North Solomons Cave Exploration Group Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group Port Moresby Speleological Society Last significant exploration in cave was by PNGCEG members in 1975 Eastern Highlands Province New Britain New Ireland Southern Highlands Province West Sepik Province Llestern Province 1965 Australian Star Mountains Expedition

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NIUGINi CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 31 New Britain 72-73 1972 73 University of Queensland Speleological Society New Britain expedition 1973 NSRE NG 75 1975 NISt 1976 NISE Muller 76 Atea 78 NG 78 FFS 78 Spanish 7_8, Swiss 79 FFS 80 1973 Niugini Speleological Research Expedition to the Muller Range (Australian/New Zealand/Papua New Guinea) 1975 British Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guinea 1975 New Ireland Speleological Expedition (australia/Papua New Guinea) 1976 New Ireland Speleological Expedition (Australia/Papua New Guinea) 1976 Muller Range Expedition (Australian/Papua New Guinea) 1978 Australasian Muller Range Expedition (Australian/New Zealand/ Papua New Guinea) 1978 British Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guinea Federation Francaise de Speleologie Nouvelle Guinee 78 Expedicion Espeleologica Papua-Nueva Guinea 1978 Expedition Speleologique Suisse Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinea ete 1979 Federation Francaise' de Speleologie Nouvelle Guinea 80 EDITOR'S NOTES ON NEU CAVE RECORDS According to the Papua New Guinea Post Courier newspaper of 5th January, the deepest cave in the Southern Hemisphere is now Nettlebed Cave at Mount Arthur near Nelson in the South Island of New Zealand. A team of cavers recently pushed this cave upwards from the efflux to a height of 616m, which is 122m greater than Bibima Cave in PNC. The British Speleological Expedition to Sarawak, Mulu 807 is described in Caving International Magazine No. 127 July 1981 as having discovered a new world largest underground chamber. This is described as 700rn long by 300m wide and never less than ?Orn high. The volume is at least 12 cubic metres! ., ,, l '

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32 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,394 Table 2. Deepest caves in Pa-pua New ,.Guinea Cave Locality Explorers Depth(m) --1 • Bibima Porol Escarpment, PNGCEG 72 494 Simbu Province J 2. KA II Nakanai Mountains, Swiss 79/ 459 N.B. FFS 80 3. Bikpela Vu vu Nakanai Mountains? FFS 80 414 No B. 4. Na re Nakanai Mountains, FFS 78/ 400-it N.B. FFS 80 5. Kavakuna Nakanai Mountains, FFS 80 N.B. 6. Min ye Nakanai Mountains, PMSS 68/ N.B. FFS 78 7. Terbil Tern Fault Valley, \.J 0p 0 NG 75 354 s. A rem Tern Olsobip11 \.J.P. NG 78 334 9. Camp III Hole Fault Valley9 Ll. p. NG 75 330 10. Kanada Heiowa Muller Range, 1973 NSRE 314 Heia S.H.P. 1 1 • Uli Guria Muller Range, 1973 NSRE 314 So H • P. 12. A tea Kananda Muller Range, A tea 78 300 S.H.P. 13. Liklik V_uyu Nakanai Mounta:L9s, FFS 80 288 ;l 14. Darua Muru P..o_rol Escarpnrent 9 PNGCEG 75/ s'.irnbu Province .Spanish 78 1 5. Luse Nakanai Mountains9 FFS 80 224 N.B. 1 6. KA VI Nakanai Mountains, FFS 80 204 N.B. 17. Lemerigamas Lelet Plateau, N.L. 1976 NISE/ 203 Swiss 79 1 8. Langlang Tern Fault Valley, Ll. p. NG 75 19. Uli Eta Riya Muller Range, S.H.P. A tea 78 20. Tina Bu Tern Nong Valley, Ll 0 p 4 NG 75 198 21 • Hadia Yan eaMuller Range, Atea 78 1 9 5K bogairi S.H.P. 22. Oravunana Obura, E.H.P. FFS 78 190 23. Gebemi Tern Ka ban Range, \.J.P. NG 78 183 24. Owillfore Tern Feramin, LloSoPo NG 75 183i! 25. Kege Mur Mt. Kege51 Spanish 78 182 Simbu Province : ...

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Cave 26. Uli Ui 27. Agirn Tern 280 The Sting 29. Girtoil 30. YunamarEJ 31. Fungi Tern 320 La Buum Tern 33. Selrninum Tern 34" Barananomba 35. Maig Mur 36. Uli Mulrnulurn 370 Uli Eya Kolo 38. Ariyorba Tern 39. Askenbu Tern 400 Kukuwa 41. 42. Poypwn 430 Vuvu. II 440 Lowatkusmeri Lernet Silot 45. Obungeram Locality Ex lorers South of Tifalmin9 lJoSoPo Hindenburg Range9 lJ 0 p" Hindenburg Rango \.J 0 p 0 Obura9 E.HoPo f\1t. Glamtakin lJoSoPo Hindenburg Range, lJ 0 p. Hindonburg Range, U.P" Yon k i , E "!-L P o NG 75 NG 75 NG 75 PNGCEG 78/ FFS 78 f\lG 75 NG 75 NG 75 GCC 74/ 78/ FFS 78 Ouglpagl PNGCEG 73/ Simbu Province Spanish 78 Muller Range,S.H.P. 1973 NSRE Muller Atea 78 Mt. Uamtakin9 WaSaPo NG 75 Olsobip9 \.J.Po Kuraro \folley 9 Bougainville Nakanai Mountains, No Bo Nakanai Mountains, N. Bo Nakanai N., B .. Lelet Plateau9 !\! o I. Baining PL G. NG 78 NSCEG 78 FFS 80 .FFS 80 FFS 80 1975' NISE PNGCEG 75 46. Toroku Nantaut Manetai area, Bougainville NSCEG ;: Exp 1 or a t i on i n comp l et e • 33 Dspth(m) 182 .. 1 67 1 58 156 1 56 142 138 137 134 132 1 30 124. 122 1 20::11 9 11 3 11 0 11 0 102 1 02 1 00 It is interesting to know that the deepest '.ea \J e in the world is currently Jean Bernard (reseau) at Samoens, Savoie? France with a depth of 1455 metres.

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34 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Table 3. Longest caves in Papua New Guinea Cave Locality 1. Atea Kananda Muller Range, Explorers 1973 NSRE/ Muller 76/ Atea 78 2. Selminum Tern Hindenberg Range,W.P. NG 75 3. Hadia Yaneabogairi 4. Liklik Vuvu 5. Nara 6 • KA I I 7. Minye 8. Bikpela Vuvu 9. In1kunguai (Irapui) Muller Range, S.H.P. Nakanai Mountainst N .• B. Nakanai Mountains, N.B. Nakanai Mountains, N.B. Nakanai Mountains, N.B. Nakanai Mountains N.B. Poro! Escarpment, Simbu Province 10. Toroku Nantaut Manetai area, Bougainville 11. Kavakuna Nakanai Mountains, N.B. 12. Tuweiwu Obura area (Ikenar/ E.H.P. Kipuari) Atea 78 . FFS BO FFS BO Swiss 79/ FFS 80 FFS BO FFS BO GCC 64 PNGCEG 72 NSCEG 79 FFS BO GCC 64 PNGCEG 78 Length(m) 30 500 20 500 s soo-;;. 6 200 4 3 500 3 3 OOO 2 120 1 904 1 BOO 1 525 1 3. Barananomba Yonki area, E.H.P. GCC 74/FSS 7B 1 500 PNGCEG 78 14. Kanada Heiowa Heia 1 5. Kopunei 16. Nenduma 17. Oravunana 18. Lemerigamas 19. Pumpulyun 20. Bibima 21. Dalum 22. Ok Tern (Ok Kaakil Tern Uneibo) Muller Range, S.H.P. Central Manus Is.= Bougainville Is. Obura area, E.H.P. Lelet Plateau, N. I. Central Manus Is. Porol Escarpment, Simbu Province North-east coast,. N.L Hindenburg Range, lJ. g. * Exploration incomplete 1973 NSRE PNGCEG 74 NSCEG 75 FFS 78 1976 NISE Swiss 79 PNGCEG 74 PNGCEG 72 1976 NISE/ Swiss 79 NG 75 1 500 1 500 1 500 1 500 1 300 1 250 1 222 1 200 1 040

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 35 Tabla 4. Longest cave pitches in Papua New Guinea Cave Location Ex2lorers _Length of pitch {m) 1 • f'1i nye Nakanai r11ountains j) Pf,15 S 68/ 270 No Bo FFS 78 2. Na re Nakanai 9 FFS 78 21 7 3. f< eg e fVlur f\1 t 0 f< ego 9 Spanish 78 168 Simbu Province 4. Tina Bu Tern Nong Valley, LL P" NG 75 1 r.-,_., ;:)..) 5. Uli Guria Viuller Range9 SoHoPo 1 973 NSRE 123 (The Shot Tower) 6. The Sting Hindenburg Range9LJ.P. f\JG 75 11 9 7. Girtoil Hindenburg Rangs9lJ.Po 75 11 3 8. Vu vu II Nakanai Mountains .. FFS 80 100 !3. 9. Uli (V!indu Range9 S.HoP. A tea 78 8 5 ( 1 ) 100 Gebemi Tern l
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36 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUM( 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Table 5. Volumes of some large karst features in Papua New Guinea Feature 1. Luse (doline) 2. Ora (uvala) Location Nakanai Mountains9 N.B. Nakanai Mountains, N.B. 3. Minye Nakanai Mountains, (doline aven) N.B. 4. Kavakuna (doline) Nakanai Mountains, N .. B. s. Doline near Keriaka Plateau Koripobi village Bougaioville Is. 6. Doline 1) Ookfuma Plateau) 7. Ooline 3) Star Mountains ) 8. MR201 (doline) Muller Range, S.H .. P .. 9. Nare doline Nakanai Mountains, (doline aven) N.B. 10. Bikpela Vuvu (doline) 11. Poypun (doline) Nakanai Mountains, N.B .. Nakanai Mountains, N.B. 12. Tina Bu Tem(pit)Nong Valley, U.P .. Explorers Volume (x1o6m3 ) FFS 80 60 New Britain 29 72 73 FFS 78 Swiss 79/ FFS 80 F. Parker, 1963 1965 Stars NG 75 1973 NSRE FFS 78 FFS 80 FFS 80 NG75 26 1 5 14.6 7. 7. 5-:i-2.5 2.0 13. Gebemi Tern (pit)Kaban Range, U.P.. NG 78 1 0 8 1 • 0 LO 14. The Sting (pit) NG 75 * Not surveyed, estimated only. Table 6. Volumes of some larg cave chambers in Papua New Chamber/Cave Location Explorers 1 • Cave near Keriaka Plateau, F. Parker Koripobi village Bougainville Is. 1963 2. Olaipun chamber Nakanai Mountains, FFS 80 2.5 KA II cave N.B, 3. Chamber in Nakanai Mountains, FFS 80 1 9 5 Minye cave No B. 4. Sump chamber Nakanai FFS 80 0,7 KA II cave N.B.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME NUMBERS 2,3,4 Table 7. caves in Papua New Guinea Cave Location Explorers 1 • Cave Nao '7. .._j r11t. Sar.uuaget FFS 78 Hu on Peninsula 2. Cave No. 2 Mt.Saruuaget. Ff S 78 3 .... Sikau nt.Saruwaget FFS 78 4o Arnold r1I to Kege9 Simbu Prov. Spanish 78 5. Kege Mur r t • l\ege Spanish 78 6. Kege cave r.1L f
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38 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 SOME CAVES OF THE MANETAI AREA, BOUGAINVILLE ISLAND, NORTH SOLOMONS PROVINCE, PAPUA NELl GUINEAo Ho Meier* Karst Areas of the North Solomons Two types of limestone are generally recognised in the North Solomons Province. They are the Keriaka limestone and the Sohano limestoneo The Sohano limestone extends over most of Buka Island and much of the northern extremity of Bougainville Island. It may be possibly overlaying Keriaka limestone. Sohano limestone is of Pleistocene age. The Keriaka Plateau, an area of approximately 250 km2 in the north western part of Bougainville Island, consists of Keriaka limestone of the lower Miocene. Relief in this area is up to 1300m. Other outcrops of Keriaka. limestone occur in other areas, mainly central Bougainville. These take the form of small, isolated lenses, but three larger areas are known. These are at Karato and Mainoki on the western side of the Crown Prince Range and Manetai on the eastern side. Latest aerial interpretation suggests that these three areas may be linked with each other.(Blake and Miezitis, 1967). Manetai Limestone Area The area covered in this report is south west of Manetai Mission. Manetai Mission is 26km of Arawa by road. The extends over at least 15km with a relief of approximately 300m. The limestone is covered by soil and volcanic tuff. Numerous steep sided dry valleys slope predominantly towards the north west. Dolines, some containing sink holes, are found on the valley floorso Drainage is mainly underground. Cover is dense tropical rain forest. Parts of the area are cleared and utilised for food gardens and cash crops. Near the southern extremity, a fault with a SE trend extends practically across the full width of the limestone. Most caves found so far seem to be related to this fault. The much eroded cone of the extinct Bakanovi volcano adjoins the area on the NLl side and may overlay the limestone. Explbration of the Caves The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group started exploring the area in August, 1976 at the Taroku efflux. Exploration was at the rate of 6 7 trips per year and is still continuing. work has generally been limited to mapping of the caves. A number of surface traverses were surveyed to fix the relative position of the caves. The following equipment was used for the surveys: Suunto KB14 compass, Suunto PMS clinometer, 100.ft fiberglass tape. Data reduction was initially done manually but is now carried out using a simple computer program. Standard is usually to ASF Grade 52. Many of the original maps were drawn by Ian Wood. * P. D. Box 73, Panguna, North Solomons Province, P. No G.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29324 of Caves Anaviato Nantaut2 M12 M1A (see map page 42) I I I I .J I I I 39 Location: 2km south west of Urumovi village on the eastern side of Emevovi River. Total surveyed length is 77mo Two entrances approximately 6m apart connect to a sandy passage 2m wide and 1o5 2m high. A small chamber is reached 23m from the entrance. A steep side passage on the right leads to a dead end after a few metres. A further 2Bm of passage connects to a second chamber. Roof height is up to 10m.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 41 Flowstone covers the western wall. The floor consists of rock from roof collapse. A short steep side passage on the right again leads to a dead end. From here, the passage contains -water to its full width except for a small sandy island. Water depth is about 1m. The roof dips close to the water level in places. The passage ends in a sump. The floor of the horizontal passage is mainly sand. There are indications of the occasional small flow of water. The passage roof is heavily scalloped. The occasional cluster of stalactites is found. There are numerous bats in the second chamber. A crab, spiders and cave crickets were noted. It is likely that the passage continues beyond the sump. Diving might be possible, but would be hazardous due to the low roof (1m) and the presence of much sand which9 when stirred up, reduces visibility to nil. Taroku Nantaut (Efflux)8 M2 (see maps pages 44 -51) 2.5km south west of Urumovi This was the first cave to be visited in this area. To date, it is also the longest at 1904m and the deepest at 100m. It is impressive not only by its huge chambers and canyons, but also by the abundant and magnificent The cave is an active river cave. The only entrance known so far is via the efflux, a hole approximately 1.3m high and 2m wide. The water level reaches the roof during heavy rain. The passage opens up immediately inside the entrance. The walls are covered with flowstone. Colour varies from predominantly dark brown red to grey and The glassy texture of the decorations would indicate that this entrance has been sealed as a rule. Droughts and low humidity, the result of an open entrance, generally result in formations being. knobly and opaque. Twenty metres inside the entrance, a flowstone covered 5m pitch can easily be free climbed. A low9 wet passage (The Mouth of the Lion) can be followed for about 10m under the pitch. This passage is beautifully decorated with red brown flowstone and stalactites. After negotiating a somewhat narrow passageg one emerges on a ledge Sm above the floor of a large chamber. The river can be another 7m down through holes in the floor. This chamber (Castle Chamber) extends for 130m although this is not noticeable at first. A cluster of white stalagmites adorn the tip of a rock projecting from the wall of the chamber. This formation resembles a mediaeval castle. High ground consisting of earth is followed along the right hand side for most of the length of the chamber. The main stream enters the Castle Chamber from a narrow passage at its southern extremity. The Castle Chamber continues to the west where Batchamber H1H is reached after climbing a 6m pitch. Two possible leads continue from this bat chamber. One is a wet9 narrow chimney with walls covered in bat guano. The other is a low crawl into the rock pile. They have not been explored.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 43 The main stream passage is often narrow, but high and zig zags, probably following the jointing. Several short rockfalls and waterfalls are climbed. The passage leads up through another rockfall into a large chamber containing bats (Batchamber 1121;). Most of the chamber is at a high level reached by climbing up a 7m slippery slope. The floor is level at first, rises towards the far end as one climbs up an old roof collapse and then drops off steeply to a fairly flat area at the far wall. Bat guano covers the floor. Some formations of stalagmites and stalactites, columns and some flowstone are found mainly near the walls. Rows of stalagtites occur along roof joint lines. Upstream of the chamber, the passage is again narrow (2 4m) but very high. Llater depth is up to 1.5m. Noticeable features are a flowstone extending halfway across the passage and two columns resembling pieces of bamboo. Two hundred and sixty metres from the bat chamber the stream emerges from a rockfall which can be climbed through and the stream regained. High level passages have been found above this area extending for over 100m along the direction of the stream passage. The passage divides a short distance upstream. To the right is Paradise Staircase. The continuation to the left leads to the Hall of the Chocolate Soldiers. To reach Paradise Staircase, one wades through a chest deep pool. This is followed by a series of short pitches, one being a slight overhang. Passage height is usually 10 20m with what appears to be a maze of passages at a higher level. Climbing up through Hanging Rock passage, one passes underneath a large boulder suspended over a passage. The boulder appears to be held on one side only. From herep a small stream flows down a narrow passage in a westerly direction. After approximately 5Dmp this passage emerges in the roof of a larger passage. There is a 5m vertical drop with overhang to the Upper River Passage. Downstream in this passage is a lake which sumped after 2Gm. The upstream passage is narrow, but 2 -6m high with a keyhole cross-section in places. There are indications that the first 1DOm of this passage fills with water during floods. The character of the passage changes completely at survey station 74/55. Llidth is now up to 6m and height 1.5 6m, except for a short wet crawl which is only 0.4m high. The floor consists of many small rocks and some boulders. It appears that this section is above flood level. The passage sumps after 185m. There are a number of narrow side passages which are not explored. They generally head north and up. The passage to the Hall of the Chocolate Soldiers is canyon like with a short low stretch. The passage then widens but roof height reduces to The wide section extends for 10Dm. A small stream flows in a 2m deep floor canyon. Some decorations are present. The most prominent are a large column and numerous small stalagmites. The stalagmites are partly covered with a brown crust (Chocolate Soldiers). A rockfall blocks the upper end of this section.

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I I CHAMBER "2" T 1 MN t I 1 I I I

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1: r m 10 40 T 2

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46 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 m 6-:::C I ' I I

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0 E H. HEIER DEVELOPED SECTION 0 RO(KPilE DEVELOPED LONG SECTION E BAMBOO CORNER L T 5 ,,, ' ' IM ld> ._ d ud t \ E -1#11/t -15 10 5 0 f L G .. z 1-c C. I-.:::: 1--., c:, c r,, c:: . ' c -r-"' c c p (.';,. """ "' r -._ .. "' ..f.-

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,,,,.--G CHAMBER HUD WA'f HALL Of .THE '(HOCOLATE SOLDIERS F DEVELOPED LONG SECTION f-G \ -....... --..... PARADISE STAIRCASE H DEVHOPED LONG SECTION H-1 HANGING ROCK PASSAGE !C I HORIZONTAL SCALE 1:1000 HRH I I I I 111' 10 0 10 20 30 40 so , TAROKU NANTAUT l EFFLUX 1 M 2 SHEET 6 N.S.C.E.G. 1978 H. MEIER 25 20 15 10 s 0 VERTICAL SCALE 1; SOO \ 1P METRE z H c: c;) ..... z H n ;x::. c:::::: M ;o c:::: a r.; c: 3 M ....J .z . c: 3 co M ::::0 en N .. VJ .. \0

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50 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 ... _, __ I ' l ex w > 0: ex: w a. a.. ::> Qt UJ > 0:: 0: UJ 0.. n.. :::> 51 z Q t-w w V\ \::'.) :r: z 0 _. 0 ..-0 _, &..U > \,.4.l w o V'} ,..

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52 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 A narrow passage, with knee deep mud in places, zig zags for 90m to where it emerges abruptly into Disappointment Chamber. This chamber is large but the far end has not yet been reached. A huge rockpile fills most of the chamber. The pile has not been climbed. A small stream emerges from the rockpile along the left wall. It is somewhat surprising that no other entrances have been found so far. The cave closely follows the line of the trench on the surface. For a considerable distance ,the floor of the cave is no more than 50m below the surface. Numerous sinkholes are found on the surface but they are much too small to give access. Small River Cave, (see map page 53) 150m upstream of the upper Emevovi River crossing. Surveyed passage length is 50m. The entrance is at the foot of a cliff where a small river emerges. Access is gained along this water course. The entrance is 0.5m wide and 1.Sm high. The passage divides 3m inside the entrance. The water course can be followed by crawling along a narrow low passage. This widens after a few metres but remains low. The floor is river gravel. There are numerous short stalactitese The passage appears to continue but has not been A small hole on top of a short steep mud slope leads to a higher level passage. This passage is 2 -3m and 3m high. The floor is eartho There are a number of tree roots. An ants nest was found in a small pile of rotting vegetation. The passage rises slightly at first and then continues practically horizontal to a collapse chamber. For the next 2Dm, the passage is narrow, low and muddy. It then turns right and enlarges. A slope leads into a small 1ow chamber. Stalagtites and stalagmites are numerous. Progress is barred by the prolific decorations, but there does not appear to be a continuation. This cave is not fully explored. The river passage appears to continue. It was unexpected to find limestone on the western side of the Emevovi Rivero It was assumed that volcanics from the Bakanovi Volcano extend to the river. It would be interesting to explore along the contact zone of limestone and volcanics. Resurgence, M4 Location! 280m upstream from the upper Emevovi River crossing. The Emevovi River emerges from rocks on the left of the valley. No entrance is apparent. The creek bed in the gully from the resurgence is usually The Oolihe, MS (see map 54) In a dry gully 50m to the east of the Urumovi to Nasivavi track and past the upper.Emevovi River crossing.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2p3,4 53 i I I t;'I .c i -I ,.I I .j! H I I I I @ ...:; J I l li ;f N I ' 0 f; :z: N l:

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 55 Surveyed passage length is 81m Uith a vertical depth of 19mo A 1Dm vertical shaft is situated a small shallow doline. This shaft was originally completely hidden by tall grass and creeperso A good of danger of carelessly walking into a doline. The shaft leads into a well developed passage 3m wide and up to 5m high. The floor consists mainly of rocks with some mud and sand. Ten metres along the passage9 there is a dome like enlargement on the left. At times, water enters through a hole in the top of the dome. A low squeeze, 15m past the dome? was enlarged to give access to a low wet passage. Height is generally less than 1m and width 2 Sm. The passage ends in a sump. Stalagmites in the water indicate that the water level has been lower at timeso The general trend of the cave is towards the resurgence M4. The resurgence is 100m west of the sump but only one metre lower. If there is a connection between the two9 then it is likely to be flooded. Taroku Nantaut (Inflow), M61 M6A (see maps 56 -57) Location: Approximately 1km ESE of Taroku efflux M2, situated in the trench about 400m a.s.l. Surveyed passage length is 171m. Vertical depth 1Dm. There are two entrances. The surface stream sinks between the entrances. M6 also takes water during floods. M6A is at a higher level and dry. The entrance M6A is low. The passage opens out after Bm.ClimtJing down over one reaches a chamber 25m long, 5m wide and 6m high. The stream enters at floor lovol from the loft.The floor consists of rocks and river gravel. More and more sand is encountered as one continues along the passage. A small lake is reached after 40m. Roof height is only 1m in places. A narrow passage continues 10m past the lake. The stream passes into a sump on the right. Entering from M61 one climbs over boulders for 15m to where a very small stream emerges at the top of a small but magnificent flowstone. From here, a canyon type passage continues for 35m to a chamber with numerous bats. A low, passage is then followed to the main stream. Not a spectacular cave. Thought to be fully explored. It is subject to serious floodinge The water level is likely to seal M6. The water recedes very slowly. According to the local villagers,this cave connects to Taroku Efflux M2. Inflow Cave2 M7 ,., 4km due south of Urumovi, in a blind valley. The entrance is at the foot of a 100m cliff. A huge log jam is in front of the entrance. The river passes through the log jam

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56 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,394 / '' -

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS .. ... .. .. c 0 ...... y Ga V) 57 -E 2 0 -

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58 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29374 appears in the passage Sm lower. Normal flows have been estimated at 4 cumecso Apparently a lake with a large whirlpool forms during heavy rain, flooding the valley for some distanceo Logs are jammed 1Dm up the rock faceo The cave is entered via a side passage. The river emerges from a number of points9 mainly from underneath rock faces but also through a wall of timber 4m high. This timber wall is said to be of recent origino The river flows through a 2m wide passage. This passage cannot be followed as the current is too strong. The river can be crossed and a side passage negotiated to where it rejoins the river after about 60m. Progress is stopped a short distance downstream where the passage narrows again. The current is too strong for exploration to be carried out safely. Water depth is in excess of 1a5m. Passage height is frequently more than 1Dm. A promisingcave but dangerous due to the volume of water during floodso Catchment area is 34km-! Distance to the presumed efflux is 2km. Vertical distance is in the order of 10Dm. This would appear to be a mainly horizontal system. Doline with Lake, MB Location: Approximately 4km south of Urumovi. In a side valley to: the north of the trench. The doline is on the right side of the valley. It is approx. 30m across. A track passes along the rim on one side. During heavy rain, the lake is to overflow, but at other times, it may be dry. The bottom appears to be mud and earth washed down from the hillside. It was partly filled with a lake appears to be shallow. According to the villagers, there used to be a shaft in the doline. A connection to Punua was assumed and is likely. The shaft was blocked about 1975 when a large sago tree was swept down the hole. It is possible that the shaft will clear again. Trees, even large ones, take about three years to rot in the rain forest. Depending on where the blockage is and on what other materiai is in the shaft, a break through could happen any time now. This could result in a flash flood through Punua should the doline be filled with water at that time. punua Cave, M9 (see maps pages 60 -61) Arakawau Valley. Approximately 5km along the Atamo road. weather road only). A substantial river flows down e gully on the right. This river is followed up for an hour. to where it emerges: at the base of cliffs at least 50m There are a number of minor effluxes in addition to a main oneo Entrance is gained through a side passage which requires swimming. The river is then crossed. Looking upstream? one can see daylight ahead and 20m further on one emerges into. a huge chamber. There are

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N I U G I N I CA V ER V 0 L Un E 7 N U f'1 B ER S 2 ? 3 9 !;. two large daylight holes in the roof. Lights can almost be dispensed with. Two streams, one from each side wall, join here and rush down the ri\/er passage. This is the lowest point in the chamber. The smaller river emerges from a rockpile 40m along the south wall. A rock arid mud pile in the centre of the chamber is 20m high. Height to roof is a further 33m (established by triangulation). The two daylight holes go a further 15 -20m to the surface. The slope on the far side of the mud pile leads down 10m to a flat area. This area consists of gravel banks and a lake. From this lake, the main stream follows around the north slope of the mud pile. The stream bed contains large rocks and is steep in places. Also9 from the lake a small stream flows into the rock pile on the south side. The lake extends into a lower chamber to the southwest. There is a large flat gravel island. The water seems to emerge from a sump or sumps along the south wall. A steep slope leads up from the western side of the lake. The slope consists of slippery mud, bat guano and boulders. A small passage leading off near the top is not fully explored.due to many bats. The large chamber is 80 x 55m. Max. height is 53m not including the shafts. The second chamber is 70 x 45m. A rough estimate of the flow of the combined streams is 2 cumecs. There are practically no decorations besides some flowstone on the north wall of the lake. Some green vegetation including a banana tree grows on the mud pile where a snake was also seen. There were nvtr1erous bats in the higher level of the small chamber. Two were collected. Both have a distinctly trilobed noseleaf. They probably belong to the genus Asellia or Aselliscus. Some passages leading off near the entrance have not been investigated. The cave has possibilities, but is definitely a dry weather cave. Progress may be possible by high level passages. Further shafts from the surface are also a possibility. The distance to the likely inflow cave is 2km. Discussio.n Caves found so far in the Manetai limestone appear to be closely associated with the fault (trench) which runs in a south easterly direction. Taroku efflux cave M2 almost exactly follows the line of the fault. Relief of the area is 300m. The possible depth of Taroku efflux cave is about 20Dm. Both Taroku efflux cave and Punua are likely to be extensive systems. The statement by villagers that the two Taroku caves are connected may be correct. But the river flowing into the inflow cave is unlikely to be the same as emerges at the efflux cave. Dye tracing has not been carried out as the river is used for domestic purposes. The quantity of water at the inflow has been consistently larger than that appearing at

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60 NIUGINI CAVER V LIME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 61 ( 8 . SECTION B SE c T!ON A SECTION SC E:1

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62 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,394 the effluxo In addition, the efflux stream is made up from a number of small tributaries along the full length of the cave. The inflow volume more closely resembles the flow at the resurgence A connection between the two Tarokus may be via some abandoned passages. It may be that the inflow cave overflows into the efflux system during big floodso There are indications of large flows at the top of Hanging Rock passage due to overflow from the Upper River Passage" It is unlikelythat a complete penetration can be made between the two caves due to the sump in the inflow cave. It was expected that the Upper River would lead to the sump in Taroku Inflow cave. ThRrRfore, the Upper River would in fact be , the Ta r o k u R i v er " The r e a r e a number of points a g ai ns-t t hi s theory ., The sump reached in the Upper River passage is 116m from the inflow sump and 17m higher" The difference in elevation could be due to survey errors (more than 200 stations)o More important there was no active flow in this passage in August 1978. The Taroku River has a fair catchment and to my knowledge, never dries upo Therefore, the Upper River is unlikely to be the same as the Taroku Rivero Therefore the flood water must be coming up the Upper River passageo I feel that the Taroku River flows through a system to the south west to emerge at the resurgence in Emevovi Rivero This system must be constricted downstreamo During floods, the water level rises to flood part of the Upper River passage and the Slot until it overflows into Paradise Staircaseo The other caves in the area appear to be separate systems, although the Doline M5 may at one time have connected to Taroku efflux cavee Acknowledgements Permission granted by the Provincial Government and the villagers for the exploration of caves by the North Solomons Cave Exploration Group is gratefully acknowledged. The assistance given by the people of Urumovi and Father Uoeste of Manetai Mission is much appreciated as is the effort and dedication shown by the members of the NSCEGo The NSCEG survey parties wish to thank the people of Urumovi who assisted them, mainly Andrew Apatoman, Francis, John, Philip, Hepatoi and many others. Efforts must be continued to retain the good relationship with the local populationQ The interest shown, hospitality and assistance given by the people has been a gratifying experienceo Tenkyu trul Reference Blake, Do Ho9 and Miezitis, Yo 19670 Geology of Bougainville and Buka Islands, New Guinea. Buro Minero Resour. Aust. Bull. 93 (P.NoGo 1).

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 63 IDENTIFICATION OF BATS IN NEU GUINEA CAVES Thane Ko For more than fifty million years bats have been seeking out and occupying caves as sanctuaries in which to sleep and rear their young. Caves offer a sheltered environment safe from disturbance by the many predators9 such as hawks9 owls and snakes9 which patrol the skies and forest, the nocturnal feeding grounds of these winged mammals. In Papua New Guinea, man is the only outside to the subterranean realm of bats. For generations, local people have hunted bats in caves. More recently local and international interest in cave exploration has lead to increased discovery of bat colonies in caves. Cavers must indoubtedly wonder what types of bats they encounter and thus this article is meant to serve as a guide to the bats most frequently seen in caves on the main island of New Guinea. Between 65 and 70 species of bats will eventually be recognised to inhabit New Guinea; surprisingly only about one third of these species have been found in caves -the remainder roost in foliage or hollow trees. The cave dwelling species are not really that easy to tell apart and except in a few cases the animal in question must be captured and examined in the hand. Coloration of the fur and wing membranes in virtually for identification purpses, so special attention must be given to certain particularly of the face and tail. Siza of the bat can be a helpful indication and the forearm and wing span of different bats is given in the discussion following. The wing measurement taken by scientific workers is that of the forearm (FA), .the length of the bone between the elbow and the wrist9 wing span (LlS) is calculated, approximately, by multiplting the FA length by six. New Guinea are divided into two easily recognized groups: the (11megabatsfl or fruit=-eating bats) and Microchiroptera (11microbats11 or insect-eating bats). Mega chiroptera include.all of the large New Guinea bats, those species with a wingspan of more than 600mm, as well as some smaller species. Megabats navigate by eyesight and consequently possess normal, well developed eyes. Their nocturnal vision is .truely impressive; they seem to experience no trouble finding their way about on moonless, overcast nights and Qan also travel some distance into caves. Megabats feed exclusiveiy on fruit and flowers which they probably detect by scent, requiring vision to get from one place to the next. Microbats on the other hand have exchanged acute vision for a more sensitive means of finding their small insect prey echo location. Bats echo locate by emitting sound pulses and listening for the echoes of these pulses which bounce off objects in the bat's flight path. The principle is much the same as radar or sonar. The evolution 6f meant the development of special adaptions in microbats: (1) the eyes have degenerated to a small size, only 1-2mm, if that, and all species have . . evolved either (2) a nose leaf -a flap of skin encircling the nostrils and projecting above them, or (3) a tragus a little *Rutgers University, Biological Science, PoD.Box 1059 Piscataw?y, New Jersey, 08854 U.ScAo formerly Llau Ecology Institute, PoDo Box 77, Llau, P.N.G.

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64 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 finger of skin inside the earo The nose leaf is thought to help in the transmission_of the sound pulse and the tragus may fascilitate reception of the echo9 in any case all microbats have one or the other or both of these characteristics, lacking in megabats. Megabats all belong to a single family, the Pteropodidae or Fruit-eating Batso About 20 species occur in New Guinea; these species are classified into eight groups called genera (plural of the word, genus). Individual bat species are quite often difficult to so this discussion will be mostly at the genus level. True Flying Foxes (genus Pteropus) avoid caves and instead roost in trees, singly or in colonies9 such as the "campn at Madang. Equally large bats of the genus Oobsonia do frequent caves. Oobsonia moluccensis are the unnerving monsters (FA 150mm, LlS 900mm)which flee their cavern with such commotion, just as one enters the cave and is adjusting to the dim light and confined surrdundings. Several smaller species (FA greater than 70mm9 WS more than 420mm) also inhabit PNG0 Dobsonia bats are recognized by the complete absence of fur on the back and by the way the wing membranes attath to the spine rather than from the central area of the back or the sides, hence the names Naked-backed Bats or Spinal-winged Bats. pobsonia are dull blackish brown, lacking the pale collar of many Pteropus species. Another very large cave-dwelling fruit bat? Aproteles9 is known in the scientific literature only from fossil specimens ten thousand years old found in a cave in the Sirnbu Province. The author who studied these specimens from the prehistoric use of that cave by hunters1 that Aproteles may have become extinct in area due to over-kill when the cave was first discoveredo Aproteles may well turn up in caves remote from human settlemento As yet Aproteles can only be distinguished from Dobsania by skeletal characteristics. Besides Oobsonia only one other Megachiropteran bat9 Rousettus, is regularly seen in PNG caves. The two very similar species of Rouse t tu s have. FA 7 0 1 0 0 m rn a n d Ll S 4 0 0 =6 0 0 mm • The wings attach to the side of the body about 10mm from the spine arid a narrow track of fur runs down the back. Unlike all other megabats, Rousettus has evolved a primitive type of echo location which enables them to penetrate further into caves than other fruit bats. This echo locating ability is evident when one puts a Rousettus in a bag or box finding itself in total . darkness the bat 11sw itches onn its echo locating instruments .and begins making a rapid clicking sound which is a series of sound pulses it uses to generate echoes. These clicks sound very much like the clicks made by certain swif tlets which also echo locate in their nesting caves. Both Dobsonia and Rousettus feed on fruit and Rousettus, at least: sometimes brings fruit into the cave as a last meal before retiring for the day. These bats are the ones responsible for all the seeds and seedlings growing on the floor of roosting caves. Bats also disperse seedsthrough the forest and grasslands and are extremely important to forest tegeneration in this country. Conservation of fruit bats is actually a two sided problem for some species of Pteropus are vgy destructive to cultivated fruit crops. Incidentally, many

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 65 of the tropical fruits which are so good for eating originally evolved to appeal to fruit bats and in their natural state are fed upon almost exclusively by bats$ Among these fruits are bananas, pawpaws1 mangoes and breadfruit. The Microchiroptera include four families of small bats, Emballonuridae, Rhinolophidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae. The Sheath-tailed Bats (Emballonuridae) are distinguished by the peculiar position of the tail. In all insectivorous bats a sheet of skin stretches between the bat's two hind legs and helps support the animal while it is flying. In all other microbat families the tail lies completely within this membrane and extends to the margin of the skin. The tail of Sheath-tailed Bats differs in.that it follows the membrane for only part of its length and then it projects out of the top surface of the membrane. One genus of this family, Taphoznus, has been recorded a few times from New Guinea. In Australia, these relatively large bats (FA 60 BOmm; WS 360 -48Dmm) are found roosting in caves bordering the sea or lakes. Leaf-nosed (or Horseshoe) Bats derive their name from the leaf-like structure arising from the skin around the nostrils. Also, this is the only microbat family ear tragus. The thirteenrlspecies belong to three genera Rhinolophus, Aselliscus and Hipposideros which differ externally on shape of the nose-leaf. Most species are cave-dwellers and are among the bats regularly encountered by Twelve of the species look much alike -brownish to blackish with FA 40 -55mm-, WS 240 330mm -and can be identified only by laboratory However, one species is very distinctive; H;;bpposideros. diadema, largest member of the family in l\lew Guinea (FA ?0 BOmm; LlS 420 480mm), differs from all other . PNG bats by its dark brown fur spotted with patches of white. The Vespertilionid Bats (Vespertilionidae) are characterized by possession of an tragus, and, usually, the absence of a nose leaf. Those genera which do have a nose leaf also have a tragus, which separates them from the regular Leaf-nosed Bats however, Vespertilionids with nose leaves rarely enter caves. Vespertilionidae in PNG contain about 19 species in 11 genera. Despite such variety only a few species habitually roost in caves. Myotis adverus is a species which prefers to hunt insects over lakes and rivers. Caves near. its. favourite habitat are a likely place to find this bat (FA 40mm; LlS 240mrri). The members of this family most frequently encountered in caves, where they may outnumber other species, are the Bent-winged Bats (Minidpterus), FA 35 55mm, WS 210 330mm. The unique of this genus is in the dimensions of the third forefinger: the innermost bone of this finger is about 1/3 the length of the second bone (in other Verspertilionid bats the two bones are about equal in length). Three species of Miniopterus occur in PNG; these bats are blackish, slightly more grey below. The last family of Microchiroptera recorded from Papua New Guinea the Free-tailed Bats (Molossidae) recognised by their long tail which extends more than one centimetre beyond the margin of the tail membrane. Of the two genera found in

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66 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 PNG, only one, Tadarida (FA 35 60, WS 210 -360), has been recorded from Members of this genus usually roost in tree hollows. One more family should also be mentioned, the False Vampires which range from Asia east to the Is. (Megaderma) and ilso occur in Australia (represented by the Ghost Bat, Macroderma The absence of this family from Papua New Guinea is puzzlihg and perhaps these cave dwelling bats will eventually turn up in PNG. As their name implies there is' no relation between these bats and the Southern American vampire bats; nor do they feed on blood. They do, though, prey on small birds and other bats. The Megadermatidae resemble the Leaf-nosed Bats in that they too possess a nose in cbntrast to the Rhinolophidae they have a large ear tragus, Unlike-all other microbats the tail is absent. Cavers wishing to know more about PNG bats are encouraged to obtairi a copy of ''Guide to Native Land Mammals of Northeast New Guinean by A. c. Zeigler. Copies are available from the Wau Ecology Institute, P. Do Box 77, Wau, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea for K1.DO plus postage. Studying Bats Cave exploration reports rarely give bats much notice although so little is known about the New Guinea species that even. a short description of the size of the colony and identification of the member species w6uld help improve our knowledge of these secretive animals. For instance, most New Guinea bats have been recotded from the island only a few times, due to lack of scientific exploration. Combined with the usual information on geological structure of particular caves and their data on the size and composition of bat colonies prcivide information on the distribution of bat species in PNG and their requirements as to cave types. Consultation with local people on their methods and frequency of hunting bats should give some indication of the effects of predation on bat populations. With a little effort cavers can contribute relevant information on PNG bats. Part of the problem of studying bats is identifying them properlye Determination of bats to species requires detailed examination and measurement of various-external and internal characters and is a job best left for the specialist. Bats in this country are the property ot the Papua New Guinea government and its peopleo They should not be captured etc. without the permission of the Wildlife Division, Department of and Conservation and most importantly the owners of the cave. * *

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 67 1978 MINI FRENCH SPELEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO PAPUA NEW GUINEA I. Po Cellerier* and R. Parzybut** The first French speleological expedition to Papua New Guinea took place in July 1978 when two French I. P. Cellerier and R. Parzybut accompanied by their wives spent three weeks in Papua New Guineao As an initial introduction, Mr. Malcolm Pound in Port Moresby introduced us to coastal Papua New Guinea caving conditions by taking us to the Old Cave in the Javarere area. The walk through the tropical rain forest to the cave was extremely interesting though very hot.and tiring. The cave, although suffering from visits was interesting as a coastal tropical river cave with large numbers of wildlife. This excursion was marred when a villager stole was left at the cave entrance. After enquiries at Doe village m6st of the gear was recovered and the councillor laid on a native style meal to apologise for the -x8 R u e Ja n s s e n 9 7 5 0 1 9 Pa r i s 9 F r a n c e • K U CAVES QC LITY PLAt\l Sc.ALE \ ; \ .00, OOO SCHE.OUL.E. Roods Rivett!> o Do\ine-5. • ViUaqes 'T'M1"" c. t& ff Rue .aux Chiens 9 A v-r icourt 9 6031 0 La ssi gny 9 F ranee.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 69 Two weeks were spent in the Simbu Province, staying at Keu village about 5 kilometres south of Chauve. Lle are indebted to Mr. Mike Bourke from Kainantu who took us to Keu village and introduced us to the village people. Our visit to the Simbu Province would have been much more difficult without his help. Many caves, possibly previously unrecorded by speleologists were investigated in an area about 2 kilometres east of Keu Village on the Nambaiyufa road (see location plans). The various caves investigated are described Feyreko Dolines (see cave locations map) Three of the eight dolines we visited contained caves:(a) At the entry of the first doline we found a small shaft about 7 metres deep leading to a narrow passage. It was impossible to go any further than 15 metres because of vertical limestone fluting in the passage which formed a barrier. Vegetal remains show that the cave is an active sink in the wet season. (b) It's the same with the second doline where the cave quickly blocks off in spite of starting as a dome of about 15m in depth open at the top. (c) The third doline revealed a shaft which was estimated at 20m deep. The echoes from dropped stones make us think there are possible continuations. It was impossible to explore that shaft as it wasn't on guide's territory. Choure Mountain (see cave locations map) Mike Bourke had told us that the local people knew of several holes on Choure mountain which can be teached via a path leaving the road after the first doline has been passed. The track leads through the f oiest to an altitude of 2400 2450m where the caves occur. They appear to be located along a series of joints. (a) The first cave has a small entrance about 1m in diameter. By dropping stones we estimated the entrance shaft as 70 to BOm deep and there may be continuations at depth. Lle noticed that there was a small draught. Lle were shown this shaft on our first exploration and as there were some problems to equip ii9 we decided to explore later but we soon realised this would be impossible as this might have created a conflict between villages. (b) The second cave (Choure Hole) is about 100m from the first and its entrance is 2m wideo An entrance shaft, 40m deep9 with deeply scoured sides leads to a floor covered with humus and vegetal remains in which worms 150mm long and 5mm thick can be$ seen moving. In the humus we found a human a piece of a skull and a radius or a cubitus. A 3m high climb leads to a second 20m deep which leads to an impenetrable squeeze. The bottom of this pit is blocked with blocks of limestone. Through the impenetrable a small chamber (5m diameter) can be seen which seems to be choked. There is no draught. This cave was not surveyed. Lle had planned a second visit but our guide refused to take us back a second timB. There seems to be land conflict between the twb local villages these are situated in the territory of the second village.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUMl 7 NUMBERS 29314 71 r. 0 30

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72 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 (c) A third cave was shown to uso It is in the same line as the two others. But for the same reasons as above, we couldn't explore this shaft. Feyreko Cave (see map) This cave is situated at the top of a vertical lapiaz (karst area)9 east of the dolines at the altitude of 2300m. A small entrance9 1m diameter, leads to a chamber whose walls are covered with calcite. The next chamber is of the same type. Both small chambers are obstructed by calcite. Southern Cliff of Choure Mountain (a) A walk along the cliff brings you to a wall 5 or 6m hiQh which you have to climb to reach the entrance of Sio cave {see map). Not far from the entrance you find a pit, Bm deep, which is blocked with calcite. A beautiful curtain of calcite is to be noticed. Above this pit there is an aven (10m diameter) which is at least 50m high. At the bottom of the pit, a narrow passage on the left becomes impenetrable after a few metres. (b) Also in this cliff is Kiren cave (see map) whose entrance can be seen from the roado The entrance is Sm high and 4m wide. A large passage 60m long1 5 to Bm wide and 30 to 40m high, leads to an overhang of Bm. Adjacent to the entrance, a shaft was observed but not entered. A further shaft occurs 15m in from the entrance. Adjacent to the second shaft is a secondary passage (which we did not enter). After the sharp drop, a climb brings you to a passage perpendicular to the entrance passage filled with slab breakdown. Following down the slab breakdown on the right, we entered a side passage 3m to 4m wide and 30 to 50m high. In the passage we had to walk on sharp scallops which show there was a large stream in this place once. At the end of this is a shaft 30 to 40m deep with a dome above. Walking around the pit, the passage leads to a chamber which soon becomes a passage. In this chamber we saw a great number of flying foxes (100 to 200). We stopped our exploration in this chamber for we found the cave the day before we left. Considering the size of the passages we found we think it is an important cave system. Tao Mountain Here we found Inomangi cave (see map) at the altitude of 228Dm. The entrance is characterised by two openings, one of them being oval, 2m wide and 3m high. A .small pitch of three metres leading to a chamber with slab breakdown on the right occurs 30 metres from the entrance. On the left saveral openings lead to small chambers covered with calcite crystals but these chambers are blocked by calcite. Climbing the slab breakdown, we reach the ceiling where a small passage leads to a 3m pitch which gives way to a network of big chambers. The first chamber is in the same line as the entrance and is formed by a big slab breakdown. It is 60m long, 15 to 20m wide and 30 to 40rn high. Some stalactites decorate this chamber where grey swiftlets live.

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74 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 PLAN ? . CROSS SECTION

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78 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 A narrow passage at the entrance of this chamber gives access to another chamber which is formed by an immense slab breakdown. We can reach the roof by climbing the slab breakdowno On the right a dome obstructed by clay appears to have been the entrance for a streamo At the bottom of the slab breakdown, a vault with a angle of 45 is decorated with stalactites and some helictiteso In the slab breakdown occurs a pit 2m in diameter and 10m deepo Because of a lack of time we did not explore it. Walking along the we reach a huge chamber 100m long and 50m wideo At the entrance, on the rises a big stalagmite 10m high and Bm diameter. On the left we can see a small chamber full of cave formationso In the roof we noticed three openings through which some water was runningo This cave is certainly more important than it looks at first sight but time is needed to search the slab breakdown to locate further passages a To conclude the Simbu part of the expedition9 MrG Malcolm Pound from Port Moresby and Mr. Allan Goulbourne from Lae came up and took Roger Parzybut on an exploratory trip down Berema cave in the Porol Escarpment above Masul village on the Highlands Highway. Patrick Cellerier was not well and stayed in Masul Police Station during this tripo This cave had first been by Fred Parker and had been briefly looked at several times in 1978. This was the first trip to the bottom. The cave was pushed down the active stream passage over five pitches to a lake at a depth of about 100 metreso The final pitch ended in the deep lake and a swim was required to get a toehold on the adjacent wallo No way on could bs seeno Our guide also pointed out several adjacent holes to us but these were not entered. The final week of our trip was spent on a cultural visit to the Trobriand Islands but no caves were investigated during this periodo Cave During our exploration we noticed that cave formation isn't important m6st of the caves in this area are still active, apart from Inomangi rave, Sia cave and Feyreko cave. Most of the cave walls ware covered with moonmilk. We found the same type of cave formation as we are used to in Europe only in cave. Lle noticed some-stalactites, stalagmites, a very few pool deposits, small draperies and some helictites4 Running water is very important in these caves but the conditions for cave formation do not appear to be prevailing at present, except for Berema caveo Cave Fauna The following were observed:-(a) shell fish in the water (b) flying foxes in Kiren Cave (c) grey swiftlets in Inomangicave Conclusions Tao mountain has only a middle sized cave cave) with a fossil network walking in this cave can be dangerous because of moving slab breakdown. Several times we heard rocks falling down. Another exploration of this cave should consist of

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 79 searching through the slab breakdown to find other possible passages. Choure mountain is certainly more important, more interesting as far as caving is Kiren cave seems to be a complicated natwork and we can suppose that communications with shafts (Choure Hole9 etc.) will be found. The principal network which we explored is full of shafts which certainly lead to a lower system, maybe the active section of this cave. We can also suppose that the lower system functions in connection with the swallets of Feyreko. During our explorations we were struck by the important size of the caves. We can conclude that this area in Papua New Guinea is certainly very important as far as caving is concerned. REVIEW ,, I\ Preliminary Notes on Bats from the Bismark (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Jo D. Smith and C. So Hoodo Science in New (2) 81 122. 1981. The main emphasis of this paper is on the zoogeographic relationships of PNG island bats. To do this work extensive collections of bats had to be made and so of interest to speleologists is the long list of collection sites, many of which are caves. All of the sites are identified both by name and a latitude and longitude. This is followed by a long section which lists each bat with information on where both in terms of geography and habitat the bats were found along with information on taxonomy, breeding and physical characters. This information is sufficient for speleologists to identify bats from regions. I must remind cavers that it is illegal for non nationals to collect bats without permission. If in any doubt about a bat's identity this paper gives references to other material which could help to resolve the problem. A valuable resource as work on bats in PNG (as it is for most biological work in PNG) is widely scattered in the literatureo This expedition also found a new species of bat Hipposideros maggietaylorae (Smith and Hall,1981). The zoogeographic relationship propbsed for the bats of the Bismark Islands is that they have much in common with the bats of the Solomon Iso, then the islands of the Banda Sea and then mainland New Guinea.The propose that this distribution is not just the result of chance (bats flying from one island to the next) but is a result (f.or most species) of the positions that the islands have held in past geological time. Reference Srnith9 J. D., and Hill, J. Eo (1981)0 A new species and sub species. of bat of the sid eras bi col or group from Papua New Guinea, and the systematic status of Hipposideros calcaratus and Hipposideros cygdus (Mammalia Chiroptera Hipposideridae) Contrib. Sci. Nat, Hist. Mus. Los Angles Co. *P.O. Box Kainantu, E.HoPo, Papua New

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80 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE 1978 FRENCH RECONNAISSANCE EXPEDITION D. Martinez*, R. Maire** and Ro Mo Bourke*** Over the period 2nd .November to 31st December, 1978, a six man French expedition visited New Britain, the Huon Peninsula and the Kainantu area of the Eastern Highlands. The trip was to prepare for the 1979 French expedition. The team was composed of six cavers: Jo L. Fantoli, X. Goyet, Ro Maire, D. Martinez, F. Poggia and G. Savournin (Doctor). Ro M. Bourke (PNGCEG) participated in the New Britain section of the tripo New Britain Lle spent three weeks in East New Britain investigating some of the gigantic vertically sided dolines and river systems in the karst north of Pomio. Nare. The first of the giant dolines explored, Nare, was near Nutuve Mission. It was first reporterl by Lex Brown of the 1972-73 UQSS New Britain expedition (Bourke, 1973). The elliptic entrance was 200m by 100rn. Depth to the stream which flowed across the bottom of the doline was 26Dm. The rope pitch to descend was 217m, a new Papua New Guinea record for length of pitch. The highest side of the pitch measured 310m. The cut a passage NE SW and flowed at an estimated 8-10 m /sec. It was not possible to follow the left bank of the river downstream, but we crossed the river on a rope. At the crossing, a beautiful efflux emerges in a waterfall (50 l/sec) ?Orn high. After a bank of ?Orn, we were prevented from going further because the flow is too strong. The passage (20m x 15m) continued. In the downstreem direction the passage (25m x 30m high) can be followed for 10Dm, after which the river fills the entire passage. We could see for 250m•••o••o• At the top of the pitch the5e is a dry river. After 6 hours of rain it was in flood (1-2 m /sec). This water goes underground after 700m. Minye. The second doline explored, Minye, was between Kapgena and Tuke villages. It was first looked at by Chris Borough and Kevan Read in 1968 (Borough, 1973). (See cover photograph of Niugini Caver 2(1))o The diameter of the doline is about 450m at the top and 250m at the bottomo The rope pitch was 27Dm, again a new PoN.G. record for pitch length. Length including the scree slope at the bottom was about 355m. The highest side of the doline is 410m high. On the last stage of the pitch, a 75m free hang, Mike discovered that French Petzl descenders are much faster than the Australian whaletail. The two burnt hands,3one badly so. The volume of the doline-aven is 26 OOO OOOm (Fantoli, . 1979), thus making it the largest karst cavern in the * AV. A. Briand C4, 83160 La Valette de Ver, France. ** 16, rue du Bosquet, 74240 Gaillard, France. ***Po Do Box 384, Kainantu, EoHoPo, Papua New Guinea.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 81 world (Courbon, 1979 p20). The river at the bottom was flowing ai an estimated 15-20 m 3/sec, making 'it one of the largest river caves in P.NoGo• The river comes out of a sump, flows for 400m across the bottom of the doline and goes into the west wall under a 90m high overhang. It possible to follow the river downstream for only BOm. Cru e depth here was 366m. Upstream, we crossed the river at the edge of the sump and got into an upper passage. This was 10m high x Sm wide. Stream flow here was 1001/sec. A sloping room of 240m 130m high and 200m wide followed. A beautiful efflux (501/ sec) goes down 100m in the chamber. On the NW side, the passage (30m x 30m) continued with many concretions in the stream (401/sec). After 1000m the ceiling came down to a pool 15m long. The opens up again (15m x 15m). Finally after 2350m of passage, the water emerges from a sump. Total development of the system was 3000m. Truly an impressive cave! The final objective of the New Britain part of the expedition was to Matali River resurgence near Pomio and an associated giant doline BOOm above the resurgence. Because of access difficulties, this objective was not reached. Huon Peninsula After Britain, The team spent two weeks in the Sarawaget Range. A.tthough the potential is very good with limestone thickness of o v er 1 00 Orti-, re s u 1 t s lie re di sap pointing as "B 11 of the shafts were closed by soil and glacial deposits. The party explored 25 caves around Mt. Sarawaget, only 5 of which 10m or more deep. The deepest was a mere 19m deep_ and was at 3800m a.s.l •• The only cohsolgtidh was: that the explored were higher than any others previously explored in PaNoGo• Eastern Highlands Barananomba. At Yonki near Kainantu, Michael Bourke, Norman Flux and Noel Plumley looked at caves near the Swiss Mission in December. These were first reported by Park.er {1975) and by Wainwright (1975)0 They descended two unexplored pitches in the river cave9 but were stopped by a third pitch. Norman returned with the French expedition and over three days the pa rt y joined up the rvwet rv and "dry ii eaves and pushed the system to a sump which is just above the resurgence of the river. It was not possible to penetrate this. The cave is 134m deep and 1050m long. Oravanana. The team also spent several days pushing the Oravanana system near the Obura Swiss Mission. This was first reported.by Parker (1975) under the heading nobura arean. The top entrance of the system (Yunamare) was pushed to a depth of 156m and a length of 350m before it became too low. The middle section was explored to a depth of 190m and a length of 1100m before it closed off. of the system was surveyed at 330m long. It was not to join up the three sections of the system. Daniel Martinez slipped and badly bruised his knee in here. The injury put him out of action for the rest of the trip. Finally three of the team and Norman Flux $pent a day in Hell's Gates at Henganpfi as a finale for their P.NoG.

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82 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Conclusion The karst of New Britain Nutuve and Pomio) seems to be the mdst interesting region of the explored partso However it is crl.tical to come to New Britain in the f1dry seasonn because the subterranean rivers are very big and very dangerous. The next French expedition (and others) will have to find new techniques to explore these rivers if they want to have a successful trip. A full report of the 1978 expedition has now been published (Fantoli ?t 1978). A ckr:owled'i1ernents The assistance of the following is acknowledged with the French Federation of Speleology; the French in P.N.G.; Alison and Malcolm Pound? Paul Courbon and the Australian Ambassador in France. Ref e.rences Borough, c. JQ (1973). A large cave and doline near village, Pomio Sub-District, New Britain. Niugini Caver l (2J ; 25 = 26. Bourke, R. M. (1973). The 1972 73 UQSS New Britain Expedition. Niugini Caver 1 (2) 27 -43. Co u r b on , P • ( 1 9 7 9 ) • .A t 1 as d e s Grands Gou ff re s du Mon de • Jeanne Laffitte, Marseille. 202pp. fantoli, J. L., Goyet, X., Maire, R., Martinez, D., Poggia, F. and Savournin, G. (1979). Nouvelle Guinee 78. Federation Francaise de Speleologie9 Paris. 130pp. Parker, F. (1975). caves and shelters in the Kainantu area of the Eastern Highlands. Niugini Caver l (2) : 35 44. Wainwright, M-. (1975). Three caves in the Yonki area, tastern Highlands District. Niugini Caver l (2) : 48 50. FOUR CORNERS PROJECT Malcolm Pound had a request for information from. an unusual project. It is known as the HFour Corners Project11• The director of the project is one David Barr who resides in Michigan, USA. He writes 17The Four Corners Project is the construction of the world's largest sculpture using the least amont of material. It consists of an invisible tetrahedron the inside of the earth with the outer four courners just protruding from the crust of the earth. These visible corners are to be located in Easter South Africa, New Guinea and Greenland, with the imaginary planes extending through the earth from each corner to the other three. This corner will be a buried pinnacle of marble barely protruding from ground like a plant sproutin9 through the earth's crust. This briefly described project has laminations of data and concepts which give it endura11ce beyond its temporal physical charactera.

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• The bamboo formation in Taroku Nantaut Efflux M2 North Solomons Province. (see page 43) Photograph: M.D. Pound Leigh Gleeson exam1n1ng a Dobsonia moluccensis (a fruit eating bat) in Art Gallery Cave near Doe Village, Central Province. (see page 64) Photograph: M.D. Pound

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The log choked entrance to the Punua Inflow Cave, M7 North Solomons Prov. (see page 55) Photograph: M .. D. Pound The Atea Resurgence above the Atea Gorge. (see page 141) Photograph: J.M. James Panoramic view of the E Mama stream sink at the base of 400 m cliffs. (see page 127) Photograph: B. Unger

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 85 A PNG OVERLOOK OF THE 198S FRENCH SPELEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO PAPUA NEW GUINEA R. M. Bourke* The.first speleological investigation of the Nakanai Range took place in 1968 when Papua New Guinea based Australian cavers, Chris Borough and Kevan Read, looked at the system now called Minye. They attempted to explore upstream in the huge efflux of the system, but were quickly flushed out. They then explored the top 60m of the Minye doline-aven but estimated they were still 300m from the bottom (Borough, 1973). Their estimate was accurate to within 10m. From a helicopter, a geological assistant had reported seeing a huge river effluxing out of a cave entrancs high up a cliff near Ora village, so in April 1972 I made a solo reconnaissance trip to investigate. I was able to explore only part of the huge Ora uvala (double doline), but I had seen enough to organize an expedition (Bourke, 1972). At the end of that year six cavers returned to explore Ora uvala and the associated river cave. The proved too large for our limited resources, and we were able to explore. only 600m of river passage before being finally stopped by the force of the water. Aerial reconnaissance by expedition members had located four giant dolines and uvalas in the range. These are now known as Ora, Minye, Nare and Kavakuna (Bourke, 1973). It Was another six years before speleologists were to return. At the International Speleological Congress in Sheffield, England in 1977 I spoke with French cavers who were interested in coming to Papua New Guinea and recommended the Nakanai Range in New Britain as a difficult and region that was likely to yield large river caves, but not rsally deep systems. A expedition was made by the French in (see previous Swiss cavers explored the Kavakuna system in late 1979; and the main French expedition returned in early 1980 (see article). In Europe, Papua New Guinea is exotic and largely unknown. Cave explorers who have come here are assumed to have encountered similar conditicins. But Papua New Guinea is an extremely diverse country. Iri the densely populated parts of the Highland valleys, such as in the Simbu ca0e exploration is relatively easy. The climate is mild and invigorating; the courtry is open; the axplorer can see where he is going; and the scenery is often spectacular. There are good tracks, albeit steep ones, and a well developed road system allows cavers and goods to move relatively easily; it is possible to buy fresh temperate climate vegetables cheaply; local guides and porters can usually be obtained easily and they have a good knowledge of the cave systems. By contrast, New Britain is much more Temperatures. and humidity are high, particularly below 50Dm, and the climate is debilitating; the rainfall is excessive; tracks are often the forest is dense and visibility is to 20m or so; there.are no vehicular roads and only a few airstrips; / * P. D. Box 384, Kainantu, Eo Ho P., Papua New Guinea.

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86 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 all transport arrangements are consequently unreliable and expensive? little local food is available for purchase9 porters are often difficult to and it is more difficult to draw on local knowledge because of lower population densities. The first cave explorer in the region wrote, 11The big problem •••• is the lack of access ••• The limestone areas can only be described as extremely rugged. It is so difficult to walk into these areas that even many experienced Papua New Guinea cavers would not have encountered the severe karst topography that is so typical.1 ; (Borough, 1973). This is the environment in which the French cavers worked and their achievements have to be seen against this background. How do the results of the French exploration compare with other papua New Guinea caves? Kavakuna II at deep is second only to Bibima (-494m) which is the deepest cave in the Southern Hemisphere. In fact five of the six deepest caves in Papua New puinea were explored by the 1978 and 1980 French expeditions in the Nakanai Mountains. Liklik Vuvu has a surveyed passage length of thus making it the fourth longest cave in Papua New The rope pitches in Minye (270m) and Nare (217m) are the two longest pitches in the country. The doline of (60 million m ) and the doline-aven of Minye (26 million m ) are the in Papua New and indeed3the world. River . flows3in Minye (15 20 m /sec), Nare (15 m /sec)3and Kavakuna II (15 m /sec) are exceeded only by Tobia cave (85 rn /sec) in Papua New Guinea cir, for that matter, in the world. Prior to the French expeditions, most of the significant caves in Papua New Guinea were known from higher altitude areas in the highlands (over 2000m altitude). The giant dolines and river systems of New Britain were known, but none had been proven to contain deep or long systems. The recent results indicate that other karst areas on New Britain, New Ireland and Bougainville at an altitude of 500 to 1500m are likely to contain significant systems. A vast amount of exploration is to be done in the Nakanai Mountains. Nare could be pushed further, but it would oe difficult and hazardous. Ora cave could be explored more easily, and the efflux of Minye should be investigated. Apart from these obvious and spectacular river systems, there are many thousands of dolines to be looked at in these karsts. French cavers coming to Papua New Guinea have always been ready to listen to advice about new areas and situations. They paid special attention to formal and informal requirements of people in Papua New Guinea, be they government departments, local cavers or village people and they have always been ready to pay their way. Personally I have the company of the French cavers from both expeditions and learnt much about equipment and good caving techniques. We hope to see French cavers back in Papua New Guinea, and especially in New Britain, before long. *

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 87 PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE 1980 FRENCH SPELEOLOGICAL EXPEDITION TO PAPUA NEW GUINEA Jean Francois Pernette* This very first expedition nationally organised by the French Federation of Speleology was under the patronage of the then President of the French Republic, Mr Vo Giscard d'Estaing. It took place from 1Dth January to 1Dth May, 1980 in the southern part of East New Britain, Pomio. Apart from the of unique karst features such as the doline-aven of Luse (the largest known in the world 60 million cubic metres), the KA II and Nare systems (respectively the .second and third deepest in and indeed the southern hemisphere), the expedition had the opportunity to cope with many unusual difficulties. The exploration of the largest underground rivers in the world has required innovations in caving techniques as wgll as the continual challenge to overcome obstacles never before encountered underground. Altogether more than m of unknown caves have been explored. Each member of the team has spent at an average, 200 hours underground and walked over 150Dkm in the jungle •••• ? These are, in chronological order, the main discoveries: Kavakuna System (3 entrances) The Ooline-Aven : Depth = 394m. Diameter = 300m. downstream, 1km of river passage upstream. River flow = 5 6 m /sec. KA II : alpine type system of pitches. At -30Dm a large river (15 m /sec) flows inside a huge chamber (150m x 100m x 200m). Total length = 350Dm. Total depth = -459m (2nd deepest in the southern hemisphere). . The Matali efflux : A 400m cliff was down in order to reach the entrance. The river (20 25 m /sec) was explored for 350m but the force of the water precluded further exploration. 06line-Aven of Luse A giant sinkhole 225m deep and 750m wide. It is the doline-aven known in the world (60 million cubic metres). Camp Vuvu -Big Vuvu Sinkhole A dry canyon disappears underground after a surface course 900m long and 190m deep. Underground, 600m of rope weie necessary to rig a way through numerous pools. Total length = 3000m. Total depth = -414m. ( third deepest in the southern . -Little Vuyu : A small dr; sinkhole with beautiful calcite formations. Tcital length = 620Dm. Total depth = -288m. (4th longest in Papua New Guinea.) . * 33760 Escoussans, France.

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88 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Nare Sinkhole A shaft 30Dm deep and 150m widee A large river (15-20 m 3/s) flows at the bottom. Two kilometres have been explored downstream and 1.4km upstream in a large river passage (30m x 4Dm). Exploration was very difficult and hazardous. One kilometre of rope was necessary. Total depth = 40Dm. Total length = 440Dm. Exploration is incomplete • . Minye Sinkhole A 350m.deep and 400m wide shaft with a large river. At 26 million cubic metres in volume, it is the second largest aven in the world. Total depth = 366m, Total length = 340Dm. Exploration is incomplete. Cave Depth_ Length KA II -459rn 3500m Big Vu vu -414m 3000m Nare =40Dm 450Dm Kavakuna -392m 1800m r'1inye -366m 340Dm Liklik Vu vu -288m 6200m Luse -224m 50Dm KA VI .... 204m 35Dm Oravanana -19Dm 150Dm Yunamare =156m 35Dm Barananomba .. --..134m 1500m KA v -113m 150m Poypun --11 Orn 200m Vu vu II -=110m 250m Sundry other caves 1300m Complete reports including maps, surveys and photographs have been. published both in French and English. A special issue of nspelunca11 (the quarterly bulletin of the French Federation of Speleology) has been published supplement au No 3, Juil -Sept. A book (in French) -L'Abime sous la Jungle, Expedition Nationals Francaise Nouvelle Guinee -1980 by Jo F. Pernette (collection naventures extraordinaires11, 259 rue Montesquies -38100 Grenoble9 France) has also been published. This book contains many magnificent colour photographs of the caves and the country. •I 'j-\ CAVE LOCATIONS The editor suggests that the locations of all PNG caves should be fixed using a Universal Grid Reference based on the PNG 1:100 OOO Topographic Survey. A Universal Grid Reference consists of two letters followed by 6 numbers (e.g. CQ066652) and gives the location to the nearest 10Dm. The two letters give the 100 OOO metre square in which the point lies. The first and second three numbers give the distance in 100m from the west side and the south respectively. The title of the 1:100 OOO map on which the reference is based should also be given for ease d'f reference. The maps making up the OOO topographic survey are easily obtained from the National Mapping Bureau who have an efficient mail order service.

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89 ACCIDENT REPORT On 1st July 19799 nine members of the Swiss Expedition arrived in Port Moresbyo Two other members of the party had arrived earlier. They then left for Pomio in East New Britain. When exploring in Kavakuna Ooline tragedy struck and _Rene Marthaler was drowned while crossing the river in the cave. The following article is taken fDom the statement by Franc Maleckar9 a Yugoslavian caver who joined the expedition later. This was made to the Coroner and explains the circumstances around the accidento 1 part of a Swiss expedition that visited Papua New Guinea in July September9 1979. I am a geology student at the University of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia in Yugoslaviae I have been caving for 8 years and have also done some mountain Caving and climbing have techniques in common. On Sunday, 2nd September,1979, at about midnight one of our party, Rene Marthaler, was killed in a caving accident at Kavakuna Cave about 5 hours walk north of Pomio in the East New Britain province of Papua New Guineao I joined the speleologists at their camp at Kavakuna on Wednesday 29th August. The party then consisted of Gerald Favre -leader, Rosemary Christian Rrrne f:larthaler9 St:31fsJulius and Martin two guides from Olaipun Village. On Thursday, 30th August, I climbed into a gallery at IV on 1 using pitons which the others had placed there before I had arrivedo After 40 metres, it camo to a dead endo On Friday, 31st August, I descended into the cave again and removed the ropes, ladders and pitons from IV. We could not follow the river downstream because it went into a sump, so we decided to follow it upstreamo We climbed up a waterfall about 8 metres high (see 'e' on sketch 1) and walked along the stones on the left hand side of the (iooo the left hand side as we were facing it. The right hand side if you were facing downstream.). We walked 30m along this side to a point •at on sketch 1 and point 'A' on sketch 2. It is important to explain what we did here as this is the point where Rone later died. At point 'A' there were no more stones on the left hand side but we saw stones on the right hand side, so, to explore the gallery further we decided to cross the stream. It was 7 metros wide with a flow of 8 cubic metres a second. Ue did not measure its depth. It lJas a sunny day, rare in this area9 and some sunlight penetrated this -area. I tied the rope around a rock 'A' in sketch 2. I tied it very tightly. After many unsuccessful attempts I managed to lasso a rock •ar. I then untied the knot on rock 'A' and tied with the special knot shown in sketch 2. It was then pulled tight ( not shown in the sketch)o I attached my harness to the rope and using my hands and feet crossed the suspended rope to 'B'o I then walked upstream and saw that the gallery continued. I returned to 'B'. I tr{ed to remove the rope from 'B' to tie it more securely. This could not be so I asked Gerald to untie it at 'A'. He did thiso I was then able to remove the rope from 'B' and retie it at 1C'Q When this was dons, I asked Gerald to retie the rope securely at YA1 • I then crossed on it from 'C' to 'A'. The rope sagged a little as I crossed, so Gerald and I

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90 . dl :c Q. et <( 0 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 t: ill g t J 4: 0 dl s :S ' ..

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I I d \ g EN t) NIUGINI VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2r3,4 (1 \ l l. I 91

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9? ,_ NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 pulled it tight again and retied it at 'A' using the knot shown in sketch 2., left the rope in place and went back to the camp. the next day, 1st September, Gerald and I returned with some more equipment. we both crossed on the rope from 'A' to 'C' and explored the right hand side of the gallery, going upstream for about 100 metres. we passed a waterfall 3m higho we put in a number of pi tons and a bolt and used ropes to assist one another in case we lost our footing and fell into into the water. Eventually we came to a plac8 where water covered the width of the cave and we decided to return. Us crossed from 'C' to 'A' on our return journey. On Sunday 2nd Gerald said he would have a rest day. So Rene, Christian and I went in again. We took a lot of ropes, pitons , b oT t s a n d f o o d a s we i 11 t ended s ta y i n g i n t h e c a v e for up to 30 or 40 hourso Us decided to try and finish the exploration of the cave and to map it. I also took my cameraQ I was the trip leadere I went first. we all crossed again from 'A' to 'C'. Ue went up the tight hand side of the cave. Rene and Christian carried rucksacks. We came to the point Gerald and I reachod the day before. We climbed above that point and came to where the gallery and stream divided into two. The two streams filled each gallery entirely and we could not go beyond that point. Ue onded our exploration there and decided to returnQ we had explored and mapped about 300 metres of gallery and were well pleased. On our return journey we derigged the cave. Rene assisted me and I, him. we noticed that the river had risen since our journey upstream. For instance, three stones that ws had walked on before were now submerged. Although we had a rope there, I decided not to try crossing using the stoneso I noticed a shelf a metre higher and we were able to crawl along it. Eventually we reached pointtci. Christian crossed first with a transport sack. In order to recover the rope after we had crossed to 'A', we decided to use a double rope through a loop made at •c•. Then after we had all crossed we could untie the rope at !A' and simply pull it through the loop tcw. This technique had been used ,earlior to recover rope from the pitons. Llo untied the rope at 'C'. Christian pulled it across and threw us a longer rope. Rene used nylon tape to make a loop at 'C'. Lle passed the rope through the loop and threw it back to Christian who tied it around 'A'. I attached myself to the rope with my harness and tested ito I saw that it was not tight enougha Christian had riot used the knot that I had used (see sketch 2). Christian does not speak English and I speak very little French9 so I explained to Rene in English to tell Christian in French to make the same knot as I had made. It is a knot that can be pulled very tight. tried to do this he shouted out across the river. There was however at lot of noise both from the river and the waterfall. Also it was very hard to see Christian because of the mist and the water dripping from the roof. It was also very dark -there was no natural light as it was now night time. My carbide lamp was very low at this time as wello I too shouted to Christian to tie the rope properly. I thought it 1.i1as about time to change my

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 93 carbide lamp. I was doing this on a flat rock, when Rene attached his harness to the rope and gripping the rope with his Feet and hands started to cross. I said,1Rene, the rope is not tight You will get wet0i He said, 'PFFT.7 He had a rucksack on his back full of ropes etc. He began normally but about metres from side 1A1 his feet and hands fell off the rope. He was in the water and the current was stronq. He got his hands back on the rope. I called out 'Leave the sack' but that was hard to remove as it was held onto his body by a diagonal strap over one shoulder. He fell into the water again. His harness still held him onto the rope.Christian tried to pull the blockaire but could rtot do so. Rene was hanging on two ropes: 1. attached with carabiners to both ropeso 2o attached with the blockaire to one rope (the blockaire is made to attach to one rope) I got in the water and tried to lift the ropes out of the water but with little success. Christian decidod_to untie the rope so that Rene would be washed to side 'A' of the cavo downstreamo ThBre were stones there and he would be above water levelo Either too much rope was untied or else the current was too strong as Rene ended up at point 3 on sketch 3. Rene had now lost the transport sacko I changed my position and pulled on tho rope and got the upper part of the body out of tho watero That was 5 or 10 minutes after he fell in the water. He had no pulse when I felt ito I also saw that he wasn't breathing. I then tried mouth to mouth resuscitation and heart massageo At this stage my carbide lamp did not work any more. I had only a battery lamp. Christian asked me if he could go and get Gerald and the two native carriers. I said 1Yeso t I was told he ascended the cave with problems but then got lost and could not Fine the camp until dawn. I continued massage and mouth to mouth resuscitation for a hour or more with no result. I noticed the water level rising. I attached Rene to my harness and lifted him to another stone. My back was aching. I was exhausted. I fell asleep on top of himo I thought he gurgled. I woke up and continued heart massage and mouth to mouth resuscitation. I shouted at him to breathe. Then the sun came up and I could see what was wrong with my carbide and I changed it. About 9 or 9.30am on 3rd September, Gerald and a carrier, Julius reached us. Gerald and Julius retied the knot at 'A'. In my opinion the causes of the accident were as follows: 1. Christian did not tie the rope tight enough because he did not use the knot shown in sketch 2. With the noise level and in the dark, Rene and I could not explain it to him properly.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Also I did not speak French and ChristiaM did not speak English., 95 2o Rene should not have crossed with the rope like that and a strong river that had riseno The fact that he was tired, frozen happy may have affected his judgmento 3. The fact that Rene was tired, cold and wet would have reduced his strength to pull himself across on the ropeo 4o The rucksack on his back contributed to his death. 5. As mentioned tireq., Although I did not have a watch, I estimate that we began work at Barn and this accident happened about 12 midnight., Ue were all tired by theno and coldo We were wet through and frozen from walking in the stream or falling in it and the constant dripping from the roof., We were happy and confident. We were happy that we had fully explored the cave. This was our last passage out of the cavG. Wo were anxious to cross the stream and get out of the cave. Post Accident Events 1. Tuesday 4th September at 12 noon the helicopter arrived. We had cleared a landing place with the aid of one axe and a small bush knife. This was hard work as the trees were big. Although we had the landing pla6e9 we had not got the body up to it. Our strength and man-power was limited. 2o Wednesday 5th September. The helicopter came again and took the body to Pomio. The helicopter and picked up Gerald and Christian. Gerald wanted to go to Rabaul and explain what had happened to ReneYs girlfriend, Maiianneo Helicopter picked up the body from Pomio.En route to Rabaul the helicopter had an engine failure and crashed into a river. No one was injured but the helicopter was badly darnagedo Assistant District Commissioner took the pilot9 Gerald and Christian to Pomio by speedboato The body was left in the river with the helicoptero 3. Thursday 6th September. We packed our gear and with 20 carriers walked to Ulapun village six hours awayo I walked onto Pomio and saw the body which had been brought out of the river by heliciopter. The doctor in Pomio and the Health Inspector wanted to bury the body because it smelt. I said9 it must go to the morgue in Rabaul and then for t ran s po rtl ''to S w i t z er land • 1 4. Friday 7th I 0as in the Assistant District Commissioner's office when he phoned on the radio phone for a helicopter. The helicopter came and transported the body to Jacquinot Bay. It was put in a coffin there. I went t6 Jacquinot Bay. We then flew in a Catholic Mission aeroplane to Rabaul. I heloed put the body in the vehicle where it was taken to the morgue.

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96 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 A BRIEF RECONNAISSANCE OF THE KANDRIAN AREA In May 1975, a small group of anthropologists visited the Kandrian to see if any major archaeological sites could be located. As this area has not been Visited by speleologists, these brief notes on the area were prepared as a preliminary guide to the area. TheY, may be of some use to future speleologists. As anthrbpologists are seeking archaeological sites, which are frequentli situated in the mouths of large caves or rock overhangs, both anthropologists and speleologists are frequently looking for the same that indicate caves. Unfortunately anthropologists avoid water as they have no interest in active river caveso Kandrian is a district headquarters in West New Britain located on the south coast of the island of New Britain. The surrounding country is mainly of polygonal karst covering an area of approximately 3000 km developed on Miocene limestone. The limestone forms the Whiteman Range inland from the coast. The extensive limestone and the heavy rainfall have resulted in extensive underground drainage and the possibility exists for very large river caves. The 1g100 OOO Papua New Guinea Topographic maps of the area shows numerous large sinkholes in the Whiteman Range. Unfortunately, the maximum depth potential of the area is about 800 metres. The visitors did not do any cave exploration but noted many sinkholes and caves with passages going some distance. It was the wet season at the time of the visit and this was a serious problem. The rain made travelling inland very difficult and some surface rivers such as the Palicks may be impassable. Flooding underground would be a problem. The following areas are listed caves were observed:(a) A large sinkhole with passage occurs 4t hours easy walk out of Arihi/Ahi village towards Umbi. The Arihi to Umbi stretch is about st hours fast walk, 7 hours easy walk with no settlements between and very little water. (b) There are no of interest.in the Umbi Yambon Oulego areas, east cif the Palicks River though unvisited sinkholes were reported. ( c) The limes tones a re very hard and seem to ha.\la ma1.$nl y sinkholes which were of little interest to anthropologists, though the local people say few if any are known to have large passages •. (d) There is very little further south in the Sangkiap Awat -Saihi (e) A cave was reported in the Moiya area but was not visited. * Curator of Anthropology, The Australian Museum, 6 -8 College Street, Sydney, New South Wales, 2000 Australia.

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98 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 (f) A limestone pinnacle with a difficult to get to tunnel high up is near Asit (marked as Mihak on the 1:100 OOO topographic map). (g) The most promising area seems to be nearer the coast in particular from Aliwo southwardso At Aliwo is a system of tunnels known as the Ale which may be worth following up. (h) Over a dozen caves were sighted around the and one in particular seems to go in some distance. This is Yimilo near Iumielo Village. The area is the peninsula running south from the village and is controlled by Kigin of Iumielo. (i) Several caves near A.ngelek were visited and clearly contain water in the wet, especially one cave near the haus kiap at Iumielo. (j) There is a major tunnel near Sanuring the unnamed village just south of Mihak (incorrectly named Lapalam on the 1:100 OOO topographic sheet) which is said to extend to Hakhak. The best time to visit the area is the dry season (December to February). The of the year is too wet for easy travel or cavingo The Angelek Aliwo Hakhak Sanuring areas are relatively easy to reach with Angelek and Aliwo being on the vehicle road to Eseli. Accomodation is patchy with haus kiaps at Mihak, Angelek and further inland at Awat, Hulem, Yambon, Asiaun and Moiya. A catechist's house is at Tomugu. The houses are small except at AngGlek, being big enough for 3 or 4 people with a bit of a squeeze. The OOO topographic map contains many errors. Some correct names ars: Map Sangkiap Akiuli unnamed village between Akiuli and Hulem Iombon Dulago Seiagit abandoned Lapa lam Ahi Mihak Alimbit Correct Womilo Sangkiap Akiuli Dulago Sisisel Yambon (Iombon) Seagit Mihak Arihi A sit Kaluklo There are no hamlets to the north of Arihi. Between Arihi Umbi there is only one garden area and certainly no The Kandrian Local Government Council includes only the village of Asit outside of Kandrian. The other villages operate under the luluai system. It is advisable that anyone wishing to visit the area to look at caves should write to the Council if they wish to work in the Council areac However, with the exception of -small caves immediately on the coast, the main caves mentioned above lie outside the Council area.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29354 99 The area of most interest to speleologists would appear to be the area to the north and north west of Yambon. This area would appear to be three days walk from the road to the last habitations and hence would require a fair sized expedition for worthwhile results to be obtained. A corrected 1 OOO scale map showing the karst area of most interest to speleologists is attached. Editor's note: The above article has modified by the Editor. Any errors are due to the Editor. In the gpirit of Enterprise. (From the Rolex Awards). Edited by Gregory B. Stone. Wo Ho Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 1978. 360 pages. ISBN 0-7167-1034-X In 19769 Rolex (watches) decided to commemorate the 50th anniversary of what they say was the first waterproof watch (the Rolex Oyster case) by giving awards to projects of several saving endangered species, adventure seeking9 civil engineering, medical projects for the third world and others too numerous to mention hereo Rolex gave five Laureate awards worth 50,000 Swiss francs and a Rolex watch9 and 26 Honorable Mentions (a Rolex watch). The book contains descriptions of 131 projects culled from 3,000 applications. There are six projects related to caving. One of the five Laureate awards went to Luc Jean-Francois Oebecker of Belgium for documenting and mapping all European caves with Paleolithic cave art (at least 156 caves). An Honorable mention went to Jean-Francois Psrnette, who lsd the 1980 French Expedition to PNG, for an expedition to the Sto Georges system under the Pierre St. Martin Plateau. He thinks that the St. Georges might connect with the PoSoMoo Rexford 0,, Lord, a UoS .. public health advisor in Venezuela is compiling a field guide to South American bats (about 200 species described with photos of about 150 species). A Frenchman, Jean-Pierre Faray, proposes an expedition to dive the sump in Ghar Parau, Irano PiArre Lecomte, UoSoA.,9 has a device (or just an idea?) for a miniature dive computer that continuously gives decompression requirementso John Cook, UoSoAo9 uses Vimonocycle radar:•, apparently to detect underground spaces in coal mines. Perhaps it would have some application to cave locating. Each person's address is given in case you wish to contact themo A second Rolex Awards for Enterprise was conducted and another book published: Spirit of Enterprise The 1981 Rolex Awards. Edited by Gregory Bo Stoneo Harrap, Londono 1981. 460pp. Of the 169 projects in this book 2 relate to caving. Both recoived Honorable Mentions. One relates directly to Papua New Guinea. Jean-Francois Pernette propos::s a second expedition to the giant potholes of New Britain to follow work already done in that area. Claude Touloumdjian from France propos:a an extensive investigation of the submarine river at Cassis near Marseilleso The other projects in these books make fascinating reading and they are well worth out for. •. :;

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100 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 THE CAVING SCENE compiled by R. Mo Bourke * This nsceneH will cover the period since the previous one was published in Niugini Cavero ft thus includes all of 19791> 1980, 1981 and January to March, 1982. Central Province The Javavere caves have been the object of numerous trips over the past three years. The PNG Bushwalkers Association have made a number of trips there. Malcolm Pound and Neil Hickson visited the Art Gallery cave in 1981. John Llyeth also got out to Javavere in January, 1982. The Pounds together with Jill Cheetham and Brian Finch made a trip to the Kupiano area in late 1980 to search for reported caves, but nothing was found. Eastern Highlands Over the, past few years, there has been a concentration of active cavers in the Kainantu Goroka area of the Eastern Highlands. Here's a summary of trips since (1) Kamasi village area south of Goroka. Michael Rod Kerr and Malcolm Pound got down a vertical cave 70m deep in this area in April, 1980. Other caves are reported. (2) Henganofi., Rod Kerr organised two trips to YVHell's Gatesn during 1981. On.the second trip a party of 8 cavers from Kainahtu and Goroka explored all of the cave. For some novices, the 50m pitch abseil was a dramatic introduction to the art! (3) Aibura cave, Upper Lamari River. This small cave has been visited by at least threa parties of cavers since 1980. In mid 1980 Rod Kerr and Ian Priestley visited the cave. Alison Pound and the Goulbourne family went there in early 1981; and the Bourke family took a paity there in February, 1982. (4) Sonofi area. Michael Bourke and Allan Goulbourne plus kids visited two caves near Sonofi in June 1981. Omuntianele is a 120m long stream cave. Of greater interest is the 300m long Okafunka cave which is an enjoyable system to explore. Part of the cave is very well decorated with drawings (see Niugini Caver 6 (1) : 3-26). Michael returned a few months later with Dave Pease and Malcolm Pound. (5) Omaura/Arau area. Michael Bourke and Malcolm Pound had a look at a small cave near Llaaiammu hamlet in February, 1979. Allan Goulbourne and Michael Bourke explored two caves in September 1980 in this area. They were noted for their long miserable crawls. (6) Obura area. In October 1979 Michael Bourke, Allan Goulbourne, and, Rod Kerr descended Oravanana cave in a bid to make a connection with the higher Yunamare system. After descending five pitches, the party pushed upstream. Rod pushed some tight passages but had to admit defeat in the end. * P. O. Box 384, EoHoPo, Papua New Guinea.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUM Ens 2p3, In March, 1980 Michael and Allan returned to the area to look at the reported caves beyond Himarata Village. The caves were 550m lower in altitude than the village -good exercise. Matali cave (Batari cave to J. Peter lJhite9 the HHimarata Bridgen to Fred Parker) turned out to sport an impressive underground river and some attractive cave art done in red pigmento Tuweiwu cave, which is 1500m in length, on the Lamari River was the object of a tourist trip by Michael and Edward Bourke, Carol Clayton, Neil Hickson and Dave Pease in January, 19820 (7) Yonki. The attractive river cave Barananomba has been visited on five occasions over the period 1979 to early 1982 by the Eastern Highlands cavers. Geoff Francis from Port Moresby, Allan G ou1 bourne from La e and Neil Hi ck son from Hag en ha v EJ also participated in these trips. The efflux cave of the system which is situated on the eastern side of the ridge and above the Ramu River has also been visited twice by Michael Bourke, Allan Goulbourne, Rod Kerr and Malcolm Poundo Allan planned to dive the sump at the end of this 40m cave until he discovered that the walk into the cave was over some steep country! Enga In Easter 1981, Allan Goulbourne, Graham Lash, Martin Richardson and Neil Ryan did a trip to the top of the very rugged Mto Kaijende. It is bel{eved to be the first ascent of the mountain. One cave was looked at on the trip. In November that year Neil returned ,with Rosy Berger to look for caves,, but nothing of significance was foundo fVJadang In late 1981 Neil Hickson, Geoff Nicol, Dave Pease and Malcolm Pound visited three caves in the 0 mar u are a near IVJ ad an g • 0 u r spies report thaf their memories of the weekend were unfortunately erased by excessive imbibing. Milne Bay In July 1980, Cliff. Ollier (University of New England) and Colin Pain (University of New South lJales) did some caving near Gurney. The cave, known as Damawewe, was surveyed except for a narrow passage complete with stream and a resident snake. [Vlorobe In March 1982, Michael Bourke made a quick visit to the well known f1Map os eaves 11 in the Snake River area of this province o There is a K1 entrance fee for which the visitor receives a printed receipto New Britain In August 1979 a Swiss expedition visited the Pomio area. Kavakuna sinkhole was descended to a depth of 32Dm. The stream passage was explored upstream f6r 300m. Another pothole (Kava Martel) explored to a depth of 100m! The cave continues. The expedition ended in a tragedy when one of the cavers, Rene Marthaler, was drowned. A series. of for the Swiss including a helicopter accident9 problems with the police in Papua New Guinea and the dead caveris family (see report in t hi s i s s u e ).

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102 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS Between January and May 19809 the French cavers mounted a major expedition to Nakanai Range of New Britain. The team achieved excellent results which are printed in summary else where in this newsletter. A book on the 1980 expedition by Jean Francois Per nett e entitled 0L 'A bi me sous la Jungle iv has just been published. All of the French work in PNG is described in a special English edition of Spelunca. New Ireland The 1979 Swiss expediton also visited the east coast of New Ireland and the Lelet Plateau. Lemerigamas cave on the Plateau was pushed to a depth of 203m and a length of The Dalum efflux was extended to a length of 120Dm. A previously unreported cave 120rn long was explored near Namatanai. North Solomons (Bougainville) The cavers on Bougainville under the leadership of Hans Meier remain active. The December 1979 issue of the North Solomons Cave Exploration Group Newsletter (Vol. 2 number 7) summarizes the activities of 1979 as Seven trips were made in 1979. These went to cave9 Taroku efflux, Siuema area (3 days), Panua efflux, Buka Island (2 days) and Arakawau.,Ten new caves with surveys. As well surveys of Taroku Efflux and Panua Efflux were extendede In addition to the usual ex.ploration and surveying, cave water was collected for testing from Buka Island and bats, swiftlets and insects were collectede In 1980 trips went to Arakawau, Taroku Nantaut M2, Kaviropaia Arakawau and Keriaka The last trip was to the nsig Holen on the Plateau a very impressive The 1981 trips to Taroku Kopani, Urumovi and Paika. An indication of 'the level of activity is that the first three trips for 1981 had 10 cavers per trip on average. The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group Newsletter has been appearing fairly regularly and contains some well produced cave Hans reports that a monthly barbecue for cavers at his house is even more popular.than the caving trips. Simbu In 1979 Dave Gillieson (University of Queensland) visited the Nombe rockshelter near Chuave to assist archaeologist Mary-Jane Mountain with geomorphologital and sedimentological studies. A paper on the work just appeared in Helictite (Val 19 no.2). On the second day of 1981, Michael Bourke, Lex Brown (from Brisbane) and Tony Stearns (from California) headed up to Berema cave in the Porol Escarpment for three days. The trip took place 21 years after the first caving trip by speleologists in Papua New Guinea (3rd January, 1960). Berema was first reported by Fred Parker and has been visited by PNGCEG cavers twice since 1978. On the second trip the party was stopped by a lake. On the 1981 trip9 the lake was no longer there and the cave was pushed to a sump at 120m. It was surveyed. The cave has 7 rope pitches and is pleasure to explore.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 103 Early in 1980, .Rod Kerr trip to the Kaimomo cave near Chuave with a party from the Goroka Teachervs College. Neil Hickson and John McCarthy got out to Irukungai Cave in the Porol Range in August 1981 for a look-see. Southern Highlands After the of the French expedition to New Britain in 1980, Richard ,Maire, Jean-Francois Pernette and Jean-Paul Saunier accompained Michael Bourke on a trip to the Southern Highlands. Here the karst areas of the Nembi Plateau (west of Mendi) and Erave-Kagua were visited. Richard, who is a professional karst geomorphologist, had a field day photographing the varied karst landscapes seen. On the anp Jean-Paul.explored two caves previously looked at by Mike. Orabel turned out to be & complex system some 25Dm long. Pemnekpus was pushed down a series of pitches to a depth of 75m that terminated in a tight muddy squeeze. There is no truth in the rumour that all 5000 members of the Federation Francaise de Speleologie will be visiting Erave next year. Dave Gillieson, Jill Landsberg and Neil Ryan got down 4 or 5 caves in the Erave area during 1979. Euclid D'Souza has made a number of trips since mid 1979 to some caves in the Kagua area. Robin Field got down to the very impressive Taro River cave near Kagua in late 1981 with some students from Ialibu High School. He returned with Neil Hickson and Carol Clayton in March, 1982. West Sepik In 1979, Dave Gillieson and Jill Landsberg from the University of Queensland returned to Selminum Tern and the Finim Tern area west of Telefomin. They also visited the Oksapmin area where they did some caving with Nicky Cape (based in Oksapmin) and Rod Edwards from Port Moresby. Dave and Jill are continuing research work started in 1978 on cave mud and botany respectively, Western Highlands Neil Hickson and Neil Ryan visited a small cave near Mount Hagen in the Waghi Valley in late 1981, Expeditions Another ambitious expedition will return to the Muller Range in June 1982 under the leadership of Julia James. There will be fifty cavers and scientists in the field for up to three months. If the results of the previous expeditions to the area are a guide, we can look forward to a lot of good caves being Mt. Kaijende near Porgera in Enga Province boasts the most rugged karst in Papua New Guinea. Reconnaisance caving trips have been made there in the past by Kevan Wilde, the 1978 Spanish expedition members, Allan Goulbourne and Neil Ryan, No caves of any significance have been found, From June to August an expedition will be sent to the area under the joint leadership of Neil Montgomery (a USA based Australian daver), Donna Mroczkowski (USA) and Neil Ryan (Mt Hagen). Expedition members will come from th5 USA, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Australia and Papua New Guinea. It is anticipated that there will be 20 to 30 cavers on the trip.

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104 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 An expedition to Papua New Guinea was planned for July to September 1981 by ten cavers from the Gruppo Speleologico C.A.I. Roma in Italy. After initial correspondence, nothing more has been heard from the group. Another proposed expedition from Europe which seems to have faded away was from a group of Polish cavers based in Crakow. Yet another proposed expedition that did not eventuate was one to the Whiteman Range of New Britain planned by some Sydney based cavers for December, 1981. There has been no news of a proposed English trip to the Lavani Valley in the Southern Highlands scheduled for 1982. Vague plans for French and Spanish expeditions for 1983 have been mentioned in correspondence with cavers from these countries. People Merle Busenitzand and Tim Husk are two residents of Ukarumpa (near Kainantu) who have been doing a bit of caving in recent years. Both returned to the USA in April9 1982. Loui.s Deharveng is a French biologist and caver who visited Papua New Guinea in 1978. During his visit here he contacted the Heavers' diseaseH9 histoplasmosis. He thinks this may have been in a Chuave cave. Euclid D'Souza9 Robin field and Colin Thomas are three cavers who are in the Southern Highlands. Euclid is originally from India and is now based in Tari; Robin is an Australian and is at Ialibu9 whilst Colin is a Kiwi and is in Mendi 11stretn. Euclid has been living 11in the bushn for the past two years on a karst plateau (Nembi Plateau). Robin transfered up to Ialibu from Passam National High School near Llewak. Geoff Francis who was based on Manus for two years before returning to Australia to do his Ph.D. has now returned to Moresby. He is with the Geological Survey and should be in Moresby for several years at least. Extended periods of field work in 1982 will take him to the Muller Range and the Kainantu area. Chris and Allan Goulbourne will be going finish back to the UK in June 1982. Allan does not plan to continue his diving activities in the English Channel. Rod Kerr moved up to Goroka from Australia in late 1979. He has been doing some climbing and caving in parts of the Eastern Highlands and Simbu Provinces. Rod was married in 1981. He plans to go finish later in 1982. Geoff Nicol is another Kainantu caver to join the ngone finishH ranks. He returned to Australia in late 1981. Dave Pease is another caver who knows where the good climate is to be found. Dave transferred from the Markham up to cool Kainantu in late 1980. Under pressure9 he also admits to involvement in the Highlands Highway sealing. Malcolm and Alison Pound moved up to Kainantu in February 1981 where Malcolm has been working on the Highlands Highway. They produced a son9 Timon9in January 19820 In May this year they will be returning to Australia to live on the Gold Coast.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS ' .' . John Wyeth is a ff:fl r 1 y new a.rr i vai in .. ffor es by., He came in September 19819 to work with the Institute of Applied Social and Econom1c Researcho And that's the caving scene for the paat three years and three months. We've very significant French expedition toNew Britain; .a Swiss expedition to New Ireland and New Britain that had a tragic ending; plenty of 11tourist11 caving all over the country; and of activity on Bougainville and in the whera the cavers are exploring new systems. Don't forget to drop the editor of Niugini Caver a note with your caving news. * ..v_ I\. During the 1g79 Swiss Expedition the Post Courier newspapgr this cartoon. It is reprinted with their-permission. Post Courier 26th July9 19?9.,

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1G6 NIUGINI CAVR VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 PARTIALLY EXPLORED A.ND SURVEYED MAJOR CAVES fN PAPUA NEW GUINEA R .. M. Bourke* fn an article on the greatest caves of Papua New Guinea published four 'years ago, I gave a I ist of fourteen major caves that required further surveying or exploration CBourke .. 1977). Great progress has been made then exploration and surveying, particularly in 1978 when many discoveries were made. The previous list has now been updated to focus attention on what needs to be done to finish off partially explored caves and where quick progress can be expected. No major cave can ever be considered 1finLshed'. There is always a possibi I ity of new finds, and these can be expected in the future. But here we are concerned with passages, rivers and pitches that have been left unexplored in major caves for want of time, equipment or people. It is not the intention to discourage anyone from going into a 'newv areap but fol lowing up on previous exploration does seem to give better results. The overseas expeditions and local cavers which have had the greatest success In recent years have been fol lowing earlier work. Those that have had I east gain for their ef for.:; have been pioneering new ground o For example, the Australasian trip to the Atea Kanandap the French on New Britain and around Kainantu, the Spanish in the Upper Simbu, PNGCEG members in the Simbu and Kainantu areas, and NSCEG members at Matanai on Bougainvi I le have achieved a lot. On the other hand the British in the Western Province, the French in the Saruwaged Range and Parzybut-Cel lerier on Mount El imbari did not achieve to much relative to their efforts because they were breaking new ground. Areas are considered from west to east. Caves marked with an asterisk require further exploration or surveying. HINDENBURG RANGE AND ASSOCIATED RANGES * Owif !fore Tern, near Feramin, West Sepik Province. This system was descended to a depth of 183m by the 1975 British expedition but was abandoned because of lack of rope (0. Brook, pers.comm., Eavis, 1976). Eavisl's sketch indicates that a deep.,wide shaft is the next section to be exp I ore.d. * Langlang Tern, Fault Control led Valley, Western Province. The same expedition got down 200m in this cave before abandoning exploration because of the tightness at the lowest point attained and loose rocks of a 50m shaft (Wi Ide et. al., 1976). Kevan Wi Ide was struck by fal I ing iocks in this cave. The cave entrance is at c. 2600m a.s. I. Exploration in theFaulf Control led Valley was brought to a halt by the end of the exped it ion and members have suggested that it is a very promising area for a return trip. * Askenbu Tern, Olsobip area, Western Province. Members of the 1978 British Speleological Expedition descended this cave for 120m, but it was abandoned after 8 pitches because.of the slowness of bolting down wet pitches (White, 1979)'. Perhaps E':me fost Continental bolting experts are needed? P.O. Box 384p Kainantu, E.H.P., Papua New Guinea

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 107 MULLER RANGE SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS * * * Atea Kananda.. This system was first entered by the 1973 Australasian expedition to the Mui !er Range, pushed to almost 4km by the 1976 expedition and extended to 30.5 km length and 300m depth by the 1978 expedition CAtea 78}. There are stf I I leads in parts of the cave, but they are very inaccessible (James, 1979). For al I purposes, the cave can b'ff considered finished for the rroment o Hadia Ths 1978 expedition surveyed this cave for 8.5km length and 195m depth (James.I' comm.). There are many .leads in the cave not explored and It is anticipated it is much longer. Another Australasian group pi ans to return in '1982 specifically to continue . exploratlon. Let's hope ihey cen finish off the other on the Mu I I er. U Ii Et_a Ri ya ;> Ok.?;1fungu o A verti ea I cave descended for 200m by Atea The cave was abandoned 60m down a huge shaft. From this point a shelf could just distinguished with a large pitch below pers. comm.). UI i Mindu, Legari. This cave rs at about 3200m a.s. I. near the top of the Mu I I er Ra:ige. Tvm of Atea 78 descended the entrance pitch for 85m and estimated the depth as 160m (James, perso comm.). OTHER SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS * Oma ii near M9nd i. John Van Amste I ( 1973) reported that this Y.tas a I arge cave that had not been fully explored. In my earlier article, it was suggested that further exploration was required. Dave Gi I I ieson, Ji I I Landsberg and Nell Ryan attempted that in 1978 with near disastrous results. A ledge col lapsed and nearly collected the cavers. They beat a hasty retreat ( G i I I i eson, 1979). I st i 11 think a return visit is 0arranted. * Tobie, Pulupare vi I loge, Kagua District. This impressive system was first reported by ; l Ryan ( 197t1) and I ater surveyed by Howard Beck (1975). Beck estimated river f!o\J as 85-113m3/sec. If this was . accurate, it is by far the '.Jreatest underground river in the world. This river flow should be documented as a matter of priorityo SIMBU PROVINCE Maig Mur (Mebi le);> Duglpagl area, Upper Simbuo Sanders (1973) reported this cave was stil ! going at 160m depth. Members of the 1978 Spanish expec; ion bottomed the cave and surveyed it to a depth; of 132m CMontse1--rat and Chavarria;> 1978). A.nether question mark .answered .. * Darua neai-P;,,,1:-i vi I !age;> Upper Simbu. This was pushed to a depth of: in 1975 VJhere exp I oration was abandoned because of I ack : of roper at the top of a pitch estimated a-J7m high (Bourke;> 1976). i Members" of the Spanish exped 1 t ion reached a depth of 230m without reaching the end (Montserrat and Chavarria;> 1978). I am not certain that the Spanish went 43m deeper than our 1975 trip, or whether the di ff ere nee in dep:.:h retl ects d 1 fferences in the surveys.

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* 108 .NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 lrukunguaf (frapui), Poro! Escarpmento Wilde (1973) reported the length of this cave to be 3,000m, and as 4,000m to me in a personal communication. However sea I i ng off the map done by Ju I i a James Van Watson and Kevan W i I de shows surveyed passage to be 2, 120mo There appears to be some unsurveyed passage and this needs to be sorted outo * Berema, Poro! Escarpment. This was first reported by Fred Parker (1967); and it was explored to about 60m depth at Easter 1978 (Goulbourne, 1978). Allan Goulbourne, Malcolm Pound and Roger Parzybut (France) descended to a lake * * at about 120m depth in July, 1978, but the cave was not bottomed CA. Goulbourne, pers. commo). lnomangt, Tao Mountain, Mt El imbari area. Parzybut and Cellerier explored this cave in July 1978 for some 400m without finishing it (Anon., n.d.). Lombila, Nola Village, Chauve District. This impressive river cave was first explored in 1975 {Wilde and White, 1976) and tater over Easter, 1978 (Bourke, ). About 1,000m of passage has been explored with an estimated depth of 60mo According to villagers, the river resurges in Kirove cave which is some 200m lower and several kilometres away .. This ls a dangerous cave to explore under wet conditions, but a potentially long and deep system in a very accessible location is waiting to be pushed. There is a I ot of work io be done in the Chuave-E Ii mbari area. Much exploration has been done by members of the Port Moresby Speleological Society anq the Goroka Caving Club, but the reports are not clear. Numerous unexplored smaller caves are referred to in reports by Bain, Read and Wilde. It would be an excel lent project, albeit a demanding one, to sort out what is known and what needs to be pushed in this area. KAINANTU DISTRICT, EASTERN HIGHLANDS Tuweiwu Clkenar and Kirbari), Obura area. Fred Parker {1975) referred to this system as the Lamari caves Clkenar and Kibuari). His estimates of chamber and passage length suggested the system was about 2,200m long. During 1978 Al Ian Goulbourne and I visited the system severat times. It was surveyed in December 1978 by l'brman Flux and Noel Plumley and found to have a passage length of 1,525m. A number of question in Oravanana (near Obura) and Barananomba (near Yonki) merited inclusion of these two caves in a first draft of this article. Recent exploration has resolved these unknowns, and these two caves have been dropped. NAKANAI MOUNTAINS2 NEW BRITAIN * Minye, Kapgena vi I rage. This enormous doline and the associated efflux near Tuke vii lage were first investigated in 1968 by P.M.S.S. members (Boroughp 1973)., The 1978 French expedition explored the doline and part of the cave at the base, making it one of the great caves of Papua New Guinea 1979). The French expedition did not visit the efflux which Borough indicated was flowing at some 75m3/sec. The French estimated river flow as 15-20m3/sec at the bottom of the dol ine, but did not explore the active river passages because of the force of the water. The flow in the efflux cave needs to be measured. There is a huge system awaiting exploration, but it is doubtfur whether present technology is adequate to do so. (That's what was said of the Atea Kananda in 1973 after 108m of passage was surveyed!).

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 * Nare, Nutuve Mission. This was first reported in 1973 by Lex Brown . (Bourke, 1973) and the dol ine was I ikewise explored by the 1978 French group. In early 1980 the second French expedition explored the river cave for over 2,000m downstream and. 1,ooom: upstream. Tota I cave development is 4,-400m. and depth is 400m. further exploration was prevented because of the extreme length of trips {15-20 hours) needed simply to a few.hundred-metresto the system. The river continues in both upstream and downstream directions, but.further---exploration wi I I be extremely difficult and hazardous • . * Ora. This dramatic river cave and the associated giant uvala {compound dol ine) were explored in 1972-73 by the University of Queensland Speleological Society New Britain expedition (Bourke, 1973L Only 600m of passage were explored before exploration was stopped by the force of the river (4-5m3/sec) in the downstream passage and a $Ump upstream .. Chances of pushtng the river passage, particularly downstream, are good. NEW IRELAND * Lemerigamas, Lelet Plateau was explored to just under 100m depth by members .of the 1976 New Ireland Speleological Expedition {Gi I lieson; 1977). Exploration stopped at the top of a pitch estimated as 15m high. The 1979 Swiss expedition bottomed the cave at a depth of and a length of 1,300m (G. Favre, pers. comm.). Datum. This complex system is located on the New Ireland north-east coast and drains part o1 the adjacent Lelet Plateau. Several hundred metres of passage were explored by the 1976 expedition, but their map contained some 13 question marks (Gil lieson, 1977)0 The 1979 Swiss expedition pushed it to a length of and the only possibi I ity for further exploration is by diving CG. Favre pers. comm.). Kabase, Namatanai area. 400m long and 100m deep. actual length and depth. Gal lasch (1974) estimated this cave to be A survey needs to be done to establish the BUKA I S lAND Teama. cave, Lanahan vi I !age. Parker (1973) reported that Teama cave is said to be at I east three miles long, and l suggested th is needed to be checked out (Bourke, 1977). Ga I I asch ( 1977) visited and mapped the cave using the name Tioma. Members of the North Solomons Cave Exploration Group visited the cave ;n 1978 and surveyed it as 397m long. They usedthe name Teama (Meier.ii 1978). * Malasang system •. Parker (1973) followed the cave for an estimated 1, 200.m in a narrow passage, but did not reach the end. It has not been explored by cavers since then. DISCUSSION In I i.st of caves needing further exploration or surveying, 14 caves.were given. Of these, five have been finished off, progress has beenmade in another four J> and five have not been revisited. The present I ist includes 24 caves. Six do not require further work (Atea Kananda, Maig Mur, Tuweiwu.ii Lemeragamas.ii Dai um and This sti 11 leaves JS.caves from one end: of Papua New Guinea to the other. that need more work. to be done: in them-. Prqgress in the g:iant .river caves of the Nakana i Mountains w i I I be very s I ow and may be i mposs i b I e. However, over the next few years it is reasonable to expect that the going caves .in, the Southern Highlands.I' Simbu, Buka Island and Mui 1er Range wi 11 be -comp I eted.

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110 REF:ERENCEs: Anon. (n .. d.L Premiere expedition speleolo.gique Francaise en-Papouasie Nouvel Jui I let, 1978,. Rapport prel iminaire. . ' Beck, H .. M. ( 1975). laro River Cave, Southern, Highlands District. NLugini Caver 3 ( 1): 4-5. Borough, C.J. {1973). A large cave and dot ine near Tuke vi I fage, Porriio New Britain. Nluglni Caver 1 (2): 25-26. Bourke, R.M. (1973). The 1972-73 New Britain Expedition. Caver 1 (2): 2j-43. 8ourkei' R.M. ( 1976). Darua Muru, Chimbu Province: 194m deep and sti fJ going. Nfugini Caver 4 (1): 20-22. Bourke, R.M. (1977). The greatest caves of Papua New Guinea as at December, 1976. Niugini Caver 5 (1): 3-17. Bourke; R.Mo (1978). The.: __ PNGCE;G Easter 78 Simbu trip. Niugini Caver 6 (2): 63-64. Eavis, A.J. {1976). The Eastern Wamtakin Plateau and the Upper Sepik. In D. Brook (compiler). The Brit.ish New Guinea Speleological Expedition:, 1975. Trans. Brit. Cave @sear. Assoc. 3 (3, 4): 137,;,,.'14l. Gallasch_p H. C1974L.Caves of the area of New Ireland. Niugini Caver 2 {3)! 222-228. Ga: lasch, H. (1977). Notes on some caves on Buka lslando Niugini Caver 5 (1): 25-26. Gl f I ieson, D.S .. (1977). ,Lefet: Report of the 1976 New Ireland Speleological Expedition. Niugini Caver 5 (3):62-101. Gil lieson, D.S. {1979). Notes on a very, very brief trip to Omai Cave, Southern Highlands, Niugini Caver 1 11-12. Goulbourne, A. (1978). Berema Porol Escarpment. Niugini Caver 6 (2): 65-66. James, J.M. ( 1979) .. An Australasian speleological expedition to Papua New Guinea. A preliminary report. Niugini Caver 1 (1): 2-10. Maire, R .. {1979). The pref iminary report of the 1978 French expedition. Niugini Caver 7 (1):14. Meier, H. (1978). North Solomon Cave Exploration Group (Newsletter) 15/16th April, 1978 Monteserrat, A. and Chavarria, F. (1978) .. The advance report of the Spanish speleological expedition 'Papua New Guinea 1978'. Niugini Caver 6 (-3): 86-88. Parker, F. (1967L The caves of the Porol Rahges betwt;aen the Chimbu River and Chuave, in ::the Ch imbu Di str i et of the Eastern Centrc;il High I ands: of Papua New Guinea. Communications Occas. Paper 2. Sydney Speleo,. Soc: 20-27. Parker, F. (1973). Caveson'Bougainville and Buka Islands. J. Syd'iey Speleo .. Soco 17 (1): 7-8.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Parker, Fo (1975). Some caves and rock shelters in the Kainantu area of the Eastern Highlands. Niugini Caver 3 (2): 35-44. RyanJl N. ( 1974L Some caves in the Erave,, Kagua and Lake Kutubu areas of the Southern Highlands and Gulf Districts. Niuginf Caver 2 (1): 142-146. Sanders, B. (1973)0 Mebi le cave, Chimbu Districto Niuginf Caver 1 (2): 50-52. Van Amstel, J. (1973). Caves in the Mendi area, Southern Highlands District. Nfuglni Caver 1 56-580 WhiteJl T. (1979). The Hole-in-the-Wal I Expedition Papua New Guinea. Caving International Magazine 3: 11-14. Wilde, K.A. (1973). lrapui cave, Poro! Escarpment, Chimbu District. Niugini Caver 1 (3): 70-74. Wilqe, K., Gray, P., Goulbourne,, A. and Buchan, J. (1976). The Fault Control led Val leyo In D. Brook (compiler). The British New Guinea Speleological Expedition, 1975. Trans. Brit. Cave Research Assoc. 3 (3, 4 ) : 14 7-15 2. Wilde, K.A. and White7 T. (1976). Angunga sink7 Chimbu Province. Niugini Caver 4 (1): 23-24. THE BARANANOMBA ANUNTIMPA CAVE SYSTEM R. Maire* and D. Martinez** To the east of Kainantu near the Ramu River Hydroelectric Scheme and 300m to the north of the Swiss Evangelical Mission at Yonki9 an outcrop of Miocene white marble of 1 .5 square km and 1QDm thick occurs. The karst topography takes the form of two large dolines like funnels with a diameter of 10Dm; Barananomba and Anuntimpa. Histo_ry Wainwright (1975) was the first European who reported the existance of these two dolines. Later9 Parker described the entrances under the names of upper sinkhole and lower sinkhole. The inactive part (Anuntimpa) is well known by the missionaries who say that they have entered as far as the river. On 17th December 1978, RoMo Bourke and two English speleologists (N. Flux and N. Plumley) explored the active sink hole of Barananomba, but stopped at a waterfall overhanging a lake. On 21st and 22nd Oecember9 after advice from R. Mo Bourke, we carried -on and finished the exploration of the system, 851 ra nanomba A 4m by 4m opening is the entrarice of 20 litres per second stream running on the contact. A first section of small and basiris full of shining tree * 169 Rue du Bosquet9 74140 Gaillard9 France. ** Av-. A. Briand Cy, 83760 La Ou Var, France.

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112 NIUGINI CAVE.R \JOLU!Y1E_7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 trunks carried in by floods, two waterfalls which need equipment (P10, P12). The gallery, 3 to 4 metres wide and 8 to 10 metres high, in entirely cut in white marble whereas dark up to 1 metre in diameter show flood power of tho rivero One hundred and fifty metres from the entrance, a low vault siphoning during flotids, can be passed through by swimming. It's called The Crocodile's Way if you believe Fo Poggia's fright on oncountering a black log floating in the water! Then the passage returns to 2 3 metre width floored with a lot of deep poolso At -63m, the junction with the Anuntimpa branch is made on the right banko After a few _small. drops and wide pools a 6m waterfall (Ro Mo Bourke7s stop) dashes down into a 25m high room occupied by a lake at -75m. At this level, the cavity changes in appearence. Previously, __ the low level galleries were often doubled by an upper, inactive passge 4rn to 5m wide. From -75m the main passage gets very. (1 Om by 15rn}o After a chaotic trip passing down three. .waterfalls;; we reached the final siphon (Floating \Jciods) siluated about 1km from the entrance •. Anuntimpa A wide doline located in grassland and occupied by a thick forest. The doline is about 30m deepo A 45 scree slope leads to a 6m by 1Dm entrance. A gallery congested with blocks and bouldBrs leads to a 10m diameter 20m high chamber o A 1 m wlde . channel of a 1litre per second stream slots the far ond of this room and drops rapidly down a 13m pitch. At the base of this pitch another 2Dm by 20m chamber occurs. In the roof of these chambers a maze of small tubes occurs and shelter some amazing fungus growths (the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum occurs in this cave). Going downstream through a 50m semi-aquatic passage, the river in Barananomba is encountered. Depth 134m. Length 150Dm. Riggin\1 P109 P12, P6, E3 E2 (Barananomba) .P13 (Anuntimpa). The system doesn't cause any problems during low water. Care of floods must be taken during the wet season as shown by the logs stuck everywhere in the roof and. across the gallery. Rererence Wainwright9 M. Three caves in the Yonki area, Ea stern High,land s 0 i strict o Niugini Caver 3 ( 2) 48-49. Editor's Note This description of Barananomba and Anuntimpa caves in the Yonki area of the Eastern Highlands Province is taken from the special edition of (the publication of the French Federation of Speleology) published after the French Expeditions to Papua New Guineao

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I Fig'Jre 2 : _ .ru:un:impa 1 ; a.fr.er r -ct al . ..:.-1' 19 r c) I l -4.-f I N I __.,.,.., 8EOROC1<;: WALL l I ' I UNSURVE.Yf.D OlJTLlNE VERTJ(;,AL DROP COLLAPSE, BLOCKS. DEVELOPED LONG1TUD1NAL SECTI ANUNTIMPA i SA.ND I I ..... STREAM POOL EARANANOMBA . \ ) ....... \ , ..... _,.. . . . .l\....-....,,.,iJN;.,1h..1N ... ,,.__ -?'Z M ,,.I -1 l ! I I I I j I i ?..-'" """'.;.' 0 .. ; ..... :../ 20 40. 60 J ) __ I METRES L. ---..... ----..... i __, .. ----, ' .. ........ "'t-1 ." . .&.aQpy'; . .... . ""\."-• z H c Gl 1-l H n J:;.i c::: f'l ::G c::: CJ r c i'l -.J z c -.,., -..'...:.J CJ 1 ::0 LJ) N VJ .:,:.::... __.,. (;-J

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114 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 A GEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE ANUNTIMP0 BARANANOMBA SYSTEM, EASTERN HIGHLANDS PROVINCE. G o F r a n c i s-:: The Barananomba Anuntimpa Cave System is situated three hundred metres north of Yonki Mission, which lies 11krn northeast of Kainantu (Figure 1). The system has two entrances, Barananornba and Anuntimpa (Figure 2), which are located in an easterly trending glade formed along the contact between a mafic pluton and metamorphosed limestone. The southern wall of this glade has developed on microrlolerite, which is the chilled contact-margin phase of the pluton, whereas the northern wall has developed on limestoneo The limestone unit is part of the Omaura Greywackeo Micropalaeontological dating indicates that limestone units in this formation a few kilon1etres to the north and to the southwest of Yonki Mission are of Early to Middle Miocene (upper Te to lower Tf) age (Tingey and Grainger, 1976)0 The Abuna Intrusive Complex is composed of doleritic and dioritic rocks with some ultramafic differentiates and some coarse gabbro (Dow and Plane, 1964; Tingey and Grainger, 1976)0 Isotopic ages of 16o7my + Do? to 9.6my + 0.5 have been determined for rocks from this with most-of the reliable ages falling into the 16 -14 my range (Page9 1976). The limestone in Passage has been recrystallised to a grey marble with a foliation that dips at 30 to the northwesto In thin section the foliated rock has a granoblastic-elongate texture with a preferred orientation of elongate calcite grains and some dark laminae containing finely disseminated opaque oxides. A few samples are porphyroblastic with Do2 -Do5mm porphyroblasts and aggregates of calcite in a groundmass with a preferred orientation. The calcite often has small inclusions of sphene and opaque oxides and there are a few interstitial quartz grains. At the base of the 12m pitch whito marble with a granoblastic-polygonal texture occurs as an iden (Logan and Semeniuk9 1976) within a shear zone. Between the Anuntimpa entrance and the 12m pitch the limestone is intruded by small dykes and sills of basalt from the adjacent The basalt is a fine grained holocrystalline rock with a sub-ophitic texture. It consists mainly of labradorite and clinopyroxene which is largely altered to uraliteo There is some basaltic hornblende and accessory oxides. Structures in the limestone have greatly influenced cave development. Much of Anuntimfa passage consists of vertical -fissures developed along dip (ac) joints and in places the floors have formed on foliation planes or on small sills which were emplaced along themo * c/-Geological Survey, Po Do Box 778, Port Moresby, P.NoGo

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NIUGINI CAVER VOL E 7 NUMBERS 2,394 11 ___; References Fantole, Jo L., Goyet, X., Maire, R., Martinez, Do, Poggia, F., and Savournin9 G<>, (1978) Guinee 78, Federation Francaise de Speleologie, Paris. Logan, B. \.Jo, and Semeniuk, Vo,. ( 1 976) Dynamic metamorphism; processes and products in Devonian carbonate rocks, Canning 8asin9 l.Jestern Australia •. Publo eol Soc...! AusL • Page, Ro \.J ... , ( 1 976) Geochronology of igneous and metamorphic rooks in the New Guinea Highlands. Bur. Min. Res. Aust. 6 11 ?p. --------Tingey, R. J" amd Grainger 9 0. J,,, ( 1976) Explana tor.y notes on the Markham 1 : 2505000 geological sheet SB/55-10. Geol. Surv. Papua New Guinea, 49p.

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116 l\JIUGINI CAVER \/OLUME 7 2$1394 A RECONNAISSANCE OF CAVES AND KARST IN THE ERAVE AREA, SOUTHERN HIGHLANDSo Oa v e Gilli eson;:and Jill The recent opening of a good, all weather road between Ialibu and Eraveprompted a one day recce by the authors and Neil Ryano lJe left Mt. Hagen early too early for some """ and rapidly reached Kagua. Carr)!ing on through to Erave, we picked up a guide, one Stephen Yenki of Tiribi Villageo He was able to show us a number of cave entrances, locations of which are given with reference to the Erave 1 :100 OOO sheet 7684 (prelim. ed.). After picking up Stephen we headed into a region of strike controlled limestone .. up to 15Dm high. Between the steep sided anticlinal ridges were abundant small solutional dolines, many with enterable shafts. Truly a caver's paradise 0000 or nightmare. We selected a number on the reasonable basis of proximity to thB road, which wanders in and out of dolines between crossing ridges. In all cases the shafts were blocked with vegetable detritus and sadimen at not greater than 10m. Neil remembered a large entrance he'd seen while walking from Kagua to Erave in the good old days. After some difficulty we located the track at 149720, juBt bBfore the final road descent to the Erave River Bridge. A half hour's walk along a joint controlled glade to ref. 1507259 we climbed steeply up a tributary gully to a large entrance at the base of a bluff. The entrance drop of 6m was rigged with a handline and we entered. The cave9called Mubi9 is basically a single strike controlled cavern9 not lohg but of imprPssive internal dimensions. The steeply dipping limestone has facilitated of the chamber resulting in a large cavity with a rockpile floor. This is of some;antiquity as evidenced\by the accumulation of massive stalagmites on the breakdown blocks. No enterable leads were found. At some time in the past9 a local person had taken a dive over the entrance drop9 as his/her skeleton graced the entrance rockpile. Did he/she fall or was he/she pushed? The stalagmites at the lower end of the cave had marked fluctuation$ in the width of the layers, which may be a seasonal effect. After photography and surveying9 we walked back to a resurgence that, crosses the track lower down. The resurgence is perched on a at 1200m9 above the Erave River. The cave was duly all9 with some coercion, and followed along about 1 OOm, of rocky crawl to a low muddy chamber. At this point running water coQld be heard but not gained. It is likely that resurgences, ,in .. the area are graded to this base level, giving a local depth potantial of more than 200m. Cave entrances in the area are frequently located at the exposed entjs of strike ridges. Many are former outflow caves fed by rainfall on the ridge above and are now chol
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NM t I NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 117 PL.AN Si CAVE a .. d't c ,, . o 'to is 1.0M. !1!1 Tiffif"B!!l!l . ' Suf'V
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118 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 sediment and collapse materialo The caves themselves are elongated along the strike and this is probably the result of greater fissility at that orientation. We next proceeded to to a cave called Ambli. This has three small entrances located at 1736900 The entrances are located in a deep karsted gully above a garden again at the end of a strike ridgeo , The shortest drop was rigged as an 18m pitch into the large chamber visible below. The descent down a steep mud and rock wall was impeded by a large tree trunk used as a ladder by the local people after flying foxes. At the base of the pitch a very steep descent over the large blocks of an unstable rockpile led to an estimated 20m drop. Below a large stream could be heard. The upper chamber has at this point intersected a vadose canyon about 2m wide. An attempt was made by Dave to descend this next drop. A short climb to a wedged boulder permitted the gibber test of depth. Unfortunately this released a mega avalanche of rocks which confirmed the presence of a large body of water below. The inherent instability of the drop prenluded further attempts and an rapid exit was made despite attempts at surveying and photography. The cave is similar to Mubi, in that a chamber has stoped up dip producing a large collapse chamber. The thin bedding and banded impurities in the limestone aid this processo The underground stream is most probably the continuation of a large river which sinks at 190680, at the base of the same ridge. This in itself would be worth of a visit. By the time we reached the surface it was raining and dark, we ended up in Mendi at midnight. One day we are going to find a cave in that part which is not inherently unstable! The Erave region seems to have limited depth potential in the area traversed, but this potential increases to the south. A vast number of karst features are present for evaluation, if the problems of loose rock anrl sediment fills can be circumvented. OMAI CAVE,SOUTHERN HIGHLANDS PROVINCE -A NOTE TO THE EDITOR. Re Gillieson, D. s. 1979 HNotes on a very9 very brief trip to Omai Cave, Southern Highlandsif Niugini Caver 2 (1) 11 -12. Neil Ryan-i;. This article could be misinterpreted that the change in the streamflow, cave entrance, etc was due to earthquake disturbance -not so. This at Omai.lies in fairly close proximity to the Mendi Hagen highway, which runs through an orange coloured siltstone at the ridgecrest. This particular section was constructed in 1970 and a large quantity of this siltstone has been washed down the stream which flows into the cave.

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NIUGINI CAVER VJLUME 7 NUMBERS 119 N.M. B Entronoz.. A PLAN SE.CTlON A1' 0 l8p S .1. 7'!J by D. Gi\heson J. Landsbz.r9 N. P.N.GC.E.G. f. Gf'Qd 5. 2 1 t SOO ? Stnz.am bdow

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120 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 The stream formerly flowed down two situated but these have now been completely covered by siltstone and the stream has cut a new channel and now flows in what was formerly a dry entrance in a doline. Due to the effect of the water9 part of the entrance has collapsed and what used to be the normal way to the lower sections of the cave down a short shaft has completely silted up and a rockfall has opening up the shafts described in Dave's article. This is the second cave that I know of .in the Southern Highlands which has been affected by road. constructi.on.-The entrance to a small cave near, Erave.has been completely.filled in durini;r :the construction of the'Kagua :=-_:Erave road.• Lin fort u n t e 1 y the s e a re p r o ba b l y only . t h e f i,r s t of . m n y • CAVE SLJIFTLETS Most in New Guinea have at time or other S,een sma'.:.11/HJ.}:ack'.:and whi b::i birds flying from the caves. Other views of these birds are on their nests in the cave or the hand of your guide as they are a popular food item. these SWftlats of the genus Collacalia from the Family Apodidae. There are five swiftlets that can be encountered in mainland Papua New Guinea (Glossy Swift 1 et ) s> 11 van i k ore n sis . ( Uniform Swift let ) i run din a 9 ea (Mountain Swiftlet), (Uhitehead1s SwiftletT and C. (Three-toed Swiftlet)o .. . All of these birds live and nest in caves, rock shelters and cliff s • They f e e d out s id of t h e c a v e s on t h e wing catch i n g insects. -Unlike with whom they can be confused, swifts and swiftlets do not usually perch away from their roosting places. Their nests are made of vegetable material that is cemented to the walls of the caves with saliva. The riests of similar species in Sctuth East Asia are used in soup. Swiftlets find their way about taves by echo location in a manner to bats. This is the metallic clicking sound that they mak.e_,whJll? flyi.ng._.a.round irisid_e. Outside the cave their calls resembla a twittering. Identification: Of thesQ birds on is difficult but it is often possible to $88 the bird in the hand as they are caught as a fohd" item., You can then v.1i th p'ermission examine them to see what the spB"cies is. Even if you po not get the bird in tbs hand it is worth noting if swif are present in a cave":a.Hd f "and L.JhJT8 they are nesting and_ roosting. If the nests can be examined without disturbing the birds, some idea of the stage of development of the young in the nests would be useful., The easiest bird to sort out is the Three-toed Swiftlet. It has three toes unlike the other swiftlets. the Glossy Swift let is aptly named. The smallest of the. swiftlet.s.-a.t H5 mm? its upperparts are bla.ck with a ....... _ .. .. (continued on page 138) * De Box 102, Kainantu, E.H.P.9 Papua New Guinea.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 121 A qF1 THE SPELEOLOGICAL OF TH.f: VAkLEY fiND ADJACENT AREA. 9.8.1978 I . . . !j . .: . . . . .. Bruce Unger::and Robert Kay;; The .Levani Valley, a large closed valley in the Southern Highlands Province of Papua New was considered as a possible location for the 1973 Niugini Speleological Research Expedition. However, discussions with local geologists and a helicopter reconnaissance led to the transfer of the expedition to the Muller Plateau. During the 1978 expedition to the Atea Sink on the Muller Plateau, two cavers, Bruce Unger anj Robert Kay, decided the time had come for a ground based investigation of the Lavani area. During the 16 days of their investigation, they probed a large amoant of heretofore unexplored territory, discovered 15 significant speleological features including a cave surveyed to a length of 1km with several going leads and developed friendly relations with the local people of the Duna and Huli tribes. Ackn,owledgments This work would not have been possible without the help of the many local people who bore up bravely under heavy loads, communication difficulties, floods and other hardships to guide the often clumsy cavers to their goals. Special thanks go to Liaba, Paiya, Koromonga and Kenewa. Daily 9.8.78 The cavers depart from Atea-gana-anda with as far as the junction of the Harage and. Levani tracks near Geroro. Here they shoulder their 30kg packs with 10 days' supply of 'food and set off on their own. The night is spent in a hastily prepared rainy bivouac near Dengera-anda. 10.B.78 Slowed by an .overgrown trail, they stop for the night at a partly roofed hut a few hours beyond Dengera-anda. 11.8.78 They meet a party of expedition porters from the Lavani, led by Paiya. Bruce does a quick check of Ma Llaru * deceased. n 14 Albert Rd., Cheltenham, Glos., England. r:

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122 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Valley, returing just before dusk. Paiya tells Rob about Kewane Kananda, Yagamega Kananda, Emama Ekanda. Rob contracts dysentery. 12.B.78 Rob recovers dy.s.entery. Bruce. recovers f ram an infected ankle. 13.8.78 They investigate Ma Llaru Valley. 14.B.78 Searching for Yagamega Kananda, they find instead the Dindi Mondo Col on the edge of the Leuani Valley. Investigating a line of filled-in dolines, they become hopelessly bushed and escape at great cost in blood loss. 15.B.78 Spent waiting for Paiya's return. He does not arrive. 16.8.78 Another search for Yagamega leads to a hopeless maze of faint tracks. Neil Ryan arrives in the late afternoon, accompanied by Parauwi and Kenewa. 17.B.78 Neil and Parauwi set off for the Levani. Kewane guides Bruce and Rob to Kewane and shows them several caves, including Kewane Kete Kananda. (This later proves not to be the Kewane Kananda referred to by Paiya). 18.8.78 Exploration and surveying of 1km of walking passage in Kewane Kete Kananda. 19.8.78 With food running out, the group retreats to Karibu in the Levani Valley. Here they spend the night with Neil Montgomery's party and meet Liaba, a quadralingual Duna of age about 15. Liaba wants to see the world and so joins the group. 20.8.78 Exploration of Yaga Kananda and walking to Gwali. The group is now on Huli land. 21.8.78 Bruce recovers from recent weakness. Rob and three guides cut track to Emama Ekandaj build a hut and explore cave. 2208.78 Bruce, Liaba, Liaba's brother and a guide explore Kerene Eto. Rob is trappeci on the wrong side of the Emama River by a flood. 23.B.78 Rob returns to Gwali at 1.00pm to find Bruce and a rescue party ready to depart. Dave Gillieson and Jill Landsberg9 who have arrived the previous day explore Huli Ekanda with Liaba. 24.8.78 The four Europeans with Liaba and assorted porters walk to Koroba.Along the way they hear wnat sounds like a large resurgence and are told this is the source of the Yogora R.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 1 23 Track Descriptions Geroro to Yakoma 12 hours From Geroro the Harage track is followed over the Atea River for about an hour. At the fork, turn right, through bush, and find your way through a small garden by turning left around the hut and continuing over the fence. Another track to the left goes back to the Harage track. About two hours from Geroro the Atea is again crossed by a slippery log bridge and the track climbs steeply up a ridge. A small stream is met, and the track goes up it to the ridge. There is a good hut about four hours out, with water nearby, which could sleep four at a pinch and from here the track continues along the ridge. About four hours from the hut, Dengera Anda, along a slightly difficult track with many awkward logs and some tricky route finding, is an old hut with a hole in the roof, which can be covered with polythene. An hour after it there is a small grassy knoll, and another hour after a wide grassy saddle is gained, revealing the Ma Waru doline on the righto The doline is skirted, passing the Kowane turnoff on the left, up a grassy slope and through an occassional spinney of bush, to reach Yakoma$ a good hut just in the bush. Yakoma -Ma Llaru Kewane Dindi Mondo -Ma Waru There are two tracks into the Ma .Waru Doline. One goes down directly from the saddle half an hour or so north of Ma down a steep scree into the Ma Waru stream" It then follows the stream bed. A small piece of old track marking tape was found tied to a tree by the stream. Expect to get wet to the waist in the deep pools" The stream is followed to the sink, in a cliff. Time: about 1! hours. The other route goes down a grassy slope 20 mins south of Ya Koma and is more difficult to find" It goes through a patch"of bush and joins the streamway opposite where the other track joins it. Time from Ya Koma to about 1hrs. Kewane About ihour north east of Ya Koma the track forks. The right fork leads to Kewane, a large enclosed valley with a small hamlet (pop. about ?)o The track is all easy, with the possible exception of the last steep grassy slope onto the valley floor. From l
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124 NIUG!NI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS .. ""

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Gerorci dearin9 125 A

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126 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Tracks of the Levani Valley Dindi Mondo Gwali about 5 hours The track is w{de and pleasant from the saddle,and fast can be made through tussock Several small streams cross the path1 and there are two or three huts at riccasional intervals. Some bush and swamp are crossed before a pleasantly flea bitten and very scenic village is passed through. There is a small house used mainly for pandanus nut drying which can be used t6 stop at if desired, and the people are extremely hospitable. Time From Karibu there are two main routes to Gwali. The shortest route is direct and takes 2! 3 hours, across bog and tussock. The.other route goes to the left where a river sinks into Ya Ga Kananda at the base of a white limestone cliff, an obvious landmark, past several large lakes and marshes and joins the broad road just before Gwalio about 4 hours. A more scenic route than the direct one, and recommended for and bird Gwali -E Mama From Gwali two tracks go to the E Mama. The southerly one is less well used, and takes about two hours to reach the E Mama River. There is a ford which is impassable after heavy rain. It takes a about four hours through kunai, reeds. ahd bog to go downriver to E Mama Eleanda, a huge sink in a 400metre high cliff of limestone and another trail of sorts leads to a temporary hut built by our party. about an hour from the ford. The leaves the Gwali road at the river just below .Gwali to the north, and travels through gardens up over the ridge, recommended for strawberries 2nd views, through some areas of swamp and tussock toa bridge, built by our party, which may stand for a year or two. It then continues a wooded knoll to a hut about 1'houD from the Time: Gwali Bidubwa Anda hut 4 It is possible to go in the E Mama by breaking trail tussock and .. occassional reeds and the country is open so navigation is n6t a problem. From the bridge to the ford is about 1 . . . 12 2 hours Gwali En Eto From Gwali the south along the crests of several open. ridges, past few houses.and over a few pig fences, then turns to the southeast and enters the broken bush of the low ridge where the two major rivers draining the southern Levani sink at Kerene en Eto, to resurge on the other side of the ridge to form the Tumbutu Rivero There are several gardens and bush tracks in the and a guide is recommendedo The westernmost sink is best approached by track cutting from the east side. 2hrs. Gwali Koroba Nothing much to say this tri6k. Over half of it is nearly proper road and there is short section left to be completed. A good days walk with pleasant views and more strawberries. 7 8 hourso

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 VA I MOUWT k:OROMA ( BU.)U &WA.) o;nct; Mondo Sadd\e Ur--109'1 Huf ( E '= EK1'Wt>A 127

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1 28 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Cave Descriptions MR 600; Ma Uaru Doline Location: bottom of Ma Uaru Valley Description: The east and west forks of the Ma Uaru, each about Oo1 cumec9 join in the muddy, kunai covered doline bottom then flow to the base of a 50m limestone cliff, where the stream disappears through a number of small none penetrable for more than a few metres.The surrounding cliffs were given a cursory check, this being all that was possible due to the extremely dense vegetationo Comments: This appears to be a very young system and has probably had insufficient time to form a penetrable cave. The water may resurga into the Kewane River. MR 601 Locationb see map 03 5m diameter and 20m deep shaft in a doline. The shaft has a muddy floor with no leads. 602 see map 03 Oescription:Two shafts drop into an extremely muddy streamway, 35m :long tending NLJ -SEo See map 04. MR 603 Location: see map 03 Description: a ?Orn long free climbable fissure wi th a stream in its bottoms See.map 05. MR 604 Location: see map 03 Description: A very small hole in the side of a doline leads an extremely muddy chimney. At the bottom of the a passage leads west with two short climbs to a chamber with a sumpo See map 060 The central 1'
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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 / I t \ \: 129

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130 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 M SCALE l: I E

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? N I U G I N I CA V ER V 0 L UM E 7 N U B ER S 2 9 3 4 -rhe Yahoo S
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132 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 MR 607 see map 03 An abandoned streamsink in the side of a cliffo The entrance is 4m high by 3m wide and is blocked by mudo It may be the upstream end of the left hand passage of Gewane Kananda. MR 6089 Yaqa Kananda the cliff at the eastern edge of the Levani Valley, East of Karibu. Sos map 02 Description: A river of about De5 cumecs meanders across the valley floor and Bntors the cavr:3 at the base of a large white cliff o A large muddy entrance chamber gives way to clean washed white limestone fissures with fast flowinq water and unstable log jamso A very low duck and possible Gpper levels were not pushed. Total length is about 10Drn. Other entrances occur along the cliff and could provide alternate routes it into the system. Yaga f(ananda is a very sporting ca0-e .•. would be exp C-j c t e.d that the water would move down' dip .. th:r:-ough the white limestone and resurge near Viamu. Depending' on the location of the resurgence, depth of the system could be up to 500m. Soe map 08 MR 609, Kerene en Eto I (western sink) Location: SE end of the Levani Valley, about two hours walk from Gwali. See map 02. Description:A river of roughly 2 cumecs flows into an entrance roughly 10 x 1Dm, with a chamber inside on the left containing two leads. The first of these was small and muddy, but had a slight draft and was inhabited by bats. The second was a narrow walking passage with plentiful decoration leading upward for about 50m td a sump in a deep pool, probably bailable. There is a high lead which would require bolting leaves above the river near the end of this chamber. Slightly further down, a chamber on the right leads to a mud slope upward to a small entrance and a few alcoves which were inhabited by colonies of bats, probably Vespertilionids. The main streamway ends in a turbulent sump beyond this chamber, which may be passable in lower watsro A high lead accessable by a slippery traverse was visible above the sump. See map 090. MR 6092 Kerens en Eto II (eastern sink) about 500rn SE of MR 610 Io from the eastern . side as the cliffs are gentleroSee map 02. Oescriotion:The river was in flood when this cave was visited, nearly 3 cumec. It cascaded and churned steeply down into a cave entrance surrounded by overgrown cliffs, and immediatly sumps. The local people say that in lower water this cave is small hole in cliff diroctly abovo tho sump may provide accosso Across tho rivor from tho observation paint, and roachablo by roping ovor a small ovor hang, is a largo diy ontranco* Unfortunatoly, thG party did not have a ropo. MR 611 9 Korerne on Eto III (Resurgence} Location: about 1 2km north oF MR 61 Not The local pooplo say it is not enterable. ThG waters fr orn MR 60 9 and 61 0 rivers apparently meet som ewh ero

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 l:f sint.am o EnfranC
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1 34 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 undornoath the low limestonG ridge and combined flow resurges here to form the Tumbutu River. The Tumbutu flows across tho Levani floor to sink in a shallow lako near Yaga Kananda1 and9 according to tho local peoplo rosurges as the Tumbudu near Harago 20km away and 600m lower. The authors think it more likoly that it resurges as thG Yogona 10km away and 6 0 0 m 1 o ;. -=1 t • A d y e t r a c e ld o u 1 d b e us e f u 1 • . MR 6122 Emama Ekanda location: The end of the Emama Valley, ringed by 400m high cliffs. The Emama River in normal flow carries about 2 cumec. The day after exploration, however, it was observed at about 8 cumec. In normal flow the water cascades down into an impenetrable fissureo Roping up to cross the rapids, an obvious entrance can be reached on the left of the sink. A short passage leads to a pool, then a couple of vertical chimneys of about very white passage continues a further 15 to 20m with a dead end side passage, then encounters a pitch of 10m into a deep pool. Swimming for about Sm leads to a rock pile which could not be Ekanda is a very sporting cave for ifs length, with exciting potential,but the feeling is that it will not go as there is too much water o See mao 1 0 o t MR 6132 Hcri Ekanda . Location: 10 mins walk NW of Gwali, altitude 2100m. Description (Do s. Gillieson): The entrance oolinB is located in a prominent gully amongst gardens, some 50m above the level of Gwali. The cave is a stream system with two crawl The downstream entrance leads down talus to a streamway 3Dm long, 2=3m wide and of a similar height. The flow of 101/sec emerges from a low passage. The higher crawl gives access to a serpentinous stream passage9 typically D.5m wide and up to 4m high. This branches after 7Dm; the left branch ascends small tufa rapids to a flowstone blockage. A dry rift can b?' followed for 1Dm. The right branch can be followed 300m with an easily passed flowstone blockage at 10Dm. See map 11, Comments:The bedload in the stream is limestone and siltstone cobbles. MR 614 Location: i hour NLl of Gwali in the Lavani Valley along the tracko A shaft9 at least 18m deep9 at an angle of 70 It was not descended and may requrure tackle. Rumours -not investigated I "'" Uli Locationg somewhere in the Kswane Valley Description: This is the sink of the Kewane River9 which carries about 1 cumec of water. Paiya, Kenewa and others tell us there is a large cave entrance here. . . Comments: This water may be the real sourbe of the Tumbudu R. near Harageo Yagamega Location: Somewhere near Oindi Mondo. Almost everybody the authors talked with spoke of

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 135 1 P. IO )(plored t Surveycu:l KQy Zt,. S ..

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136 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,394 I 11 1

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 137 this cave. A stream about 1rn wide reportedly flows into a hole (horizontal? vertical?) about by 1!m. Black Hole Country Location: South of Kewane, probably reachable by the Kewane Tanggi track •. Description: This area was spotted frrim a helicopter by Neil Ryan. It shows on air photos as being full of black holes, not unlike The Cheese on the Muller Plateau. It may be capped with a of siltstone which would block the bottoms of the shafts. The area appears to be right stratigraphic -level for siltstone. But you never know •••• Yogona Ekanda Location: In a gorge below the Levani track a few minutes from the junction with the Koroba Harage road. Description: A toar of swift water can be heard from the track. There appears to be a resurgence there, and one of the local people says that there is a large cave. The People and their Languages There is no permanent habitation along the Levani track between Geroro and Karibu, although there are a few scattered huts used by travellers, hunters and pandanus nut gathererso The E Mama and Ma Waru valleys are also uninhabited. The Kewane VallGy has a population of six, who are.closely related to the people of So when we speak of the people of the area, we are speaking of the 500 or so residents of the Levani Valley. The Levani people consider themselves to be a mixture of the Huli and Duna people, and any given individual is somewhat hesitant to say which tribe he belongs to. Most, if not all9 people speak bo"th the Huli andDuna languages. There is1 however$! a rough dividing line. Ouna is usually spnken in Karibu and the north, while Huli the language of Gwali and the south. In our spellings of place names we have tried to reflect the pronunciations we heard9 rather than the sometimes inaccurate and/or inconsistent published spellings. Also, we have used Huli names for features in Huli territory and Duna names for features in Duna territoryo NEWS FROM NORTH AMERICA The September,1980 issue of NSS News from the USA National Speleological Society contains some of the best cave related ing I've seen for some time. From Mexico comes a report by Bill Stone on the connection between Li Nita and San Agustin to make this the 3rd deepest cave in the world (1221m) and the first cave outside of western Europe to break the 1000m barriero The issue also contains an account of Bruce Unger's death in just over 1m of water 60m from the efflux entrance of a Granite cave in the Rocky Mountains. It appears that he drowned following head and neck injuries in an accident that is not fully understood. Bruce participated in the 1978 Muller Range Expedition o He had a close call on this expedition in the river cave. This issue of NSS News contains 'a poem he wrote whilst awaiting rescue and suffering from hypothermia on the Muller Expedition.

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138 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 continued from page 120 highly glossed bluish tinge, its throat the breas.t is .. grey with some feathers edged in white and the abdomen is "i.Jhite •. Outside the cave this swiftlet hunts its F6od close to the ground and.flies_ more slowly than the other species ... The . Glossy Swiftlet is the species which nests in the daylight zone of the The otheF species nest further insideo C. hirundinacea the Mountain Swiftlet is 125mm in length. Its common name comes from the fact that it is more common at altitudes of more than 1000m. The upperparts are black while the underparts are silvery grey. There is much concealed white in the bases of the feathers of the upper parts. The bill is very small. The tail is slightly forked and outside the Mountain Swiftlet flies high in the sky in flocks of 3 to 15 birds. c. vanikorensis the Lowland Swiftlet is found below 1000m in altitude. It is the same size as the Mountain Swiftlet. The plumage on the upperparts is bronzy brown or greenish black, while the underparts are smoky or brownish grey. There is little concealed white on the feathers of the back. The bill is large. c. (=whiteheadi) lJhitehead's Swiftlet flies very high. The birrl is 140rnm in length. The upper parts are black with a bluish or greenish gloss, the throat silvery grey which contrasts with the brownish abdomen. It is not as common as the other species. On C. vanikorensis, esculenta c. spodiopygia are present. spodiopygia White Rumped wiftlet is a dark sooty col6ur, greyish with a whitish bar a.cross the rump with is distinctive. It is 100mm in length. These birds also fly quite high outside the caves • . Ref er ences Beehler, B. McP. 1978. Upland Birds of Nottheastern New lJau Ecology Institute Handbook No 4. lJau. n Hadden, D. 1981. Birds of the North Solomons. Uau Ecology Institute Handbook no 8 " lJ au • 11 Peckover, U. s., and L. u. c. 1976. Birds of New Guinea and Tropical Australia. Ao H. and A. U. Reed, Sydney. Ra 'n d , A • L • ,. and G i 11 a r d , E ., T. 1 9 6 7. Handbook of New Guinea Birds. Ueindenfield and Nicolson, London. * out of print 11 available from the Uau:Ecology Institute9 P.O.Box. 77, lJau, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 29394 1 39 MULLER AUSTRALASIAN EXPEDITION TO THE CAVES OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Muller Range in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea was the stens of the successful Australasian expediton, ATEA 78, which explored the now famous Atea Kananda cave system shown in the television film 'The Search for the World's Deepest Cave'. Apart from many spectacular caves, ATEA 78 uncovered a wealth of scientific information which reveals that we have unlocked only a fraction of the secrets of the Muller Rangeo 82 will be the key. EX.L OR.Fi TI ON When ATEA 78 ended many inviting caves were left incompletely exploted or untouched because of tho onset of the wet season, so the emphasis of MULLER 82 is on underground exploration. The ATEA KANANDA, already the longest cave in the southern hemisphere has the to be explored to double or triple its presently known length. Our studies ih 1978 have shciwn where to concentrate exploration effort for maximum length depth. The Atea Riverway is a prime objective, despite its being an extremely hazardous area, even in stable weather conditions. The NALI GORGE sports two tantalising entrances high in its walls. Entry by abseiling or climbing could provide a back door to the Atea Kananda; Another intriguing prospect is a huge cave downstream of the Nali Gorge. The Duna tribe believes an evil spirit lives inside and that to enter the caves means certain death. Th e f•l A Vi 0 P LA T E P. U co v e r s 1 0 0 km 2 o I t s k a r s t f ea tu r e s i n d i c a that below its surface lies a cave system of unbelievable size. Hadia Yaneabogairi, the most beautiful cave in the Muller Range, was only discovered in the last weeks of ATEA 78 and maybe the doorway to this vast labyrinth. The FISSURES lie at high altitude in cool moss foresto They were abandoned when the teams descending them ran out of rope. In one case the cavers dangled on the end of the rope with no cave floor in sight9 and rocks fell for six seconds into the darkness. Hence, MULLER 82 will be taking several kilometres of The YU BALALO is an exciting It is a river with all the ferocity of YU ATEA, underground. Exploration of this cave is one of the modern caving and will give New Guinea anbther of world's great river caves. The BLACK HOLE, high on the Muller Range, was sighted on a helicopter reconnaissance. IG this enormous void, 100 m in diameter, no bottom can be ••••oonly blackness.

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140 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 These are the most significant targets of MULLER 82. It is the most ambitious cave exploration program ever the aim is to survey over 100km of new cave passage. A major objective, however, is to locate a cave of great deptho••••ooAll targets have been chosen with this in view, so that at any stage the expedition resources could be diverted to explore the world's deepest cave. SCIENCE The scientific program has attracted strong support. Research projects of many varieties were so successful in 1978 that the majority of the investigators will return in 1982 to continue existing projects and start new ones. Other scientists intend to join us, attracted by the opportunity provided by the expedition to do research work in a new and wild environment. MEMBERS The 50 participants form the most experienced team ever assembled to tackle a program of cave exploration and science in Papua New Guinea. It has 18 returning members from ATEA 78, the established international reputation of which has attracted representatives from Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Great Britain, North America and Europe. ORGANISATION MULLER 82 will enter the field on 19 June 1982 for a period of 3 months. It is being organised in Sydney by Julia James, Alan Llarild, Tony Llhite and Steve Bunton and in Papua New Guinea by Neil Hickson. Correspondence should be addressed MULLER 82 41 Northwood St., Newtown, NSW 2042 Australia TeL. 02-51 5 Neil Hickson PoO.-Box 987, rn. Hagen, Papua New Guinea Additional information can be obtained from the following Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 1973. Julia M. James (ed). Speleological Research Council Ltd,1974 Caves and: Karst of the Muller Range. Julia M., James and H., Jane Dy-son (eds)• Atea 78, in conjunction with the Speleological Research Council Ltd, 1980. Muller '76. Julia M. James, Randall King and Neil Montgomety. Niugini Caver .. (4) 103 = 128. An Australasian Speleolotjical Expedition toPapua New Guinea A Preliminary Report. Julia M. James. Niugini Caver

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 293,4 BOOK REVIEU Pa u l lJ • lJ i 11 i.a m s -;( CAVES AND KARST DF THE MULLER by Jo Mo James and Ho Jo Dyson. Atea 789 in conjunction with t'.1e Speleological Research Council9 Sydney, 19800 pp.150. Price $A15.00o This is one of the most impressive speleological expedition reports I have seen; impressive because of its professional standards and comprehensive coverageo It the results of the VAtea 78' expedition to the Muller Plateau in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. This was the third expedition to the area, others being in 1973 and 19769 and was launched with one major objective, the exploration of the Atea Kananda and with a strong commitment to scientific studieso The expedition was ambitious and large. It had 49 members from 5 different though the majority (34) were from Australia, and in addition engaged 13 local assistantso The sheer size perhaps explains why the text and tables don't agree in the numbers employed and involvedo However, fact that it received recognition from 5 official bodies in Papua New Guinea is a tribute to the quality of its leadership and to the useful results of previous expeditions. The value of the, work done and the standard of its presentation in this report amply justifies that supporL The book is divided into 20 chapters and 9 appendices, involving 26 authdrs. The material presented covers every official aspect of the expedition personal details that commonly colour caver's reports thankfully having been left out and it is well supported by 40 maps, 29 figures, 25 tables and 60 plateso so there's a wealth of informationo After a short introductory chapter by Julia James in which she outlines the purpose and organization of the expeditionp and prospects for the future (Mamo 82)j the next nine chapters -occupying well over a third of the book -provide a regional speleology of the expedition areao These contributions follow a similar pattern, outlining previous information and giving good accurate descriptions, aided by acceptable half-tone illustrations and well drawn maps of consistent style9 of the major sites of interesto They conclude with a speleological assessment of each area, which is a useful guide for futuro expeditionso The chapter on the Atea Area9 as might be expected, is the largest and concludes that the locality should still produce a considerable amount of new cave passage particularly in the vicinity of the Atea Gorge. The main Atea Kananda9 is also deemed worthy of a great deal of further explorationo The following ten chapters the results of the systematic scientific aspects of the expedition: geology, meteorology, hydrology, surface geGmorphology, water chemistry, cave sediments9 subterranean geomorphology, botany, vertebrate and biospeieology. The geology is well handled in an authorative and provides an invaluable basis for further work in the areao The rnetsorology is brief but being particularly important from the safety point-of=view9 as well * University of Auckland, Auckland9 New

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142 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 as complementing the It was interesting to read in the latter chapter that the discharge of the river in the Atea Ooline has sed downwards from an snthusiatic visual of 11 m s made in 1973 to a measured estimate .of 4 m s on this expedition, but even with that 'loss' it's still a big river to with in a cave. The data presented on the relationship between rainfall, flood peaks, and ducks closing (Figure is important for the safety of future expeditionso Some minor confusion shows up in the hydrology chapter over Rhodamine WT (or was it 87) and where it got to. Figure shows the tracer route for Rhodamine WT, but the text and Table state that it was Rhodamine B. Furthermore1 on the figure both the Rhodamine and optical brightener converge at detector point 25 (Atea Resurgence), whereas table indicates that only the optical brightener emerged there, the Rhodamine only being found (weakly) at site 26 (Yu Nali)Q In view of the admitted inconclusive nature of the Rhodamine 8 test, the conclusion endorsing the use of this dye in the tropics is hardly justified. The chapter on Surface Geomorphology commences with outlines on structural geomorphology and soils and then deals in some detail with karst landforms, subdividing the latter into Small Scale Solution Sculpture, Closed Depressions, Karst Areas, and the Drainage System and Fluviokarst., The text on karst features is generally descriptive rather than explanatory and successfully avoids confusing the reader with difficult and often ambiguous karst terminology, although the distinction between uvalas and glades is There also appears to be some. uncertainty over whether the Atea Dolino is a collapse or solution featureo From its description it seems like a predominantly collapse dolins, but the text (p.,94) suggests that it was developed by the removal of material through solution rather than collapse. The numerical and areal significance of the subjacent karst depressions developed in a siltstone caprock over limestone is a particularly important feature :of. the The origin of such depressions and their significance for the style of the polygonal karst relief which develops from them is something that requires further investigation. The chapter makes a contribution to tho discussion on the relative roles of climate and geology in determining karst landforrn distribution, and concludes that local geology is of greatest significance. The Water.Chemistry chapter is very brief and in fact concentrates on an assessment of limestone solution rates, The values calculated are not very helpful, as the data base is inadequate and a distinction needs to be"made between autogenic and allogenic componentso The all-pervading cave mud was clearly quite a feature of the expedition, and David chapter on elastic Sediments does it justice, being dealt with right down to scanning electron microscope Both this and the previous five chapters form a good background against which to interpret the Underground Geomorphology, which is handled well in Chapter 17. Some good points are made about the complications introduced by mixed sedimentary sequences on speleogensis, that are relevant beyond Papua New Guinea. Jenning's new term Hnothephreaticn also gets an airing (soaking?)9 showing its

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 143 usefulness even if most of us have an aversion to yet more jargono The systematic section terminates with three short biological chapters on Botany, Vertebrate Fauna, and Biospeleologyo The latter is the most detailed, and the most important because so little is known about the biology of caves in this part of the tropicso The chapter presents a preliminary list of cavernicolous fauna and useful comments for those wishing to collect specimens in the areao The report concludes with nine appendices9 in fact occupying almost a third of the volumeo These mainly cover expedition logistic detail on food, medical, transport, equipment, finance ahd other topicso The information represents a valuable.summary of experience of considerable importance for those planning future Atea 78 was clearly a successful expedition and although not gaining the glamour of an international depth record, it accomplished much more worthwhile science than most other speleological The book is not balanced in the sense that equal weight is given to each topic some chapters are very light but the cumulative importance of its findings is'considerableo The reference list alone is the best available source of literature ori caves and karst in Papua New Guineao Mamo 82 will have a high standard to matcho Reprintod from Helictite Journal of Australasian Cave Research (2):-1981 .The Editor recommends this publication and Karst of the Range, as reviewed above to all interested in Papua New Guinea caves for their libraries. title Caves and Karst of the Muller Range subtitle .H[xploration in Papua New Guinea11 editors Jc Mo James and Ho Jo Dyson 160 pages, with full colour cover, 71 plates, 69 figures and maps and three large leaf maps. Published by Atea 78 Available Atea 78., (j 41 Northwood Street, Newtown, NoSoL.lq . 2042 Australiae Price $A159 post free

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144 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 ULUR PLAINS RECONNAISSANCE Do Pease* During Easter 1982 a reconnaissance group visited the Ulur Plains grassland (Mannasat) in order to determine the caving potential of the area. The Ulur Plains are located about 60 km NE of Lae in the Cromwell Ranges of the Huon Peninsula. The most direct route to the Plains is to fly by third level airline (Talair, Morobe Air or Co-air) to the Indagenairstrip. Here guides and carriers can be hired for the walk to the plains. This is an amuous climb through the rainforest to 2600 m and then down to grassland at 2400 m, taking about 7 hours overall to reach the campsiteo The Ulur Plains is an area of about 4 kilometres square with the northern boundary being the Cromwell Range and to the south the Mongi River flowing .east. In general the grassland plain falls in a northerly direction towards the base of the Cromwell Range where the water disappears into sinkholes of various sizes. At location number 17 (see map) an average sized stream was entering a submerged entrance creating small.whirlpools on the surface. Location 16 comprises a sinkhole with only a trickle of water. The base section of the hole comprised a five metre layer of pitted limestone. The direction of the flow at the outlet from the hole was northerly. A black silt layer 300 mm thick was evident at the base of the inlet where not eroded by the stream. At location 15 is a sinkhole at the base of the western perimeter of the grassland. It revealed only a small seepage hole with no sign of the underlying limestoneo Location 14 has very little water entering at the time but the underlying limestone was exposed with tight squeezes evident. At location 139 a small stream cascaded over a fifteen metre waterfall and had erodad the base limestone to a depth of over a metre. The water then flowed in a northerly direction into another tight squeeze. Location 12 revealed an underground stream at the base of a collapsed cave section. There was a significant flow of water about 3 metres wide by 300 mm deep9 which disappeared.into a sump. The water which was flowing in a westerly direction may be from the stream draining the central section of the plain. The water entering the sinkhole at location 11 was flowing in an easterly directionq The stream would measure 1.5 m wide by 200 mm deep. The stream drops into. a 3 rn deep hole in the limestone strata levels out for another 6 m before ending in a sumpo Another entrance was found and the stream traced a little further downstream. * PQ 00 Box 3449 Kainantu, EoHoPo9 Papua New Guineao

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 ; / ( \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ' ' ------..111-z

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146 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 Lastly point 10, a large cave entrance was found measuring .. ahont 6 m wid'u by 5 rr1 high. The flow into the cave from the westerly flowing stream was larger than the adjacent stream and the two combined far inside the cave en t ran c e .. -T ha c a v e cont in u e d f o r about 3 0 m t o a n 8 m pi t c h • :There were logs between the cave walls and outside the cave which showed that the cave flooded to at least twenty metres in depth! In all a very interesting reconnaissance to an area in which I feel more exploring is warranted. At Indagen, the quality of the limestone is rather poor but excell?Dt for road construction as this coronous material is located f'airlyt.''.Close to the surface. Here, I investigated one whi6h was fairly tight to enter. The overall depth was about 5 There was a side passage but due to a squeeze through loose boulders and the deterioration of the coronous :mat er i a 1 I , d e c 1 in e d to invest i g at e fur t h er .• PAPUA NEW GUINEA FOR THE HOLIDAYING CAVER As most reade-3 are aware Papua New Guinea has an influx of large expeditions over the past years. I would like to pressi1t a new idea to those interested in caving here .... the sightseeing/caving or caving/sightseeing holiday depending : on your emphasis. Large expedifions generally select fairly remote areas for their work and that.:uhen combined with the numbers of people and the heed for at some peoplB to have research visas creates .impression that .,tci come caving in PNG is a massive exercise. This need not the case. There are hJO groups of people that PNG has a lot to' offer and theyare firstly the single caver or at the most four cavers as a group. A small group like this could easily do some productive work in PNG during a month's stay as well as seeing quite a bit of the country in that t e. The second group is what we could call the mini-expedition 6 to 10 people Whdse main aim at least for several weeks of their stay is to go caving. There are a large number of areas in PNG suitable for this typB of group. Some areas that come to mind are the' Highlands. has an extensive road public transport in of PMV's available be by road from Lae which is serviced by frequent flights fr'om Port rforesby. There are a/number of cavers in thfu Highlands who could areas of interest. New Ireland has much untapped potential both on the toast and in regions othgr than the Lslet Plateau. A similar story exists in ffow Bri t?.in where a number of limeston.e areas {e.g. near Kandrian) have received little attention. Although trips so to the Cromwell Ranges have not produced very much only a small area has been examined and caves are known from area around Kabwum. It is considered that this type of holi.day s'....,ould prove very rewarding both from the caving point of view as well as getting to see the country and meet its people.

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NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 14-7 l

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148 NIUGINI CAVER VOLUME 7 NUMBERS 2,3,4 NEW CONTRIBUTORS --Patrick Cellerier is a French caver based in Paris. Maleckar Franc is a yugoslavian speleologist from Ljubljana. A member of the Swiss expedition, he would be the first Yugoslavian caver to come to Papua New Guinea. Robert Kay is an English caver who came to Papua New Guinea as of the Atea 80 expedition. Richard Maire came to Papua New Guinea on both the 1978 and the 1980 French expeditions. Richard is a professional geomorphologist from France. Danielle Martinez was a member of the 1998 French Reconnaissance Expedition. the members of both he is a caver. Roger Parzybut comes from Compigne in northwestern Franceo Roger's .main area of interest in caves is photography. Dave Pease is a with the Highlands Highway project. He has worked in Papua New Guinea on and off for many years. Jean-Francois Pernette was the leader of the 1980 French expedition tn New Guinea. From Bordeaux in France, Francois has baved extensively in France, UoSaAo and Spain. before widening his horizioITs to include PNG. -Jim Specht is the Curator of .Anthropology at the Australian Museum in Sydney. the staff of the Australian Museum have a long interest in the South Pacific and PNG. Bruce was an American caver who came to Papua New Guinea to in Atea BOo Bruce was later killed in a caving in the United Stateso Williams is a researcher with the University of Auckland in New Zealand. * * SAFETY HINT It is that ail cavers should carry underground a small durable pacik containing the following basic equipment for and cohvenience. (a) Three independant sources of light beina a ma;n {parbide?), a reliable torch and a candle or Repair for the primary.light source. This extra carbide or Any caver using should carry and use a container for spent carbide. (b) A of drinking water and food. (d) A whistle for (e) a hypothermic barrier of a space blanket or bag. These light easily cairied supplies may help save a life at some time. It may be yours. * *


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