Niugini Caver Index


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Niugini Caver Index

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Title:
Niugini Caver Index
Series Title:
Niugini Caver
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Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group
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Port Moresby, PNG: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Society (PNGCEG)
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English

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Regional Speleology -- Newsletters
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serial ( sobekcm )
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New Guinea -- Papua New Guinea -- Oceana

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Australian National University
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University of South Florida
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This item is licensed with the Creative Commons Attribution License. This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as they credit the author for the original creation.
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K26-05677 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.5677 ( USFLDC Handle )

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PAGE 1

Index to Niugini CaverTracy Harwood and R. Michael Bourke*Niugini Caver was a journal devoted to documenting cave exploration and speleology (the science of caves) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The journal was published on behalf of the PNG Cave Exploration Group (PNGCEG), an informal association of those engaged in cave exploration in PNG. It was founded in early 1973 by RM (Mike) Bourke, supported by his wife, Jean, who were based at Keravat, about 40 km from Rabaul, New Britain. Mike edited sixteen issues of the journal, volumes 1 to 4, from 1973 to 1976. Another member of the PNGCEG (and also University of Queensland Speleological Society), Malcolm Pound, supported by his wife, Alison, and others in Port Moresby, took over the editing when Mike left PNG. The Pounds produced nine issues across 1977, 1978 and 1979. After a gap of several years, they produced a huge catch-up issue (volume 7, numbers 2, 3 and 4) of 124 pages in 1982. issue, as the number of active cave explorers in PNG, most of whom were Australian, British or New Zealander, had declined as this generation of expatriates left PNG. Twenty-seven issues of the journal were produced, containing 1010 pages. The focus of the journal was documenting caves in PNG, but many other cave-related topics were covered, including documentation of cave use by indigenous Papua New Guineans (rock art, burials, wartime history, legends, spirits and stone artefacts). Other articles include karst geomorphology, cave fauna, bibliographies, short biographies of prominent cave explorers in PNG and a history of cave exploration in PNG from the early 1960s. There were more articles on caves in Chimbu and New Ireland (over 270 in each of these two provinces) than Niugini Caver from East Sepik, Northern (Oro) or Gulf provinces, although caves have been documented elsewhere in those three provinces, including by a 2017 Italian expedition to the border of Gulf and Southern Highlands provinces. A photo of cone other nations, including Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. themselves or for genealogical histories. The term passim refers to small mentions of a subject throughout a span of pages. The numbers that follow each entry indicate the volume, issue and page number where that item was Niugini Caver caves and activities described as being in Southern Highlands Province. The key to abbreviations used for provinces follows. BOU Bougainville GUL Gulf SHP Southern Highlands (including Hela) CEN Central Madang CHI Chimbu (Simbu) MAN Manus EHP Eastern Highlands MBP Milne Bay ENB East New Britain MOR Morobe ENG Enga NIP New Ireland *Corresponding author: Mike Bourke (mike.bourke@anu.edu.au) Indexer: Tracy Harwood (tracy@editingandindexing.com.au)

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2 A accidents 4(1) 7 Unger, Bruce, 7(2) 137 see also Afek ancestor, 4(4) 162 Aggtelek caves, Hungary and Czechoslovakia, 3(1) 22 Agumugl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 101 Ahlu Cave, MAN, 3(3) 77 Aibura Cave, EHP, 2(1) 147, 2(2) 166, 172, 3(2) 26, 38, air transport, 6(3) 91 Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163, 179, 4(2) 72 (photo) Alakasam village, ENB, 1(1) 16, 3(1) 21 Alexander, Terry: Lufa area, EHP, 2(2) 184 Allen, Jim new contributors, 2(4) 244 Ambli Cave, SHP, 7(2) 118, 119 Ambrym caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 American – New Britain Expedition, 2(3) 211 Amos, Peter: Chuave area, CHI, 1(3) 79 Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 39, 41, 42 Anenamo Cave, CHI, 7(1) 16, 18 Angolomon Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Angunga Cave, CHI, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 249, 4(1) 18, 23, see also Lombila cave system, CHI Anthony, Quentin new contributors, 2(1) 146 see also rock art Aproteles species (fruit bat), 7(2) 64 Arau area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Arbaruru Cave (Afaruru Cave), MOR, 1(2) 23 archaeological sites armchair cavers, 1(4) 119 Arnold Mur Cave, CHI, 6(3) 87 art see rock art Art Gallery Cave, CEN, 3(4) 132, 7(2) 83, 100 artefacts Aggtelek caves, Hungary and Czechoslovakia, 3(1) 23 Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 164 Buangmeriba Cave, NIP, 3(1) 11 Toglua Cave, CHI, 1(4) 108 arthropods Avilu Cave, MOR, 7(1) 20 New Ireland caves, 4(1) 27 Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 47 see also by name, eg Aruku clan, CHI, 2(2) 164 Arumandu Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124, 127 Aselliscus Ashby, John: Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4) 128 Atea Kanada, SHP errata (photo), 6(2) 62 exploration, 7(2) 107 longest caves, Southern Hemisphere, 7(2) 28 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 3(1) 16 Muller Range Expedition 1976, 4(4) 139, Muller Range Expedition 1978, 6(2) 70, 6(4) 108, 7(1) 2 (photo) Atea River, SHP 109, 111, 113 Muller Range Expedition 1978, 7(1) 6, 8 Atkinson, Jerry: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Au-Kombogo Cave, CHI, 4(2) 78 Auakani clan, CHI, 2(2) 163 Aukmerik Cave, CHI, 1(4) 101 3(3) 102

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3 Avilu Cave, MOR, 7(1) 16, 19, 20 Awarida Cave (Afaruru Cave), MOR, 1(2) 23 Awatbumbum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 219, 4(3) 97, 107, 116Bback issues, 6(2) 67 Bagl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 101 Bailey, Peter: Iuvare caves, ENB, 1(4) 120 Bain, Gordon Baining Mountains, ENB cave surveys, 1(1) 9, 16, 1(3) 66 Galavit–Pondo area, 3(4) 141 limestone cappings, 1(1) 13 Obungeram Cave, 1(1) 16, 3(1) 14, 21, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 140 Bakan village caves, NIP, 2(3) 201, 222 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 2(1) 146 mentioned, 1(1) 9, 4(4) 148 Balcony pitch, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71, 72, 2(4) 248 balloons, hydrogen, 1(2) 40 Banamai Cave, NIP, 2(1) 141 banana plants, 1(2) 40 Bangeta Plateau, MOR, 7(1) 14 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(1) 14, 7(2) 81, 101, 108, 111– Barnaby, John Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 Port Moresby Speleological Society, 4(4) 144 Bartop, Richard: British Speleological Expedition 1978, 6(4) 113, 131 Batari Cave, EHP, 3(2) 26, 7(2) 101 bats identifying, 7(2) 63 publications about, 6(3) 101 bats (by location) Afaruru Cave, MOR, 1(2) 23 Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41 Art Gallery Cave, CEN, 7(2) 83 Bismarck Archipelago, 7(2) 79 Bokakup I karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 127 Buangmeriba Cave, NIP, 3(1) 11 Cape Rodney – Kupiano area, CEN, 2(1) 138 Ehi rest house area, EHP, 2(2) 189 Gembame Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Irelya Cave, ENG, 3(4) 123 Iuvare caves, ENB, 3(4) front cover Javavere caves, CEN, 2(2) 181 Kabase Cave, NIP, 2(3) 228 Kaimomo Cave, CHI, 2(4) 249 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 128 Kanangoro Sink, CHI, 1(4) 114 near Katiloma village, SHP, 2(1) 144 Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Kerene en Eto, SHP, 7(2) 132 Kibuari Cave, EHP, 3(2) 42 Kistobu Cave, NIP, 2(2) 162 Kopunei Cave, MAN, 3(3) 93 Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4) 130 Laboko village cave, SHP, 2(1) 146 Lamari River caves, EHP, 3(2) 41, 42 Leangnivu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 203 Lenbinbin Cave, NIP, 4(3) 113 Lihir Island cave, NIP, 4(1) 31 Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 64 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10, 12 Luminas Cave, ENB, 1(2) 44 Mageh No. 2 Cave, NIP, 2(3) 202, 223 Makada Island, ENB, 3(4) 134 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 Mukou Cave, MAN, 3(3) 93 Murugugl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 108 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 3(4) 137 New Ireland caves, 3(4) 134, 4(1) 27 Obi Cave, EHP, 2(2) 186, 188 Obungeram Cave, ENB, 3(1) 21, 3(4) 140 Obura land bridge, EHP, 3(2) 41 Omkombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104 Putladung Cave, NIP, 4(3) 112 Rafaifo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 114 Raiakama Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124 Rarururunga Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Sauanda Cave, ENG, 3(4) 123 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 2(2) 177 Silim Cave, ENG, 3(4) 126 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 200 Taforahabi Cave, EHP, 3(2) 36 Taroku Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41, 43 United States caves, 3(3) 99 Upper Ramu Gorge caves, 3(2) 44 Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 47 see also bats (by location) cont.

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4 Aproteles species (fruit bat), 7(2) 64 Aselliscus Dobsonia moluccensis (fruit bat), 1(4) 100, 134 Dobsonia species (fruit bat), 7(2) 64 Hipposideros Megachiroptera (fruit bats), 7(2) 63 Megadermatidae (false vampire bats), 7(2) 66 Microchiroptera (insectivorous bats), 7(2) 63 Miniopterus medius 1(4) 104, 108 Miniopterus Myotis Rousettus species (fruit bat), 1(4) 134, 7(2) 64 Tadarida species (insectivorous bat), 7(2) 66 Taphozous see also Batumoris Cave, NIP, 2(3) 217 Baum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 196 Bayam River, MAN, 3(3) 73 Bebere caves, SHP, 6(4) 122 Beck, Howard 3(3) 96, 3(4) 11118, 119 beetles Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 163 Javavere caves, CEN, 2(2) 181 beliefs across PNG, 2(2) 179 Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 164 Ikenar Cave, EHP, 3(2) 42 love magic, 2(3) 220 Metliki singsing, 2(3) 218 see also Bena rock shelter, EHP, 2(2) 189 Benjamin, Pastor Edward: Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 8 Benjamin, Tihoti: Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 8 new contributors, 3(3) 104 Virginia caves, United States, 3(3) 99 7(2) 78, 102, 108 Berger, Roey: Mt Kaijende, ENG, 7(2) 101 Beron, Petar, biologist Malabunga caves, ENB, 3(4) 133 new contributors, 4(1) 39 bibliographies Bougainville, 3(4) 139 history of speleology in PNG, 4(4) 148 major PNG caves, 7(2) 11011 Manus, 3(3) 74, 91 New Britain, 1(1) 18, 3(4) 143 New Caledonia caves, 4(4) 169 New Hebrides [Vanuatu] caves, 4(4) 169 rock art, 3(4) 122, 4(4) 163, 6(1) 13 Solomon Islands caves, 4(4) 171 Telefomin anthropology, 6(4) 119 biographies of PNG cavers Bourke, R Michael, 4(1) 37 Gallasch, Hal (Harold), 3(4) 144 Goulbourne, Allan, 6(1) 37 Meier, Hans, 4(2) 66 Pound, Malcolm, 4(4) 174 birds, 1(4) 133, 2(3) 220, 3(2) 41, 6(1) 28 see also swiftlets Bismarck Archipelago: bats, 7(2) 79 Black Hole Country, SHP, 7(2) 137 Black Hole, SHP, 7(2) 139 Blackbird Cave, New Zealand, 1(4) 127, 2(2) 162 Blackham, Joan: Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 63 Blackham, Marie-Anne: Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 63 Blackham, Roy 132, 4(1) 9 Iaro River Cave, SHP, 3(1) 4, 14

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Blue Ridge Mountains, United States, 3(3) 99 Bo village pothole, NIP, 2(3) 201 boat transport, 6(3) 92 body decoration, material for, 1(4) 109 Bogan-Kombogo Cave, CHI, 4(2) 77 Boiga species (tree snake), 1(4) 133 Bokakup I karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 123, 127 Bolof Cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 229 Bonamai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 200 Bongbong, Stanley Londip caves, ENB, 3(4) 132 Bopire plantation, NIP, 2(3) 201 Boro village, SHP, 2(1) 142 Boromai Cave, BOU, 1(4) 120, 2(1) 147 see also Nenduma Cave, BOU Borough, Chris Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 new contributors, 1(2) 22 Bougainville Province Anaviato Nantaut, 7(2) 39, 41, 42 bibliographies, 3(4) 139 Boromai Cave, 1(4) 120, 2(1) 147 see also Nenduma Cave 6(4) 130, 7(2) 109 Ibu village, 1(4) 128 Keriaka Limestone, 6(2) front cover, 7(2) 38 Kovava Cave (also spelt Kovana), 1(4) 120, 128, Kukuwa Cave, 6(3) 99, 7(1) 22 Kurara Valley area, 6(3) 99, 6(4) 130 Malasang Cave, 7(2) 109 maps, 7(2) 39 Nenduma Cave, 2(1) 147, 2(2) 181, 2(3) 211, 3(1) 13, see also Boromai Cave Paru Paru School Cave, 6(3) 99 Punua River Cave, 6(1) 36 Bougainville Province cont. Rotokas area, 1(4) 128 Sohano Limestone, 7(2) 38 7(2) 109 Urumovi Cave, 6(1) 36 Bourke, Edward: Tuweiwu Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Singoinga Cave, ENB, 2(2) 181 Bourke, R Michael Aibura Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Kamasi village area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 2(3) 212, 3(2) 62 Londip caves, ENB, 2(3) 211, 3(4) 132 near Madang township, 2(4) 246 Malabunga caves, ENB, 3(4) 133 Mapos Caves, MOR, 7(2) 101 Matali Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 208 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 New Britain caves, 1(1) 13 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 27 new contributors, 1(1) 8 New Hebrides [Vanuatu] caves, 4(4) 166 New Ireland Expedition 1976, 4(2) 68, 4(4) 141, Obungeram Cave, ENB, 3(1) 14, 21 Obura area, EHP, 6(4) 131 Omaura area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Oravanana Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Rarururunga Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Raulei Range, ENB, 1(3) 66

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6 Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Singoinga Cave, ENB, 2(2) 181 speleo personalities, 4(1) 37 speleology in PNG – a history, 4(4) 144 Tavurvur volcano, ENB, 4(4) 149 Tuweiwu Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 water supply caves, NIP, 2(3) 231 Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(2) 72, 6(3) 99 Bowden, Nick: new contributors, 2(4) 244 Bowden, Peter: Teama Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 Box Canyon, CHI, 1(3) 84 Bozeat, Nick Iuvare caves, ENB, 2(2) 181 Breathing Cave, Virginia, United States, 3(3) 99 reconnaissance for, 3(4) 11118 summary, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 107, 10910 British Speleological Expedition 1978, 6(3) 100, 6(4) 113– 114, 131 Britten, Ron, geologist new contributors, 4(1) 39 Brown, Lex Berema Cave, CHI, 7(2) 102 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9, 16, 1(2) 27, 2(1) front cover cover, 88, 89 Buang Kalubu caves, NIP, 2(3) 198, 207 Buang Mountains, MOR, 2(1) 139, 140, 2(4) front cover Buangkum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220 Buangmeriba Cave, NIP, 3(1) 11 see also Buchan, John, medical doctor: British Speleological Buka Island, BOU Sohano Limestone, 7(2) 38 Bulmer, Susan, 4(4) 148 Bulu Cave, NIP, 4(3) 113 Bulu village caves, NIP, 2(3) 200 Bumbuve village, NIP, 2(3) 198 burial caves Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163 Arumandu Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124, 127 Bebere caves, SHP, 6(4) 122 Buang Mountains, MOR, 2(1) 139, 140, 2(4) front cover Cape Rodney – Kupiano area, CEN, 2(1) 138 Chimbu Gorge, CHI, 2(2) 178 Erromango caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 Gagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 46, 1(4) 97 Haga’rintega Cave, EHP, 3(4) 136 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 101 Kamiriba 1 Cave, NIP, 4(1) 29 Komndokoaumu Sink, CHI, 1(4) 114 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 2(1) 146 Lamari River area, EHP, 3(2) 42 Lihir Island, NIP, 1(4) 120 Lockabor Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139 Namatanai area, NIP, 3(3) 97 New Ireland, 2(1) 139, 141, 2(3) 196, 200, 201, 202, 204, 206, 222 Noreikora area, EHP, 3(2) 38 Obondoyonaminge Cave, CHI, 1(2) 48, 1(4) 97, 104, 2(2) 177 Omkombogo Cave area, CHI, 1(4) 104 Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(4) 248 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 2(2) 177 Singganigl Valley, CHI, 2(2) 177 Sisimi Cave, SHP, 6(4) 122 Burnett River, SHP, 1(4) 126 Busenitzand, Merle, 7(2) 104 Bushgear Pty Ltd (advertisement), 3(2) back cover, 3(3) back cover, 3(4) back cover, 4(1) back cover, 4(2) back cover Butler Cave, Virginia, United States, 3(3) 99 Bourke, R Michael cont.

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7 Bywater, John mentioned, 1(4) 121 new contributors, 1(4) 131 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 C Campbell, Glen, zoologist, 6(1) 37 Canimelavow Cave, NIP, 2(3) 219 see also Kanimetlavau Cave, NIP Canivell, Jordi: Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 88 Canty, Rob Canvas & Cordage Pty Ltd (advertisement), 3(4) 136, 4(1) 13, 4(2) 80, 4(4) 164 Cape Rodney – Kupiano area, CEN, 2(1) 138 carbide, 1(3) 69, 6(3) 106 see also lighting Carman, Kathy: water supply caves, NIP, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 231 carpet snakes, 1(4) 133 carriers see guides and carriers see also rock art Casala, George: Gaulim caves, ENB, 1(2) 43 cassowaries, 6(1) 28 Cater, John: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(3) 66, 1(4) 123 Cavanagh, Noel: Kagua area, SHP, 2(1) 144 cave art see rock art cave rescue work, 6(2) 40 Cave Survey and Map Standards, 6(2) 61 cavers in PNG, list of names, 1(3) 89, 92 see also subscribers to Niugini Caver Caves and Karst of the Muller Range (book review), 7(2) 141 Caves through the Ages, 3(1) 18 (advertisement) caving techniques, 3(4) 106 Cellerier, Patrick Chuave area, CHI, 6(1) 37, 6(2) 70, 6(3) 100, 7(2) 67 new contributors, 7(2) 148 centipedes Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 47 Central Province Art Gallery Cave, 3(4) 132, 7(2) 83, 100 Cape Rodney area, 2(1) 138 4(2) 67, 7(2) 67, 100 Kupiano area, 2(1) 138, 7(2) 100 Kwikila area, 3(3) 96 4(2) 67, 4(4) 149, 7(2) 67 Owen Stanley Range, 2(1) 138 shelter provision, 2(1) 138 Sogeri Plateau, 2(3) 211 ceremonies, 3(1) 9 chambers largest in world, 7(2) 31 Champion, Clive arrives Port Moresby, 4(1) 16 Champion, Henry: Old Cave, CEN, 4(4) 149 Champion, Randell Old Cave, CEN, 4(4) 149 Rarururunga Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Champion, Ruth: Old Cave, CEN, 4(4) 149 Chapman, Phil, biologist new contributors, 4(1) 39 charcoal deposits, 1(1) 17 charcoal paintings see rock art new contributors, 6(3) 101 Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 86 Cheetham, Jill: Kupiano area, CEN, 7(2) 100 Chimbu Gorge, 2(2) 177 Chimbu Province, 1(4) 9419 Agumugl Cave, 1(4) 101 Ak Kagamugl Cave, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163, 179, 4(2) 72 (photo) Anenamo Cave, 7(1) 16, 18 Angunga Cave, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 249, 4(1) 18, 23, see also Lombila cave system Arnold Mur Cave, 6(3) 87 Au-Kombogo Cave, 4(2) 78 Aukmerik Cave, 1(4) 101 Bagl Cave, 1(4) 101 Balcony pitch, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71, 72, 2(4) 248 102, 108 Bogan-Kombogo Cave, 4(2) 77 Box Canyon, 1(3) 84 burial caves, 2(2) 178 Chimbu way, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 74 Choure Hole, 7(2) 71 Choure Mountain, 7(2) 69, 72 see also The Hole Central Province cont.

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8 Gagogangama Cave, 1(2) 46, 1(4) 97, 104, 2(2) 178 Gei River, 6(3) 86 Gembame Cave, 1(4) 100 Giwinigl River caves, 1(4) 108 Goga-Kuri chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71 see also Kiowa Cave Goro-Kombogo Cave, 4(2) 76 see also Kurakombogo Cave Guria region, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 72 Ilalamuru Sinkhole, 1(4) 108 Inomangi Cave, 7(2) 72, 76, 78, 108 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 70, 1(4) 99, 2(3) 211, 7(2) 103, 108 Irapui-Kombago shaft, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71, 74, 2(4) 248 Irapui Mur Cave, 6(3) 87 Irukunguai Cave see Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave Kabinagame Cave, 1(4) 102 Kagul area, 1(4) 103, 10910 Kanangoro Sink, 1(4) 112, 114 Kansua Cave, 6(3) 86 Kao village caves, 6(2) 70 Kege Cave, 6(3) 87 Kege Mur Cave, 6(3) 86, 87, 7(2) 29 Keu village area, 7(2) 67 Kewanmaru Cave, 1(4) 100 Kimolimba Cave, 1(4) 114 Kiowa Cave, 1(4) 103, 110, 112, 2(2) 178, 2(4) 249, Kirove Cave, 1(3) 80, 81, 1(4) 112, 2(4) 249, 4(1) 23, 7(2) 108 Kirowa Cave see Kiowa Cave Kobikobiri Cave, 1(4) 10910 Kogonkombogo Cave, 1(4) 104 Kokenbogua Cave, 6(3) 87 Kokombogo caves, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 177 Komndokoaumu Sink, 1(4) 114 Kukombogo Cave (also spelt Kukombogol), 1(4) 100 Kurakombogo Cave, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163, 4(2) 76 Kwi River, 1(3) 70, 6(3) 87 Kwi Valley, 1(4) 102, 103 Kwiningl River (also spelt Kwingl, Kwinigl), 1(3) 70, Lende Sink, 1(4) 112 Leo village caves, 1(3) 80, 81 Leyer village, 1(3) 84 Linobamo Sink, 7(1) 16, 18 Lombida Cave, 1(3) 80, 86 see also Angunga Cave Mabik Cave, 4(2) 77 see also Mebikombogo Cave see also Mebile Cave Maimbobo Cave, 1(4) 101 Marata chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71, 74, 2(4) 248 Marigl Shales, 1(4) 109 Mebikombogo Cave, 1(3) 70, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 178, Mim Koblo Cave, 6(3) 86 Miro River, 1(3) 81 Monono area, 1(3) 77, 79 Moranambul River, 1(4) 108 Morena Cave, 1(3) 78, 1(4) 114 Mt Elimbari, 1(3) 66, 79, 83, 1(4) 102 Murugugl Cave, 1(4) 108 Niglgagle passage, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 72, 2(4) 248 Nilkama River, 1(4) 102 Nogar Cave, 1(4) 104 see also Nogare village, 1(4) 103 Nola Cave, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 249 Nola village area, 4(1) 18 Nolangomo Stream, 6(2) 64 Nolombila Cave, 6(2) 63, 7(1) 16, 17 Nombi Rockshelter (also spelt Noumbi, Nombe), 1(4) 112, Nongamel Cave, 1(4) 97 Obondoyonaminge Cave, 1(2) 48, 49, 1(4) 97, 104, 2(2) 177, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 248 Ogi Oga Kombogo Cave, 4(2) 73 Ogle-Ogla Cave, 4(2) 78 Oglon Kombuglodra Cave, 6(3) 86 Oglon Vamedira Cave, 6(3) 86 Omkombogo Cave, 1(4) 97, 104 Onanaro River, 1(3) 81 Ongbonigl River, 1(4) 106 Oriri River, 1(3) 80, 81, 82 Oriro River, 1(3) 84 Pari village area, 6(3) 87 Parka squeeze, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 72 Pato Cave, 4(1) 19 Pila Cave, 7(1) 16 Pit-prop passage, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 72 Ples Pit-pit chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71 Queen’s Cave, 1(4) 99, 2(4) 234 Rafaifo Cave, 1(4) 114 Retretenoro Cave, 1(4) 112 Rinimo Sink, 7(1) 16, 18 Roko Sink, 1(4) 112 2(2) 177, 2(4) 248 Singga-Kombogo Cave, 4(2) 78 Singga River, 1(2) 48, 1(3) 69, 1(4) 97 Singga Valley caves, 1(4) 103 Chimbu Province cont. Chimbu Province cont.

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9 Singganigl Valley, 2(2) 163 Sio Cave, 7(2) 72, 74 Skunge chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71, 74 Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 86 Tao Mountain, 7(2) 72 Tarn chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, 1(3) 71, 72, 2(4) 248 see also Cave, 1(3) 72, 2(4) 248, 4(2) front cover, 7(1) 22 Toglua Cave, 1(4) 108 Tokobare Cave, 1(4) 102 Uila Cave, 1(4) 101 Umkombogo system, 2(2) 177 Ungakoboro Cave, 1(4) 100 Uram Cave, 1(4) 104, 2(4) 248 Urungotainde Cave, 1(4) 97 see also Nogar Cave Yogomul village area, 6(3) 87 Yoigaranil Cave, 1(4) 102 Yonaminge Cave, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163 Yonggamugl area, 4(2) 76 Yonomigl Cave, 1(4) 104 see also Obondoyonaminge Cave Yunee Cave, 1(3) 84 Chimbu way, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 74 Chisholm, Yvonne: Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 Choure Hole, CHI, 7(2) 71 Choure Mountain, CHI, 7(2) 69, 72 maps, 7(2) 67 Cirera, Rafel: Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 88 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 27 obituary, 1(2) 44 Clayton, Carol Iaro River Cave, SHP, 7(2) 103 Tuweiwu Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Cleary, John: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 clothing, 1(2) 39, 4(3) 129, 6(3) 96, 6(4) 126 coastal caves, NIP, 2(3) 222 cockpit karst see cone (cockpit) karst cockroaches Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 163 code of ethics, 3(3) 102 Cody, Ashley Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 78 Lufa area, EHP, 2(2) 184 mentioned, 1(4) 110 Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 82 new contributors, 4(2) 62 Yonggamugl area, CHI, 4(2) 76 Collacalia spp. see swiftlets Collembola (springtails), 6(3) 100 columns Karu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 223 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 Taroku Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 43 Comunga Cave, ENB, 1(1) 17 cone (cockpit) karst Manus Island, 3(3) 73 Yalum limestone, ENB, 1(2) 28 conference reports Cooper, Ian departs PNG, 1(4) 121 Raulei Range, ENB, 1(3) 66 coral islands coralline limestone (coronas), 1(1) 10, 12, 17 coronas see coralline limestone (coronas) Cox, GC: Muller Range Expedition 1978, 7(1) 7 crabs Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41 Ehi rest house area, EHP, 2(2) 189 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 47 Crabtree, Steven, geologist: British Speleological Expedition Obungeram Cave, ENB, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 140 Belik Cave, NIP, 4(1) 28 crickets Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 163 Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 Chimbu Province cont.

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10 Cromwell Range, MOR, 6(1) 27, back cover, 7(2) 144 2(1) 147 123 crypts see burial caves crystals Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72 Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99 cultural heritage protection, 2(4) 238 customary land use, 3(1) 19 Czechoslovakia: Aggtelek caves, 3(1) 22D see also Tapitapipi caves, MBP 4(4) 141 see also 6(4) 11012 see also The Hole, CHI decorations Awatbumbum Cave, NIP, 4(3) 107 Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 4 Buangkum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220 Iaro River Cave, SHP, 3(1) 4 Inomangi Cave, CHI, 7(2) 72, 78 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72, 74, 4(1) 17, Kabase Cave, NIP, 2(3) 228 Lawarivanggasu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Lemetura Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139 Lenbinbin Cave, NIP, 4(3) 96, 113 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 Marpos village cave, MOR, 4(1) 36 Matupit volcano, ENB, 1(1) 17 Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 3(4) 138 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 30 Pamp Cave, NIP, 2(3) 198 Pirua Cave, SHP, 1(3) 63 Soro River cave, SHP, 2(1) 146 Taroku Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41, 43 deepest caves East New Britain, 3(3) 96 see also Bibima Cave, CHI Southern Hemisphere, 1(1) 2, 1(4) 127, 2(2) 162, 7(2) 31 in the world, 2(2) 183 contracts histoplasmosis, 7(2) 104 new contributors, 7(1) 23 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Tavurvur volcano, ENB, 4(4) 149 describing caves, 3(4) 106 distributaries Dobsonia moluccensis (fruit bat), 1(4) 100, 134 Dobsonia species (fruit bat), 7(2) 64 Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4), 128 mentioned 1(4) 121 dolines Chuave area, CHI, 1(3) 81 Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 79, 81, 82 decorations cont.

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11 cover Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 27 Pirua Cave, SHP, 1(3) 63 Raulei Range, ENB, 1(3) 66 Uila Cave, CHI, 1(4) 101 see also honeycomb karst drawings see rock art Kagua area, SHP, 7(2) 103 Tari, SHP, 7(2) 104 see also Iuvare caves, ENB Elimbari and Chuave areas, CHI, 1(4) 110 mentioned, 4(4) 148 Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 66 dysentery, 6(3) 93 E E Mama Eleanda, SHP, 7(2) 84, 126 E Mama Valley, SHP, 7(2) 126, 127 Eagles Nest Cave, Australia, 2(2) 182 earthquakes advice for visitors, 6(3) 93 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72 Kwi Valley, CHI, 1(4) 102 near Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 32 Tavurvur volcano, ENB, 4(4) 149 East New Britain Province Alakasam village, 1(1) 16, 3(1) 21 Baining Mountains, 1(1) 9, 13, 16, 1(3) 66, 3(4) 141 Comunga Cave, 1(1) 17 see also Iuvare caves Esis River, 1(1) 16 7(2) 80 Galavit village, 3(4) 141 Iso River, 1(2) 28, 34 see also Luminas Cave Keravat, 1(1) 9 Lakit Range, 1(1) 17 Luminas Cave, 1(1) 17, 1(2) 43, 1(4) 120, 2(2) 181, see also Iuvare caves Makada Island, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 134 Malasait village, 3(1) 14, 21 Matali River, 1(1) 16, 7(2) 87 Matanakunei village, 1(1) 17 Matupit volcano, 1(1) 17 Mioko Island, 1(1) 17 Nagail village, 3(3) 96 Nutuve Catholic Mission, 1(1) 16, 1(2) 28, 6(4) 130 Obungeram Cave, 1(1) 16, 3(1) 14, 21, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 140 Ora Cave, 1(2) 27, 1(4) 122, 2(1) front cover, 137, Oreat-Satadat Cave, 1(1) 16 Pomio area caves, 1(1) 16 see also Pondo, 1(1) 16 Ramarau Cave, 4(4) 149 4(4) 149 Rururunga Cave, 4(2) 67 sea caves, 1(1) 17 Simbum village, 1(1) 17 Singoinga Cave, 3(1) front cover St Georges Channel, 2(3) 211 Synnongoinga Cave, 1(1) 17 Taulil village, 1(1) 17 Torio River, 3(1) 21 University of Queensland Speleological Society Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9 dolines cont. East New Britain Province cont.

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12 Vunadavai village, 1(3) 67 Vunarakan Cave, 4(2) 67 Vuvu sinkholes, 7(2) 87 Yalum Limestone, 1(1) 17, 1(2) 28 Yalum village, 1(1) 16 Eastern Highlands Province 7(2) 100 Arau area, 7(2) 100 Batari Cave, 3(2) 26, 7(2) 101 Bena rock shelter, 2(2) 189 Esindona Cave, 3(2) 26 see also The Tomb 4(1) 17, 18, 7(2) 100 3(2) 26, 29, 32 Isontenu village, 3(2) 44 4(2) 72 (photo) Kamasi village area, 7(2) 100 Kami Thumb, 2(2) 189 Kaugua River Cave, 6(1) 36 Kengkeng’pinka Cave, 3(4) 136 Korangka village area, 3(2) 43 Lamari River caves, 3(2) 26, 40, 7(2) 108 Lethe River, 3(2) 29, 32 Lufa area, 2(2) 184 Matali Cave, 7(2) 101 Mt Michael, 3(2) 26 see Hells Gates Muto Cave, 2(2) 186 Nama’joga Cave, 3(4) 136 Obi Cave, 2(2) 186, 188 Obura area, 3(2) 38, 40, 6(4) 131, 7(2) 100 16, 7(2) 100 Omaura area, 7(2) 100 Omuntianele Cave, 7(2) 100 Onaningka village area, 3(2) 43 Oravanana Cave, 6(4) 131, 7(1) 14, 7(2) 81, 100, 108 see also Yunamare Cave Ramaivutaini Cave, 6(2) 72 Second Source, 3(2) 29 Sosoentenu village, 3(2) 44 The Maze, 3(2) 32 The Tomb, 3(2) 29 see also Haga’rintega Cave see also Obura land bridge Tuweiwu Cave, 6(1) 36, 6(4) 131, 7(2) 101, 108 Upper Ramu Gorge caves, 3(2) 43 Yauna village, 3(2) 44 Yunamare Cave, 6(2) 72, 6(3) 99, 6(4) 132, 7(2) 100 see also Oravanana Cave 4(1) 8, 9, 11, 4(2) 67 Ebabini village caves, SHP, 2(1) 146 Eccles, John: Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 eels Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4) 128, 130 Efate caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 Eisikel, elder, 3(1) 10 El Guarataro, Venezuela, 2(2) 182 Emery, Rosemary: Swiss Expedition 1979, 7(2) 89 Endegu clan, CHI, 1(2) 48 Endugua clan, CHI, 2(2) 177 Enduguakani clan, CHI, 2(2) 163, 2(4) 248 Enga Province Arumandu Cave, 3(4) 124, 127 Imungubus Cave, 3(4) 124 Irelya Cave, 3(4) 123 Lake Kopiago, 3(4) 133 Mink River, 4(4) 149 Eastern Highlands Province cont. East New Britain Province cont.

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13 Nimimb River, 3(4) 124 Pawari Cave, 3(4) 123 Raiakama Cave, 3(4) 124 Sauanda Cave, 3(4) 123 Silim Cave, 3(4) 126 Yalis Cave, 3(4) 126 Yaramanda Cave, 3(4) 124, 126 engravings see rock art equipment advice for visitors, 6(3) 94, 6(4) 126 Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 4 Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 79 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 37 Virginia caves, United States, 3(3) 101 see also lighting Erave Valley, SHP, 1(3) 62, 2(1) 143, 2(2) 182, 7(2) 103, 11619 Erromango caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 Erwood, Ken: Lufa area, EHP, 2(2) 184 Esindona Cave, EHP, 3(2) 26 Esis River, ENB, 1(1) 16 Espiritu Santo caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 166 Etis Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Evers, Margaret: Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 evil spirits, 2(2) 164, 3(4) 121 see also spirits expeditions in 1978, 6(1) 2, 6(4) 108 advice for, 6(3) 89, 6(4) 124 see also British Speleological Expedition 1978 Muller Range Expedition 1973 Muller Range Expedition 1976 Muller Range Expedition 1978 Muller Range Expedition 1982 New Britain Expedition 1972 New Ireland Expedition 1976 Swiss Speleological Expedition 1979F Baining Mountains, ENB, 3(4) 141 Bibima Cave, CHI, 3(4) 132 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 6, 14, 3(2) 62, 4(3) 89 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 2(2) 181 New Ireland Expedition 1976, 4(2) 68, 4(4) 141, Obungeram Cave, ENB, 3(1) 14, 21, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 140 Rabaul, 4(1) 16 Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Singoinga Cave, ENB, 3(1) front cover speleo personalities, 3(1) 20 4(1) 9 fatigue, 6(3) 93 faults: Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 12 fauna see by name, eg fees for guides, 2(3) 211, 3(1) 14 fertiliser see guano Ialibu, SHP, 7(2) 104 Iaro River Cave, SHP, 7(2) 103 Awatbumbum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220, 4(3) 107 Enga Province cont.

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14 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71 Kaimomo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 112 Kanameroborunda Cave, NIP, 4(3) 112 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 3(4) 137 Ninggalau Cave, NIP (also spelt Ningilau), 4(3) 97 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 30 Rafaifo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 114 Taroku Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41, 43 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 81 British Speleological Expedition 1978, 6(4) 113, 131 Obura area, EHP, 6(4) 131 Afaruru Cave, MOR, 1(2) 23 Buangmeriba Cave, NIP, 3(1) 11 Gagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 46 identifying, 7(2) 64 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 128 Kiren Cave, CHI, 7(2) 72 Kistobu Cave, NIP, 2(2) 162 Kobikobiri Cave, CHI, 1(4) 109 Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 63 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10 Mageh No. 2 Cave, NIP, 2(3) 223 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 New Ireland caves, 2(3) 206, 4(1) 27 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 30 Pato Cave, CHI, 4(1) 19 Raiakama Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 200 The Hole, CHI, 1(3) 67 Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 47 see also food gardens, 3(4) 119, 4(3) 106 fossils Bolof Cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 229 Ehi rest house area, EHP, 2(2) 188 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 arrives Manus, 3(1) 14 crevice karst, 4(2) 69 Manus, 2(3) 212, 2(4) 246, 3(3) 67, 77, 96, new contributors, 2(4) 244 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 147 photographs, 3(3) 76 Pumpulyun Cave, MAN, 3(1) 14 returns Port Moresby, 7(2) 104 speleo personalities, 3(3) 92 7(1) 14, 7(2) 80 frogs Kamiriba 2 Cave, NIP, 4(1) 29 Taforahabi Cave, EHP, 3(2) 36 Upper Ramu Gorge caves, EHP, 3(2) 44 fruit bats, 1(4) 100, 134, 7(2) 63 see also fungi, 1(3) 81, 7(2) 112 future of caving in PNG, 3(1) 2GGagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 46, 1(4) 97, 104, 2(2) 178 Galavit village, ENB, 3(4) 141 Gallasch, Hal (Harold) burial caves, 2(1) 138 Lihir Island caves, NIP, 2(4) 246, 4(1) 31 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 27 new contributors, 1(1) 8 3(3) 97, 3(4) 139 New Ireland legends, 2(3) 206 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146

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Rarururunga Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Rembarr Range, ENB, 1(3) 67, 1(4) 120 Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Silom 2 village cave, NIP, 2(3) 212 speleo personalities, 3(4) 144 gardens, food, 3(4) 119, 4(3) 106 Gare doline, ENB, 6(4) 130 gastropods: Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 48 Gau’a Cave, CEN see Gazelle Peninsula, ENB karst, 1(1) 9, 13, 16 see also East New Britain Province Gei River, CHI, 6(3) 86 Gembame Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Gemmell, Jim new contributors, 2(1) 146 Gena clan, CHI, 1(2) 48, 2(2) 177 Geological Survey of PNG, 6(4) 10912 Gerigl Ambu spirit, 2(2) 168, 170, 172, 174, 4(2) 73 Gerson: Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 8 Gevo, Samuel, elder: Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 8 Gewane Kananda, SHP, 7(2) 128, 131 Giddings, Rick new contributors, 3(4) 108 Erave Valley, SHP, 7(2) 103, 11619 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 6(4) 121 New Caledonia, 3(3) 97 New Ireland Expedition 1976, 3(3) 97, 3(4) 133, 4(1) 16, Nombi Rockshelter, CHI, 7(2) 102 Omai Cave, SHP, 7(1) 11 Giltman, Bruce: cave surveys, SHP, 1(3) 60 Gires, John: Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(4) 248 Giwinigl River caves, CHI, 1(4) 108 Glasby, Phil: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Gleeson, Leigh Art Gallery Cave, CEN, 7(2) 83 Baining Mountains, ENB, 3(4) 141 Bibima Cave, CHI, 3(4) 132 Javavere caves, CEN, 3(4) 132 Lake Kopiago, ENG, 3(4) 133 Makada Island, ENB, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 134 Mendi caves, SHP, 3(4) 133 new contributors, 3(4) 108 New Hanover (Lavangai Island), NIP, 3(3) 97, 3(4) 134 Goga-Kuri chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71 see also Kiowa Cave, CHI Gomia Cave, CHI see Gomea (Kiowa) system, CHI Gonma depression, MOR, 6(1) 27 Gorgoroth Cave, New Zealand, 1(4) 127, 2(2) 162 Goro-Kombogo Cave, CHI, 4(2) 76 see also Kurakombogo Cave, CHI Goulbourne, Allan Aibura Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 arrives Port Moresby, 4(1) 16 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Kaugua River Cave, EHP, 6(1) 36 Matali Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Mt Kaijende, ENG, 7(2) 101 new contributors, 6(2) 66 Omaura area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Oravanana Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 speleo personalities, 6(1) 37 Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(3) 99 Goulbourne, Chris Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 63 government patrols, attacks on, 1(4) 99 Gowamu clan, CHI, 2(2) 163 Gowop Limestone, MOR, 6(1) 30 grading systems, 1(3) 76 Aibura Cave, EHP, 3(2) 46 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 Ofafunga Cave, EHP, 6(1) 11 Umarah Cave, NIP, 4(1) 27, 30 guano Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Leangnivu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 203 Mageh No. 2 Cave, NIP, 2(3) 202 Mandok Cave, NIP, 2(3) 204 see also Gallasch, Hal (Harold) cont.

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16 guides and carriers advice for visitors, 6(1) 2, 6(4) 126 fees, 2(3) 211, 3(1) 14 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 32, 39, 42 Gurema people, CHI, 1(4) 99 Guria region, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72HHadia Nduhongiri, SHP, 7(1) 8 Hadia Yaneabogairi Cave, SHP, 7(1) 9, 7(2) 107, 139 see also Mamo Kananda, SHP see also The Tomb, EHP Hambly, Glenda: Singoinga Cave, ENB, 2(2) 181 Hana-I-Uli sink, SHP, 7(2) 134 Handel, Malcolm Atea Kanada, SHP, 7(1) back cover 108, 122 Harwood’s Hole, New Zealand, 1(4) 127, 2(2) 162, 182 health, 1(2) 41, 6(3) 92, 6(4) 127 heat fatigue, 6(3) 93 Heers, Gilbert: Trobriand Islands, MBP, 6(2) 41, 48 helictites Inomangi Cave, CHI, 7(2) 78 Kibuari Cave, EHP, 3(2) 41 Lemetura Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 heligmites: Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 4 4(1) 17, 18, 7(2) 100 3(2) 26, 29, 32 Hickson, Neil Art Gallery Cave, CEN, 7(2) 100 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Iaro River Cave, SHP, 7(2) 103 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 7(2) 103 107 Tuweiwu Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 highest caves in Southern Hemisphere, 1(4) 126, 127 Hilalon plantation caves, NIP, 2(3) 202 Hill, Mike national parks, 3(1) 19 Himarata land bridge, 3(2) 41, 7(2) 101 Himarata people, EHP, 3(2) 42 cave biology, 4(1) 14 further exploration warranted, 7(2) 106 British Speleological Expedition 1978, 6(1) 37, 6(2) 71, 6(3) 100, 6(4) 11314, 131 Hipposideros Histoplasma capsulatum (fungus), 7(2) 112 history of speleology in PNG, 4(4) 144 Sogeri Plateau, CEN, 2(3) 211 study leave, England, 3(1) 14 Holl, Millie Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Holland, Chris arrives Lae, MOR, 3(1) 14 Iuvare caves, ENB, 2(2) 181, 3(1) 13 Holmes, Keith Elimbari and Chuave areas, CHI, 1(4) 110 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(3) 66 honeycomb karst see also dolines Honnegar, Hans: Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 88 hookworms, 6(3) 93 see also Huli people, SHP, 7(2) 137 Hungary: Aggtelek caves, 3(1) 22 hunting Hells Gates, EHP, 3(2) 28 Kokombogo caves, CHI, 1(4) 99 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10 New Ireland caves, 2(3) 206 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 2(2) 177 Tapitapipi caves, MBP, 1(4) 134 The Hole, CHI, 1(3) 67 Yoigaranil Cave, CHI, 1(4) 102

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17 Huon Peninsula, MOR Cromwell Range, 6(1) 27, back cover, 7(2) 144 Huri Ekanda, SHP, 7(2) 134, 136 Huris village caves, NIP, 2(3) 202 Husk, Tim, 7(2) 104 Hutchings, Rick new contributors, 4(2) 62 Hutchinson, RC: Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Hydra species (freshwater organisms), 3(2) 44 Hyla species (frog), 1(4) 133I Ibu village, BOU, 1(4) 128 Ilalamuru Sinkhole, CHI, 1(4) 108 Imungubus Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124 In the Spirit of Enterprise (book review), 7(2) 99 injuries Crabtree, Steven, geologist, 3(4) 107, 109, 4(1) 7 Lemon, Lesley, 1(2) 36, 41 see also accidents Inomangi Cave, CHI, 7(2) 72, 76, 78, 108 insect pests, 6(3) 93 insectivorous bats, 7(2) 63 see also insects Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 163 Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41 Javavere caves, CEN, 2(2) 181 Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 New Ireland caves, 4(1) 27 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 34 Taforahabi Cave, EHP, 3(2) 36 see also arthropods Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 70, 1(4) 99, 2(3) 211, 7(1) 22, 7(2) 103, 108 Irapui-Kombago shaft, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71, 74, 2(4) 248 Irapui Mur Cave, CHI, 6(3) 87 Irelya Cave, ENG, 3(4) 123 iron oxides, 1(3) 72 Irukunguai Cave, CHI see Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI Ismel, Lakuna, guide Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 10 new contributors, 4(3) 136 Iso River, ENB, 1(2) 28, 34 Isontenu village, EHP, 3(2) 44 Ita village cave, SHP, 2(1) 144 see alsoJJacobson, Gerry cave surveys, SHP, 1(3) 60 Jacobson, Rae James, Julia Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 Gagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 46 highlands caves, 1(1) 9 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 7(1) 22 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Muller Range Expedition 1976, 3(1) 14, 3(3) 97, 4(1) 16, Muller Range Expedition 1978, 6(2) 70, 7(1) 2 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Jamieson, Paul: Lihir Island caves, NIP, 2(4) 246 Liga village cave, NIP, 2(3) 231 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10 Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 208 New Ireland, 2(3) 196, 202, 206 4(2) 67, 7(2) 67, 100 Jennings, Joe arte and pinnacle karst, 4(1) 2 mentioned, 4(4) 148 Muller Range Expedition 1978, 7(1) 7 new contributors, 4(1) 39 Johnson, Phil: Gaulim caves, ENB, 4(4) 149 Jones, Tim: Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(3) 99 Jonli, Leonard: Nge-Pelimat Cave, MAN, 4(1) 16

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18 K 7(2) 109 Kabinagame Cave, CHI, 1(4) 102 Kabotlabangabang caves, NIP, 3(1) 10, 4(3) 97, 108 Kabwum area, MOR, 2(2) 182 Kabwum Limestone Member, MOR, 6(1) 30 4(2) 72 (photo) Kagua area, SHP, 2(1) 142, 144, 7(2) 103 Kagul area, CHI, 1(4) 103, 10910 Kaimare Stream, SHP, 6(4) 121 Kalili plantation cave, NIP, 2(3) 204 Kaluan village, NIP, 2(3) 214 Kamanagu clan, CHI, 2(2) 177 Kamasi village area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(1) 29, 4(3) 101, 127 see also Buangmeriba Cave, NIP Kami Thumb, EHP, 2(2) 189 Kamiriba 1 Cave, NIP, 4(1) 29 see also Buangmeriba Cave, NIP Kamiriba 2 Cave, NIP, 4(1) 29 Kanada Atea, SHP see Atea Kanada, SHP 3(1) 12, 16 kanada Kanambu Cave, NIP, 3(1) 8, 4(3) 108 10812 Kanangoro Sink, CHI, 1(4) 112, 114 Kanimbigim Cave, NIP (also spelt Kanembigin), 3(1) 10, 4(3) 96, 108 Kanimetlavau Cave, NIP, 4(3) 97, 107, 116 see also Canimelavow Cave, NIP Kansua Cave, CHI, 6(3) 86 Kantembu village, NIP, 2(3) 198, 206 Kanulumu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Kao village caves, CHI, 6(2) 70 Kapsel village, NIP, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 202 Kari Polje, MAN, 3(3) 70, 71, 4(2) 71 Kari village area, MAN, 2(4) 246, 3(3) 93 karst Erave Valley, SHP, 1(3) 62 Gazelle Peninsula, ENB, 1(1) 9, 13, 16 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 6(4) 121 lapis karst, 6(3) 82 largest karst features in PNG, 7(2) 28, 36 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 2(3) 194, 3(4) 128, 4(3) 117, western Papua, 1(1) 13 see also Karu Cave, NIP, 1(3) 67, 2(3) 200, 223, 224 see also Ririe Cave, NIP Katasalong Cave, NIP, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 201 Katiloma Cave, SHP, 2(1) 144 Kaugua River Cave, EHP, 6(1) 36 Kausi Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 46, 48 Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136, 2(3) 202 Kavakuna Cave, ENB Kavieng area caves, NIP, 1(1) 9 Kay, Robert Levani Valley, SHP, 7(2) 121 new contributors, 7(2) 148 Kazenjean, Ken: Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(3) 99 Keba, Thomas: Nenduma Cave, BOU, 2(2) 181 Kege Cave, CHI, 6(3) 87 Kege Mur Cave, CHI, 6(3) 86, 87, 7(2) 29 Keller, Alan arrives Rabaul, 1(4) 121 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 2(3) 212 new contributors, 2(3) 221 Kenapit plantation caves, NIP, 2(3) 200, 222 Kengkeng’pinka Cave, EHP, 3(4) 136 Keravat, ENB, 1(1) 9 Kerene en Eto, SHP, 7(2) 132, 133, 134 Keriaka Limestone, BOU, 6(2) front cover, 7(2) 38 Kerr, Rod Aibura Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 arrives Goroka, EHP, 7(2) 104 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 karst cont.

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19 Hells Gates, EHP, 7(2) 100 Kamasi village area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Oravanana Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Keu village area, CHI, 7(2) 67 Kewandagu clan, CHI, 1(2) 48, 2(2) 177 Kewane Valley, SHP, 7(2) 123, 129 Kewanmaru Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Kiap, Michael Kikori River, SHP, 1(3) 60, 6(4) 121 Kilal, Ernest, schoolteacher, 3(4) 140 Kimolimba Cave, CHI, 1(4) 114 Kimomo or Kimono Cave, CHI see Kaimomo Cave, CHI King, Randall Kiowa Cave, CHI, 1(4) 103, 110, 112, 2(2) 178, 2(4) 249, Kirove Cave, CHI, 1(3) 80, 81, 1(4) 112, 2(4) 249, 4(1) 23, 7(2) 108 Kirowa Cave, CHI see Kiowa Cave, CHI Kistobu Cave, NIP, 2(2) 160, 2(3) 200, 4(1) 27 Nambaiyufa village, EHP, 3(1) 13 Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(4) 248 Kobikobiri Cave, CHI, 1(4) 10910 Kogonkombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104 Kohin caves, MAN, 3(3) 80 Kokenbogua Cave, CHI, 6(3) 87 Kokombogo caves, CHI, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 177 Kol people, ENB, 1(2) 42 Kolonoboi village, NIP, 2(3) 200, 207 Komebe Cave, NIP, 2(1) 141, 2(3) 200 Komndokoaumu Sink, CHI, 1(4) 114 Konandagu clan, CHI, 2(2) 164 Konobin village caves, NIP, 2(3) 198 Konogusgus village caves, NIP, 2(3) 198, 231, 3(1) 11 Kopunei Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84, 93 Korangka village area, EHP, 3(2) 43 Kororeda Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139 Kousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 46, 47, 49 Kovava Cave, BOU (also spelt Kovana), 1(4) 120, 128, Kui (Vudal student), 1(2) 43 Kukombogo Cave, CHI (also spelt Kukombogol), 1(4) 100 Kukuwa Cave, BOU, 6(3) 99, 7(1) 22 Kumanagu tribe, CHI, 2(2) 163 Kumburun Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Kuper Range, MOR, 1(2) 23 Kupiano area, CEN, 2(1) 138, 7(2) 100 Kurakagl spirit, 1(4) 10910 Kurakombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163, 4(2) 76 Kurara Valley area, BOU, 6(3) 99, 6(4) 130 Kurumbu clan, CHI, 2(2) 164 Kwama River, MOR, 6(1) 30, 31 Kwama Valley, MOR, 6(1) back cover Kwi River, CHI, 1(3) 70, 6(3) 87 Kwi Valley, CHI, 1(4) 102, 103 Kwikila area, CEN, 3(3) 96 1(3) 71, 74 Kwiningl River, CHI (also spelt Kwingl, Kwinigl), 1(3) 70, L Labakewa Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 44, 48 Laboko village cave, SHP, 2(1) 146 Labungkalabus karst depression, NIP, 4(3) 126 Lakare Cave, NIP, 4(3) 113 Lake Kopiago, SHP, 3(4) 133 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 2(1) 146, 6(4) 121 lake techniques, 1(2) 38 Lake Yornam, MAN, 3(3) 71 lakes, perched, 1(3) 66 Lakit Range, ENB, 1(1) 17 Lamangwat Cave, NIP, 4(3) 108 see also Kanambu Cave, NIP Lamari River caves, EHP, 3(2) 26, 40, 7(2) 108 Lamis Cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 197 Lamlad Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220, 4(3) 106 see also Pamp Cave, NIP Lamout Massang, NIP, 2(3) 198, 206 Lamussong village cave, NIP, 2(3) 198 Landsberg, Jill Erave Valley, SHP, 7(2) 103, 11619 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 6(4) 121 mentioned, 6(1) 37, 6(2) 71 Kerr, Rod cont.

PAGE 20

20 Omai Cave, SHP, 7(1) 11 lapis karst, 6(3) 82 Laram Cave, NIP, 3(1) 8 Laranbut karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 117 Laranbut village, NIP, 4(3) 97 passim Lamerika plantation, NIP, 3(1) 11, 3(2) 62, 3(3) 97 New Ireland Expedition 1976, 4(2) 68, 4(4) 141, Lash, Graham: Mt Kaijende, ENG, 7(2) 101 Lasiliba school, NIP, 2(3) 203 Lasiong, Sition, guide, 3(1) 10 Latbebe village, NIP, 3(1) 10 Latkiang Cave, NIP, 3(1) 8 Lauis Limestone, MAN, 3(3) 69 Lauis Sandstone, MAN, 3(3) 68, 70 lava tunnels, 4(2) 67, 4(4) 149 Lavani Valley Expedition 1973 see Muller Range Expedition 1973 Lavani Valley, SHP, 6(2) 71, 7(1) 7, 7(2) 121 see also Muller Range expeditions Lawariskul Cave, NIP, 2(3) 216 Lawarivanggasu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Lawton, Ralph: Losuia, MBP, 6(2) 49 new contributors, 2(2) 162 Leadley, Alan Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Leangnivu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 203 leeches Avilu Cave, MOR, 7(1) 20 Ehi rest house area, EHP, 2(2) 189 Javavere caves, CEN, 2(2) 181 Onaningka village area, EHP, 3(2) 43 legends Afaruru Cave, MOR, 1(2) 24 disappearing children and villages, 3(4) 121 Gagogangama Cave ghosts, 1(2) 46 Gerigl Ambu spirit, 2(2) 168, 170, 172 Hells Gates, EHP, 3(2) 28 Kausi Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 48 Kobikobiri Cave, CHI, 1(4) 10910 Kopunei Cave, MAN, 3(3) 93 Kouya Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 49 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 4(3) 86 New Ireland, 2(3) 206 and snakes, 3(4) 122 So-osah Cave, MAN, 3(3) 94 Yogondo spirit, 2(2) 168, 170, 172 Yoigaranil Cave, CHI, 1(4) 102 see also Legrady, Charlie Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 Port Moresby Speleological Society, 4(4) 146 Lehlihia Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80, 90 Lehman, Bill: arrives Port Moresby, 4(1) 16 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 2(3) 194, 202, 212, 3(1) 6, 14, 4(2) 68 legends, 4(3) 86 see also Expedition 1976 Lematura caves, NIP, 4(3) 113 7(2) 102, 109 Lemerukluk Cave, NIP, 2(3) 221 see also Meruklu caves, NIP Lemetrakabit Cave, NIP, 3(1) 8 Lemetura Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139, 4(1) 28 Lemon, Lesley New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9, 1(2) 27 Lenbinbin Cave, NIP, 4(3) 96, 112 (photo), 113, 116 Lende Sink, CHI, 1(4) 112 Lenevit karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 124 Lenkamin village, NIP, 2(3) 212, 214, 221, 231, 3(1) 11, 4(3) 94, 97 Lenkaso karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 123, 124 Lenkindugudu karst depression, NIP, 4(3) 127 Leo village caves, CHI, 1(3) 80, 81 Leptahun Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Lethe River, EHP, 3(2) 29, 32 letters to the editor, 4(4) 170 Levani Valley, SHP see Muller Range Expedition 1978 Leyer village, CHI, 1(3) 84 library of PNGCEG, 6(1) 14, 7(1) 23 Liga village cave, NIP, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 196, 231, 232 legends cont. Landsberg, Jill cont.

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21 carbide, 1(3) 69, 6(3) 106 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 37 Lihir Island caves, NIP, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 204, 2(4) 246, 4(1) 31 passim Limbin Sink, NIP, 3(1) 8 Limbin village, NIP, 2(3) 214, 3(1) 6, 8, 11, 4(3) 94 passim limestone Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 coralline, 2(3) 204 Cromwell Range, MOR, 6(1) 30 marine, 1(1) 7 occurrence in PNG, 1(2) front cover Yalum limestone, ENB, 1(1) 17, 1(2) 28 Linobamo Sink, CHI, 7(1) 16, 18 Liou, Pius: Nge-Pelimat Cave, MAN, 4(1) 16 literature, caving, annotated, 4(2) 79 see also bibliographies Lockabor Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139 new contributors, 4(1) 39 Logogon village, NIP, 2(3) 196 Lokabar Cave, NIP, 2(3) 201 Lokon village cave, NIP, 2(3) 200 Loloba Cave, NIP, 2(1) 141, 2(3) 200 Loloba village caves, NIP, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 222 Lombida Cave, CHI, 1(3) 80, 86 see also Angunga Cave, CHI longest caves in Southern Hemisphere, 4(1) 1, 11 Lopevi caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 Lorengau Basalt, MAN, 3(3) 68, 70, 71 Lorengau, MAN, 1(1) 10 Loronang Cave, NIP, 2(3) 214, 216 3(3) 70, 77, 79 Lovon Cave, NIP, 2(3) 216 Lowasama village, NIP, 3(1) 10, 11 Lowatkana village, NIP, 2(3) 212, 214, 221 Lowatkusmeri karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 117 Lowatkusmeri Lemet Silot, NIP, 4(3) 99, 117 Luburua plantation, NIP, 2(3) 196, 208 Lufa area, EHP, 2(2) 184 Lulur village cave, NIP, 2(3) 202 Luminas Cave, ENB, 1(1) 17, 1(2) 43, 1(4) 120, 2(2) 181, see also Iuvare caves, ENB Lynch, Jim M Mabik Cave, CHI, 4(2) 77 see also Mebikombogo Cave, CHI Mackay, Roy: Javavere caves, CEN, 2(2) 181 Madang Province bat cave, 1(4) 136 Be Cave, 3(1) 22 Madang (township), 2(4) 246 Nasuan Cave, 1(4) 132 Nilnelan Cave, 1(4) 132 Rempi caves, 1(3) 66, 1(4) 132 Suruain village, 1(4) 132 Maddern, Tony Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 Chimbu area, 1(1) 9 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 The Hole, CHI, 1(3) 67 Maewo caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 166, 168 Mageh No. 2 Cave, NIP, 2(3) 202, 223, 224 magic Bulu Cave, NIP, 4(3) 113 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 127 Muras Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220 see also beliefs see also Mebile Cave, CHI Maimbobo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 101 Maire, Richard Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 11113 Nembi Plateau, SHP, 7(2) 103 new contributors, 7(1) 23, 7(2) 148 Makada Island, ENB, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 134 malaria, 6(3) 92 Malasait village, ENB, 3(1) 14, 21 Malasang Cave, BOU, 7(2) 109 new contributors, 7(2) 148

PAGE 22

22 Malekulu caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 Mamarabin pothole, NIP, 2(3) 198, 206 see also Meabin Cave, NIP see also Hadia Yaneabogairi Cave, SHP Mamo Plateau, SHP, 7(2) 139 4(3) 98 Mandok Cave, NIP, 2(3) 204 Mangai village caves, NIP, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 196 Mannasat grassland, MOR, 7(2) 144 Manus Province Ahlu Cave, 3(3) 77 Bayam River, 3(3) 73 bibliographies, 3(3) 74, 91 Kari area, 2(4) 246 Kari Polje, 3(3) 70, 71, 4(2) 71 Kari village, 3(3) 93 Kohin caves, 3(3) 80 Kopunei Cave, 3(3) 84, 93 Kumburun Cave, 3(3) 91 Lake Yornam, 3(3) 71 Lauis Limestone, 3(3) 69 Lauis Sandstone, 3(3) 68, 70 Lehlihia Cave, 3(3) 80, 90 Leptahun Cave, 3(3) 91 Lorengau, 1(1) 10 Lorengau Basalt, 3(3) 68, 70, 71 3(3) 70, 77, 79 Marang Ngat Cave, 3(3) 80, 86 Mata-ah Cave, 3(3) 91 Matandru Cave, 3(3) 91 Matdrahuur Cave, 3(3) 84 Matndrumok Cave, 3(3) 84 Mau Cave, 3(3) 77 Metdrohorki Cave, 3(3) 84, 96 Motonenis Cave, 3(3) 84 Mukou Cave, 3(3) 84, 93 Mundrau Limestone, 3(3) 67, 70, 71, 73 Nambwatap Cave, 3(3) 80 Napirou Cave, 3(3) 91 Naringel Limestone, 3(3) 68, 70, 4(1) 34 Ndran Akohau Cave, 3(3) 77, 81 Ndrehinti-i Cave, 3(3) 84 Ndrelei Cave, 3(3) 84 Ndrias Cave, 3(3) 84 Ndrokapulal Cave, 3(3) 84 Ndrompahna Cave, 3(3) 84 Ndrompilu Cave, 3(3) 80, 89 Ngai-Loso caves, 3(3) 77, 79 3(3) 77, 4(1) 16 Palang Cave, 3(3) 80 Parakeipu Cave, 3(3) 80 Pokohoh Arch, 3(3) 84 Porsos Cave, 3(3) 91 Poywih Cave, 3(3) 80, 83 Puke-eng Cave, 3(3) 80 Pukenkarahat Cave, 3(3) 91 Pulmondrol Cave, 3(3) 84 Pundroh Cave, 3(3) 91 Quaternary Alluvium, 3(3) 69 Quaternary Coral, 3(3) 69, 71 Rahamusinen Cave, 3(3) 84 Samsau caves, 3(3) 91 So-osah Cave, 3(3) 91, 94 Tewasiu Arch, 3(3) 84 Tiniwai Cave, 3(3) 84 Tinniwi Volcanics, 3(3) 67, 70 map standards, 6(2) 61 Mapos Caves, MOR, 7(2) 101 maps Ambli Cave, SHP, 7(2) 119 Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 42 Anenamo Cave, CHI, 7(1) 18 Angunga Cave, CHI, 4(1) 24 Anuntimpa Cave, EHP, 7(2) 113 Avilu Cave, MOR, 7(1) 19 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 113 Belik Cave, NIP, 2(3) 226 Bougainville Island, 7(2) 39 Chuave area, CHI, 1(4) 111, 7(2) 67 Cromwell Range, MOR, 6(1) 33 E Mama Valley, SHP, 7(2) 127 Eastern Highlands, 3(2) 27 Elimbari area, CHI, 1(4) 111 Erave Valley, SHP, 2(1) 143 Manus Province cont.

PAGE 23

23 Gagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 47 Gewane Kananda, SHP, 7(2) 131 Gomea (Kiowa) system, CHI, 7(1) 17 Hells Gates, EHP, 3(2) 30, 31, 4(1) 18 Huri Ekanda, SHP, 7(2) 136 Inakebu Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 42 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 73 Javavere caves, CEN, 1(3) 90 Kabase Cave, NIP, 2(3) 227 Kainantu area, EHP, 3(2) 37, 39 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 128 Kanameroborunda Cave, NIP, 4(3) 10911 Karu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 224 Kavakuna Cave, ENB, 7(2) 90 Keu village area, CHI, 7(2) 67, 70, 73 Kitava Island, Trobriand Islands, MBP, 6(2) 42 Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4) 129 Kukombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(1) 3, 1(4) front cover, 96 Lamis Cave, NIP, 2(3) 197 Leangnivu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 203 Lehlihia Cave, MAN, 3(3) 90 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 2(3) 213, 3(1) 7, 4(3) 91, 93, 103, Levani Valley, SHP, 7(2) 124, 127 Lihir Island cave, NIP, 4(1) 32 Linobamo Sink, CHI, 7(1) 18 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 11 Lowatkusmeri Lemet Silot, NIP, 4(3) 119 Mageh No. 1 Cave, NIP, 2(3) 226 Mageh No. 2 Cave, NIP, 2(3) 224 Manetai area, BOU, 7(2) 40 Manus maps key, 3(3) 78 Marang Ngat Cave, MAN, 3(3) 86 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 230 Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 209 Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 4(1) 26 Mubi Cave, SHP, 7(2) 117 Ndran Akohau Cave, MAN, 3(3) 81 Ndrompilu Cave, MAN, 3(3) 89 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 3(4) 138a New Britain, 1(1) 14 New Caledonia, 4(4) 167 New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 168 Ngai-Loso caves, MAN, 3(3) 79 Ninggalau Cave, NIP (also spelt Ningilau), 4(3) 11011, 114 Nolombila Cave, CHI, 7(1) 17 Nombi Rockshelter, CHI, 1(4) 113 Obondoyonaminge Cave, CHI, 1(2) 49 Omkombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 98 Pamp Cave, NIP, 2(3) 199 Panamecho village, NIP, 4(2) 49 Pirua Cave, SHP, 1(3) 64 Porol Escarpment, CHI, 1(1) 3, 1(4) front cover Poywih Cave, MAN, 3(3) 83 prominent limestone in PNG, 1(2) front cover provinces of PNG, 6(4) 129 Purio (Nimphidu) Cave, NIP, 2(3) 197 recording cave locations, 7(2) 88 Rinimo Sink, CHI, 7(1) 18 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 1(2) 49 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 199 Sisimi Cave, SHP, 6(4) 123 The Hole, CHI, 1(3) 68 topographic maps, inaccuracies in, 3(3) 73, 7(2) 98 Towan Cave, MAN, 3(3) 82 water supply caves, New Ireland, 2(3) 232 maps cont. maps cont.

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24 maps, availability, 6(3) 94 Marabunge-Tumaduit Cave, NIP, 2(3) 200, 207 see also Tumaduit Cave, NIP Marang Ngat Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80, 86 Marata chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71, 74, 2(4) 248 Mari, L Lluis: Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 88 Marigl Shales, CHI, 1(4) 109 Marpos village cave, MOR, 4(1) 16, 36 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 11113 new contributors, 7(2) 148 Martyn, Mike: new contributors, 3(3) 104 masalai Massim people, 2(2) 179 Mata-ah Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Matali Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Matali River, ENB, 1(1) 16, 7(2) 87 Matanakunei village, ENB, 1(1) 17 Matanbek Cave, NIP, 2(3) 202 Matandru Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 229 Matdrahuur Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Matndrumok Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Matupit volcano, ENB, 1(1) 17 Mau Cave, MAN, 3(3) 77 Mayne, Judy: Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(4) 248 Mayne, Lynette: Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(4) 248 McCabe, Ian: Old Cave, CEN, 4(4) 149 McCann, Stuart: Muller Range Expedition 1976, 4(4) 139– McCarthy, John: Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 7(2) 103 Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 82 McMahon, Pauline: New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9, 1(2) 27 see also Mamarabin pothole, NIP Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 1(3) 70, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 178, medical supplies advice for visitors, 6(3) 93 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(2) 41 Medina High School cave, NIP, 1(4) 120, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 196, 231, 232 Megachiroptera (fruit bats), 7(2) 63 Megadermatidae (false vampire bats), 7(2) 66 Meier, Betty Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4) 128 Meier, Hans Boromai Cave, BOU, 2(1) 147 Bougainville caves, 1(1) 9, 6(1) 36, 6(4) 130, 7(2) 102, Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4) 120, 128 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 2(2) 181, 3(1) 13, 3(4) 137, new contributors, 1(4) 131 North Solomons Cave Exploration Group Newsletter, 7(1) 22 speleo personalities, 4(2) 66 Mendi caves, SHP, 3(4) 133 see also Lemerukluk Cave, NIP Mesangasang Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Mesi village rock shelters, NIP, 2(3) 204 Mesibere, Iyo Gaulim caves, ENB, 1(2) 43 new contributors, 1(2) 22 Mesulam, Lentuang, guide Metdrohorki Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84, 96 Metemana Cave, NIP, 3(4) 134 Meteran village, NIP, 3(3) 97, 3(4) 134 Metliki Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Mi River, NIP, 2(2) 162 Microchiroptera (insectivorous bats), 7(2) 63 Enga caves, 3(4) 123 new contributors, 3(4) 108 Milne Bay Province Milston, Mick: Elimbari and Chuave areas, CHI, 1(4) 110 Mim Koblo Cave, CHI, 6(3) 86 mineral displays, Matupit volcano, 1(1) 17 Minim Cave, NIP, 4(1) 29 Miniopterus medius 1(4) 104, 108 Miniopterus Mink River, ENG, 4(4) 149 Mioko Island, ENB, 1(1) 17 Miro River, CHI, 1(3) 81 missionaries, 2(1) 138, 144

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mist nets, 3(2) 34 Mitchell, Les: Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(2) 62 mites, 6(4) 127 Mitnande clan, CHI, 2(2) 164 molluscs, 6(2) 48 Mongi River, MOR, 6(1) 30, 31 Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77, 79 Montgomery, Neil Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Muller Range Expedition 1976, 3(1) 14, 3(3) 97, 4(2) 67, Montserrat i Nebot, Alfred new contributors, 6(3) 101 Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(2) 70, 6(3) 86 Moranambul River, CHI, 1(4) 108 Morena Cave, CHI, 1(3) 78, 1(4) 114 Morobe Province Arbaruru Cave (Afaruru Cave), 1(2) 23 Avilu Cave, 7(1) 16, 19, 20 Awarida Cave (Afaruru Cave), 1(2) 23 Bangeta Plateau, 7(1) 14 Buang Mountains, 2(1) 139, 2(4) front cover Cromwell Range, 6(1) 27, back cover, 7(2) 144 Gonma depression, 6(1) 27 Gowop Limestone, 6(1) 30 Huon Peninsula, 6(1) 27, 6(4) 131, 7(1) 14, 7(2) 81 Kabwum area, 2(2) 182 Kabwum Limestone Member, 6(1) 30 Kuper Range, 1(2) 23 Kwama River, 6(1) 30, 31 Kwama Valley, 6(1) back cover Mannasat grassland, 7(2) 144 Mapos Caves, 7(2) 101 Marpos village cave, 4(1) 16, 36 Mongi River, 6(1) 30, 31 Mt Bangeta, 6(4) 131 Sagaiyo village, 1(2) 23, 2(1) 139 7(2) 81 Sengayo village area, 7(1) 16, 20 Sialum area, 7(1) 20 Song River Calcarenite, 6(1) 30 Tiba depression, 6(1) 28, back cover Tipsit Limestone, 6(1) 31 Ulur Plains, 7(2) 144 Morris, Japeth Iuvare caves, ENB, 3(4) 132 Moses, Luluai Chuave area, CHI, 1(3) 80 Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 82 mosquitoes, 6(3) 92, 93 Motonenis Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Mouelia species (carpet snake), 1(4) 133 Mountain, Mary Jane arrives Port Moresby, 1(4) 121 7(2) 102 Mountain Rescue Squad, 6(2) 40 Mromon Cave, NIP, 4(1) 28 see also Silom Cave, NIP Mt Afuma, SHP, 6(4) 121 Mt Arthur, New Zealand, 2(2) 182 Mt Bangeta, MOR, 6(4) 131 Mt Kemenagi, SHP, 6(4) 121 Mt Kerewa, SHP, 6(4) 121 Mt Legari, SHP, 7(1) 7 Mt Michael, EHP, 3(2) 26 Mt Owen, New Zealand, 2(2) 182 Mubi Cave, SHP, 7(2) 116, 117 Mubi River, SHP, 1(3) 62, 6(4) 122 Mukou Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84, 93 Muli River, SHP, 1(3) 61 Muliama village caves, NIP, 2(3) 202 Muller Range, SHP further exploration warranted, 7(2) 107 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(3) 66, 1(4) 121, 123 Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 1973 planning, 3(1) 14, 3(3) 97, 4(1) 16, 4(2) 67 preliminary report, 4(4) 139 Muller Range Expedition 1978, 6(2) 70, 6(4) 108 Caves and Karst of the Muller Range (book review), 7(2) 141 Lavani Valley exploration, 7(2) 121 preliminary report, 7(1) 2 preparation for, 6(1) 37 Muller Range Expedition 1982, 7(2) 103, 139, Mundrau Limestone, MAN, 3(3) 67, 70, 71, 73 Muras Cave, NIP, 2(3) 216, 220 murder trials (locals), 3(2) 40 see Hells Gates, EHP Murugugl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 108 Musa maclayi (banana), 1(2) 40

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26 Muscio, Allen: Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 78 Muscio, Jan: Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 78 mushrooms, 1(3) 81 Musumuras Cave, NIP, 2(3) 217 Muto Cave, EHP, 2(2) 186 Myotis myths see legendsNNagail village, ENB, 3(3) 96 Naggia River, SHP, 7(1) 12 Nali Gorge, SHP, 7(1) 6, 7(2) 139 Nama’joga Cave, EHP, 3(4) 136 Namatanai caves, NIP, 1(1) 9, 2(3) 222, 3(3) 97 Nambwatap Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80 naming caves, 1(4) 94 Nanzan University, Japan, expedition, 4(4) 146 Napirou Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Napunta village cave, NIP, 2(3) 201 Naragu clan, CHI, 1(2) 48 Naregu clan, CHI, 2(2) 177 Naringel Limestone, MAN, 3(3) 68, 70, 4(1) 34 Narli River, SHP, 1(4) 126 national cultural property, 2(4) 238 Ndran Akohau Cave, MAN, 3(3) 77, 81 Ndrehinti-i Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Ndrelei Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Ndrias Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Ndrokapulal Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Ndrompahna Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Ndrompilu Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80, 89 Nenduma Cave, BOU, 2(1) 147, 2(2) 181, 2(3) 211, 3(1) 13, see also Boromai Cave, BOU netting, 3(2) 34 Nettlebed Cave, New Zealand, 7(2) 31 never-again-country, 3(1) 9 New Britain caves, 1(1) 13 see also Province New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9, 1(2) 27 New Hanover (Lavangai Island), NIP, 3(3) 97, 3(4) 134 New Hebrides [Vanuatu] caves, 4(4) 166 acknowledgements, 4(3) 134 conclusion, 4(3) 133 diary, 4(3) 94 equipment and logistics, 4(3) 129 geology, 4(3) 102 introduction, 4(3) 89 overview, 3(3) 97, 4(3) 87 vegetation, 4(3) 106 water supply caves, 4(3) 106 New Ireland Expedition 1976 New Ireland Province Angolomon Cave, 2(3) 218 Awatbumbum Cave, 2(3) 219, 4(3) 97, 107, 116 Bakan village caves, 2(3) 201, 222 Banamai Cave, 2(1) 141 Batumoris Cave, 2(3) 217 Baum Cave, 2(3) 196 Bo village pothole, 2(3) 201 Bokakup I karst depressions, 4(3) 123, 127 Bolof Cave, 2(3) 196, 229 Bonamai Cave, 2(3) 200 Bopire plantation, 2(3) 201 Buang Kalubu caves, 2(3) 198, 207 Buangkum Cave, 2(3) 220 Buangmeriba Cave, 3(1) 11 see also Kamiriba 1 Cave Bulu Cave, 4(3) 113 Bulu village caves, 2(3) 200 Bumbuve village, 2(3) 198 Canimelavow Cave, 2(3) 219 see also Kanimetlavau Cave coastal caves, 2(3) 222 4(4) 141 Etis Cave, 2(3) 218 geography, 2(3) 193

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27 geology and geomorphology, 2(3) 194 Hilalon plantation caves, 2(3) 202 Huris village caves, 2(3) 202 Kabotlabangabang caves, 3(1) 10, 4(3) 97, 108 Kalili plantation cave, 2(3) 204 Kaluan village, 2(3) 214 Kameribuk Cave, 4(1) 29, 4(3) 101, 127 see also Buangmeriba Cave Kamiriba 1 Cave, 4(1) 29 see also Buangmeriba Cave Kamiriba 2 Cave, 4(1) 29 Kanambu Cave, 3(1) 8, 4(3) 108 10812 Kanimbigim Cave (also spelt Kanembigin), 3(1) 10, 4(3) 96, 108 Kanimetlavau Cave, 4(3) 97, 107, 116 see also Canimelavow Cave Kantembu village, 2(3) 198, 206 Kanulumu Cave, 2(3) 218 Kapsel village, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 202 Karu Cave, 1(3) 67, 2(3) 200, 223, 224 see also Ririe Cave Katasalong Cave, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 201 Kaut Cave, 1(4) 136, 2(3) 202 Kavieng area caves, 1(1) 9 Kenapit plantation caves, 2(3) 200, 222 Kistobu Cave, 2(2) 160, 2(3) 200, 4(1) 27 Kolonoboi village, 2(3) 200, 207 Komebe Cave, 2(1) 141, 2(3) 200 Konobin village caves, 2(3) 198 Konogusgus village caves, 2(3) 198, 231, 3(1) 11 Kororeda Cave, 3(4) 139 Labungkalabus karst depression, 4(3) 126 Lakare Cave, 4(3) 113 Lamangwat Cave, 4(3) 108 see also Kanambu Cave Lamis Cave, 2(3) 196, 197 Lamlad Cave, 2(3) 220, 4(3) 106 see also Pamp Cave Lamout Massang, 2(3) 198, 206 Lamussong village cave, 2(3) 198 Laram Cave, 3(1) 8 Laranbut karst depressions, 4(3) 117 Laranbut village, 4(3) 97 passim Lasiliba school, 2(3) 203 Latbebe village, 3(1) 10 Latkiang Cave, 3(1) 8 Lawariskul Cave, 2(3) 216 Lawarivanggasu Cave, 2(3) 218 Leangnivu Cave, 2(3) 203 legends, 2(3) 206 Lelet Plateau, 2(3) 194, 202, 212, 3(1) 6, 14, 3(3) 97, 4(2) 68 see also New Ireland Expedition 1976 Lematura caves, 4(3) 113 7(2) 102, 109 Lemerukluk Cave, 2(3) 221 see also Meruklu caves Lemetrakabit Cave, 3(1) 8 Lemetura Cave, 3(4) 139, 4(1) 28 Lenbinbin Cave, 4(3) 96, 112 (photo), 113, 116 Lenevit karst depressions, 4(3) 124 Lenkamin village, 2(3) 212, 214, 221, 231, 3(1) 11, 4(3) 94, 97 Lenkaso karst depressions, 4(3) 123, 124 Lenkindugudu karst depression, 4(3) 127 Liga village cave, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 196, 231, 232 Lihir Island caves, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 204, 2(4) 246, 4(1) 31 passim Limbin Sink, 3(1) 8 Limbin village, 2(3) 214, 3(1) 6, 8, 11, 4(3) 94 passim Lockabor Cave, 3(4) 139 Logogon village, 2(3) 196 Lokabar Cave, 2(3) 201 Lokon village cave, 2(3) 200 Loloba Cave, 2(1) 141, 2(3) 200 Loloba village caves, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 222 Loronang Cave, 2(3) 214, 216 Lovon Cave, 2(3) 216 Lowasama village, 3(1) 10, 11 Lowatkana village, 2(3) 212, 214, 221 Lowatkusmeri karst depressions, 4(3) 117 Lowatkusmeri Lemet Silot, 4(3) 99, 117 Luburua plantation, 2(3) 196, 208 Lulur village cave, 2(3) 202 Mageh No. 2 Cave, 2(3) 202, 223, 224 Mamarabin pothole, 2(3) 198, 206 see also Meabin Cave Mandok Cave, 2(3) 204 Mangai village caves, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 196 Marabunge-Tumaduit Cave, 2(3) 200, 207 see also Tumaduit Cave Matanbek Cave, 2(3) 202 Matapara Cave, 2(3) 196, 229 see also Mamarabin pothole Medina High School cave, 1(4) 120, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 196, 231, 232 see also Lemerukluk Cave Mesangasang Cave, 2(3) 218 Mesi village rock shelters, 2(3) 204 Metemana Cave, 3(4) 134 Meteran village, 3(3) 97, 3(4) 134 Metliki Cave, 2(3) 218 Mi River, 2(2) 162 Minim Cave, 4(1) 29 Mromon Cave, 4(1) 28 see also Silom Cave Muliama village caves, 2(3) 202 Muras Cave, 2(3) 216, 220 Musumuras Cave, 2(3) 217 Namatanai caves, 1(1) 9, 2(3) 222, 3(3) 97 Napunta village cave, 2(3) 201 New Hanover (Lavangai Island), 3(3) 97, 3(4) 134 Ninggalau Cave (also spelt Ningilau), 4(1) 29, 4(3) 96, Nokon village caves, 2(3) 202 New Ireland Province cont. New Ireland Province cont.

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28 Nonopai village cave, 2(3) 196 Pamp Cave, 2(3) 198, 199, 223 see also Lamlamsik Cave Panamafei village pothole, 2(3) 203, 207 Panamana village, 2(3) 196 Panemeke village cave, 2(3) 204 Pesolik Cave, 4(3) 112 Pire village, 2(3) 201 Poronbus village, 2(3) 202 Punam Limestone, 2(3) 194 Purio (Nimphidu) Cave, 2(3) 196, 197 Putbiliko (high country, Lelet Plateau), 3(1) 8, 11 Putbo Cave, 2(3) 219 Putladung Cave, 4(3) 106, 112 Ramat plantation caves, 2(3) 201, 222 Ramat village caves, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 201, 222 Rasese village caves, 2(3) 201, 222 Ririe Cave, 4(1) 28 see also Karu Cave Sae River, 2(3) 201 Samo village caves, 2(3) 202 Schleinitz Range, 2(3) 194, 202 Selanit caves, 2(3) 216 Sepl Cave, 4(3) 97, 112 Sila Cave, 3(4) 134 Silom 2 village cave, 2(3) 212 Silom Cave, 2(3) 198, 231, 3(3) 97 see also Mromon Cave Sohun 2 village, 2(3) 202 Surker Limestone, 2(3) 194 Tabar Island, 2(3) 207 Tumaduit Cave, 4(1) 27 see also Marabunge-Tumaduit Cave Tumbumpo area, 3(1) 11 Valval Cave, 3(4) 134 water supply caves, 2(3) 231 Ngai-Loso caves, MAN, 3(3) 77, 79 Nicholls, Rosemary Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Niglgagle passage, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72, 2(4) 248 Nilkama River, CHI, 1(4) 102 Nimimb River, ENG, 3(4) 124 Ninggalau Cave, NIP (also spelt Ningilau), 4(1) 29, Niugini Speleological Research Expedition 1973 see Muller Range Expedition 1973 Nogar Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104 see also Nogare village, CHI, 1(4) 103 Nokon village caves, NIP, 2(3) 202 Nola Cave, CHI, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 249 Nola village area, CHI, 4(1) 18 Nolangomo Stream, CHI, 6(2) 64 Nolombila Cave, CHI, 6(2) 63, 7(1) 16, 17 Nomani, Councillor Angunga Cave, CHI, 4(1) 19 Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 63 Nombi Rockshelter, CHI (also spelt Noumbi, Nombe), Nongamel Cave, CHI, 1(4) 97 Nonopai village cave, NIP, 2(3) 196 Noone, Michael new contributors, 1(4) 131 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 North Solomons Cave Exploration Group Newsletter, 7(1) 22 North Solomons Province see Bougainville Province Nothofagus species (southern beech), 6(3) 74 Nullarbor Cave, Australia, 1(4) 131 Numbaira people, EHP, 3(2) 42 Nutuve Catholic Mission, ENB, 1(1) 16, 1(2) 28, 6(4) 130 Nyctimystes species (frog), 3(2) 44O Obi Cave, EHP, 2(2) 186, 188 Obondoyonaminge Cave, CHI, 1(2) 48, 49, 1(4) 97, 104, 2(2) 177, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 248 Obungeram Cave, ENB, 1(1) 16, 3(1) 14, 21, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 140 Obura area, EHP, 3(2) 38, 40, 6(4) 131, 7(2) 100 ochre paintings, 2(2) 164 see also rock art 4(1) 6, 9 16, 7(2) 100 Ogi Oga Kombogo Cave, CHI, 4(2) 73 Ogle-Ogla Cave, CHI, 4(2) 78 Oglon Kombuglodra Cave, CHI, 6(3) 86 Oglon Vamedira Cave, CHI, 6(3) 86 Ogondia clan, CHI, 2(2) 163 113 Okafungu caves, SHP, 7(1) 6 New Ireland Province cont.

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29 4(2) 67, 4(4) 149 see also Javavere caves, CEN Olden, Alan arrives Rabaul, 4(1) 16 Gaulim caves, ENB, 4(4) 149 Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 118, 120 Omaura area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Omkombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 97, 104 Omuntianele Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Onanaro River, CHI, 1(3) 81 Onaningka village area, EHP, 3(2) 43 Ongbonigl River, CHI, 1(4) 106 cave of year award, 1(4) 122 Oravanana Cave, EHP, 6(4) 131, 7(1) 14, 7(2) 81, 100, 108 see also Yunamare Cave, EHP Oreat-Satadat Cave, ENB, 1(1) 16 Oreill, Bob: Kogonkombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104 Oriri River, CHI, 1(3) 80, 81, 82 Oriro River, CHI, 1(3) 84 Orme, Ted: Teama Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 overseas visitors to PNG, advice for, 6(3) 89, 6(4) 124 Owen Stanley Range, CEN, 2(1) 138 owls, 1(4) 133 PPage, Ralph paintings see rock art Palang Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80 Pamp Cave, NIP, 2(3) 198, 199, 223 see also Lamlamsik Cave, NIP Panamafei village pothole, NIP, 2(3) 203, 207 Panamana village, NIP, 2(3) 196 Pandanus species (screw pine), 6(3) 74 Panemeke village cave, NIP, 2(3) 204 Papua New Guinea Speleological Expedition NSRE 1973 , Papua New Guinea’s Prehistory: An Introduction (book Parakeipu Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80 Pari village area, CHI, 6(3) 87 Parka squeeze, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72 Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 Kabwum area, MOR, 2(2) 182 Kobikobiri Cave, CHI, 1(4) 10910 Lufa area, EHP, 2(2) 184 mentioned, 1(4) 121 new contributors, 1(4) 131 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 1(2) 48 Singga Valley caves, CHI, 1(4) 103 speleo personalities, 3(2) 64 Paru Paru School Cave, BOU, 6(3) 99 Parzybut, Roger Berema Cave, CHI, 7(2) 78 Chuave area, CHI, 6(1) 37, 6(2) 70, 6(3) 100, 7(2) 67 new contributors, 7(2) 148 Pato Cave, CHI, 4(1) 19 Pavey, Andrew: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Pavey, Bev: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Pawari Cave, ENG, 3(4) 123 Pawih, Bernard arrives Port Moresby, 4(1) 16 Manus Island cave legends, 3(3) 93 new contributors, 3(3) 104 arrives Kainantu, EHP, 7(2) 104 mentioned, 7(1) 23 new contributors, 7(2) 148 Ofafunga Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Tuweiwu Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Ulur Plains, MOR, 7(2) 144 Pentecost caves, New Hebrides [Vanuatu], 4(4) 166 perched lakes, 1(3) 66 permits for collecting, 6(3) 90 new contributors, 7(2) 148 Perou, Sid, cameraman: British Speleological Expedition

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30 Perry, Chris Lihir Island caves, NIP, 2(4) 246 Pesolik Cave, NIP, 4(3) 112 pigs New Ireland, 2(3) 207 Pila Cave, CHI, 7(1) 16 pinnacle karst, 4(1) 2 Pire village, NIP, 2(3) 201 Pit-prop passage, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 72 Pius, Paul Manus Island cave legends, 3(3) 94 new contributors, 3(3) 104 Ples Pit-pit chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71 Plumley, Noel Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 81 British Speleological Expedition 1978, 6(4) 113, 131 Obura area, EHP, 6(4) 131 Pogaio people, SHP, 1(4) 124 Pokohoh Arch, MAN, 3(3) 84 Pokolou, Anna new contributors, 3(3) 104 poljes, 6(3) 76, 80 polychaete worms, 3(4) 109, 4(1) 14 Pomio area caves, ENB, 1(1) 16 see also Pondo, ENB, 1(1) 16 Pons, Salvador: Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 88 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Poronbus village, NIP, 2(3) 202 Porsos Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Port Moresby Speleological Society, 4(4) 144 porters see guides and carriers Poruberi village, SHP, 2(1) 142 possums, 1(4) 102 pottery Aggtelek caves, Hungary and Czechoslovakia, 3(1) 23 Cape Rodney – Kupiano area, CEN, 2(1) 138 passim Pound, Alison Aibura Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 arrives Kainantu, EHP, 7(2) 104 bats, 6(3) 101 expedition advice, 6(3) 89, 6(4) 124 Javavere caves, CEN, 4(2) 67 Kupiano area, CEN, 7(2) 100 new contributors, 6(2) 66 Old Cave, CEN, 4(4) 149 swiftlets, 7(2) 120, 138 Pound, Malcolm arrives Kainantu, EHP, 7(2) 104 arrives Port Moresby, 3(1) 14 Art Gallery Cave, CEN, 7(2) 100 Barananomba Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Berema Cave, CHI, 6(2) 70, 7(2) 78 Cromwell Range, MOR, 6(1) 27 Kamasi village area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Kupiano area, CEN, 7(2) 100 Ofafunga Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Old Cave, CEN, 4(4) 149 Omaura area, EHP, 7(2) 100 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 147 speleo personalities, 4(4) 174 Poywih Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80, 83 prehistory Aggtelek caves, Hungary and Czechoslovakia, 3(1) 23 Priestley, Ian: Aibura Cave, EHP, 7(2) 100 Prior, Chris Lihir Island caves, NIP, 2(4) 246 Singoinga Cave, ENB, 2(2) 181 prison caves, 2(3) 196 pseudokarst volcanolithic arenite, 4(1) 31 Pteropodidae (fruit bats), 7(2) 64 Pteropus publishing expedition reports, 6(3) 97 Pugsley, Chris new contributors, 4(1) 39 Puke-eng Cave, MAN, 3(3) 80

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31 Pukenkarahat Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Pulmondrol Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Pulupare village, SHP, 2(1) 142, 144, 3(1) 4 Punam Limestone, NIP, 2(3) 194 Pundroh Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91 Punua River Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 Pupitau village, SHP, 2(1) 142 Purio (Nimphidu) Cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 197 Putbiliko (high country, Lelet Plateau, NIP), 3(1) 8, 11 Putbo Cave, NIP, 2(3) 219 Putladung Cave, NIP, 4(3) 106, 112 Pybus, Andy Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Pybus, Judy Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 pythons advice for visitors, 6(3) 93 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10 Qquarantine, 6(3) 90 Quaternary Alluvium, MAN, 3(3) 69 Quaternary Coral, MAN, 3(3) 69, 71 Queen’s Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99, 2(4) 234R radios, 6(3) 91 Rafaifo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 114 Rahamusinen Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Raiakama Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124 rain New Ireland, 2(3) 194 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 40 seasonality, 6(3) 96 rainmaking, 4(3) 127, 4(4) 141 Rakhoit Peak Cave, Pakistan, 1(4) 127 Ramaivutaini Cave, EHP, 6(2) 72 Ramarau Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Ramat plantation caves, NIP, 2(3) 201, 222 Ramat village caves, NIP, 2(1) 139, 2(3) 201, 222 Rana grisea (frog), 3(2) 44 Rasese village caves, NIP, 2(3) 201, 222 rats Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 163 indigenous, 1(4) 102 Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Read, Kevin Chuave area, CHI, 1(3) 79 Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 78 Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 82 Tuke village area, ENB, 1(2) 26, 28 records Bougainville Island, 7(2) 41 depth and length, New Ireland, 2(3) 228, 3(3) 97 depth, Southern Hemisphere, 1(1) 2, 1(4) 127, 2(2) 162, 7(2) 31 7(2) 29, 37 highest caves, Southern Hemisphere, 1(4) 126 karst, largest features in PNG, 7(2) 28, 36 length, Southern Hemisphere, 3(4) 107, 109, 4(1) 1, 11, refuges see shelter provision Rehtla, Harry Teama Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 6(4) 124, 126 4(4) 149 resurgences (photo) Retretenoro Cave, CHI, 1(4) 112 Richardson, Martin: Mt Kaijende, ENG, 7(2) 101 rats cont.

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32 Richmond Area Speleological Society, United States, 3(3) 101 Rigin, Konegi: Iuvare caves, ENB, 3(4) 132 Rinimo Sink, CHI, 7(1) 16, 18 Ririe Cave, NIP, 4(1) 28 see also Karu Cave, NIP river techniques, 1(2) 38 road construction Manus Province, 3(3) 76 Southern Highlands Province, 7(2) 118, 120 roads, 6(3) 91 Robertson, Peter: Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Robinson, Peter Bougainville caves, 1(1) 9 new contributors, 3(4) 108 Robinson, Phil: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 rock art art exhibition, 6(4) 132 bibliographies, 3(4) 122, 4(4) 163, 6(1) 13 Buang Mountains, MOR, 2(1) 139, 140, 2(4) front cover Buangmeriba Cave, NIP, 3(1) 11 Chuave area, CHI, 2(2) 178 Himarata land bridge, 3(2) 41 Ikenar Cave, EHP, 3(2) 42 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 101, 127 Kirove Cave, CHI, 1(3) 80 Kokombogo II Cave, CHI, 2(2) 177 Lake Kutubu, SHP, 2(1) 146 Lombila cave system, CHI, 6(2) 64 Matali Cave, EHP, 7(2) 101 Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 4(1) 18 Namatanai caves, NIP, 1(1) 9 Nambaiyufa village, EHP, 3(1) 13 Obura land bridge, EHP, 3(2) 41 101, 16 Ramarau Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 2(2) 177 Sogeri Plateau, CEN, 2(3) 211 Taforahabi Cave, EHP, 3(2) 36 Umarah Cave, NIP, 2(2) front cover, 160 Umkombogo system, CHI, 2(2) 177 Yonggamugl area, CHI, 4(2) 77, 78 rock shelters see shelter provision Rogers, Mary Kovava Cave, BOU, 1(4), 128 mentioned 1(4) 121 Rogerson, Mark: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 Roko Sink, CHI, 1(4) 112 ropes, 1(2) 38 Ross, John: Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 Rotokas area, BOU, 1(4) 128 Rousettus species (fruit bat), 1(4) 134, 7(2) 64 Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Ruxton, Peter: Muller Range Expedition 1976, 4(4) 139, Ryan, Janet Iaro River Cave, SHP, 3(1) 4, 14 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 Ryan, Neil Erave Valley, SHP, 7(2) 103, 11619 Iaro River Cave, SHP, 3(1) 4, 14 Kaugua River Cave, EHP, 6(1) 36 Kundiawa area, CHI, 1(4) 120 new contributors, 2(1) 146 Omai Cave, SHP, 7(1) 11, 7(2) 118, 120 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Southern Highlands caves, 2(1) 142SSae River, NIP, 2(3) 201 safety, 3(4) 106, 7(2) 148 see also accidents Sagaiyo village, MOR, 1(2) 23, 2(1) 139 arrives Bulolo, MOR, 4(1) 16 Marpos village cave, MOR, 4(1) 16, 36 new contributors, 4(1) 39 Samo village caves, NIP, 2(3) 202 Samsau caves, MAN, 3(3) 91 Sanake Creek, SHP, 6(4) 121 Sandaun Province see Sanders, Bill arrives Port Moresby, 4(1) 16 Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 new contributors, 1(2) 22 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 rock art cont.

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33 Saruwaged Range, MOR Sauanda Cave, ENG, 3(4) 123 Saunders, Rod Iuvare caves, ENB, 1(4) 120 Raulei Range, ENB, 1(3) 66 Iuvare caves, ENB, 1(4) 120 water supply caves, NIP, 1(4) 120, 2(3) 231 see also Schleinitz Range, NIP, 2(3) 194, 202 screw pine (Pandanus species), 6(3) 74 sea caves, ENB, 1(1) 17 seasonality of PNG, 6(3) 96 Second Source, EHP, 3(2) 29 Selanit caves, NIP, 2(3) 216 7(2) 103 Sengayo village area, MOR, 7(1) 16, 20 Sepl Cave, NIP, 4(3) 97, 112 shaft depths, estimating, 7(2) 37 Shannon, Henry new contributors, 4(3) 136 Shaw, Peter: Muller Range Expedition 1973, 1(4) 123 shelter provision, 2(2) 179 Aibura Cave, EHP, 3(2) 38, 46 Cape Rodney – Kupiano area, CEN, 2(1) 138 Enga caves, 3(4) 124 Kaimomo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 110 Kobikobiri Cave, CHI, 1(4) 109 Kokombogo caves, CHI, 1(4) 99 Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 208 Mebikombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99, 4(1) 18 Mesi village rock shelters, NIP, 2(3) 204 Metemana Cave, NIP, 3(4) 134 Mromon Cave, NIP, 4(1) 28 New Ireland caves, 2(3) 196, 198, 206 Onaningka village area, EHP, 3(2) 43 Sumbura Cave, SHP, 2(1) 144 Taforahabi Cave, EHP, 3(2) 36 Toglua Cave, CHI, 1(4) 108 Umkombogo system, CHI, 2(2) 178 Yonggamugl area, CHI, 4(2) 77 Shepherd, Mike new contributors, 2(4) 244 Sialum area, MOR, 7(1) 20 1(4) 99, 2(2) 177, 2(4) 248 Sila Cave, NIP, 3(4) 134 Silim Cave, ENG, 3(4) 126 Silom 2 village cave, NIP, 2(3) 212 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 198, 231, 3(3) 97 see also Mromon Cave, NIP Simbu Province see Chimbu Province Simbugu clan, CHI, 2(2) 163 Simbum village, ENB, 1(1) 17 Simla de Milpo, Peru, 2(2) 162 Singga-Kombogo Cave, CHI, 4(2) 78 Singga River, CHI, 1(2) 48, 1(3) 69, 1(4) 97 Singga Valley caves, CHI, 1(4) 103 Singganigl Valley, CHI: rock art and burial caves, 2(2) 163 Singoinga Cave, ENB, 3(1) front cover sinkholes see dolines see Sio Cave, CHI, 7(2) 72, 74 Sireboa spirit, 3(2) 42 Sirigi village, SHP, 2(1) 142 Sisimi Cave, SHP, 6(4) 122 skink (Sphenomorphus darlingtoni), 1(4) 108 Skunge chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71, 74 snails: Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 48 36 snake spirits, 3(4) 134 snakes advice for visitors, 6(3) 93 Mouelia species (carpet snake), 1(4) 133 tree snakes, 1(4) 132, 133 So-osah Cave, MAN, 3(3) 91, 94 Sogeri Plateau, CEN, 2(3) 211 Sohano Limestone, BOU, 7(2) 38 Sohun 2 village, NIP, 2(3) 202 Song River Calcarenite, MOR, 6(1) 30 shelter provision cont.

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34 Soro River cave, SHP, 2(1) 146 Soro River, SHP, 6(4) 122 Sosoentenu village, EHP, 3(2) 44 Sounier, Jean-Paul: Nembi Plateau, SHP, 7(2) 103, southern beech ( Nothofagus species), 6(3) 74 Southern Highlands Expedition 1973 see Muller Range Expedition 1973 Southern Highlands Province Ambli Cave, 7(2) 118, 119 Atea Kanada see Atea Kanada, SHP Atea River see Atea River, SHP Bebere caves, 6(4) 122 Black Hole, 7(2) 139 Black Hole Country, 7(2) 137 Boro village, 2(1) 142 Burnett River, 1(4) 126 E Mama Eleanda, 7(2) 84, 126 E Mama Valley, 7(2) 126, 127 Ebabini village caves, 2(1) 146 Erave Valley, 1(3) 62, 2(1) 142, 143, 2(2) 182, 7(2) 103, 11619 Gewane Kananda, 7(2) 128, 131 Hadia Nduhongiri, 7(1) 8 Hadia Yaneabogairi Cave, 7(1) 9, 7(2) 107, 139 see also Mamo Kananda Hana-I-Uli sink, 7(2) 134 Huri Ekanda, 7(2) 134, 136 Ita village cave, 2(1) 144 Kagua area, 2(1) 142, 144, 7(2) 103 Kaimare Stream, 6(4) 121 Kanada Atea see Atea Kanada, SHP Katiloma Cave, 2(1) 144 Kerene en Eto, 7(2) 132, 133, 134 Kewane Valley, 7(2) 123, 129 Kikori River, 1(3) 60, 6(4) 121 Laboko village cave, 2(1) 146 Lake Kutubu, 2(1) 146, 6(4) 121 Lavani Valley, 6(2) 71, 7(1) 7, 7(2) 121 see also Hadia Yaneabogairi Cave Mt Afuma, 6(4) 121 Mt Kemenagi, 6(4) 121 Mt Kerewa, 6(4) 121 Mt Legari, 7(1) 7 Mubi Cave, 7(2) 116, 117 Mubi River, 1(3) 62, 6(4) 122 Muli River, 1(3) 61 Naggia River, 7(1) 12 Nali Gorge, 7(1) 6, 7(2) 139 Narli River, 1(4) 126 Okafungu caves, 7(1) 6 118, 120 Poruberi village, 2(1) 142 Pulupare village, 2(1) 142, 144, 3(1) 4 Pupitau village, 2(1) 142 Sanake Creek, 6(4) 121 Sirigi village, 2(1) 142 Sisimi Cave, 6(4) 122 Soro River, 6(4) 122 Soro River cave, 2(1) 146 Strickland River, 1(4) 123, 126 Sugu River, 2(1) 144 Sumbura Cave, 2(1) 144 Taguanda village cave, 2(1) 144 Tubagi Stream, 6(4) 121 Tugebu Stream, 6(4) 121 Uli Eta Riya, 7(2) 107 Uli Mindu Cave, 7(1) 7, 7(2) 107 Utina River, 7(1) 6 Utna sink, 7(1) 6 Southern Highlands Province cont.

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Yaga Kananda, 7(2) 132, 133 Yagamega Kananda, 7(2) 134, 137 Yogona Ekanda, 7(2) 137 Yu Balalo Cave, 7(2) 139 see also Muller Range expeditions Specht, Jim new contributors, 7(2) 148 Speleological Abstracts, 6(1) 38 speleology in PNG – a history, 4(4) 144 speleothems see Spence Cave, Virginia, United States, 3(3) 99 Spence, Neville: Kagua area, SHP, 2(1) 144 Sphenomorphus darlingtoni (skink), 1(4) 108 spiders Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41 Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 47 spirits evil spirits, 2(2) 164, 3(4) 121 Gerigl Ambu spirit, 2(2) 168, 170, 172, 174, 4(2) 73 Kurakagl spirit, 1(4) 10910 masalai Sireboa spirit, 3(2) 42 snake spirits, 3(4) 134 tambarans, 2(3) 214, 220, 3(1) 10 Tuki spirit, 1(2) 37 Yogondo spirit, 2(2) 168, 170, 172, 174, 176, 177 see also Sprod, Tim Angunga Cave, CHI, 4(1) 23 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(2) 62 new contributors, 3(4) 108 New Ireland Expedition 1976, 4(2) 68, 4(4) 141, Obungeram Cave, ENB, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 140 Rarururunga Cave, ENB, 4(4) 149 Rururunga Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Singoinga Cave, ENB, 2(2) 181 Tavurvur volcano, ENB, 4(4) 149 St Georges Channel, ENB, 2(3) 211 stalactites Afaruru Cave, MOR, 1(2) 23 Anaviato Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41 Buangkum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220 coastal caves, 2(3) 222 Inomangi Cave, CHI, 7(2) 72, 78 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71 Kabase Cave, NIP, 2(3) 228 Karu Cave, NIP, 2(3) 223 Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Kibuari Cave, EHP, 3(2) 41 Kousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 49 Lenbinbin Cave, NIP, 4(3) 112 (photo) Liga village cave, NIP, 2(3) 231 Lihir Island cave, NIP, 4(1) 31, 33 Lockabor Cave, NIP, 3(4) 139 Loloba Cave, NIP, 2(1) 141 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10, 12, 13 Luminas Cave, ENB, 1(2) 44 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 30 Pamp Cave, NIP, 2(3) 198 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 200 Taroku Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41, 43 Umarah Cave, NIP, 2(2) 160 Yaramanda Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124 stalagmites Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 4 Hells Gates, EHP, 3(2) 28 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71 Kanameroborunda Cave, NIP, 4(3) 112 Kaut Cave, NIP, 1(4) 136 Laranbut VII karst depression, NIP, 4(3) 121 Liga village cave, NIP, 2(3) 231 Loloba Cave, NIP, 2(1) 141 Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 10, 12, 13 Luminas Cave, ENB, 1(2) 44 Matapara Cave, NIP, 2(3) 229 Metliki Cave, NIP, 2(3) 218 Mubi Cave, SHP, 7(2) 116 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 30 Southern Highlands Province cont.

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36 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 200 Taroku Nantaut, BOU, 7(2) 41, 43 Yaramanda Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124 stamp collecting, 3(3) 103 karst morphology, 6(3) 74 Stearns, Tony: Berema Cave, CHI, 7(2) 102 Stott, Bill: Chimbu area, 1(1) 9 straws: Loniu Cave, MAN, 1(1) 12 Streeter, Bill Teama Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 Strickland River, SHP, 1(4) 123, 126 Studies in Speleology , 2(4) 244 subscribers to Niugini Caver , 6(3) 102 distribution by country, 3(3) 104, 4(2) 68 international, 3(1) 24 Sugu River, SHP, 2(1) 144 sulphur, 1(3) 66 Sumbura Cave, SHP, 2(1) 144 Surker Limestone, NIP, 2(3) 194 surveys Cave Survey and Map Standards, 6(2) 61 grading systems, 1(3) 76 Ora Cave, ENB, 1(2) 40 recording cave locations, 7(2) 88 summary of PNG major caves, 1981, 7(2) 10611 swallows Buangkum Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220 Obura land bridge, EHP, 3(2) 41 swiftlets, 7(2) 120, 138 Aibura Cave, EHP, 3(2) 38 Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 163 Awatbumbum Cave, NIP, 4(3) 108 Bokakup I karst depressions, NIP, 4(3) 127 Inomangi Cave, CHI, 7(2) 72 Kameribuk Cave, NIP, 4(3) 127 Kobikobiri Cave, CHI, 1(4) 109 Lamangwat Cave, NIP, 4(3) 108 Lamari River caves, EHP, 3(2) 41, 42 Laranbut I karst depression, NIP, 4(3) 118 Laranbut IV karst depression, NIP, 4(3) 120 Lenbinbin Cave, NIP, 4(3) 113 Obi Cave, EHP, 2(2) 186, 188 Putladung Cave, NIP, 4(3) 112 Rafaifo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 114 Taforahabi Cave, EHP, 3(2) 36 Tumaduit Cave, NIP, 4(1) 27 101 Synnongoinga Cave, ENB, 1(1) 17TTabar Island, NIP, 2(3) 207 Tadarida species (insectivorous bat), 7(2) 66 see also frogs Taguanda village cave, SHP, 2(1) 144 Takika Hill, New Zealand, 2(2) 182 Talinge, James new contributors, 4(2) 62 tambarasee tambarans (spirits), 2(3) 214, 220, 3(1) 10 Tao Mountain, CHI, 7(2) 72 Taphozous Tarn chamber, Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 71, 72, 2(4) 248 taro gardens, 3(4) 119 Taulil village, ENB, 1(1) 17 Taylor, Bob: Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 Taylor, Kath Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 79 Monono area, CHI, 1(3) 77 7(2) 109 tectonic movements: Manus, 3(3) 69 Tekaina, Thomas, guide: New Ireland Expedition 1976, temperatures, 6(3) 96 Tew, Helen: Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(2) 72 Tewasiu Arch, MAN, 3(3) 84 see also stalagmites cont. swiftlets cont.

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37 The Maze, EHP, 3(2) 32 CHI, 1(3) 72, 2(4) 248, 4(2) front cover, 7(1) 22 The Science of Speleology (book review), 7(1) 21 The Tomb, EHP, 3(2) 29 see also Haga’rintega Cave, EHP Thomas, Colin: Mendi, SHP, 7(2) 104 Tiba depression, MOR, 6(1) 28, back cover Tifal language translations, 3(4) 118 Tiniwai Cave, MAN, 3(3) 84 Tinniwi Volcanics, MAN, 3(3) 67, 70 Tipsit Limestone, MOR, 6(1) 31 Toglua Cave, CHI, 1(4) 108 Tokamit, Loko, guide: Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 208 Tokobare Cave, CHI, 1(4) 102 Tomas, Albert: Spanish Expedition 1978, 6(3) 88 Tomoko, Betty, guide: Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 208 Tomoko, Matagal, guide: Matarai Cave, NIP, 2(3) 208 tools, 4(2) 47, 61 topographic maps inaccuracies in, 3(3) 73, 7(2) 98 recording cave locations, 7(2) 88 Torio River, ENB, 3(1) 21 track cutting, 1(4) 123 travel to and within PNG, 6(3) 91 tree snakes, 1(4) 132, 133 Trobriand Islanders: beliefs, 2(2) 179 troglobites New Ireland caves, 4(1) 30 Tubagi Stream, SHP, 6(4) 121 see also Obura land bridge, EHP Tugebu Stream, SHP, 6(4) 121 Tuki spirit, 1(2) 37 Tumaduit Cave, NIP, 4(1) 27 see also Marabunge-Tumaduit Cave, NIP Tumbumpo area, NIP, 3(1) 11 Tuweiwu Cave, EHP, 6(1) 36, 6(4) 131, 7(2) 101, 108 Tytoalba species (barn owl), 1(4) 133UUbanagu clan, CHI, 1(2) 48 Uila Cave, CHI, 1(4) 101 Ukani clan, CHI, 2(2) 163 Uli Eta Riya, SHP, 7(2) 107 Uli Mindu Cave, SHP, 7(1) 7, 7(2) 107 Ulur Plains, MOR, 7(2) 144 Umkombogo system, CHI, 2(2) 177 Underdown, Michael new contributors, 2(1) 146 Ungakoboro Cave, CHI, 1(4) 100 Unger, Bruce death of, 7(2) 137 Levani Valley, SHP, 7(2) 121 new contributors, 7(2) 148 University of Queensland Speleological Society New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9, 1(2) 27 Upper Ramu Gorge caves, EHP, 3(2) 43 Uram Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104, 2(4) 248 Uramakani clan, CHI, 2(2) 163 Urumovi Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 Urungotainde Cave, CHI, 1(4) 97 Utina River, SHP, 7(1) 6 Utna sink, SHP, 7(1) 6 uvalas, 1(2) 28VValval Cave, NIP, 3(4) 134 Van Amstel, John Chimbu area, 1(1) 9 mentioned, 1(3) 67 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 mentioned, 4(4) 148 Tapitapipi caves, MBP, 1(4) 134 vandalism see Vande Linde, Keith: Mt Elimbari, CHI, 1(3) 82 Vanuatu [New Hebrides] caves, 4(4) 166 Venezuela, 2(2) 182 Vermeulen, Mieke: Bibima Cave, CHI, 3(4) 132 Vincent, Robert (Bob) Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146

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38 Vincent, Vivienne Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Virginia caves, United States, 3(3) 99 visas to PNG, 6(3) 89 visitors to PNG, advice for, 6(3) 89, 6(4) 124 volcanolithic arenite, 4(1) 31 Vomicil, Jerry Hells Gates, EHP, 1(3) 79 Kirove Cave, CHI, 1(3) 80 Vunadavai village, ENB, 1(3) 67 Vunarakan Cave, ENB, 4(2) 67 Vuvu sinkholes, ENB, 7(2) 87W 4(1) 8, 12 water supply caves Lamlad Cave, NIP, 2(3) 220 Liga village cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 231, 232 Medina High School cave, NIP, 2(3) 196, 231, 232 New Ireland, 2(3) 206, 231, 4(3) 106 Silom Cave, NIP, 2(3) 198 Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 Elimbari and Chuave areas, CHI, 1(4) 110 Gagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 46 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 7(1) 22 1(4) 123 new contributors, 1(1) 8 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Rafaifo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 114 mentioned, 4(1) 31 New Britain Expedition 1972, 1(1) 9, 1(2) 27 new contributors, 4(3) 136 Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(2) 72 see also Nogar Cave, CHI letters to the editor, 4(4) 170 new contributors, 4(2) 62 weraro see West New Britain Province Alimbit River, 1(1) 18, 1(3) 86 Angelek village cave, 1(3) 86 Kandrian area, 1(3) 86, 7(2) 96 Malangalo village cave, 1(3) 86 Police Barracks Cave, 1(3) 66, 86 Tuielo village, 1(3) 86 West Sepik Province Al Valley, 2(4) 240 Alice River, 1(1) 7 Bal Kurinon, 3(4) 120 Ban River, 2(4) 242, 6(3) 83 Bem Tm, 4(1) 14 Busilmin village, 2(4) 240 Capella Mountain, 2(4) 240, 242, 6(3) 82, 83 Karimuk Imal, 3(4) 120 Kenengkeneng Tm, 4(4) 160 Letema Creek, 6(4) 114 May River, 6(4) 114 Mianmin Insurgence Cave, 6(3) back cover Mianmin Limestone, 6(4) 114, 120 Miben Tm, 4(4) 160 Miip Tigin (Victor Emanuel Ranges), 3(4) 116 Mokfuma Imal, 4(4) 161 Mt Aiyung, 1(1) 7 Nibino River, 6(3) back cover, 6(4) 114 Ok Mlia, 6(4) 118 Oksapmin area, 7(2) 103 Owillfore Tem, 7(2) 106 Scorpio Mountain, 2(4) 240 Telefomin Valley, 1(1) 7 Usage River, 6(4) 114

PAGE 39

39 Victor Emanuel Ranges (Miip Tigin), 3(4) 116 Western Highlands Province Abwessa Cave, 2(2) 190 Baiyer River caves, 2(2) 190 ‘Hole’ Cave, 2(2) 190 Poga River, 2(2) 190 Western Province Agim Imal, 4(4) 160 Agim Tm, 3(3) 96, 3(4) 10910, 117, 121, 4(1) 7 Amdi Range, 6(4) 131 Arem Tm, 6(3) 100, 6(4) 113, 131 Askembu Tm, 6(3) 100, 7(2) 106 At Tm Luu Tm, 3(4) 119, 4(4) 160 Beroro Pass, 2(4) 240, 6(3) 83 Bolivip area, 1(1) 7, 6(4) 114, 131 Borem Imal, 3(4) 116, 121 Borem Tigin, 3(4) 116 Bufulmin Valley, 3(4) 119 80, 84 Elam River, 1(1) 8 Emuk Range, 6(4) 114, 131 Era Tm, 6(4) 11314 Gebemi Tm, 6(4) 114, 131 Harom River, 6(3) 74 Ilam River, 6(3) 83 Imigabip area, 6(4) 114, 131 Kaakil resurgence, 6(3) 100, 6(4) 113, 131 Kaban Range, 6(4) 114, 131 Kauwol River, 6(3) 74 Kauwolabip village, 2(4) 240 Krom Valley, 6(3) 81 Kuruku Neng Imal, 3(4) 121 Lake Vivien, 2(4) 240 Langlang Imal, 4(4) 161 Langlang Tm, 4(1) 10, 7(2) 106 Ok Agim area, 3(4) 10910, 117, 120, 4(1) 12 Ok Anaram, 3(4) 116 Ok Arem, 6(4) 113 Ok Askenbu, 6(4) 11314 Ok Iram, 3(4) 121 Ok Mani, 6(4) 113 Ok Menga gorge, 6(3) 100, 6(4) front cover, 10912, 113 Ok Nong, 3(4) 116, 121, 4(1) 7, 11 Ok Tedi, 1(1) 7, 6(4) 113 Ok Tedi copper project, 6(4) 10912 Ok Tigin, 3(4) 110 Okemimal Tm, 4(1) 14 Olsobip area, 6(4) 11314 Ruun Tm, 3(4) 122 Sogolomik area, 6(4) 113 Terbil Tm, 4(1) 10 Uun Tm Tigin, 3(4) 116 4(1) 8, 12 see also British Speleological Expedition 1978 whistle signals, 1(2) 39 Lufa area, EHP, 2(2) 184 mentioned, 4(4) 148 Omkombogo Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104 Yonggamugl area, CHI, 4(2) 76, 77 Angunga Cave, CHI, 4(1) 23 British Speleological Expedition 1978, 6(3) 100, 6(4) 113– 114, 131 new contributors, 4(1) 39, 6(4) 122 art exhibition, 6(4) 132 Bibima Cave, CHI, 1(1) 2 Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(4) 248 Angunga Cave, CHI, 4(1) 23 96, 3(4) 11118, 119 Western Province cont. West Sepik Province cont.

PAGE 40

40 burial caves, 2(2) 163 Cromwell Range, MOR, 6(1) 27 Gagogangama Cave, CHI, 1(2) 46 Irapui (Irukunguai) Cave, CHI, 1(3) 70, 4(2) 67, 7(1) 22 Lelet Plateau, NIP, 3(1) 6, 14, 4(3) 89 near Madang township, 2(4) 246 mentioned, 1(4) 121 1(4) 123 Muller Range Expedition 1978, 6(1) 37, 6(2) 70 new contributors, 1(1) 8 Obondoyonaminge Cave, CHI, 1(2) 48 Okapa, EHP, 2(2) 182 Papua New Guinea Cave Exploration Group, 4(4) 146 Porol Escarpment, CHI, 2(3) 211, 2(4) 248 Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(3) 99 book review by, 7(2) 141 mentioned, 4(4) 148 Muller Range Expedition 1978, 7(1) 7 new contributors, 7(2) 148 new contributors, 4(2) 62 new contributors, 4(3) 136 maps drawn by, 7(2) 38 Teama Cave, BOU, 6(1) 36 caves as shelter during, 1(1) 10, 17, 3(1) 8, 22, 3(3) 93, see also 6(4) 113, 131 Javavere caves, CEN, 7(2) 100YYaga Kananda, SHP, 7(2) 132, 133 Yagamega Kananda, SHP, 7(2) 134, 137 Yalis Cave, ENG, 3(4) 126 Yalum Limestone, ENB, 1(1) 17, 1(2) 28 Yalum village, ENB, 1(1) 16 Yaramanda Cave, ENG, 3(4) 124, 126 Yarrangobilly, Australia, 2(2) 182 Yauna village, EHP, 3(2) 44 Yogomul village area, CHI, 6(3) 87 Yogona Ekanda, SHP, 7(2) 137 Yogondo spirit Ak Kagamugl Cave, CHI, 2(2) 168, 170, 172, 174, 176 Sigewage Cave, CHI (also spelt Sigewagi), 2(2) 177 Yoigaranil Cave, CHI, 1(4) 102 Yombon, Abraham: Nenduma Cave, BOU, 3(1) 13 Yonaminge Cave, CHI, 1(4) 99, 2(2) 163 Yonge, Chas Angunga Cave, CHI, 4(1) 23 new contributors, 4(1) 39 Yonggamugl area, CHI, 4(2) 76 Yonggamugl clan, CHI, 1(2) 48, 2(2) 163, 177, 2(4) 248 Yonomigl Cave, CHI, 1(4) 104 see also Obondoyonaminge Cave, CHI Yousuma Cave, Kitava Island, MBP, 6(2) 44 Yu Balalo Cave, SHP, 7(2) 139 Yunamare Cave, EHP, 6(2) 72, 6(3) 99, 6(4) 132, 7(2) 100 see also Oravanana Cave, EHP Yunee Cave, CHI, 1(3) 84


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