History of Florida : past and present, historical and biographical, volume III.


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History of Florida : past and present, historical and biographical, volume III.

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History of Florida : past and present, historical and biographical, volume III.
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Cutler, H. G.
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Lewis Pub. Co.
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History -- Biography -- Florida -- United States, Florida ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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A GIFT TO THE LIBRARY FROM F . WILL CASEY

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA Past and Present HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL Issued in 'Three Volumes Volume III THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO AND NEW YORK 1923

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COPYRI G HT, 1923 HY THE LEWTS PUHLTSHING C01!PAN\ .

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History of Florida HoN. H. CLAY CRAWFOJW. One of the dis tinguished men of Florida, whose long and honorable career in public life has, with great responsibilities, brought him the universal esteem and confidence of his fellow citizens, is Hon. Henry Clay Crawford, who for twenty years has served in the high office of Secretary of State. He came to this office well equipped, with years of early commercial training, and later, from a long period of close familiarity of the official business of the State Department, having been chief clerk under his father, who preceded him in the office of Secretary of State. During his long and efficient term of service in this capacity, a wide and intimate acquaintance with the leading figures in political, business and social life in the state, was inevitable, and when he became secretary and in the interests of his fel l ow citizens assumed greater responsibilities, he had little to learn in the way of diplomacy. Secretary Crawford was born at Bainbridge, Decatur County, Georgia, April s, 1856. His parents were Dr. John Lovick and Eliza E. (\Valker) Crawford, the former of whom was born in Greene County, Georgia, and died in 1902, at the age of eighty -six years, and the latter, horn 111 North Carolina, died in November, 1901, when aged seventy years. Dr. John L. Crawford was reared at Coving ton, Georgia, and received his medical training and degree at Augusta, afterward located in Wakulla County, Florida, where he acquired a large amount of land and operated three planta tions. He continued the practice of medicine until 1881, in the meanwhile becoming a prominent factor in democratic politics and a leading citizen of Crawfordsville, \Vakulla aunty, which was named in his honor. He sened as a member of the Florida ,tale senate for eighteen consecutive years, and then accepted the appointment of ecretary of State, in which office he continued until the time of his death. He was not only a wise statesman but a good business man, and Wakulla County owes much to his energy and enterprise in the way of substantial development. Henry ClaY. Crawford was the fourth in his parents' family of si children. He had public school advantages at Crawfordsville and high school training at Bainbridge, Georgia. He was too young lo be personally concerned with the issues that precipitated the war between the states, but the outcome affected the family fortunes to some degree and at the age of nineteen years he left school and became self-supporting. For two years he served as a clerk in a general store at Jacksonville, Florida, and then embarked in business for himself, with a partner, at Crawfordsville, under the firm name of Crawford & 3 \\' alker, general merchants. The business was subsequently moved to Tallahassee, but in 1879 l\Ir. Crawford returned to Crawfordsville as manager of the W. W. \Valker mercantile in terests. In 1889 Mr. Crawford received the appointment of chief clerk in the ofl1ce of the Secretary of State at Tallahassee, and this city bas been his home ever since, this period including great develo1>ment in city and state. One might say tha~ _Secretary Crawford was brought up in a political atmosphere, for his father was very active in politics all his life, first as a whig and later as a democrat, and by precept and example taught that an intelligent interest in one's country's government was almost a religious duty. Upon the death of his father, in 1902, Mr. Crawford was appointed to serve out his unexpired term, and in 1904 be was elected Secretary of Stale, in which office he has continued ever since through reelection. He has always been a loyal supporter of the principles and candidates of the democratic party. At Crawfordsville, Florida, in r881, Mr. Crawford was married to Miss Anna :Moring, who was born in \Vakulla County, near that place, and died at Tallahassee in 19o8. She was a daughter of the late John S. Moring, an extensive planter in ,\\' akulla County. Mr. and :Mrs. Crawford became the parents of six children: William Bloxham, who is a practicing attorney at Orlando, Florida; John Thomas Gavin, who is a prominent member of the bar at Jacksonville; Genevieve, who is a student in the department of domestic science and research work in the Florida College for Women; Gladys, who resides at home; Henry Clay, Jr., who served with honor in the United States Navy during the \.\'oriel's war, has been assistant chief clerk in the Secretary of State's office since his return to civil life; and George Gwynn, who was in the air service during the World's war, is also a clerk in the secretary's office. Both young men have very creditable military records. Mr. Crawford very often in his long period of public service, has proved lo be a man of moral courage as well as extreme efficiency, and his sincerity and broad-mindedness have been very generally recognized. For many years he has been active and prominent in the order of Knights of Pythias, has,. been chancellor commander of the Tallahassee Lodge, and in 1909 was grand chancellor commander of the Grand Lodge of Domain Florida, Knights of Pythias. He has extensive land holdings in the state and owns hunting preserves and fishing grounds, and frequently, in season, hospitably entertains friends who are interested, like himself, in these sports .

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4 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Mr. rawford was reared in the Methodist Epi copal C hu rch and has alway, be l o nged to this religious body . RAY CLTNTON IMPSON. A m ng the many dis tinctio n s accorded to the ily of Monticello not least amo n g t h em, and one impor tant means of m a kin g th e town widely known abroad, is the impson ursery Compa ny, an industry of long landi ng, for s i x t ee n yea r under the proprietor hip of Simpson Brothers, practical nurserymen a n d of a fami l y that has been engaged in the nurser y bu ine s for three generation . This nur cry company makes a pecia lty of the propa gation of grafted and budded pecan trees , and from their stock grown in their nurseries in J e fier on County !,aye been obtained the trees t hat omprise some of the . outh's finest pecan orchards. One of the proprietors of this important busi ness, Ray Cli nton impson, was born near Vincennes, Indiana, July IO, 1 82, son of Henry M. and Frances Adelia }.[cCord Simpson. Ilis grandfather, Archi bald impson, was the first nurseryman i n the historic town of Vincennes. Henry M. impson for many year has been in the nursery bu iness under the name H. M. impson & ons, and while formerly conducting a business for the propagation of all varieties of fruit tre s, h e later specialized in cherry trees. He is now se,en t y-five years of age. is an elder in the Pre byterian Church and an Odd Fellow. Henry M. impson and wife were both born near incennes, and hi s wife died t h ere in 1910, at the age of ix ty-five. Ray Clinton Simpson is the youngest of five c hildren . All four of the sons have been acthely e ngaged in the nursery industry. As a boy while atte n ding schoo l he learned many of the details of growing and budding fruit a n d other trees. He finished hi s ed u cation in Vincennes U n ivcrity, whe r e he was a member of igma Pi fraternit y. H e was initiated into the Alpha hapter in 1898, a year after it was instituted. He graduate d in 1901, and the folio,, ing year worked with hi s father, a n d then entered ornell University t o take m ore extended training in the agricultura1 and h o rti cultura l scicn es. Ile gradua t e d at Cornell i n 1905. r eceiving the degree of Bach elor of cience in Agriculture. \Vhilc there he was a member of Alpha Zeta fraternity. It wa s in December, 1905, that Ur. Simpson made bi s firs t visit t o Monticello. His e . pcri ence and training co n vinced him that t his was a logica l c enter for his particula r line of busi n ess. H av in g a very limit ed capital, he became an e mpl oye of the Nut ur cry Company, which had been establis h ed at }.fonticello in 1002. Shortl y aft erward, in 19()6, this business was acquired by the Simpson ur cry ompany, a co-partnership consi ting o f H. D., R. A. and Ray . Simpson. A f ew yea rs later H . D. and R. A. Simpson sold their half interest in the business to harles J\. impson. Their nursery grounds comprise 360 acres, s ituat ed a mile n ortheast of Mon ticello. The brothers are also owners of the Georgia F lorida Peca n Company, comprising 2,050 acres, with 1,500 acres in pecan groves. Ray C. Simpson is vice president of the Minhinette Orchard Com pany at Albany, Georgia, owni n g 210 acres de voted to pecans and peaches. The Simpson Nursery Company also has a large pecan nursery at Albany. The Simpson are now the largest growers of p eca n nursery stock in the South. On the ba is of cientific knowledge and care, utmost faithfulness to quality of stock and scrupulous fideli t y in a\• oiding all misrepresentation, they have built up a b u siness recognized for its integrity, and are one of the few firms who merit 1.he distinction of being a u thorities on all matters connected with th planting a n d gro\ ing of the pecan as a c-ommercial proposition. For some years the imp son u r sery Company also propagated other nut and fruit tree , but the business is now practical l y confined to budded and grafted pecan trees. Ray . impson has bee n vice presiden t of the outhern Nurserymen's Assa iation, and wa one of the o rganizers and was secretary and treasurer of the Georgia-Florida Pecan Growers A . soc iation for several years, is a member of the Ameri can A. sociation of urscrymen, and the ational Pecan Growers A sociation, of which his brother, Charles A., was president in 1922 and 1923. Mr. imp o n has associated himself con tantly wit h the progres ive and enlightened citizenship of 1Ionticello, and has been a member of the ity ouncil. He is a steward in the Methodist Epi copal C h urch, and i a member of the York R i t e Masonic bodies at Monticello, inc lu di n g the Lodge, Chapter, Council and Comma nd ery. Ile was o n e of the organizers and is a director and vice president of the Bank of Monticello. During the late war he aided in carrying to s u cce s the various patriotic campaigns, and . hortly before the signing of the armisti e he entered 1.he Officers Machine Gun Trainingchool at amp Hancock, Georgia, but was released after a few weeks. He is a member of the Glen n-en Country Club of Thomasville, Georgia, and he owns a fishing lodge known as \Velaunee Lodge. March IO, r909, at Monticello, ~fr. Simpson married Miss Emmala Bellamy Parkhill, a n ative of Monticello, and rep r esentative of two of the olcle t and most dis t inguis h ed families of J effc r son ounty. Her father, Capt. R. C. Parkhill, i . . till l iving, at the age of eighty-five. Her moth r was Emmala Bellamy, now deceased. aptain Parkhill is an ex-onfederate vet eran, having enli ted in Howell Guards as a lieutenant. This company was organized by George vV. Parkhill, father of Mrs. D. II. Mays. When Capt. G. W. Parkhill was killed during the seve n clay ' battle the command of the company devolved upon Richard ., who was a l so wounded in that engagement and who at the time was promoted to captain . The Howell G uards went out as a n inde p e nd ent compa ny, but in Virginia ecame Company M, of the Second Florida Infa n t r y. Capt. R. C. Parkhill was for twenty-eight yea 1 s clerk of the Circuit Court a t Monticello, and since r912 has lived retired. Captain Parkhill's wife was a granddaughter of Jack Bellamy, who l a i d out the t. Augu tine-Tallaha ee road, and s h e was a daughter of \Villiam Bellamy, one of the large t planters in Jefferson aunty. Captain Parkhill and wife were married at Uonticello, Florida, during the war, in 1862. Mrs. Simp on is active in club, social and church affairs at Monticello. They have one daughter, Frances Mc ord Simpson. ANDREW K. CooK, one of the dign ified practitioners at the bar of Saint Petersburg, has in hi m that rare combination of qualities that approach quite the ideal in his profession and insure s u c ce s . He has a keen, alert and vigorous mind, broad and comprehensive in its grasp, yet masterful and careful of detail; and with sure preci . ion he goes straight to the heart of the proposition

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 5 submitted to him, and seldom does he err in his juggment. He has always been a close student ,and tireless worl!:er, keeping abreast of the rapidly moving and ever-widening current of the law, and not a little has aided in the true development and proper application of the eternal legal prin ciples, to the changed and changing conditions of society with its concomitant, manifold complexi• ties and perplexities. Hiis own clear ideas, ac curate judgment and logical deductions are in argument highly supplemented and enforced by his wide experience and vast store of knowledge. He never advises a client until he is sure of the law, and the so-called "tricks" of the lawyer are unknown to him or of him, but once his services are enlisted in behalf of a client his great powers of mind, coupled with his wide knowledge of the law and experience in its practice, and his strong personality are applied to his client's cause with all the vigor and earnestness, diligence and devo tion in his power. Born at Williamsburg, Kentucky, April 23, 1852, Andrew K. Cook is a son of William S. and Margaret C. Cook. After attending the common schools he matriculated in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Lexington, Kentucky, but did not remain to graduate. For forty-eight months he was engaged in teaching school, and during that time began to read law, for from boy hood he had cherished the ambition to enter the legal profession. Leaving the educational field for four years thereafter, he served as deputy circuit and county court clerk, and then, in April, 1875, he was admitted to practice at Booneville, Ken tucky. In 1879 he entered upon an active practice of the law at London, Kentucky, where he con tinued until 1883, and then moved to Kansas and continued his legal work in that state until 1889, when he returned to Kentucky, located at Pine ville, Bell County, and practiced his profession until 1910. In the last named year he came to Saint Petersburg, and here he is still practicing law, and has firmly established himself in the confidence of the public. On December 15, 1874, Mr. Cook married at Barboursville, Kentucky, Laura Dishman, a daughter of John Dishman. In hearty accord with the principles of the great emancipator, Mr. Cook was a Lincoln-republican, but after Grover Cleveland became a presidential' candidate Mr. Cook felt himself more in accord with his ideas, and con sequently gave that great statesman his support, and continues a Cleveland-democrat. It is impossible to determine the full strength of any man's influence on his community, but a fair estimate of it can be gathered from the weight his opinion has with his associates, and the extent to which his advice is asked and fol lowed. Judged by this standard Mr. Cook is one of the forceful factors in his community. He has always been in favor of lines of progressive development in keeping with those higher ideals toward which the loyal, public-spirited and patriotic citizen is always striving. Whether through political or other lines, his labors have always been exerted with the interest of the city at heart. He has always been deeply interested in local governmental affairs, and has particularly given of his thought and time to a study of all matters pertaining to the welfare, representation and pub lic service of his home ward and division, and has been active in the work of both of the great parties with which he has, at different times, aligned himself. GEORGE MoRGAN WARD, for many years president of Rollins College at Winter Park, has had a distinguished career both in education and in the christian ministry. He was born at Lowell, Massachusetts, May 23, 1859, son of Sullivan L. and Mary (Morgan) Ward. He was for two years a student in Harvard University, graduated in 1882, A. B., from Dartmouth College and received the Master of Arts degree from Dartmouth in 1884. Following that he was a student in the Boston University Law School, graduating LL. B. in 1886, and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. Mr. Ward was a student in Johns Hopkins University in 1894-95, received his Bachelor of Divinity degree from Andover Theological Seminary in 1896, and the degree Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Dartmouth in 1900, and the degree LL. D. by Rollins College in 1903, and by the University of Florida in 1919. During 1885-89 Mr. Ward was secretary of the International Society of Christian Endeavor, and for several years was in business at Lowell, his native city of Massachusetts. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1896, but in the meantime, in 1895, had come to Florida to accept the presidency of Rollins College at Winter Park. He served as president eight years, until 1903, and for nine years succeeding was president of Wells College at Aurora, New York. In 1916 he re turned to Rollins College as president, and con tinued at the head of that institution until 1921, when he resigned and was elected president emeritus. He is still a member of the Board of Trustees of the college. He is vice president of the American Humane Society. June 15, 1896, Doctor Ward married Emma Merriam Sprague, of Springfield, Massachusetts. Doctor Ward is recognized as one of the leading educators of the country, having achieved most noteworthy results at Wells College in New York and Rollins College in Florida. He is greatly beloved throughout the latter state for the magnif icent and self-sacrificing service rendered Rollins College, having successfully brought the institu tion through the trying financial period following the great freeze of 1896 and later having added thousands of dollars to the endowment fund. In this work he accepted no remuneration for salary or expenses, and he is hailed throughout the state as the man who has made it possible for Rollins, to occupy her high position in the South's educational life. STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN. One of the most eminent lawyers and forceful citizens of Tampa, Stephen M. Sparkman has always used his fine legal talents in the furtherance of what he has conceived to be for the best interests of the city, merging the two characters of citizen and lawyer into a high personal combination which, despite differences of intellectual opinion, has been gen erally recognized as an example well worthy of emulation. In whatever movement he has partici pated Mr. Sparkman has stimulated discussion and often bitter opposition, which, besides being a proof of his forceful personality has, like the raging of an electric storm, resulted in the clari fication of the atmosphere and redounded to the general good. Mr. Sparkman is a native of Hernando County, Florida, where he was born July 29, 1849. The boyhood and youth of Mr. Sparkman were un eventfu1, and were passed on his father's farm, where he was taught to make himself useful, and

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6 HISTORY OF FLORIDA he acquired a kn owledge of the fundamenta ls of an education in the country schools. Early de cidi ng upon a professional career, he did not allow the obstacles which naturally arose to deter o r discourage h im, but leaving t he farm at the age of eig hteen years, began reading law under the pre ceptorship of Gov. Henry L. Mitchell. In 18 72, so thoroug hly had he been grounded, he passed the ne cessary examinations, and was admitted to practice at the bar of his native state. F rom the beginning of his legal career Mr. Spark man made his infl uence felt, and from 1878 to 1887, inclusive, he served as state's attorney of t he Sixth J udicial District, and whi le in that office made such a record for himself for utter fearlessness, determined integrity and unquestioned ab ility that it was but logical for the attention of his d istrict to focus upon him. From 1890 to 189 4 he was a member of the Democratic Congres s ional Executive Committee for the First District and dur ing the first two years of that period h~ was its c hairman. From 1892 to 1896 he was a mem ber of the Democ ratic State Executive Com mi ttee, a nd during the entire four years was its c hairman. In the meanwhile his name had become a house h~ld o ne throughout the First Congressional Dis tric t, and he was elec ted to the National Congress at~d se rved duri!1g th~ sessions of the Fifty-fourth, V:,ifty-fifth, Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, Fiftye 1ghth, Fi_fty-nin_th, Sixtiet_h, Sixty-first, Sixty seco nd, S ixty-third and Sixty-fourth, inclusive, a nd fo r twenty years served as a member of the comn:iittee o!1 r i~ers and harbors, the last six years of his service m the House being its chairman. When the Sixtieth Congress created the National Waterways Commissio n Mr. Sparkman was placed u pon it, and in that capacity, with his fellow com missioners, visited Europe in 1909 for the pur pose o f s tudying t he navigab le waterways of the Old World. Retiring from Congress in 1917, Mr. S parkman returned to Tampa a nd resumed the practice of the law. U ntil the present commission fo rm of the city government was adopted in the latter part of 1920 he was president of the Board o_f P?rt Commissioners, and as such was very ac tive 111 the develop ment of the water terminals for the harbor of Tampa. Mr. Sparkman is a hard worker, and it has al ways been his hab it to go to the bottom of what eve r he turned his mind. For years he has been t he ac knowledged leader of the democratic party in his d istrict, a leaders hip of ho nor, of loyalty to the_ integr ity of t he community, the state and na tion, a nd of s turdy, aggressive American man h?od. He leads the people beca use they know h im and have confidence in him. They have tried him and know him to be safe, fearless and ever alert an d zealous for their interests. HoN. WILLIAM W. FLOURNOY. While it is erroneous to state that faithful public service always meets with d ue appreciation and reward, the re are so me cases in which those who give to the ir const ituents and their i nterests the care and a ttention they woul d bestow upon private affairs, re ceive appro priate honors. It is well for a com mu nity w hen a man has proven his worth and reliability to show materia l appreciation of such service and to continue s uch a man in office, for in this way it discharges a debt and secures for its peop le the continued services of one who will v iolate a trust or fail to carry out the will of t hose who p laced their faith in him. In this con nection mention is due Hon. William W. Flour-noy, of DeFuniak Springs, a leading member of the Walton County bar, who has filled several important offices with capability, and who at this writing is a candidate for Congress from the Third Congressional District. Senator F lournoy was born on his father's farm in the Euchee Valley of Walton County, Decem ber 5, 1874, a son of John and Mary Elizabeth (Knowles) Flournoy. His father, a native of North Carolina, went to Georgia in young man hood, and later to A labama, where he was married. While residing there, the War between the States came on and he enlisted under Captain Lee, at Elba, in an Alabama cavalry regiment, in the Confederate service. He was wounded in the leg during his service, but recovered from his injury and rejoined his regiment, with which he served until the close of hostilities. He then returned to Alabama, but in 1867 came to Florida and settled in the Euchee Valley, near Euchee Valley Church. In his later years he was a merchant and farmer at Summerville, Walton County, where his death occurred in 1893. Mrs. F lournoy, who was born in Alabama, survived her husband until 1916. They were the parents of twelve children, of whom William W. was the youngest. William W. Flournoy remained under the parental roof until he was eighteen years of age, and attended the public schoo ls at Euchee Valley Church, Freeport and Summerville. In addition to assisting in the management of his father's merchandise enterprise, he engaged in the saw mill business and learned all the details thereof. In 1892 he enro lled as a student at the Southern University, at Greensboro, Alabama, where he was engaged in study at the time of his father's death. This threatened to put a stop to his acquirement of an advanced education, but through the efforts and self-sacrifice of his de voted mother, and his own exertions, he was enabled to continue his studies. Entering the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, at Lake City, he secured employment as janitor and librarian, and later became an assistant instructor in mathematics. These emp loyments, together with a small loan from friends, enabled him to finish the full c_ourse, and in 1896 he was . graduated and rece ived the degree of Bachelor of Arts. For several years he served as professor of military science and tactics and as comman dant of cadets, of the college, but in 1899 resigned from these positions and spent a year (making np a two-year course) at the Law Lebanon School, the law department of the Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee, from which he was graduated with high honors and the degree of Bache lor of Laws, in 1900. He began his pro fessional career at Pensacola, where he made rapid progress, but after a year acquiesced to the request of friends and sought enlarged oppor tunities at DeFuniak Springs, which has since been his home. He soon was in the possession of a valuable law library, a large law practice and desirab le properties, and June 28, 1900, founded a home of his own when he was united in marriage with Miss Marie Alice King, daughter of Thomas M. and Martha L. (Sawyer) King, natives of Alabama, the former of whom is de cea~ed after a career of merchandis ing at DeFuniak Springs. Eight children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Flournoy: Marie Alice; Louise Elizabeth, who is deceased; Gracie Claude, Wil liam Walton, John Thomas, Willie Louise, Mary E lizabeth and E leanor Beatrice. The family be longs to the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Flournoy

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and a man of strict morality and probity, making use of neither alcohol or tobacco in any form, and conducting all his re lations with his fellow-men on principles of the strictest integrity. Not long after his arrival at DeFuniak Springs, Mr. F lournoy began to interest himself in pub lic issues, and in 1go8 was elected mayor of the city, an office in which he served until 19ro. During his administration he secured for the city the construction of a number of desirable public utilities, including a sewerage system, water works, electric light and power plant, and the erection of a splendid complete brick public schoo l b uilding. His military record is one of which he can be justly proud. Beg inning with his com mand of the Cadet Corps and his professorship of military science and tactics at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, where he 1>repared and published the Cadet Regu lations, and his serving with the rank of colonel on the staff of the late Gov. William D. Bloxham, he has retained a profound interest in the military estab lishment of his native state. During his brief residence at Pensacola he was chosen to the command of one of that city's finest military com panies, t he Escambia Rifles, and on his removal to DeFuniak Springs was the first captain of Company K, First Infantry, Florida State Troops, which later became F lorida National G uard. The official report of the adjutant-general in 1905 very highly commended the efficiency of Company K., remarking that if "the other companies of the state's mi litary would manifest the same degree of enthusiasm in attaining perfection, Florida could soon boast of a modern brigade." While serving as state senator he was ever alive to the value and needs of the state militia, taking the lead in the sessions of 1909 and 1911 in all legis lation in its interest and being largely in strumental in securing adequate appropriations for the improvement of the state camp site, and for the expenses of the annual encampments. During the Worlcl war he took a leading and prom inent part in all war movements, held several prominent positions and was a generous con tributor to the various drives. In 1go8 Senator Flournoy was elected without opposition as state senator for the Third District, comprising the counties-of Walton and Holmes, and completed the four-year term by service in the Legis latures of 1909 and 19II. In addition to being frequently and prominen tly rega rded as a candidate for election as president of the Senate, he was appointed on many of the most important committees of that body, notably the chairman ship of Finance and Taxation and Judiciary com mittees, and was in 1909 chairman of the Senate caucus for the nomination of its officers and em• ployes. In 1912 Senator Flournoy first became a candidate for Congress from the Third District, but met with defeat by a narrow margin. He continues as one of the leaders of the democratic party in Florida, and the confidence in which he is held by the peop le is such that still greater honors undoubtedly await him in the future. PEDEN B. HAYNES, who died at his home at Lakeland, March 20, 1915, was for many years one of the prominent naval stores operators in Georgia and Florida. He owned extensive in terests in land, timber, manufacturing plants and other enterprises. He was one of the men of large capital and of beneficent civic enterprise in Lake land and his death in many ways was a heavy loss to that community. Mr. Haynes was born at Whiteville, North Carolina, Apri l 2, 1867, son of Kenneth a nd Caroline (Byrne) Haynes. He acquired a country school education at his birt hplace, and his ear ly work ing experience w as in the naval stores •industry. He became an operator in Appling Cqunty, Georgia, remained there four years, and the n transferred h is o perations to Telfair County in Sou thwestern, Georgia. Mr. Haynes removed to Florida in November, 1898. He acquired extensive pine lands an d en gaged in nava l stores production nine m iles from Brooksville, for four years . Selling o ut he moved to Orange County, contin ued his operat ions there for four years, and in 1900 came to Lake land. Mr. Haynes invested heavi ly in a djacent prope rty. He owned a vast acreage of timber for t urpen t ine production and lumber milli ng, one of the principal centers of his operatio ns in recent years being at Mu lberry. Mr. Haynes was vicepresi dent of the State Bank of Lake land and was one of the organizers in February, 1907, of the Bank of Mu lberry and vice president of same u ntil the time of his death. While his time and energy were we ll taken up by his extensive business affai rs, he was a man of social character, and particularly e n joyed the work and associations of the Masonic order. He held all the offices in Roya l Arch Masonry and the Kn ights of Pythias, was a Shriner, and well known in the order over the state. For six years he was a member of the City Council of Lakeland, and from the ti me he removed to that city was a steward in the Methodist Church and he had a lso been superin tendent of the Sunday Schoo l at Gaines boro. Mr. Haynes married Miss Maggie Mc Rae of McRae, Georgia, daughter of John F. a nd Elvira (Dopson) McRae. Her father befo re the war owned several large plantations in Georg ia, and was an extensive slave ho lder. At the cl ose of the war he gave each slave who ha d a fam ily ten acres, and some of his faithful b lacks re fused to leave the family. Mr. and M rs. Haynes were married November 8, 1888. M rs. Haynes contin ues to res ide at Lake land. S he is the mother of four c hildren: Eugene F., a contractor at Lakeland; K. Talmage, cas hier of t he State Bank of Lake land, married and the father of two sons; Johnnie, wife of B. R. Gray o f Sanford and the mother of one daughter; and Morti mer C., now Mrs. Herbert S . Forema n o f Lake land. P. J. McDEVIIT. In busi ness and pub lic affa irs of St. Petersburg, the na me of P. J. McDevitt is known for its connection with la rge ente rprises and an important office. A resident of this city since 1909, he has been connected 'with various business concerns, and for the past seve ral years has occupied the post of build ing inspector. His acquaintance is wide and his infl uence ma rked, being a lways exerted in behalf of progress. Mr. McDevitt was born in County London derry, Ireland, April 3, 1869, and was about eight years of age when brought to the United Sta tes by his parents, the family settling a t Philadel phia, where he was give n the advantages of at tendance at the public schools. Evidencing the possession of some mech anical abi lity, he was apprenticed to the trade of carpenter, and during the next sixteen years remained with one con cern, in the meantime pu rsuing several courses in an institution of higher learning at Philadel phia. He bega n in the humble position of ap pren tice, and through fidelity, industry and good

PAGE 14

8 HISTORY OF FLORIDA workmanship gradually advanced himself in the confidence of the concern, which, in recognition of his services, promoted him from position to position until he was made general superintend ent. At this time Mr. McDevitt felt that he was ready to embark in business on his own account, and accordingly engaged in general contracting as a builder. That vocation he followed in Pennsylvania for twelve years and then disposed of his interests there and in 1909 came to Florida, where he immediately located at St. Petersburg, at that time a town of little prominence but of much promise. Here he immediately entered into the busy life of the community, establishing him self in the contracting business. One of his first acts was to become identified with the Pinel las Park movement, of which he was one of the promoters, and of which he was made general manager. This proved a great success, and Mr. McDevitt was established in the confidence of his associates as a man who could do big things in a big way. IIe was called to St. Petersburg to carry through several special projects, at the completion of which he was appointed by Mayor Mitchell to the post of building inspector which he has occupied to the present. Mr. McDevitt is still largely interested in Pinellas Park, where he is secretary of the Pinellas Park Drainage District, president of the Pinellas Park Building and Loan Association and president of the Public Service Corporation. He is an executive of ability and one who keeps thoroughly in touch with all details of the various enterprises with which he is connected. Mr. McDevitt is a member of the Catholic Church. He belongs to St. Petersburg Council No. 2ro5, Knights of Colum lms, in which he is grand knight. He also holds membership in St. Petersburg Lodge No. 1224. Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and is popular in both orders. His political senti ments make him a supporter of the republican party. In IQOO Mr. McDevitt was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Carr, and to this union there have been born four children: John, Maria, Thomas and Frank. DAVID C. ALLEN. Among the railway officials whose duties make them residents of Lakeland, one who for many years has been in the service of the Atlantic Coast Line ~ystcm is David C . Allen, general yard master at Lakeland. Mr. Allen began railroading when a boy, and bas had successive promotions and responsibility and is still a comparatively young man. He was born in Columbus County, North Carolina, August II, 1877, son of David C. and Jennie (Robinson) Allen. His father, a native of North Carolina, gained a successful position as a lawyer. He represented his county in the Legislature several times. He enlisted as a private in the Confederate army, and by merit was promoted to the rank of colonel. After the war he followed farming and the practice of law and died when ahout seventy-three years of age. His wife was born in Columbus County and lived to the age of about seventy. Their four sons and six daughters are still living and all married but one. The fourth child and second son, David C. Allen, was reared in Columbus County, educated in public schools there, and hegan railroading in the capacity of baggage agent for the Seaboard Air Line. Later he entered the train service as a flagman, and after about fifteen months was promoted to conductor and was both freight and passenger conductor on the Seaboard Air Line. Ile was with that road about five years, and for the past fifteen years has been in the service of the Atlantic Coast Line. Mr. Allen was transferred to Lakeland, Florida, in 1912 as yard master, and for the past eight years has been general yard master. He has performed those duties longer than any other man in that capacity at Lakeland. In 190-1 he married Miss Edith Williams at Shelby, North Carolina They have four chil dren, Mildred, David C., Jr., Eveline and Edith E. IIoN. JonN \VEJ.LBORN MARTIN is one of the representati, e members of the bar of his native state, has served three terms as mayor of the City of Jacksonville, and is a citizen whose influence has transcended mere local limitations. He is es tablished in the successful practice of his profes sion as one of the leading lawyers of Jacksonville. Mr. Martin was born on the old homestead of the family in Marion County, Florida, June 21, 1884, and he is a son of John and Willie M. (Owens) Martin, the latter a daughter of James B. Owens, who was one of three brothers who came from South Carolina and purchased large tracts of land in Marion County, Florida, where they became extensive cotton planters prior to the Civil war. James B. OwetL was a man of major influence in southern affairs in the climacteric period leading up to the war between the states of the North and the South, and the following record concern ing him is worthy of perpetuation in this con nection: "James B. Owens advocated secession as a legal exercise of state prerogative under the constitu tion as originally written and understood. He served as a delegate from Florida to the Charles ton convention called to prevent the division of the democratic party between two candidates, which made the election of Lincoln possible, and was chosen by the advocates of secession to pre sent the views of the Breckinridge wing of the party before the convention, in the debate with Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, which led to the momentous decision out of which grew the war between the states. Returning from Charles ton, Mr. Owens served as a member of the seces sion convention of Florida and later of the Con federate Congress." John Marshall Martin, paternal grandfather of him whose name initiates this review, was born in 1831 in Hampton County, South Carolina, and was a representative citizen of Marion County, Florida, at the inception of the Civil war. He served as a member of the Confederate Congress and became colonel of the Ninth Florida Regi ment. In 1862 he was wounded, while participat ing in an engagement at Richmond, Kentucky, and he made a record of gallant and loyal service as a soldier and officer of the Confederacy. He took part in the second battle of Cold Harbor, was with his command in action at the historic Crater and also in the heavy fighting around Rich mond and Petersburg, Virginia. After the close of the war he returned to his home near Ocala, Florida, were he lived, "loved and admired by all his neighbors" to the day of his death, August IO, 1921, at the patriarchal age of ninety years. The original American representative of the Martin family was an English younger son, Abra!ll Martin, who came from Ireland and settled m Albemarle County, Virginia, in 168o. His son John served as captain under Washington in Braddock's expedition against the Indians and French,

PAGE 15

l . • I

PAGE 16

HISTORY OF FLORIDA 9 This Captain Martin married Elizabeth Marshall, a cousin of John Marshall, who became the dis tinguished chief justice of the United States Supreme Court and one of the foremost figures in the history of this nation. After his marriage Capt. John Martin removed to South Carolina, and years later he made an expedition into Georgia to inspect lands and "was killed by the Muscogees, who were somewhat jealous of prospective as well as of actual settlers." Seven sons of Capt. John Martin served under General Washington in the '\,Var of the Revolution, three of them having been officers. The foregoing brief data indicate that John W. Martin has reason to take pride in a distinguished ancestral record, but he has individually made a record which acids to the prestige of the honored name which he bears. He was a boy at the time of the family removal to Jacksonville, where he early gained practical experience as a clerk and salesman. His ambition led him to apply himself closely to the study of law, and he made rapid progress in the absorption and assimilation of the involved science of jurisprudence. He was finally admitted to the , bar, upon examination before the Supreme Court of the state and the United States courts, and has since been engaged in the suc cessful practice of his profession in the City of Jacksonville. In connection with the nation's par ticipation in the World war he delivered spirited addresses in many parts of Florida and ardently advocated the war measures advanced by Presi dent Wilson and the Congress of the United States. Popular appreciation of his loyal efforts in this connection and also of his ability and fine sense of civic stewardship has been concretely shown in his election lo the office of mayor of Jacksonville for three successive terms. He was given in his first election the largest majority at that time ever given a candidate for mayor, carrying all the city wards but two, and was the youngest man ever elected mayor of Jacksonville. In his second election he carried all the city wards except one, and increased his majority by 50 per cent over his former election, and in his third election he carried alJ of the fifteen city wards and defeated his opponent by the handsome majority of 6,257 votes. In his administration of municipal affairs he has shown that the public trust was well placed, for his policies, progressive and well ordered, invari ably inured to the best interests of the Florida metropolis. Fraternally he is a thirty-second de gree Scottish Rite Mason, has been master of all the latter bodies and is a member of Morocco Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S., of Jacksonville. He also belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Loyal Order of Moose. January 30, 1907, recorded the marriage of Mr. Martin and Miss Lottie Wilt Pepper, whose father has long been an influential citizen and public official at Lake City, this state. Mr. and Mrs. Martin have an attractive home at Riverside, one of the beautiful suburbs of Jacksonville, and the same is a center of gracious hospitality. GEORGE D. MENDENHALL has been a resident of Florida nearly half a century. For many years he was in business as a fruit grower, farmer and merchant. As a young man he learned civil engineering by practical experience, and for a number of years past has enjoyed a successful and extensive practice in engineering with head quarters at Lakeland. Mr. Mendenhall was born at Mobile, Alabama, January 20, 1857, son of James Bogan and Winifred A. (Dunlap) Mendenhall. His father who was born at Wadesborough, North Carolina, was reared and educated there, and on leaving that state settled in Mississippi, where he con ducted an extensive plantation with slave labor. About 1855 he moved to Mobile, Alabama, for the purpose of educating his family, and bought a plantation on the Tombigbee River. During the war between the states he was a member of the Gulf City Guards at Mobile. After the war James B. Mendenhall went to South America, and located about 500 miles up the Amazon River, where he operated an extensive plantation, large ly for the production of tobacco. He and his family lived in Brazil for nine years. On re turning to the United States he located in Levy County, Florida, in 1876, and acquired landed property there. He is a man of exceptional education, had taught school for a time, was ad mitted to the bar in Mobile, and had the educa tion and personal character that fitted him for the responsibilities of a man of affairs. He con tinued to live in Levy County until his death in 1882. His wife Winifred A. Dunlap was born at Ansonville, North Carolina, daughter of William Dunlap. She was born in 1821 and died in 1887. Of their five children, George D. is the youngest, and the only other one now living is Mrs. Mary Delphine J acobie of Williston, Florida. George D. Mendenhall began his education in schools at Mobile, and was privately educated while the family lived in Brazil. For several years he was both a teacher and a student. When the family settled in Florida he became associated with his father in the management of the farm and fruit plantation in Levy County, and his duties were mainly concentrated there until 1891. In that year he began the operation of a general store at Dunellon. In 1900 he re moved to Tampa, and was a merchant there for some years. While in Brazil he had had unusual opportunities to learn civil engineering under a noted Russian engineer. While engaged in busi ness he did a great deal of engineering work as a side line. After leaving Tampa he was for four years assistant engineer at Coronet Phos phate Mines. On January r, 1912, Mr. Menden hall established his home at Lakeland, and has since conducted a civil engineering practice. In 1882 he married Miss Eliza J. Drummond of New York City. They have three children : Herbert Drummond, a graduate in civil engineering from the University of Texas, and now actively associated as his father's partner at Lakeland; Mabel Georgia, wife of Benjamin M. Sullivan of Tampa; and Fred Dunlap, who graduated in civil engineering from the Massa chusetts Institute of Technology, served in France during the great war, and since the armistice has been in the Forestry Bureau of the United States Government, being now located at Denver, Colorado. Mr. Mendenhall owns a large amount of real estate in and around Lakeland. He is a thirty second degree Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner, is a member of the Theosophical Society and is a democrat in politics. M. F. HETHERINGTON devoted his active career to the printing and newspaper business. He learned the printing when a youth in Kentucky. For many years he was a leader in the Florida press, was elected president of the Florida Press

PAGE 17

10 . HISTORY O F FLOPIDA A sociat i o n in 19091 a nd built up one of the most successful and influential newspapers in the state at Lakeland. Since r tiring from the news paper business Mr. Hetherington has continued to re s ide at Lakeland, where he has many in ter e sts and is mo re o r less ac tive in the rea l estate and i n urance business. Mr. Hetherington wa s born a l E lkt on, Todd ot111ty , Kentucky, D ece mber 27, 1 &i7. II' was left an orphan, was put in an orphan asy lum , an d fin ished his e ducation in St. Jose ph' s College a t Bards town. He pa id hi s way to this i n stit ution by mployment in the printing office. He fo l l o w e d the printing trade and ngaged in the p ub l ishing business o n his own account by the purchase of the Lebanon Entcqirisc, at Leban n, J.(enlucky. Ile was edito r an d propril'lor of the l ~ nt e rpri se fo r about te n years . \\1hcn he ca me t o F lorida in 1900 he located at Mi ami a nd was assoc iated wit h Il . B. Tatum, in p ublis hing the 1 [i a mi Metropolis, t he first dai l y paper of 1[iami. From i\li am i Mr. Hetheri n g t o n ca me to Lakeland i n 1903, a nd purchased t h e L a keland News. This was the n a s mall week ly p a per. He continued its publication, with improvem nts from time lo time a nd increa s ing c irculati o n until 191 I. In that yea r he gave Lakeland a daily paper, the Evening Telegram, a n d was editor and publisher o ( th Telegram u ntil D ece mber, 1920, wh n h ,old out to Harry L. Brown. In ten yea r he h ad ma de the Telegram a new s paper recog nized as one o f the best in this se ction o f the s tate. Ile erected the T e legram Building, and installed a co mplete modern printing plant. ince retiring from the n ewspaper field Mr. Hetherington has g iven his lime lo the m anagement o f his orange groves a nd o ther pro perty, and with a so n is con ducting a rea l es tate and insurance b usiness . 11 r. Hetherington was married in 1903 at ~ J i a mi, Florida, to 1liss Lilli a n DeRieux o f Lakeland, daughter o ( Dr. J. D. D eRieux. Iler father wa s the first physician an d one o f the founders o f La keland. ).[rs. Hetherington was lh e seco nd wh i te child born in Polk Co unty, a nd wa s r ea red and e ducated there. She is a membe1 of the \Voman's Club, and fo r eve ral yea rs was societ y ed:tor of th Tel egram a nd proved her se l f a very compet nt ne w paper woman . Mr. and Mrs . H etherington h ave three so ns a nd o ne d a ughter : Eugene J., i n t he insu rance business at Lakeland; William 1L. a printer and p ublisher at New Port Rich ey, Florid::i, editor of the New Port Richey Press ; 1Iarion, a student in t he U n iversity of North Carolina; a nd Marjorie. Mr. H etherington is past exalted ruler o f the La ke la nd Lodge o f Elks, a nd was chairman of the Buildin g Committee that put up o ne o f th b st E l k s horn s in the s late. At all times he ha been concerned with civic matters, was for nearly ten yea r s treas urer o f the Chamber o f Commerce, a member of th e Rotary Club and Country Club. He has bee n l iberal with time, mean s and energy in behalf o f every worthy movem ent in the community. While a Catholic, Mr. Hetheringto n has contributed to e very church in Lakeland. J. P. G ETZEN, D . D. S., who has been e ngaged in th e practice of dentistry at Lakeland for a dozen yea rs, is prominent in dental o rganizations and one of the best known m mb rs o f his profession in the state. H e is a native o f Florida, born at Fort White a t Columbia County, October 26. 1885, son of Thomas \V. a nd Julia Gctzen . Hi father was born in died in Saluda 1909, Edgefield County, South a rolina, and r92r, and his mother was a native of o unty, South Carolina, and died in Doctor Gctzcn acquired h is primary and high sc hool e ducation at Gainesv ille. He attended t he University of Florida then located at Lake ity , and graduated from the Atlanta Dental Co llege with the c lass of JC)JO. lmmcdiately after his graduation he located at Lakeland, a nd wa~ t he se cond d tntist to take up lhe work of hi s p rofession t here. He enjoys a spkndid prnfrs ional business, a nd i p rc s idl'nt of the \V e~t 'oast District Dental ociel), a nd a member o f the Lakeland Dental Soc iet\'. He is a York Rite Mason a nd briner anll a member o f th e Kiwanis lub. He is a member of t he J3apti, t hurch. Doctor Getzen marricd Miss Vera Hurt, claughler of C. II. Hurt of Dyersburg, Trnncs,ec. They w re married i11 r91 ~ -11 rs . Cdzen take~ a prominent p;u-t in soc ial a nd civi' moveme nts and is treasurer of the Lakdand \\'oman's C l uh, a nd a member of the Baptist 'hurch. NORMA. C \WTHON H1 L L. The larg s t ge neral hardware busi11ess in ( ;adsden u un y i. th e Bt•ll -Ba les llardwarc Company, o f which Norman Ca wthon Bell i, presi cknt. ,\[r. Bell began his business career as a railroad telegrapher, was i n the railroad st:r1 ice ma ny vears, a nd he c ame to Q uincy about e ighteen yea rs ago. He was b rn near Hainhridgc, Decatur o unly, (;corgia, September 17, 1862, son of Thomas J. and Sibbie ( Cawthon) Bell. Ilis father wa~ born in Decatu r County a nd died there in 191,3 a t th.:: age of eig hl)-Sl'll'n. His mother was born in Telfair Co unty, Georgia, in 1835, and died in r889. Thomas J. Ilell spent practically all his l ife in o ne (;eorgia com munity, where he was a farmer and s lave o wner, se rved in a Ceorgia rrgimcnt i n Georgia an d in Florida duri ng th ' C ivil wa r, an d was a n a live me mber o f the Methodi t C hurch. o rrnan Ca wth on Hell, e;g hlh in a family o f t welve c hildren. had o nly limited e ducational advantages in th country I i l ri l where h g r e w up. /\s a b oy he had as pirations fo r something better than fa rming, bu t he remained o n the .farm until he was t wenty-two. After l earning l l eg rap hy he ente red the se rvice of the avannah, F lo rida and \\' cs tern, now part o f the Atlantic oas t L inc, an d for s eventeen conse cutive year s was on duty fnr this company a t limax, Decatur Co unty, Georgia . However, for ten years o f thi tim he was assoc iated with his brother in th e t imber business. They pecialize i n t he product i 11 and handling of t ics and b ridge building material for railroad . In 190-1 1lr. Bell c ame lo Quincy to bccom assoc iat cl with his broth r-in-law i n the hardware b usines s . The firm o ( Bell and Bates started with a m dest ca pital a nd s mall stock, but busine s ha grown s teadily until it is now the l a rgest o f i ts k ind in (;adsden Cou nty. It is a n i ncorporation, a nd the company has o ccup i ed its pre ent l a rge building ince 1912. Mr. Bell h as always been a lover o f outdoor life. At all times he has endeavored to perform his duties as a good cit izen and while a t Climax he se rved as a steward in the Methodist Church an d has h e ld a similar o flice si nce coming to Quincy. During the four years he was on the Quincy City o uncil the waterworks and sewer a ge fa cilities were installed. He is a Royal rch Mason a nd a democrat in politics.

PAGE 19

HISTORY OF FLORIDA 11 Al Mount Pleasant, Florida, Mr. Bell married Miss Luella Bates. She was a very active member of the Methodist Chm-ch. She died April 30, r9r4. Her father, Mortimer Bates, was born in Virginia, was living in Decatur County, Georgia, al the outbreak of the war and became a captain in the Confederate army, and after the war lived on a plantation in Gads den County, Florida, until a few years before his death he moved lo Quincy, Florida, where he died April 30, 1912. Mr. Bell has three children: Jessie E., wife of L. L. Willis of Quincy, and mother of one son, Benjamin Cawthon; Lemuel A., who is in the automobile business at Quincy, and is married and bas two children, Mary Lou and Lemuel A. Jr.; and Miss Eula, at home with her father. HoN. OscAR M. EATON, state senator from the 7th District, a resident of Lakeland, prominently associated with the affairs of that city, is a veteran railroad man, and is one of the oldest conductors on this division of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Mr. Eaton was born at Albany, Georgia, March 2..1, 1875, son of Benjamin Franklin and Avlo (Cox) Eaton, who were also natives of Georgia. He is first in a family of nine children. When Mr. Eaton was three years of age in 1878 he came to Florida with his parents and has lived in this stale forty years. Ile was reared and educated here, but was only fourteen years of age when he left school and took up railroading. His first job was in a commissary of the G. S. & F. Railroad. For about three months he was a section hand, then a news agent about six months, and became a trainman in the capacity of flagman for the F. C. & P., now part of the Seaboard Air Line. After one year he was promoted to conductor, being then only sixteen years of age. Ile was a freight conductor with the F. C. & P., and later an extra passenger conductor. Mr. Eaton has been in the service of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad as a conductor for twenty-two years. He is the oldest conductor on his division, and the second oldest on the same system. His home has been al Lakeland since 1900. During all the years he has lived at Lakeland he has made his influence felt for the betterment of the city, and the development of the surrounding country. This activity has led him into politics, and he was elected a member of the City Council in 1905, serving until r9r2 and several times honored as president of the Council. He was elected mayor in 19n, beginning his duties in 19r2. He continued as mayor until 1916, and in that year was chosen a member of the Stale Senate and was reelected in 1918. Mr. Eaton also represented Polk County about twelve years as a member of the State Democratic Executive Committee. His service as a railroad man and his work in public affairs constitute him one of the most use ful men in this section of Florida. He is a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner and also a Knight Templar. He was also promoter of the first Lodge of Elks at Lakeland and had an active part in building the Elks Club. Ile is affiliated with tbe Woodmen, the Knights of Pythias and Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He is a member of the Episcopal Church. JESSE FARRY CouNCIL is one of the best known railroad officials in Florida. For eighteen years he has been division superintendent of the Atlantic Coast Line at Lakeland. Mr. Council has had an interesting record of promotions and advancement since he took up railroading in the capacity of a flagman more than thirty years ago. He was born at Reevesville, South Carolina, March 2, 1869, a son of Charles R. and Mildred P. (Farry) Council, his father a native of Bladen County, North Carolina, and his mother of Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Of their seven children Jesse F. Council is the oldest. Mr. Council was reared and educated in South Carolina, attending public schools there. In 18go when he was twenty-one years of age he became a flagman on a run from Charleston to Wilming ton, North Carolina. From flagman he was advanced to freight conductor on the division running to Columbia, Norfolk and Savannah. About five years later he was appointed general yard master at Charleston, and in two years was made trainmaster of the Charleston division. He left this post to return to the same service as passenger conductor between Florence, South Carolina, and Savannah, Georgia. His next transfer was to Wilmington, as trainmaster of the Atlantic Coast Lines. He went there in 1904, and in 1905 was made trainmaster at Charleston, and in 1900 was appointed superintendent of the Norfolk Division of the Ailantic Coast Line with headquarters at Norfolk. Just six months later he came to Lakeland, Florida, as division superintendent and has efficiently served the railroad company and the local interests of his division now for eighteen years. Mr. Council has his home and other interests permanently identified with Lakeland. He has invested in citrus groves, in city property and also has some holdings in Lee County. He has been a director for ten years and is a member of the finance committee of the First National Bank of Lakeland and owns stock in other local enterprises. Mr. Council is a member of the Elks, the Order of Railway Conductors and the American Association of Railroad Superintendents. In 1897 he married Miss Lillie Kennedy of Charleston, now deceased. They lost their only child. In 1907 he married Fannie Nelson of Lakeland. They have one daughter Jessie Farry. Mr. Council has taken an active part in local affairs, and has served on the city council and school board and at the last election was candi date for mayor. He has been on the official board of the Methodist Episcopal Church for twelve years. E. C. FLANAGAN, chairman of the County Board of Commissioners of Polk County, is a veteran engineer of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway, one of the oldest in service, and has been closely identified with the development and public in terests of Lakeland and the county for thirty years or more. Mr. Flanagan was born in Duval County, Florida, February 2r, 1870, son of Thomas and Harriett (Dees) Flanagan. Thomas Flanagan was born in New York State of Irish ancestry and came to Florida about 1866, locating in Duval County. He was in the turpentine busi ness, and died when only thirty-seven years of age. His wife Harriett Dees was born in Florida, and lived to the age of seventy. Her father John Dees was a pioneer of Florida and her mother Sarah Powell was a native of this state. E. C. Flanagan, second in a family of four

PAGE 20

12 HISTORY OF FLORIDA children, was reared in Duval County and lived there until he was sixteen. He had a common school education. When he left home he took up railroading as a career, and his first service was as a fireman with the F. C. & P., now part of the Seaboard Air Line System. He was promoted from fireman to engineer, and in 1891 came to Lakeland, and for thirty-one consecutive years, until 1922, was active and regularly on duly as an engineer with the South Florida, now the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. He is still on the roll of engineers of this system, and one of the men in highest standing in the company's service. Mr. Flanagan served as a city commissioner of Lakeland four years and as mayor two years. lic has completed four years of service as chair man of the board of county commissioners. He is vice president of the State Bank of Lakeland and one of its directors, is owner of an orange grove at Haines City, and also owns rental property in Lakeland. ln 1893 Mr. Flanagan married Miss Texas (;riflin, daughter of J. E. Griffin of Lakeland. They have a family of three sons and one daughter: Herman C., Edwin Cecil, John B., and Ruth. !\fr. Flanagan is a York Rite Mason and Shriner, a member of the Elks and Knights of Pythias, for many years has held a card of mem bership in the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and is a democrat in politics. His time and interests have been liberally bestowed upon many movements for the development of Polk County. He is one of the directors of the Tampa State Fair. WILJJhR MARION RIDDLE is president and manager of the W. M. Riddle Lumber Company, one of the leading manufacturing industries of Lake land. The product of this woodworking establish ment are distributed over a wide section of territory. Mr. Riddle is a past master of the lumber industry in all its branches and has proved himself a most valuable citizen to Lake land, both in business and in civic affairs. Ile was born at Laurens, South Carolina, February 13, 1884, son of T. R. and Amanda (\\'inn) Riddle. His parents were also natives of South Carolina, and his father is still living at Laurens. Mr. Riddle is the fifth son in a family of eleven children, all still living except one daughter. During his boyhood at Laurens Mr. Riddle acquired a good education, and turned his mechanical gifts to good account by learning a number of trades. Ile worked with a lumber company at Laurens for some time and after some travel about the country located at Colum bus, Georgia, where for six years he had charge of a sash and door factory. Then in 1914 he came to Florida, and for about six months was con nected with the Plant City plant of E. T. Roux & Son. Mr. Riddle made the beginning of his present industry at Lakeland in 1919, establishing a little business in his back yard. His efficiency, his industry and reliable performance brought him a rapid increase in the volume of his orders and in 1922 he built a model factory, equipped with all up-to-date machinery in a two story build ing 50 by 8o feet. He also has a dry kiln and lumber shed 50 by 8o feet. The business is novelty works, but he manufactures also a variety of building material and has a payroll of about thirty persons. Mr. Riddle has shipped interior finish and other wood work to various sections of the state, and recently supplied the Central National Bank of St. Petersburg with a quantity of white oak for interior finish. Mr. Riddle is also interested in local real estate, and rrcently completed a fine home in the city al a cost of $10,000. He owns a forty acre farm in Polk County. In 1go8 Mr. Riddle married Dora Lentz of Salisbury, North Carolina. They have three children, Wilber W., Gretchen and Robert. Mr. Riddle is a democrat in politics. CHARLES Auc;usns O'QurnN, M. D. Taylor County numbers among its medical men some of the most competent and experienced physicians and surgeons in this 1>art of Florida, and one of them who is widely known and universally re spected is Dr. Charles Augustus O'Quinn of Perry. He was born 011 a farm near Homerville, Gtorgia, September 8, 1871, a son of Hardy A. and Mary (Smith) O'Quinn, the former of whom was born in Dawson County, Georgia, seventy-four years ago, and the latter was also born 111 Georgia, and both arc living, and re siding at Perry. Hardy A. O'Quinn was en gaged in farming near Homerville for some years, and then, for five years, was engaged in con struction work with the Coast Linc Railroad at \\'aycross, and later returned to farming at Dupont, Georgia. He also carried on farming at other points in Georgia, but finally came to Florida, and for a time had a garden and truck farm at Alton, Florida, but when he retired, he came to Perry which has since continued to be his home. The Baptist Church holds his mem bership, and he is a Chapter Mason. Doctor O'Quinn is the oldest in the family of nine children born lo his parents, and he was brought up to habits of industry. Until he was twenty-two years old he was forced to be con tent with a common-school education, but he never lost his youthful ambition to be a ' physi cian, and in order to secure the necessary funds taught school in the country districts of Clinch County, and then for several years was foreman of a phosphate mine at Fort \Vhite, Florida, until, in 1898 he was able to enter the medical department of the University of Georgia, although during his vacations he worked in sawmills to eke out his slender means. In 1901 he was graduated in medicine, and hcgan practicing at Mayday, a small town near Valdosta, Georgia, but after a few months, came to Florida as physician and surgeon of the Standard Lumber Company of Alton, and at the same time carried on a private practice. In 1904 he took up post-graduate work in New York on gen eral medical subjects, and in 1911, in partnership with his brother, Barney O'Quinn, and Dr. H. M. Smith, organized the Alton Drug Company, al Alton. In August, 1913, Doctor O'Quinn came lo Perry, where he has since been in a general practice, and he is also physician and surgeon for the Taylor County Logging Company at Springdale, and also for the Standard Lumber Company. Doctor O'Quinn is a man of great force of character, and much interested in local affairs. He was one of the organizers of the Citizens State Bank of Mayo, and is now a director of the Perry Banking Company. On his fine farm in Taylor County he is specializing, with very profitable results, in raising PolandChina hogs. A staunch democrat, he is active in politics, has been a member of the executive committee of his party, and always gives a strong support to all movements inaugurated in

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 13 behalf of the public schools. In fact Doctor O'Quinn is a real booster for his home city and county, and as he is recognized to be one of the successful men of this region, his arguments have weight. For many years he has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and he is a steward and trustee of the congregation at Perry. Well known in Masonry, he belongs to Perry Lodge, F. and A. M.; Perry Chapter No. 44, R. A. M.; Live Oak Commandery No. rr, K. T., and 1forocco Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S. He is secretary and treasurer of the Taylor County Medical Society, and a member of the Florida State Medical Society and of the American Medical Association. In 1901 Doctor O'Quinn was first married to Maude Dampier of Clinch County, Georgia, who died that same year. In 1903 he was married second to Maebelle Mc\Vhite, of Moultrie, Georgia, a daughter of James J. and Julia E. Me\Vhite, natives of North Carolina. Mr. McWhite is deceased, but his widow survives him and lives at Moultrie, Georgia. He was a naval stores operator, and a very progressive man. He belonged to the Baptist Church and the Masonic fraternity. Mrs. O'Quinn is active in church and club work. Doctor and Mrs. O'Quinn have four children: Evelyn, who is attending the South Georgia Normal School, is studying voice expression; Charles Augustus; Machelle Rae, and Julia Elizabeth. J. E. MELTON, for a number of years was an active figure in the lumber industry in Georgia, but since coming to Lakeland has turned his capital and talents in the direction of develop ment and construction work. He has carried on an extensive business in real estate development in that vicinity. He was born at Baxley, Appling County, Georgia, September II, 1873, son of G. T. and Nancy (Mann) Melton. His parents were also natives of Georgia. His father for many years was engaged in the saw mill and lumber industry. J. E. Melton is the second in a family of eight children. His boyhood was spent in Georgia, where he attended common schools and high school, had two years in Mercer University at Macon, and completed his education in the Eastman Business College at Poughkeepsie, New York. After returning home from college he became associated with his father in the lumber business, the scene of their operations at that time being in Tatnall County. Subsequently the mill was moved to Piney Bluff, on the Altamaha River and Mr. Melton also operated a steamboat line on the Altamaha River. Selling out his Georgia interest in 1907 he came to Lakeland, and began buying and selling and developing real estate. Since coming to Lakeland he and his associate have developed some of the finest residence subdivisions on the South Side, including the Dixie Land property, Orange Park, Oak Hurst and College Park additions. Mr. Melton personally owns several business buildings in the city, including the Dixie Highway garage property. He is a stock holder in the Central State Bank and the Polk County Trust Company and is the type of citizen always willing to put his personal resources and influence behind any worthy movement for the general welfare. He is a member of the Masonic order and Shrine, and of Elks Lodge No. 1291. In 18g7 Mr. Melton married Elizabeth Franklin, daughter of J. D. Franklin of Tennille, Wash-ington County, Georgia. Mrs. Melton is a member of the Daughters of American Revolution and the Daughters of United Confederate Veterans. They have three sons, John E., Jr., Jim Franklin and G. T., and a daughter Nan Eliza beth. Mr. Melton is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Wn.LTAM II. Hnms. The men whose achieve ments have been of the greatest benefit to the world are not those, who, through exceptionally favorable opportunity, have, in a comparatively short period of time, gained both wealth and prominence, but the ones whose careers have shown a steady and gradual development. William H. Hibbs, secretary and treasurer of the Hibbs Fish Company of St. Petersburg, is emi nently one of the men who has risen through his own efforts, and whose love of principle and strength of character have gained for him the respect of all with whom he comes in contact. It is usually the case that when a man is forced to start out early to fight life's battles for him self he long bears the marks and scars of the contest, but to this rule Mr. Hibbs is an ex ception. His educational training was limited to that offered by the common schools, yet he was naturally so quick and intelligent that this train ing, meagre as it was, served as a foundation upon which he later built a superstructure of ex perience and information, and few men are better informed upon current events than he. A man of sympathetic instinct, he is naturally charitable, but many of his benefactions are never known. As a business man his record is unblemished and his success is admittedly well-deserved. William H. Hibbs was born at Newport, North Carolina, March I, 1872, a son of H. W. and Eunice Morton Hibbs, both natives of North Carolina, and now deceased. They had six chil dren, of whom William H. Hibbs was the youngest. After the death of his first wife, the mother of Witliam H., the father was again married. Until he was seventeen years old, William H. Hibbs remained at home, but at that age started out for himself, and since then has made his own way in the world, and made it a good way too. For about four years he was engaged in fishing and following the water, and then went into railroad work as an operator and agent, and was stationed at different points, his last one being at Winter Haven, Florida, and there he continued until 1905, when he resigned, left railroading, and came to St. Petersburg to become bookkeeper for his brother, H. W. Hibbs, and the two have been associated together ever since, with the exception of one year when Mr. Hibbs, of this notice, was agent for the Favorite Line steamers, and two years when he conducted a freight boat between St. Petersburg and Tampa. \Vhen the Hibbs Fish Company was incorporated in 1919, William H. Hibbs became secretary and treasurer, and he still holds these offices, and he is also secretary and treasurer of the Citizens Ice and Cold Storage Company, and one of the stock holders as well. Both of these concerns are in a flourishing condition, and Mr. Hibbs' place in commercial circles is unquestioned. In r8g8 Mr. Hibbs was married to Miss Rosa Catherine Moan, a daughter of Capt. L. L. Moan, a captain on the Mississippi River, now deceased. Mrs. Hibbs was born at St. Louis, Missouri, but she was a resident of San Antonio, Florida, at the time of her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Hibbs have six children, namely: Mary Eunice, a sister in the Convent of the Holy Name at Tampa,

PAGE 23

14 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Florida; Augusta, a stenographer, employed in her fat her's office; William Liles, attending a Catholic University at Washington, D. C.:t Joseph Henry, attending St. Leo College, ::it. Leo, F lorida; William H., Junior, attending the St. Petersburg schools; and Louis James, who is the youngest. Mr. Hibbs belongs to St. Petersburg Council No. 2105, Knights of Columbus, St. Petersburg Lodge No. 1224, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and also to the Woodmen of the World. He began visiting the city in 1889, and for over seventeen years has been a permanent resident of this community. His company does a whole sale business, and also has a retail department. It is the l argest fish concern between Key West and Pensacola. Although a man of many and responsibie business interests Mr. Hibbs has not neg l ected the social side of his nature, but is welcomed in many circles. IIe is deeply interested in the development of the c i ty and county. A man of unusual worth and substantial character, his j udgment is recognized as sound, his sagacity is keen, and he is admittedly one of the best posted men in his field for he has had a long and practical training in it. WESLEY A. HENDRY. In the measure that a man proves the broadness and sincerity of his character and the sense of the heavy responsi bility devolving upon him both relative to his private interests and those of the public, does he achieve and deserve lasting success. Preparedness and efficiency for whatever life brings, are valuable assets in the formation of character and the accumulation of the evidences of material prosperity. \Vithout a sane, sound outlook on life, no man can hope to produce upon others that impression so desirable in order to establish permanent prosperity, a fact that some men never learn. Others recognize it from the first, and their careers arc full of big accomplishments and public-spirited action that lend themselves to producing the light in which the community regards such citizens. Such a man is Wesley A. Hendry, manager of the Pinellas Lumber Com p any, with headquarters at St. Petersburg. A man of pronounced capability for his present duties, Mr. Hendry not only is giving his com pany a hearty and thorough service, but he is also rendering his home city one which is placing him i n the position to which his public-spirit en tit l es him. While his business cares have always been heavy, he has always managed to find the time, and has always possessed the inclination to discharge civic respons'bilities, and he has filled a number of public offices, and given satisfaction in them. The birth of Wesley A. Hendry occurred in Taylor County, Florida, March 31 1872, a son of of Georgia and Florida, respectively. Robert Robert Wesley and Anna (Delk) Hendry, natives \Vesley Hendry was but a boy when his father, Robert M. Hendry left Georgia for Florida. The Hendrys are of English descent but have been estab l ished in this country for many genera tions, and have participated in the different events w h ich have been important in the making of American history. Growing up in Florida Robert M. Hendry early showed strong religious tenden cies and great eloquence, and after he was con verted, he became a local preacher of the Metho dist Episcopal Church, and as such became a well-known figure over a wide territory. He was g r eatly beloved, and recognized as a powerful force for good in his section. Wesley A. Hendry was the second child in a fami l y of four children, and he was reared in his native county, and there attended the public schools, and subsequently took a course at the Jasper Normal School. Mr. Hendry's activities have been many and varied for he has been engaged in handling real estate, with several tele phone companies, and was also occupied with school work, all of this being carried on at Perry, Florida, where he maintained his residence for twenty years. As a result of his work in behalf of public utilities he became the owner of the Gulf Telephone Company, and managed its affairs for some time. Always interested in educational matters he not only acted as a superintendent of different schools at various times, but for a quarter of a century was a school trustee, and did other val uable work in connection with the public-school system. In 1921 he came to St. Petersburg to assume the managerial duties of the Pinellas Lumber Company, and is rapidly placing that concern in a most flourishing con dition. On Novemher 23, 1898, Mr. Hendry was married to May weaver of Perry, Florida. Mr. and Mrs. Hendry have three children: Anna May, Robert W., and James Edward. Having been a lifelong resident of Florida Mr. Hendry is naturally enthusiastic with reference to the wonderful possibilities of his native state, and anxious to do everything within his power to further develop them into actualities. Reared as he was in a religious atmosphere it was but natural that he should have early united with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he has since con tinued a faithful member, and effective worker of this denomination, both at Perry and at St. Petersburg, where he is now. C1NCINNATlTS Tno~iAS Cur.l'Fl'PER, M. D. Some of the most successful of the medical practi tioners l1ave found it expedient to devote them selves to a certain extent to special branches of their profession, either because of preference, or hecause of a popular demand. This is the case with Dr. Cincinnatus Thomas Culpepper of Perry, who, although engaged in a general practice, is kept so busy ministering to the ills of children, in whose diseases he has become a specialist, that he has but little time for other work. Doctor Culpepper belongs to the old Culpepper family of Georgia, and he is an elder brother of Judge John 0. Culpepper, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this volume, county judge of Taylor County. Doctor Culpepper was born near Thomasville, Georgia, November 22, 1863, eldest son of John S. and Dorothy (Chastian) Culpepper. John S. Culpepper was born in Georgia, and he died in his native state in 1900 when he was sixty-eight years old. He was a veteran of the Confederate army, and an active democrat as long as he lived. Carefully reared, Doctor Culpepper first attended the local schools and the Southern Georgia Military Institute, and then, while en gaged in farming, studied medicine. Determined upon securing proper medical training, he worked in a turpentine plant during his vacations and earned the money to put him through the medical department of the Atlanta Medical College, from which he was graduated in 1892, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine, and immediately the r eafter established himself in a practice at Meigs, Georgia, where he remained until 1895, and then came to Florida, and for three years was en-

PAGE 25

HISTORY OF F LORIDA 15 gaged in prac tice in Madison County, and then, in 1898, localed permanen tly at Perry, and here, as above stated , he has beco me w idely known as the "ch ildren's doc tor." He has farming in te rests and is a man of conside rable means, all of which he has acquired by h is own e fforts. A democ rat, he has been very active in local affairs, and during 19n an d 1913 rep resented the Twelfth enatorial District in the tate Senate. Du ring the late wa r he was one of the most zea lous wo rkers, and he has a lways been ac tive in local matters. An ardent s portsman, he mainta ins Culpepper Ca mp, on the Fenholloway River which is noted for its t urkey and deer shooti11g all over Northern F lorida an d Southern Georgia. Doctor C ulpepper be l o ngs lo the County, State a nd National Med ical Asso ciations, and he rna intains m mbership wit h t he K nights of Pythias. Doctor Cu lpepper was married lo Miss Ca llie UcDonald, born al Bos ton, Georgia, a da ughter of J. B. and Margaret (McGu igan) Mc D o na ld, native of No rth Carol ina, bot h of who m a re now deceased. Mr. Mc Donald was a onfede rate vete ran, a farmer, and a prominent man, and one very active in the P resbyterian Church. Mrs. Culpepper is very active i n c hurch, club, pol itical a nd socia l circles, and is a lady of unu. ual men tality a nd exec utive force of character. Doctor and Mrs. ulpepper have t hree living children: L. E., who is senior member of lhe Cu lpepper Lee Drug Co mpany of Perry; John I., w ho is ma nager of the hardware a nd fa rm department of the Burtonwa rtz Mercan tile Compa ny of Perry, is married and h as two children, Carolyn and Jack; and faedell at home. ALVIN ]AMES Woon, M. D. pecial P hysician and Health Officer of t. Petersburg, D r. A l vin James \Voocl has been successfu lly e ngaged in a ge neral practice as a physic ian and s urgeon here fo r t he past decade. Doctor Wood ea rned s uc cess in his chosen profession against heavy odds, s ince the circ umstances of his yo uth did not per mit h im the oppor tunities o f a liberal e ducation, except as he co uld ea rn and pay for them. Doctor \ood was born in Jasper o unty, l\I issouri, May 22, 1882, so n of D. . and l\Iary F rancis (Horn) Wood, his father o f English and his mother of Ger man ancest ry. His fathe r is still living at Jasper ily, M issouri, hav ing s pent his ac tive Ii fe as a farmer in that vic inity. Docto r \Vootl is t he sixth in a fam ily of seve n children. He grew up on t he farm, help d his father in t he fields a nd other work, and had on l y t he adva ntages of the country schools the re. At the age of twenty -two he lef t ho me, and going to Ba ttle Creek, : Michigan, ap plied hims If to such work as he could find while atte nding sc hool. For two years he attended sc hool during t he day and had regular work during the night ho urs. In 1910 he graduated from the America n 1Ieclical Missionary College, after s pending two yea rs in st udy at Battle Creek, and the last two yea rs in Chicago. Doctor Wood's cx peri nee prior to c oming to St. Petersburg was in c harge of the Med ical Dispensary of t he Battle Creek Sanitarium in the Stoc k Yards District o f Chic ago. F rom there he came to St. Petersburg in 1913. He i a member of t he County and State Medica l ociet ies and the American Medica l Asso ciation. Docto r Wood is a member of the St. Petersburg Golf Club and the K iwanis C lu b and is a trustee of the Methodist Episcopal C hurch. ince co ming to St. Petersburg he has b een ha ndling real estate and has been quite s uccess fu l in that field . He married in 1910, F l o rence Faith E mery of Jasper County, Miss ouri. They have th ree children: Frances E mily, Row l a nd E mery and Florence Jean. JAMES D. HAY. The grow th a nd deve l opment of a ny co mmunity is largely dependent upon the exe rtions of t hose men who devote them elves to the ex ploitation o f rea l estate . ' Without t heir e nergy, v im and progressive ideas no locality will mov e out of the co nventional rut; ou tside money w ill not be attracted to it, an d property w ill be worth little more yea r by yea r. With t he advent of an e nterprising, ex perienced man, well versed in the rea lty b usiness, comes a g rowth that is remarkable. Some y ears h ave passe d si nce th e i ni t ial work in this line was done a t t. Petersburg, but the needs o f the c ity make n eces sa r y a continued expa nsion o f the o ut l y ing territory, while the maintenance of property already b ui lt is ext reme ly important. So it is that the work of the realty dea ler is counted as being a mong the mos t important fa ctors in the life o f this city. One o f the men whose na me is con nec ted with much of the realty busi ness here is James D. Hay, of 424 Central Avenue . Born at Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia, January 2 , 189<>, Mr. Hay is a Southerner, and the love of the Southland is in his b lood. He is a so n of James M. an d Georgia ( Mc racken) Hay, a lso natives of Geo rgia, where t he fa ther is st ill living, but t he mother is deceased. They had s ix c hildren born to them. Reared by ca refu l parents, James D. Hay con t inued at home unti l he was six teen y ears o ld, and t h e h ab i ts of industry a nd thrift there in s tilled have never been forgotten. After com pleting a common-school e ducation, he to ok a b u s iness cou rse a t Jacksonville, Florida, before then o r in 1900, s pent a year i n A l a bama. In 190 7 he located permanently at St. Petersburg, an d h i s i nitial connection w ith the real-estate field was in the office o f one of the loca l dea ler s. S ub se quent l y he became a sa lesman fo r another conce rn, and was so successfu l in bis work that he was e ncouraged to go into business for him se lf, wh ich he did a t the ex piration of three y ears. During the fifteen yea rs he h as bee n a resident of the c i ty he h as see n St. Petersburg grow from a v illage of 2,500 to a city of ove r 20,000 in hab itants, and the g rowth i n other ways is q u i te as re markable. The s treets were practically un pave d, t here w ere no other pub lic i mprove ments, a nd few industrial e nleq>rises had been est ab l ished here. It is a so urce of great pride to Mr. Hay that he has bee n privileged to participate in this development work, a nd he co nsiders his ma terial prosperity second to it, a lth o ugh it is remarkable in itself for s ince the age of six teen he has been se lf-supporting, a nd has ed ucated h imself, a nd worked his own way upward. Too m uch c redit cannot be ac corded him, for he de serves m uch p raise for what he has accomplished. Vvhen this country e ntered the Worl d wa r Mr. Hay w as o ne of t h eilyoun g men w ho responded to his c ountry's call, and serve d in the navy as a yeo man of the secon d class. He w as assigned, with his comma nd, lo conv oy duty, and carried on that dangerous wor k u ntil a fter the s igning of t h e Armistice. He received his ho norable dis charge o n the batt leship Lo uisiana, December 10, 1918, an d returned t o St. P ete rsburg whe re he res umed the duties of his real-estate busi ness. Mr. Hay is unmarried. He is a Thi rty-second

PAGE 26

16 HISTORY OF FLORIDA degree, Knight Templar and Shriner Mason, and also belongs to St. Petersburg Lodge No. 1224, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. It is safe to say that no worthy measure ever comes before the people of St. Petersburg that has for its object the further development of the city and the advancement of its residents, that does not receive the hearty and effective support of Mr. Hay, and he is the promoter of some of the best of them. He has always held to high ideals in his l ife work, and his efforts have been character ized by a devotion to duty and with an apprecia tion of the responsibilities resting upon him as a man and a citizen. FLETCHER PARK BouToN. The many advan tages of the Sunshine City awaken the enthusiasm and urge to the utmost those handling its realty, for there is no question but that an investment made !,ere will yield, within a short time, a hand some return for the confidences thus displayed. For this, and other cogent reasons, some of the most alert men, many of them from more northern climes, have become permanent residents of St. Petersburg, and are devoting themselves to the real estate business with satisfactory results hath to themselves and to the community which is being admirably developed through their resourcefulness and convincing actions. One of t hese progressive realtors, whose operations are conducted upon an extensive scale, is Fletcher Park Bouton, of the firm of Bouton & Cermah, _;19 Central Avenue. Mr. Bouton was born in New Hampshire, June 13, r888, a son of T. C. H. and Annie S. (Whitehouse) Bouton, natives of New Hampshire and Massachusetts, respectively. Both survive and are now living at St. Petersburg. They have but the one child. Mr. Bouton attended the public schools of his native state, and Cushing Academy of Ashburham, Massachusetts, and left the latter in r9()8. Subsequently he went lo New York City, and still later to Boston, in both cities having considerab le experience in the real estate business. It was while he was work ing in the latter city that his interest was aroused in St. Petersburg, and in 1915 he located here permanently, entering at once into his present undertaking. His previous training and natural qualifications have been of great value to him, and his business ha, been a successful one from the start, while his value to his com munity is ever on the increase. He is one of the progressives in his line, and never considers any effort too great which has for its object the further development of the city or county . In r9ro Mr. Bouton was married to Elizabeth McKean, of Hyde Park, Massachusetts, and they have one daughter, Annie J. Mr. Bouton belongs to the Country, Yacht and Sportsmen clubs of his locality, and lakes a prominent part in all of them. It is such men as Mr. Bouton who have interested not only outsiders in the present and future of St. Petersburg, but the residents themselves, arousing in them the help ful local pride so necessary for a proper expansion, and judged alone by what he has ac complished in this way, Mr. Bouton's work here has been of great value. GEORGE A. McCREA, proprietor of the McCrea Motor Car Company at St. Petersburg, was forme r ly in the flour, grain and building supply business here, and came to Florida with the advantage of several years of successful business experience in that line in Pennsylvania, his native state. Mr. McCrea was born at Butler, Pennsylvania, January II, 1883, son of W. S. and Melissa (Burns) McCrea. His father, a native of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, brought his family to Florida in December 1908, and lived in this state until his death at St. Petersburg in 1917. The mother passed away in October, 192r. Of their ten children only two arc now living, George A .. and Hugh F., the latter of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. George A. McCrea grew up in Butler, Pennsyl vania, was educated in the parochial schools at Butler and the Butler Business College, and after completing his education engaged in the flour, grain and feed business at Butler, as W. S. McCrea & Company. Disposing of his interest there he came to St. Petersburg in T909, and for about ten years has conducted a very successful business in flour, grain and building materials. In 1918 Mr. Mc Crea sold out his interest in th .is field to the Dann Gerow Company. After about six months of re tirement from business activity he took the local agency for the Buick car, and in r9r8 erected a substantial sales room, service and garage station on First Avenue and Third Street, South. In r92r he added a second story to the building, which is roo by 8o feet, and one of the best equipped service and sales stations for the Buick car in Florida. He devotes his time exclusively to this one car, and his service is available twentyfour hours in the day. Mr. McCrea is also a director in the American Bank & Trust Company, is a member of the Country Ctub, Cliamber of Commerce and is affiHated with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and Knights of Columbus. In 19o8 he married Miss Nellie Toomey of Butler, Pennsylvania. They have one son, Billie, born in r9ro. B. W. MULFORD was for a number of years a business man in the North, but about ten years ago became interested in the south coast of Florida, and is one of the men of achievement in that section, best known as the developer of the St. Lucie Inlet Farms and the City of Port Salerno in the northern part of Palm Beach County. Mr. Mulford was born and reared at Elizabeth, New Jersey. He is of English ancestry, and his people were pioneers of New Jersey, and the family was represented in service in the Revolu tionary war. Mr. Mulford was educated at Westfield, New Jersey, and at the age of eighteen re moved to Minneapolis. There for a time he was associated with one of his uncles in the grain business, and subsequently engaged in the grain and elevator business on his own account. He was a resident and active business man of Minne apolis for twenty-two years. Mr. Mulford came to the east coast of South Florida in r9ro. Since then he has carried out his large project involving the development of the St. Lucie Inlet Farms and Port Salerno. He secured the cooperation of other Minneapolis capitalists, but the work has been carried on under his individual guidance, and as a result of his en ergy and skillful promotion this is recognized as one of the most successful townsite and farm de velopments in the state. He practically built the town of Salerno, erecting several store buildings and residences and a large modern hotel. His influence has always

PAGE 28

HISTORY OF FLORIDA 17 been a factor in the building of good roads, drain age canals and other public improvements. Salerno is located on the Florida East Coast Railway, on the Dixie Highway, and adjoins the St. Lucie Inlet from the ocean and is also situated on the route of the St. Lucic-Okeechobee ship canal. This is one of the centers where agricultural, live stock and fruit growing developments are making most rapid progress along the east coast. It is a matter of interest that oranges and grape fruit grown on the St. Lucie Inlet Farms were awarded second prize at the Palm Beach County Fair in 192r, while the oranges received first prize in 1922. PHrLLIP VERNON CUNNINGHAM is a banker by profession and training, and for a number of years has been associated with the financial affairs of St. Petersburg, where be is cashier of the Ninth Street Bank and Trust Company. He was born twelve miles south of Asheville, North Carolina, at the community known as Fletchers, named in honor of a member of the Fletcher family, closely allied with the Cunning hams. He was born there July 20, 1885, son of William E. and Alric (Guice) Cunningham, also natives of the same state. The mother is still living, a resident of St. Petersburg, Florida. Their family consists of six sons and two daugh ters. When Phillip V. Cunningham was a boy the family moved to Jefferson City, Tennessee, and in 1912 they came to St. Petersburg. He was educated in the public schools of Fletcher, North Carolina, spent three years in Carson and Newman College, a prominent educational in stitution of Jefferson City, Tennessee, graduating in the business department in 1905. He had grown up as a boy in his father's store and learned the practical side of business in that way. In r9()8 Mr. Cunningham organized a bank in South Carolina known as the Bank of Landrum, and served it as cashier for four years. Selling his interest there in 1912 he moved to St. Petersburg, and was assistant cashier of the First National Bank until 1921. Then upon the organization o{ the Ninth Street Bank and Trust Company he took his present post as cashier. This institution has a capital stock of $50,000, and docs a general banking business. In 1911 Mr. Ct1nnningham married Nettie L. Frazier, daugliler of William E. and Mattie (Hall) Frazier of Jefferson City, Tennessee. Mrs. Cunningham is a native of Tennessee and was also educated in Carson and Newman Col lege. They have one daughter, Dorothy Eliz abeth. Mr. Cunningham is a democratic voter, is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and is prominent in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, serving as a steward, trustee and for sev eral years as church treasurer. ToM PAYNE. It is difficult for the biographer to sketch in brief review the full activities of a man who has, by reason of his enterprise and good citizenship, impressed his personality upon a certain community. An active career, marked by constant advancement, presents an interest ing study; yet, to enumerate the various and varied steps by which Mr. Payne has risen to the position which he occupies; to name in de tail the minutiae of accomplishments which, in his forward march, have gathered, and have formulated finally into the complete and satis factory whole, were to constitute a record which would far exceed the limits necessarily assigned to a work of this nature. The writer, therefore, is called upon to restrict himself to noting only the salient points of direct bearing. Tom Payne, prominent lumber dealer of St. Petersburg, has accomplished much and the influence of his kindly personality is strongly felt no less than that which has served so well to advance the interests of his calling. A brief resume of his life should prove interesting to those who have been associated with him in his undertak ings, as well as to the public generally, for he is one of the sterling characters and worth while citizens of Pinellas County. Mr. Payne is not an American by birth for he was born in Kent, England, August 28, 1866, a son of James Payne. He was reared and educated in his native place, and after he reached his majority, he left England for Canada. From the time he reached the Dominion, Mr. Payne was interested in lumber, and established, later 011, headquarters at Toronto and Sault St. Marie. Subsequently he began his travels which took him all over the world, and during this time he spent two years in Japan, and some time in Holland, Belgium and other countries, finally reaching England, where he continued his operations in lumber. Returning to Canada, he spent some time there, and then came to the United States and was at Niagara Falls for a time. Leaving Niagara Falls, he went to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, which he left for Jacksonville, Florida. Liking conditions in Florida, he operated at Jacksonville, and later at St. Augustine, and finally came to St. Petersburg. While at St. Augustine he had been lecturer of the local historical society, and thought to live in retirement when he came to St. Petersburg, but he is too active a man to be content with a life of leisure, es pecially in a community so teeming with op portunities as his home one, and he once more entered the lumber industry, and has built up a very large and valuable connection. \Vhen Mr. Payne was twenty-six years old he was married, first, to Evelyn Bauer, a native of England, who died soon after they came to St. Petersburg, leaving three children, namely: Philip, who is editor of the New York News of New York City; Lester, who served as a wire less operator during the World war, with the rank of sub lieutenant; and Flora, who is the wife of Captain Jurich of New York City. After the death of his first wife Mr. Payne was married to Lenore Murphy Mebame of Arkansas. Mrs. Payne is one of the leading factors in the activities of the women's clubs of this part of the state; is treasurer of the State League of \Vomen Voters of Florida, and secretary of the American Society, and belongs to a number of local organizations, and their committees. She is a highly educated lady, and a great worker in behalf of her sex, and her efforts have been productive of many practical and valuable results. Mr. Payne has always had a phenomenal grasp upon the details of the lumber business, possesses a keen insight into human nature, and a strong and indomitable will and would have made a name for himself in any walk of life, or in any profession. A poor boy, without wealth or in fluence, by the sheer power of his innate faculties he has overcome all obstacles and risen gradually until he is now one of the leaders in his industry, and a substantial member of his home city. BAYARD S. CooK, member of the successful law firm of Cook and Harris in St. Petersburg, came to Florida after a number of years of practice

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18 HISTORY OF FLORIDA as a Philadelphia lawyer and is one of the very ac ti ve men in the professional and civic affairs of the West Coast. He was born in Talbott County, Maryland, May 22, 1882, only son and child of Peter and A ugusta (Pippin) Cook, his father a native of Delaware and his mother of Maryland. His fathe r is still living in Maryland. Bayard Cook was reared in his native state, was educated in the public schools, in the Easton High School, and graduated from the Temple University Law Schoo l at Philadelphia in 1907. He was admitted to the bar the same year, and from 1917 to 1915 had a satisfactory practice as a member of the Phil ade lphi a bar. In the latter year he moved to St. Petersburg, and since November 1, 1919, has been associated with Mr. Harris. The firm of Cook and Harris conduct an extensive general practice in all the courts of the state. In 1917 Mr. Cook married S. Jane Beryman of Ohio. They have three sons, Bayard Jr., Douglas and James. Mr. Cook served several years as city attorney for St. Petersburg under the Lang administration. He is a member of the First Methodist Episcopal Church, South. ALBERT EMANUEL FRALT:1GH has been closely associated with various industrial and commercial enterprises of ma]or importance and is one of the l eading business men residing in the City of Madison. He has been closely allied with his o lder brother, Louis A., who is individually represented in the following sketch of this work and in whose personal sketch is given adequate record concerning the family history. Albert E. Fraleigh was born at Quincy, Gads den County, Florida, April 1, 1868, and his early education was acquired in public and private schools in his native state, principally at Madi son. At the age of fifteen years he entered upon a practical apprenticeship to the printer's trade, in the office of the :Madison Recorder, and after two years of such association with the "art preservative" he was for an equal period a clerk in the store of Dickinson Brothers. The ensuing five years found him rendering effective cle r ical service in the mercantile establishment of J. W. Smith, of Madison, and in 1891 he became associated with his brother, Louis A., and their brother-in-law, P. S. Coggins, in establish ing the general merchandise firm of Fraleigh, Coggins & Fraleigh, which developed one of the leading enterprises of this order at Madison. In 1900 Mr. Fral eigh became one of the principals of Fraleigh, Lines and Shel fer Company, a con cern that is now incorporated under this title and of which he is the vice president. This company controls a large and representative b u s ine ss in the handling of live stock, farm im p l ements and machinery, grain, feed, etc., be sides having the local agency for the Buick auto mobile s . The concern formerly maintained branches at Perry and Live Oak, but now con centrates its business in the large and well equipped headquarters at Madison. In 1900 Mr. Fraleigh engaged in a modest way in the raising of shade tobacco, the first to be propagated in Madison County. He became associated with T. C. Smith, J. E. Hardee and his brother, Louis A. Fraleigh, in the organization of the Florida Sumatra Leaf Tobacco Company, of which he contin ued the vice president until the company permitted its organization to lapse, in 1921. Mr. Fraleigh now has the distinction of being the most extensive tobacco grower in Madison County, is vice president of the Cherry Lake Land Company, which has holdings of 2,000 acres, with valuable timber, and devoted to diversified agriculture, including the raising of tobacco, and to the production of turpentine. In 1909 Mr. Fraleigh and J. E. Hardee formed the Fraleigh-Hardee Tobacco Company, but in H)2I Mr. Fraleigh assumed individual control, the enterprise having been since continued unde r the title of Fraleigh Tobacco Company. He is an extensive and successful grower, packer and dealer in the production and commercial handling of Sumatra leaf tobacco, and, under the title of the Lloyd Tobacco Company, maintains branch offices at York, Pennsylvania. In 1909 he es tablished the first tobacco packing house at Madison County, by the remodeling and converting of a large store building at Madison for this purpose. Mr. Fraleigh is the owner of a fine farm of 7.c;o acres, partly within the corpo rate limits of Madison, 100 acres of this tract being given over to the raising of shade tobacco and the remainder being devoted to diversified agriculture. He is vice president of the Fraleigh-Smith Investment Company, which has a farm estate of 1,500 acres near Greenville, :Madison County, this tract likewise being utilized for progressive gen eral farming and tobacco growing. Mr. Fraleigh is a director of the First National Bank of :Madi son, of which his brother, Louis A., is preside nt. The two brothers have achieved large financial success entirely through their own abi l ity and well directed activities, and are numbered among the most substantial and progressive citizens and men of affairs in this section of their native state. It is to be noted that Alhert E. Fraleigh is a copartner of the Fruluck Tobacco Company, which has a farm of 6-10 acres near Madison , with thirty-five acres given lo the production of shade tobacco of the best grade. The political activities of Mr. Fraleigh have been confined to the manifestation of constructive civic loyalty and to a brief period of service as county treasurer, to which office he was appointed in 1888, by Governor Edward A. Perry, to fill out an unexpired term. Ile is afliliated with the Masonic fraternity, and he and his wife arc prominent members of the Presbyterian Church at Madison, of which he is both a trustee and a deacon. The year 1896 recorded the marriage of Mr. Fraleigh to Miss Theodora Livingston, who was born and reared in Madison County, the only daughter of Theodore and Sarah (Mays) Liv ingston, both now deceased, the father having been a soldier of the Confederacy in the Civil war and having been for many years a leading merchant at Madison. The Livingston family has been for many generations one of prominence in Madison County, and the same is true of the : Mays family in Jefferson County. Mrs. Fraleigh is active in church and club work, is a member of the local Civic League, and is a leader in the representative social activities of her hom e city. Mr. and Mrs. Fral eigh have five children: Sarah is the wife of John G. Ashley, who is engaged in the automobile and farm impleme nt business at Valdosta, Georgia; Mary Love, who remains at the parental home, was graduated in Converse College, Spartansburg, North Carolina, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts; Albert Emanuel, Jr., is a graduate of Davidson Col lege, South Carol ina, attended also the University of Florida and Princeton University, New Jersey, he being now associated •with his father in the tobacco business; Margaret is, in 1922, a student in the Florida State College for Women, at

PAGE 30

~;p

PAGE 32

HISTORY OF FLORIDA 19 Tallahassee; and Theodore Livingston is attend ing the public schools of Madison. Lours ALEXANDFR FRALEIGH, president of the First National Bank of Madison, judicial center of Madison County, is a man of large influence in connection with constructive industrialism, progressive business and civic affairs in this favored section of Florida, and as one of the essentially representative citizens of Madison County he is entitled to special recognition in this publication. Mr. Fraleigh was born at Quincy, Gadsden County, Florida, November 30, r866, and is a son of Emanuel M. and Mary A. (Love) Fraleigh, the former of whom was born and reared in Germany and the latter of whom was born at Quincy, Florida, a daughter of Alexander Love, who was a pioneer farmer of Gadsden County, and a representative of a family whose name has been long and prominently identified with the history of Gadsden County. Emanuel l\L Fraleigh was a young man when he came to Tallahassee, Florida, from which city he later removed to Quincy, where he became a prosperous merchant and where he remained until his death, in r876, his widow having survived him by many years. The subject of this review was nine years of age when he accompanied his widowed mother on her removal from Quincy to Madi son, and in the latter city he continued his studies in the public schools until he entered upon his apprenticeship to the carpenter's trade. With funds which he earn ed as a workman at his trade he defrayed the expenses of a course in the celebrated Eastman Business College at Poughkeepsie, New York, and upon his return to Madison he entered the employ of L. Bucki & Sons, engaged in the lumber business. He served as bookkeeper and salesman for this firm, and as postmaster and express agent at its commissary at Ellaville. He remained three years at that place and then returned to Madi son, where he engaged in the general merchandise business on a modest scale, as a mem ber of the firm of Fraleigh, Coggins & Fraleigh, his associates being his brother-in-law, P. S. Coggins, and his younger brother, Albert E. Fraleigh, of whom individual mention is made in the preceding sketch. The business devel oped into one of successful order and after having given his close attention to the same for a period of five years Mr. Fraleigh became, in 1895, one of the organizers of the Bank of Madison. He was made cashier and later vice president of this institution, and of the latter office he was the incumbent at the time when, in 1904, the bank was reorganized and re chartered, under the title of the First National Bank of Madison. He was vice president of the new institution when, in 1900, it absorbed the Madison County State Bank, and after the con solidation he was elected to his present executive office, that of president of the First National Bank. He is a director also of the Florida National Bank at Jacksonville. Mr. Fraleigh was associated with his brother Albert E., Theodore C. Smith and J. E. Hardee in organizing the Florida Sumatra Tobacco Company, which corporation discontinued its business in 192r. He is now the manager of the Fraleigh-Smith Investment Company, of which Theodore C. Smith is president and A. E. Fraleigh vice president. Mr. Fraleigh is secretary and treas-urer as well as general manager of this com pany. The company operates a fine tobacco farm of 1,500 acres and specializes in the rais ing of Sumatra tobacco, besides which the gen eral agricultural productiveness of the farm is kept at high standard. Mr. Fraleigh is also one of the principals in the Fraleigh-Smith Insurance Company; the Ancilla River Naval Stores Company, turpentine and naval stores operators in Madison County; the Beggs-Fraleigh Tobacco Company, growers of high-grade tobacco; T. J. Beggs & Company, engaged in the dry-goods, clothing and undertaking business at Madison; and has otherwise shown his liberality and self reliance in the support of industrial and com mercial enterprises that have contributed much \o !h~ advancement of Madison County and its 1ud1c1al center. He has won substantial suc cess through his own well directed efforts and realizes fully the personal stewardship which such success. involves, so tl~at his civic loyalty and progressiveness are unstmted. Mr. Fraleigh served more than twenty-three years as a mem ber _of the city council of Madison, and was president of the same the greater part of this period. Ile has been for six years a member of the board of county commissioners, and is its chairman at the time of this writing, in the summer of 1922. \Vhatever is advanced for the civic or material benefit of his home city and county receives the liberal support of this progressive citizen, and he takes special interest in the furtherance of the good-roads movement. He is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and is a steward of the local Methodist Epis~opal Church, South. Mr. Fraleigh was character istically loyal and active in advancing patriotic service and measures in the \,V oriel war period, and made his personal contributions to the gov ernment loans as liberal as possible. In 189r was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Fraleigh to l\Iiss Rhoda Parramore, who was born and reared at l\Iadison and who is a daughter of the late William L. and Helen (Living ston) Parramore, who passed their entire lives in Madison County, where Loth the Parramore and Livingston families have long been of promi nence and influence. Mrs. Parramore resides in Madison, Florida. \Villiam L. Parramore was long one of the leading merchants of Madison, as a member of the firm of J. T. Beggs & Com pany, was a Confederate soldier in the Civil war, and was a broad-minded and public-spirited citizen. Mr. and Mrs. Fraleigh have seven children: William L., Lilla, Helen, Susan Parram~r~, Rhod:i, Loui_s A., Jr., and Cora Ashley. Wilham L. is marned and has one son, William L., Jr. Lilla is the wife of B. J. Randall a merchant at Clearwater, this state. Helen' is the wife of R. C. Dickinson, engaged in the mercantile business at Madison. SIMEON E. SPARKMAN, county assessor of Hillsborough County, is a man whose faithful di~charg~ of public. obligation has no equal in tins section of Flonda. He started as a public official as tax collector in r878, assessor 1881-8~, coun_ty commissioner 1883-84, proves that his constituents are satisfied with him, and proud of what he has been able to accomplish in their behalf. He was born in Hillsborough County Florida, August 9, r85r. ' After he completed a common school education Mr. Sparkman took a special business course at Poughkeepsie, New York. Although actively

PAGE 33

20 HISTORY OF FLORIDA engaged in farming and stock raising all of his life he enjoys the distinction of b~ing the oldest pub l ic official in his county having held office continuously since 1877, in which year he was elected collector o ( the county, and served for two years. He was then elected assessor and served as such until 1882. During 1883 and 1884 he was County Commissioner and in 1889 was elected to represent Hillsborough County in the Florida State ,\s sembly, and was returned to that office until 18<)2. Again in 190( he wa_ s elected Tax Assessor and held the office unttl 1917. In 1920 he was again elected assessor for a four year term from 1921 to 1925. The last term for which he has been elected makes twenty th r ee years he has filled this office. Ile is ac knowledged to be the best posted man on property values in Hillsborough C?unty. ~n spite. of his official duties he still carries on his farmmg activities and is also connected with other dependable enterprises of the county . Mr. Sparkman was married to Mary H_ackn~y, of Hillsborough County and ~hey !iave six ch~ldren namely: L. B., J. 11arrn1, \\ alter B., ,v1ll S., Amos L. and Mrs. Sarah. R. !lfcKinuey. A native of Hillsborough County, Mr. Spark man naturally is deeply interested in all that con cerns this region and is glad that he has been able to render si'1ch efficient aid in its develop ment, not only as a pu~lic official, but in private capacity as well. Having been engaged 111 farming for so many years, he ha~ become an expc~"t on agricultural matters, and his rural property ts a valuable one and his manner of conducting it sets an example many arc gfad to follow so ~s to profit hy the results or his years of experi ments and successful ventures. Such men as Mr. Sparkman form the great backbone. of the country, and are a Yaluahle asset to their com munities where\'er they arc found. HOWELL MoRTON HAMPTON when a boy formed a resolution to become a lawyer. Strong natural gifts, a Joye of stu~y an_d a logical mind ha".e been sufficient to brmg him to the front of his profession. He ~as a large practice ~t Ocala, and is one of that city's most progressive members. He was born near Floral City, in what was then Hernando, now Citrus County, Florida, March 5, r88o. His grandfather was Wade Malone Hampton, an Alabama planter and slave owner. His father, James A. Hampton, was born in Piedmont, Alabama, May 2, 1849, served a year at the close of the Civil war in the Con federate Army, being only fifteen when he en listed and in 1870 he came to Florida and home stead~d, deyeloping his homestead as a stock and fruit ranch. He was a prominent man in his community, serving on the County Board of Commissioners and on the School Board. He married Mary Jane Duval, who died in 1916, and of their four children Howell Morton is the third. Mr. Hampton spent his boyhood days on his father's farm. He first perfected himself in stenography, and was a court reporter while studying law in the office of Hon. H. L. Anderson. He was admitted to the bar at Arcadia in March, 1903, and in the same year began practice at Ocala. Mr. Hampton confines his work largely to the civil law, and represents a number of cor porations. He has one of the finest law libraries in the state, and a large private library of se lected literature as well, and he enjoys nothing better than in keeping in touch with the great master minds of the ages. He is devoted to the law, and has never been in politics, though doing his part toward maintaining sound government . He is a member of the Bible Class at Sunday School, was one .of the organizers of the Bonita Fishing Club at Inglis, and in 1910 he he l ped organize the Commercial Bank of Ocala, and was attorney for the organizers of the Metropolitan Savings Bank, a hank owned and conducted by the ncgro people of Ocala. Mr. Hampton is a past chancellor rnmmander of the Knights of Pythias and a past exaltrd ruler of Ocala Lodge No. 286, He11c\ ok11t and Prott•ctive Order of Elks. During the \Vorld war he was chairman of the : Marion County Council of Defense and a mem ber of the Selective Service Draft Board. Mr. Hampton has something more than a local repu tation as a humorist, and has written occasional poems celebrating local events and personages. In January, 1900, at Arcadia, he married :Miss Annie Laurie Carlton, a nathe of Arcadia. Her father, Henry E. Carlton, was for many years clerk of the Circnit Cotu-t and superintendent of public instruction. Mrs. Hampton is a graduate of music and expression from the Southern Col lege and tal.;cs an actil'e part in local musical eir_cles, club and church work. They have three cl11ldren, Ilowell ~forton, Jr., Laurie Carlton and James Henry. GEORGE EDWAR1> PORTER, JR. The career of (;corge Edward l'ortt-r, Jr., secretary and treasurer of the Perry l•:IL'L'lric Company, and one of the leading citizrns of Perry, pnl\'cs what a man can accomplish, in spite of ohstaclt•s, if he pos sess suflicicnt faith in himself, and the initiati\'e to work until he lill(ls the line for which his talents fit him. There are frw enterprises of moment in this locality. which do not. feel the impetus of Mr. Porter's energy, and his community is fortunate in ha\'ing secured his co opcratiYc efforts in its behalf. George Edward Porter, Jr., was born at Helena, Arkansas, Octoher 2;::, 1&'l4, a son of George E . and 1fary (:Miles) Porter, both natives of Arkansas. Until 18.% George E. Porter was engaged in the lumber husincss in Arkansas hut in that year came to Florida, and for thre~ years conducted a lumber and planing-mill busi ness at Branford. In 1889 he went to O'Brien where he operated in lumber, and he also es tablished a similar business at LiYe Oak. Sub sequently he expanded, and built the first ice and electric plant at Live Oak, but in 1()08 dis posed of his interests at Live Oak. After sev eral years spent in retirement, in r9r2 he came to Perry, and with J. D. Scruggs, engaged in husiness under the name of the Perry Electric Light Company, bul in 1921 permanently retired, and is now living in comfortable leisure at Perry. He has always been a very progressive man, and it was through his efforts that the Episcopal Church was made possible at Live Oak. During the administration of Gov. W. S. Jennings, he served as chief of ordnance, with rank of colonel on the governor's staff, and at one time served as captain, and later as major, of the Florida State Militia. He is very active as a Mason, and has been advanced through the Chapter and Commandcry, and is also a Shriner. George Edward Porter, Jr., attended the high school of Live Oak, where he ,pent his boy hood, and he remained in his father's office until 1()08, when he engaged in the lumber business.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 21 conducting a planing mill and manufacturing pine at Live Oak. In 1912 he came to Perry and engaged in the lumber business, in which he continued until December, 1920, when he dis posed of his mterests to devote all of his attention to the Perry Electric Company. This concern has a fine, modern ice plant, commercial cold storage plant and furnishes the water and electricity for Perry. He also owns and operates the Temple Theatre, in the Masonic Temple, where he shows the best line of pictures ob tainable, and enjoys a large patronage. Although he worked hard, Mr. Porter did not achieve to a full measure of success until he began to withdraw from the lumber industry, but since 1917 has been increasingly prosperous. Mr. Porter is secretary and treasurer of the vestry of Saint James Episcopal Church of Perry, which he assisted in establishing. During the late war he participated in all of the drives for bonds and Red Cross, and was registrar for the first and second drafts. At the time of the erec tion of the Masonic Temple, he was superintend ent of construction and treasurer of the build ing committee, and took a very active part in selling the bond issue for the building. In fact he did everything in his power to make the venture a successful one, and did not relax his efforts until the building was completed in April, 1921. In 1919, and in 1922 he was made master of Perry Lodge, F. and A. M., and he belongs to the Chapter and Commandery at Live Oak. In 1900 Mr. Porter was married at Live Oak to Miss Mattie Bradford, born at Port Gibson, Mississippi, a daughter of Rev. T. C. Bradford, who was born in 1&p, and died at Live Oak in 1915. He married Mattie Thompson, who died at Lake City, Florida, in 1888. During the war between the two sections of the country, Mr. Bradford served in the Cenfederate army, volun teering from Louisiana in an infantry regiment. For some time subsequent to the close of the war he was president of the Methodist Episcopal Female College at Port Gibson, Mississippi, and was later engaged in teaching as head of the government Indian school in Indian Territory. In 1888 he was transferred to the Florida con ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and had a pastorate at Lake City; was for four years at Monticello, and then was stationed at Gainesville, Live Oak and Madison, and retired in 1910, and continued to live at Live Oak until his death. Mrs. Porter is very active in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and also in club circles, and during 1921 was president of the Perry Woman's Oub. Mr. and Mrs. Porter have two sons: Robert Kay and George Edward III. Louis CHARLES LY NCII. Among the leading citizens and public officials of Gainesville few are better known or more universally esteemed than Louis Charles Lynch, postmaster of Gaines ville and an overseas veteran of the World war. Mr. Lynch is not a native of Florida, but has made this state his home for many years, and his career is easy to sketch, as it has been con spicuous for honorable and useful effort. Mr. Lynch was horn at Baltimore, Maryland, October 13, 1867. His parents were Alexander and Maria (Allen) Lynch, the former of whom was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and died at Gainesville, Florida, in 1896, at the age of sixty two years. The mother of Mr. Lynch was born at Fort Wayne, Indiana, and died at Jacksonville, Florida, in 1900. Of their family of seven children Louis O1arles was the second in order of birth. Alexander Lynch was three years old when his parents brought him to the United States. He early developed talents that led to the study of law, and he completed his law course in the State College at Meadville, Pennsylvania, and became eminent in his profession. During the war between the states he served in a Tennessee regiment, and for conspicuous valor was brevetted colonel, but this mark of consideration he de clined and re-entered the war as a private. After the war closed he practiced law at Baltimore and later, in the City of Washington, was an attorney in the claim department of the War De partment, which work took him all over the Middle West. In 1883 he came to Florida, bought a farm near Dade City and engaged in the prac tice of law in Hernando, now Pasco County, until 1889, when he came to Gainesville to take up the duties of registrar in the United States Land Office, a position he continued to fill until 1895. In political sentiment he was a republican. He was a charter member of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 20, Knights of Pythias, of which he had served as chancellor commander. Louis Charles Lynch had educational advan tages at Washington, D. C., in the Baptist Col lege at La Grange, Missouri, and Montgomery Bell Academy in the City of Nashville, Ten nessee. When fifteen years old he became a clerk in a drug store, and during the next five years completed his course of study and became a registered pharmacist, being a resident at that time of St. Louis, Missouri. In the mean while his father had come to Florida, and Mr. Lynch came also and was with drug stores in Dade City, St. Petersburg and Gainesville until 18go, when he was appointed clerk in the United States Land Office, in which he continued four years. Following this from 1894 until 18g8 he was associated with Dutton & Company, the largest dealers at that time in sea island cotton in the United States, and in the banking business. In 18()8 Mr. Lynch reentered the United States Land Office as chief clerk, in which relation he remained until 1907, when he was appointed postmaster of Gainesville. Mr. Lynch continued postmaster until 1914, during this time through w,ise economy and efficiency bringing the Gainesville office to one of high class in the state. Upon retiring from this public office he became secretary of the Board of Trade and United States commissioner and deputy clerk in the United States Land Office. In the meanwhile the heavy clouds of war in Europe settled more and more ominously over America, and before they lifted pain and sorrow fell upon countless homes in our beloved coun try. Although beyond draft age, and a family man, Mr. Lynch did not permit such considera tions to sway him in performing what he felt to be a patriotic duty. He enlisted for military service, and on November 12, 1917, sailed for France as a member of one of the first units of the American Expeditionary Force to land at Brest, moving then to Paris and then to ls-surTille, France, where for eighteen months he was stationed in the Advance Engineering Supply Depot No. 1, having been commissioned a lieu tenant. He returned to the United States May 20, 1919, and immediately became engaged in engineering construction work in South Florida, with Wells and Sons & McCarthy, in the great

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22 HISTORY OF FLORIDA drainage enterprises near West Palm Beach and Fort Myers. He was soon recalled to Gaines ville, however, on November 1, 1921, and again appointed postmaster. Politically active in the republican party for many years, Mr. Lynch has served in many political capacities, and has been chairman of the Alachua County committee of the Second Congressional District Republican Committee, the State Central Committee and many times a delegate to conventions, county, state and national. Mr. Lynch married October 25, 1893, Miss Mary H. Beville, who was born at Gainesville, a daugh ter of Robert Harper and Jennie (Mcilvaine) Beville, the latter living with her son-in-law and daughter, aged eighty-six years. Mr. and Mrs. Lynch had one son born to them ; Haisley, whose brave young life went out while on the battle front at Cote d' Chatillon, France, on October 17, 1918. He was born at Gainesville, December 3, 1895, attended the public schools, Riverside Military Academy, and University of Florida, and at the time of his enlistment (having made five attempts before being accepted) was a clerk in the First National Bank. He became a mem ber of the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Ma chine Gun Brigade, went to France and was as signed to the One Hundred and Sixty-seventh Infantry, Machine Gun Company (the old Fourth Alabama) Forty-second Division, at Chateau Thierry, going to the front the next day after joining. As a memorial the local post of the American Legion has been named in his honor. Mr. Lynch was one of the organizers of Haislev Lynch Post No. 46, American Legion, and is serving as Post Commander, and is past com mander of the state organization. He has long been very active in the Knights of Pythias, is past chancellor commander of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 20, was an officer of the Grand Lodge from 1902 to 1907, and in the latter year was grand chancellor commander of the Grand Lodge of Florida. He is prominent officially in the Elks, and is a member of the American Society of Military Engineers. JAMES FLETCHER BURNETT. How much the general public in a community is indebted to the really active citizen with his spirit of enterprise and his practical methods can not be definitely decided, but the fact remains that in those towns and villages where little public spirit or indi vidual enterprise is shown the wheels of progress are stalled. Every traveler recognizes those com munities and feels sorry for those whose inertia causes them to lose so much that is worth while in life. One of the leading men of Gainesville is J. Fletcher Burnett, who is not only a promi ,nent business man but is active in every move ment that promises to be of substantial benefit to this city and section. Mr. Burnett was born at Gainesville, Florida, July 27, 188o, and is a member of one of the old pioneer families of Alachua County, His par ents were Samuel J. and Ida V. (Cannon) Burnett, the former of whom was a son of S. W. and Ruth (Clash) Burnett, of Alachua County. He was born in this county October 30, 1848, and died in 1912. Few men of his day were better known or more highly esteemed at Gainesville. After the close of the war between the states, during which he had served in the Home Guards, he engaged in the real estate business and erected some of the first brick business blocks in the pl1;1-ce. He was chairman of the building com mittee and superintendent in charge in the con struction of the imposing Presbyterian Church and many other substantial buildings. Like his father, who had been sheriff of Alachua County, he was prominent in democratic politics. In 1873 he was elected mayor of Gainesville and was re elected for thirteen consecutive terms, a record unequalled in the history of the city. He be longed to the Masonic fraternity and to the Knights of Pythias. The mother of Mr. Burnett, who belongs to an old family of Orangeburg, South Carolina, still survives. James Fletcher Burnett attended the public schools of his native city, and then entered the East Florida Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1898, with the degree of A. B., having been a prominent member of the Students' Bat talion, with rank of sergeant, lieutenant, captain and finally major. For eighteen months after leaving college Mr. Burnett was connected with the railway express service, after which he en tered the employ of several large clothing houses at Gainesville, and during this interval gained a thorough knowledge of this line of business. In I913 he embarked in business for himself, and now has one of the finest establishments in the line of men's fun,ishings in the city. He carries a complete stock of fine clothing and furnishings, reliable in quality and up to date in every par ticular, his well known trademark being "Burnett, THE Clothier." "Nuf sed." Mr. Burnett has additional business interests and is a stockholder in the Florida Bank & Trust Company. At Daytona, Florida, on February IO, 1909, Mr. Burnett married Miss Alma Vida Sullivan, who was born near Waldo, Florida, and is a daughter of L. and Sadie M. Sullivan. The former was a farmer in Alachua County. Mrs. Burnett is well known in the city's pleasant social life, and is a member of the Twentieth Century Club and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. While not active in the political field, Mr. Burnett has always been foremost in advancing the city's business and social prestige, and as a mem ber of the Chamber of Commerce and along other lines has been notably useful and influential. He is a member of the Merchants' Association, vice president of the Retail Merchants' Association, a member of the Advertising Club and in 1921-22 a member of the Board of Directors of the Florida Clothiers' Association. He was one of the or ganizers and is a charter member of the Rotary Club and its president in 1921 and 1922, and was president of the Palm Point Country Club, which in 1921 merged into the Gainesville Golf and Country Club. He believes in out door recreation needed by every business man, and enjoys golf, tennis, motoring and fishing, and assisted in or ganizing the Fishing Club at Inglis. During the World war he organized a company of Home Guards, and as captain trained them ready for public service, and in every other way was active in patriotic work. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and in his religious creed prac tical benevolence means something. EUGENE L. COTTRELL, an honored citizen residing at Old Town, Dixie County, formerly included in LaFayette County, is a native son of Florida, a scion of an old and prominent Southern family of ancient French lineage, and has been success ful in his constructive enterprise as an agricul turist and stock-grower and also as a merchant.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA I le has served in the Stale Senate, and has other wise found means to prove his civic loyalty and public spirit. In the summer home of his parents at Cedar Keys, Florida, Eugene L. Cottrell was born on the 2rsl of Octobrr, 1858, the youngest in a family of fo11r sons and six daughters. His father, James Lafayette Cottrell, was born in Virginia and died at Cedar Keys, Florida, when seventy-seven years of age, his wife, whose maid en name was :Margaret Rebecca McQueen, hav ing been born in Lowndes County, Alabama, and having died at Cedar Keys, Florida, when sixty six years of age. James L. Collrell was a boy when he accom panied his parents on their remQval from Vir ginia to Georgia, and later to Alabama, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. Tn the Town of llaym• villc, that state, he hecarnr senior memher of the law firm of Cottrell & Pope. John Edmore read law in thrir office. was admitted to practicr aNI became a mem her of the firm k11own as Cottrell, Pope & Edmore. Business increased and Edmore was sent to Montgomery as representative of this firm. J. L. Cottrell was a leader in the councils of the democratic party in Alahama, served in both Houses of the State Legislature, and was at one time the presiding officer of the Alabama Sen ate, besides which he represented the state in the United States Congress in 1846. In r854James L. Cottrell remo\cd to Florida, and here he be came the owner of a large landed estate in Levy and Lafayette counties, his plantation being oper ated with slave labor and he having had a home at Old Town, with a summer home at Cedar Keys. At the time of the Civil war he removed with his family to Cuthbert, Georgia, and he was elected to the Senate from Randolph County, Georgia. He was at the same time elected sena tor from Levy County and also that senatorial district embracing Taylor and Lafayette counties, Florida, and sci-vrcl thr latter district twtl\'c terms. After the war he returned to Florida, and he gave most loyal service as a member of the State Legislature in the reconstruction prriod, he hav ing been a memhrr of the Senate at this time. James L. Cottrell was a courtly, dignified and scholarly gentleman, an able lawyer and a man whose sterling character and kindly nature gained to him the high regard of all who knew him. He was affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. He was a leader in development and progress along both civic and material lines, and his nam~ merits high place on the roster of the distinguished men of Florida. The Cottrell family was founded in America in the Colonial days, the original representatives having come to this country from England. The family was one of much prominence and influ ence in France, where as Huguenots it endured religious persecution that led to flight to England, where was adopted the anglicized spelling of the name, which in France had been Cotreal. The depressed status of the South after the close of the Civil war caused educational advan tages to be below former standards, but in this period Eugene L. Cottrell attended private schools, his early education having been acquired in Florida, Georgia and Alabama. At the age of fifteen years he found employment as mail car rier, and while living with kinsfolk in Alabama he there worked at the carpenter trade. He passed four years in the State of Tennessee, and then, in r877, returned to Cedar Keys, Florida, where for eight years he was a clerk in the general store of C. B. Rogers & Company, Thereafter he there continued to be associated with the mer cantile b11siness of the firm of Cottrell & Finlayson until 18go, when he removed to O l d Town and engaged independently in the same line of business. In the following year he formed a partnership with William D. Finlayson, of whom individual mention is made in the following sketch. and this alliance continued more tha n fifteen years, the two having been successful in their mercantile business at Old Town and also as agriculturists and stock-growers. Like his honored father, Mr. Cottrell has been active in the councils and campaign activities of the democratic party in this section of Florida. In 19or he was state senator, as representative of the Twelfth Senatorial District, comprising Tay lor and Lafayette counties, and in 1907-9 he again represented his district in the State Sen ate. He has ever been a supporter of good gov ernment, and in the Senate he worked earnest l y for the constructive legislation that should be of benefit to the state and its people, with naught of other official ambition. He has been liberal in his civic stewardship, and his support is ever to be counted upon in the furthering of measures and enterprises advanced for the general good. He was one of the organizers and became a director of the Farmers & Merchants Bank at Trenton, and is still a stockholder in the same. 1fr. Cottrell has large land holdings in the vicin ity of Old Town. He was a Knight of Pythias at Cedar Keys, and he and his wife hold m em bership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, So u th, The first wife of Mr. Cottrell is survived by two sons, James E. and William Wesley, both residents of Old Town. In r903 Mr, Cottrell married Miss Pauline Hightower, who was born in Leon County, Florida, a daughter of Samuel and Kate Hightower, her father having been a farmer in Leon and Jefferson counties and hav ing later engaged in the mercantile business in the City of Tallahassee, where his. death occurred . Mr. and Mrs. Cottrell have four chi ldren R. Fletcher, Joseph M., David and \Varner. \I\TrLLIAM DANIEL FINLAYSON has honored his native state by his c'haracter and achievement, has served in many positions of public trust, Including that of member of the State Legis lature and that of member of the State Board of Control, and he is now one of the honored and influential citizens of the new county of Dixie, with Old Town as his place of residence. l\Ir. Finlayson was born on the homestead plantation of his father at Mount PleasaJ1t, Gadsden County, Florida, and the date of his nativity was March 23, 1855. He is a son of Angus and Martha E. (Rogers) Finlayson, t h e latter's father, General Rogers, having attained fame as an officer in the Seminole Indian war. Angus Finlayson was born in North Caro l ina, his marriage was solemnized in Georgia, and from the latter state he came to Florida and es tablished his residence in Gadsden County, where he became the owner of a large plantation and held many slaves. Later he resided in Jackson County, near Marianna, among the largest plantation owners in that section of the state, and there he died in the year 186r, his wife having died in Boston, Massachusetts, and was brought back to her old home for burial. The environment and influence of the home plantation compassed the boyhood and early youth of William D. Finlayson, and he attended the private school maintained by his father until

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24 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the Civil w'ar disrupted all affairs in the South, including the closing of schools . His broader education has been gained through individual study and reading and through active associa tion with practical affairs during the course of an active and useful career. He remained on the old home place in Jackson Gounty until 1875, when he assumed the dual office of chief board ing officer and chief inspector of the harbor at Cedar Keys, this appointment having come to him through the influence of his brother-in law, Hon. W. J. Purman, who was then a representative of Florida, in the United States Congress. In 1878 Mr. Finlayson became sheriff of Levy County, under appointment by Governor Drew, and later was reappointed by Governor Bloxham, a position which he finally resigned to accept that of assistant timber agent of Florida, with territorial jurisdiction from Pen sacola to the coa t of the Gulf of Mexico. In 1884 he became general timber agent for the Florida Land & Mortgage Company, Ltd., an English corporation, and of this office he con tinued the incumbent nine years. Mr. Finlayson was a delegate to the first democratic convention of Florida after the close of the Civil war, and during the long inter vening years he has continued an influential figure in the councils of his party. He repre sented Levy County in the State Legislature in 1893-95, and in 1903 he was a member of the Legislature from Lafayette County. He gave eight years of characteristically effective service as a member of the State Board of Control, under appointment by Governor Gilchrist, and was reappointed by Governor Trammell, and within his tenure of this position were erected nearly all of the buildings of the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee, and also those of the University of Florida. In the year 1900 Mr. Finlayson removed to Lafayette County, where he has two large and well improved farm properties near Old Town, these farms being now in Dixie County. For more than fifteen years Mr. Finlayson was as sociated with Hon. Eugene L. Cottrell (in dividually mentioned in the preceding sketch), in extensive farm enterprise, and the two maintained also a partnership in a general mercantile busi ness. Mr. Finlayson served as chairman of the Lafayette County Boord of Education until the new county of Dixie was organized, and in this latter county he has since continued hiis service in a similar capacity. Mr. Finlayson is a past master of the Masonic Blue Lodge at Cedar Keys, where he served three terms, also as chancellor commander of the lodge of Knights of Pythias, besides which he was thrice elected master at arms of the Florida Grand Lodge of this fraternal order. He has served as steward and trustee of the Methodist Episoopal Church, South, and in the same held the posi tion of Sunday School superintendent for a total of fourteen years. He is one of the original stockholders of the Farmers & Merchants Bank at Trenton, and is one of the substantial, loyal and progressive citizens of this section of his native stlate. June 6, 1873, recorded the marriage of Mr. Finl ayson and Miss Mary Cravasse at Cedar Keys, her father, Joseph Cravasse, having been a vessel owner and blockade runner in the Civil war period and having been one of the prominent and influential citizens of Cedar Keys. Mr. and Mrs. Finlayson bec!ame the parents of four children: Mattie beoame the wife of John Luther, and both are deceased, their surviving children being W. Frank, Mary and John D. William D. Finlayson, Jr. , who resides at Leesburg and is in the service of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, has two children, Lucille and Alice. Mary Augusta is the widow of Thomas McQueen, and has six children: John, Fletcher, Margaret, Thomas, Mary and William Daniel. James, youngest of the four children, is deceased. The first wife of Mr. Finlayson died in the later 'Bos, and in November, 189(), he married Miss Anna Marie Burroughs, of Tallahassee, she being a daughter of Edward W. Burroughs, who represented Leon County as a Con federate soldier in the Civil war and who the1eafter was long in the service of what is now the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, he having been a resident of Starke, Bradford County, at the time of his death. Mr. and Mrs. Finlayson became the parents of four children, of whom three are liv ing. Eben B. is a conductor on the Seaboard Air Line, is married and has one daughter, Wilda. Allie May is the deceased wife of J. L. Robinson, of Old Town. James Henry served with the American Expeditionary Forces in France in the World war, he having been a member of the Engineer Corps, and being now with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, living in Jacksonville. Edward Maxwell, youngest of the three sons, is serving as truant officer of Dixie County. Mr. Finlayson has always given staunch support to progressive measures, and since the for mation of the new county of Dixie he has served as chairman of the Board of Education of Dixie County. WILLIAM BARNETT DAnS. In the career of William Barnett Davis of Perry, is exemplified that practically nothing is impossible to the am bitious young American, for he has risen to a high and honorable position in the legal profes sion and the confidence of his fellow citizens, entirely through his own efforts, and is a self educated, self trained man. Ile was born on a plantation in Madison County, Florida, August 28, 1876, a son of William B. and Cornelia (Fletcher) Davis, natives of Elbert County, Georgia. William B. Davis lived in Alabama during his boyhood, but when he was twenty years old, moved to Alachua County, Florida, and after coming to the state served in the war with the Seminole Indians. Prior to the out break of the war between the two sections of the country, he was a merchant at Newmansville and Fayetteville on the Suwannee River. In 1869 he came to Perry, where he was associated with John M. Towles in the mercantile busi ness, but in 1872 moved to Madison County, and spent the remainder of his active life as a merchant and farmer of that locality. In 1884 he returned to Taylor County, and was living retired near Perry at the time of his death, in 1901, when he was sixty-seven years old. His wife died in April, 1877. William Barnett Davis had a very limited schooling, his attendance not exceeding fourteen and one-half months at a backwoods school, but from boyhood he cherished the determination to be an attorney, and all of his efforts were di rected to achieve his ambition . Conditions in the family made it imperative that at the youth ful age of eleven years he become self support ing so as to assist his father. He continued to

PAGE 40

HISTORY OF FLORIDA 25 add to the family income until he was twenty years of age. During all of this time he kept up his studies with such good purpose that when he was twenty he was able to pass the necessary examinations anress Com pany, the largest concern of its kind in the state; secretary and general connsel of the Tidewater Cypress Company of Dunnellon, Florida; local attorney Atlantic Coast Line; local attorney Live Oak, Perry & Gulf Jfailroad, and division counsel of the South (;eorgia Railroad. He is interested in many local enterprises. His diver sion is farming. His home is a 1,eautifttl one, surrounded with large and finely-kept grounds. In 1916 Mr, Davis was acti, e in the movement pertaining to the bond issue for good roads, and one of the most effecti\'e workers for it when it was brought before the people. During the late war he did CVl'rything witl1111 his puwl'r to assist the administration to carry out its policies. He i;; a membtr ui the Flor.da Stall' Bar Association. !l'Cially s11ccessf11l agriculLuri,l and stock gn11Hr. Jfc n:1in,1:11ted 1.afayctlc County i11 the Lu1rl'r Honse of the State Legislalnl'e, a11cl i11 18
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26 HISTORY OF FLORIDA children, passed his boyhood and early youth on the home farm, and his educational ad vantages included those of the Kirkwood Military Academy, the East Florida Seminary, the Means High School of Atlanta, Florida, and the high school at Starke, Florida. At the age of nineteen years he engaged actively in the buying of cedar lumber, and identified him self also witlh the cattle business, he having gained experience in these lines through former association with his father's business affuirs. He is now the owner of a large amount of valuable cedar land in this section of Florida, and his fine stock farm comprises 2,000 • acres, his l1ive stock brand being T Fleur de Lis, the T representing the initial of the first personal name of his father. Mr. Chaires was the first to intrroduce in this section of his native state sires of the Hereford foll-blood cattle and also Duroc-Jersey swine, and in this and other ways he has done much to raise live stock standards. His progres • siveness is shown equally in the agricultural department of his farm enter prise, and he has in a distinct way reputation for leader ,s!hip in civic and industrial affairts in his county. He finds his chief diversion in hunting and fishing. Mr. Chaires is influential in the councils and campaign activities of the democratic party in this part of the state, and in 1909 and 1917 he represented Lafayette County in the State Legis lature. He was prominently identified wi1Jh the movement that resulted in the establishment of the new county of Dixie, and was a member of t l he Florida State Democraitic Committee at the time when Dixie County was formed. He is a leading member of the Cattle Men's Associa tion of Florida, a ,nd is affiliated with the Masonic fratemity and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He and his wife are active membef's of 1Jhe Methodist Episcopal Church, South. ln 1902, at Ocala, this state, Mr. Chaires wedded Miss Ruby Sheppard, daughte,r of C. R. M. Sheppard, who was for more than twenty years engaged in. the ecdar-timber business, in which he wais associated witlh the late Thomas P. Chaires, father of the subject of this review. The maiden name of the mother of Mrs. Chaires was M , ary Barnnett, and the parents now reside at Newberry, wihere the father is living retired. Mrs. Sheppard is a kinswoman of Robert Bamnett, famed in the work of the Methodist Church in the Sot1t'h. EARLE LESLIE BIGGS, M. D. Although num bered among ,tlhe younger men of hi-s learned profession, Dr. Earle Leslie Biggs is recognized as one of the leading physicians and surgeons of Bradford County, and his practice, which is a large one, is among the people of Starke and its vicinity. While still engaged 'in a general practice, he pays special attention to gynecology and obstetrics, and is a recognized authority upon these two subjects. Doctor Biggs was born at the village of Middleview, Escambia County, Florida, Apdl 13, 18go, a son of William Henry Biggs. The birth of William Henry Biggs took place on a farm at Red Springs, North Oarolina, in 1855. As he grew to manhood he became interested in farming, and later in the turpen tine industry, remaining in North Cartolina until 188g, and in. that year came to Florid.a and bought a sawmill at Middleview. In 1891 he sold and bought another sawmill at Chipley, and conducted it for two years. Leaving the s-awmi!I industry, he became a citrus grower in Clay County, Florida, and in 1897, went on a farm at Middleburg. Subsequently he became inlterested in lumbering and sawmilling in ,that neighboI'hood. From 1908 to 1916 he was super intendent of public instruction of Clay County, during which time he resided at Greene Cove Springs, but in 1917 moved to Lawtey, where he is engaged in truck farming, and where he is postmaster. He has always been very active as a democr,at. The Methodist Episcopal Church has in him one of its most zealous members. William Henry Biggs married Martha E. Chaffin, born. in Vermont, W\ho was brought to North Carolina by her parents before the war of the '6os. She and her husband are now enjoying life in their comfortable home at Lawtey. They have had nine children born to them, Doctor Biggs being 1:'he sixth in o •rder of birth. Doctor Biggs attended the common schools of Clay County and the Middleburg High School. When he was seventeen years old he commenced to earn his own living, and for six months worked in the sawmills of Middleburg. His next occupation was that of clerking in the com missary store of the J. M. Sutlherland Turpentine Company at Leno, Clay County. Tihrough his own efforts he obtained a course in a business college and a two-year Literary course at Stetson University. His ambition. was not yet satis fied, so he worked again until he had accumul.a.ted sufficient money to give him a year at Birming ham Medical College, and the necessary courses at lhe Atlanta Medical College, now a part of 1lhe medical department of Emory College, A,tlanta, Georgia, from which he was graduated in 19r4, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He entered at once upon a general practlice at Lawtey, Bradfo1d County, Florida. At once he began to take an active part in politics, and served as a member of the City Council for two years, and was urged to remain there permanently, but felt the need of a brol\der field, so in 1920 came to ~he county seat. He has taken up post-graduate work at the Birmingham Posr Graduate College and at clinics. at Jacksonville, Florida, and in 1922, at the New York P , ost Graduate College in gynecology and ob stetrics, in which subjects he is very much inter ested. He belongs to the Bradford County Medical S
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 27 has had the ambition to succeed, and has never lost sigiht of the goal he set himself. Born on a plantation in Appling County, Georgia, January 18, 1854, Nelson Turner Ritch is a son of Green Berry Ritch, also a native of Georgia. During the war between the North and the South Green Berry Ritch served in the Confederate Army, and following its close was engaged in farming in his native state. His wife died when Nelson Turner Ritch was an infant, but wihen he was twelve years old he was brought to Florida by his father, and the latter 1'ived in Bradford County and other parts of Northern Florida, being interested in the naval stores business . Subsequently, however. he went into the turpentine industry, his S'On being mterested in these ventures as he grew older. Nelson Turner Ritch moved to Columbia County in young manhood, and for two years was engaged in the turpentine business for him self, and then took a contract in logging at Baldwin which lasted for two years. For twelve years he was foreman for the lumber interests of the Eppinger & Russell Company at Olustee, Baker County, Florida, and as such built twenty miles of railroad, and at the same time looked after all of the interests of his company. In 1891 Mr. Ritch came to Starke and became half owner of a private bank, which had been established in 1889 by N. \V. Hackett. In 1894 Mr. Ritch bought Mr. Hackett's interest. Subsequently this institution became the Bradford County Bank, with him as president and priractice, in connection with which he spared himself nothing in time and effort. In r8oc) he removed to Madison, the county seat, and in the following year he took a special post graduate course in the celebrated College of J 'hysicians and Surgeons in the City of Balti more, Maryland. In February, 1902, Doctor Yates brought into service in his professional work the first static X-ray machine in the State of Florida, and he has since developed to the highest standard the system of electrical ap pliances in his sanitarium, the equipment of which is now of the most approved modern order. Since r902 he has specialized in electrical therapeutics, in which unqualified success has been his record. In 1914, the doctor opened a sanitarium at Madison, and the same proved most successful in its service, with the result that its business grew to one of broad scope and importance. On the 20th of February, 1922, the sanitarium building was destroyed by fire, but the loss represented in many ways a distinct gain, for, with characteristic resourcefulness, Doctor Yates forthwith erected a new brick building of two stories, specially designed for the purpose and supplied with modern improvements, including effective ventilation, hot and cold water,

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28 HISTORY OF FLORIDA thorough system of screens and the best of sanitary provisions throughout. Here are to be found the best of facilities for medical, surgical and electrical treatments, and such is the reputa tion the institution has gained that it now attracts patients from all parts of the South. Doctor Yates is a member of the American Med ical Association, the American Electro-Therapeu tic Medical Society, the Florida State Medical Society and the Madison County Medical Society. He is president of the Trusty Visible Gasoline Gage Company of Madison, and is the patentee of the visible gasoline device manufactured by this company. He has been loyal and liberal in his civic attitude and served fourteen consecutive years as a member of the city council of Madi son, he having been president of the council during six of these years. He and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he is serving as a steward of the church at Madison. The doctor is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias. The year 1894 recorded the marriage of Doctor Yates to Miss Laura L. Vann, daughter of Thomas and Ellen (Hammerly) Vann, both now deceased. Dr. and Mrs. Yates have three chil dren : Howell Lee, Maude ( wife of Ernest Price, of Quitman, Georgia) and Gladys. Doctor Yates not only maintains control and active executive and professional supervision of his sanitarium but also continues in the general practice of bis profession, he being now one of the veteran physicians and surgeons of Madison County. GEORGE WRENN NEVILLE. Nearly every sub stantial interest and enterprise in the City of Dunellon in Marion County is a medium through which George W. Neville does his work and exercises his influence as a business man and citizen. He is a banker, farmer, a leader in p~&a~~ .• Mr. Neville was born at Shuqualak, M1ss1ssippi, January 26, 1870, son of Andrew L. and Nancy (Powers) Neville, the former a native of North Carolina and the latter of Alabama. His father was a commission merchant, and was in business in Alabama, Mississippi, St. Louis and Missouri, and finally returned to Mississippi, where he died in 1882. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church. George W. Neville spent his boyhood days in Mobile, St. Louis and Shuqualak, and was twelve years old when his father died, after which he had to make his own way and was unable to attend school further. He learned telegraphy at Waynesboro, Mississippi, and subsequently was an agent and operator on railroad lines in Missis sippi and Louisiana. Mr. Neville in r888 came to Florida, and was for a brief time operator at Port Tampa. He then returned to Citronelle, Alabama, but in 1894-returned to Florida and became agent and operator at Juliette, and in • Igor came to Dunnellon as agent and operator of what was then the Plant System, now part of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway. Mr. Neville found at Dunnellon the opportunity for a broader business career, and in 1904 left the railroad and became associated with Dr. J. B. Baskin in organizing the Bank of Dunnellon. He has been cashier of the bank from the beginning, and has been a factor in its phenomenal success. Among other business interests he is treasurer of the Dunnellon Supply Company, and was one of the organizers and is treasurer of the Dunne!Ion Ice Company, which was chartered in 1916 as the Dunnellon Ice and Machine Company, and operated a machine shop in connection with the ice plant for several years. Mr. Neville served as treasurer and assessor of Dunnellon from 19m to 1922, and during the same period was a mem ber of the School Board, chairman of the board most of the time, and had an important share in the credit for giving Dunne11on its present fine school house. He was also a member of the Board of Bond Trustees of the sub road district, which held the first good roads bond election in Marion County. Mr. Neville in 1915 with J. F. Cocowitch, began farming, and they now have the largest farm in the county, devoted to general crops, but specializing in watermelons and cantaloupes. Mr. Neville also has citrus grove interests, and is one of the men promoting citrus planting in the vicinity of Dunnellon. During the World war he was chairman of the Dunnellon District for all patriotic drives. He is a Presby terian, is a member of Ocala Lodge of Elks, is treasurer of the local Masonic Lodge, and is past chancellor commander of Dunnellon Lodge No. 41, Knights of Pythias. Mr. Neville is a republican, and for over fifteen years has been a leader in the republican party of Marion County, and is a member of the State Central Committee. At Tallula, Louisiana, in April, 1895, Mr. Neville married Julia Kate Litchliter. Her father, J. L. Litchliter, was a native of Virginia, served in the Confederate Army with a Louisiana regi ment, and subsequently was a farmer and con tractor. Mrs. Neville takes an active part in the Parent-Teachers Association and in church work at Dunnellon. They have two children: Inez Vivian, wife of Robert F. Rogers, of Dunnellon, and Andrew L., manager of the Dunnellon Supply Company. ERNEST FERGUSON HOUSHOLDER is serving his second term as county judge of Seminole County. He is one of the successful young lawyers of Sanford and is a graduate of the University of Florida. Judge Housholder was born at Bartow, Polk County, Florida, August 3, 1893, son of Rev. Andrew E. and Emma (Ferguson) Housholder. His father was born at Knoxville, Tennessee, his mother at Abbeville, Virginia, and they were married at Kankakee. Rev. Andrew Housholder is now in point of years of service the oldest active minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in the Florida Conference. He has held pastorates at various places, and was successively presiding elder of the Bartow Dis trict, Tallahassee, Bartow, Orlando, Live Oak and now again in the Tallahassee District. He is a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason and a past master of Bradentown Lodge, and is also an Odd Fellow. Judge Housholder is one of a family of eight children, four sons still living. He was educated in the various cities and towns where his father lived as pastor or presiding elder, attending school at Tallahassee, Bartow, Live Oak, Quincy, Tampa and Sanford. He graduated from the Sanford High School in 19H, and then entered the law school of the University of Florida at Gaines ville, where he graduated LL. B. in 1913. He was admitted to practice in the Florida Courts, and has since maintained his offices at Sanford. He was associated with Thomas Emmett Wilson in the firm of Wilson and Housholder the first four years, the partnership being dissolved

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 29 when he went on the bench as county judge. He was candidate for this office in. 1916, and after his election assumed office in January, 1917. He was reelected in 1920. Judge Housholder is a democrat, is a member of the Methodist Church, is a Knight Templar Mason and Shrinei-, is affiliated with the Inde pendent Order of Odd Fellows, and is secretary of the Elks Lodge. He is vice president of the Sanford Rotary Club, is a member of the Cham ber of Commerce and the Sanford Country Club. On April 11, 1917, Judge Housholder married Gretchen H. Schultz, daughter of Julius and Cassandru (McCarthy) Schultz, who came to Florida from Galesburg, Illinois. Her father died at Sanford in May, 1916. Judge and Mrs. Housholder have one son, Karlyle Ferguson, born January 12, 1918. E. L. EATON. Undoubtedly each section of the country has advantages of its own, but it shows good judgment to be careful and particular in choice when it comes to the establishing of a per manent home. A wise and sensible way through which the problem has been satisfactorily solved by many investors who are now residents of Ala chua County, Florida, has been consultation with those who have had experiences that qualify them to give advice. In this relationship few citizens of Gainesville would prove more capable and con vincing than E. L. Eaton, realtor and caoitalist who after years passed in other sections came to Florida for a permanent home. Mr. Eaton was born on his father's farm near Utica in Oneida County, New York, June 2, 1862. He had but limited schooling, as he was but ten years of age when he left the home farm and took upon himself the responsibility of self support. Despite his breaking of home ties, he never for got lessons learned at his mother's knee, and de veloped a force of character that made him re spected among strangers through his unprotected youth. In 'the course of time in the western country to which he drifted he found employment on cattle and horse ranches, working on these in Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, and finally ac quired a ranch of his own in Wyoming. In 1887 he went to Texas and raised horses there for racing purposes that made his name familiar all over the United States. It was in 1902 that Mr. Eaton came to Florida and engaged in the real-estate business at Eaton• ton and Miamr, and at the same time, with ample capital, embarked in the auction commission busi ness, in which he dealt in Florida products ex clusively, on an extensive scale. In 1914 he came to Alachua County, where he has made heavy investments, and since 1919 has been a resident of Gainesviille where he maintains real estate of fices at 205' West Main Street. He has been a very active dealer and has been the pro moter of the Athletic Field addition near the University of Florida, and the Eaton Home Sites, North Gainesville. He is the owner of Earleton Beach . on Santa Fe Lake, which he converted into a summer resort for the benefit of Gainesville, and operated it until 1921, and he owns "Four View," which is situated near the lake and is one of the finest pecan groves in Alachua County. A far seeing business man, he has other irtterests cen tered in Florida, for which state he sees a great future. At Franklin, Tennessee, on June 18, ,1901, Mr. Eaton married Miss Elizabeth Truitt, who was born at Franklin and educated there. Her father, the late Felix Truitt, was a Confederate veteran of the war between the states. Mrs. Eaton is a member of the Presbyterian Church, of the local chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution and also of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. Mr. and Mrs. Eaton have one son, Sinclair Eaton. In politics Mr. Eaton has long been active in the democratic party, and in 1922 was his party's candidate for the State Legislature and com mitted lo the good roads movement. Ever since coming to Alachua County he has been active in this cause, as in other admirable movements, and has been urgent on all occasions since 1916. He is a member of a number of representative fra ternal organizations1 including the Elks, Knights of Pythias and Oad Fellows. SIM LAMBRECHT, M. D. Perhaps the medical profession offer more instances of poor boys who have worked their own way from subordinate positions to one of eminence in an honored call ing, than any other, and one at Greenville is that afforded by the successful career of Dr. Sim Lambrecht, who, after a long and varied experience, is now engaged in a general prac tice . He was born at Camden, Wilcox County, Alabama, December 24, 1882. a son of John God frey Lambrecht, born in Bavaria, and is still living, although he has reached the venerable age of eighty-one years, and makes his home at Camden, Alabama. John Godfrey was reared in his native land, but did not have an opportunity to attend school after he was twelve years of age. Coming to the United States, he located in Alabama, and when war broke out between the North and the South, espoused the cause of the latter, enlisting in the Twenty-fourth Alabama Cavalry, under General Forrest. Following the close of the war he returned to Alabama, and, until he acquired a farm of his own, acted as superintendent and foreman to those owned by others. For many years he was one of the most successful farmers of Wjlcox County. He has always been much interested in educational matters. Fraternally he is a Knight-Templar Mason. Doctor Lambrecht remained on his father's homestead until he reached his majority, and acquired a common and high school training. From childhood he has shown an aptitude for the profession he later entered, arid in order to acquire the necessary means to secure his medical training he worked at farming and sawmilling until 1909, when he matriculated at the Univer sity of Alabama, and subsequently he entered the medical department of the University of Tennes see and was graduated therefrom in 1913 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Doctor Lambrecht was attracted to Florida for obvious reasons, and began his connection with the state at Gonzalez, Escambia County, where he established himself in a general prac tice, but a few months later accepted the offer made to him by Graves Brothers, and went to Hosford, Liberty County, to take the position of surgeon of their sawmills. While there he took up post graduate work at Emory College on general subjects. After two years at Hosford, Doctor Lambrecht went to Hampton Springs, Taylor County, as surgeon for the Standard Lumber Company, and then, in 1917 came to Greenville, where he has since been carrying on a general practice, to which he gives all of his time as he has no outside interests. Recognizing the great value of cooperation among the members of the profession, he belongs

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30 HISTORY OF FLORIDA to the Madison County Medical Society, the Florida State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He belongs to Greenville Lodge Number 28, Free and Accepted Masons; Monticello Chapter; Saint Omar Commandery, of Tallahassee; and Morocco Temple, Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine of Jack sonville; and is past worthy patron of the Order of the Eastern Star. Not active in politics, he is, however, very much interested in anything which promises to be of value to the community, or will assist in its upbuilding and improvement. On January 28, 1915, Doctor Lambrecht was married, at Hosford, Florida, to Miss Virgie Inez Atkinson, born at Tallahassee, Leon County, Florida, a daughter of George W. Atkinson, now deceased, but formerly a farmer of Leon County, and an active member of the Baptist Church. Mrs. Lambrecht is very active in social and club circles. Doctor and Mrs. Lambrecht have two children, Virgie, Inez and Sim, Jr. BARTON ALBERT THRASHER. It is the interest ing distinction of Barton Albert Thrasher that he has devoted forty consecutive years to the routine of a general law practice, always in the same office, and in all that time has never sought the diversion of politics and his only important official honor was his appointment as circuit judge to fill a vacancy. His home during all these years has been in the university city of Gainesville. Judge Thrasher was born at Troy, Alabama, September 26, 1859, son of Barton H. and Lucy A. (Bradley) Thrasher, both natives of Georgia. His father was born in 1840, was educated for the law in his native state, was also a planter and slave owner, and after living a brief time in Ala bama returned to Georgia and engaged in law practice at Atlanta and at Madison. He served in the Confederate Army. In 1875 he removed to Orange Lake, Florida, where he owned a large farm, and after 1877 his home was in Gainesville, where he practiced law and supervised his farm ing interests until his death in 1882. He was a Mason and a member of the Baptist Church. Judge Thrasher, one of two children, was edu cated in the East Florida Seminary at Gainesville, attended Tusculum College in Eastern Tennessee, and graduated in the law course from Cumber land University at Lebanon, Tennessee, in 1882. He was a member of the Kappa Sigma college fraternity. Soon after graduating he began the practice of law in the office he still occupies, and he always looks afteT a general practice, never specializing to any extent. On August 7, 1920, he was commissioned to fill out the unexpired term of James T. Wills as judge of the Eighth Judicial Circuit. Judge Thrasher's health failed in 1912, and for the past ten years he has divided his time between the law and outdoor interests, fishing, hunting and formerly owned extensive land and farms, but has practically retired from their management. He is a Methodist. Judge Thrasher married at Gainesville Miss Sadie W. Brown, now deceased. She was a daughter of James B. and Anna (Arick) Brown, natives of South Carolina. Her father was in the drug business at Columbia, South Carolina, and in 1852 moved to Palatka, Florida, and served as postmaster and two terms as sheriff and was a merchant there. In 1862 he joined Company B of the Second Florida Cavalry, and was in the army until the encl of the war. In 1866 he removed to Gainesville, became a merchant, served as mayor in 1871 and again in 1885, was on the City Council, a member of the Board of Trade, and was an elder in the Presbyterian Church. He owned some orange groves near Gainesville. ROBERT FURMAN ROGERS. In a lifetime of sev enty-five years Robert Ful"man Rogers has had more than a commonplace association with men and affairs. His early life was one of humble circumstances and hard labor, but for many years he has enjoyed the dignity and security of pros perous material circumstances, and his ability and character have brought him evidences of substantial esteem on the part of his fellow citi zens. Mr. Rogers is postmaster of Ocala, where he has lived for many years. He was born at Darlington, South Carolina, May 30, 1847, son of John Jacob and Julia (Ferrell) Rogers, and a grandson of John Rogers, a South Carolina planter. John J. Rogers was born at Darlington, South Carolina, and died near Lake City, Florida, in ,1884, at the age of seventyfive. He came to Florida in 1857, followed farming here, served with a Florida regiment in the later part of the Civil war, and was an active member of the Baptist Church. During his early life Robert F. Rogers had only a limited education. Though very young, he en listed and served during the last year of the Civil war, all his service being given in Florida. He was at Station 4 at Cedar Keys and Baldwin, and held the rank of sergeant. Mr. Rogers married in 1864, and with abso lutely no capital started farming, at first as a renter. Loss and adversity overtook him, but he went on working faithfully and persistently, hold ing before him the goal of substantial success. With his ever devoted wife, whom he holds respo11Sible in a large measure for his success, and by scrimping, saving and working he fu1ally be came owner of lands in both Suwanee and Colum bia counties, and has accumulated a large number of business interests. Along with the management of his private affairs Mr. Rogers has combined the duties of a Baptist minister. He was ordained in 1878, and has preached in all the struggling little churches in this section of the state. He brought up his farm near Wellborn to rank as one of the best in all that vicinity. While living there he was chairman of the Board of County Commissioners and chairman of the School Board, was a dele gate to the Constitutional Conventi@n of 1885, and in 1887 was elected senator from the Seventeenth District and reelected in 1889. While in the Legislature he i11troduced a bill creating the office of commissioner of agriculture, and he was au thor of the constitutional provision providing for such an office. Mr. Rogers in rural politics be came most widely known for his official connec tion with the Florida Grange. He was secretary of the Grange, and for four years was president of the Farmers Alliance. In r8go, for his devoted services and efforts in behalf of his economic and political organization, he was given a gold watch and tendered a nomination to Congress and refused by reason of being president of the State Farmers Alliance. In order to afford better educational facilities to his children he moved from his farm at Well born to Lake City, and while there served as mayor, president of the city council and was active in church affairs. In 1904 Mr. Rogers came to Ma,rion County as superintendent of the state prison camp, but resigned in 1905 to engage in the

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H ISTORY OF FLORIDA 31 naval stores b usiness unde r the name of Lynne N aval Stores Company, of w hich he was presi dent. This company held 42,000 ac res of timber land, and operated a saw mill, commissary and was one of the largest fir ms engaged in nava l sto res production. \Vh ile in the postofficc he un dertook, largely with his personal labor, to landscape the grou nds a round the pos toffice, p lanting trees, set ting out flowers an d s hrubbery, a nd the results a rc uch t hat postoffice inspectors have pronounced the la ndscape ga rdening around the Federal B uilding at Oca la unexcelled in the So uth. Mr. Rogers was e lected representative fro m Ma rion County in 191 L He has been p resi den t of the Board of T rade o f Ocala, a nd he w ent all _ov~r the count:i7 preac hing and pro moting patriotic causes durmg the World war. He is mode rator of the Bapt ist Associa tion, comprising thirty-fi1 e ch urches, is a Royal A rch Mason and Knight of Pythias a nd has a w idely-extended reputation as a fluent spea ker a nd ora tor. At Live Oak, Flori da, Se ptember 9, 1864, Mr. l ~ogers ma rried Miss Sarah J. Robertson, a native of Suwanee Co unty. Her father John \V. Robertson ca me from his native state of South Carol ina to Florida w ith his parents, a nd was a far mer a nd s tock ma n and se rved as a sol dier i n the Confederate a rmy. Until he r health failed ).frs. Rogers was very ac tive as a chu rch woman an d in c haritable wo rk. Mr. a nd :Mrs. Rogers reared nine c hildren to mature years, and t hey now have twenty-seven grandchildren a nd five great-g reat-grandchildren. The o ldest of their living chi ldren is T heodora A lice, wife of Hon. Non_na(1 A . Fo:t, o f Lynne, F lorida . John Ro bert is m the timber a nd logging bus iness, with ho me a t Ocala. \Vatter L. lives a nd ow ns his father_'s _old fa rm at \Vellborn, an d is a co unty comm1ss10ncr of S uwanee Co unty. C harles H. is assista nt forester of the atio nal Forest H.esene. ).[rs. Julia F. J\-Ioody li1 es a t Tampa, whe re her h usband is a physician. E mma G. is a graduate of Co lumbia U niversity, was a teacher for t hree y~ars i1~ the Macon Female Seminary, and has dist111gu1shccl herself as a very successfu l real es tate wo man at Jacksonville. George Frankliu is a cotton and bond broker a t Sava nnah. Oscar f.[arr; is recruit ing officer of the s tate peniten tiary. One othe1 son, E dwin S., was a railroad man with the Illinois Central Railway at Jackson, Tennessee, w hen he died in March, 19u. PERRY GILBERT RAMSEY. One of a co unty's most important and responsib le offices is thal of sheriff, and i l takes a man of more than ordinary q ualities to ade quately fill this office. \Vith character abo,e re proach, he must possess a lso special qualifications that will insure t he carrying o ut of t he law unde r all circ umstances. He must have the physical co urage to regard his o wn safety as secondary, and the moral courage to s uppress all perso nal sympa tlries, for a sher iff i n the performance of his duty must be as impartial as a j udge on the bench. T he peop le o f A lachua Cou nty found s uch a man among t heir fe llow c itizens i n the perso n of Perry Gilbert Ramsey a11d e lected hi m sher iff of Alachua Co unty i n I\)O(J, a nd have give n evi de nce of t heir cont inued co nfidence by keeping h im in the office ever since. S heriff Ramsey was born near M illtown, i n C linch County, Geo rgia, Dece mber 1 s, 1857. His parents were Thomas Grecnherry and E lizabeth (Sikes) Ramsey, a nd his paternal grandfather was Moses Ramsey, born in North Carolina but for many years a planter and slave owner in Geo rgia. T homas Greenberry Ramsey was born in Doo ley County, Georgia, in 182-1, and died on his far m near Arredonda, Florida, in 1900. He married E lizabeth Sikes, who was born in Houston Coun ty, Georgia, and died in 1906 in F lorida, aged seventy-two years. 1\1.r. Ramsey was a farmer and merchant, and res ided in Clinoh County, Georgia, during the war between the states. During this time he served as one of the judges on the inferior court bench, but was not otherwise active in public affairs. After t he war closed he removed to F lorida, but two yea rs later returned to Georgia and resided in Clinch County unti l 1875, spent the next ten years in Mo ntgomery Co unty, and then retired to his farm in Alachua County, Florida, on which he passed the rest of his life. Ile was a man of fine character, honest and upright, and was a faithful member of the Baptist Church. Perry Gilbert Ramsey had only country school p rivileges in his youtlh, and remained on the home farm until twenty-two years of age. He began for himself as a truck farmer near Arredonda in A lachua County, F lorida, and has been i dentified with this section ever since. He has ta ken an active part in politics for many years, and for ten consecutive years, from 1892 to 1902, served as a member of the Board of Co unty Com missioners, and held minor offices. In 1909 he was elected s•heriff of Alach ua County a nd, as noted above, has been the successfu l candidate in every subsequent e lection. He is held in hig h es teem by his law~abid ing fe llow cit izens, and fo r ten years, from 1912 to 1922, he served as pres ident of the F lorida Sheriffs' Assoc iation. S heriff Ramsey married Miss Eloise Swailes, of Suwanee County, Florida, who is survived by two children: James Perry, who profitably o perates his father's farm near Arrcdonda; and J\1 ary Eloise, who is the efficient deputy in the she riff's office at Gainesville. Sheriff Ramsey married for his second wife Miss Annie God w in, who belongs to an old pioneer family of Marion County, ,and they have three children: Roy Gilbert, Eva Greene and Joshua Ce lon. heriff Ramsey belongs to the J\Iasonic fraternity and also to the Elks and the Knights of Pythias, but he has never identified himself with socia l o rganizations to any extent. He grew up in a period w hen prnctica l duties large ly made up t he life of bot h old and young, and many modern forms of recreation have never ap petlled to him. He has, however, always bceu a man who has 11ad a legion of friends, and that is a tribute to oharacter. BRYANT DICKISON HIERS, serving his second term as cou nty judge of Alachua County, is a lawyer by training and profession, though many b usiness inte rests have occ upied his time and energy jointly with his profession. He is a native of F lorida, born near Lake Butler, in what was t hen Bradford, now Union Co unty, March 31, 1867. H is parents were Jacob a nd Eliza (Lastinger) Hiers, the former a native of South Carolina and the latter of Geo rgia. His father came to Georgia as a boy w ith h is parents, lived on a farm and married there, and in 1859 moved to the vicinity of Lake Bu tler, Florida. He continued farming and stock raising in that vicinity until his death i n 1892, at the age of seventy-six. His widow is still living,

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32 HISTORY OF FLORIDA at the age of ninety two. Jacob Hiers was a progressil • e man at all times, tlook much interest in school and educational facilities, was a democrat and a member of the Primitive Baptist Church. Judge Hiers is fourth in a family of eight ohildren, and was the first of them born in Florida, He grew up on a farm, attended a log cabin school, also attended high school at Starke, and for three years taught in the country. While clerking in a hardware store at Ocala he read law in the office of 0. T. Green, and was admitted to practice in Ocala in 1897. In ad dition to his private law studies he attended the summer law school of the University of Virginia one term. Judge Hiers began law practice al Ocala, but soon afterward the Spanishi\ merican war broke out, and he joined Company /\. of the First Florida Infantry. He was on rluty with his command at Tampa, Fernandina, Huntsville and Tallahassee. After leaving the army he located at Macclenny in Baker County, practiced law ~here for six years and for seven years was a merchant. He gave up merchandis ing to engage in business as a traveling sales man for milling madhinery and supplies over South Georgia and Nortih Florida. While still on t'he road he established his home at Gaines ville in 1910. Judge Hiers was elected county judge of Alachua County in 1916, and in 1920 was re elected without opposition. He has made a most efficient record, and ~1as done a great deal beyond the general routine of such an office, par ticularly interesting himself in juvenile cases. Judge Hiers was one of the organizers and be came president in 1922 of the Federal Reserve Loan Company of Gainesville. He served in 1918 as chairmru1 of the County O1apter of the Red Cross, and was also Go\'ernment appeal agent during the war. He is a vestryman in the Episcopal Ohurch and teacher of the hoys class at the Sunday school, is past chancellor commander of Mount Vernon Lodge No. 20, Knights of Pythias, a member of Florida Coun cil No. 55, of the United Commercial Travelers and a member of the \Voodmen of lhe World, Oak Hall Council No. 5, of Gainesville. In December, 1goo, at Macclenny, Florida, he married Miss Clara MacCle1111y, the town and county seat of Baker County being named in honor of her family. Iler father, C. B. Mac Clenny, owned extensive farm lands in Baker County, was also engaged in Uhe lumber and Naval stores business, was prominent in politics, and is now living on one of the finest farms in Alachua County, near Cadillac, being retired al the age of eighty. Judge and Mrs. Hiers have three children: Ada, a graduate of the Florida State College for Women a.t Tallahassee, Bryant D., Jr., an~ Robert MacClenny. RoBERT W. DAVIS, editor of the Gainesville Sun, has a distinguished record as a boy soldier of the Confederacy, a lawyer, former congress man and at all times a leader in public affairs. He was born in Lee County, Georgia, March 15, 1849. His father, Rev. Jesse M. Davis, was for over fifty years a minister of the Baptist Church in Georgia. Robert W. Davis attended private schools, and at the age of fourteen en listed, in 1863, in the Fifth Georgia Regiment, and was in service until he surrendered with the army of Gen. Joseph Johnston on April 26, 1865. For several years after the war he worked on a Georgia farm, read law in the meantime, and at the age of twenty, in 186g, was admitted to the bar. He practiced in Blakely, Georgia, and in 1879 came to Florida and located at Green Co, e Springs. From that time he has exercised a dominant influence in the politics and public affairs of the state. He was elected to the Florida Legislature in 1884, was speaker of the House in 1885, served as general attorney for the Florida Southern Railroad Company from 1885 to 18<)7, with headquarters at Palatka, and at the same time engaged in private practice. In 1888 he was candidate for governor, and in 18<)6 was elected to Congress to represent the Second Florida District. He was reelected, and represented that district in Washington from 1897 to 1905. For many years Mr. Davis has lived in Gaines ville, and is still engaged in private practice and performs the duties pertaining to newspaper work. Ile has been a member of the council and mayor of the City of Gainesville, and was for eight years registrar of the United States Land office for Florida. \V. THEODORE LANGLEY, M. D., was an army surgeon during the World war, and since locat ing at Sanford, following his honorable discharge, has been engaged largely in surgical practice. Doctor Langley was horn at Camp Hilt, Talla poosa County, Alabama, June 18, 18j6, son of W. Taylor and Eliza T. (Slaughter) Langley, also natives of Alabama. His father served as a Confederate soldier, spent his acth-e career as a farmer, and is now seventy five years of age. The mother is deceased. One of a family of three sons and one daugh ter, Doctor Langley grew up on the Alabama farm, attending the public schools at Camp Hill, also the high school there, and graduated in medi cine from the University of Alabama in 1899. Doctor l~'lngley then returned to his home com munity of Carn() Hill, and enjoyed an extensive general practice there until he volunteered for army service. He was commissioned a first lieutenant in the medical corps July TO, 1917. For six weeks he attended the Medical 0ffo:ers Training School at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, following which he took a course in brain surgery at the Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago for three months, and was then assigned to duty at Camp McClel lan, Alabama, spending six months with the surgical staff in the base hospital there. Ilis next transfer put him in Evacuation Hospital No. 16 at Camp Meade, Maryland, and six weeks later he went overseas with that hospital unit, in Au gust, 1918. Ile was in France five months and in Germany seven months, and in April, 1919, was promoted to captain. Doctor Langley re turned home in August, 1919, and was discharged with the rank of captain at Atlanta, and soon afterward came to Sanford, where in addition to his private practice he is a member of the surgical staff of the Fernald Laughton Memorial Hospital. Doctor Langley is a member of the American Legion. Besides the special training he received during the war he attended the New York PostGraduate School of Medicine in 1900. He is a member of the Orange County, Florida State and American Medical associations, also the San ford Medical and Dental Society, is a Royal Arch Mason and a Knight of Pythias. In 1902, at Camp Hill, Alabama, he married Miss Irene Teague, a native of South Carolina.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 33 W. K. ROBINSON. There has been no period in recorded history when the caring for the dead has not had its recognized place in the life of every community and in every clime, even among savage tribes. The ceremonies attached thereto have been of a character that has been marked by the measure of civilization. A study of the habits and customs of every nation will disclose that rever ence has been paid to the dead oftentimes such as was not given to the living, and even the most brutal savage tribes in the deepest wilderness, including those who make human sacrifices a part of their religious rites, can point to their stone crypts, their burning tetl).ples, their funeral barks or their tree-top burials. There never has been, however, a time when the proper, dignified, sani tary conduct of funeral obsequies and disposal of the remains of those whose life work has ended has been so complete as at present. Funeral di rectors and embalmers of the present day in America are no longer mere mechanics, but on the other hand, are carefully trained members of their calling, and methods of body preservation formerly considered lost arts are now well known and have been vastly improved upon. One of the modern undertakers and embalmers of Florida, who is thoroughly trained in his vocation and who has the confidence of the people of his lo cality, is W. K. Robinson, of Pensacola, the owner of one of the largest establishments of its kind in Western Florida. Mr. Robinson was born on his father's Alabama farm, September 28, 1860, within a mile of the birthplace of his father, who spent his life in agricultural operations in his native state and died in 1883. His father was twice married, hav ing by his first wife three children, all of whom are now deceased, and by his second wife, three daughters and three sons. The second in order of birth of the children •by his father's second marriage, W. K. Robinson attended the public schools and secured the greater part of his education through his own efforts. He remained on the home farm, assisting his father, until he was twenty-one years of age, at which time he came to Pensacola and secured a position as clerk in a furniture store. Some time later he entered into partnership with one of the pro prietors of the establishment, but this association lasted only a short time, Mr. Robinson entering the funeral directing and embalming business on his own account. He has been engaged therein to the present time, and through honorable deal ing, tact, sympathetic bearing and good business management has built up a large business, one of the largest of its kind in Western Florida. His rooms and chapel are situated at 24 West Chase Street, where he has every facility for the proper and reverent handling of the dead. In connection with his undertaking rooms he main tains a garage, in which to house his four funeral cars, including an automobile hearse. Mr. Robin son is one of the first-class citizens of Pensacola, public-spirited and possessed of civic pride, and supports all worthy educational, religious and com munity movements. He is a member of the Masonic order and Grotto. In political matters he maintains an independent stand. On June 28, 1888, Mr. Robinson married Miss Ana Maud Reese, of Alabama, and to them were born five daughters : Erin Be1le, who married Leo Marsoni and is now deceased ; Mary Louise, who married W. F. Mariner, a warrant officer of the U.S. Navy and also connected with the air service, now stationed in the Canal Zone, Cocosola 6. Z. ; Jette, who married R. F. Pittman, connected with the American Tobacco Company, and resides in Tampa, Florida; Lucille, who married W. S. Clayton, connected with wholesale spice concern of Baltimore, and resides in Tampa, Florida; and Bessie, married to S. M. Clarke, who is asso ciated with a large Chemical concern of Picrce Florida, where they live. GEORGE EDWARD MANSON, harbor master of the port of Miami, comes from a family of mariners. and has himself been identified with the land and marine transportation interests of Southern Florida for twenty years or more. Mr. Manson's paternal grandfather was a sail master in the United States Navy. His maternal grandfather, Captain Julius Potter, was a block ade runner for the Confederacy in the war be tween the states, and participated in some of the famous exploits credited to the Port of Wil mington, North Carolina. George Edward Manson was born at South port, near Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1878, son of D. W. and Ida (Potter) Manson. He received his education in Southport, lived there until he was fifteen, and then came to Jackson ville, Florida, and for three years was in the employ of his uncle, Capt. A. B. Potter, at that time superintendent for R. G. Ross, contractor on the construction of the Jacksonville jetties. Captain Potter for many years has been a promi nent figure at the Port of Jacksonville, and is now general manager for the Jacksonville Forwarding Company. After leaving his uncle, George E. Manson re moved to New York, and there became identified with the yachting industry as a practical business. His interests in that line subsequently brought him to Miami. For several years he operated yachts in New York during the summer and at Miami in the winter. In 1go6 Mr. Manson accepted a position in the construction department of the Key West Extension, Florida East Coast Railway, and was thus employed for twelve years. His home has been in Miami practically since 1906. As harbor master of the Port of Miami Mr. Manson was appointed by the governor of Florida. Ilis duties are to locate and control the anchorage and berths of boats entering the port. He is also a ship surveyor, in which capacity he inspects and makes detailed reports on the condition of ships for the marine underwriters. Among other duties he is agent in Miami for the Aeromarine Com pany, Incorporated, which operates flying boats from Miami to Bimini, Nassau and Havana, and he also handles the ocean passenger business of the White Star Line in Miami. Mr. Manson is a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner. He married Lillian Maud Saunders. a native of Key West, Florida. Their two children are Ida Helen and George Edward, Jr. JoHN DoRN. Tourists and permanent residents alike appreciate the splendid service given to Miami by John Dom's boat livery. Mr. Dorn has been more or less continuously identified with Miami for nearly twenty years, and has been a progressive factor in the development of some of its most attractive resources. He was born at Niagara Falls, New York, and his youth and early manhood were spent at Chau tauqua, New York, on Chautauqua Lake. He lived there for twenty-one years. He made his first visit to Miami in 1905, and after coming here reg ularly for several seasons located in the city per-

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34 HISTORY OF FLORIDA manently and built a substantial home. For some time he owned and operated the Riverview Apartments. It was in I920 that he founded the John Dorn boat livery business on Southwest South River Drive, fronting on the Miami River. He has a commodious and completely equipped club house and boat house, with a fleet of power boats, row boats and equipment of any sort of boat needed in these waters either for pleasure or business. It is an enterprise greatly needed in Miami, and fills the demand that has responded with a gen erous patronage. His business has become noted for its prompt and efficient service. In 1922 he further improved his property on the Miami River by constructing a modern three-story flat building, fronting on Southwest South River Drive. This was ready for tenants with the open ing of the 1922-23 tourists season. Mr. Dorn also founded the Miami Canoe Oub, which has two hundred members and of which he is commodore. He is a member of the Masons and Odd Fellows. By marriage to Agnes De Camp, he has a daugh ter, Helen Dorn. ALBERT 0. GREYNOLDS. As one who has fur nished the enterprise and orga111zmg faculty, tne capital and experience, Albert 0. Greynolds is one of the chief men to be credited with an extensive share in the building of the great modern highway systems of South Florida. Mr. Greynolds' home is at West Palm Beach, where he still carries on a large business as a contractor in the repair of modern highways. He was born at Oarksburg, West Virginia, in 1877. His father, Lemuel Greynolds, was a contractor, and the son grew up in the atmosphere of the constructing business. As a young man he went out to North Dakota, and was a rancher and contractor at Bismarck. In 1910 he came to South Florida, and from the beginning his home and headquarters have been at West Palm Beach. Until recently he was a member of the firm Greynolds & Monroe, Incorporated. The road building work of this firm included nearly all the important stretches of modern highway in Palm Beach, West Palm Beach, Lake Worth and through Broward and Palm Beach counties, in cluding the highways in the towns themselves and also many of the county roads and streets. The firm built the entire stretch of the Dixie Highway through Broward County. In the latter part of r92r Mr. Greynolds with drew from this firm, though he is still associated with Mr. Monroe in other enterprises. He now has the contract with Palm Beach and three other cities mentioned to maintain the streets and highways with his road-oiling equipment and repair machinery. This o [ itself is an extensive business. Mr. Greynolds is president of the 0jus Rock Company, operating extensive quarries at 0jus in Dade County. These quarries furnish rock for all building and construction purposes, but especially for the building of road,. This is the l1ardest rock in South Florida, and by analysis and tests shows cementing qualities for the manufacture of concrete of higher percentage than any other rock in the state. Mr. Greynolds is proprietor of the business of Davidson and Greynolds, general contracting and construction; and is president of the Greynolds and Monroe Realty Company. This business Mr. Greynolds has since taken over, in r922, and is now the sole owner. He owns a fine home on Florida Avenue in the southwest section of West Palm Beach. He has been a builder in that part of the city, and owns other valuable property as well. His summer home is at Hendersonville, North Carolina. Mr. Greynolds married Miss Daisy Sutton, of Clarksburg, West Virginia. Their six children are Walter, Nellie, Helen, Pearl, Mildred and Frances. KINLOCK F. MARTIN. One of the successful business men and able citizens of Dade County, Kinlock F. Martin is especially esteemed as a pioneer of Coconut Grove, where he has lived for twenty-eight years and where he has built up a large business as a contractor. He was born in Macon Countv, Georgia, in 1871, son of Wiley W. and Amanda (Cox) Martin, natives of the same county. They were living in Georgia, at their home in Liberty County, near the Thomas County line, at the time of their deaths in 1922, the mother dying in May and the father in September. The father was ninety-four and his mother eighty-four years of age. When Kinlock F. Martin was tw.elve years of age, in 1883, the family moved to Thomas County, locating on a plantation near rl1omasville. he was reared there, completed his education in the public schools, and in r891, at the age of twenty, came to Florida. In r894 he located at Coconut Grove. It was while cru sing about in the Miami waters that he landed at Coconut Grove to take dinner at the hotel. There was an attraction about the place that welded h1111 permanently to the com munity, and he has been a citizen ever since, and for the first eighteen years he never went further from Coconut Grove than Fort Lauderdale. Re cently a local paper quoted him as saying: "Maybe it was the good fellowsh.p extended to me by Jack Peacock, old man Sam Rhodes and Charlie Perry, who gave me my first job, that decided me lo stay. I was for a while inclined to favor Silver Bluff, but I soon returned to my old love." When he look up his residence at Coconut Grove it was two years btfore the railroad was completed to Miami, and there was very little to indicate either of the thriving cities of Miami or Coconut Grove tl1e11. Mr. Martin says that he walked from what is now \Vest Palm Beach to Miami with the mail carrier, who in those days went afoot and who charged Mr. Martin, as he did all other "passengers," $2.50 for the privilege of going along and bein~ shown the way. Mr. Martin's contracting business is primarily the hauling of road building materials and other heavy hauliug. He has a general equipment and organization for handling such contracts. He owns some valuable property in Coconut Grove and Silver BlufI, and his spacious and beautiful home place is on McFarlane Road, near the heart of the business center of Coconut Grove. He married Miss Idell V. Thompson, a native of Florida and whose parents now live at Coconut Grove. Their three children are Julia, Lee and Harold. Mr. Martin has a power boat for cruising, and it is liis custom each summer with his family to go on extended fishing and pleasure cruises in the waters along the coast of South Florida. ARTHUR WILLIAM DAVIS, is one of the promi nent members of the bar of the City of Pensacola, and is now serving as United States court com missioner for the Northern District of Florida. In the picturesque hills of Wales Mr. Davis was born on the 16th of August, 1857, and he is of distinguished ancestry. His grandfather on the

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 35 pate rnal side was W illiam Davis, who was born i n England and who t here passed the closing per iod of his life at Chester, he hav ing been a gov e rnment reve nue supe rvisor for a long period of yea rs a nd hav ing been stationed a t various p laces in England, including Ches ter, w here his death occu rred w hile he was still in office. He was a l ineal descendant of Lo rd L ightfoot and Lady Peacock, membe rs of old and d istinguished English fa milies. Be njamin Davis, father of him whose name introduces t his rev iew, was born a t Bo lton, La n cas tershire, E ngland, in 1810, and i n that county he was reared to man hood. He was fo r sixty years e ngaged in the prac tice of law at Cheste r, E ngland, nea r the Wels h border, and he serve d a number of yea rs as a member of t he municipal cou ncil of C hester. He was a conservative in politics, and both he and his wife were earnest communicants of the Churc h of E ngland. Mrs. Davi , whose maiden name was S usanna Willia ms, was born in 1820, at Ruthin, Denbighshire, Wales, and i t was a t that place, near Chester, England, t hat s he and her husband passed the closing years o f their lives. Their eldest ch ild, M rs. Anc horite Mitchell, died in Kent, E ngland; ,villiam Peacock became mate of the sai ling vessel "Eliza Bonze ll," a nd he died at sea; T homas F. is a re tired merchant a t Galves ton, Texas; Susan na is the wife of Griffith Jones, of Pensacola, Florida; Miss Elizabeth s till res ides at Ruth i n, ,vales; Be njamin was a cus tomhouse office r i n the City of L iverpool, England, at t he t ime of his deat h i n 1918; Arthur W., of t his sketch, was the next i n order of birth; John Edward, a re tired railroad inspector, resi des at R uthin, Wales; a nd four chi ldren died in early child hood. The sc hools of R uthin, Wales, and Chester, Engla nd, a fforded Arthur vV. Davis his early e ducation, and his fa ther's earnest desire that he s hould become a lawyer led t he fat her to p ut the s on to the rea ding of law whe n he was too young to ass imilate the requi red know ledge a nd to develop a ny en thusiasm fo r such study. The result of this somewhat u ntimely disci pline was tha t Arthur W. Dav is ran away fro m home when he was a la d of th irteen years an d e ntered upon a sea faring ca reer, i n w hich connection he eventu ally vis ited many of the ports of the world, i11-cluding those of Sout h Ame rica, whe re fina lly he engage d in the hotel b usiness a t Valparaiso. His a dventurous career incl uded his se rvice as a sold ier in the wa r between C hile a nd Peru, he having been a priva te in the army of Chile in 1879-8o-8r. Early i n his seafaring career Mr. Davis came to the U nited States, and thereafter he was in navi ga tion se rvice out from the ports of New York a nd Bosto n, o n passenger a nd mai l steamers. In 1881 he left Valpara iso, C hile, and returned to New York City. He there became stewar d in a leading hotel, and later he gave si milar service i n Boston, at Newport, Rhode Is land, and at vario us places in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. His connection wit h the hotel b usiness conti nued, as manager, steward or p roprietor, until 1896, w hen he removed to Birmingham, Alaba ma, and there he entered the em ploy of the great Chicago packing c oncern of Armour & Com pany. After se rving two yea rs as a t raveling salesma n he was ma de ma nager o f the bra nch house at Bessemer, Ala bama, where he rema ined until 1900. He was then offered his choice of managerial vacancies at Havana, C uba, Mob ile, Alabama, and Pensa-cola, Florida. He selected Pensacola, and from that year until 1912 he here had the management of the bra nch house of Armour & Company. In t he meanwhile t he ancestral or paternal urge seems not to have been obliterated, for he gave as much ti me as possible to the study of law, in order to fulfill the promise made to his father. In 1913 Mr. Davis was appointed special agent for the Gove rnment Department of Justice at Pensaco la, a nd this office he reta ined u ntil April, 1920, be s ides being e ngaged i n the pr ivate practice of law, his ad mission to the bar having occurred in 1913. When, i n 1917, the nat ion became involved in the World war, !Ir. Davis found it impera tive to de vo te his e ntire t ime and attention to his official duties with the Department of Justice, in which he ha d s upervision of the territory between Pensa cola and Tallahassee. When, in 1920, the Govern ment des ired to transfer him to some other juris diction, he de clined to leave Pensacola, resigned his office with the Department of Justice and in A pril resumed the practice of his profession in this c ity. In January, 1921, however, he was a ppointed U nited States comm issioner for the Northern Dist rict of Florida, a nd in this service he no w maintains offices on the second floor of the Federal Building at Pensacola. In January, 1920, the Gove rnment sent him to Phi ladelphia on s pecial service for the Department of Justice, a nd w hile in tha t city he assisted in the capture of G rover Cleveland Bergdol, the draft evader whose case has been a matter of international prominence. M r. Davis is alig11ed stau nchly in the ranks of the democratic party, and he served two years as a member of the Board of County Commissioners of Escambia County. He is a member of the Florida State Bar Association and of the Pensacola C hamber of Commerce, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Woodmen of the World, t he Benevo lent and Protective Order of Elks, the K nights of Pythias and the United Commercial Travelers. He owns and occupies t he fine o ld colonial mansion erec ted by the late Judge A. E. Maxwell at Oakfield , five miles north of Pensa cola. On t he 26th of June, 1884, at Liverpool, E ng la nd, was sole mnized the marriage of Mr. Davis and Miss Sarah Emma Foulkes, daughter of the la te Robert and Margaret (Roberts) Foulkes, the father having bee n a substantial capita list and having a lso attai ned distinction as a harpist and a Welsh bard of exceptiona l talent and artistry. Mr. and M rs. Davis have five children: Susie Margaret is t he wife of James P. Adams, of Brent, Escambia Coun ty. E lizabeth M. is t he wife o f Scott Harter, of Pensacola. Robert Arthur remains at the pa rental home and is chief clerk for the Louisville & Nashville Railroad in its Pensacola offices. John Harrington likewise is in the employ of the same railroad company, and remains a t the parenta l home. As a member of the E ngineering Corps he was in active service wi th t he American Expeditionary Forces ove rseas during two years of the World wa r period, he having taken part in several major engagements a11d having gained the rank of first sergeant. Ben jamin L. is in the se rvice of the Louisville & ashville Railroad Company at Pensacola, and in t he World wa r he served two and onehalf years in the commissary depar tment of the Ameri ca n Expeditionary Forces in France. Mr. Davis has wri tten a number of short stories which have appeare d in d ifferent magazines, and won the

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36 HISTORY OF P'LORIDA first prize for short stories offered by the State Fair, "Uncle Jeff's Cabin," which has appeared in serial form. ROBERT N. FrrTuN, co11tracti11g painter of West Palm Beach, has the largesl business of this kind in South Florida, being at the head of an organi zation employing a score or more of high class artists and mechanics, and handling nearly all the larger contracts in the West Palm Beach territory. Mr. Fitton has devoted a lifetime to the study and practice 0 painti11g and decoration. He was born in Lancashire, hngland, and he served a thorough apprenticeship of seven years in ac quiring bis trade. In 1892 lie left England and went to Canada, spent three periods in Montreal and the eastern provinces in Manitoba, and then located at Victoria, British Columbia. On coming to the United States he was in business for about six years at Wayne, Pennsylvania, and from there in 1905 came to Florida, locating at Jacksonville. In that city he remained ten years, and handled some of the most important painting contracts in that city. While at Jacksonville he had the painting con tracts on nearly all the buildings erected by his old time associate, Mr. Clarence Wilcox, a prom inent building contractor. It was through Mr. Wilcox's influence that he came to Palm Beach in 1915, coming here soon after Mr. Wilcox had removed to the city. Mr. Wilcox became a mem ber of the firm Brown & Wilcox Company, building contractors. Mr. Fitton has had the painting contracts on practically all the buildings erected by the Brown & \Vilcox Company, which is the largest firm of contractors in the city. Mr. Fitton devotes his business almost exclusively to large contracts, and the total of his business runs up into many thousands of dollars annually. During the busy season he employs from twenty to thirty journeymen painters. One of the substantial business men and citi zens of West Palm Beach, Mr. Fitton is a mem ber of the Chamber of Commerce and has allied himself with public spirited men in both Jackson ville and his present home community. He has two sons, both native Americans, Fred and Arthur, born in Pennsylvania. The Fitton home is on Eucalyptus Avenue. ]ACK BRANT is one of the younger business men of Dade County, had nearly two years of service in the navy during the World war, and since his return to civilian life has developed an important business as a road contractor and builder. Mr. Brant's home and business head quarters are at Coconut Grove. He was born at Kissimmee, Florida, in 1896, but spent most of the years of his youth in the far Northwest. The family removed to Seattle, Washington, in 1898, and he was educated in that city. Returning to Florida in 1912, Mr. Brant lived at Coconut Grove, and five years later, in 1917, volunteered at Miami for service in the United States Navy. He joined the naval forces comprising the Seventh Naval District. After the necessary training he was assigned to duty as a machinist on a submarine chaser. After twenty-two months of service in the navy Mr. Brant received an honorable discharge, and then began business in Coconut Grove as a road builder and contractor for building mate rials. He started with a capital of $200.00, but by constant hard work, enterprise and intelligence, has developed not only a profitable, but an im-portant business. He has done a large amount of the highway construction through the town of Coconut Grove and in various residential sub-divisions of the Miami District. His roads are built with the best materials and are of such honest and trustworthy construction as to rank among the very best in South Florida. The strict reliability of his work has brought him a reputa tion that places heavy demands upon bis organiza tion and his facilities for road construction and the providing of mad materials. Mr. Brant has acquired valuable property of his own in the subdivision known as The Pines, and has built a modern home in Coconut Grove. He is a member of the Lindley De Garmo Post of the American Legion al Coconut Grove and the Modern \Voodmen of America. He married Miss Emily Fussell, of Leesburg, Florida, and they have a son, Jack Brant, Jr. PAUL C. BRYAN has lived in Fort Lauderdale since early boyhood, is one of the prominent younger men or the community, and recently was appointed sheriff of Broward County by Govenwr Hardee. Mr. Bryan entered upon his official duties with a determination to carry out the letter and the spirit of law enforcement, particularly with reference to the enforcement of the prohibition law in the county and in exercising the powers of his office to restrain and drive out confidence men of different kinds. His administration so far has brought him a high degree of credit and has proved a valuable influence in making Broward County a scat of law and order. He was born at Crescent City in Putnam County, Florida, in 1891, son of Lewis Henry and Elizabeth Margaret (Willis) Bryan. His parents are also natives of Florida. Paul Bryan was educated in public schools and in Rollins College at Winter Park. The family lived in Volusia County for about six years, and in the fall of 1900 located at Fort Lauderdale, then in Dade County, now the county seat of Broward County. For about twelve years before assuming his present official duties Paul Bryan was connected with the Fort Lauderdale Post Office, the greater part of the time as assistant postmaster. His sister , Mrs. S. M. Craig, is postmistress. It was on March I, 1922, that Mr. Bryan became sheriff by appointment from Governor Hardee. He married Miss Jessie Maud Henson, a native of Duval County, Florida. They have one daughter Lucile. VICTOR OBERG. In the career of Victor Oberg, of Pensacola, there is something of an encourag ing nature to be found by the youth of any land who is entering upon his career apparently handi capped by the lack of education, finances or in fluential friends. Mr. Oberg possessed none of these when he faced the world on his own account. His capital consisted of ambition, self-reliance, a willingness to work hard and a spirit of inherent integrity, and with these he worked his way to business position and independence, he being at this time the owner of the Southern Tent and Awning Company, one of the successful enterprises of its kind in Florida. Mr. Oberg was born in Sweden, April 18, 186g, a son of A. B. Oberg, also a native of that country. A. B. Oberg was a farmer and brickmaker in his native land, where he died in 186g, leaving a family of four children. Victor Oberg was only an infant at the time of his father's death, and

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 37 his boyhood was full of h:trd struggle~, in which he had little chance to acqmre an education. When he was sixteen years of age he feft home and became a sailor, and during the next fourteen years followed a seafaring life. In 1899 he came alone to Pensacola, where he found employment as a sailmaker and rigger, a vocation which he had mastered during his years on the sea. He worked with various firms in this city, finally taking employment with A. H. McLeod & Com pany, an old and well-knO\~n firm i _ n this line of business to the ownership of which he suc ceeded by purchase in 1921. The business is now operated as the Southern Tent and Awning Com pany, sailmakers and riggers, its products incl!1d ing tents, awnings, sails, cotton ducks, tarpaulins, wire, hammocks, caulking cotton, etc., and the plant located at 6o2 to 6o8 Palafox Street, is tl;oroughly equipped with the latest and most highly-improved machinery for the manufacture of these articles, in addition to which Mr. Oberg gives employment only to expert and experienced operators, who can prove themselves competent to turn out the highest class of work. Mr. Oberg is thoroughly reliable, and has won the confidence of his business associates and his patrons. He is likewise energetic, as was shown during the World war, when he rigged thirtytwo vessels for the ports of Beaumont, Texas; Savannah, Georgia; Jacksonville, Florida; and Brooklyn New York, including schooners, steam barges, steamships and barks. Associated in husi ness with him are his two sons, Oscar, aged twenty-five years, and Adolph, aged twenty, both young men of energy, masters of their ti-ade and possessed of business ability. Mr. Oberg has several social and civic con nections, and is well and favorably known in busi ness circles. He is a member of the Lutheran Church. Mr. Oberg has been married twice, his first wife passing away in 1912. He subsequently married Mrs. Hannah Sodelquist, a native of Norway. By a previous marriage Mrs. Oberg became the mother of two sons, Arthur H., with Mr. Oberg, and Henry L. CLARENCE E. RrcKA1w. A dozen years ago, during a trip of investigation 0\ er Florida, Clarence E. Rickard selected Fort Lauderdale as a good place both for a home and for business activity in the line of his special experience, and his choice has heen many times over justified by the developments that have taken place here hoth through his own and others initiative. Mr. Rickard is president of the Fort Lauderdale Chamber of Commerce and is a successful lumber merchant. He was born in Boone County, Indiana, in 1872, and went his early life on a farm. His father was afflicted with blindness for many years. and that misfortune threw the active responsibility for the support of the family largely upon the shoulders of Clarence E. Rickard, who discharged that obligation with credit and with a satisfaction that may always be a source of pride to him. His first business experience was as an employe of the Weaver Brothers Lumber Company of Sheridan, Indiana. He received several promotions with this firm, and continued with it until the business was sold. Following that he was with the Indiana Condensing Company at Sheridan and was sent from there to Lexington, Ohio, as ~anager of the supply and receiving department of the plant. Vol. IU-l'i Mr. Rickard came to Florida with his family principally for the benefit of Mrs. Rickard's hl•alth. He arrived here in l()II, and traveled from Jacksonville to the south end of the state before making up his mind that Fort Lauderdale was the choicest town along the route. In that year Fort Lauderdale was incorporated, and in 1<)1;; it became the county seat of the new Br~ward County. In 1912 Mr. Rickard estab lished himself in the retail lumber business. 1 I is business grew and has since been incorporated as the Fort Lauderdale Lumber Company, of which he is manager. This is now one of the leading lumber and builders' supply organizations along the East Coast. Throughout this time Mr. Rickard has become a leader in community affairs. He was chairman of the committee that promoted and brought about the construction of the Hotel Broward, a modern tourist hotel of the best type and one of the city's greatest assets. Besides being presi dent of the Chamber of Commerce he is deeply interested in the subject of good schools. He is a member of the Rotary Club and Masonic order. 1fr. Rickard married Cora I. Grimes, of Thorntown, Boone County, Indiana. Their four chil dren arc Lawrence Rickard, Mrs. Grace Collins, Geneva and Laird. Mr. and Mrs. Rickard have taken great pains in carefully educating their children. Lawrence is office manager of the Lumber Company. Miss Geneva is a student in the Florida \\'omen's College at Tallahassee, while f.aird is attending the Fort Lauderdale High School. HARVEY G. GEER. In the development of \;Vest Palm Beach and of Palm Beach County one of thl' men whose name, influence and capital have figured most prominently is Harvey G. Geer. 1fr. Geer first came to South Florida more than a quarter of a century ago, and practically all his interests have been concentrated here since TQ06. Among other developments he is the founder of Geerworth. I le was born near Rockford, Winnebago County, Illinois, in 185.5, son of Everard and Sarah (Goewey) Geer. His father was a pioneer in \Vinnebago County, settling there in 1852 on coming fro1n New York State. Harvey G. Geer grew up on a farm, graduated from high school at Beloit, \Visconsin, and for about ten years was a traveling salesman over Illinois and Iowa, traveling out of Rockford. As a tourist in 1&)6 Mr. Geer paid his first visit to South Florida. In the same year he be came interested in Palm Beach, and ac(]uired the Janel which he suhse(]uently developed into Royal Park, one of the most notable residential sections of that famous resort. Interested with him in this property was his uncle, the late Capt. E. N. Dimick, who had comf' to Palm Beach several years previously, and was really the founder of this internationally known resort. Mr. Geer, however, did not remain in South Florida permanently, and returned lo Rockford. In De cemher, 1()06, he established himself in business at West Palm Beach, and his home is in Royal Park. His purpose in the development of Royal Park was a very profitable investment. \Vith his associates and by the expenditure of a large amount of capital the jungle was cleared, the land seawalled, and dredges placed .500,000 yards of soil on the property. Thousands of trees were planted, six miles of streets built, twelve miles of sidewalks and cnrhs, and a large amount of

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38 HISTORY OF FLORIDA other work was done in the improvement and beautifying of the property, which is regarded as the most attractive and exclusive portion o{ Palm Beach, now completely built up with hand some winter homes. After Royal Park perhaps his most notable and successful achievement was the building up of Geerworth Farms of which he is a part owner. The business headquarters is in the City of West Palm Beach. Geerworth Farms are located in Palm Beach County, about thirty-three miles west of Palm Beach, on the main Cross-state highway and on the Okeechobee Road Canal. The land includes part of the upper Everglades, is in the muck area, the soil being eleven feet deep. The land is nineteen feet above ' the ocean and is well drained, and not subject to overflow. It produces in richest abundance a large variety of vegetables, but sugarcane is the staple crop. A permanent and profitable market for the cane is provided by the big sugar mill of the Florida Sugar and Food Products Company, completed near Canal Point in 1922. While the Town of Geerworth was only started in 1921, in one year it contained a hotel and store, about fifteen other houses of substantial character and attractive appearance, and such facilities as gasoline station, garage, lumber yard, telephone connections, while the postoffice and public school have been applied for. Mr. Geer built a bridge across the canal and docks for boat landing. In the early part of 1922 about forty farms were sold from this dock. One of the most substantial business men of Palm Beach County, Mr. Geer is first vice presi dent of the Farmers Bank and Trust Company, director of the Palm Beach Guaranty Company, a director of the Chamber of Commerce and the Rotary Club. He married Miss Dollie Owen, of Montgomery County, Alabama. She is a sister of the late Dr. Thomas M. Owen, Alabama's dis tinguished historian, and Mrs. Geer herself as secretary to her brother was largely responsible for completing Owen's authoritative history of Alabama. Mr. Geer has a daughter, Ethel, wife of Rev. G. Elmer E. Lindquist. TED J. BEVIS is builder and manager of the Miami Studios, Incorporated, at Hialeah in Dade County. These studios repr.esent the very last word in all the technical facilities for the pro duction of moving picture films. Apart from the magnitude of the interests involved with relation to the future of this section of Florida, it is in teresting to note that Mr. Bevis is a pioneer in the moving picture industry, and that he was con nected with the building of one of the first American moving picture studios, which was also lo cated in Florida. For a number of years he was at the great seat of the industry in Southern California, but recently returned to Florida. Mr. Bevis is a native of Cincinnati, and since early youth has been engaged continuously in amusement enterprises. He was in the regular theatrical business and his individual experience enables him to speak of the historians of the moving picture industry. Beginning in 1894, he was an associate of Col. William N. Selig, to whom he pays a glowing tribute as the great outstanding character in the history of moving pictures. It was Colonel Selig who first con ceived the idea of making pictures of objects in motion. His first achievements along this linr were brought about by the use of a battery ot forty-nine cameras operating in rapidfire suc cession. Out of this he developed a single camera, which was at first of greal bulk, weigh ing about 400 pounds. These first experiments took place in Mr. Selig's studio in Chicago about 1894. Edison and other inventors taking up the idea, the cinematograph made rapid strides, but it was fully ten years after the crude processes evolved by Colonel Selig that the motion picture industry was established on a commercial scale. It was in the fall of 19()8 that Mr. Bevis came to Florida with Colonel Selig and superintended the construction of South Jacksonville as one of the first moving picture studios built for the picturization of stories and dramas. After a season's work at Jacksonville Mr. Bevis followed the Selig organization to Southern C:::a!ifornia, and at Santa Monica built one of the first studios in that state. This was the beginning of the great industry that has meant so much for Southern California , During succeeding years Mr. Bevis built twelve other important studios in California. The fourteenth studio he has built is the one at the new town of Hialeah, near Miami. He arrived here July 1, I92I. Hialeah was founded by the Curtiss-Bright Ranch organization. Soon after arriving Mr. Bevis began the construction and equipment of the plant for the Miami Studios, Incorporated, a company fostered by Glenn Curtiss and associates, principally com posed of prominent and wealthy citizens of Miami. The first units of this plant were com pleted and placed in op ' eration in the summer of 1922. The plans provide eventually for six bttild ings of the size of the present main studio, suffi cient to take care of fifteen or twenty big operat ing and producing companies. FRANK W. HAHN, Up to about ten years ago more than half of the building construction then in Miami had been handled by the pioneer contractor Frank \V. Hahn. Mr. Hahn is still in business, though not so active as formerly, and he regards his early coming to Miami as a source of everlasting good fortune to him, while his fellow citizens have esteemed him as one of the men contributin~ directly to the growth and de velopment of this great city of the Southeast. Mr. Hahn was born at Greenville, South Caro lina, January 29, 1856. His parents were natives of Germany, and his father enlisted and served four years as a Confederate soldier during the war between the states. Frank vV. Hahn's earliest recollections are of the scenes attending the beginning and the subsequent progress of the war between the states. He was educated in a famous preparatory school conducted by Captain Patrick at Greenville. Soon afterward he went North, and at Buffalo, New York, served four years as an apprentice tq the carpenter's trade. It was a work that satisfied his technical instinct, and he made this trade the basis of his perma nent business career. After working as a journeyman in different localities Mr. Hahn was attracted to Miami in r89$, as a sub-contractor under the late Joe A. McDonald during the construction of the Royal Palm Hotel, promoted and financed by the late Henry Flagler. After the departure of Mr. Mc Donald, the head contractor, to Nassau to build a hotel there for Mr. Flagler, Mr. Hahn was given full charge in completing the Royal Palm at :Miami. He did this work so well that he gained the confidence and esteem of Mr. Flagler, who thereafter gave him contracts for various other buildings in Miami. One of these was the First Presbyterian Church, which was erected hy Mr. Flagler for that denomination.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 39 Mr. Hahn came to Miami a year before the East Coast Railroad was completed. The town consisted of merclv a handful of small houses. As noted abol'e, during the next seventeen or eighteen years he put up more than half the buildings in the ppidly growing city, including the City Hall, and he was thL contractor for all the Bedford stone work on the Bank of Bay Bis cayne. \\'hil e he is retired from business as a contractor, 1[r. I lahn now rcscntative of a kading firm of Spanish importers, a concern whose business extends throughout all ,cctions of Spain and one that has prestige as being the oldest in its line of industrial enterprise in that countr). \ s manager of the conccrn's in terests at Pensacola, J\lr. Garriga conducts large o(lcrations in the buying of yellow-J)ine lumber a nd shippi n g the same to his native land, besides hand lin g in a similar way southern hardwood lumber. On the 18th of August, 19u, Mr. Garriga re ceived his appointment as honorary vice consul for Spain at Pensacola, his official exequatur from \\'ashington, D. C., having been received on the ;::d of the following October. He has since con tinued to give most efficient and gratifying serv ice in this official capacity, and he maintains his oAicia l and business offices at 6o3-4 American National Bank Building. He takes loyal interest in chic affairs in his residence city, and here has gained a host of friends in both business and social circles. His marriage was solemnized at Barcelona, Spain, November 22, 1913, and he and his wife have two children. GEORGE 1f. .\1.nERTSON 'is an ex-service man, and has achieved a notable record in the auto mobile business. Uc is now located at West Palm Beach, where he is a dealer in and distributor for the Dodge Brothers motor cars. He was born at Waycross, Georgia, in 1894, was properly educated in that city and also attended the schools of Jacksonville, Florida, after his parents moved there. Mr. Albertson had acquired a thorough knowledge of both mechan ical and business sides of the automobile industry before the war. He was for several years located at Tifton, Georgia. In May, 1917, he enlisted at Jacksonville in the United States Navy, and was in service nearly two years. He was assigned to duty as machinist mate at Charleston, where he was trained, and subsequently was on convoy duty out of New York and on the high seas until the close of the war. Mr. Albertson received his honorable discharge in February, 1919. Early in 1920 he came to West Palm Beach. His success in the automobile business has been a remarkable one. As the authorized distributor for this city and territory of the Dodge Brothers Motor Cars his sales had expanded to such an extent that by 1922 his old quarters were out grown. He then removed to and is now located in a large modern plant al the corner of South Poinsettia and Hibiscus streets. This plant con tains a show room and a l so a completely equipped service and repair department in the charge of expert mechanics for the convenience of Dodge car owners. Mr. Albertson also takes an active and vigorou, part in local affairs through his membership in the Chamber of Commerce, the Kiwanis Club and the ,\merican Legion. C\PT. \V1LLL\M S. DUNN. One of the most popular and appreciated citizens of Miami and a Yaluable asset to the city is Capt. W illi am S. Dunn, boat captain and widely known in marine circles as inventor and manufacturer of the Dunn Divinhoocl. The genius of Captain Dunn has also perfected for practical use an undersea camera. \\'hile he followed a mechanical trade for many years, Captain Dunn has always been in close touch with salt water, and at one time ranked as a champion oarsman. Ile was born, reared and educated in New York City. Ile learned the plumber's trade, and from boyhood was at home on the water. From an amateur he de\clopcd into a professional oarsman, and won many championships, both national and inter national. For many years he was a member of the l\Ictropolitan Rowing Club of New York, a nd was captain of tI1e famous organization for two years. Representing this club, he won the New Engl and rowing championship on the Charles River course of Boston; and also won the inter national championship, in which Canadians com peted, at \Vorccster, Massachusetts. Captain Dunn possesses a number of medals and trophies reminiscent of his powers as an oarsman. Miami has had the benefit of his citizenship and business enterprise since 1908. For seven years he was engaged in the p lum bing business in partnership with \V. F. Miller. He was the practical and mechanical member of the firm 11iller-Dunn Company, the first firm to establish a regular retail plumbing store in the city. T h e firm is well remembered for its first show win dow displays of plumbing goods. While in existence the firm carried out some of the largest plumbing contracts in the city, including among numerous others those of the Plaza Hotel and the Grayling Hotel. In later years Captain Dunn has been in the charter boat business in Miami harbor. He is the owner and makes his home on the modern power yacht Billeo II, while his business office is located on Dunn's Pier. The Dunn Divinhood, of which he is the in ventor and manufacturer, is the simplest and most efficient equipment so far perfected in the line of diving apparatus. Hundreds of private boat owners have installed this as a part of the

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40 HISTORY OF FLORIDA regular boat equipment, and by its use much of the work formerly requiring a 1>rofessional diver can be done by an amateur. As the word implies, it is a hood sitting 0\'er the head, the water being kept out by the air that is pumped from above and the di\'inhood permits free use of the arms and legs while doing any work required in either a standing or recumbent position. Captain Dunn's undersea camera permits the taking of photographs under water, and was per fected after many experiments. He has a large collection of photographs taken on the bed of the ocean, the operator wearing a divinhood. For showing the coral rock formation of the ocean bed, the fish and the ngetahlc growth under sea, this camera i. proving not only of great value for motion pictures, but for the benefit of science. Its value for scientific purposes is indicated by the fact that one of the cameras was purchased by the Carnegie Research Foundation. Through his inventions, his record in marine sports, and as proprietor of the Billeo II, Captain Dunn is widely known among the people of Miami and the winter tourists to these waters. Captain Dunn married Miss Leo Hultgren, also a native of New York City. She is a noted swimmer and diver, having won contests and championships in Madison Square Garden. She learned to swim when a young child. Captain and Mrs. Dunn have one son, \Villiam C. Dunn. CORNELIUS J. MARTI~, who gave to Miami one of its finest hotels, throughout his active career has been associated with the great lumber in dustry of the Southeast, and is still manufacturing lumber on a large scale in Florida. Mr. Martin has been a resident of Miami for fourteen years, and is proprietor of a large and prosperous retail lumber plant in that city, He is a native of Florida, as were his parents. He was born in Gadsden County in 188o, son of Martin Luther and Melissa M. (Carpenter) Mar tin. He grew up on his father's plantation in Gadsden County, and was educated in schools there and at : Macon, Georgia. Mr. Martin had not yet obtained his majority when he took his first contract in the timber business, to supply ties for the construction of the old F. C. & P. Rail way, now part of the Seaboard Air Line, between Jack onville and River Junction. Subsequently he was in the lumber and timber business at Largo in Pinellas County, on the west coast, and for two years was located at Tampa. From Tampa Mr. Marlin came to Miami in 19()8. From this city as his headquarters he has continued his operations in the lumber and timber business. His manufacturing interests are now concentrated in Brevard County, where he owns 33,000 acres of timber and at Bugbee operates a modern saw mill which is cutting 75,000 feet of lumber daily. His lumber operations also include a logging railroad. Mr. Marlin established the Cureton Lumber Company, known at that time as the Martin-Cureton Lumber Company, also the Georgia Lumber Company, and until recently was half owner of the Kirkland-Martin Lumber Company, the retail branch of his business at Miami. In April, 1922, he bought the half interest of Mr. Kirkland, and is now sole proprietor, the business being conducted as C. J. Martin. The new plant is on Northwest First Court, at the corner of orthwest Second Street. While the 1:iusiness is primarily for the supply of lumber and other building material for local operations, much of the product of the Martin Lumber Mills is exported from Miami. As an indication o f the success of the retail business at Miami in its new location it is stated that in the first fourteen days of June, 1922, the amount of business done approximated $23,000. Mr. . Martin built and was proprietor of the : Martinique Hotel, completed and opened for busi ness in 1920. He has since sold this properly. He also built and is the owner of the cold storage plant occupied by the Crenshaw Brothers Produce Company at Miami, this probably being the larg est cold storage plant in the South. Mr. Martin is a life member of the Elks Lodge of Miami, is a member of the Miami Chamber of Commerce, and has always been an outdoor man, fond of hunting, and has many trophies evi dencing his skill in this sport. Mr. Martin married Ida L. Blanton, who was born at Thomasville, Georgia. She is a sister of Judge W. F. Blanton, judge of the County Court of Dade County. LEOPOLD E. HEINBERG. It may readily be under stood that in his administration of the dual office of city clerk and city treasurer of Pensacola Mr. Heinberg found ample demand upon his time and attention, and he is distinctly one of the loyal and progressive citizens of his native city. In June, 1922, Mr. Heinberg severed his connection with the city government and immediately became associated with John Gerkins, who operates a cement paving business, with main offices in the American Bank Building, Pensacola, Florida. This concern does business in Florida and Missis sippi and other states of the South, and Mr. Heinberg is its manager. He was born at Pensacola on the uth of March, 1892, and is a son of Herman and Helen (Goode) Heinberg, the former a native of Westphalia, Germany, and the latter of Switzerland, whence she came to the United States when sixteen years of age, she having resided for a time in Chicago, Illinois, before coming to Pensacola, Herman Heinberg was reared and educated in his native province, and was an ambitious and self-reliant young man when he came to the United States in 1877. He soon established his residence at Pensacola, and here he became a successful merchant. He long conducted one of the prominent mercantile establishments of the city, and here he passed away September 16, 1922. ~oth he and his wife were active members of Temple Beth-El, and his political allegiance was given to the democratic party. As a young man he served the required period in the German Army. Of the children the eldest is Arthur, who is a salesman in the dry-goods store of Watson, Parker & Reese of Pensacola; Miss Faye remains at the parental home; Bertram R., who is in the employ of the Murphy-Morrison Company, a leading lumber and timber concern at Pensa cola, was in the nation's military service in con nection with the World war, his preliminary training having been received at Camp Johnston, Jacksonville, this state, whence he was eventually transferred to Pensacola and assigned to service on the Draft Board of Escambia County; Leo pold E., of this review, was the next in order of birth; Jerome is in the employ of the Gulf Life & Casualty Company at Tampa, Florida, and in the World war period he was in service as a member of a regiment of United States Infantry at Camp Jackson, South Carolina; Leonard is employed in a mercantile establishment in the City of Chicago, Illinois, and in the World war period he was sent to Camp Greenleaf, Georgia, and a s signed to service in the Hospital Corps.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 41 Leopold E. Heinberg profited fully by the advantages of the public schools of Pensacola, and thereafter took a course in the Sears Business College in this city. Prior to this, however, at the age of fifteen years, he began work in his father's store, and after his graduation from the business college, at the age of sixteen years, he became bookkeeper and stenographer in the wholesale grocery house of Greenhut & Company, in the service of which representative Pensacola firm he continued until 1913. In December, 1918, he was appointee). city clerk and treasurer, and by successive reappointments he served in this dual office until entering business in 1922, save for the period of his connection with the United States Army in connection with the World war. On the 1st of September, 1918, he entered the nation's military service, was sent to Camp Jackson, South Carolina, was assigned to the field artillery, and with his command he arrived in France on the 9th of November, 1918. After the armistice brought the war to a close he returned to his native land, and he received his honorable dis charge in May, 1919. He forthwith resumed his official service in connection with the city govern ment of Pensacola, and had his office headquarters in Room 104 of the City Hall. Mr. Heinberg is a loyal and ardent supporter of the cause of the democratic party, his basic Masonic affiliation is with Pensacola Lodge No. 42, A. F. and A. M., and in the Scottish Rite of this great fraternity he has received the thirty second degree in Pensacola Consistory No. 3, be sides which he here holds membership in Morocco Temple of the Mystic Shrine, and Zelica Grotto No. 60, his capitular York Rite affiliation being with Mount Horeb Chapter No. 6, R. A. M. He is a member also of Pensacola Lodge No. 497, B. P. 0. E., and the Pensacola Yacht Club, and he and his wife are active members of Temple Beth El. His home is at 516 West Chase Street, an attractive residence property owned by him. In September, 1920, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Heinberg and Miss Mamie Bicker, daughter of Walter R. and Cora (Costello) Bicker, the latter of whom is deceased. Mr. Bicker is chief of the Pensacola Fire Department. CALVIN W. CAMPBELL. During the ten years of his residence at West Palm Beach Calvin W. Campbell has been almost continuously associated with some public office. He is now postmaster, handling the details of this first class post office to the general satisfaction of all concerned. Mr. Campbell was born at Niles, Trumbull County, Ohio, March 10, 1887. He represents some old and prominent families of that historic region, not least among the distinctions of which is that of bei11g the birthplace of William McKinley. His parents were George C. and Amy (Wilson) Campbell. His father's mother was Eusebia McCombs, one of the pioneer families in that section of the old Western Reserve. Amy Wilson was a daughter of John Key Wilson, who was born at Dundee, Scotland. Mr. Campbell on both sides represents sterling ances try. George C. Campbell, his father, was elected in 1902 county clerk of Trumbull County, and in 1903 the family removed from Niles to Warren, the county seat. George C. Campbell was in the office of county clerk for a number of years, and died at Warren in April, 1922. Calvin W. Campbell was reared and educated in Trumbull County, and graduated from the Warren High School in June, 1900, and on the same day he went to work in the office of the clerk of the court of Trumbull County under his father. He had a thorough training, and con tinued the duties of that position until January l, 19II. For a portion of the time he was also connected with the city engineer's office in Warren. Mr. Campbell in October, 1913, came to West Palm Beach, and from that date until January, 1921, he served as deputy state and county tax collector. In the fall of 1921 he was appointed acting postmaster, and on March 2, 1922, was commissioned postmaster. His commission was confirmed by the Senate on March 4, 1922, on the same day that the senate confirmed the appointment of Doctor Hubert Work as postmaster general. Doctor Work signed Mr. Campbell's commission. He is a member of the Kiwanis Club of West Palm Beach and has been active in various organizations of a civic and social nature. He married Miss Dorothy Bartholomew, who was born and reared in Trumbull County. Their three children are George St. Clair, Calvin Robert and Dorothy June. JEROME CHERBINO, before coming to Southern Florida in 1920, had gained a wide experience in real estate promotions, and throughout his career has been accustomed to handling large scale projects. He has the broad views of a typical Southwesterner, and has been closely associated with prominent capitalists. Mr. Cherbino is active head of one of the largest corporations in Florida handling the sale and development of urban and suburban properties. His time and energies are completely concentrated on Miami Beach property. Mr. Cherbino was born in Vermont, and was a child when in 1883 his father, the late Dr. G. W. Cherbino, moved to Texas and engaged in the cattle industry around Abilene in the western part of that state. The firm of Cherbino Brothers has for many years been prominent in the cattle and ranch industry of Western Texas, and the business is still carried on by the brothers of Jerome Cherbino, their headquarters being at San Angelo. Jerome Cherbino grew up on a cattle ranch. On reaching manhood he removed to Chicago, where he was engaged in business, and later went to New York and for six years was interested in the promotion and building of Mountain Lakes, New Jersey, one of the highest class suburban colonies in the East. He is still asso ciated with Cherbino Brothers, who own many thousands of acres of ranching land in Western Texas. Mr. Cherbino came to Miami Beach in 1920, and since then has been one of the most active and enthusiastic promoters of this world famed and rapidly growing winter resort. As a real estate operator he has centered all his interests in Miami Beach, believing in the wisdom of con centrated effort. He handles no properties out side of that resort center. He is president of the United Companies Realty Corporation, handling Beach properties exclusively. In the spring of 1922 Mr. Cherbino took personal charge of the $500,000 development project of William F. Whitman of Chicago and Miami Beach, including the development of the Whitman property into a residential section, with the Spanish atmosphere and the Spanish type of architecture, decoration and landscaping prevailing throughout. The owner of this ambi tious new development project is William F.

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42 HISTORY OF FLORIDA \Vhitman, a Chicago business man, owner of one of the largest printing and engraving plants in that city. Mr. Cherbino has made himself one of the very public spirited citizens of Miami Beach. He is a worker for the public welfare, and is an . inflt1ential member of the Chamber of Com merce. He married Miss Carrie M. Rulon. C. B . FLOYD. The story of the development of Miami Beach largely centers around the capital anrl enterprise represented in the Carl Fisher interests. Mr. Fisher was the founder and was president of the Presto-Lite Company, one of the largest and most successful automobile acces sory manufacturing concerns in the world. Some years ago Mr. Fisher and associates transferred a large amount of capital to Southern Florida, and practically founded and developed Miami Beach within a few years into one of. the most famous winter resorts of the world, spending millions of dollars in this development. The building side of this great work has been handled largely by C. B. Floyd, who is president of the Beach Construction Company, the largest building organization and industrial enterprise of Miami Beach. Mr. Floyd is a native of Indianap olis, and finished his technical education in Purdue University, class of r907. For a time he was associated with the engineering department of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and later engaged in engi neering and construction work at Indianapolis. For several years he was at the head of an engineering and construction organization in that city, building among other large projects the great plant and auxiliary buildings of the PrestoLite Company. He also built the plants of this company in twenty-seven different cities through out the United States. In October, r9r9, Mr. Floyd came to Miami Beach and organized and has since been president of the Beach Construction Company. This com pany under Mr. Floyd's direction erected the Flamingo Hotel at Miami Beach, and in ro22 constructed the addition to this noted hotel. Mr. Floyd was also the builder of the Miami Beach Aquarium. tbe Broad Ripple Dairy, and a large number of handsome modern residences for Mr. Fisher. These homes have been sold to men of prominence and wealth from various parts of the United States. Forty or fifty of these residences have been constrncted, and the number is in creasing constantly with the continued growth and development of the winter resort. The Beach Construction Company has the personnel and facilities for handling the largest type of construction projects, most of which are devoted to the various enterprises fostered by the Carl Fisher interests. WILLIAM N. Huu,. The United States has been supplied with the unsurpassed Florida orange and grapefruit for more than a genera tion, hut the popular mind seldom associates the state with another citrus crop, the lime. The highly beneficent anti-scorbutic and other quali ties of the lime in the conservation of health make it a fruit of great importance.. The lime bas been a standard ration in the British Navy for over two hundred years. The only important region in the United States capable of growing the lime on a commercial scale is the Florida Kevs; There it is repre sented bv successful groves scattered from Elliott's Key through Key Largo down to Mate cumbe Bay. From a very small beginning the annual production of these groves now aggregates about fifteen thousand barrels of lime per annum. The foremost personal authority on lime growing, and one of the pioneers of the industry as well as a pioneer grapefruit grower in Southern Florida, is William N. Hull, whose home is at Miami. Mr. Hull is manager of the Florida Keys Lime Association, and is justly recognized as the founder of the lime growing industry in this state. He was born at Newark, New Jersey, and was reared and educated in New York City. He came to South Florida in the early nineties, and from the first identified himself with citrus fruit production. He acquired his first interests before the great freeze of 1894. He anticipated the arrival of the railway to Miami, being here when the railroad was constructed to this point in 1896. He has, therefore, witnessed the growth and de velopment of Miami from almost nothing to its 1>resent proportions as the metropolis of South Florida. For many years his enterprise and capital were largely devoted to grapefruit, and from that his interest was extended to the propa gation of lime groves in the Florida Keys. As a result of Mr. Hull's enterprise and enthusiasm a large number of citrus groves and an immense amount of capital have been turned into this unique industry. He set the example and has been constantly interested in assisting others, as a result of which splendid profits have come to the growers and marketers of this valuable fruit. That the production co11ld and should be greatly increased is shown by the fact that the annual consumption of limes in the United States amounts now to about eighty-seven thousand barrels. The excess over the Flor. ida product is imported from the Isle of Dominica, one of the British Leeward Islands. It is Mr. Hull's ambi tion to have the Florida Keys production so increased as to supply entirely the domestic de mand in this country. It is his opinion that local growers even by meeting the competition of lower prices of the imported limes can still make a profit of 100 per cent on their groves. The Florida Keys Lime Association, of which he is manager, is the marketing agency for most of the grove owners and producers on the Keys. The marketing of the crop begins in June of each year and continues for about nine months. In carrying on propaganda for the extension of the sale and use of limes Mr. Hull each year makes extensive trips to various cities of the Central \Vest and Southwest. A few years ago the lime fruit itself was seldom seen outside of southern cities, but it is now rapidly growing in popular aonreciation and demand next to the old estab lished and familiar lemon. Mr. Hull himself is one of the extensive growers of the lime, having ahout three hundred acres of grove land on the Keys. JOHN P. STOKES, a prominent member of the bar of the City of Pensacola and in 1922 a mem ber of the State Senate of Florida, was born at Pensacola, on the 30th of November, r886, and is a scion of the third generation of the Stokes family in Florida. His grandfather, Thomas Stokes, was born at Rush, County Dublin , Ireland, where he was reared and educated, and in 1847 he came to the United States and settled at Apalachicola, Florida. He later returned to Ireland, and there, in the City of Cork, was solemnized in r850 his marriage to Miss Johanna Shea, of Macroon, County Cork, who accompanied him on his return to Apalachicola, from which

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HISTORY OF FLORID\ 43 port he was captain of a sailing vessel utilized principally in the transportation of cotton. In 1867 he removed with his family to Pensacola, and he hecame the owner of a fleet of vessels sail ing from this purl. At the time of the Civil war he placed one of his boats at the disposal of the Confederate government. He barricaded the deck of this vessel with bales of cotton, and with the same went forth from Apalachicola to engage a Union gunboat. Later he was rnptured hy Union forces and taken to Key \Vest. He contrived to escapl', and then took his family to Bagdad, Mexico, and afkr the clo . e of the war he established the family home at Pensacola, in 1867, as above noted. llere he passed the remainder of his life, a citizen of prominence and influence and one who commamkcl unqualified popular esteem in the state of his adoption. Patrick Conlin, maternal grandfather of Senator :,;tokes, was horn in the City of Cork, Ireland, and both he and his wife, whose maiden name was 1fary Bridget Madden, were residents of Pensacola, Florida, at the time of their deaths. He was a skilled coppersmith, and was long actively identified with business interests in Pensacola. John Stokes, father of him whose name initiates this review, was born at Apalach'icola, in 1859, and was ahout eight years old at the time of the famil) remo,al to Pensacola, where he was reared and educated and where in his youth he became actively identified with na, igation interests, with ,,hich he has continued his connection throughout his entire active career. He has long served as captain of teamhoats, and in 1922 is captain of a (,overnml'nt vessel from Fort Crockett, Texas. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary Conlin, was born and reared at Pensacola, and of their children John I'., of this sketch, is the eldest; Dr. Thomas H., a graduate of the Atlanta (Georgia) College of Physicians and Surgeons, is now estab lished in successful practice at Pensacola; Clarence J., who js engaged in the practice of law in his native city, attended the University of Florida, John B. Stetson Unhersity at DeLand, this state, and the law department of the University of 11ichigan; Clara is a popular teacher in the public school: of Pensacola; : May is here employed as a skilled stenographer; and Helen is, in 1922, a student in the Pensacola High School. John P. Stokes attended the public schools of Pensacola until he was twelve years old, and for eighteen months thereafter he was employed in the boiler-making establishment of James Hughes & Com11any. Thereafter he worked one summer in a grocery store, and then became office boy in the law office of C. Moreno Jones. Two years later he entered the law office of Charles B. Parkhill, and in the meanwhile he had applied himself diligently to study and had amplified not only his academic education but also gained much exact knowledge of the science of jurisprudence. Under the preceptorship of Judge Parkhill he con tinued his law studies, and in 1904 he was admitted to the bar of his native state at Vernon, \Vashington County. He engaged in practice at Pensacola, and his ability as a resourceful trial lawyer and well fortified counselor has gained to him a substantial and representative law busi ness, in which he has appeared in connection with important cases in both civil and criminal departments of his profession. His offices are at 300-303 American National Bank Building. It is interesting to record that Senator Stokes has con tinued his enthusiasm in study and reading and that he has one of the finest private libraries in this part of the state. He is specially interested in Florida history, and is making a comprehensive collection of works touching the history of this state. Mr. Stokes is a leader in the local ranks of the democratic party, and has served as Circuit Court commissioner of Escambia County and as United States court commissioner of Pensacola. At the age of twenty-one years he was elected a repre sentative in the State Legislature, and he had the distinction of serving as speaker pro tem. of the House, of which he was the youngest member, in the session of 1909. In the primary election for this office he won a decisive victory over five opponents. In the primary of 19ro he defeated J. \Valter Kehoe for the office of state senator from Escambia County, and he made an exce llent record of sen ice during the legislative sessio n s of I9II and 1913, he having been the youngest member of the Senate and having served as speaker pro tem. of the Upper House in the sl's sion of 191 r. In the primary of 1912 he defeated C. Moreno Jones for the office of state's attorney of the First Circuit of Florida, and of this office he continued the incumbent four years. He did not become a candidate for reelection, but resumed the practice of his profession in a private way. ln 1914 he was defeated for Congress by Hon. Emmett \Vilson, who was candidate for a second term. In the primary of 1918 Mr. Stokes was again the successful candidate for the State enate, and in the general election he rolled up a handsome majority. He was active and influential in the deliberations of the Senate and its com mittee rooms during the sessions of 1919 and 19u, and became a candidate for reelection in the primary of 1922. Senator Stokes is actively identified with the Pensacola Bar Association, the Florida State Bar Association, and the American Bar Association. Ile is vice president of the Pensacola News Publishing Company, and is a director and general counsel for the Pensacola, St. Andrews & Gulf Steamship Company. He is the owner of valu able real estate in his native city, including his attractive home property at 1304 North Barcelona Street. The Senator's capitalistic interests are represented further in his being a stockholder in the American National Bank, the Citizens & Peoples National Bank, and the Pensacola Bank ing Savings and Trust Company. Senator Stokes was active and influential in the advancing of all local patriotic agencies during the period of the World war, was a member of the Legal Advi~ry Board fJor Escambia County, and aided zealously in the various drives in support of government war bonds, Red Cross work, etc. At Pensacola, in August, 19()6, Senator Stokes wedded Miss Bertha Hendrix, daughter of Thomas E. Hendrix, of this city, who is in the service of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company. The children of this union are two in number: John P., Jr., born November 13, 1907, and Thomes Jefferson, born July 13, 1918. The elder son is in 1922, a cadet student at Culver Military Academy on Lake Maxinkuckee, Indiana. )AMES M. KN1G11T, prominent contractor and builder at Miami, is a master of several of the basic arts involved in the building construction, and long mechanical skill and experience give him great advantage in directing his present organization and equipment for handling every class of building construction. Mr. Knight was born near Valdosta, Georgia,

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44 HISTORY OF FLORIDA in 188o, and represents a lineage that has been in Berrien County, Georgia, from earliest pioneer times. One of the earliest settlers there was his Great-grandfather Knight, a rifle maker, who made many of the guns with which warfare was carried on against Cherokee Indians. Mr. Knight's ancestors were soldiers in the Indian wars, the Revolution, and later on the Confed, erate side in the war between the states. His two grandfathers, Jonathan H. Knight and J. N. Baskin, built the famous and historic school at Grand Bay, in Berrien County. Mr. Knight's father, Hugh A. Knight, came to Florida some years ago, and owns one of the finest farms in the state, a large place near Arcadia, stocked with fine cattle and containing citrus groves. James M. Knight grew up on a Georgia farm, and from an early age took his place betwee11 the plow handles. His excellent education was due largely to the splendid Grand Bay school mentioned above. There he was an appreciative pupil under Dr. R. C. Woodard, then principal. Doctor Woodard was a teacher of genuine dis tinction, one who not only instilled learning, but character, into his pupils. After an honorary career as a school man Doctor Woodard took up the practice of medicine, and is now highly esteemed in his profession in Miami. James M. Knight also finished a course at Stanley's Busi ness College at Thomasville, Georgia. His years were industriously spent on the farm until he was twenty-three. Then, in 1904, having learned the trade of stone mason, he came to Florida, locating at Tampa, and made the build ing trade his permanent business. After spend ing several years in building operations in and around Tampa and after a short period in the central part of the state, he came early in 1917 to Miami. Here he has been one of the busy contractors. One of his first large jobs as super intendent of construction was the Clyde Court Apartments. His business has involved both business and residence structures at Miami and Miami Beach. A few examples of his work that may be mentioned as an indication of the char acter and scope of his business include two large residences for Carl Fisher at Miami Beach, the beautiful home of E. B. Kurtz in Magnolia Park, the plastering and masonry contracts on the Ohio Hotel, the Keystone Hotel, the Leamington Hotel, the new building of the South Atlantic Telephone Company, and he was the builder of the drug store of Dr. D. S. Boles on Northeast Second Avenue, the Llewellen Building on North Miami Avenue, the Bishop Apartments on Miami Beach, the Municipal Warehouse, Municipal Dock for the City of Miami, and many other noted structures. Mr. Knight is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Stanton Memorial Baptist Church. He married Miss Mary J. Swann, of Savannah, Georgia. They have three sons, G. B., U. A. and J. E. Knight. J. KEN ROBERTS is a lawyer by training and early profession, but for a number of years has been engaged largely in financial operations involved in home building projects. He has con siderable of that work to his credit in the North, and for the past six years has added greatly to the building program of Miami and has taken a prominent part in the upbuilding and all the civ.ic interests of that community. Mr. Roberts was born near Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky. in 1886. When he was three years old the family moved to Indiana, locating at Tipton. He was educated in the public school there, in the Indiana Law School at Ind1anapolis, and at Tipton finished his legal education in the law office of Gifford & Nash, then one of the prominent legal firms of Indiana. After practic ing as an associate of the firm for one year Mr. Roberts, primarily on account of his health, took up other lines of work. At Indianapolis hf' became actively associated with capitalists and employed his own enterprise in a construction program that resulted in the erection of over fifty houses in that city, chiefly residences and apartments. He also spent one year in New Orleans as legal associate of a firm engaged in a large reclamation project near that city. It was for the benefit of his health that Mr. Roberts came to Miami in 1916. He regained his health so rapidly and completely that he decided to remain here and go into business. Since then he has continued his home building, and has been the means of bringing a large amount of capital for investment to this city. Altogether he has erected and sold about fifty residences. His latest and perhaps his most ambitious project is the Don Apartment House, construc tion work on which was begun in May, 1922. This is a twenty-nine apartment building of the most modern type, located in Fort Dallas Park, and its architecture thoroughly harmonizes with that beautiful residential section. This apart ment was constructed at a cost of about $II2,ooo. Mr. Roberts married Miss Effie C. Smith, of Elwood, Indiana. They have three sons, Joseph. Noel and Don. The apartment building was named for the youngest son. FRANK P. McGIIAN is president of the Kini; Undertaking Company, Incorporated, of Miami. and he has been largely responsible for the de velopment of this institution, which has service and equipment unsurpassed by any similar enter prise in Florida. Mr. McGhan was born at Atlanta, Georgia, June 9, 1891, and was educated in the common and high schools of his native state. As a young man he had an ambition for the medical profes sion, but while employed in a general mercantile enterprise he was assigned to work in the under taking department, and subsequently completed a course in embalming in New York. His parents in the meantime had moved to Miami, and while visiting them he recognized the possibili ties of an undertaking business, but several years passed before he could get the capital necessary to engage in business for himself. The King Undertaking Company was established in 1899. Besides Mr. McGhan as president, the vice president is F. P. McGhan, the secretary and treasurer, his brother, J. P. McGhan, while the woman's department and service is under the personal direction of Mrs. F. P. McGhan. Mrs. McGban's maiden name was Kathleen Collins. She was born in Dublin, is a highly educated and cultured woman, and before taking up embalm ing was a professional trained nurse. The efficiency of the King Undertaking Com pany is a lllatter of pride not only to Mr. McGhan, but to the city as well. Mr. McGhan has not only worked hard but has constantly studied to realize the last word in modern under taking service. Each year he visits other cities to learn of the progress and advancement in his profession and brings home and adopts many new ideas to his own establishment. In demi surgery and other scientific methods for restoring original and perfect appearance of bodies, particu-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 45 Jarly after mutilation by accident or other causes, the [(ing Undertaking Company has accom plished results that stand at the peak of achieve ment in these lines. This company maintains -i private chapel, reception room, display room, operating room, and has a full motor equipment and a private ambu lance service, which is not only for the benefit of the business but is an emergency service to the entire community. The ambulance is main tained in readiness al all hours of the day and night, there being two men on duty during the day and two at night to answer calls without deiay. The company is located at -152 \Vest Flagler Street, and .Mr. an
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46 HISTORY OF FLORIDA business is Mrs. Peabody. Her maiden name was Malvina Bayan. Born in Austria, she was a child when her pareJ1ts came to America, and she was reared and educated in Pittsburgh. She became an expert stenographer, and her education and talents enabled her to command positions requir ing executive as well as technical skill. Mr. Peabody is a member of the Miami Chamber of Commerce and the Kiwanis Club. GEORGE N. SMALRIDGE. Since locating at Mia1~i in 1916 Mr. Smalridge's contribution to the growth and welfare of that city has been through his business as a contractor and builder. He is a builder of wide and varied experience, acquired both in the North and in the South. He was born at Kingston, Ontario, in 1867, of English parentage. He remained at Kingston until he was twenty years of age, having in the meantime acquired a public school education and learned the carpenter's trade. On leaving Canada Mr. Smalddge went to Chicago, Illinois, and was in that city about ten years. At first he followed his trade as a journeyman, and gradually began executing contracts as a builder. He has been in the building business now since about 1900. After leaving Chicago he spent several years in business atBirn;iingham, A labama. A visit to Miami in 1916 gave him such favor able impressions that he resolved to locate here permanently and contribute in his way to the realization of the splendid destiny of the city. Since then he has built up an organization recog nized as one of the foremost in the contracting and building facilities of the city. His service extends both to Miami and Miami Beach. Mr. Smalridge is one of the few local contractors who handle no residence work, his facilities being devoted almost entirely to business, school and other public sectors. The Miami Beach public school building, of which he was the contractor, is recognized as one of the most beautiful and artistic school houses in the country. It is built in the Spanish style, and has been accorded a high degree of praise both by architects and the general public. Other examples of his work are a private school at Miami Beach, the Northside School in Miami, the addition to the Miami High School Bui lding, the Cromer Building on East Flagler Street in Miami, the Security Hotel, and the addition lo the Miami City Hospital, made in 1922. Mr. Smalridge is a Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner and a member of the Chamber of Com merce. He married Flora Harding Maddox, of Louisville, Kentucky. Lours ALBERT ALLEN is sheriff of Dade County. He came into this office with its varied and im portant responsibilities, after a previous service as a deputy United States marshal. Still earlier he was actively engaged in business with several Florida firms, and has a wide acquaintance over the state, while in Dade County his personal popularity is on a par with his recognized efficiency. Mr. Allen was born at Brooksville, Hernando Coul\tY, Florida, in 1884, son of Henry N. and Mary (Brown) Allen, natives of Georgia. His father was one of six brothers who served the Confederate Army from Georgia in the war between the states. Only three of them returned home alive. Louis Albert Allen had to confront the serious duties of life at an early age. For several years he contributed to the support of his widowed mother. He left ~chool at the age of thirteen. and his education since then has been gained by private study and an active contact with meu and affairs. At the age of fourteen he was put to work packing oranges for Walker Brothers in Orlando. He performed that and other duties so well that at the age of sixteen he was made manager of the local plant. For a number of years Mr. Allen was a traveling man, acting as buyer and solicitor for the H. C. Schrader Com pany of Jacksonville. About the beginning of the World war he re signed to become deputy marshal at Miami, and continued in the Federal service until he was promoted by popular vote, in November, 1920, to the office of sheriff of Dade County. He re ceived a total of 5,000 votes for that office. While sheriff a large part of his duty bas been in suppressing bootlegging, and he has figured in several sensational cases of that kind. Mr. Allen is affiliated with James Carnell Lodge, A. F. and A. M., with the Scottish Rite and Shrine, the E lks, is a member of the Miami Motor Club and Chamber of Commerce, the International Sheriffs Association and the International Association for Identifications. Sheriff Allen married Miss Mary Louise Jenkins, a nath-e of Habersham County, Georgia, and member of two old and distinguished families of Upper Georgia. Her father was a gallant Confederate officer in General Pickett's division and was in Pickett's famous charge at Gettys burg. On her mother's side she is a member of the McCroskey family of Scotch ancestry, long prominent in North Georgia. Mrs. Allen is . a member of the Eastern Star, the Southern Presbyterian Church and is a leading spirit in the Miami Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The three children of Sheriff and 1-Irs. Allen are Louis Albert, Jr., William Hugh and Geraldine Louise. ARTHUR C. BEN:>ff'IT is one of the prominent young business men u f Miami Beach, and has been an active factor i11 the business life of this localil.i, for the 1iasl ten years. He is a native of Florida and had a university education before engaging in business. He was horn in Alachua County in 1888, son of Milo .\. and Sallie E. (Jackson) Bennett, the former a native of Cincinnati and the latter of Florida. His mother is now deceased. Arthur C. Dennett acquired his higher educ.. tion in the University of Florida at Gainesville, and in Stetson University at DeLand. He had a year of law at the University of Florida but has made the knowledge useful only • iu his private business experience, and never took it up as a profession. Mr. Bennett came to Miami in 1912, and for some time was connected with the Railey-Milam Hardware Company. Then for several years he was a member of the firm and manager of the Bennett-Fuzzard Hardware Company. When he retired from this organization in April, 1922, he purchased the stuck, fixtures and lease of the l\liami Beach Hardware Company. From the beginning he has had the loyal support and pat ronage uf the citizens of this famous resort, and has made a marked success of his new enterprise. His store carries not only a stock of general hardware, hut other stocks. fitted to the varied needs of l\l iami Beach, and is, as a matter of fact, a department store:. Mr. Bennett is a member of the Miami _ \.d Club. He married Miss Mary J. Smith, of De-

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IIISTORY Land, Florida, an d a nati,, of Oh10 . Their th ree c hildren art: E lsie ).f,ty , Ln11is1: and James _\rthur HARRY \V1m.nT THOMPSON, of Pensacola w ho is se rving in 1922 as state's a ttorney fo r the F irst J udicial District o f Florida, c omprising Escambia, Oskaloosa, Santa Rosa and \\ a llon co unties, was born at Bagdacl, • a nla Rosa Co unty, t his sla te, o n th 14th o f NO\e mber, 1&J1. \t the sa me place was born his fathe r, Iknry \\. Thompsou, the date o f whose nath ity was September 22, 1859, a nd who the1-c maintains his home a l the p re e n t lime. lie is a sou o f t hl' late Benjamin Thompson, who was born in Louisiana and who hcca me an early settler at Ilagdad, he having been a me mber o f the fir m of S impson & Co mpany, which O\\ ned large t racts o [ limb r land and devel o ped a n c tenshe lrn,iness in the manufacturing of lumb r. Hi, wife, whose maiden name was O live Thompson , was born m Alabama, the t wo fa milies, though o f the same n, me, having no k in ship. Henry \V. Thompson long o ,,nccl a nd o perated a s ash a nd door factory at Bagclad, w here he is now living re tirccl, as o ne of the honored a nd i n Auential c itizens of his natin Yillagc a nd county He i a s taunch a dyocalc of the p rinciples of the de mocratic party, a nd he sen-l'd as c lerk of the Circuit Court for anta Rosa County from 1905 u ntil his r l'lirement from t his o llicc in January, 1921. He a nd his ,dfc a rc most zea lous members of the Mctlrndist Epis opal Chmrh, n uth, a nd he has se n-ed fM t he past thirty-tin• years a s s 11perintenclcnl o f the Sunday • c ho I of the Church o f Bagdatl. He is a ff,liatecl with the ).1a sonic fratcrnit), the J,nights of Pythias an d t he Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His wife, w hose mai den name was Mariana \\' a lkcr, was horn a t Montgom ry, Ala bama, August 15, 1861. Co ncerning their chil, a student in t he Cco rgia lnstitut of T ct:hnolo10 al _ \ t lanta , he ha,ing-scned as a n l'll'l 'lririan i n the Lnitcd S tall ' " Xa,y in the" o rld w1r period a nd ha,ing made th ree trips ac ross tlw \tlantic in t he transpor t ,ervicc; two other ch ildren we re burn but hnth died in earl\' c hildhood. The p ublic srhcio ls of his na tive ,illage affo rded Harry \\'. Thrnllpson his early e ducation, a nd thereafl r h attended the public schools of e,1 York C ity, where he g racluatl ' d from the e ighth grade school. He next atte nded
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48 HISTORY OF FLORIDA HoRACE L. SIMPSON, 11. D. A native of Ala bama, Doctor Simpson began practice there, but soon afterward came to Pensacola, where he ha, devoted many busy years to the responsibilities of his profession and is one of the outstanding men in medical circles in Escambia County. Doctor Simpson represents an o l d American family. He was born at Andalusia, Alabama, February IO, 1863. His paternal great-grandfather was Archibald Simpson, and his grand father and mother were John and Ann (Pickens) Simpson. His maternal great-great-grandfather was Joseph Overman, his great-grandfather was Charles Overman and his great-grandmother was :.Iary Alberson . His mother's fat her and mother were B. F. Overman and Elizabeth Lindsay. Doctor Simpson's parents were E. E. and S. A. (Overman) Simpson, the former a native of South Caro l ina and the l atter of North Caro lina. Both are now deceased. His father con ducted an extensive business in timber and saw milling al Bagdad, Florida, and while he wie l ded much infl u ence in his loca l ity he never mingled in politics. Horace L. Simpson was l i berally educated, attending the Bingham Military Academy in North Carolina, and from there entered Yale Unive r sity at New llaYen, Connecticut. He graduated from the Shefneld Scientific School of Yale with the Ph. B. degree in 1883. From there he entered the New York College of Physi cians and Surgeons, graduating M. D. in 1886. For a year and a half he was an interne in St. Luke's Hospital, and for one year and eight months practiced at Birmingham, Alabama. From there he came to Pensacola, and in addi tion to his genera l private practice he was for s i xteen years a member of the State Board of Health and for six years was city physician of Pensacola. He is a member of the County, State and American Medical associations, and is a Presbyterian, while Mrs. Simpson is a member of the Episcopal Church. At Pensacola, November 8, 1888, Doctor Simp son married Miss Laura Thornton, daughter of Joseph and Laura (Hyer) Thornton, of Pensa cola. The only child of Doctor and Mrs. Simp son is Cora Louise, who is married and resides in Holland at present. She has two children, Laura and Edmund. DANIEL A. GILLIS. \Vith the exception of a few terms Daniel A. Gillis has occupied the post of county assessor of Walton Cou nty since 18g~. This long term of service alone should furn i sh sufficient evidence of his ability and fidelity to trust, but were it not sufficient such evidence cou l d be found in the esteem and confidence in which he is held by his fellow citizens, who have come to depend upon his high official qualities. Mr. Gillis was born May 2, 1854, in Holmes County, Florida, and is a son of Angus and Catherine (Campbell) Gillis, natives of North Carolina, both of whom are now deceased. His grandfather was Archibald Gillis, a native of North Carolina, who died in Florida. Angus Gillis, the father of Daniel A., devoted his life to the pursuits of farming and stockraising, and was one of the substantial men of his com munity. His abilities became recognized by his fellow citizens, who elected him to offices of importance, and twice he was sent to the State Legistature, where he established a splendid record. He was a deacon in the Presbyterian Ch.11rch and a leader of affairs in general in his community. . Daniel A. Gillis i\as c
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HIST R\ OF FLORIDA 4!) Judicial Circuit of Florida, of De Funiak 'prings, Walton County. Judge Campbell was born November 19, 1874, at Eucheeanna, \Valton County, Florida, and is a son of Daniel and Emma tllowers) Campbell. The Campbell family, as the name would indicate, is of Scotch origin, having been for many years residents of the lslc of Skye, Scotland, whence came Daniel Campbell, the great-grandfather of Judge Campbell. His son, the grandfather of the j udgc, was Angus Campbell, of Carolina, who married Katherine 11orrison. The mat rnal grandparents of Judge Campbl'll were Giles and Christian (Mckinnon) Bowers. Daniel Campbell, the fatht•r uf Judge C:u11phcll, was born in F l orida a11d l'ch1catc
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5 0 HISTORY OF FLORIDA fur clean government a nd whose discharge of the respons ibilities an d duties of their offices have been characterized by faithfuln ess and expe dition, one w ho has won popular approval, we llmerited, is \Villiam Franklin Jones, of DeFuniak Springs, county tax collec tor. J\fr. Jones has occ upied his present office s ince Nove mber, 1917, and his reco rd is one of fideli ty and co mpetency. \\'illiam Franklin Jones was born Augus t 2arty i n \Va lton County, whe1e he wields m uch influence. His official record is a good one, an d during his terms i n office he has made nu merous warm admirers and sincere friends. He i a mrmbrr of the Blue Lo dge and Chapter of Masonry and the loca l lodges of the \\' oodmen of the \\' orld and t he Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His religiol!s faith is that of the Presby-te rian Church. , In December. 1907, at DeFL1niak Spri ngs, 1Ir. Jones was united in marriage wi th M i s Ai leen \V. Saunders, daughter of \V. B. a nd Sallie (Ellis) Saunders, the former of w hom met his death while engaged in the performance of his du ties as a Government revenue o fficer. Mrs. Saunders st ill resides at DeFuniak Springs. Four c hildren have bee n born to Mr. a nd Mrs. Jones: E llis. Davis, Lance an d Marjorie. GEORGE \V. S11110Ns, JR. The profe sion of e ngineering is one of the mos t important o f call ing~, o ne l'Cl!l!iriug spec ial qua lifications, after a long, careful and technical training. Once entered, ho we\'er, a ny of its spec ialties offe r opportunities for u eful e ndeavor a nd pe rsonal advancement is a lm os t limitless, therefore so me of the best men of the country are now following it. By means of their know ledge and s kill e ngineers a re ren de ring a great p llblic service to their fe llows and communit ies. One o f these e nergetic young men of the outh, who is rapi dly advanc ing and acco mplishing great th ings, is George W . Simons, Jr., of Jacksonville. George \\'. S imons, Jr., w as born at Portland. Oregon, February 23, 1891, a so n of George \\ . and .\1111ic (Mayer) Simo ns, n atives of Illinoi., where both were reared. In 1886 they went to Portland, Oregon, and there s he d ied i n 1894, at the age of t wenty-eight yea rs, leaving o ne child. Geo rge \V., Jr. The elde r Geo rge \V. imon, was e ducated a t Rochelle, and late r became a ge neral contractor a nd b uilder of b ridges, in this line finding expression for his spirit of useful ness. So me of the important contracting and constructio u works standing to his credit incl ude the waterworks of Dawson City, Alaska. Very promin nt in Maso nry, he belo ngs to all the bod ies of bo th the Scottish a nd York r ites, and is a th irtyecond degree a nd Knight Templar :\Iason. In politic he is a de mocrat. George \V. Simons, the yo unger, attended t he p ublic sc hools of Roc helle, Illinois, and Be loit Co llege, of Be loit, Wisconsin, from whi ch he was graduated i n 191:2. Subsequently he bega n the intensil'e tudy of sanita ry engineering at thr ).fassachmetts Institute of Technology, a nd was g raduated therefrom in 1914. After graduation he wa s asso ciated w ith one of t he country's forrmost sanitary engineers, Prof. George C. \Vhip ple, o f Harvard U niversity. In 1()16 he came to Jacksonv ille a c hief sanitary e ngineer for the F lorida State Board of Health, upon invit atiou of Col. Joseph Y. Porter, the n s tate hea l th officer. a nd is st ill serving in that capacity. He i p resi dent of t he J ac ksonYille Chapter, A merican Asso cia tion of E ngineers, and, further, a director of the Florida Engineering Society and has mem bership in the American \Vaterworks Association. t he American Pl!b lic Health Assoc iation, the New England \\'aterworks Association, the Boston Societ y o f Civi l Engineers, the American Society of Mun icipa l l mproyements, the A merican Asso c iation fo r P romoting Hygi ne a nd P ublic Baths. Frat rnally he maintains me mbership with Horicon Lo dge No. 244, . F. and A. M . , of Rochelle, Illiuois; De Kalh Lodge No. 765. B. P. 0. E . , and the college fraternity, Phi Kappa Psi. S ince co ming to Jack o nvillc he has joined t he C ivitan Club a nd other oc ial o rganizations. Ile be longs to the RiYer idc Presbyterian Church . In poli tics he is a democ rat. On October 6, 1917, M r. Si mons married Mario n G race Guest, who was born at Rochelle, Illinois, a nd they hal'C oue daughter, Cliristian Jane. Mr. Simons is a man devoting his talen ts, ene rgies a nd . killed knowl edge to t he pub lic service, and in t his co nnt'ction is accompl ishing a very useful work fo r F lorida and because of it, and his many a dmirable pe rsonal characteristics and his practical ideas, i held in the h ighest esteem by all who know him a nd app reciate the true value of what he is doing. JoHN A . FUTCH. In the business circles of Jack o nville there arc perhaps numerous e xamples of selfmade ma nhood, ye t few worthier of note than that exemplified in the career of John A .

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 51 Futch, secrdary and gcmral manager of the Rhodes-Futch-Collins Furniture Company. Left an orphan when a small chil
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52 HISTORY OF FLORIDA cally circled the globe. He has been connected with some of the largest electrical engineering projects undertaken in America and abroad. Mr. Moffat's personal career is interesting, and he comes of a remarkable family. He was born at New Orleans, December 17, 1883, son of George Duncan and Elise (Blackburn) Moffat. His grandfather, George Duncan Moffat, was a native of Scotland and was five years of age when his parents came to America and settled at New Orleans. In later years the grandfather estab lished a candy factory at New Orleans, a business that was continued through three generations of the family. Elise Blackburn Moffat was born at Beauford, South Carolina, was reared there, and when about fifteen or sixteen years of age went to New Orleans. Her father was Benjamin Blackburn, who had the distinction of establishing the first night school in America at New York City. He was a brother of United States Senator Blackburn. The mother of Elise Blackburn was a Miss Cortez, a direct descendant of the famous Spanish family of explorers .. George Duncan Moffat Sr., was born at Key West, Florida. After the death of grandfather Moffat his widow brought her family to Florida on homesteaded land near Miami, living at Lemon City in pioneer times. George D. Moffat Sr., and his wife were married at New Orleans, where he met her about 188o when she was queen of the :0-lardi Gras spectacle. At that time George D. Moffat, Sr., was Captain of the Continental Guards, a Louisiana regiment. In business he was a manufacturer of candies and a wholesale dealer, conducting the largest establishment in the South. Subsequently he sold out and moved to Chicago, where the family lived for many years. George D. Moffat, Sr., discovered a process ior the manufacture of confections and made nearly a million dollars out of it. The family also spent some time in Florida and made several extensive trips to Europe, the first being when George D. Moffat, of Orlando, was three years of age. Mr. Moffat spent the years of his childhood and received his schooling in Chicago. During the second trip which the family took to Europe, he was placed at the age of eleven in the Temple Grove Boarding School, a famous school estab lished by Queen Elizabeth. He remained there two years and then returned to the United States and at Meriden, Connecticut, attended high school. He also attended high school in Chicago. Later his parents returned to London, and at his father's request the son began his studies for the pro fession of engineering. He spent one year in the Seafield Park Engineering Institute in England, then had a year of private instruction in London, and from there entered the University of Dresden, where he remained until graduating, recei, ing h1~ diploma as an electrical engineer in Follow ing his graduation Mr. Moffat was connected with one of the large electric manufacturing estab lishments of Berlin, and was also employed by the B. F. Sturtevant Co., an engineering firm. He was one of the engineering staff during the construc tion of the London subways and he had charge of a new system of railways at Norwich, England. While at Norwich, on March 1, 1909, he married Miss Mary Amy Riley, a native of Norwich, whose father was bom in Cincinnati and was a Cincinnati brewer. After his marriage Mr. Moffat continued the electrical engineering, and in 1912 his firm sent him as representative to Australia. He spent eight years in the antipodes, and was connected with many large electrical projects on the other side of the globe. Leaviug there he came by way of Honolulu and Vancouver to New York, and for one year maintained an office as consulting engineer in that city. Mr. Moffat came to Florida to take charge of a group of phosphate mines with Nichols as head quarters, and from there removed to Orlando, and at the request of the late Hon. John M. Cheney, owner of the Orlando Water and Light Company, took charge of that property. When Orlando city purchased the plant,. he was asked to become gen eral manager, and 1t has been agreeable to him to continue this work since it makes him a resi dent of Orlando where his father also resides. His mother died in London, . Mr. and Mrs. Moffat have five children. He 1s a Master Mason and Knight of Pythias and a member of the Episcopal Church. ' JOHN SHEPARD BEARD, a native of Florida i s a prominent figure in the third generation of a family that has given able men to the affairs of Florida s_ince early territorial days. Maj. John Beard, his grandfather, was born in Salisbury North C~rolin_a, J _une 14, l 797, was a graduate of Yale Umvers1ty __ m ~817,. and _was distinguished m law and politics m his native state until he removed to Florida in 1838. He was appointed clerk of the United States District Court of East Florida in 1840, and in 1842 became United States marshal for the same district, which office he held until Florida was admitted as a state of the Union in 1845, when, _under the state government, he was elected register of public lands and ex officio, held the office of superintendent of schools. In 1850 he resigned to accept the unani mous nomination of the democratic party as its candidate for Congress, but was defeated by a small .n:iajority in the election, due to his vigorous oppos1t1on to the famous compromise of 1850 particularly the "Wilmot Proviso." He was the~ elected comptroller of the state. He represented Leon County in the secession convention of 1861, and throughout the war was one of the most devoted upholders of the southern cause. Too old at that time to be actively engaged in the army, he was on the military staff of Governor Milton. He was appointed comptroller in 1866 bv Governor Walker, and in that capacity refused to audit the claims for increased pay of the members of the Legislature in 1866. This salary grab measure had been passed over Governor Walker's veto, and Major Beard based his refusal to audit their claims upon the constitutional provision that no increase of compensation should take effect during the term for which members of the Legislature were elected. He was ousted from office in common with all southern office holders hy congressional reconstruction. He died in Tallahassee in 1876. Col. William Kelly Beard, father of John S. Beard, was born in Salisbury, North Carolina, on the 12th day of September, 1830, and came to Florida with his parents when he was eight years old. He was one of the first to volunteer in the cause of 'the Confederacy in 1861. He was elected lieutenant-colonel of the First Florida Regiment at the age of thirty, and subsequently was ap~ pointed adjutant and inspector-general of the Army of Tennessee on the staff of Gen. Braxton Bragg. He was badly wounded at the battle of Shiloh, but refused a furlough, and was re peatedly cited in the reports of General Bragg for distinguished gallantry and efficiency on the battlefield. He was in every great battle of the Army of Tennessee, including Shiloh, Perryville,

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 53 Murfreesboro, Q1ickamauga and Missionary Ridge. He was mustered out of service after the surrender of Generals Lee and Johnson, returned to his home in Tallahassee and lived there until his death in 1882, at the age of fifty-two. Only a short time before his death he had effected a settlement between Florida and the United States of the claims made by the state against the Federal Government for moneys expended by the state in the suppression of Indian hostilities. This settlement resulted in the payment of considerably over one million dollars to the State of Florida, but for this valuable service neither Colonel Beard nor his estate ever received one cent. Col. \Villiam Kelly Beard married in 1858 Lettia Gamble Shepard, a native of Tallahassee, Florida. She was the daughter of Katherine Breckenridge Gamble, who was born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1810, and moved to Florida with her father, Col. Robert Gamble, a distinguished soldier of the War of 1812. Colonel Gamble was born in Virginia in 1782, and moved to Florida in 1824 with his wife, Lettia Breckenridge also of Virginia. Mrs. Beard's father was John' Swann Shepard, a native of N e~v Berne, North Carolina who removed to Florida about 1825. ' John Shepard Beard was born at Tallahassee June 14, 1859, and was too young to ~ave any distinct recollections of the war period. He attended school at Tallahassee and then entered the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee. He read law in the office of the late Judge R. B. Hilton of Tallahassee, was adr(litted to the bar just after attaining his majo_rity in 188?, and in the same year began the practice of law m Tallahassee. In 1891 he moved to Pensacola, where he has had his home and his law offices for over thirty years. Mr. Beard was an ardent advocate of the restoration of silver in 1896. He was chosen in 18g5 by the West Florida Silver League as a delegate to attend th~ conference of eminent national leaders at Washmgton, and was a member of a committee which formulated the plan of organization and enunciation of principles that became the dominant part of the democratic platform of 18g6. Mr. Beard delivered a speech of welcome to william J. Bryan at Pensacola in 18g8; and in 1900 was a candidate for and elected presidential elector, at _ la~ge,. and in the campaign of 1901, at t!1e mv1tatton a~d under. the auspices of the National Democratic Committee, made many speeches through Ohio, West Virginia and Illinois. He and Mr. Bryan were the only speakers at the opening of the campaign at Columbus, Ohio, before an audience of over thirty thousand people. Mr. Beard was a delegate at large to the National Conventi?n at St. Louis in and during the followmg campaign and under the auspices of the National Democratic Committee, made a sp!!aking tour through the states of Ohio, Indiana, New York and Delaware. Mr. Beard was elected state senator of Escambia County in 1900, and in 1go8 was a candidate for the United States Senate, being defeated by the present Senator, D. U. Fletcher. His most notable effort in the State Senate was his attempt to amend the constitution of Florida so as to limit the franchise to the white males of and over the age of twenty-one vears, adopting the straightforward method of disfranchising the negro, because of being a negro, and not through a roundabout and arbitrary device. His object was to test the validity of the so called Fifteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. His resolution proposing this amendment lo the state's constitution passed the Senate by more than the necessary three tifths majority, but was defeated in the House. Again in l909 Mr. Beard introduced the same resolution in the Senate, when it met with the same fate, passing the Senate by more than the necessary three-fifths majority but again defeated in the House. Mr. Beard made a speech in 1901 at the re-union of the Florida Brigade of Confederate Veterans, and so satisfied were the Confederate Veterans with his exposition of the rights of the South that they had printed five thousand pamphlets of the speech; the first and only time that such a thing has been done in the history of the Confederate Veterans of Florida. In 18gJ Mr. Beard married Miss Genevieve Sullivant, daughter of M . L. and Fanny (Willes) Sullivant. Mrs. Beard's grandfather, Lucas Sullivant, was the founder of Columbus, Ohio. Her father, M. L. Sullivant, was reputed to be the largest land owner in the country, cultivating over 40,000 acres. This immense plantation was in Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Beard are the parents of five children. William Kelly, the eldest, graduated from the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in J914. He was commissioned a Lieutenant in the navy in 1917, at the age of twenty-five, and during the entire late war was in command of a destroyer. The second son, John Shepard, Jr., died in infancy. Their only daughter, Fanny Sullivant, is the wife of Nathan B. Chase, a lieutenant-commander in the navy, and they have a daughter, Suzanne Sullivant, and a son, Nathan B., Junior. Mr. Beard's other children are twins, Jefferson Davis Beard and Francis Willes Beard, both of whom are graduates of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. Francis Willes, of the class of 1920, is a lieutenant in the navy, and Jefferson Davis, of the class of 1921, is an en sign in the navy. It is a most unusual and unique distinction that all of Mr. and Mrs. Beard's children are connected with the United States Navy, three sons being officers in the navy and graduates of the Naval Academy, and their only daughter married to a lieutenant-commander, also a graduate of the Naval Academy, of the class of 19J2. The Beards have always been uncompromising democrats. Major John Beard was a follower of John C. Calhoun, and an ardent advocate of the doctrine of Nullification in the early thirties. He advised secession in 1850, saying that it was inevitable, and that as the North was increasing in wealth and popnlation more rapidly than the South, the longer it was postponed the more doubtful the result, and if defeated the South would have to submit to free negro equality. Mr. Beard has one brother, William K. Beard, now residing in Germantown, Pennsylvania, and two sisters, Mrs. M. C. Roach, of New York, and Mrs. J. C. Earnshaw, of Germantown, Pennsylvania. They were all born in Tallahassee, Florida, where they lived until grown to manhood and womanhood. John S . Beard is the eldest. JouN S. FREDERICK. Among the pioneer citi zens to whom the modern city of Miami is permanently indebted was the late John S. Frederick, one of the three engineers who laid out the town when the railroad was first built through. He was an engineer of distinction not only in South Florida, but elsewhere, and one of Miami's real builders. A native of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was

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5 4 HISTORY OF FLORIDA liberally educated a nd was a graduate both i n e ngineering and i n the law. For a number of yea rs he p racticed law in Baltimore, but o n ac c ount. of fa iling health he was adv ised by his ph ysician lo come So uth. Ile t hen turned t.o t he e ngineering profrssion, an d was put in charge of the reopening a nd o peration o f the fa mous E tawah Iron Uines i n Northwest Geo rgia, near Ca rtersville, famous for producing t.he purest. iron ore i n the worl d. These m ines have a n h istoric intcrrst from the fact that a ll the cannon a nd heavy o rdnance used in the Confederate a rmies we re ma de fro m iron prod uced there. i\ rte r his se n ice at the iro n mines Mr. F rederick rt mo , cd lo F lorida, was located in the phosp hate m ining country o n the \Vest Coast fo r so me t ime, an d in 1895 1110, ed to the East Coast , locating at Coco nut Gro,e. The F l ori da East Coas t Railway was then in co urse of const ruction from Palm Beach toward . \ I iami. Mr. Henry Flagler, b uilder of the rail ro ad, a nd :Ur. T uttle, o ne of the principal land qwne rs at 11 iami, engaged Mr. Frederick with 1 wo o t her engi neers to lay out the new to wn. l l e was a ctively assoc iated w ith this work, co m pleled in 18cJ6. the year the railroad was brought l o " Miami. l •o l l owing that fo r so me years Mr. Frederick e ngaged in the ge neral engineering business both in Miami an d a t othe r points at. So uth Florida. \Vhile engage d o n an engineeri n g pro iecl near Fort P ierce he was t aken fa tally ill a nd died t here in February, 19ro. \t L' tica. Kew York, John S. Frederick married AntoinC'lle E. Gazzam. S he loo was born i n Pittsburgh, but was reared in U tica, New York. and was a daughter of Ge neral udley ancl l\fary (Van Deusan) Gazzam . Her father was a n ar1111 o fficer. Mrs. F rederick lived in 11 iami for 111any yea rs. She was a b rilliant woman, a nd was prominent i n clu b a nd ch urch work. S he served as pres ident of the Housekeepers' C lub at Coco nut Grove t wo terms, was pre! : ident of the l\1"iami \\'oman's C lub fo r s ix yea rs, from 1()03 to 190(), was a past president o f the F lorida Federation of \Vomen' C l ubs. , ind for ma ny yea rs was librarian of the Miami Public T . ihra1y. She fina lly ga ve up that work a nd went to l ive w ith her sons at Moore Haven, a nd s bc died while v isiting a daughter in Dayto na. in J une 1922. She is s urvived hy s ix children: E. S. Frederick, of ]lfiami: Thomas E . . i\ud le., and Jack Frederick, of l\Ioore Haven; Mrs. Florence W iggington, of Moore Haven; a nd ).f rs. Hal Brady, of Daytona. E. S . Freclerick is a lso wi delv k nown in South Florida for his p rominence ii1 t he e ngineering profess ion. a nd for severa l vea rs was asso ciated 11 ith hi, father in e ngineering p ractice. A nat ive of Ba ltimore, he was c ducatecl as an engi"""r. ancl became asso ciated w ith his father at ).f iami the first year of the town's history. He was ma de the first c ity engineer o f M iami. and ,ervecl in that ca pacity fourteen ye ars. Since leaving that office he has bee n e ngaged i n ge neral <'nginecring and cont racting. He is now the ,,,, neral superintendent fo r the Maule Paving Cn mpanv, operating ex tensive contracting work. Mr. Frederick is a member o f the American <\ s ociat ion o f Engineers a nd t he Florida State E ngineers Society. During the vVorld war he was e mployed as co nstruction engineer on t.he r a val Av iation Station a t Ke v \Vest, the Na v al \\';ation Station at Dinner Kev, near Miami, ; ind t he p-rral dirigible hangar tliat was b uilt at La kC'hurst, N<'w Jersey, 1\1 r. Fn:rleric-k. married Miss Birdie Goodso n, daughter of A. J. and Charlotte (Pardue) Goodson. Her parents ca me from South Caro lina and were p ioneer settle rs in Putnam oun ty, F lorida, locating there in 1865. Pu11. J. DAVIS. ,\s a general contractor, de s igner and b uilder P hil J. Davis has probably handled t he largest amount of dis tinctive and important work in the b uilding program of l\Jiami within the last three years. His record ;peaks fo r itself a ud offe rs remarkable evidence of his honest se rvice, the efficiency he has p ut i ntu his o rganization, and t he thoroughness and Sl)L',•d \ \ ith which he han dles every contract, both large an d s mall. He has had more tha n a score of years of ex perience. i n the bui lding ind ustry. a nd he b rings to his c lients the technical skill of an architect as we ll as the mo tive power of the building contractor . . Mr. Davis was born and reared in New York City, a nd in his e ducation he specia lized in drafting. As a yo uth he beca me an emp loye of a la rge New York construction concern, and for a time was a construction superv isor the re. For nearly five years Mr. Davis was located at Montreal, Ca nada, where he put up t.wo handsome theatres an d co mpleted a to tal of b uilding to the value of over $5 ,000,000. T hen for two and o ne half yea r he was again in New York, and i n that c it)' erected se veral la rge apartment ho uses. During the \\' oriel wa r 1fr. Davis was in the e mploy of the J. G. \Vhite Engineering Corpora tion as secon d in charge of the $13,500,000 power ho use b uilt for the Government in con nection w ith the $roo ,ooo,ooo construction enterprise i 1wohed i n t he itrate manufacturing proj eel at Muscle Shoals. He \ \ as on d u!) there as assistant superintendent of const ruction fo r about e ighteen months, and the \\'ar Depart ment gave him its official certificate of commenclat.ion for his efficiency and patriotism. In July, 19 19, 1\fr. Davis came lo M iami, and s ince then has developed a n organization ca pable of doing the i mmense work required in the phe nomenal deve lopment of this c ity. IIe started here practically a lone, and now has an organiza t ion wit.h a wee kly pay roll of about $ 10,000. His first b uilding was the Afremow Bloc k in Buena Vista. S ince the n he has erecte d O\'er three sco re commercia l bu ildings and' reside nces, and his business a t M iami during 192r amounted lo over $ r ,500,000. Two b uildings, each a landmark i n Miami's co mmercial d istrict co mpleted in r922, a re the handsome bu ildings of the l\roore Furniture ompan) a nd the Fairfax Theater. The Moore Building was co mpleted i n ninety working days. a nd the Fairfa, Theatrr i n seventy two days. Mr. Da\ is has personally designed a number of the b uildings he has erected in Miami, and the sec ret of his efficiency and economical handling of contracts is due to his personal a ttention lo every detai l of his business. Ile has a large organization, practica lly in three departme nts, o ne fo r residence, one for jobbing and one for the larger class of commercial structures. Among the many hig h class resi dences and com mercial structures credited to l\Ir. Davis in the Miami District arc the Moore Furni ture Company structure. Fairfax Theater, Granada Apartment, C layton B uilding, Buena V ista Post Office, Claremont Apartments, F. J. M arion res idence, Bradford Hotel, _Helene Hotel, Marlborough Hotel, Studebaker B uilding. St. Regis Apartments. se,en residences in Go ld Cou rt, Ca clillac B11ilcling. five reside nces in Brvan Park, sr,en resiclenc-es in niltn1orr, Di,ir Tea

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HISTORY OF FLORlDA 55 House, the fremow Block, Buena ista, the A fremow-Randel stores at Uiami Beach. Mr. Davis has become an enthusiastic factor in th cit i zenship of i\[ iami, is a member of t h e city' . harnh r of Commerce a n d l(iwani s C lu b and is a thirty-sl'concl cll'gree : oltish Ri te i\[ ason and Shriner ancl an E lk . J J e married i\l i ss Sadie B. 1'1acl-dl'r, of Nl'w York. and t heir home is at 323 1 I ortheasl Twl'nty. n ('11th treet, o l d Goldcou r t. D. E. O'HARA, w h o has devoted p r actically all his lifetim to the dredging business, has d u ri n g t h e past decade cen t red his op ration o n t h e Flo1ida Coast, a nd has bee n the actiYe e,ec utive in harg of some of the larg sl and mo. t important d r edgi n g operations in and around i\1 iam i a n d Pal m Beach. 1:--Iis home is \Vest Palm Beach. i\fr. O'Hara was born in the P rO\ ince of Onta 1 io, anada. H e was reared and educated in the r orthwest, and al the age of e ighteen began learni n g the dredging business al Dul u th , Minn esota. H e has been in t h e sa m e lin e ever sin ce. F r everal year h e was associat cl with so m e of the large t co ncerns op rating o n the Great Lakes from Dulu th to Buffalo. n co m i n g to o utheast Florida i n 1912, D. E. O'Hara turned his wide experien e a n d tech ni cal resou r ces to handling the various projects at Palm Beach, \ Vest Pal m Beac h and other places a l o n g t h e Southea t Coast. Ile i now associated wi t h the \Val deck-Deal D 1edging Compa ny. This is one of t he la r ge t dredgin g co n cerns in t h e Sou th, with headquarter s al i\[ iami. T h e i m med iate jurisdiction of D. E. O'Hara are the operations at \Vest Palm B ach and vici n ity. I t was D. E. O'Hara who o p e rated the first dredge in t h e cons truct ion of the P alm B eac h cana l , exten d i ng from \V e l Pal m Beac h to Lak e O k eec h obee. :\Ir . 0' Hara has e ntered ac t i\' ly into th e civic and socia l affairs of this sec tion of Florida. lle i a member of the Cha mber of ommer ce of \Vest P a l m B ach, and h e and J\lrs. O'H a r a ha, e a bea utiful horn on F la m ingo Drive. Mn,. O'Har a was formerly F lore11c Swa\'erly. Thei r three chi ldren a r e H e l e n Dawn , Edward Pcrshi11g a n d i\largaret 1 l ay. .\PT. F 1 om . \L. \\'Hnz. Tht pract icabili t y of raising bed attic in South f''lorid a has b en thorou gh l y de monstrated hy Capt. Fred 1 L \\'ertz of Fo r t Laudl'rclale. l lc dese r ves d i stincti on as a p:o n ee r in this l ine, a n d has se t a n exampl e which undoubted!) \I ill he largel y fo l lowecl by o ther, a n d will I ri n g i nt o use Yast t racts of native pa,tu rc l a n d hi therto wit h o u t va lue. Captain \\" c>rtz, who is an ex-scn ice man and is also in the real es t a t e business at F o r t L a uderdale, \\'a, horn in ,\lcrcer 'ounty, l)cnnsyl vania. He acquired a good education , parti ularl y alo n g techn i ca l l ines. For several years he was on nected with the tee! industry at Pittsburgh, b ecoming a practical steel fou11d r yman. From Pitbburgh he went lo Newark, cw Jer ey, as .'uperintendenl in th Benjami n Ath a p lant of that city, and from t hat removed to New Haven and wa manager in a munition manufact u r ing plant. 0011 after merica enter d the war with Germany he wa called lo dut y and a sig n ed at \ Vash inglon in service as an expert on steel casting.. He remained at vVashington throughout the war, and was commis ioned captain in the Ordnance Departm nt. 0011 after hi. discharge aplain W rtz cam e to outh F lorida, in 1919. l that time h made the beginning of his cattle raising industry in the Lake 0 1 eechobee section, in t he western part of Pal m Beach ounty. Here h e has a large farm , growi ng, breed ing and fallening beef ca ttl e. V'l'h ilc a nu mber of he r d of dairy cattl e fed w i th shipped i n feeds for co mm ercial milk producin g purposes have been bu ilt up in So uth Florida, i\[r. \Vertz was essent i ally the first to e ngage in b u siness on a com m ercia l sca l e of ra i sing beef cattl e o n n a ti , e pasloragc and falle n i ngt h e m for th mark t wi t h h o m e grown feed . S t ock m en in gener a l a n d m any exper ts con n ec t ed with a n i ma l h u bandry l oo k upon the enterpr ise of Captain \\' c r tz as t h e co rner ston e of a n essential an d I c r y beneficial industry fo r Son l h Flori d a . The fa rm a n d ranch of 'aptain \ Ver t z cons i sts of 52n acres, anJ is advan tageo11s l y localed on the H i l lsboro Canal. Under h i managemen t t h e land i s be ing thoroughly clcve lopc-d. F o r addition a l pasturage he a l so controls about 1,000 adj a ce n t acr . Captain \ Vcrtz's home and b u si n ess headquarters arc at Fort L a u de r dale, wher e h e carr ies on a ucccssful real estate busi n ss. Ile i a member o f the Chambe r of cmme r ce and is comm an d e r of the l oca l p os t of the American Legion. J l e married M a rth a Gilmore, of P i ttsbu r gh, daughter of the late J a m es Gilmore. Her father w as bo rn i n that cit) in 1831 a n d for a number of yea r s wa:, a p romi n e n t man the r e. T h e o l d Gilmore home was in t he hea r t of what is now Pi t tsburg h' s bw,iness center. L L uus : \1.BFRT ]ONES. O n e of the veteran auto m obile men of o uthern F l o r ida, L. A. Jone~ is a l so o n e of th ' o l de r c i t i zens of i\Iiami, w h ich c i ty has been his home a n d t he scene of h i s acti\'i ti cs for m o r e than t wen t y years. Throughout th a t t ime he h as kept himsc l f i n close to u ch with t h e growth a n d progr ess of the com-111u11itY. :\[r." J ones was horn at Eden ton al Putnam County, Geo r gia. in 1882, a n d s pent his e a rly l i fe on t he fa rm. [ l e w as e ighteen yea r s of age when he came t o 1[ia m i in 1()00, and for a time he w as a cle r k i n the P a l m Pharm acy. Beginn ing in 190-1, he was in the c lothing bu s i ness with the .'\n t h onyJ fom f h Com p a n y al i\fia mi, an d in p r e p a rati on for his career as a n a u to m ob i le m an he l ea rn ed the mecha n ica l s i de and acqui r ed a comp lete knowledge o f the tec h n i ca l working of a n autom ob i le and the detai l s of t he autom otive ind u strv. l 11 1 9 1 2 h e establis h e d h i mse l f in th a utomobile busi ncs, i n partner h i p w i t h \\' . \\" . Charle,, un de r th e fir m na m e of Charl es & Jones. This fir m ha nd l e t h e Cadillac car, a n d they o p e ned th e first auto m ob i l e sa l es r oom in 1 \ , J i ami, thus becoming th pionee r s i n th e m o d e rn au t o mobile ~ales bu siness oi the i ty. In 1 0 1 5, soon after t h e new Dodge car h ad been perfected and p ut on the market by t h e Dodge Brothers of D e t roit, Mr. Jon e wa awarded the i\liam i agency for t h i s famou s car, a n d has continued to carry on the b u sinc s w i th increa ing success each year. His b u siness h as i n fact been a n i ndex of the remarkab l e g rowt h a n d exp a n sio n of the city itself. A building a r r anged especia l ly for the p urpose has been e r ctcd as the sa l e and service station of the Dodge motor cars in Miam i at t h e northwest corner of Fir t treet and First venue, o rthwest. The main building is 50 by r feet, and on the second floor t h e firm has space 90 by 100 f eet. Every feature of the busin ss, sales, part , repai rs, service, i being carri d out according to

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56 HISTORY OF FLORIDA the high slan
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 57 capacities making an enviable record for faithful performance of duty and utter fearlessness in upholding the law and maintaining order. For some years he has been an active member of the Palm Beach County Real Estate Board. Mr. Whidden married Florence Gillespie, who was born in Florida, and they have four children, Ernest, Donald, Veda and Russell. \,Vhile Mr. Whidden works hard, bringing to bear upon his business the weight of habits of industry early formed, he enjoys each day's tasks, for his heart is in his business, and he is thoroughly convinced of the remarkable value of what he is selling. Having seen such phenomenal developments within his own experience he knows what to expect in the future, and is pround of the fact that he is permitted to take so important a part in making them inevitable and certain. THOllfAS H. JOHNSON, the efficient tax assessor of the City of Pensacola, was born in New York City, on the 9th of September, 1862. llis father, Thomas Johnson, a native of Denmark, came to the United States in the early '40s but thereafter continued his association with seafaring activities, with which he became identified in his youth. He finally embarked on a freight vessel carrying lumber to Panama, and although the vessel arrived at its destination he was never again heard from by the members of his fami l y, his actual fate having never been learned. The subject of this sketch was the third in a family of seven children, and he gained his early education in the parochial and public schools of Pensacola, where the family home was established when he was a child. At the age of twelve years he entered service as clerk in a mercantile estab lishment in this city, and at the age of eighteen years he began an apprenticeship to the trade of job printer. Later he became a stevedore at this port, and he gained a most thorough knowledge of navigation interests as represented in this special field of activity. He long continued his connection with the stevedore enterprise, and in l
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 59 matter of determination by lot. He thus became an associate justice of this tribunal, and in this iapacity he continued his service until 1891. He was affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and was an earnest communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church. His first wife, whose maiden name was Sarah L. Brockenbrough, was born at Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1823, and died at Tallahassee, Florida, in 1848. Of the children of this union the eldest was Lucy, who became the wife of Rev. Everard Meade, a clergy man of the Protestant Episcopal O,urch, both being now deceased. Elizabeth, who died at Chipley, Florida, in 188g, was the wife of Francis C. Wil son, M. D., whose death there occurred in 1921. Simeon died on his p l antation near Bovina, :Mississippi, in 1907. For his second wife Judge Maxwell wedded Miss Julia Hawks Anderson, who was born in North Carolina, in 1828, and whose death occurred at Pensacola, Florida, in 1886. Rosa Cameron, first-born of the children of this union, died at the age of five years, and Anna, the next younger, died in infancy. Walker Anderrnn, the eldest son, was born in x86o and was office manager of the M. L. Dekle plantations near Marianna, Florida, at the time of his death in 19()8. Judge Evelyn C., of this review, was the next in order of birth. John Edward until recently was operating a well improved planta tion near Seale, Alabama, but is now living in Columbus, Georgia. Judge Evelyn C. Maxwell was afforded the advantages of the public schools of Pensacola, as well as those of well ordered private schools, and in 1882 he graduated from the University of Nashville, Tennessee, with the degree of Licenti ate of Instruction. Thereafter he taught one year in the public schools of Pensacola and a similar period in those at Bagda. In the mean while he had carried forward his study of the law, and in 1885 he was admitted to the Florida bar. During the intervening years he has built up a large and representative law practice at Pensacola, where he maintains his offices at 6o8-9-JO-II Blount Building. He has been active and influential in the councils and campaign ser vice of the democratic party, and has served in important offices in the direct line of his profession. He was judge of the Criminal Court of Records of Escambia County from February, 1892, until November, 1896. He presided on the bench of the Circuit Court of the First .District of the state from November, 1896, to Septem ber, 1901, Thereafter he was commissioner of the F l orida Supreme Court from September 1, 1901, to December 1st of the following year, when he assumed office as associate justice of the Supreme Court. He continued his able service in this capacity until February 15, 1904, when he resigned in order to give his attention to his large private law business, which placed exacting de mands upon him. The Judge is a member of the American Bar Association, the Florida State Bar Association and the Pensacola Bar Association. He was active and influential in local patriotic service in the World war period, was a member of the Legal Advisory Board of the National Council of Defense for Escambia County, and gave much time to helping recruited men to fill out their questionnaires. The Judge is an earnest communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church, as is also his wife, who was born in Alabama, a daughter of Joseph Presley Thornton and Laura (Hyer) Thornton, the former of whom died in 1869 at Greenville, Alabama, where he was a cotton merchant, and the latter of whom died at Pensacola, Florida, in 1914. Judge and Mrs. Maxwell have two children: Evelyn Cameron is the wife of Robert Lowry Biggers, now a resi dent of Detroit, Michigan, where he is identified with the automobile-truck business. Their marriage occurred March 5, 1918; Judith Lee, the younger daughter, remains at the parental home. She is a graduate of the celebrated Warrenton Country School for Girls at Warrenton, Virginia. ALMON CARLISLE BINKLEY has been for more than thirty years engaged in the practice of law, principally in the City of Pensacola, where he has well fortified status as one of the representative members of the bar of this section of the state. He is a scion of a family that was founded in America in the early Colonial period, and his paternal great-grandfather, Jacob Bink l ey, a native of Pennsylvania, was a patriot soldier in the War of the Revolution, after the close of which he removed to Ohio and became a pioneer farmer in Clermont County. He there established his home in the year 18IJ, and there he continued his residence until his death. The first of the Binkley family in America immigrated to this country from Germany and settled in Pennsyl vania, the original form of the patronymic hav ing been von Binkle. Christian Binkley, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was born at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in 1795, and was a boy at the time of the family removal to Clermont County, Ohio, where he was reared under the conditions and influences of the frontier period in the history of that commonwealth and where he gave his active life to agricultural in dustry, his death having occurred in that county in 1887. In the civil war period he served as a member of the Home Guard, or local militia. His wife, who died in 1870, was born in North Caro lina, in x8oo, her maiden name having been Josephine Caudle. Almon C. Binkley was born in Clermont County, Ohio, on the 19th of August, 186-1. and is a son of Lewis C. and Lucy (Simonds) Bink ley, the former of whom was born in that county in the year 1829 and the latter of whom was born at Crown Point, New York, in 1831, her death having occurred in July, 1872, and her husband having thereafter continued his residence in his native county until his death, in November, 1894. Lewis C. Binkley graduated from Rochester Col lege, Ohio, but was content to give his active career to farm industry in his native county, where he became specially successful in the rais ing of Shorthorn Durham cattle and Poland China swine, he having been a pioneer in the raising of these fine types of livestock in that county. Ile was a democrat in politics, was in fluential in public affairs in his county and was called upon to serve in various township offices. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows more than forty years prior to his death. Of the children the eldest is Clarence C., a progressive farmer near the city of Spokane, Washington; Myra is the wife of George E. Alt man, of Cincinnati, Ohio; Henry M. owns and conducts an automobile garage in the City of Denver, Colorado, and is the owner of a fruit farm near that city; Almon C., of this sketch, was the next in order of birth; Thomas Elbert is a resident of Hamilton, Ohio; Lucy is the wife of Charles E. Wittmar, a farmer in Clermont County, Ohio. The preliminary education of Almon C. Bink ley was acquired in the district schools of his native county, and he early gained practical ex-

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60 HISTORY OF FLORIDA pcrie11cc in conncctio11 \I ith the work of the home farm. For two ) ears he was a student in a sem inary at Goshen, Ol1i(1, and thereafter he took ~cient ilic an d classica l courses in the National N' ormal Unive rsity at Lebanon, that state. He next became a student in the National Pen Art Hall and Bus iness College at Oberlin, Ohio, a nd after leaving this i nstitution, in 1884, he was for o ne year an instructor i n the Emporia Business Co llege a t Emporia, Kansas. He t hen ca me to Florida and for two and one-half years was a s uccessful teache r in the schools of Santa Rosa County. In the mean while he had applied himself c losely to the study of law, and in r890 he was ad mitted to the Florida bar at Pensacola, in w hich ci ty he has since con tinued in the active an d successfu l practice of his p rofession except fo r the inte rim between August, 1893, and January, 1896, during wh ich he was in p ractice in the City of Cincinnati, O hio, a nd the further interval from May, 1900, to 11.fay, 19q, when he was si milarly engaged i n the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. His law offices in Pensacola a re estab lished at 713 Blount Building , and he is now attorney for the Federal Land Bank of the T hird District of the United States. He is a lso loca l representative of George M . Forman & Com p any, fa rm loa n bankers in the City of Chicago, fo r whic h concern he has developed a la rge busi ness in Escambia County, a nd surrounding counties in F lorida a nd A labama. He has specialized in real estate law, pa rticularly i n t he examining of abst racts and the perfecti ng of titles. He is a democrat in political allegia nce, and he and his wife are earnest members of the C hristian Science C hurch, in w hich he has serve d as first reader. He is a past g rand master o f Pensaco la Lodge No . 4, I. 0. 0. F., a nd also a pas t g rand master of the F lorida Grand Lodge of this fraternal order. He is an active membe r o f the Pensaco la Cha mber of Comme rce and the Pensacola Yacht C lub. Mr. B inkley is the owner of va luable real estate i n Pensacola. incl uding bis attractive home p rop e rty, an d he ow ns real es tate a lso in Okaloosa r:otmty, t his state, and O1ippewa Cou nty, Michi gan. In forme r years he held valuable rea l estate interests i n A labama, Kansas, Ohio and Indiana. January 20, 18g2, reco rded the marriage of M r. Bin kley and Miss Hattie I. Moo re, daughter of the late William a nd Gertrude (Roseboom) Moore. of Cinc innati, Ohio, whe re the father was a s uccessful contractor and bu ilder. Mr. a nd Mrs. B inkley have two children: Faith, w ho is now stenographer and typewriter a t t he United States nav al air station a t Pensacola, graduated from the Shortridge H igh Schoo l and t he Teache rs College , both of Indianapolis, Indiana, and s he has taught successfu lly i n the schools of that city and a lso those of Pensaco la. G ail, a graduate of the Pensacola High School, is associate editor of the Polk County Record a t Bartow, F lorida. She is an ex-president of t he South Florida Press Association, an d is now third vice president of the F lorida State Press Ass ociation. DANIEL WEBSTER BERRY is one of the prominent a nd successfu l younger membe rs of the bar of the City of Pensaco la, and his p restige in his profession has bee n won by loyat and well ordereq effor t, he having a lso de pended upon his own reso urces i n p reparing himself for the exacting voc ation of his cho ice. Mr. Berry was born at Pensacola, September r2, r896, and his standing in the community places at naught any app lication of t he scriptu ral statement that "a prophet i s not without honor save in his own country." His father, \Villiam J. TTt>rry, of this city, was born at Selma, IJalla .1 Coun ty, A labama, September 17, r8.t9, a son of Alfred Berry, who likewise was born in that state, where he became a prosperous planter and slaveholde r prior to the Civi l war, in which con flict he served as a loyal so ldier of the Confed e racy, he hav ing been a resident of Pensacola, F lorida, at the t ime of his death, in 1883. His son, William J., is now the only survivor of the family of four sons and one daughter. In his native county William J. Berry was reared to the age of fifteen years, and he then became a youthful pioneer in the Lone Star State, whe re he served as a membe r of the old time Texas Rangers and where also he becaml:! ,1 ranch operator. He finally came to F lorida, and iu 1879 he engaged in the sawmill business at Pensacola. He later beca me a lumber dealer ancl fina lly a b rick manufacturer in this city, and at the present time (1922) he is here engaged in the mini ng and sale of gravel and sand. He is a democrat, a nd he and his wife are zealous members of the First Christian Church at Pensa co la. M r. Berry married M rs. Pauline E lizabeth (Pfeiffer) Rauscher, who was born at Pensaco la, August 17, 1856. Of the eight children of t his union the subject of this sketch is the young est. Eva is the wife of Thomas W. Brown, a railroad man, and they reside at Atlanta, Georgia . Leo la, who remains a t the parental home, is bookkeeper for the Morgan Thorsen Transfer Company . George A. is manager of the gravel pit operated by his father at Berrylun, Alabama, he having been i n the nation's military service, at camps in South Carolina, during one year of the World wa r period, and having been made top sergeant in an in fan try regiment. Mamie is the wife of \Yalt,, n )darkey, engaged in the who lesale groce ry hus iness at Orlando, Florida. William Randall resides at Grand Rapids, Michi gan, a nd i~ a traveling commercial salesman. Nannie is the wife of Fletcher Crenshaw, of Atlanta, Georgia, her husband being in railroad se rvice. A loysius, who resides at Pensacola, is an electrica l we lder by vocation, and is married. D aniel W. Berry attended the public schools of Pensacola, and in the night schoo l conducted by Professor Tyler he here obtained the equiva lent of a high schoo l training, besides which he learned stenography and typewriting. As a boy of eleven years he determined to prepare himself fo r the legal profession, and began study along t his line. At the age of fifteen years he entered the law office of the late Judge John C. Avery, and there he continued to give his attention to cle rical se rvice and to the careful study of law until he had so fortified himself as to gain adm ission to the bar, October 19, 1917, when twenty-one yea rs of age. He engaged in practice, but ~oon abandoned the same lo respond to t he c all of patriotism when the nation became involved in the World war. In August, 1918. he went to Camp Jackson at Columbia, South Ca rolina, whe re he was assigned to the light artillery service. There he was a victim of the great influenza epidemic of that year, and came near to the point of death. His honorable dis charge w as granted in December, 1918, about one month after the a rmistice brought the war to a close. He then returned to Pensacola. where he has since been s uccessfully engaged in the practice of his profession, with offices at 300 Thiesen Building. He is a member of the Pensacola Bar Association, and is loyally aligned in the

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HlSTOR Y OF FLOR.lDA 61 ranks of the democratic party. Ile beceame a candidate for the office of county judge of Escambia County, Florida, in 1922, being one of five contestants for that responsible position. .May 17, 1918, recorded the marriage of Mr. Berry and :Miss Eyela Era Ingram, daughter of Capt. John B. and Eva ( Henderson) Ingram, both of whom are deceased, Captain Ingram hav ing been a steamboat captain out from the Port of Pensacola. .Mr. and Mrs. Berry have a fine little son, John Ingram, born February 27, 1920. \\'u.LL\M D. NoBLES, M. D., who is established in the ,uccessful practice of his profession in the City of Pensacola and who ha, gained specially high reputation as a surgeon, is one of the repreentative members of his profession in his native couuty, his birth having occurred on the family home,tead near Pensacola, in Escambia County, on the 7th of April, 188o. His paternal grandfather, William obles, was born and reared in South Carolina and there passed the major part of l1is life, in the earlier stages of his active career having been a successful teacher in the schools of his native state. Ile passed the closing years of his life at Pensacola, Florida, where he rlierl in 1857. Robert E. Nobles, father of him whose nan,P. initiatrs this reYiew, likewise is a native of Escambia County, where he was born July 5, 18-17, and where he continued his residence. He was long and successfully identified with the millingbusiness and with lumbering operations in this section of the state, and from 1918 he lived virtually retired in the City of Pensacola until his death, July 4, 1922. Both he and his wife were 7Calous members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and in politics he never wavered in his allegiance to the democratic party. 11rs. Nobles, whose maiden name was Cornelia Roberts, was born in Monroe County, Alabama, in 1856. Of their children the eldest is Lawrence E., a leading clothing merchant in Pensacola; Lemuel A. is now engaged in the dairy business, with residence and headquarters at Pensacola; ~l iss Eva remains at the parental home; Dr. Nobles, of this sketch, was the next in order of birth; Dr. V elpean R., a graduate of the medical department of Emory University at Atlanta, Ccorgia, is engaged in the active practice of his profession at Pensacola; Dr. L. Clinton was graduated from the Atlanta Dental College and is now engaged in the practice of his profe sion at Pensacola; Dr. P. Elmo, likewise a graduate of the same dental college, is engaged in practice at Pensacola, he having enlisted in the Dental Corps of the United States Army at the time of the \\'orld war and having served as a Dental Rc,erve at Atlanta, Georgia; Dr. Clifton C. like wise graduated from the Atlanta Dental College ancl is enga~cd in practice at Pensacola, his war service having been virtually the same as that of his next older brother; Lucile and Lena remain al the 1>arental home. In the public schools of Escambia County Dr. William D. Nobles continued his studies until he had duly profited by the advantages of the county high school, and in preparation for the work of his exacting profession he entered the medical department of Emory University, in which institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1907 and with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He has since been engaged in practice at Pensacola, and is specializing in the surgical branch of his profession, his offices being at 300-304 Blount Building. He has served continuously since 1912 as city physician and health officer of Pensacola, and he is serving also as a Government surgeon, under the prov1s1ons of the United States Employes Compen:,atiun Commission Act. Ile was a member of the Florida State Board of Medical Examiners from 1917 to 1921, and he is a local surgeon for the M. S. B. & P. Railroad. The doctor maintains active affiliation with the Escambia County Medi cal Society, the Florida State Medical Society, the Society of Railroad Surgeons and the American Medical Association. He is a democrat in politics, and he and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. His fundamental .Masonic affiliation is with Escambia Lodge No. 15, A. F. and A. M., and in the Scottish Rite he has received the thirty-second degree as a member of Pensacola Consistory No. 3. At Jacksonville he is enrolled a3 a Noble of Morocco Temple of the Mystic Shrine; at Pensacola he is a member of Zelico Grotto No. 6o, and he is affiliated also with the Woodmen of the \1/ oriel and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. The doctor owns and occupies a modern residence at the corner of Eleventh Avenue and Gonzales Street, and he is the owner also of several other residence properties in his home city. At Sylvester, Georgia, on the 18th of Novem ber, 1915, Doctor Nobles wedded Miss Claude Crockett, daughter of Martin John Crockett, M. D., and Sallie (Hill) Crockett, both now deceased, Dr. Crockett having been a leading physician and surgeon in \Vorth County, Georgia. Dr. and Mrs. Nobles have two children: \Villiarn Daniel, Jr., born February 17, 1919, and Jane Cornelia, born April 8. rn21. JosEPH E. BENDER. A successful business man in the North for many years, Joseph E. Bender came to South Florida largely for rest and recrea tion, but soon became attracted by the unusual opportunities at West Palm Beach and is now a fixture and an enterprising factor in the business Ii fe of that city, where he is president of the Anarctic Ice Company. Mr. Bender is a native of Starke County, Indiana, grew up on a farm, had a country school education, and left the farm when still a hoy to get into the practical details of business. At the age of seventeen he located at Centerville, \Vayne County, Indiana, and was engaged in the meat business there, later in the laundry business at Cambridge in the same county, and for eleven years was handling a profitabe business at Rich mond, Indiana. At Richmond he had control of the ice cream products of the Wayne Ice Com pany, distributing this under his individual or ganization, known as the Bender Ice Cream Company. Thus he had an extensive experience in various branches of refrigeration before he came to South Florida. Mr. Bender has lived at \\'est Palm Beach since early in 1920. His visit was lengthened into a prolonged stay which he now regards as permanent. After a time he organized the Anarctic Ice Company, of which he is president and general manager. The splendid plant of this company was built under his personal supervision and began operations with its first output of ice early in January, 1922. The plant has a capacity of eighty tons per day, the ice being manufactured by the raw water system, the system most approved by experts in the ice industry. The machinery and equipment are the most modern to be had, and represent the last word in ice manufacture. The

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62 HISTORY OF FLORIDA water supply is secured from a well on the prem ises sixty-eight feet deep, the water being in eight feet of solid rock, and by analysis of com petent chemists is pronounced to be of the highest standard of purity. The pump can raise 250 gal-• Ions of water per minute from this well. The building is of modern concrete construction, and all the electricity for power is produced by Fairbanks-Morse oil-burning engines. Besides the ice plant the company operates a storage plant, leased to the Evansville Packing Company for meat storage. Mr. Bender is a popular member of the West Palm Beach Chamber of Commerce. He married Miss Eva Guyton, of Wayne County, Indiana, and they have one son, Raymond Cecil Bender. CLARENCE JosEPH STOKES, who is engaged in the practice of law in his native city of Pensa cola and who is one of the popular and repre sentative younger members of the bar of Escambia County, was born at l'ensacola on the 8th of July, 1893, a son of John Stokes. Of the family history adequate data are given on other pages of this work in the personal sketch of John P. Stokes, elder brother of him whose name introduces this paragraph. The public schools of Pensacola, including the high school, afforded Mr. Stokes his earlier edu cation, and thereafter he was for one year a student in the University of .Florida. At DeLand, this state, he attended John B. Stetson University for a similar period, and in 1917 he was a student during the summer term in the great University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. In the meanwhile he had gained practical business experience through his service as assistant shipping clerk for the Jennings Naval Stores Company of Pensa cola, in 19n-12, and as shipping clerk for the Union Naval Stores Company in 1913. In prepa ration for his chosen profession he applied himself with characteristic diligence and recep tiveness to the study of law under effective private preceptorship, and on the 4th of June, 1917, he was admitted to the bar of his native state. He has since made a record of admirable professional achievement at Pensacola, where he specializes in criminal law and real estate titles, his offices being at 204 South Palafox Street. The democratic party receives the unqualified support of Mr. Stokes, he and his wife are com municants of the Catholic Church, he is a member ot the Pensacola Bar Association, he is secretary of the Pensacola News Publishing Company, and his fraternal affiliations are with the Modern Order of Prretorians, the Loyal Order of Moose and the Woodmen of the World. In addition to his attractive home property at 810 North Sixteenth Avenue, he is the owner also of four other dwelling houses in Pensacola. Mr. Stokes was unreserved in his loyal and patriotic service in connection with all local war activities in the World war period. He aided in the various drives in the sale of Government war bonds, made his individual purchase of bonds and Saving Stamps as liberal as possible, assisted in filling out questionnaires for young men called to service from Escambia County, and did all in his power to turther the work of the Red Cross, Knights of Columbus, Salvation Army and other agencies of war service. On the 18th of June, 19181 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Stokes and Miss Caroline E. Mertins, daughter of Frederick R. and Sabina Mertins, of Pensacola, Mr. Mertins being a ma rine engineer by occupation. Mr. and Mr~. Stokes have a fine little son, Clarence J., Jr., who was born on the 19th of July, 1919, and a daugh ter, Jane Elizabeth, born June I, 1922. ERIC A. ANDERSON. Among the younger gen eration of business men who have made a success of their activities at Pensacola, one who is becoming well known in his field of endeavor is Eric A. Anderson, manager of the San Carlos Press. While Mr. Anderson is still young in years, as compared with the subiects of a number of biographies in this work, he is mature in experience as his activities have made him .i master of his trade and he has likewise engaged in shipbuilding, in addition to which he has a military record which includes a year of active service in France during the World war. Mr. Anderson was born at Warrington, Florida, in Escambia County, and is a son of Francis O. Anderson. His father, who followed a naval career all of his life, took command of the United States S. S. Narber, plying between Pen sacola and the Navy Yard, in 1915, and continued to act in this capacity until his retirement at the age of sixty-six years, as boatswain's mate. He was the father of seven children, of whom six are living, Eric A. being the fourth in order of birth. Eric A. Anderson attended the public schools o f Pensacola, obtaining only an ordinary educa tion, and at the age of fourteen years entered the printing shop of the Pensacolian Publishing Com pany, where he learned the trade. Following this , he was variously employed in job printing estab lishments until the outbreak of the World war, when he enlisted in the United States Army, and after due training was sent overseas to Fra.nce, where he saw active service for a year. On re ceiving his honorable discharge after returning to his native land Mr. Anderson entered the ship building business, but after a year of experience therein resumed the printing trade. He estab lished the San Carlos Press April I, 19211 and took the position of manager of this new firm, which has enjoyed a splendid business from the start. This concern does all manner of com mercial printing and rubber stamp manufacturing, and the plant, located at 47 East Gregory Street, is fully equipped to carry on its growing business. Mr. Anderson is enterprising and energetic, is popular with his associates and enjoys the confidence of the patrous of the estab lishment. He is a Catholic in his religious faith. and fraternally is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. A democrat in politics, he has been active in the ranks of his party. V. P. DILLINGHAM. Fifty-six years have rolled away since that notable body of men gathered. April 6, 18661 at Decatur, Illinois, and organized the Grand Army of the Republic, with its motto of charity and loyalty and its avowed purpose of teaching patriotism to the younger generatiom. Among the leaders of this movement were i;olcliers who on many a fierce field of battle had proved their valor and their p:itriotism, and they were well fitted for the task they had undertaken. The great organization then formed still con tinues, although, in the course of nature, it yearly grows less and less in membership, but it has proved a mighty factor in the lessons it has taught and in the work it has done in the up building of solid American citizenship. To be a po s t commander of the Grar,d Army of the Re public, as is V. P. Dillingham, of Pensacola, is an honor which he prizes above other achieve -

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 63 menlb of a life that has uut been lacking in accomplishments. Aside frum his military life and connections 1Ir. Dillin;,:ham is a man of business enterpris~ and of public usefulness. V. P. Dillingham was born January 19, 1838, in Kennebec Count), 11aine, and received his education in the puhlic schools of his native state. Leaving home a, the age of twenty years, he served his apprenticeship to the trade of shoemaker ancl followed that trade until his enlistment, in October, 1&i1, in the L'nion Arnn for senice in the \\'ar between the states. He became a priYate in Company (;, First Maine Cavalry, and after the expiration of his lwu -yca r term of enlistment, Yetcranizccl hy reenlisting in Company K, First 1Iainc \'ctl'rans, \\ith which lw sen-eel until June 28, 1!1(1f1, when he received hi~ honorahlc discharge. During his service ho participall'cl in a numhcr of important engage nitnts, including \\'i11chcslcr, Sabine Pass, Red Ri\'! : r Campaign, Fisher 1 lill and Cedar Creek. and at the time of hb honorahle discharge had the rank of corporal. At the close of his scnice Mr. Dillingham ref urned to 1-.laine. where he was engaged at his trade of shoemaker until 1868, going then to :\fassachusetts, where he remained two years. In 1870 he \lent to Ohio, still following his trade, and in 1871 to St. Louis, Missouri, where he remained three years. In 1874 he migrated to Kansas in a "prairie schooner," and settled with his family in Lincoln County, where he spent ten years in contesting with the conditions of frontier life on the prairies. Ile then returned lo St. Louis, but because of failing health was advised to seek another climate and accordingly went to Oklahoma for a short time and later to Fitzgerald, Georgia, locatin_g in the ol_d _Soldi_ers Colony. Tn 1&),.) he disposed of his m~erests there and came to Mulat, Santa Rosa County, Florida where he was appoi11lcd postmaster. In 1902 h~ resigned his postmastership and again went back to St. Louis, where he was engaged in merchandising for ten years. In 1912 he came to Pensacola, which has been his home ever since. }.fr. Dillingham is now living retired. Shortly after his arrival at Pensacola he was elected commander of \V. T. Sherman Post No. 2r, Grand Arm) of the Republic, [?Osition which !1e still holds. Commanckr D11l111gham sturd1h maintains the traditions of the organization in his personal integrity and good citizenship. and js held in the highest esteem and regard by his fellow citizens. J. S . SFNDY, merchant and mayor of Delray in Palm Beach County, came to Florida nearly forty years ago with the c
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64 HISTORY OF FLORIDA oughly qualified and equipped for the responsi bilities devolving upon him. Perhaps there has been no one man connected with the county jail to which the service is indebted in greater degree for practical and permanent improvements, and his earnestness, honesty and unassuming ability, together with his physical courage, have kept him in the office, and the final result of his faithful and progressive service has been to establish him firmly in public confidence. Mr. Byrd was born February 18, 18~)2, on his father's farm in Escambia County, Florida, a son of Hezekiah Byrd. His father, a native of North Carolina, came to Florida shortly after the close of the war between the South and the North, and located in Escambia County, where he applied his energies to the pursuits of agriculture. He has always been a tiller of the soil, and although now seventy-four years of age and somewhat retired from active labor, maintains his interest in things agricultural and keeps abreast oi the advancements being made in farming methods. He and his worthy wife were the parents of thirteen children, of whom twelve are still living. The eleventh in order of birth ot his parents' children, L. Van Byrd was reared in an agri cultural atmosphere and secured his educational training in the rural schools. As a youth he assisted his father and brothers on the home farm, where he built up a splendid physique, and when he entered upon his independent career he adopted farming for his regular vocat1011, although he also followed other employments on occasion. In March, 1913, r.lr. Byrd was ap pointed county jailer of Escambia County, and since then has occupied the post eight years, having served under two appointments. His discharge of the duties ot his position has been satisfactory in every way to the citizens of this community, who have found him faithful, energ-ctic and conscientious. Mr. Byrd 1s a strict disciplinarian, but possesses a broad sense oi justice, and has introduced a number of reforms into his department of the county service. The system now employed is said lo compare favor abl) with that of any other county in the stale. Fraternally Mr. Byrd is identified with the local lodge of the Woodmen of the \Vorld, in which he has numerous friends. He belongs to the C'hristian Church at Pensacola. In politics a democrat, he has worked effectively in the ranks of that party, in which he wields a strong influence. On July 12, 1919, Mr. Byrd was united in marriage with Miss Florence v.a1ker, whose parents were natives of New Orleans, Louisiana. DA\ID Lf.VY, president of the Board of Pilot Commissioners in the City of Pensacola, has here maintained his residence from the time of his hirth, which occurred October 20, 1875. He is a ,on of Emanuel and Rosa (Everhart) Levy. The father was born in the province of Alsace Lorraine. which the \Vorld war resulted in re turning to the pvssession of France, and the year of his birth was 18+-J. Upon coming to the C"nited States Emanuel Levy first established his n:'sidence in the City of New Orleans, and in 1872 he came to Pensacola, where he engaged in the junk business and built up a large and pro.sper ous enterprise, the same having been successfully rnntinued by hi so11, David. of this review, since his death. Of the family of two sons and eight daughters the subject of this sketch was the fourth in order of birth. The schools of PensacoJa afforded David Levy his early education, and he was a lad of fourteen years when he became actively associated with his father's junk business, which he has continued and expended since the death of his father. He has served ten years as a member of the Board of Pilot Commissioners, of which he is now the president, and he is known as one of the progressive business men and loyal and publi<;spirited citizens of his native city, in the welfare of which he takes the deepest of interest. He has been active in the local .ranks of the demo cratic party and he is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Elks, and the Order of B'nai B'rith. Mr. Levy married Miss Minnie Levy, the two families being of no kinship, though of the same name, and the children of this union are one son and one daughter, Vivian and Emanuel M. HENRY HERBERT ]LUDeVlNE. \Vhile some men undoubtedly achieve success along certain lines and in certain professions, there are others who seem to be born to them, their natural leanings and marked talents pointing unmistakably to the career in which they subsequently attain distinc tion. \Vith some the call of the church cannot be disobeyed, to others the science of healing appeals, the business mart or the political arena engages many, while there are still others who early see in their visions of the future their achieving along commercial lines the summit of their ambition. To respond to this call, to bend every energy in this direction, to broaden and deepen every possible highway of mastery of a craft and to finally enter upon prosperous achievement, has been the fortune of Henr) Herbert J cudevinc, president and manager of the Mayes Printing Company, one of the leading enterprises of its kind at Pensacola. Mr. Jeudevine was born January 7, 1875, al Flint, Michigan, and is a son of Frank C. Jeudevine, and a descendant of French ancestors on the paternal side. His father, who was engaged at the printer's trade until his death, was the parent of three children, of whom two arc living, Henry H. being the second in order of birth. Henry H. Jeudevine attended the public schools of Flint, Michigan, until he was ten years of age, at which time he was brought to Pensacola. where he completed his education. He was but fifteen years of age when he secured employment as an office boy, and later became printer's devil in the printing plant of the Pensacola Com mercial. Later he was identified as a printer with the Pensacolian, also a newspaper in the same city, and still later was employed in the job office of the Pensacola Daily News. From this paper he went to the job printing office of Henry S. \Vhite, where he remained for about twelve years, In 1905, with Frank L. Mayes, he founded thP Mayes Printing Company, of which he became manager. This concern was started in a modest way, but as the years have passed it has constantly added to its equipment until it is now one of the leading enterprises of its kind in the city. The plant is located at 20 and 22 Govern ment Street, and is now equipped with the latest improved machinery, enabling it to turn out the highest class of printing. In addition to doing a general line of commercial printing the com pany, of which Mr. Jeudevinc is now president, handles a complete line of office supplies, for which it has huilt tlJl a large and constantly growing demand. Mr. Jeudednc is a business man o f excellent abilit) and o established

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 65 integrity. He finds time from his business affairs to give to civic matters as a good citizen, and is an active member of the Pensacola Rotary Club. His fraternal affiliations include membership in the Masons and the Elks. On August 4, 1909, Mr. J eudevine married Miss Maud Jones, of Pensacola, and they have one daughter, Mary Elizabeth, born in 1910, who is attending the public schools. A. CARY ELLIS, sheriff of Escambia County, is giving a most vigorous and effective administra tion that has gained to him the loyal and appr~ ciative commendation of the people of Escambia County and the City of Pensacola, its judicial center. E. F. Rice is his chief deputy, and Thomas F. Cusachs is chief clerk in the office of the sheriff. l\[r. Ellis was born in Monroe County, Ala bama, August 9, 1873, and is a son of Samuel S . and Ophelia (Salter) Ellis. Samuel S. Ellis was born and reared in Alabama, and became a substantial merchant at Repton, that state. He died in the year 1886, and the sheriff of Escambia County, Florida, is the third in his family of eight children. Sheriff Ellis gained his early education in the public schools of his native state, and after leaving school he clerked three year . in a mercantile establishment. For one year thereafter he was a newsboy on railroad trains, and he gave four and one-half years of service as train baggagemaster on the line of the Louis ville & Nashville Railroad between Selma and River Junction, Florida. Ue won advancement to the position of freight-train conductor and later to that of passenger-train conductor, in which capacity he continued his service sixteen and one-half years. After having been for twenty-one years in the employ of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company he resigned, hav ing been elected sheriff in May, 1912, holdinf? that office four years. He then engaged in the automobile bu iness at Pensacola, and he next was appointed to the office of the Pensacola chief of police. Tie served in this capacity for eighteen months, and in 1920 he was reelected sheriff of Escambia County, of which office he has since continued the popular and efficient incumbent. The father of Sheriff Ellis was a resident of Repton, Alabama, at the time of his death, his wife having died in 1884, when the future sheriff was a lad of eleven years. The sheriff is loyally interested in all that touches the welfare of h1, home city and county, is a democrat in political allegiance, is affiliatec;J with the Brotherhood of Railway Conductors, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Sheriff Ellis was twenty-eight years of age at the time of his marriage to Miss Louise Burns. a daughter of Dennis Burns, of Pensacola, and the children of this union are three in number. J. J. SCHABlNGER. A pioneer of Delray, where he located nearly a quarter of a cent11ry ago, when the country was a wilderness, J. J. Scha binger performed his constructive labors there in the early years by developing his farm. Ile is a recognized authority on many lines of tree culture, both ornamental and fruit, in this sec tion of South Florida. Mr. Schabinger has been very active in every business and civic enterprise effecting the community. He was born and reared on a farm at Felton, Delaware, and for ten years his horn!! w~s in Philade1phia. He came to South Florida m 1899 and joined the little community then being established at Delray, then in Dade now in Palm Beach County. He has worked with other citi zens and has witnessed the development of a very prosperous town here. He cleared away a jungle to make his own farm, and after several years of hard work and intelligent effort and study of the soil, climate and other conditions he made himself one of the most productive farms in this section of the state. This farm he sold several years ago, and now confines his efforts to his home place of five acres adjoining the farm. This is located on Swinton Avenue in the northwest section of Delray. It is one of the show places of the county, and has been made valuable by a beautiful garden of tropical trees, fruits and plants and flowers placed here and largely propagated by Mr. Schabinger. In such work he has found a hobby, and for years has been experimenting with the propagation of improved tropical fruit trees. He is a great reader as well as a practical student along Jines of horticulture and botany. Some of his experiments have directly contributed to the successful introduction of the avocado pear, which seems destined to be one of the most profitable tropical fruits grown in Florida. Mr. Schabinger is vice president of the Bank of Delray and is a director of the Delray Lumber Company, a corporation that has done much to stimulate the building program in the com munity. Mr. Schabinger is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and up to 1919 was superintendent of its Sunday school for fifteen years. While Mr. Schabinger has always been inter ested in every movement for the civic welfare, the community of Delray sustained a special loss in the death of his wife in 1919. For many years she was a real leader in the civic, educa tional, religious and social life of Delray. Mrs. Schabinger, whose maiden name was May Ewing, was born in \,Vyandot County, Ohio, and when ten years of age removed with her family to Cleveland, Tennessee, where she was reared and received her early education. After graduating from high school she took up teaching, and with a party of other young ladies came to Florida to complete her normal course at Jasper. While teaching in the public schools at Delray she was married. For several years she was a teacher in the Sunday school, and during the World war she served as secretary of the Red Cross organi zation at Delray. She was instrumental in organizing a class of thirty students in the Red Cross Nursing Corps. The work of this organi zation and other labors growing out of the war so absorbed her time and energy that her fatal illness was partly due to the faithful and persis tent service she rendered at that time. She is survived by two sons, Ernest M. and John E., both promising young men, now students in the University of Florida. JOHN CLAY S111ITH has practiced law in Georgia and Florida for more than forty years, and has achieved an unequivocal success in his profession and in civic affairs in both states. Mr. Smith, whose home is in Pensacola, wa5 born at Lawrenceville, Georgia, August II, 186o, son of J. W. M. and Juliet Smith. His grandparents were George and Peggy Smith, of South Carolina, and his maternal grandfather was Caleb Hughes. His parents were both natives of South Carolina, his father born in Edgefield and his

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66 HISTORY OF FLORIDA mother i11 Greenville. In 1854 they removed to Lawrenceville, Georgia, where his father con ducted a prosperous business as a manufacturer of coaches, carriages and wagons. He enlisted and was in service throughout the Civil war in the Confederate Army. He died in 1897 and his wifo in 1900. John Oay Smith attended the public schools of Lawrenceville and was educated in Georgia. He studied law with Judge Nathan L. Huchins. On September 12, 188o, by examination in open court before the Superior Court of the county he was admitted to the bar, and at once began practice in Lawrenceville. Soon afterward he removed to Fort Smith, Arkansas, and practiced there during 1881 and a portion of 1882. Losing his health, he returned to his old home place in Lawrenceville, Georgia, resumed the practice of law and was soon drawn into politics and was one of the men frequently honored with respon sibilities. In 1884 he was elected mayor of Law renceville, against one of the most popular men that city had, Col. Sam J. Winn, and he was reelected two other terms, receiving all but one vote in one election and at the last term had no opposition. Before his term expired he was elected a member of the State Legislature to represent Gwinnett County. He was in the Legis lature two terms and declined the nomination for senator of the district. Leaving Lawrenceville, he removed to Atlanta to give his children better school advantages, and successfully practiced law in that city for seven and one-half years. From Atlanta he came to Pensacola, and here has given almost his undivided time to his general law practice. He has been admitted to the bars of Georgia, Arkansas and Florida, and is a member of the County and State Bar associations. In politics he is a democrat. but liberal in his views. On July 27, 1881, at Fort Smith, Arkansas, Mr. Smith married Miss Effie Moorman, of Ken tucky, daughter of Dr. J. W. Moorman. Mr. and Mrs. Smith have reared a family of nine children and have numerous grandchildren about them. Their oldest child, George, married Nettie King, of Pensacola, and has three children, named Bill, Jane an(i Caroline. Eunice is a widow and the mother of a daughter, Elizabeth. Lula was married to Claud Ivy, and they have one child, Gene, and live in Cincinnati, Ohio. Carrie is the wife of David Ricks of Atlanta, Georgia. Effie was married to Dr. Ernest Avery, of Decatur, Georgia, and bas two children, Dorothy and William. Agnes is the wife of Everett Hudgins, a merchant at Atlanta. The three younger and unmarried children are: John C., Jr., Margaret and Katherine. Mr. Smith, of this review, is an author of considerable reputation, having written many essays and poems. and is an orator of rare ability. VELPEAN ROBERT NOBLES, M. D. The Nobles family has had representatives in the business, professional and civic affairs of Pensacola for a great many years. One of the present generation is Dr. Velpean Robert Nobles, a well known specialist and one of the busiest professional men in the city. Doctor Nobles was born at Pensacola, Septem ber 6, 1882. His grandparents were William and Kittie (Newberry) Nobles, both of South Caro lina. His maternal grandfather was Daniel Roberts. His parents were Robert and Cornelia {Roberts) Nobles, the latter still living. His father was in the sawmill and lumber business. He engaged in extensive operations with Pensacola as business headquarters, and exercised a great deal of ' influence in the city's affairs. H e died at the age of seventy-five. Velpean R. Nobles attended grammar and high schools at Pensacola, and for several years was associated with his father in the sawmill and lumber business. In r9()8 he entered the Atlantic College of Physicians and Surgeons, graduating M. D. in 1912. For six months following he was in the New York City Post Graduate Hospital specializing in gastro intestinal diseases, and this is the field in which his abilities are especially ,vell recognized, though he is engaged in general practice. During the World war period Doctor Nobles was secretary in the Medical Advisory Board. He is a Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. On October 21, 1916, he married Miss Mabel Bryan, daughter of S. A. and Lucia Bryan. Her parents are natives of Georgia. The children. of Doctor and Mrs. Nobles are: Velpean Robert. Jr., and Kirkland Brvan. PHILIP D. BEALL, former assistant United States district attorney, has had an exceptionally successful career as a lawyer since his admission to the Florida bar. His home is at Pensacola, where he has lived since early boyhood. Mr. Beall was born at San Antonio, Texas, February 17, 1891, son of Wilbur N. and Annie T. (Larkin) Beall. His grandparents were James Addison and Sarah M. (Hammond) Beall, natives, respectively, of Virginia and Maryland and early settlers in Missouri. The maternal grandparents were J. R. and Mary (Chambers) Larkin, Missouri people. The father of Mary Chambers was James R. Chambers, who came from Ireland. Wilbur N. Beall was born in Missouri, as was his wife. He became a lawyer and for a number of years was a newspaper editor. He was at one time connected with the St. Louis Post Dispatch, also with a paper in San Antonio, Texas, and for some years practiced law and served as United States commissioner at Socorro. New Mexico. Philip D. Beall was a small child when his father died, and was about six years of age when he came to Pensacola with his mother, who is still living here. He attended public and private schools in this city, spent four years in the Chris tian Brothers College at St. Louis, and for three and one-half years was a student in the Spring Hill College at Mobile, Alabama. After com pleting his education Mr. Beall became a clerk in the Peoples Bank, now the Citizens Bank of Pensacola, and a short time later became secretary to the judge of the Federal Court of this district. While acting as secretary, from February, 19()8, to 1912, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1911 and in 1912 began active practice. In a short time he was called to the duties of assistant United States district attorney. The work of this young but able and well qualified lawyer in the district attorney's office was from 1912 to 1917. Owing to a vacancy in the office caused by the retirement of the district attorney, he performed all the duties of the office for about three months. Since this official service he has given his time to his extensive general prac tice at Pensacola. He is a member of the County, State and American Bar associations, is a fourth degree Knight of Columbus, an Elk and a member of the Catholic Church. 1n August, 1914, at Pensacola, he married Mi~s

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 67 Jlildur Dahlstrom, of rebraska, daughter of Mr. and Mr . G. A. Dahlstrom, both natives of Sweden. They have two sons, Philip D., Jr., and Kirke Monroe. A. V. BROWN, prominent real estate man at West Palm Beach, was a pioneer in the develop ment and the extension of publicity concerning the great resources of the Everglades section. Mr. Brown in his travels and business experience has covered practicalJy all parts of the United States and Canada, and he has long been person ally convinced that outhern Florida possesses the finest climate in the world, both winter and summer, and has the largest possibilities in its undeveloped resources of any portion of the United States. Ur. Brown was born in Defiance County, Ohio, in 1869, and he grew up there, acquiring a prac tical education. At the age of nineteen he went to O1icago, and subsequent experiences took him all over the western states. He even made one journey to Alaska. For a time he was located at Binghamton and Buffalo, New York. Before coming to Florida Mr. Brown lived for about 7 years in Oklahoma, at Oklahoma City, and for the most part at Muskogee, where he was in the real estate business. His permanent connection with outh Florida began in 19()8. His attention was early attracted lo the Everglades, and he personally examined a large part of that remarkable district and was a pioneer in its exploration and de,elopment. }.fany of the early settlers were aided by him in selecting their holdings, and owing to his long and intimate knowledge of these lands he is still much sought after for information concerning the Everglades. Mr. Brown was associated with Capt. J. F. Jaudon, of Miami, in the preliminary surveys of what has since been designated as the Tamiami Trail, a cross-stale road from Uiami through the Florida Everglades to Fort Myers on the \\'est Coast. This highway, now practically com pleted, is conceded to be a project that will do more to bring attention to and develop the Everglades than anything yet projected . Mr. Brown also ran the first excursion into the Everglades from Miami when the Miami Canal was opened. His business headquarters for about eight years were in Miami, but in 1917 he moved to \,Vest Palm Beach. He is engaged in handling a general line of real estate, and is still greatly inter ested in the development of the Everglades in the Lake Okeechobee region. He i~ trustee in charge of the development and sale of a subdivision at Jupiter, known as Rherside on the Loxahachee RiYcr. This comprised residential sites of .a high character, where special improvements have already been made, including water supply, elec tric light and modern, improved streets. .Mr. Brown has also taken an active part in the civic life of \Vest Palm Beach. He originated and for seYeral seasons was in charge of the Indians who held the annual Seminole Indian Sun Dance in this city. HAROLD \V1LFRW Cou:i:, claims adjuster of the Florida East Coast Railway Company, Flagler System, with headquarters at Saint Augustine, is admittedly one of the most enterprising young men of this part of Florida, and one of the valued men of his corporation, with which he has been connected during his entire business career, which commenced at the early age of fifteen years . Mr. Colee was born in this city October II, 1894, a son of George Barnabus and Maria Louise (King) Colee. His paternal grandfather, James L. Colee, died at Saint Augustine, January 12, 19n. His father came to this country from France, and James L. Colee a!1d his br~thers were. born in Flori1a, just out~1de of Samt Augu tme. He married at Saint Augustine, Mary Irwin, and she died January r3, r()05. They had three daughters and six sons born to them. The maternal grandparents were John and Mary King, who were born in Ireland. He died at the age of sixty-seven years and she when she was sixty-five. ' George B. Colee was born at Saint Augustine in r868 and died in this city in 1907. His wife was born at Boston, :Massachusetts, in January, 1865. They were married in Saint Augustine C:athedral September 16, 1889. Their family con<;1sted of four daughters and one son, of whom on~ died in infancy, but the others are still living, and of them all Harold Wilfred was th<' second in order of birth. Growing to manhood in his native city, George B. Colee attended its parochial schools, and was e1:gage~ in the livery business at Saint Augu tine with 111s father, and was so engaged at the time of his death, when he was but thirty-eight years of age. He was a devout member of the Roman Catholic Church. In politics he was a democrat. James L. Colee, the paternal grandfather of Harold \\'. Colee, was a civil engineer by profession, and followed it for a number of years at Saint Augustine. His professional duties brought him into contact with the Semino l e Indians, and because of his uprightness and honorable methods, he gained their friendship, and was called by them the "Good vVhite Man." The settlement of Colee in Saint Johns Count\' is named in honor of his brother, George. For a number of years he was connected with the Florida Coast Canal and Transportation Com pany, and owned a large amount of property in Saint Johns County, and prior to the war between the states owner! several slaves, who after they were freed pleaded for permission to remain with him because of his humane treatment and general consideration of them. James L. Colee was also a stockholder in the First National Bank, and for several terms served as county commissioner of Saint Johns County. Few men bore a more important part in the public affairs of his day and locality, ancl he held the confidence of all who knew him, both while and colored. Losing his father at a tender age, Harold 'vV. Colee tried to add to the family income while attending school, and when he was fifteen years old, terminated his schooldays and obtained a clerical position in the offices of the Florida East Coast Railway Company. Later he was transferred to the passenger traffic department as junior clerk. till later he was made ticket clerk in the same office. An ambitious young man, he studied ste110graphy, and when capable of holding the position was made stenographer in the same department. Still later he became private secretary to the general passenger agent, ticket agent, at Saint Augustine and Key West. Further promotion came to him, for he was successively made stenographer in the accounting department, of the engineering department, and of the freight traffic department; private secretary of the general freight agent; loss and damage investigator in the same office; assistant chief clerk to the , ice president, J. P. Beckwith, and finally was given his present position of claims adjuster.

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6 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Mr. Colee has always been active in different movements at Saint Augustine, and is a member and ex-president of the Saint Augustine Baseball As~ociation, and is now serving it as secretary. He is a past deputy grand knight and past lecturer of Saint Augustine Council No.. 611, K. of C., is a dictator of Saint Augustine Lodge No. 498, L. 0. 0. M., and for several years esquire of the B. P. 0. E., No. 829. The Saint Augustine Board of Trade has in him one of its most effective members, and he is equally zealous in behalf of the Saint Augustine Country Club, of which he is also a member and an en thusiastic golfer. He is also secretary of the Historical Society of which organization the Ilon. Chauncey M. Depew is president. Reared a Roman Catholic, he holds to that faith. He is a democrat. On September 26, 1917, Mr. Colee married Alice Sheldon Gillespie, a native of Roanoke, Virginia, and a graduate nurse from the hospital of the Florida East Coast Railway Company, under Dr. M. \V. Seagears. !vfr. and Mrs. Colee have two children: Harold W., Junior, and Elizabeth Hazel. Mr. Colee's history is an intensively interesting one, for it proves that fidelity, ability and industry will yield very gratifying returns, not merely in a material sense, but in the rewards only accorded good citizens and honorable men. HALCOTT ANDERSON is a well known Pensacola attorney, is a native of that city, represents an old Florida family and has practiced law there for fifteen years. Mr. Anderson was born in Pensacola, December 21, 1877, son of William Edward and Anna (Hawks) Anderson. His grandparents were vValker and Phoebe {Hawks) Anderson, of North Carolina. The maternal grandparents were Samuel and Elizabeth (Post) Hawks, the former of North Carolina and the latter of New Jersey. William Edward Anderson was born in North Carolina and was three years of age when his parents came to Florida. His wife was a native of Brooklyn, New York, and was only a child when her parents died and she was reared by her uncle, Bishop Cicero Hawks, of St. Louis, Mis souri. William E. Anderson served all through the Civil war in the quartermaster's department of the Confederate Army, with headquarters at Talladega, Alabama. After the war he returned lo Pensacola, was in the lumber and sawmill business, and was part owner of Simpson an,1 Company. He served three terms as mayor of Pensacola, was a leader in local affairs, and at several times was grand master of the Grand Lodge of Masons in Florida. Halcott Anderson was educated in the publir schools of Pensacola, spent one year in a private preparatory school, and from there entered the University of North Carolina, graduating A. B. in 1900. For two years following his university career he was a teacher in Pensacola, and then entered the school of law at Columbia University of New York, where he graduated LL. B. in 1905. He then practiced for two years in New York City, and in 19()8 returned to Pensacola. He is in general practice, is a member of the County and State Bar associations, and during the war was a member of the Legal Advisory Board and was actively identified with the entire program of local patriotic activities. In lfarch, 1907. in New York City, Mr. Anderson married Miss Elizabeth Higgins. Her mother, Elizabeth Husteed, was born in Virginia, while her father was a native of New York. Iler father was in the wholesale produce and ice business in New Jersey; Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have one son, Halcott Francis. Mr. Anderson is a member of the Epi copal Church. :MATTHEW B. MACFAl!LANE. In l\fr. Macfarlane Tampa has one of the best collectors of cus toms for the Port of Tampa it has ever known, for he is a man of experience in this office, and he is also an attorney in active practice and of long standing. Many honors, political and professional, have been accorded him, and yet he has never lost his unassuming manner or pleasant per onality which have ever been so characteristic of him. The birth of Matthew B. Macfarlane occurred in Renfrewshire, Scotland, March 20, 1861, and he is a son of James D. and Anne (Campbell) ~facfarlane, both of whom were also natives of Scotland. In 1865 they came to the United States, locating at Fall River, Massachusetts, where they remained until 1870, when they moved to the State of Minnesota, but finally returned to Fall River, and there the father died at the age of eighty-one years. By trade he was a baker, but after coming to this country wa, principally engaged in farming. His widow sur vived him and was eighty-five years old at the time of her death. They had nine children, live of whom are still living, Matthew B. being the eighth in order of birth. But a little over four years old at the time of the family migration to this country, Matthew B. Macfarlane has spent practically all of his lifL here, and all of his training has been acquired amid American surroundings. Coming to Jacksonville, Florida, in 1883, he spent about eightee11 months in that city and then located at Tampa. which has continued to be his permanent home. Having perfected himself in the study of the law. he was admitted to the bar in 1885, and entered at once upon the active practice of his professio11, in which he has since continued, and is now enjoying one of the largest private practices in this part of the state. lie has been one of the most prominent republicans in the state, and in 1900 and again in 1904 was the candidate of his party for governor of Florida. In 1897 he was appointed collector of customs, and held the office for four terms, and in 1921 was once more appointed to the office by President Harding, and still holds it. For a number of y<'ars he was a member of the City Council of Tampa, and was deputy collector of internal revenue under President Harrison, and a delegate at large to the Republican National conventions in 1904, 19()8, 1912 and 1916, and was the only member from Florida to serve as a member of the Advisory Committee to the Republican National Committee in 1920. Very active as a member of the Benevo lent and Protective Order of Elks, he is serving as a member of the State Elks Association, of which he was the first president. He also main tains membership with the local lodges of the Knights of Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows . Mr. Macfarlane is chief of the Scotch Club of Tampa, and is otherwise prominent in many ways. In 188o Mr. Macfarlane was married to May Alice Cordingley and they have one daughter, Anne Davenport. The Macfarlanes are honored members of the First Presbyterian Church of Tampa. Mr. Macfarlane has been permitted to li,e through a very interesting period in the history of Tampa, and to participate in many of the stirring events which have brought about the

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HlSTORY OF FLORIDA 69 remarkable development of this section. His official duties have brought him into contact with all cla ses, and his sagacity and good judgment have played no small part in effecting needed changes with as little friction as possible. He is a man honored by his fellow citizens, and his decisions are respected, and his advice sought and taken. E. ALLEX D1xox, who is now engaged in the real estate and loan business, was formerly managing partner o[ the Dixon Buick Company, the authorized sales service agency o[ the Buick Motor Car in the \Vest Palm Beach District. Mr. Dixon is almost a born salesman, and has achieved much more than an ordinary success as a business e ecutive. His success here is assured as he is connected with one of the biggest financial institutions of ew York City, making loans for the e people and selling homes at the same time. Mr. Dixon was born in 1891 at Blackshear. Pierce County, Georgia, and has had little more than thirty years in which to accomplish what he has done. His parents were Mathew and Susan (\,Vinn) Dixon, both representing old time' families of South Georgia. His father is still living. His mother, who died in r922, was a ,ister of Jasper J. \Vinn, one of the wealthiest p lanters and most prominent citizens of Pierce County. On finishing his schooling at Blackshear, E. Allen Dixon went to work in the mercantil<' hou e of Strickland Brothers at Blackshear. He remained with this firm eight years, and soon after going there he gave evidence of the special qualities of salesmanship with which he is endowed. l\[r. Dixon was identified with the automobile business since T9T6, when he estab lished himself in that line at Blackshear with Alvin H. Jame. . After the death of Mr. James he took charge of the btl.iines himself and in time had made it the largest and most prosperous es tablishment of the kind in the Blackshear sec tion, which is famous for its agricu ltural work and general prosperity. It was the success and energy he manifrsted in handling this business at Blackshear that brought his abilities to the attention of the Buick people. A a result Mr. Dixon was e l ected from a large number of other applicants to take char1re of the Buick Ag-ency al \Vest Palm Beach. The successful mana,ger of an automobile busi ness in that city needs peculiar skill. tactfulnrss and diplomacy, on account ,,f the high class of patrons who are drawn her<' for the winter ,eason and their discriminating taste in the matter of automobiles. These facts were properly weighed and considered when Mr. Dixon was Jelected by the Buick Company. He estab l ished the Buick Agency here in November, 1920, his a . sociate, though not an active partner, being L. D. Hughes, who also came frbm Blackshear and is in the real estate business at West Palm Beach The Dixon Buick Company in the spring of 1922 took possession of its new plant and sales room on South Poinsettia Street at the corner of Okeechobee Road. This is one of the most modern and attractive automobile plants in Florida. The building is of fine architectural appearance in pure Spanish style of reinforced concrete throughout and finished in pink stucco. It has seventy-five feet frontage on Poinsettia Street, a depth of r28 feet on Okeesettia Street has great windows, affording a flood chohee Road. The show room fronting on Poin-of light, the walls being tinted in soft colors to afford a perfect background. The private office is located above a corner oi the room, reached by a winding stairway, the arched opening on the show room having a proscenium effect. To the rear of the show room, reached by separate entrance and exit for cars on the two streets, is a service and repair department. This has equip ment of all the tools and machinery for garage work and expert service for the Buick car. This department is devoted exclusively to the service and tlw repair of Buick cars. 1fr. Dixon well established this business, so as to command ample financial hacking for a corporation. He was one of the organizers and is a member of the Kiwanis Club of \,Vest Palm Beach. a n1rmher of the Advertising Club, a member of thr Palm Beach County Re'.11 Estate Board, and also a member of the Chamber of Commerce. Fraternall) he belongs to the Knights of Pythias. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church of which hr is a deacon. FREDERICK W. SADLER, tropical nurseryman, owner and developer of Bon-Air, a highly im proved property on the Atlantic Coast, is one of the leading men in his line at \Vest Palm Beach or in this part of the state. He was born in New York State, in 1863, and lived during his boyhood at Auburn, that state, where his father owned and operated a hotel, and where he received his educational training. At the age of seventeen years he left home and with only five dollars as his capital made his way tov,!:ard the great \Vest. By the time he reached VI/ estern Iowa he was so very homesick that he climbed into a box car, which he thought was headed East, with the intention of returning home. Instead, when he woke up he found that the car had been carried \Vest, and he was alone, friend less and almost penniless in Omaha, ebraska. There in the depot, somewhat forlorn in appear ance, although he was well dressed, he attracted the attention of a Mr. Le Grand who was on his way to Riverside, California. 1n' the conversation which resulted Mr. Sadler agreed to accompany Mr. Le Grand to California and learn the florist business of Mr. Le Grand, who was a florist and botanist of note, in charge of the estate of Henry l\I. \,Velis of the \,Velis Fargo Express ompany at Riverside, California. ~fter. several years spent at Riverside, during which time he learned to be a first-class florist and horticulturalist, Mr. Sadler left that city in 1890 and came to Florida, locating at Orlando since which time his home has been in this state: Since living here he has de\ oted a great deal of attention to citrus fruit culture, and is one of Florida's leading experts in this industry. In r920 he established himself at West Palm Beach, where he has taken up further study and experimenta~ion in tropical tree~ and plants, o r ganizing for this purpose the Tropical Nursery, where this work is being carried on. He is being unusually successful in growing the wonderful Royal Palm from the seed, an industry which requires a great deal of attention and scientific skill. This nursery and Mr. Sadler's home are on the Okeechobee Road in the western part of the city of West Palm Beach, in the Bonnieview Addition, of which he is the owner. This addition is one of the rapidly growing sections of \,Vest Palm Beach. The most notable thing Mr. Sadler has accom plished since coming to West Palm Beach is his development of the Bon-Air property of which he is the owner. It is 16cated on Jupiter Island, in

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70 HISTORY OF FLORID. \ Palm Beach County, with front.age on both the Atlantic Ocean and Indian River. This he is mak ing one of the fine,t ocean resorts on the Florida East oa,t. It extends north and south for a rlistance of six and one-half miles on both the ocean and Indian River. This property has been dh ided into lots and home tracts of varying acre ages, and through the center of it, running north and south, will be a beautiful avenue lined with Roya l Palm tree,, coc:oanut palm trees and .\ustralian pine,. \\' ith all it advantages it is indeed a very love l y and attractive p1ace, and is becoming extremely popular. Mr. Sadler's career is a very remarkable one, and his success appears to have grown out of a youth's mistake and an accidental meeting, but had he not possessed a strong and pleasing personality the opportunity which meant so much to him would never have been offered, nor had his quali fications been of a different type would he have been able to deve lop into the man he is today. Opportunity may come, and probably does, to every man, but it is only those with the proper quali fications who can grasp it when offered, and through it attain to fame and wealth. ]AMES L . Gru;s. .\mo11g-the representative a11d substantial c:itizens of Ora11ge County, Florida, few with more reason cherish affection and pride for this region than does Jame L . Giles , ex-mayor of Orlando and long prominent in this city's business affairs. Mr. Giles is a native son of Orange County and here has received the encouragement and opportunity that has enab l ed him to build up his fortunes from the bottom and later to do his full part in the development and improvement that have brought about present day conditions. James L. Giles was born in Orange County, Florida, June 16, 1863, a son of Rev. LeRoy B. and Sarah E l izabeth (Goolsby) Giles. On the paternal side the ancestral line leads back to England, and from there the first American . ettler of the Giles family came to Virginia and some of his sons l ater settled in Georgia . Rev. LeRoy B. Giles was born in Georgia and was a son of James Giles. In early manhood he came to Orange County, Flo r ida, as a pioneer minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, his zeal in his work perhaps shortening his life, for he died when but forty years old. His death made his son, James L.. an orphan as his mother diecl when he was but three years old. When eight years old, James L. Giles went to live with his uncle, where he was cared for until he was twelve years of age, in the meanwhile having some Jnclifferent educational opportunities in the school of Apopka. From that age on he> provided for his own necessities, accepting em ployment wherever he could find it and returning an honest measure of service and a fa ithful accounting. He was twe l ve years old when he secured a position as clerk in a store at Apopka and from there in the same capacity, came to Orlando. Although salaries at that time were very moderate in comparison to the present, Mr. Giles managed by considerable self denial, to save a part of his earnings and these he applied to the purchase of real estate, and this became the nucleus of his subsequent large operations along the same line. The thrift and good judgment that marked his early inve s tments have been elements in his success and now Mr. Giles is numbered with the l eading dealers in rea l estate at Orlando. In business enterprise he has gone further. Not only has he the distinction of haYing built the fir,t brick s tore building al Orlando, but there are many other monument s to his energy, foresight and progressiveness . He ere<;:ted the substantial \Vatkins block, the im posmg Astor Hote1, and many other substantial hu iness houses and residence . , his public spirit leading him not only to own property but to improve it, for the general welfare. His private residence situated on the south side of Lake Lucerne, is one of the handsomest in the beau tiful City of Orlando. In 1883 Mr. Giles was married to Miss Nannie Barlett and they have three children: LeRov B .. who is a practicing attorney at Orlando, a member of the law firm of Davis & Giles; and Anna Estelle (Giles) Weathersbee; and Edna Adelma. Mr. Giles and his family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In political life Mr. Giles has long been a leader in the democratic party. While mavor of Orlando, he gave the city a fine business adminis tration, brought about many needed reforms and gave encouragement to public-spirited movements that have been most beneficial. He was main!} instrumental in bringing about the organization of the local County Fair Association, in which he is a large stockho lder and he was one of the organizers of the Country Club. For many years Mr. Giles has been extensively interested in growing oranges and owns groves of 300 acres of some of the finest orange land in Orange County. W. W. DowNING. With the exception of honesty, there is, perhaps, no other quality so mnch in demand in the business world of today as practicality. Enterprise, push, determination and rapid and sure decision mark the men who become the compelling forces in the upbuilding of a community. There is no such thing as chance in the lives of such men. On the other hand their success is the inevitable result of what they have put of themse l ves into their business, and no one has proven this more conclusively than W. W. Downing of Tampa, president of the Downing Manufacturing Company, one of the solid concerns of Hillsborough County. N o fortunate circumstances gave him any early a,ivantages, for he began his business career with only the endowments that nature had bestowed upon him, coupled with the sound principle s instillerl in a quiet home in his boyhood. W . W. Downing was born in Maine, October 30. 1872. a son of Pascal A. and Martha E. (Burnes) Downing, also natives of Maine, who died 111 that state. Of their four children, W. W. Downing i.~ th~ third in order of birth. He grew up in Maine and attended its common schools. In 1893 he came to Tampa, and until 1911 was engaged in the orange groves in this vicinity and in carpenter work. In 191 I he, with others, began a planing mill business, and in 1913 organized the Downing Manufacturing Company, with Mr. Downing as treasurer. Four years later he was made its president, and has since con tinued at its head. The factory is located on Rome Street, corner of Fuller Street, and here a general planing mill and novelty business is carried on, employment being given to twenty men. In 1894 Mr. Downing was married to Delia E . Spearrin. Mr. and Mrs. Downing have no chil dren. Mr. Downing has always taken a friendly interest ir. Tampa, and it in him. Although he went into his present business with a very small capital, and practically no credit, he registered a

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 71 s uccess from the start, and today his company is o ne of t he lead ing ones of its kind in this region. Ile is practical in his ideas, no t only w ith reference to his p rivate affa irs, but to c ivic matters as we ll. His is a gen ial persona lity and when he finds men a dhering to the ide als and principles that govern his ow n life, he we lcomes them to his frien dship. SIDNEY MADDOCK. Among permanent and w inter res idents of Palm Beac h probably on ly th e name and e nterprise o f t he l a te Henry M. F lagl e r are more familiar than t hose of S idney Maddock. Mr. Maddock was a pioneer at Palm Beach when this now fa mous resort was practi c ally unknown to t he worl d and when the only communication between it and the o utside world was by s teamboat o r s ailboat. Mr. M addock was the founder and fo r thirty years has been owner of the Pal m Beach Hotel. He was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1872. His father the l ate Henry Maddock was born i n Staffordshire, Engl a nd, and a lso his mothe r, Jeanie Elizabeth Maddock. T he Maddock family o f Staffordshire are k nown to the world as pot ters and ch ina makers. For over a hundrea years at Burslem in Staffordshire, the b usiness of John Maddock & Sons has bee n co nducted. This na me is fa miliar on the plates and other articles o f c hinaware extensive l y use d in America . Henry Maddock c ame to Ame rica as the re pre s entative o f this firm, an d cont inued that con nection until his dea th. His ho me was in Brooklyn. Sidney Maddock acquired a good education , finishing i n the Broo klyn Polytechnic Colleg iate Institute. He w as a young man of twenty whe n he made his first trip to the lower Florida East Coast in 189<>. That brought him to what is now Palm Beach. In 1891 he c ame again, a nd bought land here, and for over thirty yea rs his in terests have been in this locality. Mr. Maddock had bee n here seve ral years be fore t he late Mr. Flagler began operations at Palm Beach in 1894 wi th t he conception of t he Roya l Poinciana Hotel. T he Florida East Coast Railway was completed to that p lace the sa me ye ar. Mr. Maddock w as here when there were very few fa milies es tablished a long this portion of the coast. He was a b l e to b uy land cheap, and has been one o f the most judicious real es tate operators, h is operations b ringing h im a sub stantial fo rtune. His first venture in South Florida was to start a p ineapple p lantation. This proved somewhat hazardous, and he gave it up an d turned his c apita l to mo r e p rofitable enterprises. T he most i nteresting of t hese was the s mall hote l which he b uilt and ope ned as the Palm Beach Hotel. It w as the first large ho tel at Palm Beac h, and in i ts facilities it bas kept p ace wi th the growing fame of the winte r resort and t he inc rease in tourist t ravel. The Palm Beach Hotel has been m ade by Mr. Maddock o ne of t he largest hotels with the ex ception of the "Flagle r hote l s." Mr. Maddock still co ntinues as owner and personal manager of the popular estab lishment, which has 300 g uest rooms . It has a very adva ntageous frontage o n Lake Worth, as a result of w hich the g ues t s have immediate ac cess to boat landi ngs a nd hydroplane landings for all sor ts of voyages by water or a ir. Mr. Maddock has been a lmost e qually inte rested in t he development of West Palm Beach. He erecte d and is owne r o f the Maddock Bu ilding, one of the prom inent business b locks of that city, Vol. JlI-9 and has other financ ial interests in both the Palm Beaches. Mr. Maddock spends his s ummers with his family in their s ummer home at Brooklyn. He married Miss Lucie Lacoste who was born i1J !'ar~s, while. her pa~ents were temporarily res1dmg m that city, but 1s related to the pro minent C uban family of that na me. Her fa ther, the late Ernesto Lacoste, was of French-Canadian parentage. Her mother was the daughter of o ne o f the ladies of the Court of Madrid fame. The Lacostes for many years have bee n extensive sugar p lanters in Cuba an d have taken a promi nent part in public affa irs. Her uncle, the late Governor Perfecto Lacoste, was the first prov i sio nal governor of Cuba, by appoint ment of Genera l Wood, fo llowing the America n occ upa tion of the island in 1898. Mr. and Mrs. Mad dock have one son, Paul Lacoste Maddock. Mrs. Lucie Lacoste Madd~k is an author of severa l books, among them one of adventure a t Palm Beach pict uring the famo us resort in the he ight of the socia l season at this American Riviera. DR. J. J. KROM the well known dermatologist, first visited St. Augusti ne in the winter of 1873-74, for the benefit of his health. He returned again in 188o for recuperation, a nd since then has spent every winter and most of the sum mers in the ancient city, and long resi dence has o n l y confirmed his judgment that St. Augustine is one of the most healthfu l and delightfu l of American cit ies as well as t he oldest town in the U nited States. John Jacob Krom was born on a spur of the Ca tskills near Kings ton, New York, January 31, 1847. His paterna l ances tors we re of the Holland Dutch that settled in New Amsterdam, no w New York C ity, in 1632. His paternal grand mother was Scotch (Graham), an d his maternal ancestors were English and Dutc h, Westb rook an
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72 HISTORY OF FLORIDA opposite t he entrance of Old Fort Marion, is an ideal one, and a fr iendly welcome greets visitors an d friends. Doctor Krom is author of some stanzas of verse that have had wide appreciat ion 011 memo r ial occasio ns througho ut the country. Thcst• ve rses we re dedicated t o " unknown" a nd writ ten by Doctor Krom fo r a rmistice day November 11, 1920. The e ffectiveness of the for m . may be understood from q uoting the first stanza: "Unknown-his name; but i n battle he fell; Unknown-is all the war records tell, Unknown-his body p laced under sod, Unknown-to the wo rld, b ut not his Goel." MORRIS BENSON LYMAN. Along the East Coast of Florida a re numerous examples of t he power o f human en terprise, represented either by the e fforts of i ndividuals o r accu mulated capital, to deve lop a wilderness rich on ly in possibi lities into fa rms an d ga rdens of wo nderful pro ductive ness a nd into cities a nd towns unexcelled for all t he advantages and comforts tha t climate a nd location a nd the ingen uity o f man can bes tow. One s uch p lace is Lantana, o n t he shores of bea utiful Lake Worth. The history of Lantana can be to ld p rincipally i n the Ii fe of i ts pio neer sett ler, Morris Benson Lyman, who mo re than any ot her one man h as been res ponsible for the upbuilding of t he town. He is the principa l property ow ner an d is t he head of t he va rious deve lopment en terprises that have made Lantana a modern municipality a nd home town. M r. Ly man has had a most i nteresting career. He was born i n Bosanquet Township, Lambton Cou nty, Ontario, C anada, Sep tember 22, r86o, son of M orris K. a nd Rachel (Ward) Lyman. His mo ther is s till living. The ancest ral records of the Lyman fami ly have bee n ca refully t raced back in direct lines to the time of William the Con quero r in E ngland. The American branch of t he family runs back to Richard Lyman of High Ongar, England, w ho was born in 158o and came to the American colonies i n 1620, se ttling with his fam ily at Northampton, Massachusetts. His desce ndants lived in New England until the time o f Benjamin Ly man, w ho i n the latte r half of t he e ighteenth century moved to Canada, locating at Ki tley, Ontario. M. B. Lyman's grandfather, Robert F leming Lyman, and his fathe r, Mo rris K. Lyma n, were both na tives of Canada. Mr. Lyman ac quired his e arly e ducation in the locality o f his b irth, an d from 1872 to 1876 not only attended school but wo rked in his father's sto re. In 1877, at t he age of seventeen, he went i nto t he undeveloped region of North Ontario, i n the Muskoka District, whe re he took up and fo llowed the trade of ca rpenter a nd boa t b uilder until July, 1883. At tha t date the family remove d to Mich igan. In December, 1883, M r. Lyman ca me Sou th, sto pping a t Jacksonville, Florida. In June, 188 4, he put forth o n the schooner Bessie B. from J acksonville to L ake Worth o n t he East Coast. No railroad line had ye t been constructed sou th o f Jacksonville. Lake Worth, t he famous bo dy of water lying close to the Atlantic Ocean, on the s hores of whic h have been b uilt the cities of West Palm Beach, Palm Beach, Lake Worth and Lantana, was fo rty years ago a n almost uninhabited w ilderness. A rriving he re, M r. Lyman beca me associated w ith Mr. A. Gear a nd d id some work for him. During the summer o f 1884 he bu ilt a small cottage for Mr. R. B . Moore. In the fall o f that yea r he b uilt the first store building on Lake \Votth, for the firm of Brelsford Brothers, then of Jacksonville. There were hardships and difficulties in living in such a remote locality, and :Mr. Lyman endured all of them. He had s teady work at his trade, and later he took up the business of ope rating sail boats and finally schooners in carrying fre ight to and from Jacksonville. :Mr. Lyman from boy hood has been at home on a boat, and learned thoroughly the art o f sailor and navigator. Re turning to Jacksonville in 1885, he worked at his trade in that city, and in 1886 was again at Lake Worth, employed as general utility man for Brelsford Brothers . The year 1887 found him again in Jacksonville, emp loyed as a carpenter and contractor. When yellow fever was declared epidemic, he brought his wife and two children back to Lake worth, arriving September 22, 1888. He se lected for his home place what has since become known as Lantana, a beautiful loca tion projecting into the lake. Here he bui lt his house using pine po les for a frame a nd cab bage palmettos for a roof. As soon as this was completed he resumed the work of his trade, and he also rebuilt the steamer Lake Worth, owned by Captain Hendrickson, and subsequently purchased the schooner Bessie B. from Brelsford Brothe rs. This boat was operated between Lake Worth and Jacksonville, and had a paying patron age from the start. The third mercantile establishment on the shores of Lake \Vorth was established by Mr. Lyman in the summer of 1889, in a room he built near his home. Trade was slow at fint, but in recent years has i ncreased rap idly as a res ult of the great trade given to all lines of de velopme nt along the East Coast, not least among the factors being the Dixie Highway. Mr. Ly man's business is now a modem and commodious store, in a building 50 by 6o feet, located on the Dixie Highway, and supp lying all classes of gen eral merchandise. This business is incorporated as the M. B. Lyman Company, with capita l stock of $25,000. Mr. Lyman is president. The present building was completed and occupied in 1913. For over thirty years Mr. Lyman has been owner of some of the land in and around Lan tana . Much of this land he procured at the current low prices of early times. He made the in vestment with a faith that has never wavered in the future and which is now being realized. His ho ldings we re increased from time to time u ntil he beca me one of the largest land owners in the Lantana section of Lake worth. With these holdings at stake and as a result of his normal public spirit, Mr. Lyman has put forth special effort to develop Lantana into a modern town. To accomplish this purpose to better advantage he became associated with a number of capitalists, and together they have instit uted va rious financial and development enterprises that account for Lantana's remarkable progress. Chief among these is the Lantana Finance Cor poration, of which Mr. Lyman is president. Through this corporation Lantana Point a nd ad jacent property are being developed into a com munity of beautiful homes, which for charm of location and tropical beauty can hardly be excelled on the East Coast. The main portion of t he townsite is controlled by this corporat ion. Mr. Lyman and associates have invested capital in the building of fine streets, sidewalks, sewerage system, water supply, lighting system, and all modern improvements. From a civic standpoint it is one of the model towns of the country. The

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 73 town organization was perfected by act of the Legislature in 1921, after being ratified by referendum of the voters in June of that year. A mayor, Miss Ellen M. Anderson, was elected soon afterward. The present mayor of Lantana is Mrs. Mary S. Paddock. This town has the most up-to -date charter in the state. Under recent pro visions the local government is empowered to en force building restrictions, the construction and maintenance of modern public improvements, the building of sidewalks and other improvements to be a sessed against the property owners. Mr. Lyman was also the prime mover and is the president of the Lake Osborne Development Com pany, of which his wife, Mrs. Mary A. Lyman, is vice president. This is a $75,000 corporation own ing 770 acres of land lying between Lantana and Lake Osborne and we t of Lake Osborne. It is being cut up into home and small farm sites. The financing of this enterprise has been carried out by the Lake Osborne Syndicate, of which Alex Drake is president and present mayor of Lake Worth. These developments so briefly outlined here make in the aggregate an imposing undertaking, the guiding spirit of which throughout has been the pioneer, Mr. Lyman. He has also been in ~erested in the public affairs of the county, serv-111g two years from 1909 as treasurer of Palm Beach County, being appointed the first incumbent of that office by Governor Albert W. Gilchrist. He was one of the first upervisors of the Lake Worth Drainage District, by means of which one of the richest sections of Florida has been developed. Thus Mr. Lyman has lived a very active and most useful life, and his efforts have been expended not only for his personal benefit, but for the progress and prosperity of an important commumty as well. . At Marlett, Michigan, in 1884, Mr. Lyman married Mary A. Beltz. She has been an active assistant to her husband in his various enterprises, and hold~ an o~cial pla~e in hi~ corporation. They have an 111lerest111g family of six children, named: George G., Edgar B., Arthur R., waiter H., Frank B. and Rachel M. Mr. Lyman is a member of Harmonia Lodge No. 138, F. and A. M., Lake Worth Chapter No'. 24, ,!< A. M., Palm Beach Commanclery No. 18, K. I., and West Palm Beach Council of the York Rite. He also belongs to Miami Co'nsistory No. 5, 32nd degree, Scottish Rite. ' A. CuiflNG L1\'1 'GST0Xc, M. D. A government surgeon at Pensacola, where he also handles an extensi~'Cc: private p~actice, Doctor Livingstone is a_ phys1cia!1 of vaned e. perience in his profession and 1s a veteran of the Spanish-American war. He was born at Hartford, Connecticut, July 21, 1875, of Scotch ancestry, son of Thomas Bain and Elizabeth (Cuming) Livingstone. Both his parents were born in Scotland and are now deceased. They came to America when young, the mother at the age of nineteen. They were married about 1850, and Thomas B. Livingstone served during the Civil war in the Hawkins Zouaves, the Twenty-first New York Regiment. He was all through the war, and was shot at the battle of Antietam, but recovered. Following the war he was a manufacturer of picture frames in Chicago. Doctor Livingstone spent his early life in Chi cago, attended the public schools and the Chi cago Manual Training School, and received his Master of Arts degree from Illinois University at Champaign. Following that he took up the study of medicine in the Chicago Homeopathic College of Medicine, graduating M. D. in 1899. In the meantime he had served with Roosevelt's Rough Riders in the war in Cuba and for his record as a soldier received the Congressional Medal. Doctor Livingstone took post graduate work in the Rush Medical College of Chicago and practiced medicine in that city for ten years. He was located at Sioux City, Iowa, two years and another two years at Mexico City, and after a brief interval during which he returned to Chicago, he came to Florida in 19n. He was at Jacksonville one year, al Tampa five years, and then following advanced work in the Chicago Post Graduate School of medicine he returned to Florida and has been engaged in his duties as a physician and surgeon at Pensacola since 1917. July 19, 1909, in Dakota City, Nebraska, Doctor Livingst one married Miss Magdal ine Cornell, a native of Norway. They are members of the Presbyterian Church. HAtmv A. I-loRN, an attorney at Daytoua Beach, spent part of his boyhood in this city, and since graduating in law has been a successful professional man and one of the most thoroughl y public spirited leaders in the community. Mr. !Jorn was born at Redfield, South Dakota, January 7, 1885. His parents were Ohristian L. and Lucinda (Lowm'aster) Horn, natives of Ohio. They were married in Ohio, and in 188o went to South Dakota. Subsequently they lived for a time in ChrisLiau County, Missouri, then in Putnam County, Ohio, from there came to Georgia, and fiually found the place that was thoroughly to their liking al Daylona Beach. The mother died 1here in 1902, at tl1e age of forty years. Christian L. Horn was a farmer for a number of years, but is now a cement coutractor and real estate owner. He was mayor of Daytona Bc-ach in 1910, and has also served on the city cotmoil. He i,s now sixty-nine years of age. Of his four children the two daughters are Florence and Mabel. The son George is an C'lccti-ical engineer, receiving his leclmical training in Purdue University in Indiana, was a member of the Engineers Corps during the war, and is now engaged in his profession al Fort Wayne, Indiana. Harry A. Ilorn finished his education in the Daytona High School in 1900. Subsequently he entered Indiana Stale University at Blooming ton, where he was graduated in law in 1909. He worked his way through univer s ity by washing dishes and doing other kinds of work. Soon a[ter graduating he returned aml began his general practice at Daytona Beach. He makes a specialty of probate and chancery cases. Mr. Horn during his professional experience had served as a member of the school board five 7:erms, three terms as city clerk, as city attorney and was county solicitor live months. In 19rr he married Edith J-J. Wolff, of Garrett, Indiana. They have two dhildren, Beverly and Helen. They are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Horn is ,a Mason and Elk, and a member of the Peninsula Civic Club. HucH C. SPARKMAN, an editor and publisher of wide and varied experience in Florida, was born at Fort Myers, April 17, 188o. His father, Thomas J. Sparkman, has been one of Florida's ablest men in the ministry and edu-

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74 HISTORY OF FLORIDA cational affairs. Burn at Jonesboro, Georgia, in 18,p, he was reared in Texas, was educated in Baylor University at \,Vaco, that state, served two years with the First Texas Cavalry in the Confederate army, and was wounded and dis charged after the battle of Shiloh. Soon after the war he came to Florida, married Susan E. Futch, of Sumter County, and was a pioneer in Uanatee and De Soto counties. He served as superintendent of schools of De Soto County, and for many years carried on his work as a Baptist minister in the southern parts of the state. He was noted for his earnestness and eloquence, and has also been a successful business man and orange grower. Hugh C. Sparkman attended public schools in De Soto County, the Florida Agricultural Col lege of Lake City and Stetson University of De Land, but without disparaging these institutions he_ ~els that his best training was acquired in prmtmg offices. He learned his track in the office of the Arcadia News, and during 1899 was a printer on the American and the Post at Havana Cuba. During 1904 Mr. Sparkman was publishe; of the De Soto County Advertiser of Zolfo was publisher in 1906-07 of the Wauchula Telegram at Wa~chula, of the Taylor County Herald at P~rr)'. m 1908-09, the Florida Index at Lake City m 1910-rr, and in 1912 established the Jack son County Leader at Marianna. During 1914 ~fr. Spa;kman was editor of the Orlando Morn-1111{ Sentmel. After leaving that paper he became editor and f(:>Under of the Daytona Morning Journ~I, and _smce then has made this one of the 11_10st 111/luential and successful papers in this sec tion of the state. Mr. Spark,r_nan s~rv~d as corporal in Company R of the F 1rst F lond~ Vo_luntecr Infantry in 1908-09. He was presidential elector at large from F!orida in 1912, was delegate at large to \he Nat10nal DenJocratic Conyention at St. Louis 111 1916, and dun!1g 1913-114 ser\'ed as secretary to Congressman Claude L Engle. He is a memb~r of the Elks, tl!e Daytona Golf and Country Clubs and the Halifax River Yacht Club. J.ar_ rnary 6, 1904, Mr. Sparkman married Daisy \\ 111:ams, da1!ghter of l\Irs. Kate Myers, of Ti tusville, Florida .. She di~d in 1913. On June 8, . 1916,. he marr!ed l\Iarre Crow of Stanberry, Missouri., _ Mr. St,?-rkman has four living sons, Harold, Clrfforcl, l•orrl'sl and (juy. \V1L~,1.\,c CLAWOURXE LAWSON, founder and executive head of the . Lawso!1 Realty Compa11y, ~t Orla!1do,. (?range lounty, 1s a prominent and 111fluent_1al 1:1t1zen wh_ose career has been marked by _d1st111~u1shed ach1t'n ! ment, as even this brief review will clearly demonstrate. :1-.Ir. Lawson claims the historic Old Dominion State as the place of his nativity, and both his paternal and maternal ancestors settled in Virginia in the Colonial period of our national his tory. Mr. Lawson was born on the family homestead farm or plantation, near :Meadows of the Dan in Floyd County, Virginia, on August 1, r&:">8. He is the only son in a family of eight children born to Claibourne T. and Virginia (Mason) Lawson, who passed their entire lives in that state, where the respective families have long been of prominent and influential connections. The childhood and youth of Mr. Lawson were marked with a due quota of experience in con nection with the affairs of the home farm and after having profited by the advantages of the public schools he attended the Stuart Normal College, in Virginia and equipped himself for effective pedagogic service. He taught school two years and in the meanwhile took up the study of law in a private way, his legal studies having been continued until he proved himself eligible for and was admitted to the bar of his native state, in r88g. Later he took a special course in patent law, at Columbian (now George Washington) University, Washington, D. C., from which institution he received, in r8gg, the degree of Master of Patent Laws. For several years thereafter he specialized in the practice of patent law and the incidental exploiting of mechanical inventions, with headquarters in the National capital. Mr. Lawson is possessor of marked mechanical talent and in 1866 he invented the now well known Lawson Tramway System. It is to be noted incidentally that this system is now largely in practical use in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Central America. From the city of Washington Mr. Lawson finally removed to Roanoke, Virginia, for the promotion of his invention, as the executive head of the Consolidated Tramway Company, which was organized for this purpose. He later sold his interest in this enterprise and retired from active association therewith. At Roanoke Mr. Lawson became actively concerned in real estate development, as president of the Salem Improve ment Company, and with this important line of enterprise he has continued his alliance since establishing his residence at Orando, Florida, in 1919. Here, as head of the Lawson Realty Com pany, he has given his personal supervision to the development and placing on the market of the Lawsona Park addition to Orlando and the Lake Davis Heights addition, both of which con stitute an important extension of the city and figure , as most desirable residential sections. A man of superabundant energy and initiati, e, Mr. Lawson conceived, early in the year 1922, the idea of organizing in Florida the independent republican party, for the specific purpose of eliminating the "negro question" from the political life of the stale. The organization was not launched as a new party, but simply as repre se1,ting that element of the existing republican party which was "opposed to the election or ap pointment of any person to public office in the State of Florida who is not a white American citizen." Upon effecting the organization of the independent republican party in Florida, Mr. Lawson, as the leading spirit in the laudable move . ment, was urged to become the candidate of the organization for representative of his Florida district in the United States Senate. He yielded to these urgent importunities and at the time of this writing is a candidate for this office. 1Ir. Lawson is a progressive and valued mem ber of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, the Orlando Realty Board and other civic organiza tions; in the Masonic fraternity he has received the thirty second degree of the Scottish Rite and is also a noble of the Mystic Shrine, besides which he is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Ile and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The year 1898 recorded the marriage of Mr. Lawson to Miss Servie K. Cornett, who lik ewise was born and reare. d in Virginia, and who is a daughter of Samuel N. Cornett. Mr. and Mrs. Lawson have three children: Elsie, Samuel Clai bourne, and Catherine Evam.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 75 \VrLLIAM C. SPENCER. As the chief official in the enforcement of law and the preservation of order in a county, the sheriff of a bailiwick is one of the most important men in it, and his . election is always a matter of moment for no section is more orderly than its sheriff is courage ous. Not every man is fitted by nature or training for the onerous duties of such an office, but to the credit of these officials and the people who elect them, seldom is one found lacking in either bravery or honor. One of these men deserving of special commendation in an age when the most severe demands are made upon such officials, is Sheriff William C. Spencer of Hillsborough County. Sheriff Spencer was born at Tampa, and his entire life has been spent in his home city for which he has the deepest love, and in whose progress he takes an engrossing pride. He is a son of Thomas K. Spencer, one of the pioneers of Tampa, who for many years held the same office as that in which his son is now giving such excellent service. After completing his schooldays in the excellent public schools of Tampa, William C. Spencer be came his father's chief deputy, and under the elder man's rigid training learned to exact from wrong doers proper consideration for the law and penalty of defying it. With his father's retirement from the office of sheriff, Deputy Spencer spent several years in attending to the affairs of his private undertakings, and then entered the race for the office of sheriff on his own account. In spite of a strong opposition he was elected and served for four years, his experience and capability made him a candidate for appointment as deputy United States marshal, which he received, and was placed in charge of the Tampa office, and so served during the time this country was at war. In this capacity he was able to render the government very valuable service in keeping track of undesirable aliens, and proGerman propaganda. In 1920 he once more came before the people of his county for election to the office of sheriff, and received the nomination in the democratic primaries only after a hard fight. Iris e l ection followed and he had the satisfaction of polling an excellent majority. A diligent and conscientious public official, Sheriff Spencer's record is an enviable one, and a number of notable criminals have been brought to justice through his sagacity, patience and fearlessness. \Vhile he has made this record, it is only fair to assert that he has been equally zealous in protecting the constitutional rights of those under his charge and seeing that they received fair and impartial treatment. These characteristics have brought him continued and renewed honors for his fellow citizens know that he is a man in whom faith may be placed. and whose honesty and uprightness are proverbial. GEORGE W. FOWLER. One of the most important local industries of the City of \Vest Palm Beach is the George \V. Fowler, Incorporated, a machine repair shop and garage, typical of handling all the work required in the repair of automohiles and boat machinery. When it was established nearly twenty years ago the automobile was not considered within its scope of service, and it is largely devoted to general machine and lJ
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76 HISTORY OF PLORIDA promoted to supervisor of the Colfax District of t he Pittsburgh schools. The interests of teaching made a strong claim upon h is ambi tion, and he retired from the work on ly to provide for himsc i f and fa mily a better future than cou ld be secured i n the teaching p rofession. A well qualified a rchitect, M r. Bartholomew located a t Palm Beach in 19m. S ince t hen he has bee n accorded a growing volume o f business as an a rchitect a nd as a b uilding contractor. A large part of his bus iness has bee n designing and constructing residences fo r the wealthy class of peop le who make Palm Beach their winter home. All of his designs are distinct ive and the a rchitectural expert can trace his ind ividual styles in many of t he ho mes of this winter resort. His sty le has been develo ped as a result of a practical study of loca l problems, with a specia l reference to c limate and the s ub-tropical surroundings. A feature of construction that he has developed and may in fact be said to be his trade mark as a buil der, is the rolled-cave roof, utilizing a compos ition s hingle in a very attractive way by roll ing t he e aves. This feature has been largely cop ied by other designers. From a long l ist of modern homes of which Mr. Bartholomew has been architect of i n Palm Beac h, a few may be mentioned: T he Gl idden residence, and t he residences of Charles Lambert, M rs. Charles Temple, M rs. Charles S. Brackett a nd S idney Maddock. W hile the bu lk of his b usiness has been in his home city Palm Beac h, he has also erected both residence and business bu ildings in West Palm Beach. Mr. Bartholomew married Miss Carolyn Jacobsen of C hicago. T hey have twin daughters, Helen Louise and Maurita Carolyn. WILLIAM A . WILLIAMS whose ho me has been in Miami si nce 1916, and who prior to that time had been a winte r v isitor to the c ity for many seasons, is k nown throughout the State and abroad as we ll as the deve loper and owner of the famous Lawrence Park and t he Royal Poinciana Parks in Miami. Now spending his years in a home of remarkab le beauty a nd charm, Mr. \Vi lliams has had a l ife of world wide experience a nd the satisfaction that resul ts from adventure and contact with, many problems. He was born and raised in St. Louis. He was a poor boy, had to make his own way, and as a youth went to New York seeking k nowledge. He attended a business college in that c ity. As a n o iler i n the e ngine room of a steamship he went to C hina, v isited Hongkong an d other C hinese cities, later worked on steamships from New York to the South Atlantic and Gulf ports and was a lso on the Pacific Coast in California a nd the Northwest. Mr. Williams is an experienced navigator as well as an e ngineer, a nd is master of the tech nical machinery as well as the navigation of his fine private yacht, a deep sea boat which is anchored a t the boat landing of Lawrence Park. M r. Williams laid the foundation of his wealth in t he automobile industry. For a t ime he was wholesale distributor for the F ranklin and later the B uick car, and he was interested in some of the co mpanies that were amalgamated by Mr. Durant i n the General Motors Company. Lawrence Park, his home, is a tract of about seven ty-five ac res situated on the Miami River and extending back to Northwest Seventh Street. He deve loped this park an d also a portion of the Royal Poinciana Park adjoining Lawrence Park. Lawrence Park is part of t he original Lawrence estate, owned by the late General Lawrence a wealthy citizen of Medford, Massachusetts, who spent his winters here. l'ndcr its present ownership it has become perhaps one of the largest and most beautiful botanical gardens in the world. A famous scientist who spent several days there declared that in no other one spot of the Globe to his knowledge could be fou11d such a collection of specimens of plant life. It requires many years to import all these specimens, the work being inaugurated by General Lawrence, who spent over $1,0000,000 in beautifying the place. Some of the scenes portrayed in the moving pic ture film "The Lotus Eater" were filmed in this part. One of the features of the part that has been admired by thousands of visitors is the great Banyan tree, a direct species of the commercial rubber tree. It is essentially a parasite, and the seed many :years ago was depos ited on an old oak tree, where it germinated and sprouted and thence sent down its roots or feelers. These roots encountered an old ox cart wheel and gradually wound their way through the spokes and around the rim until the wheel is now completely hound by the enormous roots of this plant octopus, while the original oak itself has long s ince s uccumbed to the great strength of the rubber tree. The beautiful Japanese fountain at the river entrance to the park is a very recent development. lt was formerly a marsh, and 1[r. ,vmiams had a sea-wall constructed behind which thousands of yards of muck and dirt were piled and the entire space is now covered with a heavy growth of grass in the midst of which is the fountain thirty feet in diameter, illuminated every night by elec tric lights. Near the fountain is an inland waterway entrance, the bank on either side being lined hy a douhlc row of stately royal palm trees. Mr. Williams since early boyhood has been interested in the practical ~ide of botany and horticulture, one o f his boyhood experiences was employment in a florist's shop. In the intervals of his business career and ~ince retiring he has continued his study of plant and tree growth so that it is a profession in which he is a n ackn0wlcdged authority. He is particularly well known among botanists as an authority o n the p lanting. propagation and care of the royal palm tree, and is one of the very few Americans who have mastered the secret of this tropical growth. The royal palm is an exceedingly de licate plant in its early years, ancl it has been estimated that barely five per cent of the seed ever germinates and a very small part of the see ell ings survive the first months of existence. Mr. \Villiams after long a nd careful imestigation and study has approximatelv determined the conditions and management inost essential to the germination and early culture, and in his nurserv he has many thousancls of sturdy young royal palms which he plans to use in the development and beautification of his own estate and also other parts and highways of South Florida. ToM M. BRY.\:-.. The history of Fort Lauderdale, now the county seat of Broward County, from its very beginning resolved in an important degree around the name of the Bryan fa mily. Capt. P. N. Bryan, now living retired, was among the first settlers there. and one of the most thoro ughlv esteemed and honored pioneers. His son, Tom M. Bryan, grew up in this locality and since early manhood has heen prominently identified with contracting of roads and other heavy con-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 77 struction. He is one of the large individual property owners in that section, an extensive orange and grape fruit grower. The Bryan family have been in Florida for eighty years. Capt. P. . Bryan was born in Hamilton County, in 184-1, his parents being natives of 'orlh Carolina. P. N. Bryan, in 1861, at the age of sixteen volu11leered in the Confederate service, and was with the Second Florida Regiment four years. This regiment was attached lo Lee's army of Northern Virginia. Soon after the close of the war i11 January, 1866, he located in Volusia County, near New Smyrna. There in August, 1867, he married Louisa C. Murray, also a native of Florida, born at Jacksonville. In 188o they moved to the town of ew Smyrna. where P. . Bryan was a merchant and gradually extended his interests lo the cattle industry and orange growing. He was elected and served two terms as tax collector of Volusia County and represented that county in the State Legislature. His business interests have become concentrated in orange growing and the great freeze of 1894-95 destroyed practically all his accumulations in Volusia County. A ftcr this disaster he came in 1895 to what is now Fon Lauderdale. A man of mature bu iness experience, he secured the contract for building the grade of the Florida East Coast Railway, then being extended southward from West Palm Beach. This contract was for a distance of ten miles north of Fort Lauderdale. \Vhen the town of Fort Lauderdale was started he moved his family to that locality, and for nearly thirty years has made this delightful place his home. From time to time he has made judicious investments in town properly, and has also engaged in constructive work. He built and still owns the New River Hotel. His home adjoins that hotel, the grounds fronting on the New River, constituting one of the beautiful and valuable sights in the city. . Tom M. Bryan was born in 1882 while his parents were still residents of Jew Smyrna. He was about thirteen years of age when the family removed lo Fort Lauderdale. His higher educa tion was acquired in Emory College at Atlanta, where he was a member of the class of 1902. Since leaving college he has been engaged in the contracting business, and at times has handled very extensive construction enterpri es. IIe was a factor in the building of the Hillsborough Light House, and organized and built the first electric lighting plant in Fort Lauderdale. For several years his capital and facilities have been employed in the highway construction in Broward and Palm Beach County. He built thirty miles of sand road back of Lake \Vorth in Palm Beach County, and about fifty miles of highway in Broward County. The Loxahatchee Road, a modern highway from \Vest Palm Beach westward to the twenty-one mile post, was a contract completed by Mr. Bryan in 1920. Then in April, 1922, he was awarded a contract to the amount of $190,000 for building the cross-stale highway westward through Palm Beach County, from near the bend in the \Vest Palm Beach Canal to Belle Glade, for a distance of twenty-one miles, this being an extension of the Loxahatchee Road. Mr. Bryan put his organization to work on this contract in May, 1922. He also built and owns two modern business blocks in Fort Lauderdale. He owns the local telephone company, the plant of which is in one of these buildings. The largest and most successful citrus grove in Broward County is owned by Mr. Bryan. It comprises fifty acres of orange tree.s and fifty acres of grape fruit. Mr. Bryan also organized the First Stale Bank of Lauderdale, the first banking institution of the town. Along with his exceptional business enterpri e has always gone a free and liberal participation in local affairs. He was one of the incorpora tors of the town, and was selected by local citizens to represent Fort Lauderdale before the State Legislature in the session of 1915-16 for the purpose of affecting the organization of the new County of Broward with Fort Lauderdale as the county scat. As a result of thi, effort the new county was organized in 1916. l\fr. Bryan is a Mason and a Ii fe member of the Shrine. He married Miss Camille Perry, a native of Covington, Georgia. They have one son, Harry Nathan Bryan. ANDERS S. ANDERSEN. Going to sea when a boy, Anders S. Andersen for years enjoyed the rough life of a sailor, until an accident of fortune or misfortune wrecked him on the shores of Florida and turned his energies into a new channel. Since then he has been identified with the dredging in dustry, and is now one of the leading dredging contractors along the East Coast, being president of the Andersen Dredging Company of West Palm Beach. Mr. Andersen was born near Kolding, Denmark, in 18go. He went to sea at the age of four teen. From that time he was dependent upon his own efforts for his living. His first trip was on a sailing vessel to Greenland. For about a year following he was a sailor in the orth Sea and the Baltic. This was followed by a service with the Hamburg-American Line between Hamburg and New York. His last years on the deep sea were spent in the South American service on square-riggers, sailing from the port of New York. While on one of the voyages in the Gulf of Mexico he was wrecked, and was landed at Pensaola. This gave him his first knowledge of Florida. He was wrecked in 1c;o61 but in the early part of 1907 he again tried the sea, shipping out of Pensacola on a Norwegian square-rigger bound for South America with a cargo of lumber. This boat was wrecked off the Florida seas and landed at Key West. That ended the chapter of his experiences as a sailor, and from that time he has been a resident of Florida. At Key West he found employment in the dredging service with Howard Trumbo, well known as the builder of Trumbo Island and the prominent dredging and filling contractor on various projects in Cuba. His first experience at Key West was in the filling of the terminals for the Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast H.ailway, and following that he went with the Trumbo organization to Cuba on a large dredg ing project for the Spanish-American Iron Com pany. On returning to Florida in 1910 Mr. Andersen utilized his experience to engage in busine s in the employ of :Mr. Trumbo as Captain at West Palm Beach, and his first important work here was for the filling of Royal Palm Park and Floral Park at Palm Beach. He handled also the dredging, piling, filling and sea-wall construction work for a number of the great estates at Palm Beach and West Palm Beach. His facilities have also been employed by the mnnicipalities of Palm Beach, Lake Worth and West Palm Beach, and he has completed some large contracts of excava tion in the building of drainage canals, locks and other works in Palm Beach County and vicinity.

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78 HISTORY OF FLORIDA In 1922 his business was incorporated as the Andersen Dredging Company, Inc., of which he is president and active manager. At the present writing the company has the contract for the excavation and building of locks for the St. Lucie Canal west of Stuart in Palm Beach County, and also the contract for the dredging of the Lake Worth Inlet for the Inlet Commission of Palm Beach County. This latter project is designed to provide a harbor for West Palm Beach of sufficient depth to make this a real seaport and bring about a reduction of freight rates which will add a tremendous asset to the growing com mercial importance of the city and its surround ing territory. The Andersen Dredging Company, Inc., has a large and extensive equipment of dredge boats and drilling boats, equipped with hydraulic and other machinery for efficient work. The company maintains a large pay roll and is one of the largest organizations in \Vest Palm Beach employing labor. Mr. Andersen is a popular member of the com munity of West Palm Beach. He is a York and Scottish Rite :Mason and Shriner. His beautiful home is known as the Billows, and is located at Palm Beach. He married Selma Borgeson, a na tive of Sweden, and they have a daughter and a son, Ingrid and Einar Andersen. J. \V. DYKE. The third generation of his name to live in Florida, J. \V. Dyke has spent his life in the State, and for thirty years has been a resident of Tampa and Hillsborough coun ty, and lays claim to being the most thorough bred American Florida Cracker in it, his family on his father's side having been identified with it since General Jackson (Old Hickory) invaded it when it was Spanish Territory, his grandfather and great-grandfather in the paternal line being soldiers in Jackson's Army at that time, havi11g enlisted from Orangeburg District, South Caro lina. Capt. Joseph E. Dyke, the grandfather, returned to Florida as soon as he was discharged and took up his residence and was married here. J. W. Dyke was born in Gadsden County, Floritla, January 2, 1868, a son of Jacob H. and Frances A. (Rawles) Dyke, and grandson of Joseph E. Dyke. who came to Florida from South Carolina in 1817, and here continued to reside the remainder of his life. He was one of the pioneers of Gadsden County, and served as a soldier after coming to the state. His son, Jacob H. Dyke, was born in Gadsden County, and there he was reared. When war broke out between the North and the South he espoused the cause of the latter section, and gave proof of his senti ments by enlisting in Company A, Fourth Florida Infantry as a p,rivate, and as such took part in many of the hardest fought battles of the war. Following the termination of hostilities he resumed his occupation of farming, and became one of the leading men in his line in Leon County, to which he moved early in the recon struction period. Frances A. (Rawls) Dyke, mother of J. W. Dyke of this notice, was a daughter of Laban Rawls, who, with his brother and father, was among the early settlers of Gadsden County, coming to that region when a trading post was the only settlement. Growing to manhood in his native county, J. W. Dyke attended its public schools, and l~arned early to make himself useful, and to render a good account of his time. In March, 1893, he came to Tampa which at that time was an unimportant community, and during the three decades which have since passed, he has seen some most remarkable developments take place and has borne his part. ' :Made a Mason in 1909 Mr. Dyke is now secretary and recorder of his lodge, in which he has b_een a1vanced to the ~hirty-second degree, Scot tish Rite and the K111ght Tcmplar, York Rite, and also belongs to the Mystic Shrine. In August, 1909, :Mr. Dyke was married to Julia A. Harmon, a daughter of Cal and Mrs. M. D. Harmon of Lexington, South Carolina. :\fr. and Mrs. Dyke have no children. He has taken a very active part in local politics as a democrat, and originated the cliange in primaries in 1908, and was one of the men instrumental in securing the adoption of the Jlre,ent commis sion fom1 of government for Tampa. Mr. Dyke is opposed to ncgro equality socially and politi cally, but is more than willing to see them protected and giYen a fair chance to live. WALLACE F1surn STO\'ALL, president and manager of the Tribune Publishing Company, and editor of the Tampa Tnbrt11c, is one of the men of Florida who owe their prosperity entirely to their own efforts, and who, commencing life with nothing but natural endowml'llts aiid the deter mination to win, have steadily progressed. \Vhile achieving a success which is noteworthy, Mr. Stovall has at the same time won a,1d holds the approval of those with whom he has been asso ciated in different capacities, and is today one of the most popular men of Tampa. The birth of Wallace Fisher Stovall took place at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, January 4, tlio
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 79 belongs to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Not only has Mr. Stovall worked long and hard to give his patrons a live modern newspaper, but it has always been his aim to support, through the columns of his paper, those projects which he deemed worthy of forwarding, and to oppose with forceful eloquence and plain statement of facts corruption and graft 110 matter what the consequence might be . The people of Tampa and Hillsborough County have come to realize that it is safe to govern their actions according to the stand taken by the Tribunt', and much of the constructive work accomplished along all lines in this region may be directly traced to the broad-gauged policie s of this standard newspaper and its public-spirited editor and publisher. JOHN RonERT CASON, JR., M. D. The namP John Robert Cason is a distinguished one in Florida, due to the services of father and son, the one in the Methodist ministry and the other in the field of medicine and surgery. Doctor Cason has for many years carried on a large general practice at Delray, in Palm Beach County, though for more than a year he was absent from his home town doing service in France under the Red Cross. His father, Rev. John Robert Ca s on, was born in Anson County, North Carolina. He was a boy when his parents moved to Arkansas and located on a plantation in the rich valley of the Arkansas River, near Pine Bluff. When only eighteen years of age he was made a local preacher in the Methodist Church, South. He subsequently pur sued the studies for the regular ministry, was admitted as an itinerant and subsequently was regularly ordained in 1885. From Arkansas he came to Florida in 1900, and has rendered many distinguished services to his church here. His first assignment in the Florida conference was the pastorate at Lakeland, where he built a rhurch. He was then at Hyde Park, Tampa. where he finished the church building begm, under a former pastor. He was then made prp siding elder of the Bartow District, following which he resumed his pastorate duties and at Miami built the Avenue C Church, and was then successively pastor at Orlando and West Palm Beach. From West Palm Beach he was called to his present duties as president of the Florida Methodist Orphanage at Ente rprise. Rev. John R. Cason married Rebeccab Ingraham, a nativr of Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Her father was th" late Colonel Ingraham, an Arkansas pioneer, a gallant Confederate officer in the Civil war, and builder of the first brick store building in Pini> Bluff. Dr. John Robert Cason, Jr., was born at Pinr Bluff, Arkansas, in r88r, graduated from the high school of his native city in 18g9, and spent one year in Hendricks College. His medical education was acquired in the medical department of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. where he graduated in 1905. For a time he was located at Arkadelphia, serving as surgeon fur the Arkadelphia Lumber C o mpany. However in the latter part of 1905 he came to Delray, Florida, and has been busily engaged in the prac tice of his profession . I Le is a member of the County, State and American Medical associations . Doctor Cason is a director of the Bank of Delray, and was its president from 1917 until 1918 when he entered the Red Cross service. He enlisted in the American Red Cross Chil dren's Bureau. In August of that year he went overseas with the unit of the bureau under the direction of the famous Doctor Lucas of Boston. The bureau's base in South Central France was at St. Etienne, and here with two associate sur geons, Doctor Cason had charge of 16,000 refu gees. These surgeons performed almost herculean tasks in taking charge of this great community of homeless people. He continued his service under Doctor Lucas in France until March I, 1919, and was then assigned to duty with the Medical and Surgical Department of the Red Cross at Paris until the latter part of April He then returned to America and r:eceived his honorable discharge in May. While living at Arkadelphia, Arkansas, Doctor Cason married Miss Mary Sloan. They have three children, Roy, Joanna, Mary Katherine. . ERNEST CHARLES HARRIS. There is an old say mg to the effect that no man can live to himself alone, and in nothing is this more clearly proven than in the business world. Each man's success adds to the sum total of the wealth of his asso ciates, and is a determining factor in the advance ment of his community. Every new enterprise established, if it is a success means that much more business and encouragement for others not only to expand, but new ones in the process of inauguration. Thus it is that the realtor plays so important a part in his home neighborhood. Making it his business to be in close touch with all development projects, he knows what is being done, and what is being projected, and is an invaluable advisor on investments. Through his energy and alertness is due not only the handling of properties already erected, but the building up of new sections, and the interesting of new capital. The men thus engaged have been espe cially valuable to Tampa, particularly during the last ten years or so, and one who has made a name for himself not only for successful busi ness transaction, but also for his unflinching integrity and high sense of honor, is Ernest Charles Harris. The birth of Mr. Harris occurred in Eaton County, Michigan, September 19, 1876, and he is a son of Charles S. and Sarah A. (Jackson) Harris, natives of New York and Michigan, re spectively, both of whom are living and making their home at Tampa, to which they came in 18go. They have had four children born to them, of whom Ernest Charles Harris is the third. Thirteen years old when he came to Tampa, Ernest Charles Harris was reared in this city. His educational opportunities were few, he hav ing acquired his knowledge through practical experience. Becoming a clerk in a grocery store at an early age he made himself useful and was with the firm of Maas Brothers for eighteen years, during which time he made many acquaint ances and a number of warm personal friends, who appreciated his excellent qualities. In 1903 he went into business for himself as a realtor and now has a large connection, and handles city and country property, collects rents, manages estates, and makes loans and investments. In carrying on his different transactions, some of which are of magnitude, Mr. Harris has become known all over this part of the state, and his methods are of such a character as to so inspire confidence that many come to him to take care of their interests, knowing that in him they will not only receive

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80 IIISTORY OF FLORIDA an expert service, but an honest one as well. Ht: is a Knight Templar, a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason, and a Noble of the Mystic Shrine and very zealous in behalf of his fraternity. In 1903 Mr. Harris was united in marriage with Carrie W. Sexton, a daughter of 0. G. Sexton, of Tampa. Mr. and Mrs. Harris have no children. For thirty-two years Mr. Harris has been a resident of Tampa, and during that period has seen some most remarkable devel?1i ment, and is proud of th_e fact that he has partic! pated in so much of 1t, and that through J11s efforts so much constructive work has been accomplished. JonN M. LuKERT. South Florida is the home of a number of commercial poultry farms, and one of the most interesting of them is the Avo cado Poultry Farm at alerno in Palm Beach County. This farm is the outgrowth of an old and extensive poultry industry conducted for many years by the Lukert family on Long Island, New York. The manager of the Avocado fa:m is John M. Lukert, a very young man but wit? an experience since boyhood in the poultry busi ness, which he learned on his father's place on Long Island. His father is William Lukert. Born in Ger many, he came to the United States at the age of fourteen in 1876. For over thirty years he has been on~ of the larger commercial poultry men in the New York metropolitan district. His plant is at Moriches in Suffolk County 011 Long Island. The object of the business was r<;ising Whi~e Pekin ducks and White Leghorn cl11ckens. This Suffolk County farm raises annually an average of a hundred thousand White Pekin ducks and severa l thousand Leghorns. Late in 1917 William Lukert began preparations for establishing a poultry farm on the East Coast of South :florida. Se l ecting Salerno as a favorable location, . he began operations there in 1918, thus foll:nd(ng the Avocado Poultry Farm. At the begmnmg this farm had the advantage for many years of long and succe sful experience _of the Lukert family, and within a very short tnne has ~come one of the most famous poultry farms m the South successful from every point of view. It is located on the East Side of the Dixie Highway, immediately south of the town limits of Salerno. At the present time the farm embraces forty-one acres. There is a handsome residence and a large array of buildings, all in one style of architecture and appearance. Every equipment and facility a1!proved by the experience of the Lukerts as practi cal poultry men may be found on this poultry ~-. Its specialty is White Pekin ducks and White Leghorn chickens, and all the po_u11:ry stock on the farm is of one of these vanelles. At the present writing there are between two thousand and twenty-five hundred laying hens. Each year between three and four thousand pullets are brought to maturity, necessitati_ng the raising of six or eight thousand young chicks. The depart ment devoted to ducks is even more extensive, and the management has already found it difficult to meet the demands for the duck end of the busi ness. The capacity of the duck plant for the winter season of 1922-23 has been more than doubled. The Avocado Poultry Farm maintains a breed ing department in order to _insure unifo~mity of stock to build up an even higher reputation than it now has. Several acres of the farm are devoted to the cultivation of the avocado pear. There is also a considerable acreage cultivated to grow the necessary green food, principally napier grass, for the poultry feed and there is also grinding and milling facilities. John M. Lukert is manager of the Avocado Poultry Farm throughout the year. His father has practically retired from business, and Harold, an older son, looks after the business on Long Island. John 111. Luke rt was born at Moriches, Suffolk County, Long Island, in 1898, and from earliest boyhood has had duties im-olving experi ence and a steady acquisition of knowledge con cerning the poultry industry. However, like other successful men in that field, he is never satisfied with what he already knows. He is constantly studying and experimenting, and has derived much benefit in his opinion from special courses taken with the American Poultry School of Kansas City. He is enthusiastic over South Florida as a great poultry and egg producing country, and is one of the most enterprising yonnger citizens of Palm Beach County. .Mr. Lukert married Margaret Holmes Pomeroy, a descendant of the English family of that name who owned Pomeroy Abbey, and members of which it came to Florida about twenty years ago from Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Lukert have one child, Margaret Georgina. Mr. Lukert is a mem ber of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the American Poultry Association. JEAN R. VAN J ULSINGllA BLINCK. During the nearly ten years that he has been a resident of Tampa, Jean R. Van Jul singha Blinck has been prominently identified with the city's intere ts, and is an influencing factor in the social life and diplomatic circles of this locality. He is of distin gui heel ancestry, inheriting an honorable name and a fine mental organization, and these, im proved by broad culture, re elute purpose and a life of probity and rectitude, have carried him to an enviable place in the regard and affection of men, and enabled him to achieve much for his own reputation, for the welfare of hi country, his adopted city, and for the benefit of his con temporaries, those who are working for the advancement of Tampa and Hillsborough County. J can R. Van J ulsingha Blinck wa born in Holland, August 22, 1855, where he remained for the first ten years of his life, attending school , but he completed hii. education in Belgium, France and England. Returning to Holland, he engaged in business, and for a time was in charge of the central telephone office at Groningen, Holland. Coming to the United States he became chief of the ew York and New Jersey Telephone Company, but later resigned to go into • business as an electrical engineer, in New York City, where he remained until 1913, when he came to Tampa on account of the illness of his wife. She was suffering acutely from rheumati m. Immediately after their arrival at Tampa she began to show improvement, and within two months was completely cured, the delii;rhtfu l . urroundings and salubrious climate of this region re toring her to health without the use of any medicines. From then on Mr. Blinck and his wife became enthusiasts with reference to Tampa which has since continued to be their home. Mr. Blinck is engaged here as an engineer and surveyor, and since 1916 has been vice consul of the Netherlands. A man of deep sympathy and generous impul~es, his benefactions are mai:iy, and he is now actmg as secretary and superintendent of the Associated Charities of the city.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 81 1fr. Blinck was married in Holland to Helena Maria Stutterkieser, also a native of Holland. They have two daughters and one son, namely: Jennette Henrietta, who is the wife of James G. Davis, of Tampa; Aleda, who is the wife of Harold Blake, of Boston, Massachusetts; and John R., who is attending school at Tampa Fraternally Mr. Blinck mai1itains ml'mbershiJJ with the Masons and Knights of Pythias. STANLEY KITCHING is the leading merchant, an extensive property owner, the mayor, and a lead ing citizen of the most interesting kind on the Florida East Coast, Stuart-on-the-St. Lucie, in Palm Beach County. This town has the great advantage of being s ituated on a peninsula at the point where the main line of the Florida East Coast Railroad and the Dixie Highway cross the St. Lucie River. Mr. Kitching belongs among the pioneers of this region. Ile was born in Warrington, near Liverpool, England, in 1874, and in 1882 when he was eight years of age came to America with his parents, locating in Florida. His uncle, \Valter Kitching, had come from England to Florida in 1867, and was one of the pioneers on the lower east coast of the state, in St. Lucie County. In 1883 Walter Kitching located at what is now the town of Stuart, purchasing a tract of land on the St. Lucie River for his home within what is now the city limits. Walter Kitching is the oldest living settler of Stuart, and for a long number of years has been engaged in the mercantile business. Ile also owns valuable land and grove interests in Palm Beach County and St. Lucie County. Stanley Kitching grew up in the town of Sebastian, Florida. Since early manhood he has had a career of business characterized by great energy and progressiveness, and since 1902 has been a merchant at Stuart. He started there in a very small way and has set his establishment fully upward in advance of the development and ex1>ansion of the locality. In 1922 he completed a handsome store building which is the home of the mercantile firm of Kitching and Eckess. This is a store both in its equipment and in its stock that would be a credit to a city several times as large as Stuart-on-the-St. Lucie, and Mr. Kitch ing was responsible for this investment which at least for the time means more to the community than to himself. Mr. Kitching is also one of the owners of the Osceola Building, another handsome and modern structure. This, with the Kitching Building, gives Stuart's business district an appearance of metropolitan distinction. Mr. Kitching has enthusiastically put himself at the head of practi cally every public spirited 111ovement in Stuarton-the-St. Lucie. He has given Stuart a high class mercantile enterprise, and is working whole heartedly with other citizens to realize the advan tages of Stuart's unique position on the rivers, harbors and canals that concentrate at both points. Mr. Kitching was elected mayor of Stuart in 1920, and was reelected in 1921 and 192::,. He is very proud of the St. Lucie River Ya..:ht Club, of which he is commodore. This organization has erected a splendid club house at Stuart, said to be the largest and finest on the Florida Coast. MARION E. QuINA, M. D., is a specialist in ear, nose and throat diseases, has been in practice at Pensacola since 1907, and for a number of years has been au active or reserve officer in the i\rmy o r Navy Medical Corps and for a considerable part of the war was connected with the Naval Base Hospital at Pensacola. Doctor Quina was born at Pensacola, l\Iarch 20, 1883, son of AL A. and Leoneine (Swaine) Qu111a, his father a native of Florida and hi:, mother of Louisiana. IIis father now deceased, was in the export timber business and was a leading figure in Pensacola from about the close of the Civil war until his death. He was a good business man and citizen, but would never accept any public office. . Marion E. Quina attended the grammar and high schools at Pensacola, following which he attended St. Bernard College at Culmond, Ala bama, and studied medicine in Tulane University at ew Orleans. He was graduated M. D. in 1905, and after his general course of medicine he spent a year and one-half as health surgeon in the Chicago Eye & Ear Hospital and continued his studies six months in the Post Graduate Hospital of New York. He began practicing as a specialist at Pensacola in 1907. In 1912 Doctor Quina gave up his practice and went abroad, studying in his specialties at a huge clinic in Vienna, in the General Hospital of Berlin and the General Hospital of London, and devoted more than nine months of close study and appli cation to the unexcelled advantages of foreign schools and hospitals. He then returned and resumed his private practice in 1913. June 14, 1914, Doctor Quina became a member of the Old Medical Reserve Corps. The day America declared war against Germany he wired his services to Washington and the following day was ordered to Fort Barrancas. He received a commission as captain in the old Reserve Corps, which had not then been properly recognized in the army. At the end of six months he resigned, and then joined the Navy Medical Corps in the Aviation Department, with a commission as first lieutenant. He was attached to the Naval Base Hospital at Pensacola, and remained there on active duty until May, 1919. He was then re lieved to resume his private practice, but is still in class 2, of the Naval Reserve Corps, with the rank of lieutenant, junior grade. March 4, 1916, at Philadelphia, Doctor Quina married Miss Grace Elizabeth Reid, daughter of Marshall and Josephine Reid. Her mother is still living. Her father was in the wholesale tobacco business. Doctor and Mrs. Quina have three children, twin sons, Robert Marshall and Marion E., Jr., and a daughter Corinne. Doctor Quina is a Catholic, a member of the Knights of Columbus, and is affiliated with the County, State and Southern Medical associations. Doctor Quina's maternal grandfather was Desdarie Quina, a native of Spain, a physician, and a man of prominence in the early days of Pensacola. Lours CONRAD MASSEY. One of the leaders in the promulgation of general law of Orange County, Louis Conrad Massey, of Orlando, during more than thirty-seven years of professional labors has been at various times the incumbent of positions of high trust and responsibility, in all of which he has displayed splendid ability and fidelity. Mr. Massey is a Philadelphian by birth and a son of Lambert R. and Elizabeth (Conrad) Massey. Lambert R. Massey, of Irish lineage, was a son of Samuel Massey, the latter a son of Charles Massey, whose father, Samuel Massey, was an officer in the American Army during the \\'ar

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82 HISTORY OF FLORIDA of the Revolution and member of the Pennsylvania Stale Naval Board. He was a son of Wight Massey, the latter a son of Samuel Massey, who was born in Cork, Ireland, and came to this country in 17ro. On t h e maternal side, Louis Conrad Massey is a descendant of Thones Kunders, Anglicized into Dennis Conrad, who came from Germany in 1683 and became one of the founders of Germantown, now a part of the city of Philadelph ia. H e was the father of Henry Conrad, the father of William Courad, who removed to Virginia, the latter's son being John Conrad. who moved back to Philadtlphia, and was the father of Prof. Solomon W. Conrad, an instructor in the University of Philadelphia, and the maternal grandfather of Mr. Massey Lambert R. Massey was a prominent shipping merchant of Phil ade lphi a, and in that city Louis Conrad Massey was reared. After attending the public schools he entered the University of Pennsyl vania, department of arts, from w hi ch he was graduated, and then commenced the study of law at Philadelphia, where he was admitted to the bar in 1885. In that same year he came to Florida and located at Orlando, which has since been his place of residence and the scene of his great professional success. He has lon(l" been numbered among the ablest lawyers of the state and was appointed by Governor F l eming as one of a commission of three to revise the statutes of Florida, the result of the commission's work being known as the Revised Statutes of 1892. For years Mr. Massey served as one of three commissioners from Florida on the uniformity of legislation in the United States and resigned in 1917, but was reappointed in 1921 and prevailed upon to serve. From 1904 to 1912 he served as state senator from t h e Nineteenth Senatorial District. From 1907 to 19II he was counsel for the railroad commission of Florida. He has a l so held other positions of honor and trust. Mr. Massey has always been a democrat in politics and his religious connection is with the Episcopa l Church for which he has been grand chancellor in Southern Florida since 1893. He was Grand Mason of Florida from 1909 to r9u, Grand High Priest in 1905 and 1900, Grand Commander of Knights Templar in 19rr and Grand Master of the Grand Council in 19o6 for severa l years. He has attained to the thirty-second Scottish Rite degree, and is a Knight Templar, a York Rite Mason and a Noble of the Mystic Shrine. Mr. Ma sey was the organizer of the State Bank of Orlando and Trust Company in 1893 and has been its president ever since. He was professor of p l eading and practice in the law school of Stetson University from 1()03 to 1907, but resigned to take up work on the State Railroad Commission. ).fr. Massey belongs to the Florida State Historical Association and the Pennsylvania State Historical ociety. In 1020 Mr. Mas ey was united in marriage with :Miss Edith Robinson, of Orlando. FRANK }AMES FRAZIER, chiropractic physician at West Palm Beach, where his professional partner is his wife, also a talented memb!!r of the pro fe sion, is a native of Florida and a member of one of the pioneer families of Palm Beach County. He was born at Sanford, Florida, in 1884, son of R. R. and Margaret (Hough) Frazier. His mother was born in Chicago, and is now living with her daughter at West Palm Beach. R. R. Frazier was a native of Brooklyn, but when a boy removed with his parents to Northern Illinois, in the vicinity of Chicago. When still a mere youth he volunteered as a Union soldier and gave four years of service with an Illinois regiment. His war service left him with impaired health, and he sought the benefit of the mild climate of Florida during the seventies. For five years he lived al Jacksonville, was at Sanford something over three years, and in 1887 became one of the first settlers on the St. Lucie River, at what is now the town of Stuart, in the extreme northern part of Palm Beach County. He purchased a home stead of one hundred and sixty acres there, and was engaged in its cultivation and management until his death in 1905. The greater part of this homestead was owned by the family until 1922. Mrs. Frazier had made subdivisions lo the town of Stuart, including the Frazier Aclclition and Woodlawn Park Addition. Frank James Frazier grew up al Stuart, was educated in the grammar and high schools there, and subsequent l y began the study of chiropractic at the Palmer School at Davenport, Iowa. After two years of training he practiced at Albany, Georgia, from May, 1918, to October, 1920. He t h en returned to Stuart, and in March, 19211 he e ntered the Palmer School and finished the regular course, receiving the two degrees of D. C. (Doctor of Chiropractic) and Ph. C. (Philosopher of Chiropractic), in September, 1921. Doctor Frazier married Miss Josie E. Roebuck, a native of Florida. She was in the Palmer School with her husband and also received the two degrees mentioned in September, 1921. They are respectively members of the chiropractic fraternities, the Delta Sigma Chi and the Sigma Phi Chi. In January, 1922, the Doctors Frazier removed from Stuart to West Palm Beach, where the proximity of the world-famed resort of Palm Beach and the City of \Vest Palm Beach itself afford these two skillful practitioners a better and larger field for their professional work. Their offices are thoroughly equipped for a successful practice, which includes an -ray machine. Doctor and :Mrs. Frazier have two children, Frank James, Jr., and Annie Elizabeth Frazier. ]AMES ARCHER S:1.11TH, 111. D., is o ne of the uccessfu l and representative physicians and surgeons of Dacie County, where he is established in general practice in the fine little city of Homestead. Doctor Smith was born in Madison Count), Florida, in 1892, and in the same county was born his wife, whose maiden name was Ada Palmer. He is a son of James Archer Smith, Sr., <1,ml Dora (Walker) mith, his father having long been one of the substantial exponents of farm enterprise in Madison County, where the Doctor was reared on the old home farm, his early education having been acquired in the public schoo l s of his native county. In preparation for the profession of his choice he entered the Atlanta College of Medicine, in the metropolis of Georgia, and in this excellent institution he was graduated as a member of the class of r914. After thus receiving his degree of Doctor of Medicine he engaged in practice at Punta Gordo, De. Soto County, Florida, where he remained until he responded to the call of patriotism, when the nation became involved in the great Worl d war. In the spring of 19171 almost immediately after the United States declared war against Germany, Doctor Smith volunteered for service in the medical corps and proceeded to the training camp at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, where he

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IIISTORY OF FLORIDA 3 received commission as captain and was assigned lo the Three Hundred and Third Sanitary Train, Seventy-eighth Division. With his comma n d he crossed the Atlantic to France in June, 1918, and there he was in aclh e service on the front line at St. Mihiel and in the Argonne Forest. Prior to this he liad been selected lo attend the army medical school al Longres, where he further fortified himself for the responsible sen ice which he later rendered. He continued in service over seas for some time after the historic armistice brought active hostilities to a close, and returned to the United Stales in June, 1919, which month likewise recorded his receipt of his honorable discharge, at Camp Dix, New Jersey. Soon after the termination of his loyal service in connection with the \Vorld war Doctor Smith established his residence at Ilomestcacl and identified himself fully with the interests of this prosperous and rapidly growing town, in the center of one of the finest agricultural and horticultural sections of Florida. Here he has built up a substantial and representative practice that attests alike his ability as a physician and surgeon and his personal popularity in the community of his adoption. The Doctor is an active member of the Dade County Medical Society, the Florida State Medical Society, and the Association of ).filitary Surgeons of America and he is affiliated with the American Legion, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. EDWARD BARKFR MoRRFY of Apopka is a Florida citizen whose business experience covers a ,vide range of territory. For many years he was a traveling salesman and since coming to F l orida his work has been mainly in real estate and in surance. He was horn at Ingersoll, Oxford County, Ontario, Canada, June J.'i, 1&!--1, son of James F. and Caroline (Barker) Morrey, his father a native of Scotland and his mother of England. His parents were married in Canada and his father was in the undertaking business in Ingersoll. Edwarcl B. Morrey was reared in Ingersoll. and as a young man went on the road for the Union Publishing Company, accumulating business for that firm both in Canada and the United Stales. Ile was on the road altogether for thirty years. For some time he had his home and headquarters at Indianapolis where he was assistant Western representative of the Loyal Protective Insurance Company of Boston. Mr. Morrey in 1913 came to Florida and located at Lake City, but soon afterward moved to Orange County and became resident representative of a land company. He continued with this company until its l ands were sold, and in 1917 he located at Apopka. Here he has conducted a real estate and genera l insurance business. In 19r9 he was elected city clerk and performed the duties of that office and also that of city treasurer. Mr. Morrey has served as acting secretary and is now a director of the Orange County Chamber of Commerce. He is a Master Mason and an Odd Fellow, and while living in Canada was promi nent in Odd Fellowship, being a representative of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows from Ontario for two years. IRVING B. HtLSON. There is probably no other avenue of husiness endeavor in which men be come so widely known as in that of journalism, not always as personalities, but as influences, the indi\'idual's printed words reaching thousands of readers while their spoken ones could be heard by only a few. Hence the responsibilities of the journalist are of exceeding weight and impor tance and there have been times when publications have forced reformatory legislation and even have been the dominating factors in changing public opinion and policies. From college halls, Irving B. Hilson, of Pensacola, entered news paper life, and has continued to be engaged therein to the present time, when he is publisher of the West Florida Post. His long experience and training have made him a master of his craft, adding to a natural ability that would have gained him recognition in any case. Mr. Hilson was born December 12, 1863, at Baltimore, Maryland, of which state his parents were natives. On the maternal side they traced their ancestry back to Lord Baltimore, born George Calvert. Of the four children in the family, two are living. Irving B. Hilson, the third of his parents' children in the order of birth, was reared at Baltimore, where he attendee! the public schools, and was then taken by his parents to Boston, Massachusetts, where he attended high schools. Later he was sent to Harvard College, from which he was duly graduated, and while attending that institution gave particular attention to the study of journalism, toward which all his early predilections pointed. Mr. Hilson came to Florida in 1883 and settled at Pensacola, where he identified himself with newspaper work, and also held a federal position in the state for a number of years, which, how ever he later resigned. For some years he was identified with the Pensacola News, in various capacities, and for the past ten years has been publisher of the West Florida Post. This is one of the leading newspapers of this section of the state, and has a large circulation throughout W cs tern Florida, and particularly in Escambia County. Associated with Mr. Hilson in this venture are his two sons, who are also capab l e journalists and good business men. Mr. Hilson is active in civic matters, both personally and through his newspaper, whose columns are always left open to the discussion of live questions per taining to the welfare of the community. His paper is well-edited and well-printed, and furnishes its army of readers with clean and reli able news stories, interesting local items, wellwritten and timelv editorials and other features which go toward the making up of a modern newspaper. Fraternally, Mr. Hilson is identified with the l ocal lodges of the Masons . the Inde pendent Order of Odcl Fellows and the Knights of Pythias, and he also holds membership in the Pensacola Yacht Club. Mr. Hilson has been twice married, and by his first union is the father of eight children. REV. TnoMAS \V' ALKF.R TOMKIES. A notable service in the ministry, in the cause of humanity. and in all things that made for enlightenment and progress among the people of Florida was the fruit of the career of the late Rev. Thomas Walker Tomkies, who died at his home in Tampa, November 25, 1921, at the age of seventy five. He had given fifty-two years of active service to the ministry, and prior to that had served with courage and devotion as a Con federate soldier. Doctor Tomkies was born in Hanover County, near Ashland, Virginia, January 24, r846. His parents were descendants of the first settlers of the Virginia colony and in most of the genera tions they were teachers and farmers by choice .

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4 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Doctor Tomkies was one of the last survivors of the army which Lee surrendered at Appomattox. lie enlisted as a private in the Confederate army at the beginning of the war and fought throughout the four year struggle, all the \\ hile attached to the army of Northern Virginia. Ile was with the forces that defended Richmond both at the beginning and at the end of the war, that gave bloody service in the campaigns around the capi tal, in the valley and in the two invasions of the North. Doctor Tomkies to the end of his days cherished a deep affection for his old comrades, hut was without bitterness toward the North. \:\'ith him the war was over when it ended. \Vithin a year or so after the war Doctor Totllkies came to Florida as private tutor to the fami l y of Colonel Chestnut, who lived not far from Gainesville. Later he was private tutor in the family of Col. \Villiam cott in Gadsden County. \\'hile there he was licensed to preach and became the junior preacher on the Concord Circuit of which Rev. Thomas K. Leonard was pastor. This circuit covered all of Gadsden ounty, and some other territory besides. Doctor Tomkies as a young man of twenty three went to join the Florid.1 Annual Conference at Lake City, December 13, r86g. Three other young men accompanied him, Frederick Pasco, then just graduated from Yale University, and R. II. Barnett. All of these made history in Florida, and their combined services in the ministry totaled fully two hundred years. Doctor To1rlk i es was ordained a deacon by Bishop David S. Doggett, of Virginia, and an elder by Bishop William M. Wightman of South arolina. He was presiding elder fonrteen years out of his fifty-two years in the ministry. All the other years were given to the pastorate, in which he was a l ways successful and always be l oved. His active ministry covered almost the whole of F lotida, beginning in the northwest part of the state, going thence to Fernandina on the East Coast, thence to the middle of South Florida and back and forth again and again until no part of the stale remained an unknown land to him. He was a builder of many churches and parsonag-es. Thirty-five years after he preached his first sermon he was called to dedicate a new church erected on the spot where had stood the house in which he preached for the first time. The list of his consecutive appointments is as follows: Concord Circuit, one year; Fernandina Circuit, three years; St. Johns River Circuit, one year; St. l\fatthews l\Iission in Jacksonville, one year; Orange Springs Circuit, two years. Archer Circuit, four years, ewnanville Circuit, two years; Leesburg-Orlando district, as presid ing cider, three years; Orlando District, four years; Gainesville Station, one year; Apalachico l a two years; Sanford, r year; Jacksomille District, three years; Tallahassee District, three years; Orlanda District, four years; Tampa Heights Mission, one year; Fort Pierce Station, four years; Palmetto Circuit, one year; Tampa City Mi sion, one year; South Boulevard. Tallahassee and Havana, three years; Tarpon Springs, two years; Boca Grande, two years; Manatee, two years, Eighth Avenue and Erlgewood in Tampa, two years-a grand total of fifty-two years' active service. Before his death the Tampa Methodist Ministeria l Association had begun building for him a residence in Seminole Heights, a home now occupied by Mrs. Tomkies. The circuits he traveled were often large, travel was over trail , across unbridged streams, and through jungle . Houses were far apart and accommodations few in those earlier days. The young preacher was made of soldierly stuff and carried his always frail body wherever duty or opportunity appeared to call. No enticement of wealth, no allurement of ease or of pleasure could turn him aside. Ile gave literally all he had to the ministry and never once turned aside from it into any other form of service . A Methodist preacher's biography is never com plete apart from the career of his wife. She often endures the most of the privations and always shares the hardships. During his second pasto r ate in 1872 at Fernandina, Doctor Tomkics married l\.Iiss Anna Timanus, a descendant of a French Huguenot who came over to fight with LaFayette in the war for independence and after its •close sett led in Baltimore, where the family has ever since been prominently represented, one of them John Timanus, serving fifteen years as mayor. The Florida branch settled in Jacksonville, early in Florida's history. Three children were born to Doctor and Mrs. Tomkies, two sons and one daughter. The daughter married H. C. Hargrove of Montgomery, Alabama and her three children, Juanita, Ruth ancl James Hargrove, all now live in Tampa. These grandchildren were very dear to Doctor Tomkies, with whom they had livecl much of the time. Doctor Tomkies was laid to rest with the simple burial service of the Methodist ritual. It was very fitting that no ostentation was displayed at his funeral. He was the plainest and most modest of men. His friends were among the great men of both church and state, but he made no boast of it. Honors came to him, but affectecl him not. To the end he was the same simple and lovable Virginia gentleman that left his mother's door in young manhood to fight first in Lee's army and afterwards in the army of a still greater commander-Jesus of Nazareth. In all things he was a soldier without fear ancl without reproach. IIoN. CuRTJS E. CHILLINGWORTII. One of the most distinctive features of public life at present is the extreme youth of the men occupying the most important offices, and yet this is logical and proper, for the ones so honored by popular vote are, without exception, those who sen ed during the \\'oriel war, and are regarded by their fellow citLiens as entitled to particular notice. A man pa triotic enough to fight for the preservation of his country's honor should receive every con sideration at the hands of those benefitting from his action, and to the credit of the American people they have always returned their country's heroes to office following the termination of each war. Florida is no e ception to this almost gen eral rule, and each section of the state is render ing to its returned senicc men public honors, and finding their choice a wise one, for these young men have been taught discipline, self sacrifice and service, and are setting an example for the older generation to profit by and emulate. One of these veterans above mentioned who is a prominent figure in the affairs of Palm Beach County is Judge Curtis E. Chillingworth, County Judge of Palm Beach County, candidate on the democratic ticket for circuit judge, and member of the de pendable legal firm of C. C. & C. E. O1illingworth, of which his father is the head. Judge Chillingworth was born at \Vest Palm Beach, where he still maintains his residence, in 1896. He is a son of Charles C. and Jennie (Dietz) Chillingworth. Charles C. Chillingworth has been for years one of the leading attorneys of West Palm Beach, where he has resided since

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 5 1893, having come here long prior to the develop ment of the railroad junction into the present modern and wide-awake city, one of the most flourishing on the Florida East Coast. He is a man of the highest standing, both at the bar and as a citizen. With his son's admission to the bar Charles C. Chillingworth took him into partnership, and the two form a very strong legal combination, and are connected with some very important jurisprudence. Judge Chillingworth graduated from the Uni versity of Florida in 1917, and was admitted to the bar that same year. During the country's participation in the World war he served in the regular United States Navy as an ensign on duty on the U. S. S. Minneapolis, which was engaged in convoy duty with the troop transport service. He received naval training at the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in a naval class instructed by a commission of regular naval officers. The date of his enlistment was in the summer of 1917, and that of his discharge, July, 1919. Returning to West Palm Beach, Judge Chil lingworth resumed his practice of the law. In the regular November election of 1920 he was elected county judge of Palm Beach County, assuming the duties of that office January I, 1921. In this office he has heard not only civil cases, but a large number of criminal ones as well, and the usual Probate Court and Juvenile Court work. In the spring of 1922 Judge Chil lingworth announced his candidacy for the dem ocratic nomination for the office of circuit judge of the Fifteenth Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Palm Beach, Broward, Okeechobee and Saint Lucic, and he received the nomination by almost a maj orily over three other candi dates. His candidacy received the endorsement and recommendation of the Palm Beach County Bar Association. In speaking of his action in coming before the people for the nomination Judge Chillingworth said in part : "Having been recommended and endor,cd by the Palm Beach County Bar Association, I am announcing my candidacy for the office of circuit judge. I believe, and it seems the most of the lawyers also believe, that matters before the court can be handled with greater dispatch and more justice to all parties if the business of the court could be conducted as has been the business of the County Court of Palm Beach County since my term of office. I am no politician and know nothing of politics, although I am, always have been and will continue to be, a democrat." Judge Chillingworth is a well-known figure in his native and surrounding counties. He is a member of the American Legion, and is a Mason, a Shriner, an Elk, and belongs lo the Chamber of Commerce, the Rotary Club, the Palm Beach County Bar Association, the Florida State Bar Association and the American Bar Association. Although still a young man, Judge Chillingworth is eminently fitted for the responsibilities and honors of the bench, for he possesses the judicial mind and is able to weigh impartially and judge fairly, and his decisions are marvels of concise ness, clearness and sound law. Personally he is very popular with all classes, and has formed especially strong friendships with other members of his profession in this part of the state. GEORGE B. \VELLS, who is engaged in the prac tice of law at Plant City, Hillsborough County, is not only one of the prominent and successful members of the bar of his native county but has also represented the county in the State Legisla ture and has further shown his civic loyalty and influence through an effective administration while he was mayor of Plant City. He is a scion of old and honored Southern families, the mar riage of his paternal grandparents, George W. and Margaret (Rain) Wells, having been solem nized at St. Marys, Georgia, February 22, 1842, and that of his maternal grandparents, Benjamin F. and Mary (Stringer) Drew, having been recorded, at Madison, Florida, on the 15th of Sep tember, 1839. George B. \Velis, present city attorney of Plant City, was born in Hillsborough County on the 5th of May, 1868, and is a son of George W. and Mary J. (Drew) Wells, the former of whom was born in Camden County, Georgia, on Novem ber 17, 1843, and the latter at Tampa, Hills borough County, Florida, on June 16, 1850 her father havin!f been a pioneer settler in this county, to which he came, from Madison County, Florida, in 1846. George W. Wells, Jr., father of George B. Wells was a child at the lime of the family removal from Georgia, about the vear 1848; and the home was established in Hillsborough County, Florida, some ten years later. Here he was reared to manhood and here he became a prosperous farmer. In this county were born his five children, four sons and one daughter, of whom George B. is the eldest, fol lowed by \V. C., S. C. and W. J. Wells, brother, and one sister now Mrs. J. C. Knight. The public schools of Hillsborough County afforded George B. Wells his early education, and after prosecuting the study of law under effective preceptorship he gained, in 1894, admis sion to the bar of his native state. He has since continued in the active practice of his profession in Hillsborough County, where his initial work was at Tampa, from which city he removed to Plant City, where he controls a substantial and important law business and where also he has been an influential figure in progressive material development and also in public affairs. In his vigorous administration as mayor of Plant City Mr. Wells did much to advance public improve ments, especially in the providing of adequate and modern waterworks and sewerage systems. In 1903 and I()O:i he \vas representative of his native county in the Stale Legislature, where he did effective work in the advancing of constructive general legislation and the interests of his con stituent district. Aside fnm his professional work he is a member of the \Velis & Sons Com pany, dealers in hardware and furniture, with headquarters at Plant City, besides which he has valuable real-estate holdings in his home city and county. He is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Woodmen of the World. He is an active member of the Baptist Church at Plant City and his political allegiance is given unreservedly to the democratic party. On February 23, 19ro was solemnized the mar riage of Mr. \Velis to Miss Veronica Kinsey, of Tullahoma, Tennessee, and she is the gracious chatelaine of their attractive home at Plant City. They have no children. JonN W. ALSOBROOK, :l\L D., a prominent and representative physician and surgeon engaged in active surgical practice at Plant City, Hillsborough County, was born at LaFayette, Chambers County, Alabama, on the 28th of March, 1876, and is a son of John N. and Alice Lenore Alsobrook. John N. Alsobrook was one in a family of thirteen

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86 HISTORY OF FLORIDA sons, eleven of whom were gallant young soldiers of the Confederacy in the Civil war, in which one of the number lost his life. John N. Alsobrook was born in Tolbert County, Georgia, and became one of the successful exponents of farm industry in Chambers County, A l abama, his children be ing ten in number, seven sons and three daughters, and four of the sons having been in the nation's military service in connection with the Worl d war, including Dr. John W., of this review, who gained the rank of major in the medical corps of the United States Army and who was stationed at Newport News, Virginia. Two of the brothers were in active service with the American Expeditionary Forces overseas. The high academic education of Doctor Also brook was received in Lafayette College, A l abama, anc.1 in preparation for his chosen profession he entered the medical department of Vanderbilt University, at Nashville, Tennessee, in which institution he was graduated as a member of the class of r904. In the same year that he thus received his degree of Doctor of Medicine he established himse l f in practice at P lant City, Florida, where he has since continued his able and successful professional work, save for the period of his service in t h e medical corps of the United States Army. His personal popularity and professional ability find reflection in the scope and character of his representative prac tice as one of the prominent physicians and surgeons of Hillsborough County. He is affil iated with the American Medica l Association, the National Association of Military Surgeons, the Florida State Medical Society and the Hills borough County Medical Society. The doctor is local surgeon for the Atlantic Coast Line Rail road and is surgeon-in-chief for the Cornett Phosphate Company. In connection with his well appointed office he maintains a private hospital for the handling of surgical cases exclusive l y. Doctor A l sobrook is one of the most loyal and progressive members of the Kiwanis C lub at Plant City, and erved as its first president, an office to which he was e l ected at the time of its organization. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, and in po l itics is a l oyal supporter of the cause of the democratic party. He and his wife are active members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The Doctor is the owner of an excellent orange grove, located about midway be tween Plant City and Tampa. June 15, 1905, recorded the marriage of Doctor Alsobrook to Miss Margaret Kilpatrick, who was born and reared in the state of Mississippi, and the one child of this union is a daughter, M. Elizabeth, who is fourteen years of age at the time of this writing, and who is a student in the high school of Plant City. H. B. ZIMMERMAN is proprietor of the Florida National Vault Company of Lakeland. This is a corporation with complete facilities for handling all manner of contracts in concrete and cement work, and is the largest concern of its kind in Polk County. Mr. Zimmerman, who came to Florida to en gage in business about fifteen years ago, was born at Martinsville, New Jersey, January 30, 186g, son of William and Anna (Kirch) Zimmerman. He was educated in the country schools near Martinsville, but at the age of fifteen his father's death called him from his books and studies to take up the management of the farm. He was an only son. His two sisters are Mrs. F. A. Long and Mrs. T. C. Dugan, both living at New Brunswick, New Jersey. Mr. Zimmerman sold the old farm and bought and operated a grocery store in Martinsville for eight years. While at Martinsville he married Miss Stella Giddes. On January 30, 1go8, Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman came to F l orida, and spent a number of months traveling all over the state prospecting for a suit ab l e location for their home and business. They made permanent choice of Lakeland August 7, 19o8, and in September Mr. Zimmerman engaged in business with R. H. Ludlan. After a year the partnership was dissolved, and he continued the business alone for several years. He then took in two partners, L. M. Eeks and A. J. Burnside, of Dade City, and subsequently B. . Franklin bought the interest of Mr. Eeks, while Mr. Zim merman acquired the stock of Mr. Burnside and became owner of two-thirds of the business. Sub sequently buying out Mr. Franklin, he became sole owner. It is a very prosperous business, representing a large invested capital, and the organization handles practically all the concrete work in the City of Lakeland. Two of the large projects for which the company had contracts re cently were the new Methodist Church and the new Non-Acid Fertilizer Plant. Mr. Zimmer man employs about twenty men on the average, and at times his force runs to about sixty. Mr. Zimmerman is affiliated with the Independ ent Order of Odd Fellows in all its branches, is a member of the Woodmen of the World, the Junior Order United American Mechanics and the Christian Science Church. Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman have two children : Florence . and Cornelius, both at home. On coming to Lake land Mr. Zimmerman bought a home and five acres nine blocks from the depot, at 604 East Parker Street, and now has plans to replace the house with a modern residence. PAUL CARTER. A leading member of the legal fraternity of Jackson County, Paul Carter has also served acceptably in positions of public trust and responsibility, and was formerly mayor of his home city of Marianna. His career has been one of honorable professional achievement and con structive citizenship. Mr. Carter was born August 28, 1882, at Elliott, Georgia, and is a son of Paul H. and Myra P. (Kennedy) Carter, the former deceased. The parents, natives of Georgia, moved to Florida in 1896, and here Paul H. Carter was engaged in the turpentine busines . He was active in all matters of public import, and while a resident of Appling County, Georgia, served in the capacity of county judge. Paul Carter was given good educational advantages in his youth, first attending the common school in the vicinity of his home in Appling County, Georgia, and later the high school at Chipley, Washington County, Florida. Subse quently he was sent to the Florida Seminary at Tallahassee, and after pursuing the academic course in that institution enrolled as a student at the John B. Stetson University, De Land, Florida, from which he was graduated with his degree in 1900. To further his preparation he pursued a course at Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., and also received the degree of Bachelor of Laws therefrom. Mr. Carter came to Marianna and engaged in the practice of law August 1, 1go8, and has continued to follow his profession to the present, with increasing success. He is acknowledged to be a thorough lawyer, with a

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IIISTOR\~ OF l'l.ORID,\ 87 comprehensi\!e knowledge of the ethics and principles of his calling, an
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA organizers and since the beginning has been president of the Plant City Growers A sociation. He and his brother E. J. De Vane have also been prominently identified with the Farmers and 1Ierchants Bank of Plant City, of which he is a director. These brothers built the bank home for that institution. In 1893 Mr. De Vane married Fannie C. Wheeler of Georgia, where she was born and reared. They have a family of seven children: !fay, wife of P. L. Miller of Tampa; Clara, wife of D. W. Murrell of Plant City; Claud L., a graduate of the Agricultural College and now one of the young progressive farmers of this state; Miss Jessie; Edger E., a farmer; Donna and Frankie. Mr. and Mrs. De Vane are members of the Primitive Baptist Church. Mr. De Vane knew the localities of both Plant City and Lake land before there was a single house to di tin guish the sites as towns. His efforts and enter prise have been contributing factors in the growth and prosperity of this region. ROBERT M. ANIJERSO.\ the vital and progres sive secretary of the Plant City Orange Growers A sociation, at Plant City, Hillsborough County, was born in Dale County, Alabama, May 8, 1870, and is a son of F. F. and !I. E. (Smyth) Anderson, the former of whom was born in South Carolina and the latter in Alabama. The parents continued their residence in Alabama until 1904, when they came to Florida and established their re idence in Lake County, where the father be came a successful truck farmer and where he passed the remainder of his life, his widow being still a resident of that county, and six children who likewise survive the honored father. Robert M. of this review is the eldest of the children. Tho pub lic schools of Alabama afforded Robert M. Anderson his youthful education, and he re mained at the parental home in that state until his marriage, in 1898, to :Miss Jessie Edwards, who was reared and educated in Elmore County, A l abama. After his marriage Mr. Anderson re-ided at Prattville, Alabama, until 190--1. when he came to Lake County, Florida. In that county he was engaged in truck farming three years, and he then returned to Alabama, where he re mained six years and was manag-er of the Pratt Gin & Milling Company. At the expiration of the period noted he returnee! to Florida, where he continued his active association with the ginning and milling business six years. In 1917 he removed to Plant City and took a position with the Plant City Growers Association. After hav ing held for some time the position of manager for this important industrial concern he was elected its secretary and treasurer, of which dual office he has since continued the popular and effici ent incumbent, with . prestige as one of the representative business men of Plant City. The concern of which he is secretary and treasurer controls a large wholesa l e and retail business, and conducts a well equipped store and also a grist and feed mill at Plant City. }.[r. Anderson i a loyal supporter of the prin ciples of the democratic party, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the ,voodmen of the Vvorld, and is a zealous member of the Baptist Church, in whi h he is serving as superintendent of the unday school at the Knight Church. four mile distant from Plant City and one of the prosperous rural churches of the county. JonN CLARENCE KNIGHT, M. D. By education and natural gifts Doctor Knight was admirably qualified for the work of physician and surgeon , and his long experience of twenty years has gained him an enviable place in the profession. Doctor Knight has spent his life in the vi inity of Plant City, and his professional work has all been done for the benefit of that community. He was born 11ear Plant City, September 1, 187r. He acquired excellent literary advantages, finishing his grammar and high school course in Hillsboro County. He was a student in the John B. Stetson Unhersity at DeLand and then entered the }.[edical Department of the University of i aslnille, Tennessee. He was graduated M. D. in 1900. At intervals during bis bu y practice he has tak n four postgraduate courses in the New York Polyclinic and has also attended the Post Graduate 'cbool of Medicine of New York. Doctor Knight soon after receiving his medical diploma began practice at Plant City, and bas been a citizen as well as a professional man there since 1900. He has served as local health officer for five years, and for twe11ty-011e years has been local surgeon for the Seaboard Air Line Rail road. In 1917 Doctor Knight was elected presi dent of the Hillsboro County Meclical Society. He is a Knight Templar Mason and Shriner and a Knight of Pythias. Doctor Knight married Miss 1-.lary Wells, daughter of \V. and : Mary J. Wells of Plant City. They have two children , 1lary W. and John C., Jr. JAMhS Enwrn ASSFLS has the character, ability and prestige that mark him as one of the representative members of the har of Hillsborough County, where he is established in the successful practice of his profe. sion at Plant City. Mr. Cassels was born in Alachua County, Florida, on the 24th of January, 1889, and is a son of Henry and Mary A. (Carlton) Cassels, the former a native of :outh arolina and the latter of Florida, with whose history the family name has been identified since the pioneer days, the father of Mrs. Cassels having been born in this state and his father having been a victim in an early Indian massacre in Florida. The lineage of James Edwin Ca~sels is traced back to staunch English origin on both the paternal and maternal sides, and both the Cassels and Carlton families were founded in America in the Colonial days. The youngest in a family of five children, James E. Cassels acquired his early education l argely in the public schools at Plant City, and in lQJI he was graduated in the law department of John B. Stet on University, at DeLand this state, besides which he took a course in the law department of the University of Chicago. He was admitted to the bar of his native state in June, 19u, and at Plant City he has built up a substantial and representative law business, with secure status as one of the able members of the bar of this section of the state. ,vrLLIAM E. LEF is consistently to be desig nated as one of the progressive business men and liberal and public-spirited citizens of Hillsborough aunty, where he is successfully engaged in the raising of and dealing in citrus fruits and where he is. in rg22, serving his second term as mayor of Plant ity, besides which he is president of the local Kiwanis Club. Mr. Lee was born at Helena, Georgia, February 8. r89r. and is a son of Demp . ey C. and Jose phine (Edwards) Lee, the former of whom was horn at Gatesville, North Carolina, and the latter al "\,Varrenton, Georgia. The parents now main-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 89 tain their home at Lake Thonotosassa Florida and of their six children the pre cnt ~nayor of Plant City is the first born. After spendi ng some time as a student al the Alabama Polytechnic In titute, at Auburn, Alabama, William E. Lee found an inviting field of enterprise by forthwith identifying himself with the fruit business, in connection with which he ha maintained his resi dence and business headquarters at Plant City . ince 1916. In the growing of citrus fruit and the general handling of fruit, veg table , etc., he now controls the most extensive business of the kind in Florida, and in the fruit picking and hip ping eason he gives employment to an average of 1,500 person . His orange groves cover an area of 2,200 acres, and his vigorous and pro gres ive policies mark him as one of the leaders in the indu trial and commercial activities of this section of the tatc. His admirable initiative and executive ability has been shown also in connection with other enterprises with which he is identified, and in this connection it is to be noted that he is a director of the Bank of Plant City, the Polk County Trust Company, and the National City Bank of Tampa. layor Lee has received in the Masonic fraternity the thirty-second degree of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, besides being affiliated with the Mystic Shrine and holding mem bership in the Knights of Pythia , the Modern Woodmen of America, and the Patriotic Order of ons of America. He is now serving his second term as mayor of Plant City and had previously served one term as a member of the City Council. His vigorou administration as chief executive of the municipal government gives concrete evidence of hi civic loyalty, his prevision and his earne t desire to advance the social and material pros perity of his home city and county. Mr. Lee was characteristically active and zealous in the support of local patriotic service in connection with the \Vorld war, gave vital cooperation in support of the drive s in behalf of the government war bond , Red ross ervicc and other movement;;, and erved on various committees in charge of such work. He is a scion of an old and honored outhern family, his paternal grandfather, Lee, having been an officer in the Confederate army in the Civil war and having been a kinsman of the distinguished and revered Southern commander, Gen. Robert E. Lee. In the year 1916 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Lee to :Mi s Miriam Rowena Mays, of Plant City, and the children of this union arc three in number: Miriam Mays, Demp ey Joe , and Ro wena Katherine. ]AMES L. YouNG, one of the honored and rep re entative citizen of Plant City, Hill borough County, is president of the Hillsborough tale Bank, one of the substantial and well ordered financial institutions of this section of Florida. Mr. Young is a scion of one of the old and honored families of the fair southland and was born in Laurens County, South Carolina, on the 1st of December, 1847. He i a son of Rev. James L. and Margaret (Todd) Young, the former of whom was born in South Carolina and the latter in the north of Ireland of Scotch ancestry. Rev. James L. Young became a clergy man of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, and he continued his able and devoted labors in the ministry until his death, at the age of fifty-eight years, his wife having been fifty years of age at the time of her death and their children having been six in number-five sons and one daughter. Two of the sons met their
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• 90 HISTORY OF FLORIDA by constructive i ndu strial en terprise a nd by large and wor thy achievement, while further honor is his for the loyal service whic h he gave as a gallant young soldier of the Confederacy i n the Civi l war. Ile is one of the honored, influential and public-spirited citizens of Orlando and has to his credit many years of successful identifica tion w ith the turpentine or naval-storrs industn• in both Georgia and Florida. Mr. Drew was horu on a farm in Brunswick County, North Caro lina, February 20, 18-14, and is a son of Thomas G. and Mary (Godwin) Drew, he being the eldest in a family of seven sons and two daughters, all of whom were born i n Brunswick County and all but one of whom a ttained to years of maturity. In that same co unty t he parents were born and reared, and t here t he fathe r ach ieved more than average suc cess in connection with farm industry, of which he became one of the leading representatives in his native county, where he and his wife con ti nued to reside until their deaths-secure in the hig h regard of all who knew them. The father of Thomas G. Drew was familiarly known as Jackie Drew, and passed his entire life in North Caro lina, he hav ing bee n left an orphan when a boy but having had the sterling attributes that e nabled him to make for himse lf substantia l place as a prosperous farmer and broad minded and up right citizen. The lineage of the Drew fami ly traces back to staunch Scotch origin, and representat h es of the name settled i n North Carolina in the Colonial period o f our nationa l history, the same being true of the God w in family, and David Godwin, materna l grandfather of the subject of this review, was one of the representative and influential citizens of Brunswick County, North Carolina. Benja min Drew was reared in his native county and in his youth rece ived the advantages of the schools of the loca lity and per iod . He was seven teen years of age at the time when the Civi l war began, and at the age of eighteen yea rs, o n the 1st of )..fay, 1862, he enlisted in defense of t he cause of the Co nfederate states. He became a member of Company C, First North Caro lina Battalion of Light Artillery , which for two years thereafter was stationed at Fort Fisher, North Caro lina. For several months thereafter the command was at Fort Caswell, which place was evac uated when Fort F isher fell into the hands of the Union forces. Ur. Drew was active ly associate d in the defense of Fort Fisher and a lso took part i n the battle of Ilentonville, the fina l major battle be tween the states of the North and the South. It is to be noted that through his active and appreciative affiliation with the United Confederate Veterans :Ur. Drew has vitalized the mo re g racious memories and associations of his youthful military career. After the close of the war, which left his native state worn and devastated, Mr. Drew returned to t he paternal home . In the year 1866 he assisted his father in raising crops on the home farm, a nd in t he autum n of that year he wedded Miss Caroline Swain, the young couple establ ishing a modest ho me, with but little in the order of financial reso urces o r of opportunities save of their own mak ing. Of the two daughters born of this u nion one died in early childhood and the other is Mrs. Ada C. Robbins, now a resident of Orlando, Florida. The wife of Mr. Drew died in 1870, and soon afterward he left North Carolina, wit h the meager capita l of $20, and made his way to South Carolina, where he opened a turpentine ca mp. By hard work a nd careful management he was prospered in this enterprise, and after having continued in successful business in South Carolina for a period of fourteen years he sold his business and moved to Georgia. In the lattt>r state he rslablished a turpentine or naval-stores camp on the site of the p resent City of Fitzgerald, and it was about eight years later that he sold thr land to Co lonel F itzgerald, of Indianapo lis, Indiana, who there founded the colony for former Union so ldiers in the Civil war. After se lling this property Mr. Drew estab lished another turpentine camp, about nine miles distant fro m Fitzgerald, and he continued his active business in Georg ia unti l 1905, when he advantageous ly sold his naval-stores interests in that state, after thirty-four years of conti nuou s association with this line of industrial enterp rise, and came to F lorida. He has s ince main tained his residence at O rlando, and he acquired naval-stores inte rests in this state, the same hay i ng been held by him until very rece ntly. At Orlando his energies have been directed largely to the buying and selling of real estate, and as a builder he has contributed much to the material growth and development of the city, besides hav ing given his influence a nd coopera tion i n the su pport of measures and enterprises that have advanced the civic welfare and i mportance of this vigorous litt le city. He here built t he modern Carolina apartment bui lding, of which he con tiimes the owne r, and he has constructed and is the owner of other buildings here, including a number devoted lo b usiness p urposes. He is a large stockholder in the Yowell-Drew Company, which conducts a large department store at Orlando . Though now venerable in years, Mr. Drew is still alert and active, and in retrospect he may look back with justified satisfaction upon a career marked with large and worthy achievement along normal lines of industrial and busi ness enterprise, and marked also by adherence to those high pr inciples that ever beget popular confidence and good w ill . Unostentatious and unassuming, Mr. Drew has pursued the eve n tenor of his way, has show n a fine sense of personal stewa rdship ancl has gained and retained the confide nce and esteem of his fellow me n . He is aligned loyally in the ranks of the democ ratic party, but has never manifested any ambi tion for p ublic office. He is affiliated w ith the Masonic fraternity. His present wife, whose maiden name was Harriet Southgate, was born and reared in Kentucky, and she is the popular chatelaine of their attractive home at Orlando. \Vn.LIAM H. WALKER. In a commun ity in w hich t here is no lack of ab le and worthy men to ho ld public office the mere occupancy of s uch pos ition is an indicatio n of superior capacity, and no except ion to this general rule is found i n the case of William H. Walker, county clerk of Liberty County. Before taking office Mr. Walker had learned the va lue of industry and systematic direction while employed in several other ca pacities, and in the handling of the affairs of his office he introduced these qualities with very gratifying results. Like a number of others now occupying public positions, U r. Walker is a product of the agricul tural community of Liberty County, having been born on his fathe r's farm April 8, 187r, a son of T homas Jefferson and Maria (Mezingo) Walker. His fa ther, a native of North Carolina, where the family had resided for severa l generations, went to Alabama in young manhood, and while there

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HISTORY OF FLOlUDA 91 enlisted in the Confederate Army for service during the war between the states. In that struggle he received a severe wound in his leg but reco, ered and returned to his Alabama h~me, where he married Maria 1lezingo, a native of Alabama. In 1870 they came to Florida and settled in what is now Liberty County, where they settled down to agricultural operations, in which Mr. \Valkcr was engaged during the remainder of his life, his death occurring in 19()8. He was a man of industry and honesty, and one who had the respect of his fellow citizens becau e of the possession of admirable qualities. \Villiam H . \Valker was given the advantages o f attendance at the country schools of Liberty County until reaching the age of seventeen years in the meantime assisting his father on the hom~ farm during the summer months. He then started shifting for himself, and for the next twelve years was Yariously employed at whatever tasks presented themselves, these being 1>rincipally con nected with farm and public work. In 1900 he accepted a position in a sawmill, after which he followed the same kind of work most of the time until 1918, when he became a scaler of logs and lumber, having become conversant with this kind of work while employed in the sawmill. In this capacity he worked in Liberty County and also for St. Joe individuals and concerns who owned timber and cut the same, and was thus employed in the fall of 1920, when he became a candidate for the office of county clerk of Liberty County. He was elected lo this office for a term of four years and commenced his duties in January, 192r. His record thus far is an excellent one and he hids fair to make one of the best clerk; Liberty County has ever had. On December 20. 1900, l\lr. Walker was united in marriage with Miss Eva Smith, a daughter of Sita . 1\1. Smith and Margaret J. (Gregory) . mith. the former a native of South Carolina and the latter of Florida. Mr. Smith, a Con federate Yeteran of the war between the states, was formerly a contractor and mechanic, but for the last twenty years has been engaged in agricultural pursuits in Gadsden County. Of the four children born to Mr. and Mrs. Walker only one survive . : Rosalie. Mrs. \Valker is a mem ber of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Mr. Walker is a democrat in his political alle giance and a strong party worker. He is public spirited in his views and actions and a willing supporter of all worthy movements. CHARLFS E,ANS BARNES established his residence at Plant City. Hillsborough County. shortly after attaining to his legal majority, and in the i ntervening years he has become a leader in republican politics in th is section of the state, has served as postmaster of his home city, and has gained prece dence as a progressive exponent of the real estate, rental and insurance business at Plant City. Mr. Barnes was born in Wood County, West Virginia. on the 19th of October, 1875, and the public schools of his native state afforded him his early education, which included the curriculum of the high school in the city of Parkersburg. At the age of twentyone years Mr. Barnes came to Florida and identified himself with busines. interests at Plant ity. He soon made his in fluence felt in the local ranks of the republican party, of which there were at that time two fac tions in the state, one known as the regulars and the other as the "Lily Whites." He cast in his lot with the regulars and has become influential in the councils and campaign activities of the republican party in the state of his adoption with recognized leadership in its affairs in his ;cction of the state. In 19()8 Mr. Barnes was appointed postmaster of Plant City, under the administration of President Roosevelt, his reappointment having been made by President Taft and his effective and co n secutive service in this office having continued until 1913, when President Wilson appointed a democrat as his successor. It is pleasing to record in this connection that, through comparatively recent appointment, the wife of }.fr. Barnes is now the efficient and popular postmaster of Plant City. Mr. Barnes has proved one of the most loyal and progressive members of the City Council of Plant City, he having been the only republican elected out of a total of five, and there having been ten democratic candidates in the election that brought him victory and that gave eYidcnce of his secure place in the confidence and esteem of the people of his home city. It is needless to state that his service has fully justi fied the popular confidence thus shown in his election to this municipal office. The year 1922 finds Mr. Barnes in service as secretary of the republican committee for the First Congressional District and also secretary of the re1mblican executive com mittee of Hillsborough County. He took a vigor ous and effective part in the national campaign of 1920, and was a delegate from Florida to the Republican National Com c nti on that nominated President Harding, at Chicago. Since his retire ment from the office of postmaster Mr. Barnes has built up an extensive and important business in the handling of real estate, and in giving inci dental attention to rentals and insurance. In con nection with his real estate operations he is manager of the Barlow Land Company. In the time-honored Masonic fraternity Mr. Barnes has completed the circles of both the York and Scot tish Rites, in the latter of which he has received the thirtysecond degree. Ile is also a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He is a charter member of the lodge of Knights of Pythias at Plant City. Mr. Barnes wedded Miss Nannie E. \Vhitehurst, of Plant City, and they have two children, Charles O l in and Noel Evans, aged, respectively, eighteen and sixteen years. Mrs. Barnes is a popular factor in the representative social, cultural and church activities of her home city, besides having the distinction of being its present postmaster, an office in which she is making a record that may put that of her husband, the former incumbent, into com parative shadow . ROBERT BRourn. In this country the great lawyer must always be prominent for he is one of the forces that move and control society. Public confidence has been generally reposed in the legal profession, for it has been the defender of public rights, the champion of freedom regulated by l aw, and the firm support of good govern ment. o political preferment, no mere place, can add to the power or increase the honor which belongs to the educated lawyer. There are many representatives of this learned profession, who are honored by and have been an honor to their calling. Florida has furnished some of the most distinguished lawyers of the country, men who have risen to high prominence, attaining dis tinguished position through marked ability, and not by means of outside influence. They have given dignity to their profession and exalted the law which they have been engaged in interpreting and making plain. Without this enlightened

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92 HISTORY OF FLORIDA class the country's laws could not be upheld and the lives and property of the people would be at the mercy of the bandits and rogues of every description. One of the able lawyers in this part of Florida is Robert Brodie of Tampa, practic ing at the Bar of Hillsborough County. Robert Brodie was born at Edinburgh, Scot land, and is descended from a long line of Brodies of that ilk, the present chief of the Clan being Brodie of Brodie of Forres Castle, Morayshire, Scotland. While Mr. Brodie does not deny his Scottish birth, he is too cosmopolitan to insist upon thrusting it forward, having no respect for hyphenites of any description and believing that a citizen of the United States needs no qualifica tion of any kind whatever. Robert Brodie re ceived his education in Scotland and England, re siding for many years in London, where he first took up the study of Blackstone, but circum stances prevented his completing his course of study and qualifying to practice. In 1912 Mr. Bro die came to Canada, and having been identified with the volunteer forces in the old country, he joined the Canadian Militia. While serving he qualified as a musketry instructor, and holds a certificate from the Canadian School of Musketry. 1Ir. Brodie was appointed prov-lieutenant in the 17th Duke of York's Royal Canadian Hussars, and on the outbreak of the \Vorld war, volun teered for service at the front. but owing to his special knowledge of small arms, was engaged at the Ross Rifle Factory. Quebec. In 1917 Mr. Brodie came to the United States, in the British Government service, as a chief examiner of aeronautical supplies, and was on duty at Balti more. While residing there Mr. Brodie resumed his study of the law, having decided to remain in the United States. On the cessation of hos tilities he came to Tampa, Florida. After about one year's further law studies he passed the examination held by the Supreme Court of Florida, received a licem,c to practice, and opened an office in Tampa. Mr. Brodie married, in 18g5, Annie Buckley Marland, of Manchester, England. She took a prominent part in the women's movement before and after her marriage, being associated for a number of years with the late Lady Dilke. During the World war, Mrs. Brodie was the president of the Women's League in the City of Quebec, and upon removing to Baltimore, was active in Red Cross circles. Since coming to Tampa she has identified herself with the Woman's Club, Mr. and Mrs. Brodie have one son, Roy. He served in the World war for four years, was severely wounded at Vimy Ridge, and after his recovery, became a member of the Royal Air Force, remaining with this unit, until after the armistice. On his discharge he came to Tampa and resumed work as a civil engineer. For a time he was engaged by the Florida State Road Department, and is now associated with James Austin Mortland, consulting and bridge engineer, whose main office is at Tampa. Roy Brodie married, in 1920, Martha DeMerritte Gage, daughter of Dr. Gage of Providence, Rhode Island. Mrs. Roy Brodie is a bacteriologist, and was engaged in that capacity by the Florida State Board of Health, having charge of the laboratory at Tallahassee until she retired from state employment. Robert Brodie is a member of the Florida State Bar Association, is a Mason and belongs to St. Andrew's Lodge, Quebec, Canada. Although taking an intelligent interest in public matters, Mr. Brodie declines to express himself definitely, with reference to the policies and principles of any political party. He is scholarly, dignified and gentlemanly, and among those who know him his standing is of the highest, both as an attorney and as a man. JosEPH P. HENDERSON". The people of Tampa have shown discrimination and good judgment in their selection of their public officials, for almost without exception they are men who have had considerable experience in allied lines, and are fully competent to discharge efficiently and expeditiously the duties of their several positions. Such a man is Joseph P. Henderson, city comp troller, whose acumen and business standing are unquestioned, and whose record at Tampa and elsewhere is an enviable one. Joseph P. Henderson was born at Murfrees boro, Tenne sec, September 1.3. 188(), a son of Pruett and Daisy (Hollowell) Henderson, natives of Tennessee. They had four children born to them, of whom Joseph P. is the second. His boy hood was spent in his native place, where he attended the public schools and an academy. In rgo8 Mr. Henderson came to Tampa and became bookkeeper for a real-estate firm, and while acting as such became interested in real estate on his own account, and also began con tracting. As a development of the latter line he became the accountant for the contractor who erected the City Hall, several of the high schools and other imvortant buildings at Tampa. He later bad entire charge of the Tampa Dock Com pany's ship building office, which concern em ployed a large number of men, their pay roll running to $50,000 per week. His connection with this company was during the period of the war, and in maintaining it he rendered a much-appre ciated service to the Government. Following the close of the war his services were still retained by this company, and he continued with them until receiving his appointment. 1Ir. Henders?n is a director of this company and one of its stockholders. In 1912 Mr. Henderson married Lois Knight, of Tampa, and they have three children, namely: Charles Lafayette, Joseph P., Junior, and Daisy \Vall. Mr. Henderson is a democrat. He be longs to the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is active in its various organizations. Well-known in Masonry, he has been advanced to the KnightTemplar degree, York Rite. the thirty-second degree, Scottish Rite, and also . belongs to _the Mystic Shrine. A careful, log1cal, methodical man, Mr. Henderson is without any question the right man for his important office. He is de voting to his duties not only his time and energy. but also bringing to bear upon them the weight of his experience in financial matters, and the people of the city are profiting because of his efficiency and good judgment. Personally he has many warm supporters all over the country, who recognize his many excellent qualifications as a man and good citizen. HARDY CROOM. The entire business career of Hardy Croom has been passed in connection with transportation systems, and during a period of more than a quarter of a century spent in this line of work he has become a man of wide and thorough experience. At the present time he is manager of the Jacksonville Traction Company, a position in which his ability and executive man-

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III TORY OF FLORIDA 93 agement are doing much to give the people uf this city the best and most efficient of scnicc. Mr. Croom was born in fl'fferson County, Florida, and like a numlll'r <;f men who have succeeded in city affairs, is a product of the farm, his birth having occurred on his father's farm August 27, 187-1. Ile is a son of Hardy C. and Agnes A. (\,Varc) Croom. His father, a native of Leon County, Florida, born in 18-io, be came one of Florida's pioneer orange growers and for many years carried on that bu incss in ~onj unction with general agricultural pursuits, 111 Jefferson County, \I here he died in 190-1, at the age of sixty-four years. He was a man who bor~ an e~celle1!t reputation in his community for busmcss mtcgnty and personal probity, was a member of the 1lasonic fraternity and in politics gave allegiance to the democratic party. His religious faith was that of the Episcopal Church, to which aiso beionged his wife, who was born in Jefferson County, this state, and died in 1921, when seventy-two years of age. The only child of his parents, Hardy Croom spent his boyhood on his father's farm and orange grove and acquired his early education in the public schools. Later he pursued a course at the University of Florida, from which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1&)6, and when he left that institution had no inclination for a rural career. Accordingly he secured a position in the drafting department of the P lant System Railway, with which he remained until 1901, in that yrar entering the service of the Jackso1wille Street Railway, now known as the Jacksonville Traction Company, of which he was made superintendent. 11 r. Croom held that position until 1907. when he was advanced to the post of manager, a position which he still !etains. He is a thorough railway man, fully m formed as to all details of managemrnl and able lo handle the problems of trafik and transportation, and has brought the system to a high standard of efficiency. As a fraternalist he mainta_ ins memhrrship in Temple Lodge, F . and A. 1\.1.; the local lodge of the Knights of Pythias; and Jacksonville Lodge, Hcnernknt and Protective Order of Elks. !Tis religious connection is with the Episcopal Church. Politically he is a democrat. hut his duties have been such as to keep him from taking otlll'r than a good citizen's part in public affairs. On June ;;, T<}02, Mr. Croom was united in marriage with 1\.1 iss Lettie Girardeau, who was born in Jc/Tcrson County, Florida, and to this union there ha1c been horn three sons: Hardy J., Howard and \ rinton. L\l'R.1:-.cv P. D1cKm. Tn any community of importance the Board of Trade plays a delerminaling part in its further progress, and Tampa is no exception lo this rule, for its Board of Trade is back of all of its ad\'ancement and the p l ans for further dc1elopmenl. One of the men who is respo11-iblc for much o[ the efficacy of this body is Laurance P. Dickie, managing secretary, and one of the leading men in this part of Hillsborough County. He was born at Bunker Hill, Illinois, May 20, 18&), a son of William P. and Mary Hannah (Tirrill) Dickie. The paternal grandfather was Robert Dickie, who was born in Scotland, and married Mary Patrick, born in Ayreshire, Scotland. The maternal grandfather, Henry Tirrill, was born at Abbington, Massachu. etts, and through him Lanrance P. Dickie can trace back his ancestry to the historic Iayflower. The maternal grandmother was Louisa (Klinefe lter) Tirrill, born at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Robert Dickie came to the United States about 1845. \Villiam P. Dickie was born in Illinois and his wife al Saint Louis, Missouri. Ile is an optician and jeweler, and for many years was in business as such at Bunker Hill, Illinois, where he served as postmaster dming the McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft administrations. In 1916 he came to Florida and established himself. in business as an optician and jeweler al Clearwater, where hr still residrs, and where he is recognized as one of the city's prosperous husinrss men. Laurance P. Dickie is the fifth in a family of six children, and he was reared at Bunker Hill, lllinois, and there he attended the grade and high schools, being graduated from the latter in 19()(5, following which he took a commercial course at the Gem City Business College, Quincy, Illinois, and was graduated therefrom in 19()8. Entering his father's store, he was his fathrr's assistant for a year, and then went to Kennell, Missouri, and was manager of the Johnson Jewelry Company there until in February, 1912, when he came to Tampa. Upon coming here he became connected with the Board of Trade and both newspapers handling the Marine cw work, and through this association was made secretary of the Board of Trade in 1915 and managing secretary of it in 1917, and has served as such ever since. Ile is also secretary of the Tampa Auto As ociation, and belongs to the Tampa Rotary Club, the Rocky Point Golf Club and many other organizations. He belongs to the Tampa Lodge Numl:ier 7o8, B. P. 0. E. ln 191 l 1Ir. Dickie married Nellie eil, only child of Peter and Mary (Lang) Neil, of ScotchIrish de cent. Mr. Neil was horn at Pittsville, Pennsylvania, and 1frs. Neil, at Canton, Ohio. Mrs. Dickie was born at Bunker Hill, Illinois, and attended the same local schools as her hus band. To them was horn a son, Laurance P .. Junior, who was born July 29, r912, and d;ccl December 26, 1921. Having gi1en so much thought and study to the duties of his position. Mr. Dickie is well qualified to discharge them efficiently, and is recognized as onr of the most expert men in his line in this part of thr slate. Thoroughl y emhued with the possibilities of Tampa, he is an enthusiastic booster for it and Tl illsborough Count). and lo his hard work and effectiveness may he directly traced a numher of important improvements, either well-launched or contemplated in the near future. FRED E. FENNO came to South Florida twenty years ago and became an active business man at Delray. He was the first clerk of the Circuit and Count1 courts of Palm Beach County. and his service in connection with that office has been con tinuous. ?I.Lr. Fenno was born in Saginaw County, l\.Iichi gan. John Fcnno left England and settled in Massachusetts in 1628, so that the American record extends back over practically three centuries. Fred E. Fenno was reared and educated at Saginaw, and for about thirteen years was connected with one of the Saginaw banks in various positions of trust. On coming to South Florida in January, 1902, he localed at Delray, now in Palm Beach County, but then a part of Dade County. His brother. J. G. Fenno, had preceded him several years, and was one of the pioneers of the Delray section. Fred Feuno was first connected with the Del-

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!)4 HISTORY OF FLORIDA ray Builders Supply Company and later was sec retary and treasurer of the Planter Packing & Preserving Company. \Vhen the new county of Palm Beach was founded in 1909 the go,ernor selected him as the best man to handle the responsibilities of clerk of the County and Circuit Courts. At the first gen eral election in the county Hutson B. Saunders, Jr., was elected to that office and Fred Fenno remained as chief deputy under Mr. Saunders and also under George 0. Butler. In November, 1920, he himself was elected clerk of the Circuit and Count) courts, and is also auditor and recorder of the county. He entered upon his official term January I, 1921. He has been a responsible man in charge of the records and the official business from the beginning of the county, and his admin istration has been marked with the highest degree of efficiency. }.fr. Fenno is a member of the Advisory Council of the American National Bank, takes an active part in civic affairs, is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and is a Royal Arch Mason and a member of the First Methodist Epis copal Church. }.fr. Fenno married Myrtie Mann, a native of Saginaw, Michigan. Their five children are Belle, Lloyd H., Florence, Philip and Amy. One of the prominent young men of Palm Beach County who made enviable records at the time of the world war was Lloyd II. Fenno. In April, r917, when America declared war against the Central Powers, he was a student in Stetson University of De Land. In the latter part of that month he enlisted at Jacksomille as hospital ap prentice, First Oass, U. S. N. Subsequently he was assigned to duty in the famous Sixth Machine Gun Battalion, which as part of the Second Divi sion made an enviable record at the front in France. Serving with this hattalion Lloyd Fe11110 was wounded in the lighting in the Bois de Belleau June I to 30, 1918. On July 5, following, he was awarded a citation from Major Ceneral Bundy for "distinguished and exceptional gallantry." After the armistice he continued with the Anny of Occu pation at Coblenz, and returned home and was dis charged in May, 1919. ln the following fall he resumed his studies in the Stetson University, and in 1920 he entered the Medical School of the Uni versity of Michigan, where he is preparing himself for a medical career. D. S. SPOONER, M. D. One oi the interesting and rapidly progressing new towns of Southern Florida is Pahokee in Palm Beach Cou11ty, on th<: southeast coast of Lake Okeechobee. \\'hat that community represents in the way of municipal improvements and business development is largl ly due to the initiative and enterprise of Doctor Spooner and a few other citizens. Ile is a man of versatile talents, busily engaged in practice as a physician, and is also druggist, banker ancl ready with influence and personal means to promote anything for the advantage of the com munity. Doctor Spooner was born in }.[illcr Count), Georgia, and was reared there, attending the common schools. He acquired his professional education in Tulane University of New Orleans, and later graduated from the Atlanta Medical College in rgog. After one year of practice in his native county Doctor Spooner came to Florida, in r9ro. His home and professional interests for several years were on the \Vest Coast, at Parish in Manatee County. It was in the latter part of r917 that he came to what is now Pahokee, Palm Beach County, and in the early part of the following year established his home and office here. He also started a small drug store. It was a district with very few settlers, and Doctor Spooner in locating there counted on future developments and at once took a hand in realizing some of these developments. Pahokee was only a name, there being no busi ness at the point, and no regular supply of merchandise or food stuffs. That it is now a pros perous and rapidly growing community, with modern and adequate business institutions, is mainly due to the efforts put forth by this able physician. His drug store has been greatly im proved and enlarged. He also helped to organize and is president of the Bank of Pahokee, which opened its doors for business in July, 1922. Doctor Spooner installed and is owner of a \Venton s kilowatt electric system for municipal purposes, furnishing both light and power. He also built and operates a modern moving 1>icture house. He was one of the leaders in the incorporation of the town in the spring of 1922, and was elected a member of the first Board of Councilmen. The southeast section of Lake Okeechobee, in the center of which is Pahokee, is a district richly endowed for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Doctor Spooner's parents, J. E. and Sallie (Regan) Spooner, represented old families of Miller County, Georgia. J. E. Spooner is still living at the old home where he was reared and wliere Doctor Spooner was born. Ile is a veteran of the Civil war, having joined the Confederate Army at the age of sixteen. Doctor Spooner married Miss Lulu Belle Golden, of Thomasville, Georgia. WILLIAM STRATTOX \Y.\RE, for many years a Florida business man, has enjoyed some of the highest distinctions of ~fasonry in this state and since retiring from actil'e business has been busy with official responsibilities in connections with the Grand Lodge, with lll'adquarters in the i\lasonic Temple at Jacksonville. He was born in Philadelphia, 1farch 15, 1851. \\'hen a boy he was bound out to a Quaker farmer in Salem County, New Jersey, and he was given all the work that his strength permitted and had the privilege of attending school only in the winter months. At the age of seventeen he apprenticed himself to a prominent builder, and after four years learned his trade and then started out as a journeyman. The c.,ccupation of builder he followed until r882, when he came South to Columbus, Georgia, and associated with a half brother entered the industry of ice manufacture. This half brothl'r was a builder and operator of ice machines. After selling the Columbus plant in 1884 Mr. \Vare moved to Jacksonville, in March, 1885, and with Mr. Stratton established the refrigerate ice works. He and his partner subsequently established several plants in Florida, includiug one at Pensacola, and were pioneers in the artificial ice industry and continued their in tt'rests in that line until 1()06, when they sold out. During his active business career Mr. Ware was for several years a director and vice president of the Board of Tracie of Jacksonville, and did his full part in connection with all public movements. lle was practically retired from active business from 1()06 to r918, in which year he accepted the oflice of custodian of the property of the Grand Lodge of Florida, F. and A. M., and is serving as secretary of the trustees of the Grand Lodge and the Masonic Home. Mr. Ware

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 95 has been signally honored with the thirty-third, honorary supreme, degree in Scottish Rite Masonry. In 1878 he married Miss Nellie L. Wooster, of Litchfield, Connecticut, and they have had a happy married life for over forty years. Not being blessed with children of their own, they adopted his half brother's children, Harry and Nellie, and have lived to see them both happi l y married and with families. Mr. and Mrs. Ware are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. For many years he has been president of the Board of Trustees of the church and of the Livingston mission fund for building churches in Florida. Mr. Ware has reached the age of three score and ten, but is still vigorous and deeply interested in his work as a churchman, in his home and in the masonic and relief fund interests. HOMER VnJAN, though only claiming a brief residence in Florida, is permanently identified with the cattle industry of the state, and is an old time cattle man, with a richly varied experience in every phase of the industry and covering the great country of the Southwest and also South America. His home and interests are at Pahokee in Palm Beach County. Mr. Vivian was born in the very center of the cattle raising indust~y of the Southwest, the Town of Tascosa, the old county seat of Oldham County in the Texas Panhandle, in 1882. His father, C. B. Vivian, was one of the pioneers of that noted cattle country, locating in the Panhandl e before counties had been organized there. He became the first county clerk of Oldham County when civil organization was extended that far and when the county had jurisdiction over a large section of the Panhandle. Tascosa, the county seat, is a name that brings up many memories to the o l d time cattle men of the West. Adjoining it was Boot Hill, the resting place of many \Vestern characters who were killed with their boots on and buried. It was a flourishing town o f importance at the time of the birth of Homer Vivian, and continued to be so until the build ing of railroads and the passing of the great cattle trails. The maternal uncle of Homer Vivian was C. B. Willingham, first sheriff of Oldham County. Homer Vivian grew up in the saddle. At the age of nine he rode race~, with his legs strapped to the horse. Ile became. a fence rider, cowboy, wagon ho s, foreman of outfits, ranch manager, and there is nothing connected with the cattle industry both old and new with which his experience has not made him familiar. In former years he was widely famed as an exhibition rider, and held a number of records for roping, tying and other contests. In I9II Mr. Vivian was sent to Brazil, South America, as superintendent of the Brazil Land & Cattle Company. The president of this company was the Hon. :Murdo McKenzie of Denver, who for many years was president of the Texas Cattle Raisers Association and one of the great cattle men of the Southwest. The Brazilian ranch was located in the State of Matto Grosso. Mr. Vivian remained there in active charge for about four years. On returning to the United States he established his home at LaJunta, Colorado, and operated a municipal gas plant. In a few years, however, he resumed his first love, the cattle business. It was in March, 1921, that Mr. Vivian came to Florida as range foreman for the Dixie Land and Cattle Company. This company was organized by Colorado people, and established a large ranch in Okeechobe6 County, north of the Lake of that name. Mr. Vivian left this company in January, 1922, al which time he removed his home to Pahokee in Palm Beach County, on the southeast shore of Lake Okeechobee. He is associated with and represents here the land, farming and transportation interests of B. A. Howard of Okeechobee, the pioneer developer of that region, and a man who ha~ done more than any other individual to bring the resources of the loca l ity to the attention of the outside world. When in June, 1922, the town of Pahokee was incorporated and the first election held, Mr. Vivian was honored by being selected as mayor. In r9rn Mr. Vivian married Miss Nell McKinney, of Dallas, Texas. Their two children are Homer and Nell. ARTHUR F. PICKARD since coming to Lakeland has employed his time and energies on a broaden ing program of development work and productive enterprise. He is active head of the Pickard Brothers organization, handling and developing real estate, citrus groves and other property. He is also president of the Central State Bank of Lakeland. Mr. Pickard was born at Toronto, Canada, March 31, 1871, son of James and Mary (Marquis) Pickard. His parents were born in England, and his mother was eight and his father eleven years of age when their respective families settled in Canada. Arthur F. Pickard is the youngest in a family of eleven children. When he was eight years old his parents moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota, and he grew up on a farm near that city. His education was acquired in the common and high schools, and as a young man he was employed for two years on the D uluth & Iron Range Railroad. From that be went into the flour milling business, and after a year made his headquarters at Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and was traveling representative for milling interests throughout Alberta and British Columbia. Mr. Pickard came to Florida and direct to Lakeland in 19II. At that time he bought a grove on Lake Hollingsworth, and a few months later he organized the Pickard Brothers Company, engaged in the development and sale of orange groves and fruit lands. The Central State Bank of Lakeland was organized October 3, 1920, Mr. Pickard being one of the active men jn its promo tion. Upon the organization he was made presi dent of the bank, and has twice been elected to that office. This bank has a capital of $100,000, and is one of the strong and substantial institu tions of Polk County. Mr. Pickard still continue active in the business of developing and selling groves. In December, 1894, he married Harriet : Marlowe Webb of Dawson, Minnesota, daughter of David Webb. Before her marriage she was a successful teacher in the public schools. Mrs. Pickard had two sons and two daughters: Beatrice M., A. Marquis, Charles S., and Allison R. Mr. Pickard is affiliated with the Modern Woodmen of America, is a member of the Kiwanis Club and the Illetho dist Episcopal Church. JOHN B. TURNER, M. D., is not only one of the prominent physicians and surgeons engaged in practice in Santa Rosa County, but is also president of the Milton State Bank at Milton,

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HISTORY OF FLORID,\ the county ~eat. He maintains in connection with his large and important practice offices both at Milton and Bagdad, in which latter place he maintains his home and is official physician and surgeon for the Bagdad Land & Lumber Com pany and the Florida & Alabama Railroad Com pany. Doctor Turner was born in Simpson County, Kentucky, September JO, 1882, and is a son o[ John Eli and Paralee (Bogan) Turner, both like wise natives of the fine 0111 Blul'grass State. His mother died when he was two years of age. His father is a prosperous farmer and a citizen of prominence and influence in community affairs of Simpson County. The pakrnal grandfather of Doctor Turner and John Turner, the family name of whose wife was Blewett. Ira Bogan. maternal grandfather of the Doctor, passed his entire life in Kentucky, and was identified with many of the public improyements and sen-eel as county justice for many years. The public schools of his native county afforded Doctor Turner his early education, which was supplemented by a course in the Luna Training School at Franklin, Kentucky, which institution he entered at the age of eighteen years. In con sonance with his ambition he thereafter entered the medical dl'partmcnt oi \'an
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 97 mobilized at Camp Wheeler, Macon, Georgia. He was commissioned a first lieutenant of infantry, and in August, 1918, promoted to captain and transferred to Camp Travis, San Antonio, Texas. He remained there until mustered out in March, 1919, and still has a reserve commission as cap tain. Since the close of his army service he has been attending to his duties as active manager of the Title Guaranty and Abstract Company. Captain Beardall is a member of the American Legion, is a Royal Arch Mason, Knight of Pythias and Elk, and a member of the Country Cluh. July 13, 1922, he married Miss Shadic L. Hamer, of Asheville, North Carolina. RANilOLl'H IIowELL COBB, a representative younger member of the bar of Orange County, is established in the successful practice of his profession at Orlando, the county scat, and his is the distinction of having received the French Croix de Guerre in recognition of his gallant service with the American Expeditionary Forces in France in the late World war. Mr. Cobb was born in the attractive and his toric little ity of Rahway, Union County, New Jersey, on the 14th of July, 1894, and is the only child of Rev. Roderick Provost Cobb and Annie (Stewart) Cobb, who now maintain their home at Orlando, Florida. Rev. Roderick P. Cobb was born in the State of Pennsylvania, and he has long been a clergyman of the Protestant Episco pal Church, in which he has served with marked ability and consecrated devotion. He was rector of the Episcopal Church at Rahway, New Jersey, until his only son, subject of this sketch, was five years old, and for ix years thereafter he was rector of a church at Troy, New York, his pastoral charge for the following five years hav ing been at Doylestown, Pennsylvania. In 19II he came with his family lo Orlando, Florida, to assume the office of principal of the Cathedral School for Girls, in connection with the local cathedral of the Diocese of Florida. He retained this office ten years, and has since lived retired, a revered and loved citizen of Orlando. Randolph 11. Lobb acquired his preparatory education hy attcndmg the 'I catcs School at Lancaster, 1-,cnns}lvan,a, and for two years thereafter he was a student in the University of the South at Scwanec, Tennessee. In 1917 he graduated from the law department of the Uni versity of Florida, his reception of the degree of Bachelor of Laws having been virtually coincident with his admission to the bar of this state. Shortly after his graduation the nation became involved in the \,Vorld war, and the young barrister promptly subordinated professional am bition to tender his service to his country. He volunteered for service of the United States Army, receiving preliminary training at Allen town, Pennsylvania, and on the 25th of Decem ber, 1917, he sailed with his command for France. He was with the American Expeditionary Forces in overseas service for a period of seventeen and one-half months, lived up to the full tension of the great conflict, and after the armistice brought the war to a close he remained in France until June, 1919, on the 2d of which month he arrived once more in his native land, his honorable discharge having been received at Camp Jackson on the 15th of December, 1919. In his service abroad Mr. Cobb was with the Twenty-eighth Division of Chasseurs Alpine in Alsace and Belgium; with the Fourteenth Colonial Corps d' Armee on the Champagne front; with the Ninetyfirst and later with the First Division of the American Expeditionary Forces, with which he took part in the Argonne-Meuse offensive; with the Sixty-second French Division; with the Ardenncs offensive movements until the signing of the historic armistice. He received the Croix de Guerre from the French general in command of the Twenty-eighth Division in the Mount Kcmmel defense. He perpetuates the more gracious memories and associations of his military career through the medium of his appreciative affilia tion with the American Legion. l'pon returning to his home at Orlando Mr. Cobb here established himself in the practice of his profession, in which his success is fully justifying his choice of vocation. He is a l igned loyally in the ranks of the democratic party, and is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church. His law office is established in the l\lcElroy Building. FREEMAN P. LANE. When he came to St. Petersburg several years ago Freeman P. Lane had rounded out more than forty years of experience and work as a Minneapolis attorney, and had the distinction of being the oldest member in point of continuous practice and service at the Minneapolis bar in the city he chose for his years of retirement he has not led a life of leisure, but has been active in the upbuilding of the community, has served as chairman of the railroad committee of the Chamber of Com merce, a director of the Rotary Club, a member of the Yacht Club, and in April, 1922, accepted a post of unusual responsibility tendered him by the mayor of the city. From the letter written by Mayor Pulver, the following sentences are quoted: "For a loug time I have appreciated the fact that our Municipal Court could be made a much more efficient institution than it has ever been. I believe that it is highly important for us to make this court a power for good in the com mtmity. There are cases of juvenile delinquency which could be remedied through the proper functioning of our Municipal Court, presided over by a Judge who is a student of human nature as well as an exponent of the law. I feel that the City of St. Petersburg would be greatly benefited if you could see your way clear to accept this judgeship. I realize that you would be making a sacrifice to do this, as your long years of experience as a lawyer and judge entitle you to a well earned rest." To which Judge Lane replied: "While it is true 'that I feel entitled to a well earned rest' after forty-eight years of active practice, yet if I can, by accepting your offer, render any service to our boys particularly, and to the public generally, I shall be pleased to accept your offer." Judge Lane was born at Eastport, Washington County, Maine, April 20, 1853, son of Charles W. and Almira B. (Coulter) Lane. His grandfather was a native of Scotland and always wrote the name McLane, according to the original spell ing, but Charles 'vV. Lane dropped the prefix when he became a sailor. Seafaring has been a traditional occupation of the Lane family for a number of generations. Charles 'vV. Lane at the age of nine years left home without his widowed mother's consent, became a cabin boy on a schooner between Eastport and Boston, and eventually became first mate on a sailing vessel plying between Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and the West Indies. The captain of this vessel was Freeman Parker, in whose honor Judge Lane

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98 HISTORY OF FLORIDA was named. The maternal grandfather of Judge Lane was born in the north of Ireland, was a Scotch Protestant. In the spring of 1862 Charles \V. Lane removed with his family to Minnesota and became a pio neer settler of .Minneapolis. His first employment was in a cooper shop and he established his home in what was then known as South Minneapolis, where there were only two houses. In 186-1 he bought a carriage repair shop and became a com paratively prosperous business man, living in Minneapolis the rest of his life. Freeman P. Lane was nine years of age when the family went to Minnesota. During the years 1&52-65 lie did work as a bootblack and as a newsboy selling the editions of the Press and the Pioneer, subsequently consolidated as the Pio neer-Press. He was attending school in the inter vals of this employment, but left school perma nently on reaching the eighth grade. In 1867 he began work in a mill, then clerked in his father's grocery store and in 186g entered the service of the Northwestern Telegraph Company, later ab sorbed by the \Vestem Union. Ile assisted in the construction of the company's lines in Minne sota and the territory of Dakota. In the spring of 1872 he became joint employe of the United States Government, the Northern Pacific Rail road Company and the Northwestern Telegrap h Company, and assisted in constructing a tele graph line from Fort Cross (now Jamestown) to Lincoln in Dakota territory, this line having been completed before the grading of the railroad was started. Within ten days after his return to Minneapolis in November, 1872, Mr. Lane entered the office of Albee Smith, one of the ab le lawyers of the city, and the following year went East to A lbany Law School of New York. Ile was admitted by the Supreme Court of New York, 1 1ay 6, 1874, and immediately returned to Minneapolis. For over forty years he engaged in practice at Minne apo lis and ranked as one of the ablest attorneys of the city. He was a specialist in insurance liti gation. His ambi tion was fully satisfied by his success within the strict limits of the law, and he once refused appointment as Judge of the Dist rict Court offered him by the late Governor Johnson of Minnesota. For a number of years he was chairman of the Republican County and City Committee at Minneapolis, was elected to the Legislature in 1889, but in 1893 left the republican party on ac count of its attitude toward the tariff, the trusts and financial matters, and became a populist. He presided at many populist conventions and as sisted in formulating some of the constructive planks in the platform, then regarded as radical, but subsequently adopted by such national leaders as W illiam J. Bryan and Colonel Rooseve lt. In later years Judge Lane exercised his po l itical influence chiefly in the ranks as a progressive democrat. He is a Royal Arch and K night Tem p lar Mason and for half a century has been identified with that order and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. July 6, 1875, he married Miss Mollie Lauder dale, daughter of William H. Lauderdale of Minneapolis. The four children born to their mar riage were Bessie, Ina, Mabel and Stuart. Bessie, who died in 1898 was the wife of Thomas F. Maguire. Ina, married John E. Christian. Mabel, became the wife of Dr. Hugh C. Arey. The only son Stuart Lane, took up a business career in his native city. SIDNEY JonNSTON CATTS, governor of Florida in 1917-21, has had a distinguished career both in the minist ry and in Florida politics. He was born near P leasant Hill, Alabama, July 3r, 1863, son of Capt. S. W. Ade line R. (Smyly) Catts. He was reared in A labama, where he attended the Agricultural and Mechanical College, Howard College and the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. He educated himself for the law, and in 1882 was graduated LL. B. from Cumberland University Law School of Tennessee. Though admitted to the bar he did not take up practice and soon entered the Baptist ministry and was licensed to preach in 1885 and regu larly ordained in 1886. IIe filled some prominent pulpits in Alabama for about twenty years, being pastor at Mount Gilead, Benton, Farmersville, Shiloh, Ackerville, Steep Creek, Letohatchee, Fort Deposit and Tuskegee. IIe resigned from the mini~try in 1904 to become a candidate for Congress to represent the Fifth Alabama District. Subsequently he accepted a call to the First Baptist Church at DeFuniak Springs, F lorida, and has been a resident of this state since 1910. He was elected and served as governor the four year term beginning January, 1918. In 1919 he was a candidate for the United States Senate. GEORGE STAKLEY NASH is secretary, treasurer and general manager of the Central Florida Ab stract and Title Guaranty Company e1f Orlando. His experience has identified him with the ab stract business for a number of years, and he organized the present company shortly after his service with the naval militia during the great war. Mr. Kash was born at Rockford, Illinois, December 8, 1888, son of Earl Leon and Lottie (Stanley) Nash. His father was born in Maine, and was a boy when the grandfather, John B. Nash, left that state and became a pioneer in Northern Illinois. For forty years he was county assessor at Rockford. Lottie Stanley was born in New York State, and her father, Aggasa Stanley, was a lso an early settler of Illinois. John B. Nash organized a company of Union so ldiers at Rockford, went into the Union army as a captain, and served until the end of that struggle. Earl Leon Nash and wife moved from Rockford to Chicago, and since 1914 have lived in Florida, being establ ished on a farm at Orange Park. George Stanley Nash grew up in O1icago, ac quired a high school education there, for three years was a student in Monmouth College in Illinois, spent one year in DePaul University at Chicago, and another year in the Univer ity of Chicago. Mr. Nash had an interesting experience in journalism at Chicago, being associate editor of the Acety lene Journal, a trade paper devoted to the acetylene industry, and subsequently was a regular newspaper reporter, at first on the staff of the Chicago Tribune and then with the Chi cago Record-Herald. Mr. Nash came to Florida in r9u, and ac quired his first experience in the title and ab stract business at Jacksonville as an employee of the Title Guaranty Company of that city. He remained there two years, and for one year was with the Orange Title Guaranty and Abstract Company of Orlando. Following that he was with the Consolidated Naval Stores Company at Jacksonville. April 6, 1~)17, at the declaration of war against

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 99 Germany, the Florida Naval Militia, of which Mr. Nash was a lieutenant, was called into the service of the Federal Government, and was kept on duty in the Navy Yards throughout the war period. It was discharged from the Federal service in 1920, but Mr. Nash still continued on the Naval Reserve Corps. He is a member and former adjutant of the American Legion Post. Mr. Nash organized at Orlando in 1920 the Central Florida Abstract and Title Guaranty Com pany, and in addition to his executive duties with that company he is editor of the Orlando maga zine. He is affiliated with the .Masonic Order, Knights of Pythias and Elks, is a director of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, and chairman of its publicity committee, as well as of the Country Club. ln Chicago, in 1909, he married Miss Vera Dolan. She was born in New York, but was reared in Chicago. LEIGH GrnsoN NEWELL, senior member of the representative law firm of Newell & Boyer at Orlando, judicial center of Orange County, with offices at 16 \Vest Pine Street, was born in the City of \Vashington, District of Columbia, December 5, 1891, and is a son of George R. and Susie (Gibson) Newell, both of whom were horn in the State of Maryland. George R. Newell was a son of Professor Martin A. Newell, who was born in Ireland and who, as a man of fine intellectual attainments, became a prominent figure in educational affairs i'n Maryland. IIe was the founder of the first State Normal School of Maryland, of which he was president several years, besides which he served with characteristic ability as state superintendent of public in struction, both he and his wife having continued their residence in Maryland until their deaths. George R. Newell graduated from the University of Maryland, in both its academic and law departments, and it was in the year 1883 that he came to Orlando, Florida, to assume charge of a mercantile establishment. In 1885, however, he here engaged in the practice of law, and he continued as one of the leading members of the bar of Orange Count until his death in 1898, when he was ahout forty-five years o f age. He served as county solicitor and made a splen did record as an able lawyer and loyal and public-spirited citizen. His widow still resides at Orlando. Her father was a clergyman of the Methodist Church and held important pastoral charges both in Maryland and in the City of Washington, District of Columbia. George R. Newell and his wife became zealous members of the Presbyterian Church at Orlando, and in the same Mrs. Newell still continues her active membership. Of their two children the subject of this review is the elder, and the younger, Sidney Philip, likewise resides at Orlando. The public schools of Orlando afforded Leigh G. Newell his preliminar) education, which was supplemented by one year of study at Rollins College and five years in the historic old University of Virginia at Charlottesville, where he was a member of Board of Virginia Law Review and member of the Raven Society. In the law department of this university he was graduated as a member of the class of 1915, and with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. In the same year he was admitted to the Florida bar and engaged in the practice of his profession at Orlando, where he is now senior member of the law firm of Newell & Boyer, which controls a substantial and representative general practice and has distinctive prestige at the bar of Orange County. Mr. Newell is a stalwart in the local ranks of the democratic party, is affiliated with the .Masonic fraternity, and is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and is secretary of the Kiwanis Club of Orlando. I C. C. CARR. The power of the Fourth Estate is felt not only in politics, but in every department of civic life. There are many people whose time is so occupied, or whose inclinations are such, that the newspaper supplies them with all their reading matter, and -from it is gained their attitude, not upon public matters alone, but their ideas with reference to all current affairs. Therefore it is of prime importance that those who shape the policies and control the destinies of the journals of the different localities be men of high character and broad outlook on life; men able to rise above petty bickerings and deal with the problems of life in a whole-souled and cap able manner. Such a man beyond any question is C. C. Carr, part owner and active manager of the St. Petersburg Times, the leading newspaper of Pinellas County. C. C. Carr was born in Indiana, which has produced some of the leading journalists and literary men of this age, and he attended the grammar and high schools, and the University of l ndiana, from which he was graduated in 1909. In the intervals of attending school Mr. Carr began learning the newspaper business, and rose, through honest effort, and natural capability, from the mailing galley lo a reporter's position. Like George Ade and other newspaper men ot note, he gained a purposeful and useful expe1ience in the newspaper field at Chicago, and for a time was connected in a reportorial capacity with the Chicago Inter Ocean. Mr. Carr also ventured into the educational field, following his graduation from the university, and then, attracted hy the lure of the tropics and love of adventure inherent in the breast of every normal young man, he went to the Canal Zone, where for four years he was in the employ of the United States Government as a member of its civil administration staff. As such he rendered signal service as head of the system of high schools in the zone. It was while in the zone that he wrote "The Story of Panama," which is unusually interesting for what he wrote about he knew from personal ex perience. This book was issued in 1912 by the Silver-Burdett Company, and met with a gratifying reception by the public. With the canal completed, Mr. Carr's con nection with the government service terminated, and he returned to the United States, and resumed the work for which he had always felt he was best fitted. Until r9q he and Paul Poynter owned and issued the Daily Times of Sullivan, Indiana, but it was not until he came, in that year, to St. Petersburg-that Ur. Carr was given the opportunity to show his mettle, or demonstrate what a very capable man he really is. Since he took charge of the Times that journal has shown an astounding growth, and he and his associates have made it metropolitan in character and scope. The plant is housed in a modern three-story building, equipped with every facility for printing a paper that is a credit to Saint Petersburg and Pinellas County. Mr. Carr is a splendid newspaper man, but he is more, he is a good citizen, and is just as zea!ot1s in the discharge of his civic duties as he is in those pertaining to llis bt1siness. His con ception of the former include his service as one of the vice presidents of the St. Petersburg

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100 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Chamber of Commerce, as president of the Rotary Club, and as chairman of the County School Board. In the latter capacity his work has been especially effective during a period when many difficult problems have confronted the board. Mr. Carr is particularly interested in educational matters, which he is able to handle in a professional way owing to his experience in the schoolroom, and he is determined to put the schools of his city in the front rank in efficiency and scholarship, in spite of the financial difficulties which present themselves. Such men as Mr. Carr give distinction to their work and communities, and are valuable assets wherever found. L. E. LINEBAUGH, D. D. S. The science of dentistry is not a new development, for it has been discovered that the ancient Egyptians not only had a crude kind of artificial teeth, speci mens of which have been discovered in the care fully preserved mummies, but that they under stood to a certain degree the work of repairing decayed teeth. However it is a long cry between these faint beginnings of a great science and the work today of a dependable dental surgeon. George Washington, the Father of his country, possessed a set of false teeth, then regarded as a marvel of construction, but it is doubtful if our First President found much comfort when he had the clumsy mechanism in his mouth. Proof of this is found in the fact that the pic tures of him generally shown indicate that the)' were either taken be fore he was supplied with them or that he was resting from their effects upon his defenseless gums. Today the skilled dentist is able to provide a set of teeth which are not only perfectly comfortable, but which are so close an imitation of the original ones as to defy detection. The replacing of teeth, however, ts but a small part of the magnificent service the members of this profession are ren dering. Of late years, particularly since the war, the public has hccome educated to the necessity for expert denta l work, and physicians are send ing their patients to the dental surgeons when they fiud in fcctions resulting from decayed teeth, rather than treating these infections themselves. Because of the rigidness of the training, and the high character of the men in the profession, dentistry has been raised to a very high posi tion, and the time is not far distant when poor teeth will be the exception, instead of the rule. Doctor Linebaugh is a native son of Tampa, as he was born in this city May 3r, 1895. His father, H. T. Linebaugh, is one of the prominent men of the city, and his mother, Susan (Hendry) Linebaugh, belongs to an old and honored fam ily. Growing up at Tampa, Doctor Linebaugh attended the grammar and high schools of Tampa and received his professional training in the den tal department of Vanderbilt University, from which he was graduated in r918, with the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery. Immediately thereafter h~ located in his native city, with offices at 705-6 Citizens Bank Building. A be liever in organization, he belongs to the local, state and national dental associations. Having been carefully trained under the best minds in his profession, Doctor Linebaugh has imbibed high ideals, and is living up to them in every particular. It is his aim in all of his work to preserve and save, and his advice is given conscientiously and fearlessly. He takes a pride in all that he does, and serves each patient according to his best judgment. Having spent his life at Tampa, he is naturally proud of the city of his birth, and is anxious to aid in its further progress, but as yet has not had the time to go into public matters extensively. He holds to the conviction that if the teeth of the children arc safeguarded from the time the milk ones appear much trouble will he avoided, and the care and patience he shows in handling the little ones is worthy of commendation. EuGENE GOODMAN DucKWotnn. The year r922 finds the City of Orlando, capital and metropolis of Orange County, signally favored in the con structive and progressive administration that is being given by its popular mayor, who ic; one of the representative merchants of the place and whose name appears at the head of this para-graph. • Mr. Duckworth was born on a farm near Lin coln, Nebraska, on the 29th of April, 1875, a date that indicates that his parents had a quota of pioneer honors in that state. Mr. Duckworth is a son ot Manly and Ida (Jennings) Goodman, and was but five years of age at the time of his father's death . At the age of nine years he was legally adopted by and was given the surname of Mr. and Mrs. Thos. A. Duckworth, of Orlando, Florida, and the boy arrived February 22, 1885, in the fine little city which he was eventu ally destined to serve as mayor. His legal adop tion by Mr. and Mrs. Duckworth soon followed. His foster parents had here established their home in 1884 and here remained until their deaths, sterling citizens who held unqualified popular esteem in the community. Mr. Duckworth is indebted to the public schools for his early education, and at the age of fifteen years he initiated his service as clerk in a dry-goods store at Orlando. Seven years later, in 1897, he here engaged independentlv in business as a shoe merchant, and for seven teen years he conducted in the original location one of the leading shoe stores in the progre she little city. From JQ13 to r91Q he was one of the principals of the Yowell-Duckworth Com pany, which here conducted a general depart ment store and which was succeeded by the present Yowell-Drew Company. Mr. Duckworth now conducts at Orlando a modern and finely equipped establishment for the handling of ready to-wear apparel for women and children, with a branch store at Bradentown, besides which he owns and conducts a shoe store at St. Petersburg. He is also concerned with the growing of oranges, in which connection he owns individ ually a fine orange grove of thirty-five acres and is a stockholder of the Orlando Orange Grove Company, which is developing an orange grove of 4,000 acres in one body. He is known as one of the most loyal, liberal and progressive citi zens of Orange County, is a democrat in politics, and after the incorporation of Orlando as a city he served as a member of its first municipal Board of Trustees, of which he was made chair man. In 19r9, while he was absent from the city, his friends here, without his knowledge, brought him nomination for the office of mayor. and in the autumn of that year he was elected by a majority that gave significant testimony to his popularity in the home community. He assumed office January 1, 1920, and his admin istration has been marked by progressive policies and by careful fostering of the best interests of the city and its people. A thorough business regime in municipal affairs is to be credited to Mayor Duckworth, and under his administration a city bond issue was carried through success-

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 101 fully and made possible excellent provision for further public improvements. On November 14, 1922, Mr. Duckworth was reelected mayor of Orlando. He is a past master of the local Blue Lodge of the Masonic fraternity, is affiliated with the Orlando Commandery of Knights Templars, and is also a member of the :hfy,tic Shrine and the Knights of Pythias. He is one of the active and valued members of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, of which he was president in 1919, and is a charter member of the local Rotary Club. As a mere boy, soon after his arrival in Orlando, Mayor Duckworth here became a member of the First Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he has continued one of its active and zc:alous members to the present time, since 1885, his wife likewise being earnest and active in the church work. October 20, 1898, recorded the marriage of Mr. Duckworth and Miss Ethel Campbell, and they have three children: Robert Eugene, Manly Campbell and William Samuel. ARTHUR R. P1NKERTON. In the comparatively short although uniformly progressive career of Arthur R. Pinkerton, one of the rising young lawyers of Tampa, several personal character istics arc to be noted, among them being indus try, professional cnthu iasm and a thorough knowledge of the principles and fundamentals of his vocation. As a member of the law firm of Pinkerton and Blomgren he has made steady advancement, and his connection with a number of important cases has given him omething more than a passing reputation. Mr. Pinkerton was born at Waupaca, Wiscon sin, April 12, 1886, a son of Robert R. and Margaret (Cochran) Pinkerton. Robert R. Pinkerton was born in Ireland, of Scotch parentage, and was eleven years of age when brought to the United States by his parents, who settled at once in \Visconsin. There he pa sed the remain ing years of his life in agricultural pursuits and became a highly respected member of his com munity. Mrs. Pinkerton, although born in America, was also of Scotch ancc try. The boyhood days of Arthur R. Pinkerton were passed in \Vis consin1 where he obtained a high school educa tion and also had advanced trai11i11g at Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin. His first preparation for the law came through attendance at the St. Paul School of Law, St. Paul, Minne sota, after which he adopted the vocation of a traveling salesman, a capacity in which he came to Florida. In r9n he entered the first law class at the Florida University Law School, but at that time did not complete the course, again going on the road as a traveling representative of wholesale house . In 1916 he received his degree of Bachelor of Laws from the Florida Law School, and in the same year, being admitted to the bar, came to Tampa for the practice of his profession. For one year he was in the office of Judge H. P. Bailey, and then opened an office of his own in the Dawson & Thornton Building. In 1919 he formed a partnership with A. R. Blomgren, the firm now being Pinkerton & Blomgren, considered one of the strong and reliable combinations of the city. During the World war Mr. Pinkerton served as an associate member of the Legal Advi ory Board of Tampa. He is a close student of his calling and spends much of his time in research and consulting pre cedents. In the line of his practice he has come into contact with a number of business enter prise , for which he acts as counsel, and has formed several connections of an official nature, being vice president of the Gateway Development Company of Tampa. With his family he belongs to the Buffalo Avenue Baptist Church. Mr. Pinkerton has no strict party affiliation, but is apt to lean toward the democratic party where all other things are equal. He belongs to the various organizations of his profession, and as a fraternalist holds membership in the Inde pendent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Knights of Malta, in all of which he is popular. In 1918 Mr. Pinkerton was united in marriage with Miss Pearl A. Sanders, a daughter of 0. N. Sanders, of Chicago, and they have two chil dren, Ruth Elaine and Marjorie Pearl. AUGUST R. BLOMGREN. One of the reliable and successful younger practitioners of the Tampa bar, August R. Blomgren is junior member of the law firm of Pinkerton & Blomgren. He is a man of firm convictions and settled purpose, practical in his aims, whether as attorney or man, and is, therefore, advancing steadily to a substantial professional position. His success has been self-achieved and in his rise he has over come a number of discouraging obstacles. Mr. Blomgren was born at Stockholm, Sweden, November 13, 1881, and is a son of Francis E. and E. G. Blomgren. He was eleven years of age when he was brought by his parents to the United States, where the youth completed a pub lic school education that had been started in his native land. Ilis boyhood home was at New Haven, Connecticut, and after he had comp l eted his training in the public school he served his apprenticeship to the trade of printer, a voca tion which he followed for some years in various parts of the country. It was in connection with this vocation that he came to Tampa to accept a po ition, arriving in this city in ovember, 1903. It has since been his home and the scene of his success. From young manhood Mr. Blomgren had desired to enter the legal profes ion. but his finances were not such as to permit of his taking a course in a law school. However, he applied himself assiduously to the study of law whenever his leisure would permit, and finally, aided by a correspondence course in a Chicago Law School, he was a.hie to achieve his ambition, being admitted to the Tampa bar in October, 1918. For a time he practiced alone, but July 1, 1919, formed a partnership with Arthur R. Pinkerton, and the firm of Pinkerton & Blomgren has made rapid strides toward lead ership in their calling. They carry on a general practice, being equally at home in all department of the Jaw, and the concern is now the repre sentative of a number of leading Tampa firms. Mr. BlomE,rcn belongs to the various organ izations of !us calling and has a number of busi ness connections, among others being secretary and treasurer of the Gateway Development Com pany of Tampa. He still maintains his mem bership in the Typographical Union, and is now the second oldest member of that body. Fraternally he is affiliated with the Knights of Malta, the Knights of Pythias, the Knights of the Golden Eagle and the Masons, and in the latter is a Knight Templar and a Noble of the Mystic Shrine. Politically he is a democrat, but has taken no active part in political matters. In 1902 Mr. Blomgren married Miss Hilma

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102 IIISTORY OF FLORIDA Maria Anderson, who was born in Sweden, a daughter of A. P. Jaenson. They are the parents of one son, Frederick Vilhelm ]. HAROLD So11urnRs, president and general manager of the Tourist ' ews and Publishing Company at St. Petersburg, is a young man of exceptional gifts and experiences. lle knows the U n ited States as few men do, and has travelled and acted as a newspaper correspondent or a magazine writer from the viewpoint of e,ery section of the country. He was born in Chicago, Illinois, February ;;, 1&_)3, son of Charles F. and Bird M. (Stanfield) Sommers. His father for about thirty years was connected with the Continental Commercial Bank of Chicago, and helped build up that institution to he the second largest Bank in the world. After rt'tiring from the Bank he came to Florida and he and his wife have lived in St. Petersburg since l
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HISTORY OF FLORID.\ 103 with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elk., and he and his wife hold membership in the Presbyterian Church. Doctor Ingram is a loyal anrl appreciative citizen of the state and city of his adoption, and has here found ample scope for successful work in his profession. In Minnesota, in the year 1<)03, was recorded the marriage of Doctor Ingram and Miss Caroline France~ Malchert, and they have one son, Hollis Carlisle Ingram. \V1LLIAM Os,.NMCH, 11. D., is one of the able physicians and surgeons who arc admirably up holding the prestige of the profession in Orange County, where he is engaged in the successful general practice of his chosen , ocation, with resi dence and professional headquarters in the fine little City of Orlando. He here established his home in December, 1918, after many years of successful practice in the City of Indianapolis, Indiana, and in coming to Florida his intention was to retire from the exacting work of his profession, but his love for this humane work, as coupled with his disinclination to an inactive life, prompted him here to re-enter active practice. He opened his office at Orlando in the spring of 1919, and his exceptional professional abilit), long technical experience and gracious person ality have conspired to gain to him here a large and representative general practice. The Doctor maintains active and appreciative affiliation with the Orange County Medical Society, the Florida State Medical Society, and the Florida Railway Surgeons Association, besides which he has been for many y('ars a member of the American Medical Association. He is a valued member of the staff of surgeons in service at the Orange Gen eral Hospital, and is consulting surgeon for the Seaboard Air Line Railroad. Doctor Osenbach has taken several effective post-graduate courses in the Post-Graduate School of Medicine in the City of Chicago, and has otherwise found means to keep himself in close touch with the advances made in medical and surgical science. The Doctor is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, and he and his wife and daughter are acti\'e members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Doctor Osenbach was born in the City of Lafayette, Indiana, on the 29th of June, 1866. and is a son of Fletcher and Emma ( Gi1)e) Osen bach, both of whom were born and reared at Noblesville, that state, where the re . pcctive families gained pioneer honors. The public schools of his native city afforded to Doctor Osenhach his early educational discipline, and in prepara tion for the profession of his choice he entered the Central College of Physicians and Surgeons. Indianapolis, Indiana, in which institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1896 and with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. For the long period of twenty-two years, and up to the time of his removal to Florida, Doctor Osenbach was engaged in the practice of his profession at Indianapolis, and he gained high prestige as one o f the representative physicians and surgeons of the fair capital city of his native state. Thus the City of Orlando, Florida, is fortunate in hav ing gained as one of its able and influential medical practitioners this resourceful physician of long experience and high professional ideals. In the year 1888 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Osenbach and Miss Sophronia Rycraft, of Lafayette, Indiana, in which state she was born and reared. frs. Osenbach died in 1915, and Doctor Osenbach afterward married Lulu B. Kesup, of Indiana. She has become a popular figure in the representative social acti\'i ties of Orlanr\o, and is the gracious chatelaine of OIH' of the attractive and hospitable homes of this city. Dr. Osenbach had but one child born to his first marriage, Ze l da, who is the wife of J. L. Sparling, their home being now maintained at Orlando. H1::w1rr Jo11NsToN, M. D., has realized in con nection with the work of his profe. sion the con sistency of concentration of effort, and thus has gained unequil'ocal success and prestige as a ~pecialist in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the eye, car, nose and throat. He is engaged in practice in the City of Orlando, Orange County, with well appointed offices in the Yowell-Drew Building. Doctor Johnston was born in \Valker County, A l abama, January 16, 188o, and is a son of Allen H. and Maria L. (Thompson) Johnston, who were born and reared in that state, representa tives of families that were early founded in the State of South Carolina. Doctor Johnston completed his academic col lege work in the State Normal College at Florence, and that he profited fully by his advantages was demonstrated in his two years of successful service as a teacher in the schools of his native state. In r()o6 he graduated in the medical department of the University of Nashville, Tennessee, and after thus receiving his degree of Doctor of M eclicine he was engaged in success ful general practice in \\' a Iker and Jefferson Counties, Alabama, until the United States be came involved in the World war, when he promptly tendered his services to the Govern ment, in }.fay, 1917, and was given assignment to the Medical Corps of the United States Army, in which he recehed commission as first lieutenant in August of that year. He received requisite military training at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, and he was active in the organization and equipping of Evacuation Hospital No . .'i, with the sen-ice of which he was associated during its entire overseas service. In December, 1917, the Doctor was promoted to the rank of captain, and later he was sent to the military camp at Allentown, Pennsylvania, from which point he went to France, and continued in the Evacuation Hospital service, with assignments to various divisions for varying intervals, and in volving his effective work in important campaigns, including Chateau Thierry, the Argonne and others. His service in France and Belgium cov ered a period of nine months, and he remained abroad until February, 1919, when he returned to the United States. After Evacuation Hospital No. 5 was demobilized the Doctor was sent to the \\'alter Reed Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia, and at the national capital he re ceived his honorable discharge October 21, 1919. He resumed the practice of his profession in Jefferson County, Alabama, and later took postgraduate work in the City of Philadelphia, to fortify him for his service as a specialist in the treatment of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. He established his home and profe sional headquarters at Orlando, Florida, in January, 1922, and here marked success is attending his work as a specialist in his chosen domain of practice. The Doctor is a member of the Orange County Medical Society and the Florida State Medical Society. is a democrat in politics and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity.

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104 HISTORY OF FLORIDA HERMAN GUNTER, state geologist, has been a ctively ass ociated with the Florida State Geolog ical Survey since graduating from the University of Florida. He is a recognized authority on the natural resources of the state. Mr. Gunter was born at Brooklyn, New York, July 2, 1885, and since early childhood has lived in Florida. His parents now deceased, were Herman and Anna (Palm) Gunter. His father, at the age of seventeen, came to the United States from Germany; and he worked hard to estab lish a small business. After his marriage in B rook lyn, he came to Pierson, Florida; and for twenty two years he was engaged in merchandising t here, making himself. a public-sp irited factor in every l ine of advancement in the community. He was a Lutheran in re ligion. Herman Gunter spent his youth at Pierson whe re he atte nded the pub lic schools, took the preparatory work in the Florida Agric ultural College, Lake City, spent a portion of one year in t he North Caro lina Agricu ltural and Mecha n ical College at Raleigh, and in 1907 received his Bac helor of Sc ience degree from the University of F lorida, Ga inesville. His first work in the State Geo logical Department was as field assista nt, doing specia l work o n the water supply of Central F lorida. Later he was appointed assistant state geolog ist and conti nued researc h work on the water supplies, phosphates and fuller's earth of t he state. When Dr. E. H. Sellards resigned as state geologist to go to Texas, Mr. Gunter was appointed his suc cessor on Apri l 19, 1919, and on June 9, 1919, was re-com missioned for a term of four years. Mr. G unter is co-author of articles and repor ts pertaining especially to the geo logy, t he fuller's earth depos its, water su pplies and other phases of the mine ral resources of Florida. He is an out-door man in spirit as well as in profession, finds his favori te recreation in camp ing, h unting and fishing and has a lso made himself a n in fluen tia l factor in the civic affa irs of Tallahassee. He served one year on t he Tallahassee City Council and was a me mber of ma ny d rives for funds a nd other p urposes during t he World war. Mr. Gunter is a member of t he American Asso ciation for t he Advancement of Science, the A merican Associat ion of Petroleum Geo logists, the National Geographic Soc iety and Fellow of the Ame rican Geographical Socie ty. He is a democr at, a directo r in t he Exchange Bank of Tallahassee, an elder in the Presbyte rian C hurch and active in its Sunday Sc hool work. He is a Roya l A rch and Knight Templar Maso n at Talla hassee, and a mem ber of Morocco Temple of the Mystic Shrine a t Jackso nville. In r9rn Mr. Gunter married Miss Bertha Jones, who is act ive socia lly and in ch urch circles at Tallahas ee. They have o ne son, Herman. JOSEPH HASKELL CHILES, M. D., has bee n suc cessfully established in t he practice of his profession at O rlando, Orange County, since his retirement from active service in the sanitary depart ment of t he United States Army in the g reat World war. Doctor Ch iles was born at Greenville, Madison Co unty, F lorida, on the 14th of February, 1874, and is a son of Joseph W. and Le la (Raysor) Chiles, the former a native of Georgia and the latter of F lorida. Seaborn Gree n Chiles, grandfather of the Doctor, was born i n Virginia and became a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the service of \'{,hich he labored long and earnestly in Georgia. He had been left an orphan in that state when a boy, and he and his two brothers became separated. John Ray sor, maternal grandfather of Doctor Chiles, was born in South Carolina and became a pioneer settler in Jefferson County, Florida. Joseph W. Ch iles, who is now living retired at Lakeland, F lorida, has to his credit a record of productive industry in connection with farm enterprise, lum bering operations and phosphate mining. He is a staunc h democrat, and he and his wife ho ld membe rship in the Baptist Church. The public schools of Fort White, Columbia County, gave to Doctor Chiles his preliminary educat ion, which was advanced by four years of study at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College. He entered the University College of Medicine, at Richmond, Virginia, in which insti tution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1905. After thus receiving his well earned degree of Doctor of Medicine he was for three yea rs e ngaged in practice in Virginia. He then returned to Florida, and in September, 1919, he establis hed himself in practice at Orlando, after hav ing received his honorab le discharge from the Medica l Corps of the United States Army, in w hich he en listed in April, 1917, the month in which the nation became involved in the World war. In the following July he received commission as first lieutenant in the Medical Corps, h is special training having been received at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, whence he was transferred to Camp \Vheeler, where he was adva nced to the rank of captain. In October, 1918, as a member of the One Hundred and Sixth Sanitary Train, in the Thirty-first Division, Doctor C hiles crossed the Atlantic to France, where he passed five months in active service. For four months thereafter he was stationed in England, and in the meanwh ile he availed himself of do ing effective post-graduate work. He fin a lly returned to the United States, and on the 6th of August, 1919, he received his honorable discharge, after a professional military record that shall ever reflect honor upon his name. He has since been engaged in active general practice at Orlando, is known as a specially skilled and reso urceful physician, and is actively affili ated wi th the Nationa l Association of Military Associations, the Florida State Medical Society and the Orange County Medical Society. He is a stalwart advocate of the principles of the democratic pa rty, he holds membership in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and he is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. In 1908 was recorded the marriage of Doctor Chiles and Miss Ida Howard, who was born and reared in Virginia. They have three children: Elizabeth S inclair, Jo ephine Haskell, and Sea born Howard. HENRY H. DICKSON. A beautiful modern city of commercial importance that has been largely developed with in the space of thirty-five years is presented at Orlando, F lorida, and in Henry H . Dic kson, member of the mercantile firm of D ickson-Ives Company, is found one who was active in this development and is yet a leading factor in its business life. He is not a native of Florida, but ever since locating at Orlando in 1887 has made the city's interests his own. Henry H. Dickson was born at Athens, Geor gia, April 26, 1849. His parents were William E. and Louise T. (Cozby) Dickson, the former of whom was born in Tennessee and the latter in South Ca rolina. His father went to Athens, Georgia, in boyhood, learned the trade of a cab -

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 105 inetmaker, and li,ed there until 1886, when he moved to Atlanta and spent the rest of his life there. Ile served as a so ldier in the Confederate Army during the war between the states. Henry II. Dick on was one of a large family of children, eight of whom grew to maturity. He had but meager educational advantages in boyhood, in fact it was in a printing office that he had the most of his schooling, having started to learn the trade when thirteen years o ld. He served out his apprenticeship, as was the custom of the time, and when seventeen years of age left Athens and moved to Allat)ta, where he worked in various printing offices as a journeyman. In 1870 he established a job printing p lant of his own, which in the course of time he greally expanded and at the time he disposed of it in order to move to F lorida he had a large busi ness in the job printing line, hi work including publishing catalogues and magazines and, in as sociation with Henry Grady, for a time published a society newspaper called the Gazette . , In 1887 Mr. Dickson came to Orlando and embarked in business, first being in the grain and fertilizer trade, and afterward in the grocery line in association with S. E. Ives, Sr. An enormous business was built up in the next fifteen years. In February, 1914, the present business organization was formed, the Dickson-Ives Com pany, for the conduct of a department store which is installed in one of the most imposing and most modern business structures in the stale. It is centrally located with 120 feet frontage on Orange Avenue and extends back 70 feel on Central Avenue, and the entire four-story build ing is occupied by the Dickson-Ives Company. The building is fire-proof and modern throughout, has two Otis elevators, automatic sprinkler system, pneumatic tube cash system, and every possible device and accommodation for patrons. It not only reflects credit on the enterprise of its owner but is a source of pride to the people of the city. :Ur. Dickson has served as president of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, and has always been an important factor in this body. At Brunswick, Georgia, in 1879, 1\fr. Dickson married :Uiss Annie :Uay Nelson, who was born in Georgia, and they have two chi ld ren, a son and daughter: Harry N., who is secretary of the Dickson-Ives Company; and Ethel, who is the wife of R. B. Brossier, business manager of Orlando's leading daily newspaper, the Orlando Reporter-Star. In political life Mr. Dickson is a democrat. In 1897 he was appointed a county commissioner by the governor, afterward being e l ected to this office, in which he served for fourteen years, and during ten of these was chairman of the hoard. He was a pioneer in the good roads movement, an
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106 HlSTORY OF FLORIDA Wilber Luther Tilden was born on his father's farm in Orange County, Florida, October 20, 1886, and is a son of Charles Herbert and Annie E. (Sadler) Tilden, the latter 0f whom was born in South, Carolina, but was reared in Florida. Her father, James H. Sadler, a native of South Carolina, was killed in battle while serving in the Confederate Army during the war between the states. The father of Mr. Tilden was born in Illinois, but was only fifteen years old when he accompanied his father, Luther Fuller Tilden, to Florida in 1875, the family locating in Orange County, in which section its interests have been more or less centered ever since. Charles Herbert Tilden has long been profitably engaged in truck farming and growing citrus fruits. Both he and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. They have two children: \Vilbcr Luther and Mabel. The boyhood of Wilber L. Tilden was passed on the home farm and his early educational train ing was in the common schools, and this was supplemented by a course in the old Florida Agricultural College. He completed his academic course in Stetson Uniyersity, and then entered Washington and Lee University, from which his toric institution he was graduated from the law department in 1910 with his degree of LL. B. Mr. Tilden came to Orlando in August, 1910, and after serving about twenty months as clerk in the offices of Beggs & Palmer and Massey & Warlow, opened his law office in this city and has resided here ever since. He has honorably built up a large practice and is known as a care ful, thoroughly informed lawyer and safe coun selor all over Orange County. In political life he has always been a democrat, but has never accepted any political office except that of county solicitor, in which he served for seven years with the greatest efficiency. In 1915 Mr. Tilden married at Orlando Miss Willie Person, of this city, and they have two daughters: Jean Murray and Annie Sadler Til den. Mr. Tilden and his family are members of the Presbyterian Church. In Masonry Mr. Tilden is a member of Orlando Lodge, F. and A. M., a past high priest of the local Chapter, thrice illustrious master of the Council, a Knight Templar and Shriner. He is vice president of the Rotary Club, is identified with numerous social bodies and professional organizations, and is ever ready to cooperate with his fellow citi zens in publtc movements for the city's welfare. J. F. HARRISON. Undoubtedly the "big freeze" of the '90s, while disastrous in many ways, did more for the real development of certain sections of Florida than could have been accomplished by any other single agency. Until that time many communities of the state had been looked upon merely as orange-growing centers, and their possi bilities in other lines of industry had not been even considered. When, through the force of necessity, many men made bankrupt by losing their all through the sever:ty of the weather, turned their attention elsewhere, new communities sprang into being, others were brought to a fullness of development and individuals lost their sense of discouragement in the realization of success in other fields of endeavor. A case in point is the career of J. F. Harrison, who lost his entire means in the disaster of 1894-1895, but who is now vice president, treasurer and general manager of the Harrison Hardware and Furniture Company. of St. Petersburg, possibly one of the largest enterprises of its kind in Florida. l\fr. Harrison was born at Iowa City, Iowa, July 3r, 1859, a son of Edgar and Eliza M. ( Patten) Harrison, the former born at Morgantown, \\'est Virginia, and the latter at Uniontown, Pennsylvania. They were pioneers of Iowa City, Iowa, where Edgar Harrison served as sheriff of Johnson County and in other official positions, and where the family resided until 1870. In that year they removed to Paola, Kansas, and five years later came to Florida, settling at Paola, which was named by them in honor of their former home. They engaged in business under the style of Harrison & Sons, carrying on a general merchandise business and conducting the postoffice, but their chief assl'ls were invested in the orange-growing business, and the "big freeze" already referred to completdy wiped out their capital. In r&)5, to the little community of St. Petersburg, then a town of perhaps 300 population, came J. F. Harrison and his younger brother, Edgar P. They had practically no means, but embarked in a grocery store business under the style of Harrison Brothers. Later dry good, were added and then house furnishings, but the early years of business did not amount to more than $12,000 per year. They were determined, however, and their perseverance eventually bore fruit. Today the enterprise is doing business which approximates a million annually. It is strictly a retail institution, handling furniture, hardware and utensils of all kinds, and it is the boast of the company, borne out by facts, that it is able to furnish a home complete in every detail from cellar to garret. The concern now occupies a large and handsome establishment in the center of the business district, the warehouse covering several lots on First and Second avenues, south, and it is accounted one of the city's necessary commercial adjuncts. Mr. Harrison is a business man of the progressive and constructive type, and this likewise typifies his citizenship. He has supported with his means, time and abilities all movements which have promised to advance the interests of the city, its institutions and its people. As a fraternalist he belongs to the Knights of Pythias and the Woodmen of the World. He belongs to the Presbyterian Ornrch, in which he is an cider. In 1878 Mr. Harrison married Miss Mattie H . Johnson, of Jacksonville, Florida. They have an adopted daughter, Margaret, now nine years old. \\'rLFORD H. BROKAW, who resides in the City of Orlando and is known as one of the progres sive nurserymen and orange growers of Orange County, was born in Marion County, Florida, on the 8th of February, r876, and is a son of Isaac J. and Lucy (Mann) Brokaw. who were horn and reared in Morgan County, Ohio, where their marriage was solemnized and where they continued to reside until their removal to Coun cil Bluffs, Iowa, in which locality the father was engaged in the cattle business ten years. In r875 Isaac J. Brokaw came to Florida and established the family home at Anthony, Marion County, where he fo11n
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 107 fortunes he removed to the State of Texas, where he has prospered in his business ventures and where he met his death in a railroad acci dent when he was sixty-three years of age, survived by his widow and children. I. J. Brokaw was a thorough business man of much initiative and constructive ability, and proved a force in development work both in Florida and Texas. After having attended the public schools of Anthony and Ocala, Marion County, Florida, Wilford H. Brokaw took a scientific course in John B. Stetson University at De Land, this state, which institution he left at the time when his father met such severe financial losses, as previously noted, and removed to Texas. After leaving the university the subj eel of th is sketch gave three years to successful service as a teacher in the public schools of Florida, and he then resumed his association with the nursery indus try, in the capacity of salesman for the firm of Griffing Brothers of Jacksonville, this state. Later he passed a year as a lecturer on the subject of literature, under the direction of the state superintendent of public instruction in Texas, and he then took a position with the Austin Nursery Company of Austin, that slate. He subse quently became sales manager for the Planters Nursery, and later he served in a like capacity for the Texas Nursery Company, the most important concerns of this kind in the Lone Star State. In 19u Mr. Brokaw returned to Florida and reentered the employ of Griffing Brothers. Later he became allied with the Buckeye Nurseries at Tampa, and while representing this concern he also maintains similar connection with the Interstate Nurseries. These connections brought him into close touch with the citrus fruit industry of Florida and eventually led lo his active asso ciation with this important line of enterprise. Mr. Brokaw is now president and general man ager of the Minnehaha Grove Company, and is a stockholder in the Orlando Orange Grove Com pany and the East Orange Land Company, be sides being identified with other development and industrial enterprises. He is one of the alert and progressive business men of Orange County, is a director of the Orlando Chamber of Com merce, and a member of the Board of Governors of the Orange County Chamber of Commerce, besides which he is an influential member of the Lions Club and other civic organizations in his home county. Several years ago Mr. Brokaw had a brief but effective connection with• news paper enterprise, as editor and publisher of the Orange County Citizen, an excellent weekly paper issued at Apopka. The democratic party receives the unfaltering support of Mr. Brokaw. He is a past grand in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and at the time of this writing, 1923, he is chancellor commander of the local organization, Welcome Lodge o. 9, of the I nights of Pythias, in which his affiliation includes membership in the Dramatic Order of the Knights of Khorassan. He is also a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of Orlando Lodge No. 1079. He and his wife, who are popular figures in the representative social life of their home com munity, are also active members of the Baptist Church at Orlando. December 28, 1904, recorded the marriage of Mr. Brokaw and Miss Ruby Geiger, a daughter of Rev. L. D. Geiger, D. D., who was a pioneer clergyman of the Baptist Cfturch in Florida and one of the most honored and influential of its ministry in this state. He was elected by the convention as a trustee of the Stetson Univer sity, an
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108 HISTORY OF FLOH.IDA stantial success and a secure reputation as an able, honorable and progressive business man. Mr. Yowell is also president of the Orlando Potteries Company, and his liberality and public spirit are unstinted when brought to bear in con nection with measures and enterprises advanced for the general good of his home city and county. Mr. Yowell is president of the Orlando Cham ber of Commerce at the time of this writing, in r922. He is loyally aligned in the ranks of the democratic party, and while he has had no am bition for public office he served a number of years ago as a valued member of the City Coun cil of Orlando-a period of four years. He is a member of the local Rotary Club, is a Knight Templar and Shrine Mason, an Odd Fellow, and has been specially active and prominent in his affiliation with the Knights of Pythias, in which he is a past grand chancellor of the Grand Domain of Florida, besides which he is now serv ing as a representative from Florida to the Supreme Council of the fraternity. He and his wife are zealous members of the First Presbyterian Church of Orlando, in which he is a ruling elder and in which he has given many years of specia!ly earnest and effective service as teacher of a large class of men in the Sunday school. In the year 1897 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Yowell and Miss Gertrude Southgate, who was born in the State of Kentucky, and of the five children of this union the first born, Richard Southgate Yowell, died at the age of sixteen years, while a college student. The surviving child1en are Elizabeth, Virginia, Lydia and Newton Pendleton, Jr. HARRY M. Vo0Rn1s, junior member of the sub stantial and representative law firm of Maguire & Voorhis at Orlando, the judicial center of Orange County, is one of the able young lawyers given to Florida by the old Keystone State. He was born at East Smithville, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, on the 19th of October, 188g, and is a son of Wilson F. and Carrie E. (Cowell) Voorhis. In the public schools of his native state Mr. Voorhis continued his studies until his grad uation from the high school at Athens, and he then went to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where he entered the Dickinson Law School. In this in stitution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1913, and in the same year which thus recorded his reception of the degree of Bachelor of Laws he came to Orlando, Florida, where for two years he held a position in the First National Bank. He then assumed the management of the sales and collections department of the Overstreet Crate Company, in which capacity he continued his effective service two years. His next field of activity was far removed from that of his chosen profession, for in August, 1918, he entered the United States Army, for service in connection with the nation's participation in the \71/orld war. He was sent to Camp Lee for preliminary training, was there stationed at the time when the signing of the armistice brought the war to a close, and there he received his honorable discharge on the 13th of December, 1918, In this connection it is to be noted that he is an appreciative and popular member of the Orlando Post of the American Legion. While he was still at Camp Lee Mr. Voorhis had been tendered the position of secretary of the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, and upon his return to this city he assumed the duties of this office. He continued his effective service in this capacity until March, 1919, and resigned the position to enter the practice of his profession, he having taken the required examination that gave him admission to the Florida bar. He is making for himself an excellent record as a resourceful trial lawyer and well equipped coun selor, and in the practice of his profession at Orlando is associated with Mr. Maguire, under the firm name of Maguire & Voorhis. Mr. Voorhis is a Knight Templar Mason and a noble of the :Mystic Shrine. In the York Rite of the great fraternity he is a past master of the Blue Lodge at Orlando, and is present king of the local Chapter of Royal Arch Masons. He is affiliated also wi,th the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, is actively identified with the Orlando Chamber of Commerce, and he and his wife are communicants of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Mrs. Voorhis is a past president of the Women's Auxiliary of the Florida Department of the American Legion, and at the time of this writing, in 1922, is representing Florida in the national organization of this auxiliary. She is a popular figure also in the cul tural and social activities of her home city. In 1917 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Voorhis and Miss Caroline McFarquhar, who was born in the State of Colorado, and who is the gracious chatelaine of their pleasant home at Orlando. FRED COTTEN ELLIOT. To have been profes sionally connected with great construction enter prises that within the last twenty years have made this country notable in progressive and practical eugineering, must bring a large degree of satis faction to a man sincerely absorbed in his chosen life work, conscious of his responsibilities and proud of his ability to bear them. To this class belongs Fred Cotten Elliot, a prominent citizen of Tallahassee, whose standing as a civil engineer is scarcely second to any other member of his profession in Florida. He was born in this city on April 13, 1879. His parents were Henry Sanford and Sallie (Cotten) Elliot. Henry Sanford Elliot was born at Nashville, Tennessee, February 22, 1848, came to Flo1ida in 1872 and after his marriage in 1876 made Tallahassee his home. His early years were spent on the home farm in Greene County, Tennessee. At the outbreak of the war between the states, he was attending Colonel Lee's school at Asheville, North Carolina, from which institution he ran away in 1862, with other students, joined the Con federate Army, saw service under Jackson and Lee in the battles of the \Vilderness, Seven Pines and Spottsylvania, and was with General Lee's forces at the close of the war, when he returned to school. During 1868 Mr. Elliot saw something of the extreme North section of the United States and of Eastern Canada, but in 1869 returned to the South and in the City of Savannah became con nected with the drug business. Four years later when his parents, brothers and sisters decided to move to Florida, he accompanied them, the pleasant journey being made leisurely by private conveyance to the chosen home site at Gaines ville. Although Mr. Elliot did not have the accommodation of present day automobile service, he had a trusty steed and on horseback he traveled over the country wherever practicable, with observing eye noting the agricultural, topo graphical, geological and other characteristics of the state. He understood the principles of geology and became an expert in the classification of soils.

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• HISTORY OF FLORIDA 109 Early in 1889 Mr. Elliot became connected with that branch of the stale government now known as the Department of Agriculture, in which he labored so long, faithfully and intelli gently for the agricultural we! fare of Florida. In pursuance of his practical policy of making this department of real service, he prepared the bill which was promptly enacted by the state legislature, creating a state chemist and providing for the admini tration of the Bureau of Immigration by the Agricultural Department. He was peculiar l y fitted for the great work he subse quently performed in this department. lie was accurate and tru tworthy i11 all he did, which, with other duties included, settling economic questions as an authority on agricultural pursuits, compiling agricultural data and statistics and forecasting crop conditions and yields. His death occurred at the age of seventy-three, after thirty years of valt1ab l e public service, appreciation of which was shown by public bodies and the department and personal friends. Fred Cotten Elliot went from the public schools of Tallahassee to the Virginia Military Institute, from which he graduated in the engineering c l ass of 1901. He devoted much attention to those branche of study that would best further his training as an engineer, an ambition he had cherished from boyhood. From the institute in recognition of distinction in engineering work he was awarded the honorary degree of C. E. in 1917. After leaving school he immediately became identified with constructive work of importance. In 1901 and 1902 he was connected with the con struction of the ew York Rapid Transit Subway; in 1903 went to Durango, Mexico, as mining and c i vil engineer; and in 1906 was with the Poland Mining Company at Prescott, Arizona, late in 1908 returning to Tallahassee to engage in the private practice of his p rof es ion. In 1911 he undertook a special commission from F lorida pertaining to certain work in draining t h e Everglades, that vast body of rich marsh l and, located in the lower Florida Penin ula. During 1911-12 he was assistant drainage engineer of Florida Everglades Drainage District. In 1913 Mr. Elliot was appointed chief drainage engineer in which capacity he is still serving. This great work of reclamation consists principally in constructing drainage canals, the building of locks and doors and other works of waler regu l ation for drainage and for navigation, the survey and mapping of nearly three million acres of hitherto unsurveycd and almost unexplored land and of administering the affairs of the Drainage Di trict. To January 1, 1923, nine million dollars ($9,000,000) in round figures have been c~pended on this enterprise. In the future when, through the scientific work of her engineers, this great drainage work is comp l eted, Florida will have added to her territory nearlv four thousa n d ~quare miles of the most fertiie soi l in the state. During 19r3-1914-T9l_'i. in addition lo directing the drainage work in the Everglades 1Ir. Elliot was special engineer for the Florida Coast Line Canal, an intra-coastal waterway extending from the St. Johns Rive1 to Miami. He is one of the progressive men of his profession and in study ing the engineering problems confronting him he made many experiments with building material. He designed and constructed the first reinforced concrete l ock gates ever used in the United States, a highly sati factory piece of work on Palm Beach Lock o. 2. In 19rr Mr. Elliot was married to 1fiss Carrie C. Edwards, who was born at Lloyd, Jefferson County, F l orida, a daughter of 0. C. and Helen Edwards. the latter of whom still resides at Lloyd. The father of Mrs. Elliot owned a large plantation in Jefferson County, Florida. He is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Elliot are members of the Episcopal Church. Fraternally he belongs to the Elks a n d professionally 0 the Florida Engineering Society and the National Drain age Co ngress of America. As chief engineer of the Evergl ades Drainage District of F l orida, his posi tion is one of great importance and responsibility. He is prominent also in home affairs and has served as one of the committee to outline and p lan the commission form of government and as engineer t make special reports on public utili ties for the city. He is president of the Boy Scouts Co un cil of Tallahassee. TILEY HAMPTON ScovELL is vice president of the Consolidated Grocery Company of Jackson ville. He wa formerly one of the executives in the main offices at J acksonville, and recently took charge of the company's branch house at Tampa. Mr. Scovell has had wide and long extended experience in the grocery business, and for many years was located at Shreveport, Louisiana. He was born in N cw Orleans, March 17, 1869, son of Matthew LeGrand and 1fary Frances (Hampton) Scove ll. His mother was born in Boyd County, Kentucky, February 12, 1847. The parents were married in 1868, and their three sons and one da ughter a r e a ll l iving. Matthew L. Scovell, the father, was born on a farm in Lawrence Co unty, Ohio, in Augu st, 1843, and was reared there and educated in the common schools, and also attended Ohio University at Athens. He tende r ed his service in defense of the Union, en l isting in an Ohio regiment of cavalry. He was with the regiment in all its battles and minor engagements unti l the close of the war. After his honorable discharge he returned home, and following his marriage in r868 he was for a number of year in the steamboat service out of cw Orleans. ubsequently he was contract ing agent al Shreveport, Lo u isiana, for the Texas and Pacific Railroad, and still later was general freight agent for the Kansas City Southern Rail road, with headquarters at Texarkana, Arkansa . He made a record of excellent executive service in connection with important railroad enterprise, and finally retired, in 1910, about four years before his death. He was a democrat, a member of the Grand Army of the Repub lic, was a Presbyterian and at Shreveport was affil iated with Caddo Lodge No. 179, A. F. and A. M., Shreveport Chapter No. IO, R. A. M., Ascension Commandery o. 6, K. T., and was a member of the : Mystic b rine, Hella Temple, at Dallas, Texas. Tiley H. Scovell received his education in the Thatcher Institute at Shreveport, Louisiana, the Southwestern Presbyterian University in Tennessee, and at the age of twenty, in 1889, became a tenographer in the service of F. M . & S. B. Hicks. The opening, however, which brought him into the main field of his business career came with his employment as a stenographer with the Hicks Company Limited, at Shreveport, Louisiana. He remained with this company in consecutive increase of responsibilities until he was made vice-president and manager. Disposing of his business interests at Shreveport in December, 1919, Mr. Scovell came to Florida, acquiring stock in the Consolidated Grocery Company of Jacksonville and assuming the post of vice-pre ident. While at Caddo,

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110 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Louisiana, he served ten years as a member and four years as president of the Parish Board of Education. Mr. Scovell is a thirty-third degree Scottish Rite Mason, a Knight Templar, and a Noble of the Mystic Shrine. He is a past master of Caddo Lodge No. 179, A. F. and A. M.; a past high priest of Shreveport Chapter No. 10, Royal Arch Masons; and a past grand commander oI the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Louisiana. His father also served as grand com mander of the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Louisiana. Mr. Scovell is a democrat, and he and his wife are Presbyterians. On October 14, 1894, he married Miss Laura Lister Land, who was born and reared in Caddo Parish, Louisiana. Their three children are Mary Virginia, Tiley Hampton, Jr., and Florence Land. The son married Miss Gertrude Fitch, and has a daughter, Ann Land. HARRY L. BEEMAN. While thirty or more years ago Nature was just as lavish in contributing to the attractiveness of many sections of Florida as today, it has been through the enterprise, generosi t y and public spirit of such men as Harry L. Beeman, president of the Orlando Bank & Trust Company, and proprietor of the San Juan Hotel, that have made the capital of Orange County the important, comfortable modern city that it is. Mr. Beeman has been a continuous resident of Orlando for thirty-five years, and no one has been more vigorous in promoting its welfare or more earnest in good citizenship. Harry L. Beeman was born at Cleveland, Ohio, January 11, 1864, a son of Dr. E. E. and Mary (Cobb) Beeman, and a grandson of Ahira Cobb, a member of one of the early Colonial families of Connecticut, where he was born. Before 1852 Ahira Cobb moved to Ohio, and Mrs. Bee man was born at Birmingham. Later he became a member of the great mercantile firm of Strong & Cobb, one of the largest business firms of the City of Cleveland. The late Dr. E. E. Beeman was born at Elyria, Ohio, and was a son of Julius Beeman, who was born in the State of New York. For many years Doctor Beeman was prominent in the practice of medicine in Ohio, where he also had business interests. His death occurred in 1907, leaving a widow and two sons, Harry L. and Lester A., all of whom are resi dents of Orlando. Harry L. Beeman was educated in his native state and began his business career as an em ploye of the mercantile firm of Strong & Cobb at Cleve l and. Three years later, in 1882, he became a member of the newly organized firm of Doctor Beeman & Son, manufacturers of pepsin, which shortly afterward became the Beeman Chemical Company, which manufactured and distributed the Doctor Beeman's Pepsin Chewing Gum, Mr. Beeman's father having originated this famous confection. For the next few years he devoted himself closely to the business of the firm, but by 1887 symptoms of ill health began to manifest themselves and he very sensibly took note of them and decided on a period of rest in Florida. When Mr. Beeman came to Orlando in 1887, he found much more that was attractive here than genial climate, and very soon found him self in friendly association with his neighbors and considering business prospects, with the idea of making this his permanent home. Thus it came about that he purchased the San Juan Hotel, then a three-story brick structure that had been erected by H. S. Kedney in 1887. In 1901 Mr. Beeman added two more stories and made other improvements, continuing to improve it from year to year and in 1922 an addition was added, at an approximate cost of $575,000, of an eight-story steel structure reenforced by concrete and modern throughout its entire extent. The San Juan Hotel now has 241 guest rooms, and in size, appearance, equipment and comfort is second to none in Florida. In 1891 Mr. Beeman married Miss Marie St. Cyr, of St. Louis, Missouri, and they have one son, Edwin P., who is manager of the San Juan Hotel. Mr. Beeman has numerous other business in terests and responsibilities. He is president of the Orlando Bank & Trust Company and owns an orange grove and a large ranch. The ranch he devotes to raising cattle and hogs, and it is a very profitable enterprise. Soon after coming to Florida he invested in land in Orange County and put out an orange grove, and has never dis posed of this valuable property. In Masonry he has attained the Knights Templar degree and is a Shriner. ALBERT BALDWIN JonNSON. The present excellence of the public schools of Orange County, Florida, justifies the local pride taken in them and reflects great credit on those responsible for their administration. \Vhen the thoughtful and intelligent people of Orange County some years ago became concerned over the future of their public schools they set about to find a well quali fied man for the important office of county sup erintendent. The election of Albert Baldwin Johnson to this office entirely solved the prob lem, for in him they found not only a man of education and culture, but also of executive ability and business experience. Albert Baldwin Johnson was born at Fort Valley, Houston County, Georgia, December 23, 1862, a son of Russell Pope and Mary Ann (Baldwin) Johnson, the former of whom was horn at Culloden and the latter at Augusta, Georgia, old families in that state, of Revolu tionary stock. Russell Pope Johnson was a lawyer and merchant. In 1872 he came to Florida and homesteaded in Lake County, near Sorrento, and also purchased land in the same county, near Grand Island, where he spent his winters until his death, his family still residing at Griffin, Georgia. Albert Baldwin Johnson was reared at Griffin and was educated in the Samuel Baily Male Institute. Ile also studied under private instructors, taking up foreign languages and higher mathe matics, and passed examination for college. Prior to 1885, when he came first to Florida, Mr. Johnson was engaged in the agricultural implement, seed and cotton business at Griffin and Montezuma, Georgia. For two years after com ing to Florida he carried on a general mercan tile business at Grand Island, and was instru mental in having a post office established there, and after that for some years, he was concerned in the vegetable and citrus fruit business. In 1895 Mr. Johnson went to Pennsylvania, where he was engaged in railroad business for the Lehigh Valley system until 1904, when he returned to Florida and took up his residence at Orlando. He has always been active in demo cratic politics and within the next few years served as deputy county tax assessor, deputy county tax collector and deputy county clerk. In I()OC) he became identified with the Florida Citrus Exchange, and from 1912 to 19r7 he was manager •

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 111 of the Orange County branch of this organization. His purely business activities were then interrupted, as in the elections of 1916 he had been elected county superintendent of schools, a responsible position that has since demanded all of his time. He assumed the duties of the office in January, 1917, and in 1920 was re-elected for another term of four years. His administration of the office has been marked by rapid strides of educational progress, credit for which Mr. Johnson generously gives to the co-operation of the patrons of the schools, the teachers, the school trustees and the county officials, every one of whom appreciate the generosity but disclaim _the credit that properly belong to the able and faith ful superintendent. Mr. Johnson married in 1887 Miss Clara Malinda Morse, who was born in New York, and they have two children: Mary Irene, who graduated with the class of 1921 from the State College for ,v omen and is now engage
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11~ HISTORY OF FLOl-<.lDA near Belpre, in Washington County, Ohio, June 4, 1864. His parents were Edwin Russell and Nancy Jane (Scott) O's cal, both natives of Washington County, Ohio, where their people had settled as pioneers. Colbert O'N cal, the paternal grandfather, was a native of Culpeper County, Virginia, and as one of a family of sixteen children in 1810 accompanied their widowed mother from Culpeper Court House to Chillicothe, Ohio, but were driven from there by hostile Indians back to l31cnnerhassett Island. Co lbert O'Neal was a son of Joseph O'Neal, born in Virginia but of Scotch-Irish parentage, who died in Virginia in 18o7. Ile served on the staff of General McCarther in the Revolutionary war. On the maternal side the grandparents, \Villiam and Mary Scott, were born in \Vashington County, Pennsylvania, William Scott being a son of William and Mary Scott, native5 of Scot land. William Russell O'Ncal was reared on a farm b ut, nevertheless, had snperior educationa l advantages, attending a high school, an academy and 1Iarietta College, studied law and also had t raining in the insurance business. He was twenty-two years old when he came to F lorida, landing at Orlando on January 6, 1886, with the intention of making investments and becoming a permanent resident, purchasing early in 1887 what is now the book and stationery business of Curtis & O'Neal, which had been established long be fore he came to Orlando and was probab ly the first in the place. He is still interested in thi~ business, together with general insurance, loans, investments and banking. Since 188g he ha, been district P.assenger agent for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, and is the senior representa tive of the company in his section of the state. As a banker Mr. O'N cal has long been con nected with important movements in the financial field in this part of F lorida, for several years being president of the llank of Apopka, and long being identified with the loan and investment de partment of the State Bank and Trust Com pany of Orlando. and at present is chairman of the Board of Directors of the First National Bank of this city. Other stable enterprises with which he is officially concerned include: Secre tary and treasurer of the Seminole Hotel Company; secretary and treasurer of Rollins Co llege; president of the Florida Bond & Mortgage Company; director of the Orlando Bui lding & Loan Association; and president of the Suh-Tro11ical Mid-Winter Fair. In the political field Mr. O'Neal for years has been a leader in the cou ncils of the republican party, and has been his party's candidate for high office in the state on numerous occas ion, and in each campaign, for state superintendent of public instruction, for Congress, for gover nor and for United States Senator, received the full vote of his party, but on account of its heing in the minority he failed of election, although his personal popularity was never questioned. In local affairs this popularity has many times been evidenced. For ten years he was president of the Orlando City Council and many times has been acting mayor, and for twenty years ha s heen president of the School Board and of the Board of Supervisors. Mr. O'Ncal married in 1886 Miss Mabelle Cope land, who was born at Berwick, York County. :Maine, and died at Orlando, Florida, in 19ro. She is survived by two daughters; Helen. who is the wife of Prof. Erick Palmer, a well known educator ancl a son of Prof. Armor Palmer, of Yale University; and Mabelle, who is 1m:scnt librarian of Rockford College, Rockford , lllinois. Mr. O'Neal's second marriage took place in 1914, to Miss Jessie Malory Thayer, who was horn at Cher iton, Iowa. Mr. O'Neal and his fam ily are members of the First Presbyterian Church of Orlando, in whic h he is a ruling elder, clerk of the Sess ion and past moderator of the Florida Synod. Mr. O'Ncal is wide ly known also in fraternal life. In Masonry, a Knight Templar, Thirtysecond degree and a Shriner, he is a member of Orlando Lodge, F. and A. M., is a past Grand High Priest of the Roya l Arch Masons and Past Grand Commander of the Knights Templar. He belongs also to the Odd Fellows; a Past Grand Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias, in which fraternity he is chairman of the finance commit tee of insurance of the Supreme Lodge, and is a past Exalted Ruler of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. BRAXTON BEACHAM. In business and public circles of Orange County the name of Braxton ~eacham, of Orlando, has been for years con sidered synonymous with industry and integrity . Ile is a native son of Georgia, and was born on a farm in Laurens County September 12, 1864, his pare nts being Lewis and Martha (Knight) Beacham. Lewis Beacham was burn in Georgia, of an o ld Southern family, while :\1rs. Beacham was born in Rhode Island, of New England ancestry, but her peop le moved to the South and she was reared in Georgia. Unto Lewis and Martha Beacham ele\'en children were born, five daugh ters and six sons. The father, who was a farmer by occupat ion, died when his son Draxton w as ahout ten yt•ars of age. About two years later the widowed mothe r, wi th her children, re moved to the town of D ublin, Georgia, where Braxton Beacham was g iven excellent educational adva ntages in a private school under the di rection and imtruction of able tcaclwrs, advanced i n the studies of Greek and Latin. In December, 1883, whl'll only nineteen years of age, Braxton Beacham, with $250 given him by his mother, left home and his native state to begin the battle of life for himself. He came to Orange County, Florida, and put out an orange grove near :\Iait land. This grove he later so ld, and in the fall of 1884 changed his base of operations to Orlando, which has been his home to the prcst'nt. At the time of his arrival he ac cepted a clerkship in a dry goods store at Orlando, am ! wit h t he lapse of time saved a working capital out of his earnings as a clerk, with whic h he engaged in dealing as a realtor, a form of business in which he still is interested. He has speculated extensively in timb,•rcd lands, b uy ing and selling large tracts. In the city of Orlando he has bought and sold much real estate, and in addition thereto has Leen a contributor to the development of the city, being the owner of the Beacham Theatre, of which he was the builder, and a promoter and builder of the eleven-story modern hotel known as the Augebilt. For many years he has been numbered among the most extt•nsive orange-growers of Florida. In 19;.'0 he so ld a 300-acrc orange grove of his own development, h ut soon thereafter reinvested in the industry. In A lachua County he is the owner of a stock farm of r ,500 acres. His busi ness career has heen an acthe and prosperous one, attt'ndecl hy gratifying success. For many vears Mr. Beacham has been a prominent figure In the democratic party. In 1910 he was an

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 113 unsuccessful -candidate for nomination as his party's nominee for congressman-at-large from Florida. Ile made the race on a platform de clared in favor of Government aid in the con struction o f improved public roads. At that time he was considered a dreamer and visionary for adYocating such aid; however that may be, he and other farsighted men have lived to witness the securing of such aid and to enjoy traveling upon the re . ultant public improved roads. The on lv electiYe office Mr. Beacham has held is that of mayor of Orlando, for one term, which was a businesslike administration. Appointed by President \\'ilson, Mr. Beacham served as food administrator for a period of eighteen months during the \\' oriel war, discharging his duties without remuneration and con f ranting many new and difficult problems, for never before in the history of our country were its people restricted as to what and how much they should cat, a re striction, however, that the Government deemed necessary to victory for the cause of liberty . \\'ith true patriotic devotion and unswerving rnurage l\fr. Beacham administered the affairs of his office, without fear or favor, and whi l e there were some malcontents at the time, even they now join others in praise of his service as food administrator. In 18<)6 l-.Ir. Beacham married Miss Roberta Holland, of Kentucky, and they are the parents of three children: orma K., the wife of Dr. Dudley Hughes, of ew York City, New York; Braxton, Jr., a so ldier in the United States Na,•y during the \\'oriel war who married Roberta Branch and resides at Orlando; and Roberta Augusta, who is the wife of \V. D. Rogers, of Orlando. HoN. S.utuEL S. G1m•FTN. One of the best known rcaltors and orange growers of Orange County, Samuel S. Griffin, of Orl ando, is also prominent in public affairs and for the past severa l vrars has been a member of the State Lcgislattirc. He is a native of Florida, and was horn in Gadsden County, ovember 5, 1871, his parents hdng Lawrence Jefferson and Julia Eliza beth (Clark) Griffin. Lawrence J cfferson Griffin rcmoYed to Orange Coun ty in 1872, when amuel S. was but a child, and the latter was reared in this county, at \\'indermerc. The father was in his day one of the most prominent sawmill men of Florida, and was a public-spirited citizen. He was a stanch democrat in his political convictions, and while actiYc in the councils and conventions of his party neyer sought public office for himsl'lf. His business career was attended with gratifying suc cess. He and his estimable wi fc reared two daughters and six sons. Samuel S. Griffin re ceived a good common school education. In his early manhood he became a railroad engineer, being promoted from fireman and later became a contractor for the Atlantic Coast Line in con,truction work. I le resigned and gave up railroading to engage in the real estate business. 1fr. Griffin had been in the timber business and the production of railroad cross-tics, and his real estate business has largely been that of buy ing and selling timbered lands, in addition to other real estate. He has handled many big deals, and is well known as one of the most successful real estate men of the state. Mr. Griffin, has specialized in buying up land that has been platted in sub-divisions. Among which may be mentioned the Town of Windermere. and Lakeview Heights, Marshall House, the S. W. Metcalf Estate and several others. He owns 100 acres of orange grove ahout six miles from Orlando. All these properties he has improved and he also owns several thousand acres of high class citrus and agricultural lands. For several years Mr. Griffin has been active in politics as a democrat. He sCrYed for years as executive committeeman, and for four or five years was deputy sheriff and acting sheriff of Orange County under John II. Vick, his father-in-law. In 1914 he was first elected as representative of Orange County in the State Legislature. In 1920 he was again elected to this office, and reelected in 1922. His successful candidacy for this office is evidence of his efficiency as a legislator. In 1900 Mr. Griffin was united in marriage with Miss Willie L. Vick, and they are the parents of four children, as follows: Hilda, attending the vVomens' College at Tallahassee; Helen, a high school student; Stanley S., attending school; and Joyce . TIIOMAS J. McDADE has achieved marked suc cess in connection with educational affairs in Holmes County, where he is now serving his second, though not consecutive, term as county superintendent of public instruction, besides which he owns and operates one of the fine farms of this county. Mr. McDade is a scion of families whose names have been long and worthily identified with the annals of the fair Southland. His paternal grandfather, James 1IcDade, was of Scotch-Irish ancestry and was born in the north of Ireland, whence he came to America and first settled in orth Carolina. From that state he removed to \Varren County, Georgia, and about the year 1818 he established the family home in Montgomery County, Alabama, where he became a successful pioneer agriculturist and an influentia l citizen of his community and where he passed the remainder of his life. His wife, Sarah, was born in North Carolina, and is a representative of one of the sterling French-Huguenot families that early colonized in that commonwealth. Albert G. Townsend, maternal grand father of the subject of this reYiew, was born in Virginia, soon after his parents there established their home, upon immigration to thi country from their natiYe England. Albert G. Townsend married Miss Polly McNeal, who was born in Virginia, her parents having been of Scotch-Irish stock and having eventually removed from Virginia to Pike County, Alabama. Albert G. Townsend became the father of twelve sons and five daughters, and of the sons of this fine family it is worthy of note that two became physicians, two clergymen and one a lawyer, the other sons having continued their allegiance to the great basic industry of agriculture. Thomas J. McDade was born on the old home farm in Montgomery County, Alabama, on the IIth of February, 1859, and is a son of the late Richard W. and 1Iary J. (Townsend) McDade, both of whom passed their entire lives as resi dents of Alabama. The father served as a gallant soldier of the Confederacy, in an Alabama regi ment, during the entire course of the Civil war, and thereafter he returned to his farm in Montgomery County, where he passed the remainder of his long, useful and worthy life, both he and his wife having held the unqualified esteem of all who knew them and having been persons of superior intellectual ken. Their religious faith was that of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

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114-HlSTORY OF FL01UDA As a boy and youth Thomas J. McDade attended the schools of his native county from two to three months each successive year until he was seventeen years of age, and he then took a course iu an excellent private school, the Lucas Institute, in the City of Montgomery. In 1884 he passed the examination which entitled him to and gave him a first grade certificate as a teacher. He became a teacher in the schools of Escambia County, Florida, and his career in the Florida pedagogic field has covered a period of thirty-five years. He has taught in various counties in this state and all of his work in this connection has been in the grammar schools. Mr. McDade has always been a student and reader, and in his school work he has kept in touch with advanced methods 2nd policies, so that his training and experience eminently qualify him for the office of which he is now the able and progressive incumbent and in which he is doing constructive work of great advantages to the schools of Hol mes County. In 1904 Mr. McDadc was elected a member of the Board of County Commissioners of Holmes County, and he continued the valued incumbent of this office until 1910, inclusive. The l ocal public placed too high valuation upon his ability and service to permit him long to live retired from office, and in 1912 he was elected county suoerintendent of public instruction. He retired from this position at the expiration of his four years' term, after having made an excellent record of administration, and in the autumn of 1920 he was again called to this office, for a second term of four years and by a popular majority that indicated the high estimate placed on his former regime in the office. During all these years he has continued lo give a general supervision to his farm, which he has so developed and improved as to make it one of the model rural estates of Holmes County. It is needless to state that he is a staunch and well fortified advocate of the principles of the domocratic party, in the local councils of which he has long been influential. He is aff11iated with the Masonic fraternity and he is an earnest and zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, whi l e his wife belonirs to the Baptist Church. In July, 1884, at Geneva, Alabama, was solem nized the marriage of Mr. McDade to Miss Cath erine Mitchell, who was born and reared in Georgia and who is a daughter of the late Rev. Jefferson C. and Mattie M. (Bryant) Mitchell, the former a native of Georgia and the latter of A l abama. Mr. Mitchell, who was a loyal soldier of the Confederacy in the Civil war, became a clergyman of the Missionary Baptist Church, and continued his active service in the ministry for many years. In the following paragraph is entered brief record concerning the children of Mr. and Mrs. McDack Marcus L., in railway ~f'rvice, resides at Montgomery, Alabama, and he and his wife have one child, a daughter. Thomas C., in the employ of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company, resides at DeFuniak Springs, Florida. He married Miss Olive Dancey and they have two children, Meda and Ades. Albert G., likewise a railroad man, resides at Anclersonville, Georgia. He married Miss Emily Owen, and they have two children. Arthur W., whose record of service in the World war will be given in a later paragraph, resides at Bonifay, the home city of his parents, and is in the employ of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company. He married Miss Marv Davis and they have a son and daughter, twins, namely: Frank and Francis. Mary is the wife of Laynon Tidwell, of Garden City, Florida, and they have two children. Catherine is the wife of Frank Owen, of Garden City, in which vicinity Mr. Owen is a successful farmer, and they have two children. In conclusion of this review is given a brief record of the military career of Arthur W. McDade. At Fort Screvens, Georgia, on the 9th of May, 1917, he enlisted as a private in the United States Army, at Fort Screverts, Georgia. On the 12th of the following June he was assigned to Evacuation-Hospital Company No. I at Fort Oglethorpe, that state, which later was made Company 3 and which remained at Fort Oglethorpe until December 25th, when it set forth for Camp Merritt, New Jersey, where it arrived on the morning of December 28th. Thereafter Mr. McDade was confined to hospital twenty-one days, as a result of an attack of mumps. January 26, 1918, he returned to Camp Merritt and was assigned to the Thirty-sixth Casual Company, and with this command he sailed for France on the rnth of February. The transport arrived at Brest, France, February 24th, and thereafter remained at the old Napoleon Barracks, near the city, until the 28th of that month, when the command was sent to the City of St. Aignon . On the 7th of March transfer was made to the sanitary school at Thesee, where the men were trained for first aid service at the front. Mr. McDade was there made a member of the One Hundred and Sixty first Field Hospital Company, 116th Sanitary Train, First Army Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces, with Major W. F. Smith, of Wyoming, in command. May 15th the command arrived at Bar-sur-Aube, where it built a hospital for the wounded. Of the activities of his com pany from this point forward Mr. McDade him self has given the following account: "We left Bar-sur-Aube on the morning of May 15th and thereafter remained in the little town of Corcieux until June 24th, when he went to the City of Fraize, on the Vosges front. There we remained until July 1st, when we departed for the City of Arch, where we were in training till July 15th, when we left for Raon-le-Etape, where we were again right on the front in the Vosges Moun tains. August 8th we left for Chateau Thierry, and there we pitched our hospital for some real service at the front. On the 16th of August we left for Ville-sur Marne, where we remained one week, another week having been passed at Chaumont, whence. on the 1st of September, we moved on to the St. Mihiel front, to the Village of Trondes, near which the French lost about fourteen thousand men in about twenty minutes prior to the entrance of the United States into the war. There we worked night and day in building a large provisional evacuation hospital, and in this hospita l we handled about one thou sand wounded men, including a number of Ger mans. On the 20th of September my company left for the Argonne Forest, and we pitched our hospital on the night of the 26th, when the great batt l e of the Argonne Forest started. We hand l ed 13,287 wounded patients, including Ger man prisoners, and the company worked three clays and nights without sleep. We moved back to the town of Grand Pre, where we were sta tioned at the time of the signing of the armi stice." On the 16th of April, 1919, Mr. McDade was transferred to the medical department of the Fifty-third United States Infantry. and on the 22d of that month he embarked with this com mand on the battleship "U. S. Grant.'' which

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 115 arrived at Newport News, Virginia, on the 5th of May. There Mr. McDade received his honor able discharge on the 19th of that month, after a record of patriotic service that shall ever reflect honor upon his name. EARL S. MONTGOMERY. Pioneer in point of time, in enterprise and all the work constituting good citizenship, Earl S. Montgomery has been a resident o f the Miami District for thirty years, and is one of few of the original homesteaders who have retained their land, worked it and accumulated a substantial fortune through thrift and industry continued over a long time, twenty nine years. Mr. Montgomery was born at Evansville, Wisconsin, in 1872. His father, A. R. Montgomery, came to Florida for the sake of his health in 1884, locating at Orange City . E. S. Montgomery was, therefore reared and educated in Wisconsin. He had some experience in general farm work and grove cultivation on the West Coast, and in 1893 came to Dade County, arriving by stage at Lemon City with only $11 in cash. He antici pated the arrival of the railroad at Miami by several years, and had to put up with the incon veniences of primitive transportation and life in a very sparsely settled district. The first year )1e lived in what is known as the Cutler community of Dade County, but in 1894 he entered a home stead of 160 acres, located seven and one-half miles southwest of Miami, at the intersection of Redd Road and Coral V,,lay. A few years ago he sold eighty acres of the homestead, but has re tained all the rest and by other purchases now has about 166 acres at this point. He put up a small shack of a house, similar to those of other early settlers, and, being a bachelor, he made a living by cultivating small portions of his land to vegetables and gradually developing orchard 1>lantings until now he has about twenty acres in a variety of citrus fruits. His first crops were sent to market by the boats that came to Coconut Grove. For a number of years past Mr. Mont gomery has had a generous income from his citrus groves. In former years he made some money by the manufacture of starch from coontia root, and there is hardly a phase of the industrial activity of this region during the past thirty years with which he is not familiar by personal experience. The only point where there were people congregated into what might be called towns when he arrived were Lemon City and Coconut Grove. While the Montgomery place is over seven miles from Miami, the intensive development of small groves and suburban homes has almost overtaken him. His place is just across the road from one of the high class residential sub urbs of Miami, Coral Gables, and that gives his land a value that constitutes a substantial for tune . Mr. Montgomery in addition to being one of the prominent land owners is a recognized authority on citrus fruit culture, and has an experience covering thirty years. The growing and care of citrus groves is with him not only a matter of profit but a hobby and a recreation. Some years after coming to Dade County Mr. Montgomery married Miss Minnie Carlson, a native of Stockholm, Sweden. They have three children, Gladys, George and Earl, and these children are being educated in the schools of Coconut Grove. RAYMF:R FRANCIS MAGUmF., who was nominated and elected state attorney for the Seventeenth Judicial Circuit of Florida in 1922, is one of the prominent younger members of the Orlando bar and has been engaged in general practice sine~ his. admission with the exception of the period in which he served the Government during the time of the great war. Mr. Maguire was born at Ocoee, Orange County, Florida, November 30, 18go. His grand father, Thomas Maguire, was a native of Ireland, came to America in 1820 and married Miss Elizabeth Anderson, of a prominent and wealthy Georgia family of Grinnette County. He became a Georgia planter and slave holder. David Oscar Maguire, father of the state attorney, was born in Georgia, and married Margaret Francis a native of the same state and daughter of Jbllll Francis, of Princeton, Georgia, who was born in England and settled in Georgia. David 0. Maguire in early life was a teacher. In 1886 he brought his family to Florida and settled in Orange County, first at Crown Point and then at Ocoee. For many years he was one of the suc cessful orange growers in this district. He was a staunch democrat, and a Universalist, while his wife was a Baptist. He died at Ocoee in 1914, at the age of sixty-four. Raymer Francis Maguire is one of a family of four sons and one daughter, all living but one son. He was educated in the common schools, attended the preparatory department of the University of Florida, also the normal depart ment of the University of Georgia, and graduated in law from the University of Florida with the L.L. B. degree in 1915. He soon afterward located at Orlando and began the general prac tice which has brought him prominence in the profession. In March, 1918, he volunteered for service in the United States Navy, and was trans ferred to the Naval Intelligence Department at Key \Vest and again transferred to Naval Avia tion Corps and was on duty there about five months. He was on duty at Cambridge, Massa chusetts, when the armistice was signed and was honorably discharged November 23, 1918. Mr. Maguire is an active member of the American legion. He resumed his law practice at Orlando after leaving the navy and gave all his time to his pro fessional interests until elected state attorney. He and his brother F. H. Maguire, as Maguire Brothers, are associated in truck growing at Ocoee, owning and operating a 200 acre truck farm, one of the best and largest in the State of Florida. Mr. Maguire is active in the demo cratic party, is a Knight Templar Mason and Shriner, and also affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Benevolent, and Protective Order of Elks. January 8, 1920, he married Miss Ruth McCol lough, of Orlando. ]AMES A. KNOX. A resident of Orlando for more than forty years, James A. Knox has been prominently identified with the life insurance business since 1900, and in addition has been a well-known figure in public life, having been the incumbent of a number of important positions of trust and responsibility. In all avenues of en deavor he has conducted himself in a manner at once honorable, energetic and result-attaining, and has well merited the high esteem in which he is universally held. Mr. Knox was born on a farm in weakley County, Tennessee. July 21, 1854, a son of William W. and Celia (Boyd) Knox, natives of the same state. When Mr. Knox was but six

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116 HISTORY OF FLORIDA years of age his parents moved from Tennessee to Louisiana and settled in Ouachita Parish, where they resided during the period of the war between the states and until 1868, when they re turned to Tennessee, there taking up their resi dence at :McKenzie, where the elder Knox fol lowed merchandising. James A. Knox had re ceived a public school education in Tennessee and Louisiana, and in 1875 graduated from Mc Ke nzi e College wit h the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In the following year he entered Cumber land Univer ity, Lebanon, Tennessee, where he studied law and graduated in 1877, and for two years thereafter followed his profession. His hea l th fai l ing at this time, he was advised by his physician to change climates and seek a voca tion l ess confining than that of the law, and ac cording l y he came to Orlando and embarked in the fire insurance business, in which he was en gaged for twenty years. In 1900 he transferred his activities and abilities to the life insurance business, and during the last twenty-two years has been agent for the New York Life Insurance Company. He has made innumerab l e acquaint ances during his long business l ife, and among the e are to be found many warm and sincere friends. In addition to being prominent in a business way Mr. Knox has gained some influence in political circles as a democrat. For sixteen years he was treasurer of Orange County, for several terms has served as a member of the Orlando City Council and for six years was chairman of the Orange County Board of Education, of which he was reelected a member in 1922. His public record is an excellent one, and during his long incumbency of public office he has been consci entious, energetic and capable in the discharge of his various duties. For more than thirty-five years he has been a steward and member of the Board of Trustees of the First Methodist Episco pal Church, South, of Orlando. He is the only living charter member of the Knights of Pythias Lodge of this place. A p l ain and unassuming gentleman, he is deservingly popular as a citizen. In 1882 Mr. Knox was united in marriage with Miss Mary \Vatson, of Tennessee, and they had two children, of whom a son, Watson, died while attending college, at the age of seventeen years. The daughter, Elizabeth, married F. G. Rush, of Orlando. Mrs. Knox died, and in 1916 Mr. Knox married Mrs. Opal McKenzie. THEODORE LAMAR BELSER assumed on the 1st of January, 1921, the office of County Judge of Holmes County, and in this office, to which he was e l ected in the autumn of 1920, for a term of four years, he is giving an administration that is fully justifying the popular• verdict that com passed his election. He is one of the loyal and progressive citizens of Bonifay, the attracti\•e litt le city that is the judicia l center of the county, and he takes due pride in claiming Florida as the state of his nativity, his birth having occurred near Neals Landing, Jackson County, on the 23d of May, 1891. Judge Belser is a son of Nathaniel and Nannie (Gilbert) Belser, who still reside on their excellent homestead farm in Jackson County, the father having been born in Alabama and the mother in Georgia. Irvin Be l ser, grandfather of Theodore L. of this review, was born in Alabama and was a resident of Alabama at the time of his death, the maiden name of his wife having been Harriet Pace. The home farm in Jackson County compassed the childhood and early youth of Judge Belser, and in the public chools his educational work included the discipline of the high school at Abbeville, Henry County, Alabama, in which he was graduated as a member of the clas of 1910. For six years Judge Belser was engaged in independent farm enterprise in Holmes County, Florida, on rural mail route No. I from Geneva, and thereafter he was actively identified with saw-mill and lumbering enterprises in this county until his election to the office of County Judge, in the fall of r920. The judge is a well fortified advocate of the principles of the democratic party, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Modern \\'oodmen of America, and he and his wife hold membership in the Bapti t Church. At Bonifay, on the qth of February, 1914, was solemnized the marriage of Judge Belser to Miss Abbie Lee Gillis, daughter of Murdick Gillis, who is one of the representative farmers of Holmes County. Judge and Mrs. Belser have four chil dren : Eula May, Harvey J ., Murdick, and Louise. PAUL R. BOARDMAN. Probably no other line of endeavor so develops a man as that devoted to the handling of real estate and insurance, for its proper conduct necessitateg the employment of so many qualities that a constant expansion is certain to result. One of the men who has not only built up a very large and valuable connection as a realtor and insurance man, but has also become one of the dominant factors in the life of his community, is Paul R. Boardman of St. Petersburg. Mr. Boardman is not a Southerner by birth, but he is essentially one by choice and enthusi asm, and it would be difficult to lead him away from Florida now that he has become so identi fied with its best interests. He was born at Pittsburgh, Penns) lvania, January 28, 1882, a son of James L. and Rebecca J. (Hall) Boardman, both natives of Pennsylvania, who are living retired at St. Petersburg, to which city they came in 1914. The seventh child of a family of eight, Paul R. Boardman was given a practical public school education through the High chool course, and then became an employee of the Carnegie Steel Company. Later he was with the American Sheet Steel Company with which he remained until 1903 when he became associated with the real estate firm of Gault & Giffen and when that concern was taken over by the Land Tru t Com pany, he continued with the latter as a salesman, subsequently he became auditor of its real estate and title departments. Still later he became secretary and treasurer of the Bessemer Securities Company, and held the same offices with the Federal Realty ompany, both of Pittsburgh. At the same time he acted as general accountant of the Penn Real Estate & Development Company. In 1908 the real estate firm of Gault & Giffen was re-organized, and Mr. Boardman was placed in charge of all of the accounts of that concern, as auditor. At that time the new organization took over the general agency of the Florida Asso ciation's holdings, located in Pinellas County. Florida. Mr. Boardman became a salesman and after selling a large amount of acreage, he de cided to locate in Florida. Tn January, IQIO, he came to St. Peter burg, and estahli bed himself in the real estate business under the title of Boardman & Getts, which association continued for several years. In 19r6 he organized the automobile business

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 117 known as Boardman & Vogel. After George A. McCrea had entered the firm the business was incorporated under the name of Boardman, Vogel & McCrea, Incorporated, with Paul R. Boardman as president. Mr. Boardman has always been active in civic affairs and after having served for several years on the Board of Governors of the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce was elected president of that body for the year 1917 . He was elected president of the Pinellas County Board of Trade for the year 1918 and served up until the time he entered the war service. He was appointed vice chairman for Pinellas County in the \Var Savings Campaign and in this capacity had com plete charge of the organization of the county. With a desire to aid further in the winning of the World war he disposed of his interest in the Boardman, Vogel & McCrea Corporation to Mr. McCrea and left for \Vashington in July, r9r8. He was appointed by the United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation as manager of the Town of Harriman, Pennsyl vania, which was being constructed by the Gov ernment in connection with the Bristol Ship Yards on the Dcla\vare River. In this capacity he was called upon to carry on the functions of mayor, city commissioners, and director of public safety, public utilities and public works. He also had complete charge of all housing facilities ac commodating about ten thousand people. He continued in this work after the armistice was signed and up until the fall of 1921. During this service he handled millions of dollars of Gov ernment money. "7hite he was in the service of the Government Mr. Boardman maintained his home in St. Petersburg where he returned imme diately after his work was finished at Harriman. He at once re-embarked in the real estate and insurance business. After a year in business for himself he organ ized the Boardman-Frazee Realty Company, Incorporated, of which he is president. He is one of the leading realtors of Pinellas County and one of the greatest boosters of the Sunshine City. Mr. Boardman was appointed a city commis sioner of St. Petersburg to fill the unexpired term of A. F. Thomasson, resigned. On April IO, 1905, Mr. Boardman was married to Ada L . Kemble, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They have two children, Paul K. and Helen Ada. Mr. Boardman belongs to St. Petersburg Lodge No. 1224, B. P . 0. E. He is a director of the St. Petersburg Motor Club and of the St. Petersburg Tarpon Club and a member of the St. Petersburg Yacht Club. Second only to his enthusiasm for the city and county is that which he displays for the piscatorial art and his friends jokingly claim that it was his su~cess in landing tarpon while on a visit to St. Petersburg that decided him to become a perma nent resident. EDGAR w AL LACE p ARKER, one of the general contractors of Tampa has huilt up a reputation for honest execution of his contracts, and reliability as a citizen that is creditable and he de serves all the more credit because his success in life has come through his own C'fforts. He was born in Pasco County, Florida, October 5, 188o, a son of S. P. and Leanah (Pringle) Parker. The grandfather of Edgar W. Parker was Robert H. Parker and he was a native of Georgia and a soldier in the Confederate Army. Leanah Pringle was a daughter of Joseph Pringle and she was born in Mississippi, but came to Florida with her parents in 1865, following the close of the war. Her father was a farmer and made th<" trip overland with a wagon and horses and located twe11ty miles southeast of Tampa, where he homesteaded a farm and there he died in 1912, having been one of the pioneers of this part of the state. It was on this farm that Mr. Parker's mother was reared. Edgar V..7 • Parker is one of ten children, nine of whom survive. The boyhood and youth of Mr. Parker were spent at Dade City, Florida. He has been en gaged in his present line of business since r907 and his territory extends through Georgia, Ala bama, Kentucky, and other neighboring states and covers all kinds of heavy building including bridges, steam shovel work and railroad work. He gives employment to from roo to 500 men. In 1907 he had nothing, but today his capital amounts to considerable and all of it has been accumulated through his own efforts. He owns valuable realty holdings in farm and city property . Fraternally he belongs to all the branches of the York and Scottish rites in Masonry, and the Mystic Shrine, and he is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He belongs to the Board of Trade, is active in the Young Men's Christian Association and was a prime mover in the recent drive made for $30,000. He is active in Rotary Club and Boy Scout move ments. Mr. Parker's building activities are not con fined to bridge work for he erected in the city of Tampa, banks, business blocks and city docks and a number of warehouses and railway terminals at Jacksonville. In fact he is the most extensive operator in his line of construction in the State of Florida. In r9()6 Mr. Parker was married to Louisiana Collins, of Lakeland, Florida and they have one son, Edgar Wallace, Junior. Mr. Parker has great faith in Florida and has proven it by investing quite extensively in property, which he still owns. He is a man who believes in hard work, in closely following out both the spirit and the letter of a contract and in doing his duty by his home city, county and state. Not only has he achieved through these methods, a comfortable competency, hut has also won and holds the futl confidence of alt with whom he is associated. JoHN N. C. STOCKTON. Death on January 13, 1922, removed in the person of John N. C. Stock ton a notable figure in the affairs of Tacksonvilte and the state. He was a native of Florida, had lived in Jacksonville over half a century and had been almost constantly active in public affairs or in business with a distinctive public character attaching to it. He was one of the real leader~ in the democratic party of the state. John Noble Cumming Stockton was born at Quincy, Gadsden County, Florida, November 17, 1857, and died in his sixty-fifth year. He was the son of William T. and Julia (Telfair) Stock ton, his mother a native of North Carolina. The founder of the American branch of the familv was Richard Stockton, who came from England. ahout 1656. His son Richard bought land at Princeton, New Jersey, from William Penn, and some of his descendants still occupy part of these holdings. In 1776 another Richard Stock ton was elected to the Continental Congress to represent New J crsey and was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. A son of the signer also named Richard, was elected a

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118 HISTORY OF FLORIDA member of the United States Senate in 1796. The same family produced John P. Stockton who was a United States Senator from r cw Jersey after the Civil war; and Robert Field Stockton, a distinguished American Naval Commander, who figured prominently in" the winning of California and who also represented New Jersey in the United States Senate. Colonel William T. Stockton, father of the late JacksonYille citizen, was born near Philadelphia in 1812, graduated from \\' est Point Military Academy in 183-1, and came to Florida as an officer in the regular army during the Indian wars. He resigned in 1836 and became a F lorida p l anter, but subsequently served in later Indian uprisings. He was appointed a member of the board of visitors to \Vest Point Military Academy in 1849, and was one of the first vo l un teers from Florida to the Confederate army re ceiving a commission as Capt:!in. He was el~cted Major and soon afterward became LieutenantColonel of the First Florida Cava l ry. He was wounded at Chickamauga, was captured at Mis sionary Ridge, and was a prisoner of war on Johnson's Island until August 1865. The l ife of John N. C . Stockton began on his father's plantation and its duties supplied a large part of his practical education and training for business. Owing to the war and the reduction of the family fortunes he never had the privilege of attending college. He was twelve years old when his father died, and he soon afterward accompanied other members of the family to Jacksonville. At the age of fourteen he became clerk in a retail grocery store at $2. a week. After two years he went with William Root, a wholesale grocer, and after five years had been advanced to a salary of $r ,ooo a year, then a very large alary for so young a man. Mr. Stockton in 1878 became bookkeeper for D. G. Ambler, and fi,e years later wa admitted to Junior partner-hip in the banking firm Ambler, Marvin & Stockton. He left this firm in 1885 to help organize the National Bank of the State of Florida, was chosen as cashier. and three years later was elected Yice president and in 18g4 be came president. He was associated with the organization and the management of several prosperous banking institutions, including the First National Bank of Tampa, which he organized in 1AA7 and which he served as president until 18g1; the Exchange National Bank of Tampa of which he was vice president for a time. In 1895 he be came largely interested in the lumber and phos phate business as a member of the firm J. E. Bryan & Com1>any. He was president of the Ortega Company, a suburban development con cern and was interested in the manufacture of lumber, being president of the Meredith Lumber Company. ,\mong busine~s and c1v1c activit i es for which the city of Jacksonville cherishes his memory was his work in building the city electric light plant. He sened as chairman of the Board of Public \Vorks for two years and during that time gave Jacksonville its first paved street. He was also active in extending the city water works and secured a reduction of electric tight rates. He came home from the North during the yellow fever epidemic in 1888, and devoted himself without thought of personal danger to his duties as a member of the auxiliary committee in charge of the relief funds. He took an active part in reorganizing the Board of Trade, now the Chamber of Commerce, and in 188g was elected its presi dent. He is also remembered for his generous spirit of helpfulness in many individual cases, and throughout his public and business career exerted every effort to improve the moral as well as the physical condition of the state and community in which he lived. lie was for many years an active member of St. John's Episcopal Church and was al o active in the building of St. Andrew's Church in East Jacksonville. His political record deserves more than pass'ng mention. As a youth he took an active interest in the National Campaign of 1876, and became a rea l influence in the election of a Governor in 188o. He was a delegate to the Convention of 188-1, when Perry was nominated for governor, and he served as treasurer of the Cleveland organization during that year. He was an active supporter of Governor F. P. Fleming in the Convention of r8&, and 189o he supported Senator Call for reelection. It was in 18g3 that he was elected chairman of the Board of Public \Vo'rks of Jacksonville and as chairman he signed the contract providing for the electric lights and sewer systems, the purchase of the city hall site and the paving of the streets. He was sent to the Legislature from Duval County in 18, and the following year he led the fight in the legislature for the election of Senator Call, who eventually withdrew in favor of lfr. Stockton. who came within seven votes of being elected and he in turn withdrew in favor of S. R. Mallory who repre ented Florida two terms in the United States enate. In rgoo he was a member of the de l egation to the Convention at which Governor \V. S. Jennings was nominated. After the disastrous fire of 1901 he was again called to the Board of Public Works in his home city, and as its chairman he directed the expenditure of a bond issue of -100,000 in reconstructing the City Hall and making other improvements. In 1904 he was a candidate in the primaries for the United States Senate and was a candidate for Governor in 1()08. His la t campaign for an important public office was the United States Senate, in 1910. September 27, 1883, the late l-fr. Stockton married Fannie Baker. daughter of James McCallum and Frances (Gilchrist) Baker of Jacksonville. Her father was Confederate Senator from Florida and was for many years Judge of the Fourth Judicial Circuit of this state. lfr .. Stoc~ton is survived hy Mrs. Stockton and six clu)dren: William T.; Gilchrist B.; France B., wife of J. \Valker Godwin of Minneapolis: l[argaret. wife of John Henry Blount: Jean, :Mrs. Herman Ulmer; and ).fos Julia Elizabeth Telfair. Jot:L R. \VELLS has earned a distinguished place at the bar and on the bench of the State of Florida. It is forcibly illustrati\e of his legal solidity and versatility that he should have made a high record a a private practitioner, a public official, and a learned. impartial jurist. A brief analysis of his most marked traits of character is explanatory of his unusual measure of success. \Vhile keen and logical, earnest and eloquent, he is also careful in the development of his legal plans, and bas the faculty, strongly natural and persistently trained, of piercing to the foundation principles of any contention. Being thus firmly grounded, the details naturally arrange themselves and the mind is left clear and positive to work along definite lines of thought. Thus it is that Judge Wells, whether as private practitioner, Circuit Court Commissioner or Judge, always has his case firmly in hand, and can never be diverted

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IlISTOR Y OF FLORIDA ll!J to side issues, which has been the prime secret of his legal strength and success. The birth of Judge Wells occurred near Vernon, sixteen miles south of Chipley, in Washington County, Florida, July 26, 1864. He is a son of Henry Hamilton and Prudence Catherine (Reaves) Wells, both of whom are deceased. They were natives of North Carolina, but early came to Florida, and he was a member of the Florida State Assembly in 1860 and 1861, and voted for secession. While he was not in active service during the war, he was a Confederate and did everything in his power to help the cause which he so ardently espoused, and was an important man in his locality, at one time serving as coroner of \Vashington County. For years he followed blacksmithing and he was also a farmer. Judge \Veils first attended the public schools of his native county, although his attendance in them until the time he reached his majority, was S(!mething like fifteen months all told, yet from childhood he was very ambitious and studied by himself, and so prepared himself that he was able, when twenty-six, to enter the State Normal School at De Funiak Springs, and take a twoyear course. At its conclusion he began teaching school, and while doing so read law under the preceptorship of \V. 0. Butler, and also secured instruction {rom Judge Glenn . At the same time he continued studying by himself, and finally was able to pass the examination given him by Judges F. B. Carter and B. G. Licldon, the com mittee appointed for that purpose by Judge W. D. Barnes, April 5, 189-1, at Marianna, and was admitted to the bar. During this time that he was studying law and teaching school, Judge Wells, for five years was Deputy Clerk of the Court of Washington County. and served as Circuit Court Commissioner under Judges Barnes and Maxwell, and is now Circuit Court Com missioner under Judge Jones . From 1894 to 1900 Judge 'ells was engaged in a private practice at Chipley, and in 1894 was elected to the State Assembly and served during the Sc sion of 1895. In 1900 he was appointed County Judge of Washington County to succeed Judge Melvin, deceased. and held that office until November 2, 1909, when he resigned it and formed a partnership with Hon. Walter Kehoe, and moved to Panama City. This association continued for six months, since which time Judge Wells has practiced alone, at Panama City, except for a short time he was the senior member of the firm of Wells & Sapp at that place. On January 1, 1901 Judge Wells was married at Jacksonville. Florida, to Miss Ruth \Varnock, a daughter of Irvin and Sallie (Leonard) Warnock, of Dawson, Georgia and later of Oxford. Florida. Mrs. Wells was born in Georgia. Mr. \Varnock was a farmer and fruitgrower. Judge and Mrs. \Velis have five children, namely: Maxwell Warnock, who was graduated from the United States Naval Academy, resigned from the service, and re-enlisted in the Navy as Reserve Ensign; Joel Reaves, Junior, both of these sons now takin~ law at the University of Florida; Henry Irvm, a freshman at the University of Florida; Ella Catherine and Lillian, are at home, and in high school. Judge Wells belongs to the Baptist Church, and his wife and children are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a Blue Lodge Mason. Judge Wells enjoys a practice which continually increases in lucrative ness and honorable distinction. From the very outset his thoroughness of preparation in whatever litigation was entrusted to him in;,pired that confidence in himself which was infectious and an assurance of success. LEVI WARREN NELSON. There is no vocation that commands greater respect, and cw that offer better opportunity for the display of character and ability than the profession of the law. In Orlando, Florida's bench and bar have long ranked with the most distinguished of the state and the pro fess ion here represented numbers among its members men of high standing and established reputation. A leading member of the Orlando bar, who has gained his position through merit and industry, is Levi \,Varren Nelson. Mr. Nelson was born January 5, 1873, in Appling County, Georgia, the only son and child of Ezekiel B. and Eliza Nelson, natives of the same state. Levi W. Nelson attended the public schools of his native state and commenced the study of law in the office of Jackson J. Holton & Son, of Baxley, Georgia. After an examina tion in the Superior Court, in Baxley, Georgia, he was admitted to the bar in March, 1896, and commenced practice at Nicholls, Georgia, where he spent about two years, subsequently spending three years at Hinesville, that state. He then became inspecting auditor !or the Singer Sewing Machine Company, covering Georgia and South Carolina, up to HJOI, when he accepted the posi tion of assistant superintendent for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company at Athens, Georgia, a position which he retained for about three years. At that time Mr. Nelson resumed the practice of his profession at Albany, Georgia, and during the ten years that he was located in that city built up a good practice and made gratifying advancement in his calling. Following this for six years he was located at Pensacola, Florida, and in July, 1917, came to St. Augus tine, and in July, 1922, moved to Orlando, Florida, where he has since been located, with offices in the Hanel Building. He carries on a general practice, being equally at home in all depart ments of his calling, and is recognized as a re liable, energetic and thoroughly learned attorney, with a sound and comprehensive knowledge of the fundamental principles of law. His clientcle is accordingly large and important. Mr. Nelson belongs to the St. Augustine Bar Association, the Florida State Bar Association and the Commercial Law League of America. Fraternally he is affiliated with Ashlar Lodge No. go, F. & A. M.; St. Augustine Chapter No. 17, R. A. M.; St. Augustine Commandcry No. IO, K. T. ; St. Augustine Lodge of Perfection, S. R. M.; and Morocco Temple, A. A. 0. N. M. S . ; and is also a member of the Knights of Pythias and Elks. In 1899 Mr. Nelson married Mis Maud J. Harrel and they have had two children: Rudolph, who died at the age of six years; and Louise, now living and aged twenty-one years. He and his family are members of the first Baptist Church of Orlando. Mr. Nelson was solicitor of the Criminal Court of Record, St. Augstine, Florida. A. C. GRAW for many years conducted an ex tensive and very prosperous printing business in New Jersey. In 1915, while on a trip to Florida waters in his private yacht, and without any intention of making this state his home, there came an opportunity to take over a printing and newspaper plant at Homestead in Dade County. Thus by accident, as it were, Mr. Graw became a

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120 HISTORY OF FLORIDA citizen of Florida and has since been a very live and important factor in the growth and develop ment of the Homestead community. He was born at Haddinfie ld , New Jersey, in 1867 . His fa ther was a Method i st minister and member of t he New Jersey Conference, living w ith his family therefo re in variou s towns and cities of the state. A. C. Graw received most of his public schoo l education at Toms Rive r, New Jersey. He comple t ed severa l college courses in t he private school of Prof. W illiam Fewsmith of Philadelphia, a teacher of distinct i on and author of a grammar that for many years was in use in the public schools of Philade lph ia. Having the printer's trade in view, Mr. Graw se lect ed his studies particu larly to prepare himself for that vocation. He served a full apprentices hip in the office of West Jersey Press at Camden, New Jersey. Later he engaged in printing as a busi ness, and for many years conducted a large and successfu l plant under his own name in that city. He also conducted under contract, the print ing office of the F. A. Davis Company, p ub lishers of medical books, for five or six years. Mr. Graw knows all the details of the printing business on both the large and small scale, and was one of the widely known men in his craft in •Pennsy l vania and New Jersey. The Homestead Enterpri se of wh ich he is pub lisher and editor, was established in 1912 under the ownership and management of Mr. Graw it has been greatly enl arged and modernized. The plant now includes a linotype machine, c utting, b indin g and stitching mac hin ery, and all the facilities of a modern p lan t. At the same time Mr. Graw has improved the Enterprise until it is now one of the most successful week l y news papers in Florida. It is pub lished in from eight to twenty pages and is a journal of genuine influence in the rich and rapidly growing region that it serves. In the Spring of 1922 he also established and owns and conducts the Hialeah Herald, p ubli shed at Hialeah, the remarkab l e new town founded by J. H. Bright and G lenn Curtiss, seven miles northwest of Miami. The Home stead Enterprise was the medium for legal p ub lication in Dade County in 1919 and 1921. One of the wi nter visitors at Miami, was Ed Howe, t he famous writer a nd former editor of the Atchison Globe. In some of his syndicated writ ings p ublished subsequently Ed Howe paid an in cidental trib ute to Mr. G raw when he spoke of s howing George H. Lorimer, editor of the Saturday Evening Post, thro ugh the office of the Enterprise in contrast with the great printing and p ublishing p lant presided over by Mr. Lorimer, Howe said: "There is one drum cylinder in the office of the Homestead Enterprise, and the editor and every one around the office can run it. There is a wide difference between the office of t he Homestead Enterprise and the office of the Saturday Evening Post. Still, A. C. Graw, editor of the Homestead En terpri se, is a pretty good man. He is p resident of a bank and a n important factor in a very enterp ris ing comm unity. I also l iked Mr. Graw's son. He has mastered t he intricacies of a li notype, and can operate and care for it. Once he went North on a vacation, and, in a big city got a job at $55 a week, to show that he could do it. In t his blessed United States of ours there is room for everybody." The bank of which Mr. Graw is president is the Cit izens Bank of Homestead, a flourishing finan cia l i nstitution. He is also vice president of the Homestead Building and Loa n Association, is president and sec retary of the Ent erprise Publishing Company, and is now acting as receiver for the firm of Dillon & Schneider, contractors. Mr. Graw married Miss Jennie Donaghy of Philadelp hia . Their two children are George LaMonte and Mrs. Isabella Cooper. L. HENRY DESHONG. The record of some men's lives reads l ik e a romance, so many are the ob stacles which they are called upon to r emove from the path of their upward progress. S~ch o~ s t acles form a barrier to some between their amb i tion and their abilities, and which they never pass. Such was not the case with L. Henry DeShong, clerk of the courts of Hillsborough County, who i s now one of the leading citizens of Tampa, for in spite of many hardsh!ps which began _when l~e was but a child he has risen to a responsible posi tion in his community, and in an office of importance in the government of the county. . L. Henry DeShong was born on a farm m Hillsborough County, Florida, November 7, 188r, a son of L. C. and Mollie (Waland) DeShong, and grandson of Jesse DeShong and Sylvester Waland . Jesse DeShong was born in South_ Caro lina, and Sylvester \,Valand was a native. of Georgia, and both became early settlers of Flond:J,, coming here when L. C. DeShong and Mollie Waland were about ten years old. These chil dren were both born in Georgia, but from the time they came to Florida never left the state but once, and never had any desire to do so, for to them it was the garden spot of the world. They were reared, educated and married here, and here their fourteen children were born, of whom ten are now living, and all of these survivors are resi dents of Hillsborough County. Growing up in his native county, L. Henry De Shong was early fo r ced to make himse! f useful, for the family was large and money scarce. At the age of nine years he began herding sheep in the adjacent woods, and was kept at that work until he was thirteen years old, at which time he was regarded as o ld enough to do a man's work on the farm. His educational opportunities were confined to those afforded by the count r y schools when he had time to attend them, and such in struction as his mother could give him. The farm was planted to fruit, and through the almost s uper human efforts of father and sons had been brought to such a productive state in 1895 that the father was offered $35,000 for it. He refused to consider the deal, and the following day the labor of years was utterly wiped out in the disas trous freeze. The trees were utterly blighted, and it took five years more of hard work to make the farm productive once more, and in this l abor L. Henry DeShong bore his full part. . In 1907 Mr. DeShong came to Tampa, and 111 the different lif e of this center of activity found that the stern l essons of adversity were of great value to him, for they enabled him to get a firm footing and to advance rapid l y and secure ly. For seven years he was a member of the city fire depar tment , and then for two years was engaged in the mercantile business. In 1918 he was elected clerk of the courts of Hillsborough County, and is capably filling that office. A democrat, he has a lwa ys been very active in party matters, and is one of the leaders of it in the county. For many years he has been one of the valued mem bers of the Baptist Church. In 1909 Mr. DeShong married Frances Lorena Sumner, a daughter of J. R. Summer, of Dade City, Florida, and they have two children, namely: Elbert Joseph and Violet. Truly a self-made man,

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 121 there is perhaps no one who deserves more credit for what he has accomplished than Mr. DcShong. His career is a notable one, and is the story of laudable ambition, unfaltering activity and earne~t endeavor to reach a high plane, and that the quali ties chosen as chief factors in his life, honor, !n tegrity and determination, h:1ve been. pro?uct1ve of much good his present high slandmg m both official and private Ii fe is most clearly proven. CnARLES C. MATHIS. In harles C. Mathis Bay County has one of th~ mo;~t efficient cou.nty superintendents of schools 111 this part of ~lond~, and Panama City a citizen of 1_111usual ment. ~1s long experience in the educ~t1onal field fits him in a particular degree for his present office, and the schools under his capable supervision are ac cepted as standard by higher educational bod_ies. Mr. Mathis was born in Holmes County, Flon1a, March 3, 1886, a son of John _T. and Lomsa (Brock) Mathis, natives of G~org!a and Alabama, respectively. They were married 111 Alabama, but later moved to Florida, settling in Holmes ounty, where they became farming people, and where both died. . Growing up in his native county, Supermten
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]22 HISTORY OF FLORIDA Alabama. Subsequently he took up the study of medicine, receiving his professional training from the Chattanooga Medical College of Chattanooga, Tennessee, from which he was graduated in 1907, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Imme diately thereafter he began the practice of his profession al Enterprise, Alabama, 1ml after two years there came to Florida and established himself permanently at Panama City, where he has been accorded the support his talents entitle him to receive. During 19II and 1912 Doctor Adams took post-graduate work at Atlanta, Georgia, and in 191..1 and again in 1918 studied at Tulane Unhersity, New Orleans, Louisiana, for he is a man who believes in keeping thor oughly abreast of the progress made in his pro fession, in which the advance is so remarkably rapid that extra reading and tudy is absolutely necessary if a man reasonably hopes to grasp all of the new discoveries in science. Once more the war clouds burst above this country, and Doctor Adams again offered his s~rv ices, enlisting in the Medical Corps of the Umted States Army, and being commissioned a first lieutenant. He was first stationed at Camp Green leaf, and later at Camp Oglethorpe. He had been in the service some three and one-half months when the armistice was signed, and he received his honorable discharge, returned to Panama City, and resumed his practice. It is not given to every man to participate in two major wars, and Doctor Adams has every reason to be proud of his military record, for it shows a sincere loya\ty and faithful discharge of duty both as a soldier and officer. Of late years Doctor Adams has special ized in diseases of children, and while he still carries on a general practice, has come to be regarded as an expert in this line. He is called into consultation on these two branches all over the county, and in them enjoys a very high reputation. On October 16, 19()8, Doctor Adams married at Ozark, Alabama, Miss Bannie Stokes, a daughter of 'William B. Stokes, natives of Alabama, who arc now deceased. :Mr Stokes was a merchant and prominent man of Alabama. Doctor and Mrs. Adams have had three children, one of whom, William Charles, died in 1912, those living being: Daniel M., Junior, and John Powell. Doctor Adams belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a Blue-Lo'dge, Chapter, KnightTemplar and Shriner Mason. LuuLOw LAMBI>IN, M. D. In a perusal of the rostc-r containing tbc names of the men who have attained to distinction in the medical profession in Florida it will be found that well toward the head of the list is that of Dr. Ludlow Lambdin, of St. Petersburg. Success in any of the various pursuits of life usually challenges the admiration of the world. It matters not whether in the pro fession of medicine, law or literature, or in the theological domain, in the military or civil life, or in mercantile pursuits, it may be said that success is the one distinguishing and sought-for characteristic of all transactions. In the medical profession Doctor Lambdin has distinguished himself and has demonstrated the fact that here to the man of merit belongs the full measure of success and worldly prosperity. In his sphere of labor and activity, the real nature of the man comes to the forefront; here he may display a merciless inhuman cupidity or a kind and thoughtful consideration for those who come under his care, and there can be no better indicalion of a man's real worth and character than the r~gard entertained for him by his professional associates and colleagues. Although his residence al St. Petersburg has not been a very lengthy one, he has firmly established himself here a, one of the city's prominent medical men and his influ_ence is recognized as a potent one for good. Dunng the eight years he has resided here he ha so conducted his activitie_s as to win the high regard of all who know hrm 111 both professional and social circl<'s . Doctor Lambdin wa born in Union County Tennessee,. 1\lay ~r, 1879, a son of Vv. vV. and 1lary Matilda (lkeler) Lambdin natives of Ten nessee, and he is the youugest of the three children of his parents. (.;rowing up in his native county Doctor Lambdin attended its public schools, a preparatory school, and the niversity of Tenn<;ssec, and was graduated from the latter in 1900, with the degree of Doctor of .Medicine and located at Anders?nville, Ande~son County,' Tennessee, and cont111ued there 111 active practice until 1914, when he came to t . Petersburg. Here !1e fom~d conditions so to his liking that he estahli.shed J11s permanent home in this city, and has s111ce then been connected with the best interests of this region. ,vith the entry of this country into the vVorld war Doctor Lambdin offered his sen ices to his country, was commissioned a first lieutenant, and ros~ to the rank of major in the .\fedical Corps, United States Army. His service was rendered at Camp Meade, and there he remained until he was honorably discharged, following which he returned to St. Petersburg and resumed his private practice. Professionally he maintains membership with the Pinellas County. Medical Societ.Y, the F\orida Sta~e . Medical Society, the American Medical Association, and the Southern 1fedical Association. Fraternally he belongs to St. Petershurg Lodge o. 139, A . F. & A. M., and t. Petersburg Lodge No. I:?24, B. P. 0. E. In 1902 Doctor Lambdin was married to Lula Longmerc, of St. Petersburg. One of the leading physicians and surgeons of St. Petersburg, Doctor Lambdin has been a ll'ader not a follower in professional work. and his labors have, in rr{any respects, been a distinct and valuable contribution to the practice of medicine and surgery. As the years have passe
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 123 in the Bingham School and the University of North Carolina. During the Civil war he estab lished his home on a plantation in Leon County, Florida, and entered the Confederate Army as a member of Scott's Battalion of the Fifth Florida Cavalry. During 1893-95 he served as superintendent of the United States Government building at Tallahassee while it was in course of construction. In 1896 he was elected county judge, reelected in I<)OO and 1904, and died while still holding that office, November 28, 1900. James Bryan Whitfield has lived most of his life in Florida, was educated in the West Florida Seminary at Tallahassee and graduated from the University of Virginia in 1886. He was admitted to the Florida bar that year, and in connection with his private practice he has had a long serv ice in public affair . . He was cashier of the Sub Tropical Exposition at Jacksonville in 1888. In the same year he was appointed private secretary to Governor Perry of Florida. In November, 1888, he was elected county judge of Leon County. This position he resigned in March, 1889, and from then to 1897 he was clerk of the Supreme Court. He was state treasurer in 1897-03 and attorney-gen eral of Florida in 1903-04. His long service as a justice of the Supreme Court began in 1904, and his present term expires in 102;;. In 1905 and again in 1909 he was chose1l chief justice. Judge Whitfield is a democrat and a member of the Episcopal Church. On November 25, 1896, he married Miss Leila R. Nash, at Tallahassee, daughter of John VI/. and Emma T. Nash. She died October 4, 1897, lea,ing one son, John N. Whitfield. June 12, 19or, Judge Whitfield married Margaret Il. Randolph, of Tallahassee, daughter of T. Hayward and Julia Church (Croom) Ran dolph. By this marriage there arc four children, :Uary C., James Bryan, Jr., Julia C. and Randolph. CHARLES ARTHUR SIMPSON, member of the Simpson Nursery Company of }.lonticello, is one of the leading nurserymen and pecan growers of the state. Ever since locating at Monticello in 19u, he has taken a constructive part in its civic affairs. He was horn at Vinrc-nnes, Indiana, March 14, 1876, a son of Henry 1\L Simpson, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work, together with that of a brother, Ray C. Simpson. The boyhood of Charles Arthur Simpson was spent amid healthful rural surroundings on his father's Indiana farm, and he was graduated from Vincennes University in 189,;, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and secnred his degree of Electrical Engineer from Perdue University in r8g8. He is a member of the college fraternity Sigma Nu. The outbreak of the war hetwl'en this country and Spain in 18g8 changed his plans somewhat, and in June he enlisted in Company D, Second Regiment, U . S. Volunteer Engineers, at Indianap olis, Indiana, as a private. Ik was sent first to Fort Sheridan, Illinois, later to Montauk Point, New York, and Savannah, Georgia, from whence the unit was transported to Havana, Cuba, where they remained for four months. Mr. Simpson returned home after his honorable discharge, March 15, 1899, as a sergeant. In June, 1899, he went to Chicago as electrical engineer with the Kellogg Switchboard Supply Company, with whom he continued for eleven years, and when he resigned he was assistant chief engineer. In 19n he came to Monticello to go into the nursery lmsiness with his brother, and in addition to the large interests of their firm in Vol. III-11S nursery stock and pecans at Monticello and Albany, Georgia, Mr. Simpson is a co-partner in the gen eral farming operations of Gadsden Place, a magnificent Jefferson County farm of 3,300 acres. His agricultural and horticultural interests have led him to unite with the Southern Nurserymen's Association, of whieh he is now president; the ational Nut Growers Association and the South eastern Pecan Growers Association, and he is also president of these last two-named organizations. He is past president of the Georgia-Florida Pecan Growers Association. For some time he has been one of the directors of the Bank of Monti cello. While the Monticello Chamber of Commerce was active he was its president, and he is very active in all public and civic affairs. During the late war he was chairman of all of the Liberty Loan drives except the first, and took a zealous and effective part in the other drives for war purposes. As a member, elder and Sunday School worker in the Presbyterian Church Mr. Simpson exerts a strong influence for moral uplift, and carries his religion into his everyday life. He belongs to the Glen Arvin Country Club of Thomasville, Georgia, and is very found of hunting and fishing, maintaining a camp on the Wacissa River for these pursuits. However, he finds in his home his greatest pleasure, and has never cared to unite with any fraternities. On June 20, 1903, Mr. Simpson married at Chicago Mattie E. Fricke, who was born and reared in Chicago. She is a daughter of William and Mattie E. Fricke, both of whom are deceased. For years Mr. Fricke was one of the extensive realty operators of Chicago. Mr. and :Mrs. Simpson have three children: Richard H., Shiart Charles and John Arthur. WALTER R. McLrnn. During a residence of more than forty years at Apopka, Walter R. Mc Leod, has enjoyed more than the individual share of husiness responsibilities and the duties of public leadership. He has been merchant, orange grower, postmaster, and has filled nearly all the offices within the gifts of the community. Mr. McLeod came to Apopka in 1879 from Tennessee. He was born at Ducktown, Polk County, that state, January S, 1857. son of Sidney G. and Susan (Greer) 1-fcLeod. His parents moved from North Carolina to Tennessee, and belonged to the hearty mountaineer stock, being zealous supporters of the Union. Sidney G. McLeod became a Federal recruiting officer and was killed by guerrilla enemies early in the Civil war. Walter R. McLeod was only a child when his father was killed, and during his youth he ob tained a limited common school education. As a young man of twenty-two he came to Florida and located at Apopka, where he began the devel opment of an orange grove. He had brought this into a prosperous bearing condition at the time of the great freeze of 1894-95. In the meantime he had engaged in merchandising, and during 1882-86 was postmaster of Apopka. His residence has been continuous at Apopka, save for a brief period in Southern North Carolina. From rgo6 to 1921 Mr. McLeod conducted a mercantile busi ness at Apopka, finally selling out in the latter year. He was appointed postmaster in November, r92r, and gives his time to the duties of that office. Mr. McLeod has always been a republican. He has served two terms as mayor of Apopka, several tiines on the Town Council, has been city clerk and tax assessor, ancl at one time was census

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124 HISTORY OF FLORIDA enumerator for this district. He is an active Mason and Knight of Pythias and a member of the Methodist Episconal Church. Urs. McLeod is a member of the Baptist Church. In 1886 he married 11iss }.fary Stradley, a native of Asheville, North Carolina. They have one son, \Vatter Gay McLeod, now practicing dentistry at Pensacola. Onrs Gn.nF.N K1-~DRTCK, M. D. \Vhile he was trained for and has handled general practice, Doctor Kendrick almost from the time he grad uated has specialized in eye, ear, nose and throat work. He is one of' the most capable representa tives of that branch of medicine and surgery at Tallahassee, and he won special honors in his par ticular field while a medical officer during the \Vorld war. He was born near Griffin, Georgia, April II, 1893, son of Rev. \Villiam Union and Beulah (Smith) Kendrick. His parents are still living at Griffin, his father aged sixty and his mother, fifty-eight. The grandfather was William Kendrick, of Upson County, Georgia, who entered the Confederate Army, served at Gettysburg and in the Virginia campaigns, and after the war walked home to find his family in destitution and want and all his property destroyed. His wife when he returned was dig-ging the earth floor of the smoke house and boiling-the dirt to extract salt for the family use. His first work after reaching home was to drive to the gulf to secure a salt supply. Rev. William U. Kendrick at an early age gave himself to the ministry of the Missionary Baptist Church, and for many years, until he retired, was devoted to the cause and organized many congregations and built many churches in the mountain district of Georgia. He is affiliated with the Masonic Order and Jn~e pendent Order of Odd Fellows: Doctor Kendrick is one of four living children. His brother waiter G. is a farmer near Griffin. His brother Mountain Hill named in honor of an uncle who was a Confederate soldier, is also a farmer near Griffin and is widely known for his success and skill in growing strawberries and in experif!1en_tal . lines of agriculture. The only daughter, Lmme, 1s the wife of \V. G. Hutson, of Griffin. Odis G. Kendrick was reared on a farm, attended country schools, and a ftcr the family re moved to Griffin he was in high school there. For four years he was employed as assistant clerk of courts. During 1912-13 he attended the Atlanta School of Medicine, and then entered Loyola Uniyersity 1edical School at Chicago, where he was graduated in 1916. For three years during sum mer yacations he took special work in eye, car, nose and throat. Doctor Kendrick established him self in private practice at Tallahassee in 1916. About a year later, on A.ugust 15, 1917, he was commissioned a first lieutenant in the American RcserYe Corps, but continued his duties at Tallahassee until May 18, 1918, when for one month he was at Base Hospital at Camp Johnston, then attended for three months the Medical Officers Training School at Camp Greenleaf, and from there was sent to the Base Hospital at Camp McArthur, Waco, Texas, where, although the youngest medical officer in the camp, he was as signed the charge of the ear, nose and throat department. He was relieYed from duty February r4, 1919. While at Camp Greenleaf Doctor Kendrick took special work in eye, car, nose and throat under the instruction of some of the most competent specialists in that line in the country. He has also supplemented his otherwise extensive experience and training by a course in the Palmer 'chool of Chiropractic at Davenport, Iowa. In 1913 Doctor Kendrick married Lila Randall, daughter of Barney C. Randall. They have two children, Odis G., Jr., born September 27, 1918, while Doctor Kendrick was in sen-ice, and Barnes Randall, born October 20, 1922. Doctor Kendrick is a deacon in the First Baptist 01urch, is a Knight Templar Mason and Shriner and a member of the County, State and Southern Medical asso ciations. He is captain of the Medical Reserve Corps, United States of America. IloRACE \VJLT,T,nrs. Many of the article~ once regarded as seldom-attained luxuries, are now recognized to be common necessities, having been placed within the reach of the majority through the inventive and business genius of the men of the country. The initiative thus displayed has been productive of astounding results, and among others has come about the development of sec tions, made popular through the perfection of modern methods. Perhaps no other industry has played so important a part in the popularizing of Southern regions than that which has for its purpose the production of artificial ice. \Vithout that commodity in sections not far from the equator, life is somewhat irksome, and comfort difficult of attainment. Today there arc a number of reliable concerns devoted to the manufacture of this great necessity, and among them there is not one more deserving of special mention in the State of Florida than that operating under the name of the \Villiams-Bcers Ice Company, of St. Petersburg, of which Horace \Villiams is the president. Horace Williams is one of the few present resi dents of St. Petersburg who can claim the city as his birthplace, for he was. born here February 9, 1884, a son of John . and Nettie (Cox) Williams. John C. \Villiams was born at Detroit, Michigan, and came to St. Petersburg with his father, John \Villiams, who laid out the town, so that the Williams family was one of the very first to settle here. Mrs. \Villiams was born in Tennessee, and was brought to St. Petersburg by her parents. Both Mr. and Mrs. John C. Williams are living, and they divide their time between Tampa and St. Petersburg, having homes in both cities. They are the parents of seven sons, all of whom are living, and of them all Horace \Villiams was the second in order of birth. Reared at St. Petersburg, Horace Williams attended its schools, and later became a student of the University of Florida, and took its busi ness course. In r905 he began manufacturing ice, and built up a business of such proportions that in 1021 he incorporated it under the present caption of the Williams-Beers Ice Company, with himself as president. The plant is well equipped with all modern machinery, and the product is exceptionally fine. In addition to the heaYy local trade, there is a big demand for it from outside territory. In 1907 Mr. Williams was married to Miss Ida Weller of St. Petersburg, who was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was re~red in the latter city, but completed her education at Randolph-Macon Seminary in Virginia. M!'. .. and Mrs. Williams have one son, Horace W11!1ams, Junior. Mr. Williams is a member of St. Petersburg Lodge No. r224, B. P. 0. E., the American Legion, the Yacht Club and the Kiwanis Club. During the late war Mr. vVilliams served as

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA captain of ompany I, Fifty-sixth Infantry, Seventh Division for t wenty-onc months, during ten months of this period being in France. He participated in the campaigns of Saint Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne, and during the St. Mihiel drive was gassed and wounded in the leg. He is properly numbered among the alert business men of Pinellas County, and his efforts are so well directed that they are of a constructive nature, and of great value to his industry. Personally he is popular, not only in the different organizations to which he belongs, but with his business asso ciates as well, and he and his wife are the center of a delightful and congenial social circle, com posed of the best people of the city and county. JonN KENT JonNSTON, M. D. Both during his private practice at Tallahassee and in his experi ence overseas Doctor Johnston has won distinc tion and recognition from his associates for his unusual abilities as a surgeon. Doctor Johnston is a member of a well known Florida family and was born at Tallahassee, October 15, 1887, son of Edwin J. and Frances Williams (Rawls) Johnston. His grandfather, E. J. K. Johnston, served as an engineer on the Merrimac during the historic encounter with the Monitor. Later he was on other vessels of the Confederate Navy, and was a mcmher of the crew of the Fingall when that boat was blown up. He was taken prisoner, and he died while a prisoner at Fort Adams, Rhode 1slancl. H~ w~s a native of Ireland and was \nll educated. }<,dwm J. Johnston, father 6 Doctor Johnston, was born July 9, 1854, and died in 19()8. llc was for many years an engineer in the sen-ice of the Seaboard Air Linc Railroad Company, being with that rail road thirty-five years. He pulled the train carrying Roosevelt's rough riders during the SpanishAmerican war. His wife was horn October 24, 186o. They have four children: Edward Glover, who was rejected from the army on account of flat feet during the \Vorld war, and is a salesman at \Vest Palm Beach; Letitia, wife of Dr. B. J. Bond, of Tallahassee; John Kent; and Francis Rawls. Francis Rawls, who was a medical officer, went overseas with the Three Hundred and Seventh Engineers in September, 1918, and his command was on the way_ to the front when it was ordered back on account of spinal meningitis among the troops. Ile returned to this country in : May, 1919. John Kent Johnston was educated in the \Vest Florida Seminary at Tallahassee, also attended Stetson University at DeLand, and in 1908 entered the medical department of the university at Maryland, where he graduated in 1912. He spent one year in the University Hospital at Baltimore and another year in St. Joseph's Hospital of the same city. Doctor Johnston took special work in Baltimore clinics in 1914, and again in 1918 and 1921. In 1921 he specialized in X-ray. He has been established in the practice of medicine and surgery at Tallahassee since 1914, except for the two years he was in the army. In June, 1917, he entered the Federal service at Washington Hospital Army Medical School, spending two weeks there, and was then transferred to Fort Adams, the same place where his grandfather had died during the Civil war. In August, 1917, he went overseas with the rank of first lieutenant, accompanying the First Brigade Coast Artillery Corps. He was assigned to duty largely with the French army, and was at Mailley Haussamount, at the battle of Buth de Mesnil, where the American artillery troops were on the battle line in the Champaigne sector, was at La Chapelle in the Upper Alsace and was at Dammarrie when the armistice was signed. Both in the field and base hospitals he was assigned to duty where the finest skill and resourcefulness of a surgeon were demanded. Doctor Johnston landed back into the United States February 11 1919, received his honorable discharge at Fort Monroe on the 12th of March, and soon after resumed his private practice at Tallahassee. He is a member of the County, State, American and Southern Medical associations, and the Society of Endioclinology. In July, 1919, Doctor Johnston married Frances Hawkes, daughter of Mrs. Katherine Belle Tippett. Doctor Johnston is a Catholic, affiliated with the Elks, is a member of the Chamber of Com merce and Weekly Luncheon Club, and is very popular in both social and professional circles in his native city. He is a charter member of Talla hassee Rotary Club. C. W. GREEN! , president of the C. W. Greene Company, marine and automobile supplies, has been a conspicuous figure in the commercial affairs of Tampa since 1905. He has been a business builder and one of the citizens always to be relied upon for cooperation in movements in volving the important welfare of the community. :Mr. Greene was horn in Oswego County, New York, May I, 1868, son of John \V. and Ann (Keith) Greene, also natives of New York. His mother died in that slate and his father in Florida. C. W. Greene spent his early life in New York, and at the age of fourteen went to Chicago and began work as a drng clerk. At the age of twenty one he was proprietor of a business of his own, and his business career in Chicago covered a period of nineteen years. On coming to Tampa in 1905 Mr. Greene estab lished a marine hardware and supply company in connection with the Tampa Steam \Vays Company. After three years he took over the business as an independent proposition, and subsequently incor porated the C. \V. Greene Company, handling marine and automobile supplies, chiefly wholesale. The company has six men representing it and covering the entire State of Florida. Mr. Greene is also president of the Florida Mutual Fire Insurance Company, a Florida corporation which has been in operation for six years. Mr. Greene is a charter member of the Rotary Club and is a member of all the social organiza tions of the city, also a charter member of St. Petersburg Yacht Club. He is a voter but not active in politics, rendering his service in the community on a non partisan line. At the age of twenty-two, in Chicago, Mr. Greene married Carrie A. Price, of that city. They have five children: Noretta, wife of A. L. Cuesta, Jr., a cigar manufacturer of Tampa; Clarence W., of San Diego, California; Viola, at home; Jane, wife of Fred R. Marlin, Jr., of 1Iacon, Georgia; Marion, at home. C. G. Sn1•n1::NSON. While there arc different opinions concerning the relative importance of the claims Saint Petersburg has to being one of the most desirable places of residence in the country, all unite in praise of its wonderful, matchless climate, which has properly gained for it the uame of the "Sunshine" City. One of the leadin~ realtors of Saint Petersburg claims that this cli mate is a restorer of yonth, and that it is thl!

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126 HISTORY OF FLORIDA real fountain of youth for which Ponce de Leon spent his last years in fruitless search. C. G. Stephenson, who is the author of this state ment, is fully qualified to substantiate it, for he came to the city in 1914, broken in health, and is today one of its most energetic business men and enthusiastic boosters. His work in behalf of the city is of great value, and is performed with actual sincerity, for he believes fully himself in all of its advantages and therefore has but little difficulty in convincing others as to the truth of his assertions. His business is in a flourishing condition, and he is determined to continue to make the city his and to induce as many others as he can to follow his example. C. G. Stephenson is a Virginian, born in 1871, receiving his education at Columbian University, Washington, District o{ Columbia, from which he was graduated in law. Following his graduation he entered upon the practice of his profession in the capital city, and remained there until 1914, when, as above stated, he came lo Saint Petersburg on account of a breakdown in health. Although he came here after all of the preliminary work of development had been completed he arrived in time to participate in much, and has never lost his first interest nor forgotten his gratitude for what this region has done for him. Like_ other ~ities _of Florida, Saint Petersburg is makmg rapid strides forward, but this progress and remarkable development is largely due to the work of the real estate men. Mr. Stephenson is devoted to _his ~vork, and although a very busy man, finds time 111 the midst of his other activities to give attention to those movements which have for their object the fostering of local undertakings and the advancement of the moral standards, as well as lo the selling of real estate and the interesting of outside capital in the enter prises of the city. DANNITTE HILL MAYS, who ca,refully performed the duties incumbent upon him as representative of the Third Florida District in Congress for two terms, has some other public service to his credit, but his main vocation and a distinction of which he is most proud has been his continu ous activity and service in the field of agriculture for a period of over half a century. Ur. Mays was born on the old Mays home stead near the Georgia line in Madison County, Florida, April 28, 1852, son of Richard Johnson and Eliza A. (Williams) Mays. His parents were born in South Carolina, his father in Edgefield district and his mother at Greenville. Richard J. :Mays came to Florida in the early thirties, and became an extensive planter and slave owner. Ile was also a minister of the Baptist Church and established the first church of that denomina tion in his vicinity. His time and efforts were freely extended to all undertakings for the gen eral welfare in his section of the stale. He died in Madison County in 1864, at the age of fifty-six, and was sunived by his widow who died at :Monticello in 189<> aged seventy-eight. Dannitte Hill :Mays passed his boyhood on his father's plantation. He attended private schools, public school at Savannah, Georgia, and from 1866 to 1870 was a student in \Vashington and Lee University in Virginia. While he possessed the education and abilities that would have proved a solid foundation for a career in one of the professions, Mr. Mays chose to identify himself with farming on returning to his native state, and that has been his real work since 1870. He started in a small way, but for many years has owned extensive holdings in Jefferson, Madison and Leon counties. He owns several thousand acres and his farms are operated by tenants. Mr. Mays sat in the Lcgi~lature as represen tative of Jefferson County for six terms. His first session was in r&)r. ln JC)OI he was candidate for governor against Go\'crnor \Villiam S. Jennings and again in rgo5 was candidate for the same office against G<>v. ~-I3. Broward. In 1()08 the Third Florida District sent him to Congress, and he was reelected in 1910, serving during the Sixty-first and :ixty-second con gresses from 1909 to 1913. \\'hethC'r at \\'ashington, Tallahassee or in his home community of Jefferson County l\fr. Mays has at all times displayed a liberal and progressive spirit and has worked with hearty good will for the com mon good. Mr. l\Iays for over fifteen years was a deacon in the :Methodist F:piscopal Church. His favorite diversions arc hunting and fishing, but he has never taken membership in lodges or clubs. June 2, 18&>, at 1\fonticello, he married Uiss Emmala Bellamy Parkhill, sister of Hon. Charles B. Parkhill, former Justice of the Florida Supreme Court, and daughter of Dr. George \V. and Elizabeth (Bellamy) Parkhill. Her grandfather, Jack Bellamy, was the founder of the Tallahassee-St. Augustine road. Her father, Doctor Parkhill, was a well known physician and planter in Leon County until the CiYil war when he raised the Howell Guards, became its cat>lain, look it into \'irginia as an independent company, where it was transferred to the Second Florida Infantry of Company ).f. Captain Parkhill gave up his life for the Southern cause at the Seven Days battle. Mr. and Mrs. Mays arc the parents of six children: Elizabeth R. P.; :Mary, wife of C. P. Kelly of Madison County and the mother of two children named C. l'., Jr., and Emily ).fays Kelly; Sarah Croom :Mays; Emily B .. wife of John B. Gill and the mother of a son, John B., Jr.; D. H. ).fays, Jr., who lives in Jacksonville and was in the aviation service during the war; and Charles Parkhill ).fays. HERMAN MERRELL. The dean of the Pinellas County bar, Herman :Merrell, has hecn a 11enmt nent resident of Saint Petershnrg since 1907, hut remembers this community when it was in its infancy, having come here originally nearly thirty-eight years ago. .\lthongh he has reached an age when most men are content to retire, he still carries on his daily routine of practice and cares for the interests of his clients in the same conscientious and energetic manner that was his during the days when he was building up a reputa tion and a competence. Mr. Merrell was born at C'incinnali, Ohio, June 30, 1849, a son of Dr. \Villiam S. and ).[ehitabel (Poor) Merrell. His father, born in Ii98, in Greene County, N' ew York, went to incinnati as a youth of sixteen years, in 1814, and in that city rose to fortune and distinction. For a number of years he was president of the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati, and was likewise one of the founders of the great wholesale drug house which is still conducted under his name. Ile died at Cincinnati, ripe in years and with the respect and esteem of those who knew him, and in that city also passed away his worthy wife, who was born in rSog in Byfield, Massachusetts. They were the parents of eleven children, all of whom grew to maturity, but of whom only two are living at this time: Herman, of this review;

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 127 and Mrs. Sarah A. McCall, of Chicago, Illinois. The ninth in order of birth of the children born to his paren , Herman Merrell secured his pri mary educational training in the public schools of Cincinnati, in which community he grew to manhood. Having graduated from high school, he expressed a desire to follow the law as a pro fession, and accordingly was enrolled as a student at the Cincinnati Law School, incinnati College, which is now a part of the University of Cincin nati. Graduated from that institution as a mem ber of the class of 187r, with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, he was admitted to the Ohio bar in the same year, and began the practice of his calling in his native city. For fourteen years he was engaged in professional work at Cincin nati, but in 1885 disposed of his interests there and came to Florida, journeying direct to the present site of Saint Petersburg. lie was admitted to the bar of Florida that year. At that time this community, now a thriving, enterprising city, was but a scattered settlement containing perhaps fifteen families, while the entire county of Pinellas did not contain over 500 souls. Mr. Merrell remained here until 1886, in which year he went to Saint Louis and spent three years in prac tice. Returning to Cincinnati, he spent three years in the office of the Trustees of the Sinking Fund of that city, following which he resumed his Cin cinnati practice. He ronti1111cd his activities there until 1907, when he again came lo Saint Peters burg, to find that mnch water had flown under the wheel and that the litlle settlement o{ nearly forty years before had grown into a city of size and importance. Mr. Merrell has continued in practice here to the present, and has as clients some of the leading individuals and concerns of the city. He maintains well appointed offices in the First National Bank Building, and is accounted one of the most learned, thorough and generally able attorneys in the county. .Mr. Merrell holds membership in the leading organizations of his calling, the American Bar Association, of which he has been a member for more than ten years, and the State and Pinellas County nar associations. As a fratcrnalist he is a past master of tl1e Masonic order, belonging to the Blue Lodge at Cincinnati. He has realty interests at Saint Petersburg, and as a properly-holder and a public spirited citizen maintains an interest in its welfare. On February ro, 1881, Mr. Merrell was united in marriage with Miss Mary Bewley, of Cincinnati, and they are the parents of three sons: William S., who occupies the position of county surveyor of Pinellas County; Bewley E., a civil engineer now located at Leeds, Alabama; and George B . , an orange grove owner of Anona, Florida. HERMAN ANSON DANN. Few names arc better known in business circles of Saint Petersburg than that of Herman Anson Dann, not alone because of his connection with several large business enter prises, but by reason of his presidency of the Saint Petersburg Chamber of Commerce. A man of energy and public spirit, while he has been building up his own fortunes he has found time to devote to the interests of his community, and no movement is considered that does not have his support and cooperation. Mr. Dann was born at Titusville, Pennsylvania, September 18, 188g, and is a son of Phillip and Ida (Meeks) Dann, the former a native of Den mark and the latter of Kentucky. The only child of his parents, his boyhood was passed at his native place, where he attended the public schools. Later he entered Lafayette College at Easton, Pennsylvania, from which institution he was graduated in 1912, with the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. A !most immediately thereafter he came to Saint Petersburg and became identified with the Saint Petersburg Investment Company, with which he remained until 1914, then buying a controlling interest in the Southern Construc tion Company, a corporation, of which he was made president. In 1916 he bought out the build ing supplies business of W. S. McCrea & Son and incorporated the Dann-Gerow Company, Inc., of which he has since been president. This company does a general retail business in all kinds of building supplies. Mr. Dann has various other in terests, being treasurer of the West Coast Tele phone Company, a director in the Central National Bank, a director in the Bond and Mortgage Guar antee Company, vice president of the Scanlan Company, proprietors of a large department store, etc. His connection with these concerns has con tribnletl to their growing success, as his business j udgmcnt and acumen are acknowledged to be of a high order and his progressive spirit and natural energy are factors not to be overlooked in the management and direction of important business enterprises. Recognition of his abilities has been granted him by his fellow business men in his election as president of the Saint Petersburg Chamber of Commerce and vice president of the Saint Petersburg Rotary Club, and every move ment tending to advance the interests of his city has his unqualified support. Mr. Dann belongs to the Saint Petersburg Yacht Club, is a Knight Tcmplar Mason and a charter member of the local Mystic Shrine. He has not found time to engage in politics, but takes a good citizen's interest in city, state and national affairs. In 1916 Mr. Dann was united in marriage with : Hiss Helen Thomasson, of Saint Petersburg, and they are the parents of three children: Phoebe, Thomasson and Nancy. RoY L. DEW. One of the most progressive busi ness men of Saint Petersburg and an unfailing supporter of its interests is Roy L. Dew, president of the Saint Petersburg Garage, the largest enter prise of its kind in the city. Mr. Dew is also president of the Saint Petersburg Motor Oub, and an active participant in many of the activities which contribute to the city's importance and prestige. Mr. Dew was born November 27, 18go, at Trenton, Tennessee, and is a son of C. G. and Bessie (Saul) Dew, natives of the Big Bend State. The parents came to Saint Petersburg in 1915, two years after which the father died, while the mother still makes her home here. Roy L. is the eldest of the three sons and three daughters constituting the family, all of whom survive. He received his education in the public schools of Tennessee, and in 1910 came to Saint Petersburg to recuperate from an attack of illness. At the time of his arrival he secured employment with the Harrison Brothers Hardware and Furniture Company, in which enterprise he became manager of the furni ture department, and remained with that company until 1916, at which time he embarked in the auto mobile business, handling Dodge and Cadillac cars. The business proved an immediate success, and in the same year he formed the corporation of which he has since been the head, the Saint Petersburg Garage. This has become one of the principal enterprises of Saint Petersburg and the leading one of its kind in the city. Mr. Dew has been active in the Motor Club, of which he has been president since its organization. He is also a

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128 HISTORY OF FLORIDA member of the Board of Governors of the Cham ber of Commerce, and is a member of the Ro tary Club. Fraternally he belongs to the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and also holds membership in numerous clubs. EDGERTON C. GARVIN. No individual can enter upon the important field of civil engineering without a careful and complete preparation if he hopes to succeed. His training should include a sound knowledge of mathematics, physics, chem istry, hydraulics, mechanical engineering and electricity, and he should have a practical knowl edge of geology, surveying and architecture, and be fully acquainted with the nature and strength of the materials which he may be called upon to use. The hi tory of engineering in the South has shown that many capable men haYe followed this calling, prominent among whom is Edgerton C. Garvin, director of public works of Saint Petersburg. Mr. Garvin was born at Fremo nt, Ohio, June 6, r88r, and is a son of John and 1\Iaude (Edgerton) Garvin, natives of Ohio, the former of whom is . deceased. The second in a family of four children, he attended the Fremont public schools and after graduation from the high school, i~ 1898, spent one year at the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, two years at \Vabash College Crawfordsville, Indiana, and three )ears at Georg~ \Vashington University, \\'ashington, District of C<;>lumbia, from which he was graduated in 1907 with the degree of B. S. in civil engineering. On leaving college Mr. Garvin spent seven field seasons with the topographic branch of the United States Geological Survey, and for twelve years was identified with the United States Engineering Department, during four years of which time he was chief local executive officer. He was stationed at the sub-office at Augusta, Georgia, in r9rr and 1912, and from 1913 to 1915 was engaged in special work in Georgia. Later he was transferred to Brunswick, Georgia, where he was located in 1916 and 1917, and in 1918 was senior assistant engineer of the Savannah (Georgia) United States Engineers District. He was resident engineer in mui:iicipal work at B~tmswick and in highway work m Glynn County m 1919 and 1920 and in 1921 became director of pub lic works at St'. Petersburg, a position which he now holds. Mr. Garvin's knowledge and practical application of it !11ake him an expert, and he is frequently called mto consultation when difikult problems arise. Ile is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society for Municipal Improvements, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the N'ational Municipal League and the American Association of Engineer . Locally he belongs to the Saint Petersburg Chamber of Commerre and the Saint Petersburg Yacht Club. On April 25, 19t6, 1\Ir. Garvin married Miss Frances 1\Ic oy, of Augusta, Georgia. Mrs. Gar \'in is a member of the Episcopal Church. ERNEST F. DAVIS. ,\fter being disabled for further service during the late war, Ernest F. Davis, came to Florida, and soon resumed work of his profession as a lawyer, and is one of the busiest attorneys and public spirited citizens of St. Peterburg. Mr. Davis was born at Brockton, Ma sachusetts, July 30, 1892, only child of Frank H. and Abbie H . (Peterson) Davis. His mother was born in Maine and is now deceased. His father is still living at his old home in .Massachusetts. Ernest F. Davis acquired a liberal education, attending Clark University one year and Boston University Law Schoo l two years. \Vhen he was twenty two years of age he was elected a member of the 1Iassachusetts legislature, and served one term, being one of the youngest if not the youngest member of that body. He was popular and well quali fied, and had the triumph of being elected a democrat in a repub l ican district. Soon afterward in 19r5 he removed to Okl ahoma, and con tinued his professional studies there in the University of Oklahoma and the Oklahoma City University Law School, where he graduated LL. B. IIe was admitted to the Oklahoma bar in June, 1916, and in October of the same year returned to Massachusetts and for a time was associated and practiced with Judge H. C. Thorndike. May 14, 1917, Mr. Davis enlisted in the national army at Fort Slocum, and was soon transferred to the Officers Training amp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana. Later he was a non-commis sioned officer at Camp Custer, Battle Creek, Michigan, and received his honorable discharge December 24, 1917, on account of disability re ceived in the line of duty. Seeking to restore his health Ur. Davis came to Florida in Febru ary, 1918, l ocating at St. Petersburg, and perma nently established himself in that city in January, 1()19, taking up the practice of law there in April of that year. During the past two year he has conducted a general practice and has become attorney for and legal representative of severa l banks, business and other i1. terests both in St. Petersburg and elsewhere. Mr. Davis is a member of the Pinellas County Bar Association, be longs to the Commercial Law League of America, the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commerce, St. Petershurg Lodge No. 1224 B . P. 0. E., St. Petersburg Lodge No. 13.1 F. and A. M., St. Petersburg Chapter No. 31 R. A. M., is treasurer of t. Petersburg Counci l No. q, R. and S. M .. and a member of Sun Shine Commandery No. 20, K. T., and is on the Legal Committee of elama Grotto. He is also affiliated with St. Petersburg Camp No. 4--1, \Voodmen of the World, and is Adjutant of St. Petersburg Post o. q, of the American Legion . Mr. Davis is also a member of the Y. M. C. A., and the Business Men's Bible Class in the First Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church. July 6, 1920, he married Alice L. Higgs of Trivoli, Illinois. While living in 1\lassachusetts, Mr. Davis served as a justiCl' of the peace. EnwrN J. BrnAMAN, chief of police of Saint Petersburg, was appointed to this oflice because of his long experience and unusual qualifications for such a post of duty. He had been connected with the police force of several northern cities, and has been in close touch with the pub lic in terests and affairs of Saint Petersburg since locat ing in Florida. Mr. Bidaman was born at Youngstown, Ohio, June 22, 1859, son of Christian and Mary (Leonard) Bidaman. Ilis father was born at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and his mother was a native of England, of Irish parentage, and was brought to America at the age of six years, in 1826. Edwin J. Bidaman was the seventh son in a family of eight children. He was reared at Youngstown, attended the common schools and the business college there, and in 1876 moved to Terre Haute, Indiana. Mr. Bidaman was a prominent citizen of Terre Haute for many years, was engaged in the grocery business, and he also served

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 129 on the police force there for a long period. He was elected mayor of the city in 1905 and in 1907. He also had an extensive experience of travel and residence in the far Northwest, spend ing considerable time in nearly all the promi nent cities of Idaho, Montana and Washington. In 1914 he located at Saint Petersburg. He was made chief of the police force in January, 1921. In 1891 Mr. Bidaman married Gertrude M. Burge, of Terre Haute, Indiana, where she was born and reared. Their three children are Benjamin L., Robert Emmet and Martha Chiverick. Mr. Bidaman is affiliated with the Masonic Lodge, the Elks, Knights of Pythias, Foresters, the Knights and Ladies of Honor and the Woodmen of the W oriel. In politics he is a republican. HENRY DuFF WAU.lN is proprietor of the Wallin Garage and the sales agency at St. Petersburg for the Oldsmobile and Chandler cars. He was for a number of years in business at Chattanooga, and a few years ago accepted an opportunity to engage in the automobile business at St. Peters burg, and is one of the very active citizens of that community. He was born in Georgia, April 25, 1888, second of the three children of William P. and Mary A. (Moore) Wallin, his father a native of Tennessee and his mother of Georgia. Both parents are now deceased. Henry Duff Wallin was reared in Chat tanooga, Tennessee, where after the common schools he attended the University of 01attanooga, and also had a business college course. For about eight years he was assistant to the general cashier of the Southern Express Company. Then for eighteen months he was proprietor of the Model Dry Cleaning Company of Chattanooga. On sell ing oyt his interest there he came to St. Petersburg, but expected to return and engage in some other line of business. While here he decided to make use of the local opportunities in the auto mobile industry, and has since developed a pros perous business at 108 Central Avenue, where he has a well equipped garage and service station and is the local distributor for the Oldsmobile and Chandler cars. Mr. Wallin's home is on North Shore East, 736 Eighteenth AYenue, North. He is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and the Civitans, and is a member of the St. Petersburg Motor Club and Yacht Club. June 20, 1911, he married Annie Pearl Doty, of Findlay, Ohio. They have one daughter, Vir ginia E. J. NIMROD HUTCHINS has marked the passing years with large and worthy achievement in his 1>rofession and has gained distinct vantage-ground as one of the representati, e members of the bar of his native state. He is one of the leading lawyers of Orange County, where he is estab lished in active general practice in Orlando, the judicial center of the county. Mr. Hutchins was born at Fernandina, Nassau County, Florida, on the 1st of January, 1863, and is a son of Matthew L. and Mara (Gonzales) Hutchins, both of whom were born in the State of South Carolina. Jerre N. Hutchins was seven years old at the time of his father's death, and was but fourteen years old when his loved mother likewise passed to eternal rest. He supplemented the discipline of the public schools by ambitious and well ordered private study, and his alert mentality enabled him to make rapid progress in the assimilation of the science of jurisprudence when he directed his energies to the study of law. In 1889 Mr. Hutchins was admitted to the bar; in 1894 he was admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Florida; in 1907 he was ad mitted to practice in the Court of Appeals in Kentucky; and on June I, 1921, he was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of the United States. After his admission to the bar of his native state Mr. Hutchins here continued in practice in the City of Jacksonville until 1895, and he then re,:noved to Cincinnati, Ohio, in which city he ga1~ed Jarge succ<:ss and prestige in his profession, which mvolved his appearance in connection with litigations in the various courts of that state and also in the courts of Kentucky. He continued his residence at Cincinnati for a short time and then removed to Covington, Kentucky, where he re mained till 1909. All his children were born in Kentucky. Ile returned to Florida and established his residence at Pensacola. There he continued in practice until November, 1920, when he established his home and professional headquarters at Orlando, where his character and professional record place him high on the roster of able and repre senta_tive members of the Orange County bar. He is a sta~nch advocate of the principles of the democratic party, has been an effective worker in behalf of its cause, and served as city attorney of Bromley, Kentucky. At Batav(a, Ohio, on tl!e 4th of December, 18g7, was solemmzed the marriage of Mr. Hutchins and Miss Cudie Josephine Stevenson, daughter of Joseph M. Stevenson and a representative of a prominent and influential family of Oermont County, that state. The death of Mrs. Hutchins occu:red at Pensacola, Florida, in 1913, and she is survived by three children: Victor, who is, in 1922, a student in the law department of John B. Stetson University, volunteered for service in the United States Army soon after the nation became involved in the World war, and as a member of Company B, Fifty-second Infantry, he made a record of gallant service with the Ameri can Expeditionary Forces, both in France and with the Army of Occupation in Germany after the signing of the historic armistice which brought the war to a close. He is now an appreciative and popular member of the American Legion, and he'was but seventeen years of age at the time of his enlistment. Mildred is the wife of Ralph F. Meade, of Jacksonville, Florida, and Edith holds a responsible position in the Government bureau of engraving and 1irinting, \Vashington, D. C. HoN. WILLIAM THOMAS HENDRY, representa tive from Taylor County in the House of Rep resentatives, is a lawyer and a business man of Perry, and his name has become prominent in connection with a number of public services and enterprises. He was born near Perry, December 14, 1876, son of Robert Wesley Hendry, a native of Thomas County, Georgia, and a grandson of Robert McFail Hendry, who was born in Liberty County, Georgia, descendant of an early Scotch settler of that state, and removed to Taylor, then Madison County, Florida, in 1852. Robert Wesley Hendry went from Madison County into the Confederate Army during the Civil war. He was an earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Ilis wife was Miss Annie Elizabeth Delk, whose parents, David and Luvincy (McMullen) Delk, were pioneers of Brooks County, Georgia. She died in 1917, aged seventy-three.

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130 HISTORY OF FLORIDA The youngest in a family of five children, William Thomas Hendry attended public schools, and one of his classmates in school was Hon. Cary A. Hardee, Governor of Florida. Beginning at the age of eighteen, he taught school for four years. It was his boyhood ambition to follow the law as a profession, and the oppor tunities to prepare himself for that calling came during the three years he was deputy clerk of the Circuit Court. He was admitted to the bar but did not immediately engage in practice. On leaving the circuit clerk's office he organized the Hendry Realty and Abstract Company, becoming its secretary and treasurer, while his brother, W. A. Hendry, was president. This company opened the first abstract books in the county and also has done a large business buying and plat ting subdivisions and selling town property. Mr. Hendry is still officially connected with the com pany, but has not been active in its management since 1905, when he began practice as a lawyer. He specializes in corporation law and land titles, and has achieved real distinction in these fields. His law library is one of the finest in the state and his practice covers several counties. l\Ir. Hendry assisted in organizing the Gulf Telephone Company, of which he is secretary and treasurer. He was elected mayor of Perry in 1905, and was reelected for three successive terms. His service as mayor continued until 1920. In 1920 he was elected city attorney, and still holds that office. For two years he was president of the City Council. At one time he was a member of the local board of school trus tees, and has never lost his interest in educa tional matters. Upon his election in 1922 as a member of the State Legislature for the session of 1923 the Jacksonville Observer, among other papers over the state, commented upon his election as bring ing a really big man, one standing for clean politics and progressiveness into the Legislature, and also commented upon his eligibility as a can didate for Speaker of the House. For many years Mr. Hendry has been a mem ber of the Florida State Bar Association, and in 1915 was made a member of the committee on admissions. He is chairman of the Board of Stewards and a member of the Board of Trustees of the Methodist Church, and took an active part in erecting the magnificent new church home at Perry. He has for several years been teacher of the \,Voman's Bible class o( the Sunday School. Mr. Hendry is affiliated with Perry Lodge No. 123, F. and A. M., Perry Chapter No. 44, R. A. M., and is a past chancellor of Perry Lodge, Knights of Pythias. In rgo6 he married Miss Ottie Lee, of Jones boro, Georgia. At Washington, D. C., in 1920, Mr. Hendry married Mrs. Effie Lester McKinnon, of Monticello, Florida. Mrs. Hendry takes a prominent part in church and social circles. 1'Ir. Hendry has one child, Miss Marion. TnoMAS J. NoRTIIRUP. Initiative, broadness of vision and faith in himself and his community have characterized Thomas J. Northrup during a quarter of a century he has been engaged in merchandising at St. Petersburg, and his rewards have been plentiful for today he is one of the leaders in his line in this part of the state, and he also occupies a high position in the city to whose welfare he has contributed so much of practical value. He is a man to whom hard work and plenty of it has no terrors, and his industry and civic devotion have been a source of inspiration to many. Thomas J. Northrup was born near Selma, Alabama/... May Z?l, 1862, a son of Thomas and :Mary (uavis) Northrup, natives of Alabama, who had two sons, Thomas J., being the eldest. Until he was nineteen years old Thomas J. orthrup remained in his native state, and was there educated, but in 188o he came to Florida. For the first two years of his residence in the state he was connected with the fruit business al DeLand, and then, moving to Sumlerville, Sumter County, he continued in the same line, and took up a homestead, planted an orange gro,e, and had everything fixed for a prosperous career. His plans came to naught, howeYer, for in the "big freeze" of r8g .. i-_; his grove was utterly de stroyed, and on account of his obligations he suffered a total loss, and was forced lo begin once more without capital. Mr. Northrup is not a man easily discouraged. Under circumstances which probably would have made most men give up the struggle, he set about getting a start once more, and in order to gain a little capital took the somewhat humble position of a clerk in a general store at lnvcrness, Citrus County, and during the six years he held it, he studied the business, and learned it in every de tail. His nature is such that he could not rest content while occupying a ,ubordinate position, and as soon as he had manai~cd to sa,c a few hundred dollars lie resolved to ;so into business for himself. Realizing that if he wished to suc ceed it would be better to select some place with a future before it and grow with it. he traveled all over Florida looking for a suitable location and found it at St. Petersburg, where he per manently established himself in 1898, opening a small store with a stock of goods valued at $foo. IIis far-sightedness is proven in his selection, fot at the time he came here St. Petersburg had a population not to exceed 1,000, and there were no improvements of any kind, and to the ordinary person there was nothing to indicate rapid expansion in any way. llfr. Northrup knew what he was about, however, a11d worked steadily nhead, enlarging his business as his trade warranted, and now he has the largest establishment 0 its kind in the city, and carries the biggest stock of goods in the county. His store is So by roo feet and is welt equipped. In 1894 Mr. Northrup was married to Nettie Smith who was born in Georgia and was brought to Florida when but six months old. She was the daughter of G. Sanford and Susan (Andersot;) Smith. Mr. and Mrs. Northrup have four ch1l dren three of whom were born at St. Petersburg': Robert, who is bookkeeper for his father; Benjamin, who is attending technical school in Atlanta, Georgia; and Marie and Marjorie, who are attending the St. Petersburg High School. Mr. Northrup is a charter member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Kiwanis Club, and was one of the governors of the Board of Trade. He has always been very active in public affai~s, having served as mayor and member of the_ City Council and while in that body was its president. He was' the first assessor of Pinellas County, and has done his full part in promoting its best interests in every way. He and his family are consistent members of the Congregational Church. JosEPH S. DAVIS in point of time was the second lawyer to establish a practice in what is now Pinellas County at St. Petersburg. He took

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 131 a prominent part in the organization in Pinellas County and in the settlement of the county seat while attorney for the Board of County Commis sioners. Mr. Davis is a self-made man, educated him self for the law, and has had a varied experience in both the North and South. He was born at Pendleton, Madison County, Indiana, December 16, 1867, son of Gideon C. and Martha A. Davis. His parents were natives of Bucks County, Penn sylvania. His father, who died in Nebraska, laid out the Town of Hoopeston, Illinois. The mother is still living in Western Nebraska. In their family of ten children Joseph was the second, and five are still living. Mr. Davis was reared in Nebraska, attended the schools there, and studied law in the office of Nellis E. Corthell at Laramie, Wyoming, and with B. S. Baker of Fairbury and Omaha, Ne braska. He was admitted to the bar in Nebraska, and he practised in the Federal courts in 1893. While a qualified lawyer, he was for several years employed as a stenographer in the master me chanic's and superintendent's offices of the Union Pacific Railway. Later he was in the typewriter business and was manager of the Smith Premier Typewriter Company at Milwaukee. After Mr. Davis localed in St. Petersburg he engaged in the practice of law, and has made a specialty of titles, chancery and probate work. For eight year he has served as attorney for the Board of County Commissioners, and is still their attorney. He is a director in the Citizen's Ice & Cold Storage Company and the West Coast Title Company. Mr. Davis married Nellie M. Vanderbeck of Pocatello, Idaho. Their five living children are Loren V., Joseph W., Harold G., Vivian L. and Carl M. Mr. Davis is affiliated with the Masonic Lodge, and is a trustee of the First Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church and the Young Women's Chris tian Association; and is also on the board of directors of the Young Men's Christian Asso ciation. RAYMOND W. GREENE is Field Secretary and Director of Student Activities of Rollins College. Except for the period he served in the U. S. Navy during the World war, Mr. Greene has been identified with Rollins College for the past ten years and has rendered important services in rais ing the general standard of student activities in addition to the specific work he has done for athletics and aquatics throughout the State of Florida. Mr. Greene was born in Oak Lawn, Rhode Island, May 22, 1888, son of Charles W. and Ruth E. (Monroe) Greene, also natives of Rhode Island. Next to the oldest in a family of eight children, he was reared on his father's farm. His father was a cattle raiser and dealer. His edu cation was acquired in a local grammar school, East Greenwich Academy and at Rollins Col lege. He also took special work in physical education at Harvard University. Before entering preparatory school Mr. Greene served a seven year apprenticeship with the steel engraving firm of John Ilope and Sons at Provi dence. For three years he was Physical Director in the East Greenwich Academy, and in 1912 came to Winter Park and assumed the duties of Physical Director of Rollins College. One year later he was made Athletic Director, and since 1916 has also been Field Secretary and Director of Student Activities. In June, 1917, Mr. Greene reported to the Navy Yard at Charleston, South Carolina, and took charge of the athletic work among seven thousand sailors. December 14, 1917, he enlisted in the United States Naval Reserve Force, and stand ing an immediate examination was commissioned Ensign January 1, 1918. He served on the U. S. Battleship Virginia, and was in service until July 3, 1919. He was discharged at Key West in the Seventh Naval District. Mr. Greene is Past Commander of the Harrison-Hunter Post No. 32 American Legion. He is Commissioner for Florida, Amateur Athletic Union of the United States and is the Execu tive Secretary of the Winter Park Conference. He is a Knight Templar, a Thirty-second degree Mason, a Shriner and a Past Master of Winter Park Lodge No. 239 F. & A. M. He is a member of the Baptist denomination. Jo11N P. LYNCH. Comprehensive knowledge of men and affairs is needed in the conduct of almost any line of business, if that business is to be made a success, and especially is this true when the line engaged in is that of the realtor. John P. Lynch, one of the successful real estate operators of St. Petersburg, is a man who possesses in marked degre an experience full of practical value, while his broad outlook and cheerfulness give him a personality that makes friends for him of all with whom he comes into contact. Mr. Lynch was born in New York City, January 23, 1879, and is a son of John and Harriet (Chad wick) Lynch, the former a native of Ireland and the latter of England. The parents married in England, and shortly after the ceremony immi grated to the United States and for a time resided in New York where both passed away. They were the parents of six children, of whom John P. is the fifth in order of birth, the only other survivor being his sister, Mrs. Emily E. Knoener, a resi dent of St. Petersburg. John P. Lynch attended the primary schools of Toms River, New Jersey, and the high school at East Orange, that state, following which he was for nine years engaged in business at Hamburg, New Jersey. In 1904 he entered Lehigh University, recognizing the de sirability of further educational training, and in 1go8 was graduated from that institution with the degree of chemical engineer. For about eight months thereafter he was assistant superintendent in the crucible steel department of the Bethlehem Steel Company, then taking charge of the Hamburg & McAfee plants of the New Jersey Lime Company. He continued to be identified with this concern until December, 1910, when he came to Florida, first locating at Manatee, whence he came to St. Petersburg in 19u. Upon his arrival in the latter city he established himself in business as a real estate operator and loan broker, as well as a dealer in insurance, and has . since built up a large and important busines,s, his of fices being located at 18 Third Street, North. Mr. Lynch has been one of the developers of St. Petersburg through the opening of a number of additions and the erection thereon of homes for the housing of the purchasers of lots. He has also done considerable building on Main Street, and his work is always done with a view to perma nency and architectural attractiveness. Mr. Lynch has shown a commendable interest in civic affairs and has served as a member of the board of governors of the Board of Trade. At the time the prohibition issue came before the public in this

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132 HISTORY OF FLORIDA county he was county and city chairman of the dry forces and waged a successful fight. In 1920 Mr. Lynch was elected a member of the board of county commissioners from district No. 2 of Pinellas County, on which board he is still serving with marked ability and energy. He has always been a booster of the Board of Trade and of every movement that has promised to benefit the City of St. Petersburg in any way. ln 1908 1fr. Lynch was united in marriage with Miss Mary Ryerson Linn, the eldest daughter of Charles H. Linn, of Hamburg, New Jersey, and to this union there have been born four children: John P., Jr., Elizabeth K., Mary L. and Harriet. l[r. and : Mrs. Lynch arc members of the Presby terian Church, in which Mr. Lynch is an elder, and was formerly for four years superintendent of the Sunday School. RuFus RonERT KIME, M. D., F. A. C. S., who is now engaged in the general practice of his pro fession at Orlando, Orange County, has to his credit and distinction a record of long and ab!e service in his humane profession, which he has honored alike by his character and achievement. Doctor Kime was born near Clarksville, Tennessee, on the uth of February, 1857, and is a son of Dr. John Kime and Ellen (1forrison) Kime, he having been a child at the time of his mother's death and his father having later con tracted a second marriage . Dr. John Kime, who was a physician and surgeon of marked ability, as gauged by the standards of his day, moved from Tennessee to Kentucky, and from the latter state he removed to Union, Pike County, Indiana, where he engaged in the practice of his profession and where he passed the remainder of his life. Dr. Rufus R. Kime was six years of age at the time of the family removal to Indiana, and in the public schools of that stale he acquired his early education. Thereafter he pursued a higher aca demic course by attending the University of Indiana, and his initial study of medicine was in the medical department of what is now the Uni versity of Louisville, Kentucky. After leaving this institution he entered the medical department of the great University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 188o. After thus receiving his degree of Doctor of Medicine he further fortified himself by a post-graduate course in the medical department of the University of Louisville. His initial work in the practice of his profession was done at Union, Indiana, where he remained thus engaged for seven years. For the ensuing five years he was in practice at Petersburg, that state, and in this connection it may be noted that his halfbrother, Dr. John T. Kime, is now engaged in the practice of medicine at that place. In 1892 Doctor Kime broadened the sphere of his professional activities by establishing himself in practice in the City of Atlanta, Georgia, where for a full quarter of a century he continued his earnest service, the while he won high rank in his profession, especially in the departments of surgery and gynecology. From Atlanta he finally came to Florida and established his residence at Lakeland, whence four years later he removed to Orlando, which has since continued the central stage of his able and effective ministrations in his profession. The doctor has insistently kept in touch with the advances made in medical and surgical science, and his post-graduate work has included courses in leading medical colleges, hospitals and clinics in Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, Cleveland and other cities, including his availing himself of the exceptional privileges of the celebrated Mayo Brothers' Clinic at Rochester, Minnesota, making six or seven visits to this institution in pursuing surgical study. The doctor is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, a member of the American Medical Association, the Florida Stale l\fedical Society, the Florida Midland Medical Association, the Southern Medical Association, and the Orange County l\Icdical Society, besides which he formerly maintained active membership in the Southern Surgical and Gynecological Association. In the City of Atlanta he gave efTective service as chairman of the staff of physicians and surgeons at the Georgia Baptist Hospital. He lectu1ed on diseases of women and conducted clinics in gyne cology at the Southern Medical College. He had the distinction of being chosen president of the Tri-State Medical Society (Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama), is ex-president of Fi th District l\Iedical Society (Georgia), the Florida Midland Medical Society, the Atlanta Anti-Tuberculosis Society, the Atlanta Sociological Society, was first chairman of the Anti-Tuberculosis Committee State Medical Association of Georgia, and while chairman of this committee organized the Atlanta Anti-Tuberculosis Society. \Vhile his practice at Orlando Florida is of general order, Doctor Kime here gives special attention to surgery and to X-ray treatment and examination. He is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias. He gave a long period of service as a ruling cider of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in the City of Atlanta, but later, owing to the union of this denomina tion with the regular Presbyterian hurch, he transferred his membership to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, his uncle, Henry Clay Morrison, D. D., being one of the bishops in that denomination. Doctor Kime's first wife, whose maiden name was Hope Davidson, died in 19u, the children of this union being three in number, namely: Charles D., who is now the agricultural agent for Orange County, Florida; Virgil ]\,f., who became actuary for the Travelers Life Insurance Company of Hartford, Connecticut, and who died at the age of thirty-three years; and Agnes Clay, who died at the age of twentyseven years. In 1919 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Kime and Mrs. Caroline D. McGrath, of Muskegon, Mich igan. They were married in Lakeland and afterward moved to Orlando, Florida. ROBERT C. BAKER. Palm Beach County was organized in 1909. From the time the official machinery of the county was started until the present, the office of county sheriff has been filled continuous l y by two men, father and son, the late George B. Baker and Robert C. Baker. This is almost a unique record of public service, and it is a striking testimony to the efficiency, spirit and ability of these two men as executive officers of law and order. The late George Bell Baker was born in Madison County, Florida. About 1889 he removed with his family to Alabama, but after a short time returned to Florida, made his home for several years at Plant City in Hillsborough County, subsequently lived in South Jacksonville, and from there came to West Palm Beach in the early part of 1901. He was a railroad man for many years, largely employed in the construction service. He built a considerable part of the old F

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 133 C. & P. Railway, and he came to West Palm Beach, in April, 1901, as foreman of construction on the Florida East Coast Railway. By act of the Legislature the northern part of Dade County was separated and the new county of Palm Beach was created in HJ09, the county organization being effected in July of that year. George Bell Baker was one of the new county officials selected by Gov. Albert W. Gilchrist. After serving the temporary appointment as sheriff, he was elected to the office at the first rc-gular county election, and by subsequent reelections was re tained in office until his death on March 8, 1920. He was a man of splendid character, and as an official enjoyed and merited the complete con fidence of the people. He was a Mason and a Shriner. George Bell Baker married Julia Pres ton McLendon, who is still living. Their son, Robert C. Baker, was born at Ocala, Florida, in 1888, and has practically spent all his life in this state. He attended Massey Business College at Jacksonville, and the schools at Plant City and West Palm Beach. In July, 1909, at the age of twenty-one, he became deputy sheriff under his father, and he has participated in the service of the sheriff's office ever since that date. At his father's death he was appointed sheriff, and in the regular election of 1920 he was elected, and was reelected in 1922. Sheriff Baker has endeavored to live up to the splendid record made by his father, and he has performed his duties without fear or favor and with a promptness and skill that would do credit to any officer in the state. Within a year after he was appointed his father's deputy, in April, 1910, he had his foot shot off by a negro criminal whom he captured. This injury necessitated the amputation of his leg. In spite of this critical handicap he has personallr followed every flee ing law breaker and crimmat coming within his jurisdiction, and has effected some notable cap tures. In May, 1922, three bandits held up and robbed the Bank of Stuart at Stuart, Florida, and Sheriff Baker immediately started in pursuit and captured the three criminals. For this particular act he received a special resolution of commenda tion from the Board of County Commissioners. Sheriff Baker is a member of Palm Beach Lodge No. 1352, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and at the annual meeting of the State Asso ciation at Jacksonville in 1922, was elected third vice president. He is a member of Eastern Star Lodge No. 46, Knights of Pythias, Mihamia Temple No. 225, D. O. K. K., and is a member of Mangrove Camp No. 236, Woodmen of the World. He also belongs to the West Palm Beach Chamber of Commerce and the Pal m Beach County Motor Club. Sheriff Baker married Miss Annie Ettene Chandler, of Georgia. Their three children are Julia Adeline, Anna Bell and Martha Ettene. F. J, MACK. Few men have made a more last ing impression upon the Pinellas County bar than F. J. Mack, city attorney of St. Petersburg, both for legal ability of a high order and for the individuality of a personal character which im presses itself upon a community. Of a family conspicuous for strong intellect, courage and energy, he entered upon his career as a lawyer in 18g8, and such have been his force of character and natural qualifications that he has attained prominence not only as an attorney of marked ability, but as an official whose record has been both honorable and brilliant. Mr. Mack was born at Akron, Ohio, March 26, 1865, and is a son of James H. and Mary Eliza beth (Low) Mack, the former a native of New York State and the latter of Pennsylvania. The only son of his parents, as a youth he was taken to Erie, Pennsylvania, where he obtained a public school education, and after a number of years of preparation was admitted to the bar after an examination before the Supreme Court of Ne braska. He was engaged in the practice of his profession at Albion, Nebraska, until 1913, in which year he came to St. Petersburg. He did not immediately engage in practice here, but in 1916 was admitted to the Florida bar. During his residence in Nebraska Mr. Mack served in several official capacities, including city clerk, city treasurer and mayor, and for eight years served as clerk of the District Court. On July 1, 1920, after having demonstrated his legal attainments by four years of practice, he was ap pointed city attorney of St. Petersburg, a posi tion which he s till retains. Mr. Mack has a number of civic connections, and is a democrat in politics. He served with the rank of lieutenant colonel of infantry two years and three months during the World war, and October 23, 1919, was honorably discharged from the Fifty-seventh United States Infantry. In 1895 Mr. Mack married Miss Ellen M. Roberts, and to this union there have been born three children: Helen E., Alan L. and Robert J. JOHN JACKSON HEDRICK, JR., an engineer by profession, has been established in business at Tampa for a dozen years. He was abroad with the Engineers Corps during the World war, and since his return has held the official position of county engineer of Hillsborough County. Mr. Hedrick was horn at Wilmington, North Carolina, August 27, 1889, son of J. J. and Mary (Watts) Hedrick, also natives of North Carolina. His parents moved to Florida in 1900, and are now living at Tampa, where his father is connected with the Bentley-Gray Dry Goods Company. John J. Hedrick, Jr., is the only son. There are three daughters: Cynthia; Frances, wife of J. A. Savarse of Tampa; and Mary, wife of Carl Rietzel of Charlotte, North Carolina. Mr. Hedrick was liberally educated, attended the public schools, and in 1907 graduated as a civil engineer from the Agricultural and Me chanical College of North Carolina. He followed his profession for several years in his native state, and in 1910 removed to Tampa. Soon after America entered the war Mr. Hedrick was commissioned first lieutenant in the One Hundred Seventeenth Engineers, Company B, which went overseas with the famous Rainbow Division, and was in active service there for seven months. His army career continued for eighteen months, and he received his discharge December 18, 1918. Soon after his return to Tampa he was ap pointed county engineer. Mr. Hedrick is also associated with the James G. Yeats Company, road builders and contractors of Port Tampa. Mr. Hedrick is a democrat in politics, a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason and Shriner and a Rotarian. June 25, 1914, at Los Angeles, he married Pauline Nash, of that city. They have one son, John J., fourth. Mr. Hedrick is still interested in military affairs, and is captain of the One Hundred Seventy-sixth Field Artillery organiza tion in the National Guard of Florida.

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134 HISTORY OF FLORIDA WILLIAM G. KING, an attorney and banker at St. Petersburg, where he has lived for the past ten years, laid the foundation of his successful law career in his native stale of Ohio, where he practiced more than twenty years before coming to Florida. He was born at Chardon, Geauga County, Ohio, February I, 1863, son of Leverett G. and Nancy L. (Merrill) King. Her parents were of old New England ancestry, the Kings being from Suffield Connecticut, while his mother was born at Am~ herst, Massachusetts. Leverett G. King was also born at Chardon, Ohio, and devoted his active life to farming. After graduating from the Chardon High School in 1884 ,villiam G. King studied law, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in December 1E86 and in April, 1887, moved to the frontier' of Northwestern Kansas, locating at Colby in Thomas County. He was admitted to practice in Kansas in 1887, and during that year was associated with J. B. McGonigal in the real estate and townsite business, while in 1888 he became associated with the Rock Island Town-site Company and sold town lots and established agents at new towns along the recently completed Rock Island Railroad from the Kansas line to Colorado Springs. After this experience in the new country of the far West Mr. King returned to Chardon Ohio during the winter of 1888-&), and in suc~eeding years was busily engaged in handling a large general practice as a lawyer there until the fall of r9u .. At t~~t date h!! came to St. Petersburg, and 111 add1t1on to his law practice he is also vice president of the American Bank and Trust Company of this city. Mr. King was prominent in the public affairs of his home county in Ohio. IIe served one term as mayor of O1ardo11, and in 1905 had the dis tinction of being elected prosecuting attorney of Geauga County, the first democrat chosen to a county office there for over fifty years. From 1894 to 18g8, during Cleveland's second term, he was postmaster of Chardon. He has always been a democrat in national politics, but has been dis posed to independent choice in local elections. Mr. King is affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias and National Def enders. June 18, 189r, at Munson, Geauga County, Ohio he married Miss Kate Hovey, a native of that town, and daughter of Elisha F. and Hannah M. (Philbrick) Hovey. Her ancestry on both sides came from ew England. 11.fr. and Urs. King have two children: : Merrill L., who married Ethel McGann and lives in Ohio, and Vvilliam Kenneth who is a student in the St. Petersburg IIigl~ School. C. BUCK TuHNER. The monotony which often ensues from the continuous following of a certain line of work has never been a feature of the career of C. Buck Turner, of St. Petersburg. Gifted with versatile talents, this well-known realtor has, at different times, followed the voca tions of lawyer, soldier and showman, but it has been in his latest and present line of business that he has found his chief success. Mr. Turner was born on a farm in Union County, Tennessee, December 19, 1873, the second of 'the nine children of John W. and Adeline (Lederwood) Turner, natives of the Big Bend state. Until he was twelve years of age Mr. Turner resided on the farm, attending the country district schools and the public schools of Knox-ville, and subsequently pursued a course at the old and nonsectarian IIiwasse College, at MadisoHville, Tennessee. Later he read law in the office of his uncle, at Knoxville, and in r895, when twenty-one years of age, was admitted tu the bar. Ile began practice at that time and fought cases in all the courts of Tennessee, as well as the Federal courts, for more than two years, but at the end of that time was forced to give up his profession because of failing health. In I 897 he wen l to Nashville as one of the Cen tennial Guard force, and at the close of that exposition went to the \,Yest. While there war was declared with Spain, and he enlisted in the Third Nebraska Volunteer lnfantry, with which outfit lie first visited Florida. IIc passed through this state on his way to Cuba, where he saw active service, and then returned to the United States and received his honorable discharge. Finding that travel agreed with his health, he entered the theatrical business, and for about twenty years was manager of "shows" of various kinds. In 1912 he visited St. Petersburg with one of his companies and was so impressed with the possi bilities here that he invested in property. It was not until r9r8, however, that he came here to locate permanently. At that time he entered tlie office of C. Perry Snell, as general salesman, and remained in that capacity until January, 1922, when he embarked in business on his own ac count, opening an office al 12 Fourth Street, North. He carries on a general real estate busi ness, and at the present time has one of the most successful local realty enterprises in the city. His success, in fact, has been remarkable, as during the first six months of 1922 he sold more than a half a million dollars' worth of property. Mr. Turner's travels and experiences among all kinds and conditions of people have given him a broad and profound knowledge of human nature, one of the first essentials of the successful real tor. H c also has a good knowledge of realty values and an engaging personality that attracts confi dence. His record in business circles is a clean and honorable one and his rating is correspond ingly high. Mr. Turner is well known in fraternal circles, being a Knight Tcmplar Mason and Noble of the Mystic Shrine, and a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias. the Fraternal Order of Eagles. the Improved Order of Reel Men and the Loyal Order of Moose. IIc belongs also to the St. Petersburg Yacht Club and the SL Petersburg Country Club, and has several civic connections. In politics a democrat, he holds membership in the Young :\le-n's Democratic Marching Club. He takes an active interest in public affairs, and is a member of tl1e hoard of governors of the Ornmber of Commerce. Mrs. Turner was formerly Miss Ethel Scott. ,v. S. McCoy To the writer of biography as well as to those who arc interested in the facts concerning the growth and clcvclopmcnt of their community there is something attractive in the lives of those who are connected with the law. The jurist and lcgalist occupy a place which can be filled by no others in our country and under our form of government. While all may aspire to and attain positions of high distinction in public life, the man versed in the laws of the country must be depended upon to conserve human rights and to so frame our laws, and modify or amplify them, as the case may demand, so that each class

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IIISTOR Y OF FLORIDA of our citizenship may have its proper representa tion in a legal way. For many years Hillsborough County has numbered among the men practicing at its bar those worthy of the greatest honors, and recently these have been augmented by an influx of young men attracted here by the excep tionally rapid growth of the region, especially Tampa. One of these newcomers to Tampa is W. S. McCoy, junior member of the dependable legal firm of Fletcher & McCoy. W. S. McCoy was born in the western part of North Carolina, May 25, 1886, a son of J. C. and Isabella (Bogart) McCoy. Until he was sixteen years old W. S. McCoy remained in his native place, during which time he attended the country schools and those at Wellington. His first money was earned as a stenographer in the law office of John D. Bellamy, but he later went with the Armour Packing Company as bookkeeper. Still later he was cashier for the Arcola Oil Mills at Arcola, Mississippi, and here he remained for about five years. In the meanwhile he had been studying law, and he completed his legal studies in the Ashland Law School, at Ashland, Missis sippi, from which he was graduated in 1914. It was in the latter year that he came to Florida, first stopping at Barlow, where until 1917 he was engaged in the practice of his profession. Going then to Madison County, Florida, he continued his practice, and at the same time was engaged in a saw-mill business. Subsequently he came to Tampa, and September r, 1921, formed a partner ship with Samuel T. Fletcher, under the firm name of Fletcher & McCoy. This is regarded as a very strong legal combination, and the partners have a fair share of the important cases heard in the various courts. Fraternally Mr. McCoy maintains membership with the Knights of Pythias. In 1912 Mr. McCoy was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Edmonds, of Alabama. Mr. McCoy has not lived at Tampa for a long period, but he has already impressed its people with his abilities, and he has been accorded a number of important cases, in connection with which he has shown such conscientious devotion to the interests of his clients as to secure their patronage in the years to come. He is a strong advocate, and is particularly effective before juries. JACOB BECK BLACKWELL. While Bay is one of the newly organized counties of Florida, owing to the exceptionally capable men in charge of its different offices its affairs are in a most flourish ing condition, and its business is transacted as promptly and efficiently as are matters in the older communities. Among these dependable men of affairs who have been connected with the county since its organization none stands higher than does Jacob Beck Blackwell, tax collector, who was first appointed by the governor in 19141 and suc cessively reelected ever since, his present term not expiring until January 1, 1925. Jacob Beck Blackwell was born October 7, 1874, at Florence, South Carolina, a grandson of John Blackwell, and a son of Birch and Sarah (Allen) Blackwell, both of whom were born in South Carolina, and are deceased. During the war between the two sections of the country Birch Blackwell cast his lot with the Confed eracy, and served in a South Carolina regiment of infantry all through the war. After General Lee's surrender he returned home, took up the obligations of civilian life once more, and devoted the remainder of his life to farming. His marriage occurred after his return. During his boyhood Jacob Beck Blackwell attended the district schools of his native state, but his father dying his mother moved to Geor gia, and from the time he was fifteen he went to the schools of Lawrence County, that state. Al eighteen he began to be self-supporting, at that time entering the employ of Williamson & Glover, who were in the turpentine industry, and re mained with this firm until he reached his ma jority, learning during this period the turpentine business from start to finish. Coming to Florida, Mr. Blackwell, together with Mr. Glover went into the turpentine business in Levy County and the partners were doing welt when the s~vere storm of 1896 so changed conditions as to neces sitate their removal, and Mr. Blackwell returned to Mr. Williamson, then operating at Compton Walton County, Florida. After a year he and Mr. Glover bought a turpentine plant at Isagora and once more went into the turpentine business. They remained there for two years, and then Mr. Blackwell. went t? Vernon, :florida, and organized a turpentine busmess of l11s own, conducting it most successfully for four years. Going back once more to Georgia, he opened a general mercantile business at Brewton and for the following five years found its ope~ation ample e~plorment for his time and energy. At the termmahon of the five years he sold this business and came to Saint Andn: ws Bay then beginning to attract considerable attentio~, and went into the mercantile business at Southport, and from 1908 lo 1914 conducted it most suc cessfully, and built up a large and valuable trade. The matter of organizing Bay County had in the meanwhile come before the people, and Mr. Blackwell had been one of the workers for this action, believing that the best interests of every one would be furthered were a new division made. His effective work in this connection, com bined with his high business standing, led the governor to appoint him as tax collector of the new county, and when he came before the people as a candidate for it at the following election they endorsed his appointment by electing him by a large majority, and have since kept him in this office. In January, 19091 Mr. Blackwell married at Southport, Florida, Sarah Anderson, both of whose parents were natives of North Carolina. Mr. and Mrs. Blackwell have four children: Loni e, Jacob Beck, Junior, Clyde and Carrie Belle. In the faith of the Baptist denomination Mr. Blackwell finds expression for his religious views, and he is a valued member of the local church. He is a Blue Lodge, Chapter, Knight Templar and Shriner Mason, and also belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. A keen, capable and honorable business man, Mr. Blackwell is conducting his office in a manner that wins approval from all concerned, and in this connection is rendering a much-appreciated service to Bay County and Panama City. KAMEL ZAHRA. America, where opportunity smiles her frank invitation to the earnest and strong, gladly assimilates the enterprising sons of Syria who come seeking freedom of enter prise and an unprejudiced chance for success. They are welcomed on the record of those who have preceded them, which promises for the newcomers that they will be desirable citizens, and for the families which follow them that they

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136 HISTORY OF FLORIDA will be accorded a place i n the American co mmon wealth as Americans whose ample ability is di rected by true conceptions of their privileges and respo nsibilities. One of this type is Kamel Zahra, the p roprietor of t he leadi ng d ry goods estab lishment of South Jackso nville, a nd a c itizen w ho is taking an act ive and constructive part in the development and betterment of his com munity. M r. Zahra was born at Hassbia, Damascus, Sy ria, at t he foot of Moun t Hermon, Sep tember 16, 1880, and is a son of E lise and Ghoshfcy (Shmlatie) Zah ra, natives of the same p lace. His father, a barber by trade, spent his life in his na tive country, where he died in 1888, at t he age of fo rty-five years, his mother surviving un til 19 16 and be ing eighty years of age at the time of her def!lise. T~eir five children a re all l iving, Kamel Zahra bemg the fourth i n order of birth. Kamel Zahra received h is educat ion in the schoo ls of Beirut, Syria, a nd as a yout h lea rned the trade of s hoemaker, at w hich voca tion he spent about three years. W hen eightee n years of age he came to the United States and located at Mobile, Alabama, where for twe lve years he was identified with the dry goods bLsiness in a modest way. Disposing of his in terests at the end of that time, he came to Jacksonv ille, Florida, a nd entered t he emp loy of the Wilson Dry Goods Company, a concern with which he was associa ted fo r two years . His next connection was with t he dry goods firm of David Brothers, a nd after he had clerked for this house fo r about two years, joi ned Abdo David in forming the dry goods bus i ness a t South Jacksonville known as David Brot hers & Zahra. In 1918 Mr. Zahra purchased his par tners' interests, and s ince that time has ca rried on the b usiness under his ow n name. Through enterpr ise, industry a nd good manage me nt he has bui lt up t he larges t b usiness of its k ind at South Jacksonville, at the sa me time gai ning a place for himself a mong the prominent merchants of the com munity. He was o ne of the organizers of the Comme rcial Club, a nd is a me mber of the Board of Governors a nd fir t vice president thereof. He was also a prominent factor in the organizatio n of the Syrian-Ameri can Clu b of Jacksonville, and is fraternally affiliated with the Knights of Pythias. His re ligious connection is w ith the Presbyterian Church, in w hich he is serving as a deacon . In every respect he is a useful, re liable and public-spi rited ci tizen, and ho lds the estee m and confidence of all with w hom he has been associated. Mr. Zahra married Uiss Hazel Haed, a native of Mob ile, A labama, January 15, 19rr, and they a re the parents of two children: Emile and Lurice. l RUPERT W . TnoMAS. Sometimes t he greatest prosper ity of a populous city depends upo n spe cific i ndustries for w hich its location may parti cu larly favor it, manufacturing bu ilding up one sec tion, s hipping ano ther, and the developmen t of its nat ural resou rces contributing to a third, a ll of t hese bringing wealth and i ndependence, but none of them could have been establ ished or main tained without the foresigh t and energy of men of efficiency a nd determination be longing to t he sturdy class of t hose w ho, while they seek fortunes for themselves, have always bee n cred ited wi th persona l honesty, busi ness integr ity and great pub lic spir it. To them belongs R upert W. Thomas, president of the Tampa Sand & Shell Company, one of the important concerns of Hills borough County. Rupert W. Thomas was born at P lant City, Florida, Novembe r 30, 1883, so n of Louis R. and Isabel (Blocker) Thomas, natives of Virginia and Florida, res pectively. T he father came to Florida w ith h is parents when a sma ll boy, was reared in this state, and h is death occurred here March r9, 1916 . T he mother, w ho belongs to o ne of the pio neer fa milies of F lorida, survives and still lives here. T hey had t he following children: Be rtha, Cecil, Isabelle, and Rupert W. Growi ng up at P lant City amid the i nfluences o f a q uiet home l ife, Rupert W. Thomas atten ded its com mon schoo ls. Recognizing the possibili ties of Tampa, he ca112e to t his city in 1908, and for two years was engaged in operating a freight boat between Tampa and River View, but left the river i n 1910 to engage in the sand and shell busi ness. This he found so profitable that in 19u he formed h is present company, with him sel as president and gene ral managei;, and has developed it to large proportions, his being one of the largest co ncerns in this line in the South. The sa nd is so ld for bui lding purposes, a nd the she ll for road work, and employment is given to some forty perso ns. In 1900 M r . Thomas married, and he has two children: Florence, who is the wife of T. B. Rob i nson, of Tampa; and Rupert, Junio r, who is atte nding school. Mr. Thomas is a democrat. He is a man who e njoys t he complete confidence of a ll of his bus iness associa tes. Integrity has been t he watchword of his ent ire career, and is the fundamenta l attribute of his characte r. Honest w ith h imself, he is honest with a ll men. J. S. LIVINGSTON. There is no achievemen t of more real value than that of assist ing in t he de ve lopment of a comm unity, and it does not form a part of t he work of all men, but one who can justly lay cla im to this distinct ion is J . . . Liv i ngston, one of the p ioneer rea ltors of St. Petersburg, who has been a resident of the city for a number of y~a rs, and has seen it grow from a pop ulation of 1,500 to one of 20,000. W hen he ca me to the ci ty i n 1900 none of the streets had bee n paved and there we re few s idewalks; 110 pub lic i mprovements had been i nstalled, and St. Petersburg was ju t a pretty little Southern vil lage . He was one of the enterprising men w ith e nough visio n to foresee a remarkable future if o nce o utside capi tal cou ld be interested. To do this loca l pride had first to be awakened, and natural resou rces deve loped. At the start the work was hard and the discouragements many. but he was one who persisted and his rewards have bee n commensurate wi th his effor ts. He was born near O rangeburg, South Carol'na, August 12, 1871, a son of P. B. and Annie (Bayton) L ivingston, natives of South Ca rolina. w ho a re now l iving with Mr. Liv ingston. He was the third ch ild in the fa mily of ten ch ildren born to his parent . In 1886 Mr. Livingston made h i s first t rip to Florida, and located at Ocala, where for fourteen years he was e ngaged in manufacturing barrels, in which he was successfu l for he was a practica l cooper, having learned t he trade. Leaving Ocala in 1900 he came to St. Petersburg, a nd for about th ree years he cont inued to manufacture barrels, but then sold his plant, and for four years co nducted t he coca cola plant. For a time he conaucted a pop corn machine, and he was a lso in the g rocery business. During all of this time he was handling real estate as a side line, and this at last became so important that he decided to devote . a ll of his attention to it, and

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IIISTOR Y OF FLORIDA 137 is now selling real estate and making loans and negotiating mortgages, his being one of the de pendable concerns of the county. In 18<)4 Mr. Livingston was married lo Mary Bishop, the oldest daughter of Rev. T. J. Bishop, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and a pioneer prcach<'r in this part of Florida. Mrs. Livingston was r<'arcd in Florida, but com pleted her educational training in the female college at Westland, Georgia. Four children ha,c been born to Mr. and Mrs. Livingston: Lizzie May, who is the wife of John Kecnen; Edith, Junius Bishop and Robert Bowman. Mr. Li\'ingston belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church and is acth e in its work. For fourteen years he has been secretary of the Sunday school and has aided in increasing its membership from 150 to 1,050. He takes great pride in the progress made by the school, and fee l s that through it a strong influence for good is exerted among the young people. ROBERT BRUCE McCAJ.I.F.Y is an architect, a young man who has associated himself with some of the leaders of his profession and with the highest ideals of the profession, and during the past ten years has made his skill available as an influence on the architectural character of Southern Florida. Mr. McCalley is also a building contractor, and has been hath architect and builder for some of Miami's finest homes and other build ings. He was horn at Frcderickshur~. Spottsyhania County, Virginia, in a section famous for its his toric events and notable families and characters. His own family has li ved for several grncrations in Spottsylvania County. Mr. McCalley was educatrd in Frrclrrickshurg and at Richmond. At Richmond he studied a rc hitecture in the Virginia 1\f('chaniC"s Institute under Duncan L<'e, archil<'ct. He also studied the same subject in the Georgia Tech at Atlanta. In order to qualify himself thoroug-hly for han dling every problem connected with huilding rnnstrnction he served a foll apprenticeship al the caroenter's trade. For se, eral years Mr. McCalky was assodatrcl as bui ld ing superintendent with the \Vise Granite and Construction Company of Richmond. This firm has a long and enviable record fnr its large contracts in building and construction throug-hout the southern states. For this firm Mr. McCal lev superintended the building of the Jefferson High School at Suffolk, Virginia, the Bank of Bishonville at Bishopville. South Caro lin a, the postoffice building at Union. South Carolina, and other buildings in various cities. inclncling Colnm bia, South Carolina. Mr. McCalley has made his home at Miami since 1912. His first work here was done in as sociat i on with Mr. Arthur Geie;cr, a well known Miami architect. On leaving Mr. G<'igcr he be gan the independent practice of archit('cture, and also developed an organization for building and contracting. This organization has played a no table part in Miami's remarkable building expan sio n duri n g the past two years. Mr. McCalley built the Tamiami Hotel, the Gralyn Hotel, the residence of Olarles L. Briggs on Brickell Ave nue, these being only a few of the many commer cial, apartment houses and homes he has con structed in the city. As a citizen he has likewise identified him self with the best interests of Miami, and is en thusiastic over the future rossihilities of this section. His home is in Alta Vista, directly north of Buena Vista. ANGUS LEE WELLS. The mercantile interests of Washington County have a worthy and able representative in Angus Lee Wells, who is the proprietor of a thriving general merchandise busi ness at Chipley. He is one of the native sons of Washington County who has made a success of his life in the community of his birth, and while huilding up personal success has failed in none of the responsibilities of citizenship, having always been alive to the needs of his community. Mr. \Veils was born March 12, 1882, in \Vash ington County, Florida, and is a son of Angus Ralph and Mary (Harrell) Wells. His paternal g-randfather was Henry Wells, a native of • orth Carolina, whose parents were born in Scotland and immi~ratcd to the United States shortly after their marriage. Henry Wells was a North Carolina planter, and also followed that vocation in Florida. The maternal grandfather of Mr. \V ells was Mark Harrell, who was horn in Georgia and came in young manhood to Florida, where he spent the rest of his life in the pursuits of the soil. Angus Ralph \Veils was horn in Florida where he ac quired a 1mbl_ic school education, ~nd as a young man became ml<'rested in farming in addition to which he raised livestock for th~ market. He has followed these vocations with success e\'er since, and is one of the substantial men of \Vash ington County. He has not been a man to en .ter public life, hut has always shown a good citizen's interest in puhlic matters. Angus Lee \Vclls received his <'arty education in the public schools of \Vashington County, and was reared on the home place. The life of a farmer and stock raiser did not appeal to him, howcyer, and as a young man he pursued a course at the Massey Business College, Columbus Geor ~ia, from which hr was graduated in 1900'. With ~his preparation he located at Chipley and engaged Ill the g-cncral merchandise husiness with his brother, and has heen located here ever since with c-onstantly increasing success. They carry a thoroughly up-to-date line of merchandi~c c)10sen with a ,iew to meeting the needs and de~ s i res of the people of Chipley and the surrounding countryside. They arc known for fair dealing and honorable representation, and for the prompt ness with which they discharge their obligations. During the World war period Mr. Wells was an active worker in behalf of all movements promul gated to assist the country's fighting forces, and was a generous contributor to the various drives. He served for seven years as an alderman of Chipley, and is an acti\'e member of the Chamber of Commerce. Fraternally he is prominent in Masonry, being a member of the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandcry, as well as a Noble of the Mystic Shrine, and likewise holds mem bership in the Independent Order of Odd Fel lows and the Knights of Pythias. On August 7, 1901, in Washington County, Mr. Wells was united in marriage with Miss Maggie Williams, a daughter of George and Josie (Redick) Williams, natives of Florida, where they still reside, being engaged in agricultural opera tions. To this union there have been born three children: Thelma, Reeves and Marguerite. Mr. Wells is a member of the Baptist Church, while Mrs. Wells is a member of the Methodist Church, South. ]AMES T. TT1r.HTOWER, of Vernon, j11dicial center of \Vashin~ton County, is proving effectively

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138 HISTORY OF FLORIDA his loyalty to and deep interest in his native county by his effective service in the im portant office of s uperintendent of p ublic i nstruction for t his coun ty, a pos ition to wh ich he was first appo inted i n May, r920, by the go\erno r of t he s tate, to fill ou t an unexpired term. In ove mber of that year he was regularly elec ted to t his office for a term of four yea rs, beginni ng January r , 192r. As the c hief exec utive of the Co unty Boa rd of Public Instruction Mr. Hightower is doi ng sp len d id work in a dvancingthe standards and general efficie ncy of the schools of his na tive cou nty, and his progressive policies have met wi th unequirncal popula r commendation. Mr. Hightower was horn at Vernon, his p res e nt place of residence, on the 27th of January, 189a, and is a son of James R. and Fannie (Rhodes) Hightower, the former of w hom was born in Georg-ia a nd the latter in A labama, their home being still at Verno n an d t he father havi ng bee n long anrl successfu lly engaged i n farm e n terprise in \\' as hington County. James R. Hightower is a son o f John and D rusilla (May) Hightower, who were reside nts of F lorida a t t he t ime of their deat hs . The Hightower fami lv, of ste rling English origin, was fou nded i n North Ca rolina i n the Colonia l period of our nat ional h istory. Mrs. James R. Hightower is a daughter of t he late Calvin R hodes. A fter having profited hy t he adrantages of the p ublic schools of \Vashington Cou nty James T . Hightower en tered the Flo rida State No rmal Sc hool at Madison, and in this ins titution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1916. In that a nd the two following years he was a s uc cessfu l a nd popular teacher i n the schools of his home county, and i n 1fav, 19r9, he com pleted a cour. e in t he Campbell Business College at Do than. Alaba ma. I n May of the following-year , as previously noted, he was appointe d super intendent of p ublic i nstruction for \Vashington Cou nty. and t he ma nifold a nd exacti ng duties a nd work of t his important office have since e ngrossed the major part of his time a nd atte ntion. He is a s taunch democ rat, is affilia ted with the K nights of Pythias a nd the vVoodmen of the \Vor!d and he and his w ife ho ld mem bership in the Mis2 s ionary Bap tist C hurch. August 13, 1916. recorded the ma rriage of Mr. Hightower a nd :Mi~s Belle Ke nt, w ho l ikewise was horn an d reared in \Vashington Cou nty an d who is a daughter of John a nd Jen nie (Barton) Kent, both natives of F lorida a nd both remai11-ing on thei r ho mestead farm in \Vashington County. 1[r. a nd Mrs. Hightower have two fine . o ns, John R ussell and James T., Jr. Aux.\NDFR Il.\WKINS \VH.LLnrs was born in Tallahassee, Leo n County. Flo rida, on March 6 1876, and has lived i n Tallahassee a ll of his life'. He is a son of Josep h John W illiams an d E liza Thompson \\'illiams, who moved to Leon County, Florida. fro m Raleigh, orth Caro lina, in 1853. His father was in the service of the Confede rate States, serving on the Staff of General Cobb, and was wounded in the Battle of Natural Bridge, a nd i n r865 was a member of the House of Rep resentatives of the State of Florida from Leon County and was elec ted speaker of the House of Representatives at that sessio n of the Florida Legis lature. The subject of this sketch, Alexander H. W il liams, was ed ucated in the p ublic schools of Leon Coun ty. He was employed in the office of the state comptroller for many years thereby gaining valuable information relative to the various departments of the state government, and for the greater part of his act ive lifet ime has been in close touch with state affairs and state po litics. He was appointed a referee in bankrnptcy for the Northern District of Florida, whic h position he held for a short time a nd t hen resigned. Ile served the City of Tallaha:;sec, F lorida, as clerk a nd treasurer for twenty years, and u pon the adoption of the commiss ion-manager fo rm of government by sa id c ity he was elected judge of the M unicipal Court of sai d city and is now the judge of said co urt. He was ad mitted to the practice of law in May, r
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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 139 dependent operations along the same industrial line at Dunnellon, Marion County, Florida. In 1899 he sold this business and engaged anew in the turpentine business, this time in Pasco Count), Florida, where he developed a substantial and prosperous enterprise and where he continued hi,, operations until 1904, when he sold out to adrnntage. He then went to Geneva, Alahama, an
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140 IIISTOR Y OF FLORIDA hoard. He was for two consecutiYe years president of the Chamber of Commerce, and has hl'en a leader in all matters involving the gro\\th and development of the city. Ile ,ern•d as exalted ruler in 1919 of the Lodge of Elks, and was a deleg-ate to the National Co111"l'ntion al Chicago in 1920. He is affiliated with the Indepcmlcnl Onler of Odd Fellows and }.[odern \\'oodmcn of America, and is actiYe in the democratic party. His first wife was 1fiss Gertrude Chitty, of Micanopy, Florida. She died in 1909, leavingone son, Charles R., Jr., who is now attending the city schools of St. Petersburg. In 1912 Ur. Carter married Lula De Loach, of Lowndes County, Georgia. They have two chilcln~n, Frank De Loach and Ann Elizabeth. JonN D. PEABODY, M. D. During a period of twenty-one years Dr. John D. Peabody has contributed his seni<-es and abilities to the main tenance of the health and sanitation of St. Petersburg, and in this time has risen to a leading place in his profession and in the esteem and confidence of his fellow-citizens. He is a native of \\'ashington, District of Columbia, and was born April 24, 186o. his parents being Dr. Jame, Henry and Mary Virginia (Dent) Peabody. Capt. John Peabody, the paternal grandfather of Dr. John D. Peabody, was horn in Washington, District of Columbia, and in earl)' life adopted a seafaring career. I [e became a captain in the China trade, sailing out of Boston, and died from injuries received in a shipwreck. Dr. James Henry Peabody was born in \Vashington, District of Columbia, and in youth was carefully educated for the medical profession. In 1863 he went to Omaha, Nebraska, where he was in charge of the medical department of the Platte, and became prominent not only in his profession but in public life. He died at the age of seventy-three years. Mrs. Peabody, who is also deceased, was a natiYe of 1Iaryland. John D. Peabody passed his boyhood at Omaha, where he attended the public schools, and his col legiate classical course was pursued in Nebraska College. He pursued his medical studies at ~ew York and Philadelphia, and in 1882 graduated from the Gni,e1sity of Pennsylvania with the degree of Doctor of 1fedicine. Beginning practice at Omaha, he remained in that city until 1894, when he came to Florida, first locating at Ozona, where he practiced for seven years, during a part of which time he served as justice of the peace. In 1901 he came to St. Petersburg, at that time a community of about 900 people. Ile has since been engaged in the general practice of medicine and surgery and has built up a large and representative professional clientele. \Vith Dr. A. P. Avery he built the first hospital at St. Petersburg, and at present is chief of staff of the City Hospital. He is a member of the Pinellas County 1[edical Society, the Florida State Medical Society, the Southern 1fedical Association and the American Medical Association, and is a close student of his profession, with the advancements in which he keeps fully abreast. Fraternally he is affiliated with the :Masons, the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent and Protectfre Order of Elks. He maintains his interest in civic matters, aligning himself with other good citizens in the promotion of progresshe movements, and has served as a memher of the school board. \Vhile residing at Omaha he joined the Episcopal Church. In 1883 Doctor Peabody married Miss Virginia Florence Kennard, o[ Omaha, daughter of Mar-shall \V. Kennard, a natiH of Ohio, and one of the pioneers of Omaha. To this union there hay• heen born three children: James Chapman, who met his death in a trolley accident at the age of ten years; 1f ary Virginia, the wife of Frank \. Barhur, engaged in the printing and hincling business at Asheville, North Carolina; and John Marshall, with the \Vestern Electric Compan) of New York City. EPHRAIM 11Avs llR1-: v .\1m, M. D. A physician and surgeon at Tallahassee for a quarter of a century, Doctor Brc,ard in l,is career has added something lo the many distinctions associated with his family name and ancestry. The Hrcyards ,vere foremost representatives of the French lJ uguenots people in the early settll'ment of North Carolina, and through all the gent•rations the name has been significant of the highest order of patriotism and civic integrity. One of the patriots of North Carolina was E_phraim Brevard, who was born about 1750 and died about 1783. Ile graduated at Princeton in 1768, studied medicine and practiced at Charlotte, and was secrl'tary of the famous 1fccklenburg Convention of May 31, 1775, and was one of the drafters of the declaration, adopted more than a year before the formal declaration of independence. Doctor Bre,ard and his six brothers entered the Continental service at the beginning of the revolution. He was taken prisoner in 17&J, and when set at liberty was so broken by disease incurred during this confinemci1t that he died soon afterward. He was one of the most accom plished men of his time and exerted a powerful influence in the House of Independence. A brother of Dr. Ephraim Ilre\'ard was Capt. Alexander Brevard, the direct ancestor of Doctor Brevard of Tallahassee. Capt. Alexander Bre Yard served as a revolutionary soldier and participated in several battles. II is son Judge Theodore \V. Brevard, was horn in North Carolina, was a planter in the Richmond district of Virginia and in 18.13 removed to Alabama, where he practiced law and served as county judge of i\facon County. In 1847 he moved to Leon County, Florida. He ser\'ed as comptroller of public accounts from 185~ to 186o, resigning that office and removing to Pen,acola. and when the war broke out he went as a refugee to North Carolina with his slaves. IIe lost all his property and died at Cleveland Springs, orth Carolina, at the age of seventy. Col. Theodore \Vashington Brevard, Jr., father of Doctor Brevard of Tallahassee, earned his fame as one of the best lawyers of Florida, and had no peer in the stale har as a logical and a comprehensive reasoner. He was horn in 183-+, and died in Tallahassee at the age of fortysevl'n . Ile was a graduate of the law department of the Unin~rsity of Virginia, and he raised and became captain of the Leon Rifles, mustered into the Confecll'rate serdce at Gainesville of Company D. of the Second Florida Infantry, on July I.l, 1862. Later he was transferred to the Eleventh Florida Infantrv. became its colonel and at the battle of Sailor Creek. Virginia, he was captured by General Custer. For a year he was kept a mili1arv 11risoner nn Tohnson's Island. Ohio. and before being taken prisoner was promoted to Rrigaclier (;eneral, hut neYer received his commission . He was one of the hrilliant soldiers of the war whose sen-ice is credited to the State of Florida. At Tallahassee, Colonel Brevard marriecl 1\fiss Mary Call, daugh!l'r nf c;en. Richard 1'. Call.

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 141 Her father fought with Jackson at the battle of New Or!ean , and in 1824 settled at Tallahassee, Florida. His oldest daughter Ellen Call was the first white child born in Leon County, her birth occurring eptember 9, 1825. Richard K. Call ,erved as territorial Governor from 1836 to 18,,9 and again from 1841 to 1844. He was a charter member of Jackson Lodge of Masons of Tallahassee. His wife was Mary Kirkman. Mrs. lfary Call Brevard died at Tallahassee, March 4, 1920. Her son Ephraim Mays Brevard, was born at Tallahassee, April 17, 1871, and was educated in private chools. in the West Florida Seminary at Tallahassee, and graduated M. D. from the University bf Maryland in 1&)4. In 1895 he removed to Charlotte, orth Carolina, and was associated in practice with his Uncle Dr. R. J. Brevard and served as chief surgeon of St. Peter's Episcopal Hospital. During the Spanish-American \Var, Doctor Brevard was commissiof\ed a Captain in the Medical Corps and served with the Second North Carolina Volunteer Infantry. At the close of this service in 18g8, he returned lo Tallahassee, and since then has been continuously on duty as a general practitioner. He is a member of the tate, outhern and American Medical Associa tion. Doctor Brevard was physician of the Leon County Draft Board during the \ll/orld war. Ile is a Royal Arch and Knight Tcmplar Mason. an Elk and a member of t. John's Episcopal Church. At Charlotte, orth Carolina, April 23, 1902, Doctor Brc,ard married Miss Elizabeth Caroline Robertson a native of ' Winnsboro, South Caro lina, and daughter of Gen. Thomas R. and Cora Johnston Robertson. Iler father is still living a distinguished orth Carolina citizen. Ile was a captain of infantry in the Spanish-American war, subsequently served as Adjutant General of North Carolina, and is an attorney by profcs ion. He has served as postmaster of Charlotte, and clerk of court of Uecklenburg County. Doctor and ~frs. Brevard became the parents of two children: Cora Robertson, who died June 13, 1921, at the age of nine years; and Theodore Washington, born September 15, 1914. 1Irss CAROLINE MAYS BREVARD. One of Florida's mo t eminent women, distinguished as an educator, historian and author, was the late l\Iiss Caroline Mays Brevard, olde t daughter of Col. T. W. and Mary (Call) Brevard and a sister of Dr. E. l\L Brevard of Tallahassee. The in terestingfamily record is told in the preceding article. She was horn on a plantation formerly owned hy her grandfather Gov. R. K. Call at Tallahassee, and died l\farch 27, H)20. She was educated in priYatc and state schools and Columbia University. taught history and English in the Leon High School and for five years prior to her death was connected with the Florida late College for \\' omen. All her talents, and they were of the highest <1uality, she devoted to the service of humanity. he was one of the best historical scholars and authoritie on Florida history. The monument dedicated to the Confederate veterans for keep, ing Tallahassee free from invasion by Union troops was made possible through her writings and influence. She was author of "History of Florida" used in the public schools, "Florida Supplement to Frye's Higher Geography," "Around the Light \Vood Fire,'' "Literature of the South." She twice served as division historian for the Florida Division 0 the United Daughters of the Confederacy and for four years was chairman of the educational committee of the United Daughters. She was a charter member of the Colonial Dames, a member of the American Historical Association and the Southern Sociolog ical Congress. JAMES ERNEST DAVIS, M. D. While it is undoubtedly true that medical science has made mighty strides forward during the past few years, there is no other profession which demands so much of its votaries as that devoted to the healing art. It commands the greatest of respect, and there are few which offer greater opportuni ties for the display of character and ability. Deal ing with the careers of the men who have con tributed to the upbuilding and prominence of the profession in the commonwealth of Florida is a task every writer enjoys, for it leads through many and diverse avenues of usefulness and gives truth and expression to the fact that those who have done most for their fellowmen and for the advancement of the profession are the ones who have lived unselfish and honest lives themselves. In preparing a review of the lives of the men who stand out prominently in the medical profession of this state and who by character and achieve ment have attained to notable distinction the record of Dr. James Ernest Davis, of t. Peters burg, is found to be one that compels more than passing mention. Doctor Davis was born in Indian Territory, Choctaw Nation, about forty miles from the present site of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Sep tember II, 187q, a son of Dr. \Villis G. Davis, a native of Tennessee. The cider Doctor Davis graduated in medicine, and was also a clergyman and educator. He moved from Tennessee to Illinois, and from there was sent to Indian Territory as a missionary to the Indians, for which work he wa admirably fitted, for aside from his natural ability he spoke Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek and other Indian dialects, and was thus ahle to speak to the Indians in their own languages. His work was crowned with success and many were led through his sincerity, earnestness and genuineness to forsake their old ways and em brace Christianity, among them being the notorious outlaw Sam Paul, who was converted by him. The death of this good and upright man occurred when he was seventy-two years of age, at Dyer, Crawford County, Arkansas. His father was John S. Davis, of Tennessee, and three of his sons were mini ter of the Methodist Episcopal faith, namely: Willis G., John S., Junior, and William. Dr. W. G. Davi married Henrietta Pollock, a native of Tuscumbia, Alabama, and a daughter of John Pollock, a native of Penn sylvania of Scotch ancestry. He was one of the wealth/men of Pennsylvania, who moved to Alabama and became the owner of a large plantation and many slaves, but lost everything during the war between the two sections of the country. l\lrs. Dad is also dead, having pas ed away at the age of seventy-six years. he was the mother of six children, three of whom are still living and are married. Dr. James E. Davis was the fi th child in order of birth. Dr. James E. Davis completed the grammar schools in Northwestern Arkansas, the high school course in Mississippi, and received his medical training in ew York City and Baltimore, Maryland and Chicago, Illinois, and he has also taken up 1;ost-graduate work. For six years he con ducted a sanitarium at Macon, Georgia, and in

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142 HISTORY OF FLORIDA September, 1920, came to Florida, locating at St. Petersburg. He specializes in ne rvous and chronic d iseases, particular ly those of the heart and kidneys, treating them with drugs and p hysi cal methods. He is also , cry successful in treating blood pressure cases and goiter. Doctor Davis belongs to the Florida and National Eclec tic Me di cal societies. He is a thirty-second degree, Knight Templar and Shriner Mason , and belo ngs to t he Knights of Pythias, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Junior Order United A merican Mechanics, the :Maccabees , the Improved Order of Red Men, the National Defenders and the E lks. The First Presbyterian Churc h of St. Petersburg ho lds his membership, and he is active in its goo d work. In August, r902, Doc tor Davis married Amy B. Morrison, of Gainesville, Georgia, a daughter of John A. and 1-.fary (\Vilson) Mo rrison, a nd t hey have fi, e chilclre11, namely : James E., Junior, Hoy C., Amy E., Harry and William Earl. Doctor Davis is conveniently located a t 629 Cen tral Avenue, and his office is equipped w ith all modern appliances, and his practice is con stantly i ncreasing. SHERMAN RowLES has had a widely exten ded experience in the rea l estate field both i n the North and South . He is active head a nd pres ident of the Sherman Rowles Realty Com pany of St. Petersb urg, an organiza tion with amp le cap ital and representing expert knowledge and experience i n all lines connected with real estate . His asso ciates in the business arc W . T. Eaton of St. Petersburg, George F. Underwood of New York City, and Mrs. Edith M. Row les, who is secreta ry a nd treasurer of the company . Sherman Rowles was born i n Harrison Cou nty, O hio, August 16, 1867, so n of D r. T. C. a nd Caroline Elizabeth (Welch) Row les. H is maternal g rand father, Rezin \Vclch, was a p ioneer of Harrison Coun ty, settl ing there in 1796 when the country was all a wilderness. The paterna l grandfather, Hezekiah l ~owles, was l ikewise a pio neer of that section of Ohio. He was of Pen nsylvania Q uaker stock and was horn at Rowlesburg, in what is now \Vest Virginia, abo ut 18oo. Dr. T. C. Row les hecamc a practicing phys ician, and carried o n the work of his profession at Cadiz, Ohio, fo r many years . Later he moved to Bridgeport, O hio, a nd finally bought a large ranch near Topeka, Kansas, to w hich he moved with his family. S herman Rowles, youngest of seven c hildren and the only survivor, was fo urteen yea rs of age whe n the fa mily moved to Kansas, a nd he s pent scvernl of his earlier years o n the ranch. He finished his educatio n in \Vashburn College a t Topeka. His ear ly ambitio n was for a s tage career, and his special ta lents brough t him recog nitio n when he wen t to New York C ity, and fo r twelve years he was with one of the prominent stock companies. He was with Neil Burgess seve n years, and played lead opposite Burgess. He tra\elcd for five years over t he country, making a ll the larger cities in the United S tates. Leaving the theatrical profession, Mr. Row les was in the s late quarry business for a time, and then took up rea l estate at Syracuse, ew York. He came to St. Petersburg, Florida, November 16, 1916, and soon afterward established the Sherman Rowles Realty Compa11y. This com pany has handled some important sub-divisio n projects, a nd Mr. Rowles owns individually some of t he very \ aluable proper ly of the city. He is an ac tive member of the Yacht Club, is present presiden t of the Realtors Association a nd a member of the Rotary C lub. He married Miss E dith M . Cobb , daughter of J. J. C obb, a retired merchant of lfexico, New York. Mrs. Row les is a good business woman, a nd has a l so hee n ac tive in club and church work i n St. Petersburg. She served as secretary of the Red Cross a nd is now secretary o f t he Young Women's C hristian Association, an d is a me mber of the Women's C lub. :Mr. Row les is a sta unch repu blican in politics. R , w K.1J11BALL. T here is no class of business men more alert o r progressive than that w hich has in hand the handling a nd development of property, especia lly i n Florida, w here is foun d every natural a dvantage to stimulate interest an d inspire t he best e ffort. However, u ntil t he realtors look charge of the d ifferent d istricts the g reater portion of the s tate was 11eglected by o utsiders, strong as was the interest d isplayed by the na tive born and those w ho we re led to locate within its confines. When the glorious cli mate, wonderful agricultural and ho rticultural advantages, t he op por tunities fo r healthy living an d pleasurable e n joymen t we re fully made known to t he rest of the country; w hen astute bus iness men bega n to invest heavily in improvement on di fferent resor ts, a nd sou nd financiers bac ked industrial e nterprises of this region, Florida began to take the place to w hich its cou ntless advantages e ntitle i t, an d this advance came about through t he efforts of t hose fa r-sighted me n whose labors were expended in the realty field, a nd their work is but fairly beg un. Pinellas C ounty owes much to the m, a nd one whose reputation is as wide-spread as i t is so und is Ray Kimball, of the Ray K imball Really Company, 208 Central Avenue, St. Petersburg . Mr. Kimball is not a native son of Florida, fo r he was born near Jackson, Mic higan, May 15, 1869, but he is quite as e nthusiastic as though he ha d come into the world in t his s tale, and neve r ceases his effec tive boosting i n behalf of it a nd his county a nd city . He is a so n of Dr. 11. C. and Fannie B. (Bontle) Kimba ll, nat ives of Mic higan, w here his fathe r had sett l e d a t an early day, going there from New York Stale. Doctor a nd Mrs. Ki mball had three c hildren of w hom Ray K imball was the youngest born. ' When Ray Ki mball was a lad his pare nts mo\'cd lo Crysta l F alls, M ichigan, and there he was reared, and he completed h is ed ucational training a t the Michigan Agricultural College a t East Lans ing. U ntil 1910 he was e ngaged in ha ndling prop erly i n his native s tate, bu t in that year made a trip to S t. Petersburg, and du ring th is v isit be came so impresse d wi th t he possibilities of Pinellas County that he returned ho me convince d of the ope ning a waiting him in the South, and began at o nce to close up his affa irs so that in 19 12 he was ab le to locale pe rmanently at SL Peters b urg. A first he operated i ndependently, but in 1916 es tablished h is prese nt business a nd o rganized his co mpany in 1917. From the t ime of his loca tion in this ci ty he has been very ac tive in all local o rganizations, and is a member of the Rea l Estate Club of St. Petersburg, a nd the s tate and national really o rganizatio11s. He is a member of the Yacht Club, a nd belongs to S t. Petersburg Lo dge N umber 122 4, B. P. 0. E., which he is se rving as a gove rnor. In him t he St. Petersburg Board of Tracie has one of its most effect ive worke rs. O n May 15, 1887, Mr. Kimball married Fannie Campbe ll, of Mic higan, be ing married on the day

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 143 he was eighteen years old. Mr. and Mrs. Kimball have one daughter, Bernice, who is the wife of Thomas F. Delahant, of St. Petersburg. Mr. Kimball is a man of wide experience in the real-estate field, for not only did he operate for many years jn Northern Michigan, but during the period of the erection of the buildings for the Columbian Exposition at Chicago, and at the time of the exposition in that city, he was one of the men who assisted in developing the real estate business of that city, and since coming to Florida his operations have been upon a very large scale. Not only does he do a large business, but he has won the approval and confidence of all with whom he is associated, and his name stands for reliability and excellent values in all kinds of property, for he will not handle any which will not yield a fair return upon an investment. HoN. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN GAINER. Gifted in marked degree, fitted by training and natural ability as a jurist, it is not surprising that Hon. Benjamin Franklin Gainer, Judge of the County Court of Wa hington County, Florida, should attain prominence among the members of the bench of his state, or that he should have the apprecia tion and esteem of the people of his county, where his past record as an educator is known and respected. He is an admirable jurist, bring ing to the court the weight of his experience, his strong common sense, his stainless integrity, his keen discernment and his deep learning. Judge Gainer was born in \Vashington County, F l orida, October 16, 1855, and is a son of amuel and Eliza (Matto) Gainer. His paternal grandfather was \,Villiam Gainer, a native of Washington County, Georgia, of Scotch-Irish descent, who married a Miss Watts. Samuel Gainer was born in Georgia, where he received a public school education, grew to manhood and met and married Miss Mattox, who was a native of the same state. Samuel Gainer was a farmer and sheep raiser and during the \,Var between the States was a resident of Orange Hill. As he was past forty five years of age he was not called into the Con federate ranks until near the close of the \,Var, and shortly after he had entered the army, General Lee had surrendered and the country entered upon its period of reconstruction before 1Ir. Gainer saw active servjce. He accordingly returned to his farm and continued to be engaged in agricultural pursuits during the remainder of a long and busy life. Ile died with the e teem and respect of his fellow-men and while never in public life as the holder of an office was ac counted a good and public-spirited citizen. Benjamin Franklin Gainer received his educa tion in the public schools of Washington County, and after acquiring his teacher's certificate started teaching in the country districts. For thirty-eight years he worked as an educator, and during this time established a reputation as being one of the most able, effective and popular teachers in this part of the state. After twenty-two years of service to his profession, in 1904 he was elected superintendent of the Board of Public Instruction, a position to which he was reelected in 19()8, serving two full terms, from January I, 1905, to January 1, 1913. He then left public office for a time, although he had established a good record therein, and resumed his activities as a teacher, which he continued until the fall of 1920, when he became a candidate for the office of county judge. At the elections he was chosen for a full term in this office, from January I, 1921 to January I, 1925. His work on the bench has been characterized by dignified, able and unbiased de cisions and by a courageous interpretation of the law. Judge Gainer is a democrat in his politica l allegiance and his religious connection is with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, while Mrs. Gainer belongs to the Missionary Baptist faith. He is a member of the Masonic Blue Lodge and the Knights of Pythias. On December 2, 1876, Judge Gainer was married near Batesville, Barbour County, Alabama, to Sallie R. Oatis, who died April 17, 1913, with out issue. Judge Gainer's second union was ce l e brated at Wausau, Washington County, Florida, when he was united with Mrs. Lula Richardson. They have had no children, but by her first marriage Mrs. Gainer had eight children, all of whom are married and have homes of their own, with the exception of two, Annie Lou and W. P., who reside with Judge and Mrs. Gainer. JAMES ABRAM DAVIS, M. D., has been engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery at Winter Garden for the past fifteen years, and is one of the men of special talent in his profession and one of the very liberal and public spirited citizens of the community. Doctor Davis was born at Bostick in Florence County, South Carolina, December 27, 1876, son of Dr. William M. and Mary Brockington (Blaine) Davi , also natives of South Carolina. His father was an old-school physician who practiced medi cine in South Carolina for over half a century. He served as a surgeon in the Confederate Army. He was for two terms a member of the South Carolina Legislature. He enjoyed a long life of eig-hty years, and his wife died at the age of fifty. All of their nine children were born and reared at Bostick, South Carolina. James Abram Davis attended common schoo l s and high school, acquired literary training in Hartsville College, and after a few years engaged in other activities determined to follow the ex ample of his father and entered the medical de11artment of Emory University of Atlanta, Georgia, where he was graduated M. D. in 1900. Soon after graduating he came to Florida, and has since continuously engaged in practice at \\Tinter Garden. He is a member of the Orange County, the State and American Medical associations, is a Master Mason and a member of the Baptist Church. In r907 he married Angie Marie Phillips, of Orlando. They have one son, Robert Everett. JAMES M. ENDICOTT, president of the Endicott Undertaking Company, has one of the best equipped undertaking establishments in the State of Florida, and is the leading man in his line at St. Petersburg. He is a well-educated man, whose knowledge of his profession is acknowledged, and he is held in high esteem by all who know him. Mr. Endicott was born in Saline County, Illinois, ovember 26, 1868, a son of Thomas S. and Drucilla (Reeves) Endicott, and grandson of John Endicott and William Reeves, the latter of whom was of German descent. John Endicott was a soldier in the Blackhawk war. He had the somewhat unusual experience of being captured by the Indians, but although held a prisoner by them for three years he evidently was not injured to any extent, for he lived to the remarkable age of ninety-six years. Both Thomas S. Endicott and his wife are now deceased. They were born in Indiana, but spent many years in Illinois, where the father died when his son James M. was less than two years old. The mother lived until

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144 HISTORY OF FLORIDA 1909. They had twelve children, ten of whom survive, and one of them, George F., twin brother of James M., is also a resident of St. Petersburg. Although he did not begin attending school until he was eight years of age, James M. Endicott made such progress that when he was seventeen he began teaching school, and continued in the educational field for ten years. During that period he further improved himself by attendance at the Southern Illinois College, from which he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Science. Retiring from the schoolroom Mr. Endicott e s tab lished himself in a grocery ind notions business at Enfield, Illinois, and later conducted a furni ture and undertaking business at the same place. In 1904 he began his connection with St. Petersburg, and when he arrived in the city he found a11 entirely different place from what it is today. At that time few, if any, of the present improve ments had been made, and not a brick had been laid in the city streets. As he had learned the carpenter trade while teaching school he found an excellent opening, and erected eight first-class houses in St. Petersburg. In 1917 he opened his present establishment, and has raised a high standard as a funeral director. His place of business is at 574 Central Avenue. His skill and excellent taste enable him to so arrange the ceremonies that a dignified and impressive service is ren dered which reflects credit upon him and the mo tives of the relatives of the deceased. Associated with him in the business is Miss Sarah E. Cowen a native of Illinois, who has lived in Florida fo; the past fifteen years. In 1896 Mr. Endicott married Carrie E. Hall, of Enfield, Illinois, and they have three daugh ters, namely: Eva, who is the wife of Leon D. Lewis, and Harriett and Mary, who are in school at Tallahassee. All of the daughters completed high-school courses, and the eldest, one in the State Normal School for Women at Tallahassee, Florida. Mr. and Mrs. Endicott and her daugh ters all belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Endicott belongs to the Masonic fraternity, the Modern Woodmen of America, Woodmen of the World, Kiwanis Club, and takes an interest in all of these organizations. A broad-gauged man, with wide vision, he is able to see the neces sity for the maintenance of present improvements, as well as the installation of others, and is much interested in the development of the city and county. MAX A. H. FITZ, cashier of the First National Bank of St. Petersburg, has been an active figure in banking and civic circles here for the past dozen years. Mr. Fitz was born at Altona, Germany, Decem ber 12, 188o. He was reared and educated in Ger many, carefully trained for business, and in 1904 came to America and located in Chicago, where for several years he had an extensive experience in financial affairs. Mr. Fitz came to St. Petersburg and took up his duties as cashier of the First National Bank in 19n. He has been a factor in the rapid growth and development of that bank, one of the strongest institutions in Florida, and at the same time has shown a deep and public spirited interest in all matters affect ing the progress and welfare of the city. He is a Mason, a member of the Rotary Club, Yacht Club, Art Club and Chamber of Commerce. In 1907 he married Miss Ivy M. Van Dusen, of Chicago. Their children are Arthur, Margarethe and Dorothy. HENRY HOLLY WITHERINGTON, representing Orange County in the Legislature, is a pioneer of Apopka, and has been through all the experience of a business man and citrus fruit grower in thi s section for nearly forty years. Henry H. Witherington was born at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, February 20, 1862, youngest of the five children of Smith Seth and Louisa. (Sealy) Witherington, the former a native of North Caro lina and the latter of South Carolina. His father was reared in Mississippi, his mother in Alabama, and after their marriage in the latter state they settled on a plantation. The oldest son, William C., enlisted at the age o.f sixteen in the Con federate Army and served throughout the war. II. H. Witherington spent his early life on the old plantation home of his parents in Alabama. Tie had a public school education. He was six teen when his mother died, and soon afterward started out in the world to make his own way. For three years he clerked in a country store in Alabama, and in 1883 arrived in Orange County, Florida, and since the beginning of 1884 has been a re s ident of Apopka. Mr. Witherington was clerk in a grocery store here for three years, and then became a merchant and continued to sell goods for twenty years. Irt the meantime, as sisted by John B. Steinmetz, he built and equipped probably the first rural telephone line in Orange County and one of the first in the state. This was in 1901. While in ' nusiness at Apopka Mr. Witherington started the development of an orange gro\ e, and also did farming on a small scale. The most serious adversity he had to contend with as a citrus fruit grower was the blighting freeze of 1894-95. Many others in this section of Florida abandoned orange growing altogether after that calamity, but Mr. Witherington made some further planting and as a result he owns one of the most beautiful and productive groves in the county. For fifteen years or more he has also been engaged in the real estate and insurance business. A man of thought as well as action, in the course of many years Mr. Witherington has had experiences that have produced an interesting philosophy and attitude toward the la.rger issues that concern the public. In religion he has always attended the Presbyterian Church, was secretary and treasurer for many years of its Sunday School, and brought his own children up in the work and under the influence of Sunday School. Mr. Witherington has never been a partisan prohibi tionist. He was reared in a home where whiskey was used as a medicine, and his attitude toward intoxicating liquors has been not so much that of opposition to intoxicants per se as an open foe of the saloon, drunkenness and the moral evils that attend excessive use of liquor. He was conse quently gratified to see the eighteenth constitu tional amendment adopted, though he confesses some disappointment as to the methods used by the Government in the enforcement of the amend ment, since more reasonable means would prob ably accomplish better results at le s s cost of blood and money. Mr. Witherington was appointed a member of the Board of Public Instruction for Orange County to fill out an unexpired term in 1896, and at suc cessive elections filled that post for fourteen years, until he declined another election. The only dis tinctive work he claims during his fourteen years of membership is that the school interests were never sacrificed for that of the individual. He recognizes the public school sys tem as an essential

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 145 to the progress of christianity and civilization, and has always advocated industrial schools, particularly for colored children. In his home schools the board during his membership was handicapped for Jack of funds, and for that reason he did not haYe the satisfaction of seeing while on the board a thoroughly modern educational policy adopted. Mr. Witherington is a democrat, but he has never been an aspirant for public office. Ile only served when pressed to do so by friends and neighbors, understanding that public service means personal sacrifice and frequently loss of friend,hip . lle consented to be a candidate for the Legislature in 1922, and he takes to the . essions some of the best qualifications of a legislator. ~n 1887, at the age of twenty-five, he married M1 s Anna Belle Turner, a native of Alabama '!'hey grew up together as children. They hav~ five sons and daughters named: Harry P. Katy Bell, Allison, James R. and Agnes. ' JOHN FRANKLIN DORMAN was born on a farm near Jasper in Hamilton County, Florida, July 17, 1869, son of George Harrison and Eliza A. (Johns) Dorman. His mother, now deceased was born in Columbia County near Whit~ Springs, Florida, and was a des~endant of one of th_e pioneer families of that section. George Harrison Dorman who was born at Americus Ge?rgia, _came to Florida in the early sixties, and enlisted m Company A, organized in Hamilton County in the spring of 1861, which company was subsequently mustered into the Confederate service as the First Florida Battalion, and served in the Confederate army during the war between the states, a period of four years. In 1872 he moved to Volusia County, where his wife died in 1873. ~Ie then_ r_ct_urned to farm in Columbia County 111 the ".1c1mty of White Springs, and from there moved m 188o to Suwannee County and resided near Houston until his death on the 19th day of December, 1912, at the age of seventy-one. He owned a large farm, was a very successful busi ness . man, active in democratic politics and the Bapttst Church. John Franklin Dorman acquired a common school education in Columbia and Suwannee counties, and the scope of his experience until he was twenty year_s of age, was largely confined to t~e c~untry neighborhoods in which he lived. For eight vears following he and his brother Riley, travelled over various sections of Florid~ for. a popular art _house ?f N_ew York in the portrait lnmnes~, durmg wl11ch time they took orders for and d~hvered more than 10,000 copied and enlarged pictures . Mr. Dorman for a time was e1!gaged in the milling and ginning business at Live Oak. at first under the firm name of Dorman and Parker, and then with a brother as the Dorman Ginning Company. Mr. Dorman is well known in democratic politics in the state. His first important experience in public affairs came with his appointment in 1897 by Gov. William D. Bloxham as tax collector of Suwannee County. He was regularly elected to that office in 18g8, and served one term, two years, under his election. In 1901 Gov. W. S. Jennings appointed him to a clerical position auditing books for one of the state in stitutions and state departments. Later in the same year he was elected ergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives of the Florida Legislature. In the latter part of January, 1902, he moved from Live Oak to Tallahassee to accept the position of Chief Oerk in the office of the Secretary of State, and for twenty years his time and energies have been quite fully taken up by these duties. He was a delegate to the Democratic State Con vention at Ocala in 1896, at Orlando in 18g8, to the Congressional Convention of the Second District at Gainesville and to the Democratic State Convention of 1900 at Jacksonville. This was the last convention held before the passage of the primary election law which provides for the nomination of State and County officials by direct vote of the people. Mr. Dorman has been connected with several financial institutions, among them the First N'ational Bank of Live Oak as stockholder and director, and a stockholder in the Citizens Bank of Live Oak and of the Fourth National Bank of Jacksonville, and is one of the original stock holders and for several years vice president of the Citizens Bank of Tallahassee, and since 19c7 has been its president. He is a Baptist and Chair man of the Board of Trustees of the First Baptist 01Urch of Tallahassee. Mr. Dorman has given considerable attention to fraternal matters, and is especially well known in the order of the Woodmen of the World. He has served four years as Consul Commander of Leon Camp No. 2, of Tallahassee, and was a delegate to the Head Camp Convention of 1911 at anford, 1913 at Tallahassee, 1915 at Lakeland, 1917 at Orlando, 1919 at Ocala and 1921 at Tampa. He also served as a delegate from the Florida Jurisdiction to the Sovereign Camp Convention of 1915 at St. Paul, Minnesota and of 1919 at Chi cago, Illinois. He is past master of Barrett Lodge No. 43, F. and A. M., of Live Oak, and now a member of Jackson Lodge No. 1, F. and A. M., Florida Chapter No. I, R. A. M., St. Omer Commandery o. 12, K. T., of Tallahassee, Monticello Council No. 6, R. and S. M., of Monticello, and Morocco Temple of the Mystic Shrine of Jacksonville. January 4, 1900, at Houston, Florida, Mr. Dorman married Miss Annie Helen Hicks, daughter of Doctor William Montraville and Ann (Lang) Hicks, now deceased. Her father, a native of North Carolina, practiced medicine at Houston before the Civil war and after that war until his death on the 30th day of July, 1900. He was widely known as a capable physician, and in every sense a leader in the affairs of his community. He served as captain of a company of Home Guards during the war and for many years he officiated as a loca l preacher of the Methodist Church. Mr. and Mrs. Dorman have two children: Margaret Ann and George Montraville. Gu'> B. SHEPARD was director of finance for the city of St. Petersburg, and had charge of this important department of the city government from the time St. Petersburg went under the commis sion plan of government until his resignation. Mr. Shepard was born at Ripon, Wisconsin, July 24, 1885, son of Guy B. and Ettie R. (Gay) Shepard, his father a native of New York State and his mother of \Visconsin. His mother is still living, a resident of St. Petersburg. Guy B. Shepard has one brother living. He was reared in Ripon, had a high school education there and graduated at the age of eighteen years. He im mediately entered into the clothing business, and in 1907 moved lo Chicago, where for a number of years he was connected with the local offices of the American Express Company. In March, 1913, he resigned as chief clerk of the cashier's office to come to St. Petersburg. Mr. Shepard was assistant cashier of the Central National Bank of this city until August, 1914, when he was made

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146 HISTORY OF FLORIDA city auditor. In this position he had the management of the c ity finances and when on July I, 19r6, St. l:'etersburg weut under the co mmis sion form o f gO\ernment he was appointed di rector of finance, and remained in charge of that office for s ix years, resigning September r, 1922. He the n again engaged in the clothing lmsiness . In January, 1917, he married :Hiss Nell F. Conn, of Chattanooga, Tennessee, daughter of Samuel A. and 1fary L. Conn. They haye two ch ildren, Gu) B., Jr., and Mary Helen. ).fr. Shepard is a 1fason a nd Shriner, a Knight Templar and is also afllliated with the K nights of Pythias. He is a member of the Episcopal Church, and one of the prominent young men closely associated with the welfare and progress o f the \\'est Coast District. Arc;usn:s H. DE VANt is a nati,e of Polk County, was an early struggling farmer, then took up commercial lines of work, a nd has progressed from o ne responsibility to the next higher a nd is accorded rank as one of the most s uccessful financ iers and business men of the county today. He is a banker at Lakeland, and actively ide ntified with all the best interests of that sectio n of the state. He was born October JO, 1878. As a boy he had a country school educa~ion, and until he was twenty-three his work and activi ties were well w ithin the horizon of a farmer's life. ln 1901 he e ngaged in the grocery business a t 1[ulberry. In 19o'i he was appointed agent for the Royal Tailors, and represented that firm at 1fulhcrry for t hree years. }..[r. De Vane had long cu lti, ated an ambition to study law, and about the time he left Mulhern he used his accumu lated savings to enter \\. ' ashinglnn and Lee Uni,ersity. However, he ga1e up the study of law on account of lack of funds, and on returning to 1Iulberr} in T910 entered the real estate business. He soon located at Fort l leade, and while then• was actively con cerned with the management of three en terprises, real estate, ire manufacturing and electric lighting. Mr. De Vane came lo Lakt• land in December , 1915 . ln January, 1920, he organized t he Polk Cou nty Trust Company, and is now preside nt of that i nstitution. His business record thus briefly studied is proof of the fact that he has a lways been a hard worker and is a man of well t rained resources. He is afllliated with the Knights of November 27, 1~00, 11Ir. De \'ane was and his family of six chi ldren are: Daphne, Onnic 1fahel, E ldred, ,\. IL, Hassie. Pythias. married, 1Ieekc}, Jr., a nd TnoM.1s \\'. BR1 \XT is one of t he promine nt young attorneys of the Florida bar. \Vhile a young 1ran in the '30s, he has had a w idely Yaried experience, having achieved success in hb profession, and has a lso a record as a so ldier in the \Vorld war, with active duty in F rance before the a rmistice. Mr. Bryant represents an o ld family of Florida, and was born in Polk Co unty, March 28, 18go, son of E mory and Nellie (Blocker) Bryant. His father was born in Columbia Cou nty, Florida. His grandfather, Thomas Bryant, was born i n Georgia, in 1816. He first came to Florida as a soldier against the Seminole Indians, and was i n two Indian wars in this state. Many years later he was a confederate soldier. Nellie B locker was born in H illsboro County, Florida, and her father, S. \V. B locker, was also a native of this state. T homas W. Bryant is the oldest of six sons, two of whom are now deceased. He acquired a liberal education, graduating from the Lakeland High School, a nd took both t he literary and law courses a t the Unh e rsity of Florida. He was graduated i n 1915, was admitted to the ba r the same yea r, and at once engaged in practice at Lakela nd. He has a thorough knowledge of t he law, is an industrious worker in the interest of h is c lients, a nd has an extensive general practice. He is attorney for the First National Bank of Lakeland, and in 1922 was nominated for the Legis lat ure. Mr. Bryant is affiliated with Lakeland Lodge No. 1298, Benevo lent a nd Protective Order of Elks. In 192 0 he married Miss Lydia te itz, daughter of John and Ida Stei tz, of Lakeland. They have o ne daughter, Margaret M. M r. Bryant was in the service of t he Government fo r e ighteen months. He en listed January 15, 1918, and was ass igned to duty with the Second Battalion o f the Three Hundred Nineteenth F ield Artillery i n the E ighty-second Divis ion. After going t o France he was a t the front fo r three m onths, a nd pa rticipated in the ba ttles of St. Mihiel, the Argonne Forest and the Argon ne-Meuse ca mpaigns. GEORGE B OSTON GLOl'ER, M. D . The dea n and leader in the medical profession of Jefferson Count y is Dr. George Boston Glover of Montice llo, who h as practiced his profession at that point fo r thirty-five years, and has had the satisfaction an d honor of devoting half of a normal life time to t he se rvice for humanity represented i n his sav ing vocat ion. Doctor G lover has i n part practiced medicine in the community where he was born and reared. His birth occurred a t Waukeenah i n Jefferson County lllay 28, 1862. His father, Jasper Kelly G lover, was born i n Jeffersonville, Georgia, came to Florida as a pioneer in 1840, and after living for two years i n Tampa, moved to \Vaukeenah. He was a n outstanding figure i n the ministry of t he Methodist Episcopa l Church, South, i n Florida, an d a t o ne time was presiding elde r of the Tallahassee District. Jasper K. G lover, who died at Waukeenah in r862, the same yea r his son, Doctor G lover, was born, married Levo nia Branch, daughter of Dr. Franklin Branch of Tampa. George Boston Glove r spent his boy hood at Mo nticello, and w hile early possesse d of an ambit ion fo r a professional l ife the means of attain ing the education a nd preparation therefor had to be s upplied largely by h is own ini tiative and labor . He was educated in the West Florida Seminary a t Tallahassee, graduated A . B. in 1883 fro m E mory Co llege in Geo rgia, and for severa l yea rs he taught school, part of the t ime in Jasper County, Geo rgia. He began the study of medicine under Dr. Robert Battey, a distinguished physi cia n at Rome, Geo rgia, and subsequently entered t he med ical department of t he University of Pennsylva nia, where he graduated M . D. in 1887. From the time o f his graduation to the present Doctor Glover's home and office have been at :Monticello, and from there his range of service has extended throughout Jefferson County and even to adjacent co unties. In all the years of his prac tice he has been a constant student, has taken pos t graduate co urses and attended cli nics, and has frequently contributed a rticles to medical journals. He is a member of the County, State, Southern an d American Medical associations, and

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 147 from 191,3 to 1920 he served as president of the Medical Examining Board of Florida. Doctor Glover is one of the distinguished :Masons of Florida. Jle is a past master of Hiram Lodge No. 5, . . A. F. and A. M., at Monti cello, and in 1913 enjoyed the honor of being grand master of the Grand Lodge of the stale. He is a chapter and council degree Mason, was the first eminent commander of : Monticello Com mandcry No. 26, K. T., is a member of the 11ystic Shrine, and in 1914 served as chairman of the building committee for the Masonic Temple at Monticello. At all Limes he• has sought participa tion in the constructive enterprise and movements of the county, has heen chairman of the board of public instruction of Je/Terson County, for twelve years was a memher of the city council, and eight years of that time he was president of the council. During the World war he was a member of the Volunteer 1Lcclical Corps. He served thirty years as local surgeon at Monticello for the Seaboard Air Line Railroad and its predecessors. For a period of thirty years also he was chairman of the board of stewards of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and in 1906 was a delegate to the General Conference. Since 1920 Doctor Glover has had as his junior partner and associate Dr. R. E. Gilbert, the firm being Glover and Gilbert physicians and surgeons. ' In 1888, at Jacksonville, Doctor Glover married 11iss Lula 1larvin, of Monticello. Iler father Joel Marvin, was a native of Scotland and fo; many years a merchant at Monticello Mrs Glove~ is a member of long standing and activ~ work 111 the Presbyterian Church. HunERT C. P1•ITEWAY is not only one of the able and rcpresl'ntativc younger members of the bar of Polk County hut also is known and valued as one of the progrcs ive citizens of his home city of Lakeland, of which he was the mayor until cptemher, 1921, when Lakeland changed to the Commission Manager form of government. Under the new administration Ur. Petteway was a(}poinll'd city judge. Mr. Petteway was born at Jacksoll\illc, North Carolina, on the rst of January, 1&J3, and is a son of Lewis S. and Caroline ( Williams) Petteway, both likewise nath cs of that state, where the rcspccti,c families were established several generation. ago. The only child of his parents, Hubert C. Pctte\\ ay was ten years of age at the time of the family removal to Florida, where he continued his studies in the public schools and also took a cour:,c in the preparatory department of John H. Stetson niversity, al DcLand. Thereafter he continued his studies in Buics Creek Academy, in North Carolina, and later he completed a course in the University of orth Carolina, from which he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In preparation for his chosen profc ion he first attended the law department of the University of Florida and later that of historic old Columbia University, in New York City. Ile was admitted to the Florida bar in June, 1915, and after having been located for brief intervals at Ocala and Okeechobee, he came, in January 1916, to Lakeland, where he has since developed a prosperous law business and gained secure standing as a resourceful trial lawyer and well equipped counselor. That Mr. Petteway has gained unequivocal personal popularity in his home community need no further voucher than his incumbency of the office of mayor of Lakeland, to which he was elected in 1921 and in which he gave a vigorous and progressive ad ministration. He is a staunch and effective advo cate of the principles of the democratic party. He and his wife are members of the Baptist Church at Lakeland, and he is affiliated with the ~fasonic fraternity, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the woodmen of the \Vorld. Tn August, 1918, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Petteway to Miss Nellie Dovie Gates, of Ocala, this state, and they have one son, Charles Hubert. Mr. Petteway is the owner of an excellent orange grove in Polk County and is a stockholder as well as attorney, for the Central State Bank of Lakeland. CHARLES E. KENSINGER, now engaged in an ex tensive law practice at Lakeland, is best known for his prominent connection with educational work both in Florida and other Southern states. Mr. Kensinger is a scholar, and his many qualifications have made it easy for him to take a high rank in the legal profession. He was born in Hawkins County, East Tennessee, October 22, 1875, son of James V. and Anne (Lyons) Kensinger. His parents were also born in Tennessee. Mr. Kensinger was born on the old farm which his great-grandfather had settled in pioneer times. He was reared and edu cated in Eastern Tennessee, attended Emory and Henry College, just over the Tennessee line in Virginia, graduated A. B. from Southern College, and took advance literary work and his law course in Cumberland University of Tennessee, receiving the M. A. and LL. B. degrees there. Mr. Ken singer devoted twenty-four years of his life to educational work. For six years he taught in grade schools in Tennessee, and the remaining eighteen years he was in educational work in Florida, thirteen years of the time as a high chool principal and five years as a college pro fessor. He was a member of the faculty of the Florida Southern College at Sutherland. Mr. Kensinger was admitted to the bar in October, 1921, and is now established with offices at Lake land. In 1903 he married Miss Nannie Iola Rauler son. The two children born to their marriage were Edward Devois, who died at the age of fourteen, and Elva Reta. Mr. Kensinger for many years has taken a deep interest in Masonry, is a York Rite Mason and Shriner, was for two years worthy patron of the Eastern Star and is also affiliated with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. He is active in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and during the World war was a leader in various drives for funds and other purposes. )OIIN THOMAS Mc ULTY. No city worthy the name can be considered modern in character that •:locs not possess a well-trained and properly equipped fire-fighting force, directed by experi enced management. While fire hazards arc contantly being eliminated by the ingenuity of practical inventors, the times in which we live are by their nature ones productive of occasions when only prompt and efficient action can save an entire community from destruction. St. Petersburg, therefore, is to be congratulated upon the possession of a modern fire department, which is under the direction of a capable, courageous and experienced chief, John Thomas McNulty. O1ief McN ulty was born at Mineral Point, Missouri, March 24, 1881, and is a son of Joseph

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148 HISTORY OF FLORIDA and Fannie (Ferguson) McNulty, the former a native of Missouri and the latter of Georgia, but reared in :Mississippi. The sixth in order of birth in a family of nine children, when he was six years old, or in 1887, he was taken by his parents to Meridian, Mississippi, where he attended the public schools and later spent one year in the Agricultural and Mechanical College. Even in boyhood he was attracted to the fire house, and when he was only twelve years of age was officially recognized as "horse-holder" of the department. ,vhen he became old enough he entered the de partment at Meridian and remained therewith from 18g8 to 1901. In the latter year he went to Hattiesburg, Mississippi, where he secured em ployment in the real estate business, working for an uncle. This prosaic vocation palled on a young man who had been used to the excitement and risk allendant to fire-fighting, and he accordingly gave up his employment and took up railroading, which be followed for about eighteen months. The lure of the fireman's life was not to be denied, however, and October 20, 1co1, he en tered the Meridian Fire Department." In April, 1902, he was appointed captain of No. Three Com pany, and remained as such until 1go6, when he went to Birmingham, Alabama, and became attached to the department there. In October, 1909, be was appointed captain of No. Sixteen Company, and remained in that capacity until 1913, when he was called to St. Petersburg to become chief. Immediately upon his arrival he began putting the department into order, and within a short time had the nucleus of a smooth-working organiza tion. As the years have passed he has developed one of the best-trained and most efficient depart ments for a city of the size of St. Petersburg in the South, and on numerous occasions has earned the gratitude and esteem of the people of the community for the manner in which he ha pro tected their homes and business enterprises from destruction by fire. Chief McNulty is a good disciplinarian, an able executive and a cool and courageous fighter in times of personal danger. He is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and his religious connection is with the Presbyterian Church. Personally he is popular with his men and with the best clement of St. Petersburg. In January, 19r3, Chief McNulty married Miss Olive Keenan, daughter of Thomas Keenan, su perintendent of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company, and they have two children : Thomas l\f. and Gertrude A. J. D. ALLEN, a retired business man and hon ored resident of Lakeland, where he is serving as city j udgc, has had an eventful career such as few men even four score years of age can claim. He was born in Lee County, Virginia, Septem ber IJ, 1842, son of Frances C. and Eliza (Ooud) Allen, his father a native of Virginia and his mother of Eastern Tennessee. They reared a family of six sons and six daughters, four of whom are still living. J. D. Allen is the sixth child and third son. Five of the sons were sol diers in the Confederate Army during the war hetween the states, and the two oldest, John and William, died while in the army. J. D. Allen was reared and educated in Virginia and Tennessee, and in May, 1861, joined the Confederate Army and was a valiant soldier for the cause until the end of the war, four years later. He participated in many of the big battles of the war, including Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, and he was not far from the spot on the battlefield of Chancellorsville, where Stonewall Jackson fell fatally wounded. Mr. Allen bore almost a charmed life, and while again and again comrades were shot clown beside him, he went through the entire struggle unscathed. On January r, 1866, less than a year after he left the army, he went West to Salt Lake City, but soon returned to Colorado, and for about nineteen years was in that state. For five years his home was at Georgetown, and after that he was in the San Luis Valley of Southwestern Colorado. He followed mining for five years and for four years was a rancher. When he left Colo rado in 1885 Mr. Allen went to Missouri, and for I 1/, years followed farming in Cass County, that state. From there he removed to Birmingham, Alabama, and thence to Cartersville, Georgia, where he spent five years in mining. Mr. Allen has been a resident of Florida for about thirty years. His first location was west of Gainesville, in a phosphate mining district. After about five years he started a business of drilling water wells, and developed a service and facilities that brought him numerous contracts and business extending over Georgia, Alabama and Florida, though his special territory was in this state. Mr. Allen has been a resident of Lake land about twenty ,years, and in 1918 he sold his well drilling business and since then has given his attention to his private affairs. He has served as justice of the peace and since January, 1922, has been city judge. During his mining experience Mr. Allen had the distinction of being the first man to discover Bauxite in the United States. Bauxite is the mineral containing aluminum in the most abun dant form, and is the chief source of manufacture of that wonderful metal. Judge Allen is a democrat in politics. He owns a suhstantial home at 107 West Pine Street at Lakeland. In 1904 he married Ada F. Smailes, of Grecn hrier County, West Virginia. They have two children, James Walter, born in 1905, and Bennett Young, born in 1914. SETH WOODRUFF, a native of Orange County, has had a busy life for forty years, engaged in orange growing, trucking, cattle raising, merchandising and official affairs. He represents the third generation of the Woodruff family in this county, and every phase of development in this section of the state has been shared in by the \\' oodruffs since earliest pioneer times. His grandfather, Elias Woodruff, came to Florida in 1844. He was a native of Elizabeth town, New Jersey, son of Seth Woodruff, who came from England. Elias Vv oodruff as a young man went to Mississippi Territory, and became a soldier in Jackson's army during the War of 1812, participating in the battle of I ew Orleans. He was a farmer in Pike ounty, Mbsissippi, and married Miss Ailsey Collins, of that state. Of their eight children two were sons, W. \V. Woodruff and Seth W. In 1844 Elias Woodruff. came to Florida and settled on Woodruff's Island, at the head of Lake Monroe in Orange County, the island and creek bearing his name. For some years he lived the life of a recluse in a log cabin of his own build ing, and later purchased land at Fort Reed, where he planted an orange grove. In 1848 his young est son, then seventeen, joined him, and they built a cottage, which was the third frame house in Orange County. Elias Woodruff spent his

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 149 last years at the home of his son, and died in 1863. His son, William Washington Woodruff, was born at China Grove, Pike County, Mississippi, July IO, 1831. As already noted, he joined his father in Orange County in 1848. Ile was in two campaigns against the eminole Indians in 1856-57. In 186o he married Miss Nannie Gallo way, who had come to Florida with her father, and they established and maintained a most hos pitable home in the Woodruff Grove. W. vV. Woodruff was a delegate from Orange County to the Secession Convention at Tallahassee in i861, and was one of the seven men who voted against sec ssion. When the ordinance carried he volunteered for duty in the Southern army, hut was rejected. Suhsequently he joined the Home Guards, and had some exciting experiences in this state. After the war he represented Orange County two terms in the Legislature. In 186g he yielded to the entreaties of his brothers and sister and returned to Mississippi, but was not satisfied there, and in a short time again located at Fort Reed and started another orange grove. His health failed, and he died February 14, 1872, so that the responsibility of developing the grove and making a new home dernlved upon his wife. Mrs. annie vVoodruff was well educated, had much executive ability, and so planned, worked and lhed as to enjoy the income of one of the finest orange groves in the county. She spent her last days in quiet enjoyment of her material posse sions and in the companionship of her chil dren, and died June n, 1909. She was the mother of three children: Seth, Emma and Frank, and by a second marriage, to C. H. Beck, she had two other sons. Seth Woodruff, son of W. W. Woodruff, was born at Mellonville or Fort Reed, March IO, 1862. He was educated in the county schools, and in October, 1877, entered the preparatory depart ment of Erskine College at Due West, South Carolina, and took the six years' course in five years, graduating A. B. in 1882, having been given honorable mention in all branches of study. At the conclusion of his college career Mr. \Vooclruff returned home, and has been one of the busiest men of Orange ounty since then, working and supervising his varied interests as citrus fruit grower, vegetable grower, cattle raiser, merchant, clerk, assessor, tax collector and treasurer of Sanford, and for twelve years, 1892 to 1904, was tax collector of Orange County. He served several years as chairman of the Demo cratic Executive Committee of the county, and his personal means and energies have been be stowed generously upon many causes and under takings involved in the substantial advancement of this section of the state. 1fr. \Voodruff was one of the prime leaders in the good roads movement, started in 1895. ince that elate Orange County has achieved a distinctive place among the counties in the ex tent of modern highways. He has also helped encourage and establish good schools, was one of the organizers of the Orlando Driving Park Association, out of which came the Orange County Fair Association, and the annual SubTropical Mid-Winter Exposition. He was presi dent of the Fair Association for three years, was president of the Orlando Board of Tracie in 19u and 1914, served on the City Council, fraternally i a Knight of Pythias, an Elk and an Odd Fellow, and is a member of the Kiwanis Club and the Orlando Country Club. In 1896 Mr. Woodruff married Mr:;. Elizabeth Agnes (Shine) Starkey, who was born and reared in Tallahassee. By her first marriage she had two children: Mrs. Ethel Agness Woodruff, of Sanford, and Lockhart Starkey Woodruff, who bears the name Woodruff by order of court at the request of Mr. \Voodruff. Among the more recent public services Mr. 'Woodruff has rendered should be mentioned his work in behalf of sound legislation during his presence in the Legislature in the sessions of r9r7-r8-19. E. W. BUNKER was one of the first citizens of the town of Lake Worth, joining that community the year the town was founded. All his pre vious experience had been in the lumber industry, and as a lumberman he inherited the traditions of several generations in that industry. Mr. Bunker had barely established himself at Lake Worth when he began dealing in lumber, and he has since organized and is president of the Lake Worth Lumber Company. Mr. Bunker was born in that once famous capi tal of the lumber industry, Muskegon, Michigan, which at one time was the largest lumber manu facturing and lumber shipping point in the world. He was born there in 1863. His grandfather Bunker brought his family from New York State, passing through Chicago on the road to Wiscons i n in 1837 and located in Walworth County, Wisconsin, where he had a share in the lumber indus try. William Bunker, father of E. W. Bunker, was four years old when the family moved to Wisconsin. As a young man he started the first sawmill at Muskegon, Michigan, in 1857. Thus he had the honor of initiating and for a number of years he continued an active factor in the great lumber business of that city. E. W. Bunker literally grew up in the lumber industry, beginning as a boy on the saw dust pile, and working through every department of the production, manufacturing and selling phases of the business. He has operated several mills of his own. When he was a boy the family returned to their old home place at Walworth County, Wisconsin, where he remained several years. He then went back to Muskegon, and was there until he was twenty-two. Mr. Bunker finished his educa tion in the University of Wisconsin, being a mem ber of the class of 1883, though he did not com plete his senior year. His business experience included eight years in the Pacific Coast lumber section, with head quarters at Seattle. From 1893 to 1900 he op erated a lumber yard at Duluth, Minnesota. Fol lowing that he was engaged in the lumber busi ness at Spooner, \Visconsin, and left there to come to Lake \Vorth, Florida, in 1912. The business that brought him to Lake Worth was as trustee of the purchasers of the land and town lots that had been sold by the original town site company. As trustee he administered the affairs within his jurisdiction to the best satisfac tion of all concerned, and he has remained one of the first citizens of the town both in matter of time and in public spirit and business activity. Mr. Bunker reached Lake Worth in October, 1912, and a few days later, with only a barrel for a desk and office, he sold his first carload of lum ber. He made arrangements to purchase this car of lumber after he had sold it, and it was later delivered by the railroad. From that modest beginning he has created a business with an annual

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150 HISTORY OF FLORIDA volume of sales running to $100,000. He is prac tically the sole owner as well as president and manager of the Lake Worth Lumber Company. Mr. Bunker in 1917 was elected on the regular democratic ticket as Palm Beach County's repre sentative in the Legislature. During the regular session of 1918 he gave careful thought and con sideration to the general work of that body, and was particularly influential in securing the act under which the locks we.re built in the Palm Beach Canal at Lake Worth. 1Ir. Bunker married Mrs. Nellie Miller. She was born in Boston, but was reared and married in Wisconsin . EPPES TucKFR, SR. It is gil'en to compara til'ely few men to enjoy the grateful distinction of seeing a flourishing city grow up within their experience in a community where they were leaders and first movers in starting the deYelop ment that later generation enjoys. Such has been the distinction of Eppes Tucker, Sr., one of the o lde st members of the Florida bar, and a leader in his profession and in the public affairs of Lake land from the very beginning of its corporate exi. tence. Mr. Tucker was born in Newton County. Geor gia, September 19, 1844, son of Rev. McKendree and Eliza (Rakestraw) Tucker, his father a native of South Carolina and his mother of Georgia. His father was a minister of the 1fcthodist P r otestant Church. Eppes Tucker, Sr., ac quired his primary education in Georgia, and was attending Mount Jefferson School in Ala hama when he left school to enlist at Cusseta, August 6, 1862, for service in the Confederate Anny. Being a young boy and in poor health he was assigned to duty in the Quartermaster's Department. He rose to the rank of captain and assistant quartermaster. He asked Jeaye to go to Savannah when Sherman was adyancing upon that city, and he was under fire with duties in the medical department when the city was cap tured. After the war he returned to civilian Ii fe, was married shortly after coming out of the army, and was engaged in farming in Thomas County, Georgia, until 1867. For se,eral years he assisted his father on the old homestead in Alabama, and on February 22, 1881, he arrived in Polk County, Florida, and settled four miles south of Lakeland. Ile lived in that locality u ntil July 4, 1885. When Mr. Tucker came to Polk County its tota l population, including ne groes and a few Indians, was 3,260. Mr. Tucker drew up the papers for the incorporation of the town of Lakeland, and was e l ected president of the first Town Council, serving out the year. He was then elected mayor, and for three suc cessive terms discharged the duties of that of fice. During the yellow fever epidemic at Tampa in 18g7 a County Board of Health was estab lished, Mr. Tucker being elected president. Later Orange and Osceo l a counties joined Polk County in forming the South Florida Health Association. and under this organization Mr. Tucker was put in charge of the work in Polk County, in cluding supervision of the quarantine regulations at the county line between Polk and Hillsboro counties. Mr. Tucker opened the first law ofiice in Lake land, in 1887. He is still practicing, after nearly forty years' continuous service as an attorney. He was the first justice of the peace, and also the first notary public appointed for the county in 1882. He was the first express agent and the lirst real estate agent in Lakeland. Ile is a rharler member of the Masonic Lodge, and served as its secretary for many years and later as wor shipful master .• \t the age of sixteen Mr. Tucker joined the Congregational Methodist Church, and was pastor of several churches in Alabama prior lo his coming to Florida. For eight years he sen-eel as secretary of the General Conference in Georgia, Alahama and Mississippi and was also editor of the official organ of this denomination. He is now a member of the First Methodist Church at l~'lkeland. April 27, 1865, Mr. Tucker married Miss Mary Hays, of Thomas County, Georgia. She died a little more than forty years later, on November 15, 1905. To their marriage were born six chil dren: l\Iary E., \\ ifc of C. M. Evans, of Jacksonville; Gussie, who died December s, 18g5 Pierce, who died February 26, 1899; l\IcI endree'. who is express route agent at Gainesville; Annie, who died in 1908; and Eppes, Jr., a prominent young attorney at Lakeland. The subject of this sketch is the offspring of two of the most prominent families of Virginia -the Tucker and the Eppes families. His j!reatgrandfather in Virginia married a Miss Eppes. \\Then their son was born he was named Eppes Tucker, and in that way the name came into the Tucker family. His grandfather, Eppes Tucker, was a prominent minister in the Methodist Epis copal Church from 1803 to 1828 in Georgia and South Carolina. \Vhen the 1fethodist Protestant Church was organized, about 1828, he joined that branch of the church. McKendree Tucker, father of the subject of this sketch, was for many years president of the Methodist Protestant Church in Georgia, but in 1852, when the Con gregational Methodist Church was organized in 0eo_rgia, both these ancestors joined that organ-1zat1on. Mr. Tucker is a thoroughly orthodox Methodist. He takes no stock in th~ so-called higher criticism or rationalism, hut regards that mo\'e mcnt as a vicious and wicked effort on the part of infidels to array themselves in the garments of christianity and pose as followers of Jesus Christ. He delights in the true efforts of men of science to unfold the truth of science, but when they deny the Divinity of Jesus Christ, his miraculous conception, resurrection and ascension then he parts company with them. N. A. RrGGINS first became interested in Lake land forty years ago, when it was one of the primitive villages of Polk Cot1nty. Ilis permanent home and interests have been centered there for over a qt1arter of a centt1ry, and in many ways he has t1sed his enterprise and capital to develop the country and ghc the city the modern facilities it now enjoys. :tlfr. Riggins was born at New Providence, 1Iontgomery Cot1nty, Tennessee, September 25, 1858. At the age of fourteen he went to Paducah, 1,entucky, and he lived at Dexter, 1!i. souri, for a nt1mhcr of years. In Fehniary, 1882, on com ing to Florida, he traveled ahout the state, and two year~ latrr he came to Lakeland, when there were only a few houses in the town. \\'hile his previot1s experience had largely been in mercantile lines, he hought and operated a saw-mill in this vicinity. Later he went back to Missouri for eight years, and in 1895 hecamc a permanent resident of Lakeland. Mr. Riggins was the means of building the first Novelty Works at Lakeland, and with other associates he erected

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HISTORY OF FLORIDA 151 the first ice plant. He also owned and conducted a general store, which later became an exclusive dry goods business. While a member of the city government he helped build two water plants for the city. Mr. Riggins has entered actively into the constructive program for the development of Lakeland. He was acth e in the building of the Lakeland Auditorium, a church and about twenty-five other structures, and at the present time he is owner of about fourteen rental prop erties. In the real estate business he has employed almost altogether his own capital. In 1883 Mr. Riggins married in : Missouri Miss , allie M . Richardson. They haw three children: Pattie, wife of John W. Darracott, of Lakeland; . :Margaret Frances; and L. \Vallace, proprietor of the Riggins l\lotor Company of Lakeland. The family arc members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mr. Riggins served as bond trustee for the Light and \Vater Plant owned by the city, was a member of the City Council three different times, for several years was on the local School Board and also twice a member of thL county School Board. FRANK JonN ATTLER has been a business man of Monticello for twenty-five years. The busi ness especially associated with his name and en terprise is the growing and handling of seed, and his hou~e is the distributing center for a large volume of the seeds used for agricultural purposes throughout the South . l\fr. Sattler is also a banker. He was born in New York City, March 28, 1871, son of Frank and Louise Sattler, both natives of Gennanv. His father was born in 1836, a11d came to the United States at the age of eighteen, and his mother was born in 1844, and came to this country when she was sixteen years of age. Frank Sattler was a cabinet maker by trade, a very skilled worker, and for a number of years was connected with the piano making industry. He followed his trade in Torthern cities, and prior to the Civil war removed to New Orleans and from that city enlisted as a Confederate soldier. After the war, he returned to New York City, and for a time was connected with the Hartman Piano Company and later was a foreman in the shops of the Steinway Brothers Piano Company. On account of failing health he hrought his fam ily to J cfferson County, Florida, in 1876, and after that he lived on and conducted a farm until his death in July, 1909. Frank John Sattler grew up on his father's farm near :Monticello, and acquired more than a routine knowledge of agriculture. He attended public schools at Monticello, and during the summer of 1891 entered Eastman's Business College at Poughkeepsie, cw York. He remained in the North fiye years and was employed in the ac counting room with the great New York mercantile house of The H. B. Claflin ompany. On returning to Monticello he was engaged in the fancy grocery business, and five years later es tablished the general mercantile firm of West & Sattler. About 1899 Mr. Sattler began the growing of watermelon seeds of all standard varieties, and the success that attended this en terprise caused him in time to give up general merchandising and devote all his energies and capital to the seed business. This business is exclusively wholesale to Southern jobbers and seedmen. Mr. Sattler is one of the original directors and a vice president of the Farmers & Merchants Bank of Monticello. He served eight years as deputy clerk of Circuit Court and has also been a member of the City Council and also served on the State Democratic Executive Committee, and is secretary, treasurer and vestryman of the Epis copal Church. During the World war he had places on all the committees who were direct • ing the local war program. Mr. Sattler is a past master of the :Masonic Lodge, was a member of the Building Committee for the erection of the Masonic Temple at l\Ionticello in 1914, is past high priest of Jefferson Chapter No. 26, R. A. M., a member of Council No. 6, R. & S. M., Monti cello Commandery No. 26., K. T., and Morocco Temple of the Mystic Shrine. In New York City in 1898 he married l\Iiss Hermina Louise Finer, a native of New York City, and daughter of Charles Ignatz and Elizal ~ cth ~ine_r. Her mother_ was born in Germany and ched m New York City at the age of eighty four. Her father was born in Alsace-Lorraine, and was a wholesale confectioner. He died at the age of ninety-one. Mrs. Sattler was liberally educated, is a trained vocalist, having .studied music in the Damrosch Conservatory of New York City. She has been a teacher of music in 11onticello, and has been a leader in social mu-sical, club and religious circles. ' LYNN \V1LLIAM B1.00111, manager and editor of the Lakeland Star-Telegram, took up journalism as his profession in his native state of Kansas, and was identified wjth the management and ownership of several newspapers in that state before coming to Florida. l\fr. Bloom was born at Edna in Labette County, Kansas, February 26, 1882 Ile had a liberal education as the foundation of his career. lie attended the Labette County High School, and in 19<)(1 graduated A. Il. from Baker Uni, ersity at Baldwin, Kansas. During his senior year he was manager of the College paper, the Baker Orange. 11r . Bloom was also a star athlete in his college days in basehall, football and basket ball, making all the university teams, being captain of the basebal team and manager of the basket ball team one year each. After leaving university Mr. Bloom removed to Topeka, and was associated with the State I ournal from J ()06 to 1909, at first as head of ihr c l assified department and then as assistant bu,incss manager. In 1909 he bought a half in terest in the Blade Empire of Concordia I ansas, and remained there seven years. St>lling out his interest in Kansas in 1916, Mr. Bloom came to Lakeland. For two years he was manager of the Lakeland Morning Star, and in 1918 he bought that paper and was owner, editor and publisher until the Morning Star and the Evening Telegram were consolidated September r, 1922. He is now general manager of the new paper the Lakeland Star-Telegram. Mr. Bloom's entry into Florida journalism was not so favorably received by the politicians be cause of his plain, outspoken manner in the columns of his paper and a general war he m:ide upon machine politics. He held onto that western manner of saying what he thought regard-

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152 HISTORY OF FLORIDA less of where it fell and s tood by principles which he believed right in a method that was at firsl classed by some as fanatical. HoweYer, his clear cut policy and continued straight forward, consistent program through the years has almost complt-tely won public sentiml'nt on his side and [lroH'd to the people generally that his light for a cleaner government and equal tax adjti-;tment for the people of Lakeland and Polk County, was without a doubt correct and the only course that should have been adopted originally. Though not eligible fur army service, 1fr. Bloom made several attempts to get accepted for the tank corps of1icers training school. Failing in this he joined the \'. M. C. A. under the War Council, and was stationed at Camp Greene, • orth Carolina. He had his overseas papers when the armistice was signed. \V h ile at Camp Greene he was editor of the camt> paper. 1fr. Bloom is a Knight Templar Mason and a member of the Kappa Sigma College fraternity. February 9, 1909, he married : Miss Grace Mary Beard. They haYe one s on, Thomas Russell Bloom. Mr. Bloom is a booster for his county and city, a member of the Kiwanis club and takes a general interest in all civic affairs. THOMAS BucKINGIIAM BIRD is a prominent young lawyer of Monticello, representing the third generation of the family in Jefferson Coun ty, is the present county judge, and has been active in his law practice and in public affairs since his discharge from the arm; with the rank of captain. Captain Bird was born October II, 1892, on a p l antation near Drifton in Jefferson County. His grandfather was Major Pickens B. Bird, a native of Edgefield District, South Carolina. Coming to Florida, he became a planter, and at the be ginning of the Civil war he joined the Confed erate Army, served with the rank of major, and was killed in the battle of Cold Harhor. Daniel B. Bird, father of Captain Bird, was reared and educated in Jefferson County, and as a young man, took up railroad work. He was a passenger con ductor on what is now the Atlantic Coast Line Rail Road. He made his home at Monticello, and after retiring from the railroad service engaged in p l anting and was elected and served two terms as sheriff, being in office when the courthouse was built. He lived for twenty years in Monticello, superintending his plantation at the same time. He was one of the largest individua l owners of pecan groves in the county. He died at Monti cello February 18, 1921, at the age of sixty-two. Daniel B. Bird married Mary Elizabeth Ulmer, a native of Jefferson County. Her father, Capt. John Ulmer, was born in Edgefie l d District, South Carolina. Coming to Florida as a young man, he was prominent in this community, served in the Civil war and died in 19o6. Only chi l d of his parents, Thomas Buckingham Bird was reared and educated in Monticello, and finished both the literary and law courses at the University of Florida, graduating as Bachelor of Science in 1914 and as Bachelor of Laws in 1916. In university he was a Kappa Alpha and a Phi Delta Phi. Mr. Bird had only a brief period of practice before America declared war against Germany. In April, 1917, he volunteered and attended the First Officers Training Camp at Fort McPherson, was commissioned as second lieutenant of infantry, assigned to Camp Gordon in Company A of the Three Hundred and Twentieth Ma chine Gun Battalion, Eighty-second Divis ion, and in December, 1917, was promoted to first lieuten ant. He went overseas with his regiment in 1918, and was with the Eighty-second Division in the Toul sector. In August, 1918, he was promoted to captain, and shortly afterward was sent back to the United States to Camp Sheridan, for the purpose of carrying over a company in the Ninth Division. The signing of the armistice cancelled that duty, and he was then transferred to Camp Sherman at Chillicothe, Ohio, with the Ninety fifth Division, and received his honorable discharge there on December ro, 1918. However, he is still retained with the rank of captain of infantry in the Reserve Corps . In the beginning of 1919 Mr. Bird resumed the general pract ice of law at Monticello. He became a member of the City Council, and on January J, 1921, took up his duties as county judge of Jefferson County. He is a member of Otto M . \Valker Post No. 49 of the American Legion, is a member of the Board of Stewards of the Meth odist Episcopal Church, and is affiliated with Hiram Lodge No. 5, A. F. and A. M. Mr. Bird is unmarried. In addition to his law practice he is owner of several pecan groves, and is one of the prosperous, wide-awake citizens of the com munity. EuGENE HENRY SLAPPEY, president of Havana State Bank and a county commissioner of Gads den County, has as a result of many hard work ing years achieved much more than the ordinar.)I success of a good business man and citizen. He is an able banker, trusted implicitly by a large circle of friends, a man of mature judgment and with a comprehensive view over a wide range of business and public affairs. Mr. Slappey was born on a farm in Brooks County, Georgia, January 25, 1878. His father, Wesley \V. Slappey, was born in Fort Valley, Georgia, and at the age of eighteen enlisted in Company A, Eighth Georgia Calvary, Col. Joel R. Griffin, and disbanded at Oglethorpe, Georgia, by Colonel Griffin. Mr. Slappey served all through the war, returning home without surrendering. He married and continued farming in Brooks County until 1892 , when he moved to a farm near Havana in Gadsden County, and is now living retired. He married Elizabeth McLeod, a native of Brooks County, Georgia, who died at Havana in 1900. Fourth in a family of five children, Eugene Henry Slappey was fourteen years of age when hrought to Florida. He had attended schools in Georgia, and continued his education in Gads den County until he was seventeen. However, his school advantages were lim