Starkey well field -- Cotee and Anclote River basins

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Starkey well field -- Cotee and Anclote River basins

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Starkey well field -- Cotee and Anclote River basins
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon), 1905-2000
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box 3


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Everglades (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrogeology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida ( lcsh )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00631 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.631 ( USFLDC Handle )

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February 5, 1973 MEMORANDUM ,e~v,,e;, u~1rs ,::012 ~DfUMUJll>d' ,tll..114~ TO: DON R. FEASTER, ACTING EXEClITIVE DIRECTOR FROM: GARALD G. PARKER, SENIOR SCIENTIST SUBJECT: STARKEY WELL FIELD --COTEE AND ANCLOTE RIVER BASINS In accordance with your mem o of 01-15-73, subject above, the following scope of study and outlined recomm endations have been prepared. I. Introd u ction I. As water m a nager s our functions cannot be restricted just to water, for water is the common base u pon which all plant and animal life and all human activities d e p end. Our functions in m anaging wate r in all its manag eable aspects includ e the l a nd on a n d inwhich our w ater resources occur, and to the e xtent th_at we find our water-m a n agement activitie s h ave environmental imp acts, to make wise choices t o assure tha t whatever we do is in harmony with nature. Our problem s a r e , then, to understand the natural order of thing s i n the area of our responsi b ility and, once this understanding is clear, to proceed with the developme n t o f a n overall management plan that will permit the maximum developm ent, use , conservation and control o f our water and related land resources. "4.-r<-The problem5}1S far from simple ancl,.{people-problems related to the proper development and i m p lementation of .aT)-y ,Pl a n we might prepare m a y be harder to solve than the hydrologic and engineering problems that are involved. ~>u;~ We w that1 to manage anything, whether it be the behavior of a child, a family budget, a privately owned busines s venture or a governm ental operation such as a school sys tem , we must first understand it before we can manage it. And this is as true of our water resources as it is of anything e lse. Unfortunately, in the centuries leading up to the present, this need to under-stand, to develop without destroying, to cC?nserve while still ~ i.J d } L

II. fun R. Feaster February 5, 1973 Page -2-the nature a nd extent of uses and abuses that man has imposed on the natura~ system. After these basic understandings are in hand, and sound estimates have been developed on expected future growth of population and its demands upon the natural resources, we then are in a position to begin plans for intelligent management of the water resources. We do not now have all the needed information, but we do have much that is essential chiefly gathered by cooperative studies with the U. S. Geological Survey, both b y the Depa rtment of Natural Resources, Burea u o f Geology, some local agencies (cities and counties) a nd the SWFWMD since 1961. Some of the o ther data, particularl y stream-gaging, goes back to the turn of the century but most of it has been gathered since 1950 . Scope Inasmu c h as water is no respecter of political boundaries but obeys instead natural laws concerning its precipitation, evaporatio11, transpiration, runoff, aquifer recharge, flow and discharge, we n eed to develop our management plan in accordance with nature's grand plan as best we can understand it. To som e extent this was implicit in the thinking of those who established the SWFWND and its eleven river basins . These were established to follow, generally, topographic divides, a system that works well in most parts of the world andsfor flood-control, almost anyplace~M~~~~~~9L..EaJ~pply deve.l.,o ent the system breaks down because our streams.<. rre~ally not sources of water supply and we must, therefore depend upon groundwater supplies derived from our aquifer-aquiclude systems which underlie our District everywhere. An excellent example, in understanding the scope of our problem in developing a needed water supply for the urbanizing coastal areas of Pinellas, Pasc o and Hernando Counties, is need for new, large1dependable fresh-water sources as encroaching salt water destroys more and more formerly fresh-water sources along the coast. A new well field site was made available a few miles inland from New Port Richey, situated in all or parts of Sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 o f T26S, Rl7E and between the Pithlachascotee River on the north and the Anclote on the south. But the well field site is partly in our PinellasAnclote Basin and partly in our Pithlachascotee Basin. Any large-scale pumping from this well field (hope fully it will produce 25 to 30 mgd) will cause a wide-spread cone-of -draw

. . Don R. Feaster February 5,. 1973 Page -3-on the pie-shaped area shown on the attached map, comprising 273 mi2. The study referenced above was too broad in its subject concept to be the success it was hoped to be, yet not areally extensive enough to include all areas involved in water developments required. I would propose that in the scope of this presently proposed study we would limit our effort to, principally a study of the basic h ydrology and water-resources developmental impacts on the environment, chiefly with respect to effects on the flora (trees, shrubs , grasses, etc.) and on the drought-flood cycles as they affect the water crop tha t we c a n perennially exp ect from the two basins. The saltwater --fresh-water relationships will need to be thoroughly explored and a quantitative w ater-budget analysis made of the size and permanence of the water crop. -III. Outline of Work A. Contract as soon as possible for aerial photos and photogrammetric mapping of the m ain st~m of the Cotee River with coverages beginning on the west at edge of mapped area by Abrams' West Pasco mapping; on the south coincident with B-C-E mapping Anclote ba~in mapping; east to US 41 and north to includ e lower end of the 'Masaryktown B ypass Canal; thence southwest by south and west segments along main stem of Cotee about to l-bon Lake, northeast corner S28, T25S, R17E; thence due west to the Abrams' West Pasco line near Starks' Cemetery, southwest corner S22, T25S, Rl6E. The Starkey Well Field' s northern half lies within southern and western end of the above-described area. The mapping is needed not only for guidance in future development of the well field but for flood-anddrought management decisions in its effective use and protection. B. Drill two a _dditional deep wells at sites to be selected, one in the central part of the well field area itself and another as a salt-water outpost monitor about a mile due west of the western side of the well field. C. With these two new wells in place, and with a few additional shallow aquifer observation wells, run a comprehensive pumping test to obtain the data necessary to evaluate the well field' s potential performance. The test recently run by B-C-E gave inconclusive results: drawdown curves were not typical and no recovery curves wer e developed to check against drawdown, therefore indicate d values of T, Sand P'/m' are suspect. D. With the well field so close to the salt-water tongue it will be imperative to prevent excessive drawdown. To the extent that the field can be recharged with excess runoff, the well field can be ~ade to yield just that much more water. Means will need to be develope d to divert excess flows into the well field and, if need be, connector wells be installed t o speed up the quantity of water recharged.and the time taken to achieve recharge. E. To hold water in the stream channels higher than nature has provided for,


. . . Don R. Feaster February 5,• 1973 Page -4-and to prevent the incursion of salt water up the Cotee and Anclote channels beyond a critical point in each system, studies will need to be made as soon as possible to determine the sites to be used, the kinds of control structures needed (they should be some form of flexible, not fixed structures) and the height determined foreach site at which water levels should be usually maintained. Generally these structure s should be placed as far downstream as feasible and hold water behind the structures to the highest reasonable levels. _On the Pithlaschascotee a structure near the center of Sec. 11 might be feasible. Here the stream valley is about 0.2 mile wide (between the 20-foot contours and water could probably be held up to this level behind the structure allowing a maxi mum of recharge to the well field. On the Anclote a similar level might be held by means of a structure downstream as far as possible below the Seven Springs bridge on Gunn High way . The channel is fairly deep and narrow to some point in the NW 1/4 of Sec. 23. Careful study of locations would determine the most suitable sites. Study should also be directed into the best ways and means of achieving artificial as well as induced recharge to the well field, including diversion channels or pumping stations and recharge-water pipelines from the streams into th~ well field. F. An indepth study of the potential water crop from the Cotee-Anclote combined basin should be made at once. As shown on the attached map, the ground-water basin of this area comprises about 273 mi 2 . Reappraisal should be made of both long-term and of recent annual water budgets. Careful appraisal of annual water bud gets have never been made of this ground-water basin but this is an essential, particularly as recent years have included protracted droughts and therefore should show effects of drought on the basin's water crop. G. It must b e realized that the Eldridge-Wilde well field of the County of Pinellas and the Pasco \, ell field of St. Petersburg are both within this basin and are the b:i r,•,;est single sburces of consumptive use from this ground-water basin. Pu ,--ing tests to evaluate the E.-W. field should b!;! completed within the m o~L;. thus giving, for the very first time, usable values of T, S and P' /m' . .-:ith these values from the Eldridge-Wilde, Pasco and the Starkey we ields as inputs, the available water crop for total devt " :nt should not be too difficult. In con-nection with Eldridge-W' importation of excess flows in the Brooker Creek watershed should l '!• ied. Sources and means of obtaining the recharge waters, plus p l or the actual recharge to the well field should be studied. H. The salt-water encroachr. study recently completed 'for the Pasco County area by the U. S. Geo log: . . l Survey (Map Series No. 4 7; _1972) should now be extended into Pin:'. -;is County and thus furnish data on the lower Anclote River not now a v_,..,; lable. Further, means must be provided for continuous refinement of t:he monitor-well system and seasonal or semiannual monitoring of the entire coastal zone where salt-water encroachment is underway. . ,, , , . . ,


Don R. Feaster February 5, 1973 Page -5-I. Weeki Wachee Spring with its 100 mgd average flow lies within the Cotee Basin and Chassahowitzka (53 mgd) and Homosassa (1 20 mgd) lie just outside in the Crystal-Homosassa Basin. At least the Weeki Wachee area should be carefully investigated to determine how best to develop as much excess flow from this big spring as possible. I would think that emplacing• a few test wells in a well-field pattern inland from Weeki Wachee and spaced along the 20-foot potentiometric contour, would be adequate not only to determine the basic hydrologic parameters of T, S and P'/m ' but woul d also enable us to determine how much water can be taken from the aquifer without unduly harming eithe1 the flow of Weeki Wachee Spring but also the riiparian rights of landowners downstream from the spring. J. If the Crystal-Romosassa Basin Board would be amenable, similar studies and testing should be carried out on Chasshowitzka and Homosassa . Later, the huge springs of Crystal River sr,ould likewise be investigated. K. A concerted study effort, making use of a digital computer model, should be prepared for the entire shoreline zone of salt-water encroachment from Crystal Beac h or Palm Harbo r on the south to Yellow Point on the north, a distance of about 18 miles (see map) . Objective of this study would be to detenn.ine the probable effects of augmenting the water crop of the Cotee-Anclote basin by desalination of brackish well water taken from wells ending in the upper inlan~ part of the salt-water wedge where chlorides are less than 8,000 mg/1. The saline or brackish water i n that zone may well offer an attractive means of additional freshwater supplies, but is there a chance of inducing further encroachment of salt water by pumping the brackish? Would the brackish source become saltier with tim .... and cause changing well sites so as to have a continuing source of low-salt content? Row should taking large quantities of brackish waters from this shore zone be managed for optimum returns on pumping and desalination equipment? Could we safely take 50 to 100 mgd from this zone with no adverse effects? Answers to these and related questions would be forthcoming from such a computer program and could be developed by a compet ent firm.of ground-water consultants. L. To effect the studies herein proposed and to do it 'With the least loss of time, I propose that we hire an experienced and well-known firm o f hydrologic consultants who specialize i n ground-water hydrology. Mr. Feaster and I have both recently discussed our hydrologic problems with •tessrs. David }liller and Oliver Lewis o f the firm of Geraghty and ~liller and believe that it would be to our advantage to hire this firm. Their national headquarters are at! Water Research Bldg., Manhasset Isle, Port Washin gton, New York 11050; their F lorida headquarters are at: 2111 N. }bnroe Street, Industrial National Bank Bldg., Tallahassee, florida 32303. Respective telephone numbers are: (516) 883-6760 and (904) 385-4651. I would further propose that the firm be contacted again for a conference with appropriate District and Basin Board members, together with appropriate staff members to arrange mutually agreeable tenns and contract for the work envisio.ed here.


lhn R. Feaster February 5, 1973 ' Page -6-M. This same finn could also be hired to do similar work for us on the Alafia-Little M.'.lnatee, but this will be the subject of a subsequent memo. N. GGP:ld Items above Kall relate to the Cotee-Anclote study but have not included environmental asp ects of the project. These should be h andled by a separate consultant, one tha t specializes in environmental matters. Their main con cern would be to evaluate the effects of d eveloping the well fields , r echarge works, channelization that may be needed, and other related matters . The principal objective of this study, mainly biologic in nature, would be to include plans that would allow the development of water from the $tarkey w ell field while maintaining, as nearly as is consistent with this development, the area in its current near-wild condi~ion. Mr. Starkey envisions this area as a natural park for the enjoyment of the people and a wild-life preserve for the native wild creatures. ~tails of these environmental concerns should be prepared by the Acting Chief, Environmental Department. Attachment P.S. Should the Governing Board or Basin Boards decide that several capable corisultants be interviewed, de spite this taking more time and the risk of not getting a more competent firm than that proposed above, the following firms should be considered. The listing is alphabetical. (1) Michael Baker, Inc., Consulting Engineers Box 1336, Barnett National Bank Tampa, Florida 33601 (2) Dames & Moore, Consulting Ground-Water Geologists and Hydrologists Two Pennsylvania Avenue New York, New York 10001 (3) Richard W. Davis & Associates, Ground-Water Geologists and Geophysicists Department of Geolo gy, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois 62901 618/453-3351 (4) Geraghty and Miller, Consulting Ground-Water Geologists 2111 N. Monroe Street, Industrial National Bank Bldg. Tallahassee, Florida 32304 904/385-4651 (5) William F. Guyton & Associates, Consulting Ground-Water Hydrologists 212 First Federal Savings Bldg. Austin, Texas 78701 (6) Leggette, Brashears & Graham, Consulting Ground-Water Geologists 551 Fifth Avenue New York, New York 10017


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