Surface impoundments and their effects on ground-water quality in the United States


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Surface impoundments and their effects on ground-water quality in the United States

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Title:
Surface impoundments and their effects on ground-water quality in the United States
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Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon)
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English
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Box 3

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Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Everglades (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrogeology -- Florida ( lcsh )
Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00632 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.632 ( USFLDC Handle )

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PAGE 1

A SUMMARY JSlrn • , I! I I ii 5 n O 8 Cl>l.JeJ...t.HtCo,..)f 0 c. t!>" e'RV , ew . ,bVJ,.(!) INTRODUCTION 2.t Nature of the Problem '2.'2-Definition of Impoundment '?1-;,,,-2.3 Legislative Background 2.4 Previous Studies 2./5Scope of I~stigation JI ,JJ&/'+7)7>1/J 2.,Acknowledgpments . . 'L.tlQU( 0-,WA'STlit' ~l~O PHYSICAL AND OPERATIONAL fEAT. U , RES OF/IMPOUNDMENTS -:t:UP:CJUU Oc:IJ 1J ,.1 Types offg ; ___..-, _ . ~-==--~d,,-.:t! /4'#-#~ ~ZUses ~l,l)ctst.e- •~lua'.& , ~ pott~6'1~~i.Jh ~q;:g. -/;,.,$1-S>if""~ hr1I}) . --n~,. Impoundrnent Practices of Selected Dischargers -n?>tl!UI Municipalities '3--3.2 Industries ., 3.,.,3 Agriculture .. 3.~# Mining 3.J.S Pr i va te-Cornmercial .. ~.i., Others '-ftmf? 4-0 IMPOUNDMENT INVENTORY ESTIMATE 4.1 Data Collection Methods. and Sources .... ., ., .. 4.1.1 Contact with States "I.I. 1.1 Teleph'orie and Mail Inquiries 4iL2Field Visits to Selected St~tes 4'.l '2. Contact with Federal Agencies 4.1.'1./ Telephone and Mail Inquiries 4J %.1. EPA 4-./."ZJ U.S. Soil Conservation s ervice Al,l.tlU. S. Bureau of Census 4:1.z.~u. s. Corps of Engineers 4-.I, :.& :tJ, S. Ge.clay ,cs/ sur11-"1 ? I

PAGE 2

... ' ' . -~-.~Unconsolidated and Semi-consolidated Rocks H ~~/Gravel and Sand ,, ').S:J.Silt and Clay 11 C. 1-S"". 3 Al 1 uv i um . ,, & 1 .1".4 Volcanic Sediments 11 I, •• ,.s Glacial Deposits ,, G, . , Consolidated Rocks ,, , 3 ,.r Conglomerate \1 I ~-' :,,. Sands tone and Quartzite ,, .i.&.3shale and Slate ,JL .,.t.4Limestone and Other Carbonate Rocks 'U • 3. "-S'volcanic Flows ,, • -t '-~ Granitic Rocks , ~ 1..7 Aquifer Systems • 3 7-I Shoestring Aquifers • .,I. 7.z Residual Soils on Bedrock .J,f Mechanisms of Contamination from Impoundments l\.l " 7,O{Aquifer Vulnerability by EPA Regions-.! \) lt9eneral Discussion . .-=,uT '1'l,,J'. -..L ~~,._ t~:J... W . J Region I CoMl\.4... . ' r~---"~-4.. / 7 ,. 7--a.-. Region II ~-/:_-"-&..-..a~~ ,,..;;Ji. ~-Zc:, F .. 7-3 Region III ~d~~c4#~ . •• 7. 4 Region IV • ,._~ -48 s-'&;' Q J .. 7-5" Region V 7 . . . • O#f,11 " 7•-' Region VI i&c ~~v'7 b~ .;I~••~~ 'ff_ • ':,:, • 7-7 Region VII .. ,& ~-0 k • -.. ;t;._ .. "J.2-/zj;;:: • 7-1' Region VIII W-.,. •""_ ~/ . . / ~1 / at.JI'" .. "1-'l Region IX ak---~-Ae1f" • 7-Ai> Region X -.,.4 ' 1rz;.:~-~-,--7,e:I EVIDENCE OF AQUIFER CONTAMINATION FROM TED CASE HISTORIES ~*•"r~ J,1,.44.,_-.,,.'JlS;r' Summarize Selected Cases in Tables and in Expanded ,l, • Discussions;. Group by Category and States ~,.-4•-~'" • ~" CONTROl:. AND ABATEMENT OF CONTAMINATION f""~~d,/' Technological ContrOls and Cost Elements (A.D. Littfej''"' J,.a:-0 Legal Controls and Institutions e,l,-14,.-77 Summary by States . Expanded Discussion of Controls for about Eight Selected States ~'l.O ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL ENDANGERMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES IN SELECTED AREAS (Hydrogeologic and Economic Factors) ~/ Long Island, New York .,,,,,,r 1/,Z H~:mderson, Nevada , 1-1'1 ! q.3 ~,.-na.t.d, Ohio . . . . r _,_ ._ r.-'l l: d. ~t, 1fhrt'. Q/f, Idaho National Laboi:ato"l• ~"'o $, 8 ,Jll,i:Jt:/-s-G,..a .. f-s, Newf.A~ico . . ,M,eJ q.6 'Brokaw~ Peshn10,WCSWV'Ull1

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-,n,,P 4,~ .. 3 Information RP.trieval ~L~I Published Reports •• A.J.'3,"'J. Computer Printouts of Impoundment Facilities 4-i~compilation and Analysis of Inventory Data • 4.~(Municipal Facilities, by States an~ Pop~lation Groups .. q.J..i Private-Commercial and Institutional Facilities • ~'2.1 Industrial Facilities. , by States and SIC Categories • 4.'2J/ Agricultural Facilities, by States .. 4.2.5' Uses of . Impoundments, by States 4,::i.~uses of Impoundments, by SIC Category 711Jl,I? 4 3 Nationwide Summary • ~I Numbers _ ., q. ~'l.Volumes ... 4.4 Accuracy and Completeness of Data 7t7Hf'!;:0 CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPOUNDED MATERIALS .. S:I General Features S. 'l-Composition by SIC Category 5.~ Biodegradability and Toxicity Occurrence of Contaminants in Ground Water W6.6 CONTAM.INATION POTENTIAL ~.( General Discussion 4-~Water-bearing Characteristics of Rocks ,.~/ Porosity and Permeability (,.J.Z.. Water Table and Potentiometric Sur.face ,~J Aquifers and Aquicludes ~~-, Vulnerability of Aquifers to Contamination .. Effects of Soils ,, . &, l l,Effects of Climate ,, c. ,.7Aquifer Fabric -. 6,,3.7/Bedrock Matrix ,, ,.,.3-~Openings in Matrix .. l,.J/3Impermeable Layers ., 4'.-!, ft-water-yielding Capacity •• ~-,.'r. Transm, i tting and Storing Capacity

PAGE 4

SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATION GENERAL OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION REPORT OUTLINE Nature of the Problem De~inition of Impoundment Legi~lative Background Previous Studies Scope of Investigation Acknowledgements l'J GENERAL FEATURES OF IMPOUNDMENTS • Construction Uses )t>ESCRIPTION OF.IMPOUNDMENT PRACTICES .BY SELECTED CATEGORH!S ..,~ Municipal Private-Commercial ~~._,_ Industrial-Manufacturing rp Agricultural Mining Oil and Gas ~?PRELIMINARY INVENTORY Oata Collection and Sources Contacts with States Contacts with Federal Agencies Compilation and Analysis of Known Information Municipal Impoundments by States and Population Groups Private-Commercial and Institutional, Impoundments by-States In.dustrial Impoundments ,by States and SIC Categories Agricultural Impoundments,by States Use of Impoundments, by States Use of Impoundments, by SIC Category Nationwide Summary Known and Estimated Sites Known and Estimated Volumes ~eliability and Comp~eteness of D ata

PAGE 5

• , . CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPOUNDED WASTE FLUIDS OiY"-General Characteristics Composition, by SIC Category ? Relation Between Contaminants in Impo~ndments and in Ground Water CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL General Discussion Effects of Soils Effects of Climate Water-bearing Characteristics of Rocks Porosity and Permeability Water Table and Potentiometric Surfaces Aquifer Fabric Impermeable Layers Water-yielding Capacity Transmissivity and Storage Capacity Aquifers and Confining Units Hydrogeologic Characteristics of Principal Rock Types Unconsolidated and Semi-consolidated Rocks Gravel and Sand Silt and Clay Consolidated Rocks Conglomerate, Sandstone, and Quartzite Sh.ale Carbonate Rocks Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks

PAGE 6

• l • MECHANISMS OF AQUIFER CONTAMINATION FROM LEAKY IMPOUNDMENTS Construction Factors Hydrogeologic Factors Geochemical Factors 1 ~ AQUIFER VULNERABILITY, BY EPA REGIONS General Discussion Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Region X CASE HISTORIES OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION General Summary Representative Case Histories , : I t ,I' I I TECHNICAL CONTROLS AND ABATEMENT op CONTAMINATION Preventative and Remedial Actions Development of Unit.Cost Factors :-, I

PAGE 7

ASSESSMENT OF HYDROGEOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF LEAKY IMPOUNDMENTS Long Island, N.Y. Las Vegas -Henderson Area, Nevada ,JM-/> Brokaw, Wisconsin ~ Ferneld, Ohio '-.-M , • ~-f"I 9 Grants, New Mexico . ?Pennsylvania, -Miscellaneous LEGAL CONTROLS AND INSTITUTIONS General Overview of the State Regulatory Situation ctn a~ Selected State Controls CLOSING COMMENTS APPENDIX ....

PAGE 8

, i OUTLINE, EPA-SI, PT. IV ,,..,GGP 2-2-77 ,, f)..;t(//:,.? . -~;.-77 / VULNERABILITY OF THE NATION'S AQUIFERS G ~ , TO CONTAMINATION FROM SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSJ F (!_41"'-y .L.fl,,,~-r~ I ~I ..,,.1. /2. 3. y4. ./ 5. / Introduction C E i g:u ,re 1) Porosity and 1 vs. clay -examples) Ground water, the water table and the potentiometric surface Aquifers and aquicludes {Figures 2 and 3) 6. Vulnerability of aquifers to contamination .... ,,. 6.1 Effects of soils and overburden materials . . ~1.) Effects of climate {"T-~ . S Effects of aquifer fabric and framework upon groundwater occurrence /4.3.1 Bedrock matrix: effects upon permeability and storage / . 6.3.3 / 6.3.4 Openings in the matrix: cracks, joints, faults, solution op~nings Impermeable or semi-permeable layers and lenses Water-yielding capacity vs. water-acceptance capacity Water-bearing, transmitting and storing characteristics principal types of aquifers 6.4.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated rocks as aquifers 6.4.1.1 Gravel and sand 6.4.1.2 Silt and clay /, 6.4.1.3 Alluvium and colluvium / 6.4.1.4 Volcanic sediments

PAGE 9

/ 7.3 Region III {Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia) 7.3:i:l nconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.3. Consolidated aquifers 7.2 3 Summary 7.4/Region IV {Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida) 7.4.2 7.4.3 and unconsolidated aquifers / 7.4.4 Summary 7.5 Region V {Min ~sota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana Oh ) 7.5.1 7.5.2 and semi-consolidateQ aquifers 7.5.3; consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.5.4 Case history -7.5.5 Summary 7.6 Region VI (New Mexico, ~klahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana) 7.6.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.6.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.6.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.6.4 Case histories -{a) Houston, Texas (ind.); (b) Oklahoma City -Shawnee -Cyril, Oklahoma; (oil and mun.) 7.6.5 Summary

PAGE 10

Glacial drift, till and outwash deposits __,_..,..---~ 6. 4. 2 ~onsolidated rocks as aquifers 6. 4. 2 .1 C:onglornerate 6.4.2.2 Sandstone and quartzite / ~.2.3 6.4.2.4 /4' 6.4.2.5 Shale and slate Limestone and related calcareous rocks: dolomite, chalk, marl Volcanic surfaglfal flows, such as basalt n~ rhyolite such as granite and ~.4.3 Aquifer systems composed of both consolidated and unconsolidated rocks ~.4.3.-/" Residual or other soils over consolidated rocks I 6.4.3.,J' Narrow (shoestring) aquifers in valley fills Aquifer vulnerability by E.P.A. Regions .1 Region I (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachussetts, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine) aquifer types Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers Consolidated aquifers Summary Region II (New York, New Jersey) A Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers Consolidated aquifers 7.2.3 7. ' 4 Case history -Long Island Summary -2-t.

PAGE 11

/ 7.3 Region III (Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginhi) 7.3i l nconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.3. Conso. lidated aquifers 7.2 3 Summary 7.4/Region IV (Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida) 7.4.1 Unco solidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.4.3 and unconsolidated aquifers ; 7.4.4 Summary 7.5 Region V Indiana 7.5.1 7.5.2 Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and semi-consolidateg aquifers solidated aquifers 7.5.3/Botti consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.5.4 Case history / 7.5.5 Summary 7.6 Region VI (New ~exico, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana) 7.6.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.6.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.6.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.6.4 Case histories (a} Houston, Texas (ind.); (b} Oklahoma City -Shawnee -Cyril, Oklahoma; (oil and mun.) 7.6.5 Summary

PAGE 12

Region VII (Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri) 7.7.1 Uncon lidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.7.2 7.7.3 olidated aquifers Region VIII ontana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota) 7.8.1 Uncon lidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.8.2 7.8.3 aquifers "'{~ V?.9 Region IX (California, Nevada, Arizon~ 7.9.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.9.2 Consolidated aquifers . / 7. 9. 3 Summary a..,e,--k V7.10 Region X (Washington, Oregon, Idaho) ;'--7 .10. l Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.10.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.10.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.10.4 Summary 8. The national situation 8 .1 Quantities .of leachate being introduced in fresh-water / .,.1 aquifers u~lized for drinking water 8.1.1 Accidental leaching (number of surface impoundments involved) 8.1.2 Purposeful or intentional leaching (number of surface impoundments involved) 8.1.3 Potential additional surface impoundments that may pose threats to fresh-water aquifers (numbers) 8.1.4 Cases of reported contamination caused by agricultural practices

PAGE 13

TOPIC A L OUTLINE g-o.J.. :r-;zg IMPOUNDMENT INVENTORY ESTIMATE Data Collection Methods and Sources Contacts with States Telephone and Mail Inquiries Field Visits to Selected States Contacts with Federal Agencies Telephone and Mail Inquiries EPA U.S. Soil Conservation Service U.S. Bureau of Census U.S. Corps of Engineers Information Retrieval Published Reports Section 303 River Basin Reports Computer Printouts of Impoundment Facilities Printouts from EPA NPDES Lists Printouts from States Municipal Industrial Agricultural Other Sources Compilation and Analysis of Inventory Data Municipal Facilities, by State and Population Groups Private-Commercial and Institutional Facilities Industrial Facilities, by States and SIC-Categories Agricultural Facilities, by States Uses of Impoundments, by States Uses .of Impoundments, by SIC Category Nationwide Summary Numbers Volumes Accuracy and Completeness of Data

PAGE 14

I Region VII (Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri} 7.7.1 Uncon lidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.7.2 7.7.3 olidated aquifers ary Region VIII ontana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota} 7.8.1 Uncon lidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.8.2 7.8.3 -t~ V?.9 Regio. n IX (California, Nevada, Arizon~ 7.9.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.9.2 Consolidated aquifers . / 7. 9. 3 Summary a.Lr-"-<-V 7 .10 Region X (Washington, Oregon, Idaho) A 7.10.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.10.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.10.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.10.4 Summary 8. The national situation 8.1 Quantities of leachate being introduced in fresh-water / aquifers u~lized for drinking water . l, 8.1.l Accidental leaching (number of surface impound-ments involved} 8.1.2 Purposeful or intentional leaching (number of surface impoundments involved} 8.1.3 Potential additional surface impoundments that may pose threats to fresh-water aquifers (numbers} 8.1.4 Cases of reported contamination caused by agricultural practices _,1_

PAGE 15

8.1.5 Cases of reported contamination caused by industrial pract~ces 8.1.6 Cases of reported contamination caused by municipal practices 9. Summary: Magnitude of danger to nation's water supply (drinking water) and where the danger exists. Cite several case history results. -5-

PAGE 16

EXPANDED OUTLINE IMPOUNDMENT INVENTORY ESTIMATE -Data Collection Methods and Sources Contacts with States Telephone and Mail Inquiries -All States contacted for readily available datar Field Visits to Selected States -About 15 scattered States visited co'vering the area from New Hampshire to Colorado (Figure ). Interviews with State officials and review of file data. Contacts with Federal Agencies Telephone and Mail Inquiries EPA -Visits to Regions I, II, III, and v'jfJ •C9nferences with NPDES and computer section officials, and others. Review of NPDES facilities lists and permit files to identify ponds and lagoons U.S. Soil Conservation Service -National Engineering Handbook: Deicription of facilities; estimates of SCS assisted impoundment facilities, by States U.S. Bureau of Census -Census of water use in Manufacturing Industries, by States and SIC categories; Census of water use in Mining Industries, by States and SIC categories; Irrigation Census U.S. Corps of Engineers Dam Inventory Report -Five vol. Survey of dams by States, giving heights, uses, in storage capacity of reservoirs~ and hazard evaluation. Estimates of tailing ponds, industrial, and fresh-water impoundments. Information Retrieval Published Reports Section 303 River Basin Reports listing mainly pointsource dischargers and flows. Not complete, generally do not list data for discharging lagoons. Vary in detail from State to State. SIC categories identified in some reports; not in others. Computer Printouts of Impoundment Facilities Printouts from EPA -Municipal facilities inventory for all States. Data ranged in ~ge from 1968 to 1973. Gave population served, flows, and treatment procedures identifying lagoons.

PAGE 17

• • Accuracy and Completeness of Data Municipal facilities estimates were availaple for all States from EPA sources; data were outdated in some States. In some States, data on private-commer9ial, and institutional facilities were not available. The biggest data gap was for industrial facilities where the information ranged from fair to excellent. In many States data were readily available only for industrial facilities with discharging lagoons, as for example, in NPDES records and Section 303 Reports. Fairly complete tabulations were available for a number of States, but in a few States no data were readily available. Uses of impoundments were not clearly identified in many inventory records. Volumes of flow are another area of uncertainty because of the method of reporting and sources of data. In particular, it is difficult to make a good estimate of the amount of water in impoundments that is lost due.to evaporation compared with seepage to ground water. Finally, it should be noted that the inventory counts in Tables . to . identify numbers of sites only at which one or more lagoons are present. The precise number of ponds and lagoons is unknown from present data, but for approximation purposes, it may be assumed that, on a national basis, there is an average oftthree impoundments at each site.

PAGE 18

NPDES Lists -Tabulation by States, name of owner, permit no. and SIC codes of waste facilities that have received Federal and/or State permits to discharge to navigable surface-water bodies. Does not show treatment. Used in inter-views with Federal and State officials to help make initial identification of pond and lagoon facilities. Verified by file search in selected States. Printouts from States Municipal -Received from small number of States -Generalized to detailed. Shows name of community, population served, flows, and treatment by code. Industrial -Received from about States -Generalized to detailed. Shows name of owner, SIC category, flows, treatment by code; some give areas of lago0ns. Agricultural -Received from States -Generalized to detailed. For animal wastes, gives name of owner; animal holding capacity; treatment; volume of flow; retention or discharge of wastes; permit number, where appropriate. Other Sources -Miscellaneous reports and estimates from• previous inventories and studies mainly of municipal facilities. Informal estimates by selected State officials. Compilation and Analysis of Inventory Data Municipal Facilities, by States and Population Groups Private-Commercial and Institutional Facilities) 0:, J~ Industrial Facilities, by States and SIC _CategoriesJ4'-rJlco,. Agricultural Facilities, by States (SCS assisted) Uses of Impoundments, by States l I:.~, •wl-t.) Uses of Impoundments by SIC Category Nationwide Summary Numbers Volumes

PAGE 19

OUTLINE, EPA-SI, PT. IV VULNERABILITY OF THE NATION'S AQUIFERS • . TO CONTAMINATION FROM SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS 1. Introduction (Figure 1} 2. Rocks as receptacles of water 3. Porosity and permeability (gravel vs. clay -examples} GGP 2-2-77 4. Ground water, the wate. r table and the potentiometric surface 5. Aquifers and aquicludes (Figures 2 and 3} 6. Vulnerability of aquifers to contamination 6.1 Effects of soils and overburden materials 6.2 Effects of climate 6.3 Effects of aquifer fabric and framework upon groundwater occurrence 6.3.1 Bedrock matrix: effects upon permeability and storage 6. 3. 2 Openings in the matrix: cracks, joints, faults, solution openings 6.3.3 Impermeable or semi-permeable layers and lenses 6.3.4 Water-yielding capacity .vs. water-acceptance capacity 6.4 Water-bearing, transmitting and storing characteristics of principal types of aquifers 6.4.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated rocks as aquifers 6.4.1.1 Gravel and sand 6.4.1.2 Silt and clay 6.4.1.3 Alluvium and colluvium 6.4.1.4 Volcanic sediments

PAGE 20

6.4.1.5 Glacial drift, till and outwash deposits 6.4.2 Consolidated rocks as aquifers 6.4.2.1 Conglomerate 6.4.2.2 Sandstone and quartzite 6.4.2.3 Shale and slate 6.4.2.4 Limestone and related calcareous rocks: dolomite, chalk, marl 6.4.2.5 6.4.2.6 Volcanic surfaceial flows, such as basalt and rhyolite i, Graroitic rocks, such as granite and gramodiorite 6.4.2.7 Gneiss and schist 6.4.3 Aquifer systems composed of both consolidated and unconsolidated rocks. 6.4.3.1 Residual or other soils over consolidated rocks 6.4.3.2 Sand and gravel over consolidated rocks 6.4.3.3 Narrow (shoestring) aquifers in valley fills 7. Aquifer vulnerability by E.P.A. Regions 7.1 Region I (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachussetts, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine) aquifer types 7.1.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.1.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.1.3 Summary 7.2 Region II (New York, New Jersey) 7.2.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.2.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.2.3 Case history -Long Island 7.2.4 Summary -2-

PAGE 21

,, • . 8.1.5 Cases of reported contamination caused by industrial practices 8 .1. 6 Cases of reported cohtamina tion caused by municipal practices 9. Summary: Magnitude of danger to nation's water supply (drinking water) and where the danger exists. Cite several case history results. -5-

PAGE 22

# 6.4.1.5 Glacial drift, till and outwash deposits 6.4.2 Consolidated rocks as aquifers 6.4.2.1 Conglomerate 6.4.2.2 Sandstone and quartzite 6.4.2.3 Shale and slate 6.4.2.4 Limestone and related calcareous rocks: dolomite, chalk, marl 6.4.2.5 Volcanic surfaceial flows, such as basalt and rhyolite _,,; 6.4.2.6 GraX\itic rocks, such as granite and gra}hdiorite 6.4.2.7 Gneiss and schist 6.4.3 Aquifer systems composed of both consolidated and unconsolidated rocks. 6.4.3.1 Residual or other soils over consolidated rocks 6.4.3.2 Sand and gravel over consolidated rocks 6.4.3.3 Narrow (shoestring) aquifers in valley fills 7. Aquifer vulnerability by E.P.A. Regions 7.1 Region I (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachussetts, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine) aquifer types 7.1.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 1.1.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.1.3 Summary-7.2 Region II (New York, New Jersey) 7.2.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.2.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.2.3 Case history -Long Island 7.2.4 Summary -2-

PAGE 23

, 7.3 Region III (Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia) 7.3.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.3.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.2.3 Summary 7.4 Region IV (Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida} 7.4.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.4.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.4.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.4.4 Summary 7.5 Region V (Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio) 7.5.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.5.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.5.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.5.4 Case history -7.5.5 Summary 7.6 Region VI (New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana) 7.6.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.6.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.6.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.6.4 Case histories -(a) Houston, Texas (ind.); (b) Oklahoma City -Shawnee -Cyril, Oklahoma; (oil and mun.) 7.6.5 Summary ....

PAGE 24

7.7 Region VII (Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri) 7.7.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.7.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.7.3 Summary 7.8 Region VIII (Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota) 7.9 7.10 7.8.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.8.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.8.3 Summary Region IX (California, Nevada, Arizona) 7.9.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.9.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.9.3 Summary Region X (Washington, Oregon, Idaho) 7.10.1 Unconsolidated and semi-consolidated aquifers 7.10.2 Consolidated aquifers 7.10.3 Both consolidated and unconsolidated aquifers 7.10.4 Summary 8. The national situation 8.1 Quantities of leachate being introduced in fresh-water ..,C., I • I aquifers u\lized for drinking water 8.1.1 Accidental leaching (number of surface impoundments involved) 8.1.2 Purposeful or intentional leaching (number of surface impoundments involved) 8.1.3 Potential additional surface impoundments that may pose threats to fresh-water aquifers (numbers) 8.1.4 Cases of reported contamination caused by agricultural practices 11.-


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