Mangroves have more morpho-species of fish larvae than bays


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Mangroves have more morpho-species of fish larvae than bays
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En los manglares de Cuajiniquil hay más morfo-especies de larvas de peces que en las bahías
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Urbina, Richard R.
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Mangroves are known to be a nursery to fishes and other animals, but they have not been as studied as other ecosystems in the world. This study is about learning the difference in the number of fish species of the mangroves compared to the bays. I went out at night with a boat and a plankton net to tow in the mangroves and the bays near Cuajiniquil, Costa Rica. Afterwards I compared the number of morpho-species of the mangroves and the bays. There was a difference in the number of morpho-species with the mangrove having 12, the bay having 3 and 3 being found in both areas. My study shows that there are more morpho-species in the mangroves compared to the bays. ( ,, )
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Se sabe que los manglares son viveros importantes para peces y otros animales, pero no han sido tan estudiados como otros ecosistemas en el mundo. Este estudio trata sobre un mejor entendimiento de la diferencia en el número de especies de larvas de peces que se encuentran en los manglares en comparación con las larvas de peces en las bahías más cercanas. Colecté larvas de peces durante la noche con marea alta usando una red de plancton remolcada por un bote en manglares de dos ríos y en dos bahías adyacentes en Cuajiniquil, Costa Rica. Luego comparé el número de morfo-especies de los manglares y las bahías. Encontré una marcada diferencia en el número de morfo-especies en el manglar (12) y la bahía (3). Además, tres morfo-especies se encontraron en ambas áreas. Mi estudio muestra que hay más morfo especies en los manglares en comparación con las bahías.
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Student affiliation : Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz
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Mangroves have more morpho species of fish larvae than bays Richard R. Urbina Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, EAP Tropical Biology and Conservation Spring 2019 7 June 2019 Abstract Mangroves are known to be a nursery to fish es and other animals, but they have not been as studied as other ecosystems in the world. This study is about learn ing the difference in the number of fish species of the mangrove s compared to the bays . I went out at night with a boat and a plankton net to tow in the mangrove s and the bay s near Cuajiniquil, Costa Rica . Afterwards I compared the number of morpho species of the mangrove s and the bay s . Ther e was a difference in the number of morpho spec ies with the mangrove having 12, the bay having 3 and 3 being found in both areas. My study shows that there are more morpho species in the mangroves compared to the bays. _____________________________________________________________________________ En los manglares de Cuajiniquil hay m‡s morfo especies de larvas de peces que en las bah’as Resumen Se sabe que los manglares son viveros importantes para peces y otros animales, pero no han sido tan estudiados como otros ecosistemas en el mundo. Este estudio trata sobre un mejor entendimiento de la diferencia en el nœmero de especies de larvas de peces que se encuentran en los manglares en comparaci—n con las larvas de peces en las bah’as m‡s cercanas. ColectŽ larvas de peces durante la noche con marea alta usando una red de plancton remolcada por un bote en manglares de dos r’os y en dos bah’as adyacentes en Cuajiniquil, Costa Rica. Luego comparŽ el nœmero de morfo especies de los manglares y las bah’as. EncontrŽ una marcada diferencia en el nœmero de morfo especies en el manglar (12) y la bah’a (3). Adem‡s, tres morfo especies se encontraron en ambas ‡reas. Mi estudio muestra que hay m‡s morfo especies en los manglares en comparaci—n con las bah’as. _____________________________________________________ _________________________ Introduction The world is covered by around 70 percent of water and f ish liv e in every corner of the world ocean on the planet . There are fish t hat live in every ocean despite some being saltier than others and some being colder than others. Fish are in lakes and rivers and even found in the deep ocean . Because fish are abundant , it is not surprising that f ish are a large percent of people's diets. In 2014 , the Food and Agricul ture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reported that the consumption of fish has doubled going beyond gone beyond 20kg of fish per capita. Fish are a good source of proteins and they have im portant nutrients such as omega 6s , vitamins and minerals that help maint ain healthy human functions (Kris Etherton et al ., 2002 ) . Many people eat fish because of the important nutrition fish have, but people have been destroying nurseries of

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% 3 % % many fishes without knowing what' s in them. One type of important nurs ery people are destroying is mangrove forests . Mangroves are trees tha t live in the intertidal zone . This is special because most other plants die when they live in saltwater which is why there are almost no plants in the inter tidal zone expect for mangroves. Mangroves have ada ptations that help them to live in th e intertidal zone such as transporting salt out and making salt difficult to get in. The root structure s of mangroves are what give mangrove forests their appearance. In Costa Ri ca t he root structures belong to red mangroves which have aerial roots that stabilize the tree and black mangroves which have pneumatophores . Mangroves are known to be nurseries to fishes where when fish larvae are strong enough go out to the ocean to live their adult life. Some fish larvae don't hatch in the mangrove but in the ocean where the adult fish breed (Teodosio et al. , 2016 ). It is later in life that they move into the mangrove to grow (Teodosio et al. , 2016 ). Fish are considered larvae when they hatched out of the egg until they have their notochord flexed on the ventral side of the caudal fin. Afterwards they start the juvenile stage where they grow scales until they are sexually mature. By the time most fish are juveniles they have enough muscle to swim against the ocean current and leave the mangroves. M angroves are important not only for f ish larvae but for other animals (Rog et al. , 2017 ) . There are many birds and terrestrial animals that call the mangrove home and people benefit from them . Fi shermen catch and sell the fish of the area to make a living. Tourists can be attracted to mangroves and improve the economy of the area with mangroves . People also benefit from m angroves being barriers to storms and slow ing down erosion. In addition , the mangroves clean the w ater, collect nutrients and are home to plants that can be used as medicine (Ewel et al., 1998) . The trees not only protect the inland but also fix carbon dioxide which is a large contributor to global warming. Mangroves are foun d mostly on the coast of the tropics but they can live in areas of freshwater as well. Destroying mangrove forests is a problem because it takes away all the benefits that are provided by the mangrove forests. People destroy mangrove forests for shrimp farms, timber, and fuel destroying the nursery for fish larvae. Since 1980 20% of the world's mangroves have been lost according to the FAO . I want to contribute to the knowledge of the complex ecosystem known as the mangrove . I n my study, I address the qu estion : What species of fish larvae are in the mangroves versus the bay ? I collected fish larvae in the mangrove and in the bay to see if there was a noticeable difference in the amount of species there was in each location. My prediction is that there shouldn't be a large difference between the mangrove and bay because most of the fish in the mangrove don't stay in the mangrove forever . The fish leave when strong enough to survive in the bay and other open ocean such as a coral reef. From this I expect that I should be able to find the species from the mangrove in the bay at a later stage in their life cycle . Methods I towed a plankton net attached to string at night in a boat to catch fish larvae. I went out at night when the tide was high to enter the mangrove with a boat. When I was in the mangrove I put the plankton net into the water for 5 minutes at a time until I pull ed the net back in. T he net was 84 cm long and the opening of the net was made from the top of a bucket. The net w as shaped in a funnel form so that the fish larvae can be funneled into a container that was at the bottom of the plankton net. The string I used was 9.75 meters long . I collected my fish larvae

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% 4 % % near the town of Cuajiniquil in the Tomas Bay, Cuajiniquil Ba y, Rio Murcielago Mangrove, and Cuajiniquil Mangrove. I collected for three nights : 12 May , 14 May , and 16 May . After I collected a sample, I sort ed through the contents of the catch searching for fish larvae . I photographed larval fish with an Olympus stereoscope and built in camera. My preliminary observations were done in Tomas Bay near Cuajiniquil. I saw two kinds of morpho species of fish larvae in the bay close to the mangrove . They were in a school or aggregation of other larva e . Based on the observati ons that other workers had made , I hypo thesize that when at the mouth of the river or at the mouth of the bay there will be a few dominating species . T here has been evidence of species dominated mangroves in other parts of the worl d (Barletta Bergan, A., Barletta M., Saint Paul U. 2002 ) . Their study was done in the n orthern part of Brazil and there they caught 4 species that made up of 82% of their total catch. The species that did dominate in their study were species that lived thei r whole lives in the mangrove.

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% 5 % % Results After three nights of collecting , I had 96 fi sh larvae in total: f ourteen fish larvae from the bay and 82 from t he mangrove. For morpho species, I found 12 in the mangroves, 3 in the bays and 3 found in both mangroves and bays . I caught 82 fish larvae in the mangroves and 14 in the bays . Table 1 : The table shows the different morpho species on the left and the amount of fish of each morpho species caught on each of the days in each location. The only morpho specie that wasn't identified to a family was morpho species ten. Twelve morpho species were identified to the family. Two morpho species were identified to the genus and three to species. % % 67'8"+"97"&%:'1 % ;.,'#% :'1 % <".%=7(>"*&'-.% ='+-(.)* % <".% 67' 8"+"97"&% ='+-(.)* % % % =.(?$. @ #?*>"*# % ABC5B3DCE % ABCFB3DCE % ABC3B3DCE % ABC3B3DCE % ABC5B3DCE % ABCFB3DCE % ;.G'& % C @ H*((*"/'*% !"#$%&'(&)"'* '+, % D % D % D % 4 % 4 % 3 % I % F @ H*((*"/'* % -.//.'* #$%./."' % D % D % D % C % C % 3 % 5 % 5 @ H.0""/'* % C % D % D % 4 % I % C % C4 % 4 @ H.0""/'* % D % D % D % D % 3 % J % E % A @ H.0""/'* % D % D % D % D % C % 4 % 5 % CC @ H.0""/'* % D % D % D % C % D % 3 % 4 % 3 @ 6&7?*"/'* % 4 % 4 % D % D % C5 % D % 3D % C5 @ K+-('7&"/'*% 0%#1&2$3* )3#/&4.+$5&(3 % D % 4 % D % D % D % C4 % CF % CD @ 3LIM55 % D % D % D % I % D % D % I % C3 @ K&*.G("/'* % D % D % D % 3 % D % D % 3 % J @ H.0""/'* % D % D % D % D % C % D % C % I @ L>$"("/'*% 0#1$/"' % D % D % D % D % C % D % C % C4 @ K&*.G("/'* % D % D % D % C % D % D % C % CJ @ H.0""/'* % D % D % D % D % D % C % C % CI @ H.0""/'* % D % D % D % D % D % C % C % E @ N.,'>*+G("/'* % C % D % D % D % D % D % C % CA @ O1+-+'G$"/'* % D % 3 % D % D % D % D % 3 % CF @ =7-"&"/'*% 6"7$4*# .+134"' % D % C % D % D % D % D % C % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % EF %

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% A % % Table 2 : The table shows the number of tows in each location. The number out of the parenthesis tells how many morpho species were in each tow. There are morpho species that overlap in the same day in the same location. The number in the parenthesis is the number of individuals caught in that tow. The total shows the number of individuals caught. % % P>*'+ % % % 67'8"+"97"&%:'1 % ;.,'#%:'1 % % % ;.Q% C % ;.Q% 3 % ;.Q% 4 % ;.Q% 5 % ;.Q% A % G.G'& % ;.Q% C % ;.Q% 3 % ;.Q% 4 % G.G'& % ABC3B3DCE% R4S % % % % % % % % % % % % % D%RDS % D%RDS % D%RDS % D%RDS % ABC5B3DCE% RAS % 3% R3S % 4R4S % D%RDS % D%RDS % D%RDS % 4%RAS % % % % % % % % % ABCFB3DCE% RAS % C%RCS % 5%RAS % D%RDS % D%RDS % 3%R4S % 5%RES % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % C5 % % % % % % % D % Table 3 : The table shows the number of tows in each location. The number out of the parenthesis tells how many morpho species were in each tow. There are morpho species that overlap in the same day in the same location. The number in the parenthesis is the number of individuals caught in that tow. The total shows the number of individuals caught. % % ='+-(.)* % % % <".%=7(>"*&'-. %='+-(.)* % 67'8"+"97"&%='+-(.)* % % % ;.Q% C % ;.Q% 3 % ;.Q% 4 % G.G'& % ;.Q% C % ;.Q% 3 % ;.Q% 4 % ;.Q% 5 % ;.Q% A % G.G'& % ABC3B3DCE% R4S % 4%R5S % A% RC3S % 3%R4S % J% RCES % % % % % % % % % % % % % ABC5B3DCE% RAS % % % % % % % % % C%RCS % 5%RJS % 3%R4S % 5% RCAS % 4%RAS % I% R4CS % ABCFB3DCE% RAS % % % % % % % % % 5% RCAS % 3%R4S % 3%RFS % 4%R5S % 5%R5S % E% R43S % % % % % % % % % CE % % % % % % % % % % % F4 % Discussion I was no t expecting the bays to have less than half of the morpho species of the mangroves. However , the number of fish larvae caught in the bays was much smaller than the amount of fish larvae caught in the mangroves which would decrease the chances of getting more morpho species . My method of catching fish larvae was less effec tive in the bays where the depth of the water is more than the depth of the mangroves. The reason is because the plankton net is too small to effectively search through all the surface water of the bay. The plankton net also can't reach the bottom of the bay so fish larvae that w eren't near the surface w eren't going to be caught. In contrast the mangroves weren't as deep as the bays and the plankton net was

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% F % % able to get fish larvae near the bottom of the mangrove river as well . By being able to go through the whole water column the chances of getting fish larvae are higher. The time of day I collected may have influenced the type of species that I obtained. For example , some species of fish are nocturnal while others are diurnal ( Reebs, 2002). Along with the time of day the tide was important. I went during the night because that was at night that the tide was high so that the boat could enter the river in the mangrove. During the low tide , the boat was no t able to enter because the depth of water was not enough. If I had also collected during the low tide I would have caught different fish and perhaps more because with less space to move the fish larvae would have less space to escape capture. Another factor could be the mortality rate of fish larvae in the bay versus in the mangrove. About 99% of fish larvae die after a few weeks of being born (China et al., 2017) . With a mortali ty rate that high it would make sense if the bay would have less than the mangrove where the mortality rate is lower because there are places to hide. In the same study , it points to starvation as one of the factors that make up the 99% death rate (China e t al., 2017). They have looked at the mechanics of eating for larvae and they have found that smaller fish larvae have a harder time eating because they can't capture their prey which would conclude in starvation. But in the mangroves , they would have many opportunities to eat given the amount of plankton so being in the mangrove would increase the chance of surviving due to having more chances of eating. An interesting aspect of sorting through the samples is seeing what else there was in the mangrove and ocean. For the bays , there were mostly invertebrates but for the mangroves there were invertebrates and eggs. Almost every sample from the mangrove had a group of e ggs in them with a large number of invertebrates such as copepods and larvae of crabs . This would help fish larvae in the chance of getting food so that th ey won't starve. Arias and Lopez (1986) have studied icthoplankton in Ballena bay where they collected for a year and found that during the transition from dry to rainy season there were th e most larvae and eggs present. The increased number of fish larvae most likely helped me see what morpho species were there as opposed to collecting during the dry season when there is a bit less of abundance of fish larvae. The most m orpho species I caught was 2 Clupeidae with 20 individuals and the second most was morpho species 14 Anchovia macrolepidota with 16 individuals . Catching more fish larvae in the mangroves was expected because the mangroves are known to have a lot of fish but what wasn't e xpected was the lack of fish caught in the bays . A study by Restrepo and Flamm in 2010 near the area of Cuajiniquil showed that there were more species and more individuals of fish further in the mangrove. They had collected 52 individuals with 9 species i n the site furthest from the ocean compared to 12 individuals with 3 species in the site closest to the ocean. Although they did not study fish larvae specific m y findings agree with their findings with more species being in the mangroves. I had 12 morpho species in the mangroves compared to the 3 morpho species in the bays that I caught with 3 morpho species found in both mangrove and bay . Even though I had found fewer individuals I had similar amounts of morpho species in the mangroves. I believe that a reason for the difference is that fishes that can't tolerate salt water are also in the mangroves . The larvae of those fish are not going to be in the ocean but stay in the mangrove ( Barletta Bergan, 2002) . The advantage of living in the mangrove is that there is more shelter made by the roots of the red mangroves. The bay has fewer spaces to hide for fish larvae because they don't have the red mangroves to provide the shelter. The bay also has stronger curre nts than the mangrove making the bay a harder place to live as a fish larva due to their inability to swim against strong currents. The number of predators is also more in the open ocean

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% J % % compared to the mangrove. Patel (2015) did a study that looked at the preference of fish in the mangroves and found that many preferred to be in the muddy banks during the day where there was more species compared to the mangrove roots. It means that fish in the mangrove have different preferences and there can be other are as of the mangrove that fish can spend their time in. Szelistowski (1990) describes a new clingfish that clings to the underside of mangrove leaves while Taylor et al. (2007) describes the mangrove krillfish K ryptolebias marmoratus emerging in large number s from the water into logs that have holes made by insects . Both Szelistowski and Taylor et al. show ed tha t in the mangrove there are niches that can be used that we have only relativity recently discovered . With more research in finding how many species there are and where they live we will be able to understand the mangrove ecosystem that much more. For example we have a problem with overfishing and one of the families that are included is t he Clupeidae family . The most well known species in the family a re the herrings and the sardines but others include the shads and menhaden. The Clupeidae family is known to travel in schools and the amount that I had caught also supports that. My study also shows that they use mangroves as one of their nurseries to sustain their population. If the mangrove s are chopped down then important fishes from th e Clupeidae family would lose importa nt nurseries for their population growth and sustainability . T o prevent doing harm to impo rtan t aspects of nature , a better understanding of the mangrove ecosystem will be needed to make better decisions in managing mangroves. In doing so we would be able to make better decisions for the health of the planet Earth. Acknowledgements I wouldn't have been able to do this project without the support of many people. Arturo Angulo and Dra. Beatriz Beltran both helped me identify the fish larvae that I had and I thank them for that because I wouldn't have been able to do this without them. I would al so like to thank Frank Joyce who let me work at his house for most of the day sorting and taking pictures of the fish larvae. He also helped me go out and collect fish larvae at night even when tired. Thanks to Emilia Triana for being my secondary advisor and reading my paper. Thank you to Minor Lara who took me to my locations with his boat at night and a big thanks to the parataxonomists G ilbert h A mpie and Yielba Vega who let me use their microscope to sort and take pictures. I would like to thank everyone else in Cuajiniquil who helped me and made my trip a great experience. Literature Cited Bailey M. K. and E. D. Houde. Predation on Eggs and Larvae of Marine Fishes and the Recruitment Problem. 1989. Advances in marine biol ogy. Barletta Bergan, A., M . Barletta, U . Saint Paul. Community structure and temporal variability of ichthyoplankton in North Brazilian mangrove creeks. Dec.2002. Journal of Fish Biology China, V., L. Levy, A. Liberzon, T. Elmaliach, an d R. Holzman. Hydrodynamic regime determines the feeding success of larval fish through the modulation of strike kinematics . 2017. Journal of Experimental Biology

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% I % % Ewel C. K. , R. R. Twille y and J. E. Ong . Different Kinds of Mangrove Forests Provide Different Goods and Services . 1998. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters. Kris Etherton, M. P., W. S. Harris, L. J. Appel, % Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease . Nov 2002. American Heart Association. Lopez S . I. M. , and C. Arias de la P . Distribuci—n del ictioplancton en el Estuario de Pochote, Bah’a Ballena, Pac’fico de Costa Rica. 1986. R evista de Biologia Tropical. Patel B. C., Microhabitat preferences of fish in Cuajiniquil mangroves. 2015. EAP Tropical Biology and Conservation, Spring 2015 Reebs G. S. Plasticity of diel and circadian activity rhythms in fishes . 2002. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Restrepo L. M. , and S. L. Flamm. Fish populations in two mangroves near Cuajiniquil, Costa Rica. 2010. EAP Tropical Biology and Conservation, Spring 2010 Rog M. S., R. H. Clarke and C. N. Cook . More than marine: revealing the critical importance of mangrove ecosystems forterrestrial vert ebrates . February 2017. Wiley. % Szelistowski A. W . , A New Clingfish (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) from the Mangroves of Costa Rica, with Notes on Its Ecology and Early Development . 1990. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH). Taylor S. D., B. J. Turner, W. P. Davis and B. B. Chapman . A Novel Terrestrial Fish Habitat inside Emergent Logs . 2008. The American Naturalist. Teodosio A. M., C. B. Paris, E. Wolanski, P. Morai s, Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursey areas a review . August 2016. Estuarine, Costal and Shelf Science

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% E % % Appendix 1: Vouchers 1. Family: Gerreidae Genus: Eucinostomus sp Date taken: 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajini quil Mangrove . 2. Family: % Clupeidae Date taken: 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove 3. Family: Gobiidae Date taken 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% CD % % 4. Family: Gobiidae Date taken: 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove 5. Family: Gobiidae Date taken: 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil M angrove 6. Family: Gerreidae Genus: Gerres cinereus Date taken: 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% CC % % 7. Family: Gobiidae Date Taken : 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove 8. Family: Achiridea Genus: Achirus Date taken: 14 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove 9. Family: Pomacentridae Date taken: 14 May 2019 Cuajiniquil Bay

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% C3 % % 10 2A8:44 Date Taken: 12 May 2019 Rio Murcielago Mangrove 11. Family: Gobiidae Date Taken: 12 May 2019 Rio Murcielago Mangrove 12. Family: Eleotridae Date Taken: 12 May 2019 Rio Murcielago Manrove

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% C4 % % 13. Family: Eleotridae Date Taken: 12 May 2019 Rio Murcielago Mangrove 14. Family: Engraulidae Genus: Anchovia macrolepidota Date Taken: 16 May 2019 Cuajiniquil Bay 15. Family: Syngnathidae Date Taken: 16 May 2019 Cuajiniquil Bay

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!"#$%&'()'*%"+%,'+-(.)*#%'+/%0'1#%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 2(0"+'% C5 % % 16. Family: Mugilidae Genus: Mugil cephalus Date Taken: 16 May 2019 Cuajiniquil Bay 17. Family: Gobiidae Date Taken: 16 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove 18. Family: Gobiidae Date Taken: 16 May 2019 Rio Cuajiniquil Mangrove


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