Research and advances in ground-water resources studies, 1964-1974 - March 1974

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Research and advances in ground-water resources studies, 1964-1974 - March 1974

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Research and advances in ground-water resources studies, 1964-1974 - March 1974
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon), 1905-2000
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Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Everglades (Fla.) -- Florida ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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G16-00635 ( USFLDC DOI )
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PROC. NO.19 A DECADE OF PROGRESS IN WATER RESOURCES AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION MARCH 1974 RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES, 1964-197 4 Garald G. Parker and A. Ivan Johnson 1 One of the concerns that I have is that we seem to have lost direction as a nation. We seem to have lost that purpose and zeal which has typified this land for the nearly 200 ye.ars of its existence. Ours is a land which has produced a people who conquered technology and developed an abundant society such as the world has never known. We had the commitment to win two world wars and to realize the age old dream of a man walking on the moon. Yet, today, we seem to have lost that purpose and direction. Many severe challenges will go unmet until that vision and purpose has been regained. -Congressman Don Fuqua, D., Fla. Although Congressman Fuqua's concerns for the nation may be well founded, I'm happy to report to this conference of distinguished scientists and engineers that, for the water-resources professionals of this nation, he need have no fears. We continue to press onward at an ever accelerating pace in our research. And, in the development of ground-water science in particular , our progress has been astonishing. During the decade that began with the establishment of the American Water Resources Association in 1964, great changes have occurred in ground-water research and in the nature, quality and quantity of ground-water investigations both at home and abroad. Formerly, by far most such work in the United States was accomplished by ground-water scientists and engineers of the U.S.G.S. (United States Geological Survey), supplemented by a much smaller number of like personnel of a number of State Surveys or State Water Engineers. Largest and most productive of these were in Arizona, California, Illinois, New Mexico and Texas. In these pre 1964 times the colleges and universities of the United States, with a few notable exceptions such as California (Berkeley), Colorado State , Illinois, New Mexico School of Mines and Utah, had no graduate programs leading to the Ph.D. or M.S. degrees in hydrogeology or in hydrology . Most schools taught no courses in ground-water science at all. However , during the 1964-1974 interval this situation changed greatly . There are now more than 60 schools in the United States offering courses or degrees in ground-water science including about two dozen at the Ph.D . and M.S. levels. Abroad, about 40 schools offer similar courses (Todd, D .K.(Ed.) 1970, p. 528-533) . 1 Respectively , Certified Profesmonal Geologist ; Chief Hydrologist and Senior Scientist, Southwest Florida Water Management District, P.O . Box 457, Brooksville, Florida 33512 and Assistant Oiief, Office of Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, National Center, Reston, Virginia 22092. 42


RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 43 These changes began chiefly in the l 950's. Most of the earlier courses in ground-water science were taught on the undergraduate levels as a 2 or 3 hour course in the geology department and in some schools the courses were generally taught as an adjunct to the civil engineering course commonly called "'Hydrology , " which ordinarily included chiefly chapters on weather, rainfall, runoff and stream-flow phenomena. Few of the early ground-water courses were more than descriptive and fewer had field or laboratory requirements. Additionally , most of the more successful of these early comses were taught by part-time instructors on temporary leave from local offices oC the U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Water Branch because qualified and competent teachers were practically obtainable nowhere else. It was just such a situation as this that developed at the University of Michigan in the late l 940's. John G. Ferris, one of the world's outstanding ground-water hydrologists, was at that time stationed in Lansing , as District Chief of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground Water Office in Michigan. He was asked by Professors Wisler and Brater of the Engineering Department, to teach a quantitative short course in ground-water hydraulics as an adjunct to their course in hydrology. Ferris accepted and subsequently worked up his lecture notes as a chapter entitled "Ground Water", which was included in Wisler and Brater's very successful college textbook entitled "Hydrology" {1949). Likewise, Ferris' notes formed the basis of his well known contributions to the highly-regarded and subsequently developed U.S. Geological Survey Ground Water Short Courses. In the following year, 1950, C.E. Jacob's chapter on "Flow of Ground Water" was published in Hunter Rouse's ( 1950) great editorial work entitled "Engineering Hydraulics." Of course, a few similar ground-water courses were being taught at other schools at the same time , but it was basically the U.S. Geological Survey Ground Water short courses that sparked the interest in, and enthusiasm for, the teaching of ground-water science in the colleges and universities of the country. These short courses were organized, developed and supervised by the senior author in the period 1951-1956, and were held in a number of different American schools. D1wised chiefly to upgrade the professional capabilities of the employees of the Survey's Ground-Water Branch, they were also attended by many college and university teachers, by employees of State cooperative agencies, of other Federal Agencies and by foreign nationals here in the United States for training with the U.S. Geological Survey. This, then, was the real beginning of ground-water interest by geologic and engineering faculties of the United States on a large scale and led directly to the numerous excellent ground-water courses that are now available in more than 60 American universities and colleges. These schools have, during the past 10 years, established programs leading to the Bachelor's Master's and Doctor's degrees in hydrogeology, ground-water geology, ground-water hydrology and in hydrology. Well over a thousand graduates from these courses are now either teaching or working as professional hydrogeologists or hydrologists in industry, State or Federal Survey's Water Management Districts (my own District currently employs 14 such professionals) consulting firms, and a members of the staffs of several professional societies. In addition to the American scientists and engineers who received either or both their basic and advanced training in hydrogeology at the U.S. Geological Survey Short Courses, several hundred foreign nationals have been enabled to take advantage of these courses. And, in addition to this formal study, most of these foreign student-trainees spent several months to a year or more on a working assignment to one or more of the U.S. Geological Survey field offices where practical experience was gained in "learning by-doing."


44 Parker and Johnson Graduates of this training are now widely scattered all over the world, particularly among the developing countries. Europe has long had excellent hydrogeologic and hydrologic courses available , especially in Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England, France, West Germany , Hungary, Ireland, The Netherlands, Scotland, Spain and Switzerland. Others, outside Europe , are in Australia, Ghana, India, Israel, Japan, Peru and South Africa. After the U.S. Geological Survey foreign-hydrogeology trainees returned to their homelands several new ground-water governmental agencies, modelled after the U.S. Geological Survey , were established. Additionally, college and university courses on both graduate and under-graduate levels were begun based largely on the American experience of the trainees. This has been one aspect of our American Foreign Aid programs of which we can be very proud because it has both directly and indirectly helped our less-fortunate foreign neighbors. And this foreign training, too, has had a strong impact on the spread and development of ground-water science. We see more and more published reports of studies, research and general investigations carried on at these recently established foreign ground-water agencies, colleges and universities. Our ground-water literature is the richer for it. With the expansion of college science and engineering curricula to include basic and advanced courses in groundwater came the availability, for the first time in American experience , of graduates with professional groundwater training. Many of these new graduates still find their first employment with the U.S. Geological Survey, but State Surveys, Water Management Districts and consultants are taking a growing share of each new crop of hydrogeology graduates. Many of the new Ph.D's go directly into teaching and this, of itself, tends to raise the standards of ground-water competence in all areas in which they teach and work. Many of these college teachers make themselves available for part-time work in consulting, and a growing number of these, as well as experienced "graduates" of the U.S. Geological Survey and some State Surveys, have established full-time consulting firms of their own. Thus, for the first time on a nation-wide scale. ground-water competence has lately become available for such matters as the expert planning and development of well fields; the assessment of problems relating to underground disposal of both liquid and solid wastes; the storage of liquids and gasses in subterranean reservoirs from which they can be subsequently withdrawn for use; the disposal of municipal and selected industrial liquid wastes by spray irrigation methods; the artificial recharge of aquifers with excess surface-water runoff (flood waters, chiefly) or AWT (advanced waste treatment) effluents from municipal, industrial or agricultural waste liquids, the control of coastal salt-water encroachment; the dewatering of mines; the conjunctive use of ground-and surface-water supplies; and the appraisal of the water crop of given areas plus ways and means of guiding its development, use, conservation and control. The -rapidly growing numbers of scientists and engineers having competence in ground-water science has led to a vast proliferation of water-resources data and of published reports resulting in the almost exponential growth of the body of knowledge and understanding not only of the ground-water resource itself but how to manipulate it to mankind's benefit without doing irreparable damage to the environment. The growing input of this comparatively large number of newly qualified ground-water professionals has given such people as city planners, real-estate developers, mine operators, and municipal, State and Federal officials a whole new look at water resources. Formerly (and, unfortunately , still in some unenlightened quarters) when new water supplies were needed the first, and all too often the only, look was for a surface-water source. Now, for


RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER RESOURCES S T UDIES 45 the most part, ground-water is also considered and often preferred when big, new supplies are needed. There has been, as noted above, a considerable change in attitude toward ground-water in just the past few years. The public, the State legislatures, the Federal Congress and the dvil engineering profession ( which has traditionally been the water-resources planners and developers) , and all generally seeing ground-water in a new light or from a difference perspective. Ground-water research is now specifically provided for (althou~ not yet adequately) by the water resources act that established the Office of Water Resources Research plus establishing the Water Resources Research Centers (Institutes) in every State. Our water resources problems are complex and demanding, and they grow geomet rically as the population grows arithmetically . The exploding population growth, with its vast thirst for pure, clean water and its all-too-of ten violent impacts on the environment, has caused a shift in ground-water research emphasis. The shift is from where is the water to how much is where and then to how much can be developed without either depleting the supply or harming the environment irreparably . Such complex and difficult problems often assume portents of using water supplies as a means of population controls ; that is, develop no more water for a giveri place and no more people can be supported there! However , much as many people would like to see water supply utilized as a means of putting a cap on population growth. we have never seen it work anywhere. Ways and means are always found to obtain the needed water. New York City, Boston, Denver , Phoenix, Los Angeles and San Francisco are but a few of many excellent examples. The nature of ground-water research has moved from descriptive analysis to quantitative analysis, and from the era of the slide rule through that of the desk calculator to highly complex computers, which not only can solve problems practically impossible to handle manually a few years ago but can do it in a matter of seconds or minutes! New machinery, new methodology and new techniques have become available for ground-water research , much of it , especially the highly sophisiticated , only during the past 10 years. These advances are as far removed from World-War II capabilities as modern rocketry is advanced over the medieval catapults in the waging of warfare . Data gathering, storage, retrieval, sorting and analyzing have become so technically advanced that it is becoming difficult to keep up with newly developed techniques and equipment. A whole host of new sounding research-paper titles bring this trend into focus, such as: 'Quasilinearization and the identification of aquifer parameters" (Yeh , W . W .-G. and Tauxe , G.W. , 1971) ; or "Digital computer simulation for solving groundwater and surface water systems" (Young, R.A. and Bredehoeft , J .D ., 1972) ) ; or •chance-co n strained approach to the conjunctive use of surface water and ground waters. " (Nieswand , G.H. and Granstrom, M.L., 1971). Solving problems such as these are comparatively easy now but could only have been dreamed of in "the good, old days." Clearly , great strides have been accomplished in ground-water research and investiga tions of ground-water resources in the period 1964-1974 . None-the-less, there is room for more improvements and greater advances, particularly in furthering our ability to handle analyses of ground-water systems and their conjunctive uses with surface-water systems . Advances must be made both in geophysics and geochemistry of aquifer systems and their physical and chemical behavior when wholly new stresses or greatly increased stresses are placed upon the systems by such forces as artificial recharge pressures or the storage o f foreign fluids and gases in the aquifers. We need to develop keener understandings of the


46 Parker and Johnson effects of ground-water development on the environment and how to achieve maximum development of the gound-water resource with minumum (and acceptable) harm to the environment. Finally, we need to tailor our research more and more to the need; of the real world of the city planner, the well driller, the consulting engineer, the legislator, and others who use our data and our findings as essential input elements in their own activities. Our scientific data and our research findings must be so organized and explained that any ordinarily intelligent person can grasp their meanings and utilize our reports as guides in the decision-making processes. In other words, our results must be not only understandable, they must also be useful. And, to further their usefulness, they must have transfer values. In this past 10 years we have seen a tremendous increase in the development of useful information regarding our ground-water resources, together with a great expansion of methodology and technology to handle the data involved. The complexity and mathematical nature of much of it is astonishing. A glance over the following list of selected titles together with a review of Ivan Johnson's analyses of ground-water developments from 1963 to 1970, (Johnson, A.I., 1967; 1971; 1972) will help put this all in perspective. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY The following entries, together with those included in I van Johnson's summary reports (1967, 1971 and 1972, q.v.) include most of the published works on ground-water research both basic and applied, in the period 1964-1974. listings entered in Johnson's reports are not intended to be included herein, and any exceptions to this are by accidentally overlooking double entries. A notable trend is evident when one compares earlier ground-water reports to those of current times, namely , the earlier reports tended to be concerned only with ground-water, per se, and were chiefly descriptive and qualitative. In the past ten years there has been a predominant shift to the inclusion of ground-water studies with other aspects of water resources including surface water and soil moisture, and the influences of the entire environmental framework in which water occurs. Further, the trend is away from the descriptive and qualitative to the evaluative and quantitative . Most current reports are made in the context of systems analysis and commonly include modelling, either digital or electric analogue models and in a growing number of studies use is made of hybrid models. No attempt was made to cover foreign literature, however, some known studies are included in the following listings. Because water-law is currently undergoing changes both in the State and Federal governments, important water-law entries have been included. This listing includes about 800 bibliographric entries. LITERATURE CITED Adams, W.M. and Malahoff, A. 1968. Evaluation of some geophysical techniques applied to the environment of a Maui well. Hawaii Inst. Geophys. Rep't. No. HIG-68-23, 29 p. Adrian, D.D. 1970. Infiltration induced soil instabilities. Ground Water, v. 8, No. 1, p. 29-36. Adrian, D.D. and Franzini, J.B. 1966. Impedance to infiltration by pressure build-up ahead of the wetting front. Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 71, No. 24, p. 5857 5862.


RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 47 AGU Symposium on saline water a valuable resource, 1970. Proc. of American Geophysical Union 1970 Ann. Mtg., Washington, D.C. Allen, H.C. 1970. Water for Houston. Water Resources Bull. v. 6, No. 2, p. 189-192. Allen, D.R. 1972. Legal and policy aspects of geothermal resource development. Water Resource Bull., v. 8, No. 2, p. 250-256. Allen, M.J. and Morrison, S.M. 1973. Bacterial movement through fractured bed rock. Ground water, v. 11, No. 2, p. 6-10. Ambroggi, R.P. 1966. Water under the Sahara. Sci. Am. v. 214, p. 21-30. Anderson, T. W. 1968. EJectrical-anaJog analysis of the hydrologic system of the TuC$0n basin, Arizona. Symp. on Use of Analog Comp. Hydrol., p. 15-24. Aravin, V.I. and Numerov, S.N. 1965. Theory of fluid flow in undeformable porous media, transl. from the Russian, Israel Prog. for Sci. Transl., Jerusalem, Israel. Arbhabhirama, A. and Ahmed, L. U. 1973. Approximate solutions for nonsteady column drainage. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, No. 2, p. 401-408. Amason, B. and Sigurgierson, T. 1967. Hydrogen isotopes in hydrological studies in Iceland, in Isotopes in Hydrology. Int1. Atomic Agency, Vienna, Austria, p. 3546. Aron, G. 1968. Optimization of conjunctively managed surface and ground water resources by dynamic programming. Water Resour. Center. Univ. Qilif. at Davis., Contrib. No. 129, 158 p. Aron, G. 1969. Optimii.ation of conjunctively managed surface and ground water resources by dynamic programming. Contdb. No. 129, Water Resour. Center, Univ . of California, Davis, Cal. 158p. Ashton, K. 1966. The analysis of flow from karst drainage systems. Cave Res. Gp. Gt . . Britain Trans., v. 7, No. 2, p. 161-204. ASTM (Committee D-19). 1969. Manual on water (13th Ed.) Am. Soc. for testing and materials, Philadelphia, Pa. 3 56 p. AWRA. 1972. Some significant events in American water resources management. Water Resour. Bull., v. 8, No. 3, p. 638-640. Aziz, K., Holst, P.H., and Kana, P.S. 1968. Natural convection in porous media. Petrol. Soc. of OM. Paper No. 6813, 19 p. Bachmat, Y. and Bear, J. 1964. The general equations of hydrodynamic dispersion in homogenous, isotropic, porous mediums, Jom. Geophys. Res., v. 69, No. 12, p. 2561-2567. Back, W. 1966. Hydrochemical facies and ground water flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic Coastal Plain. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 498-A. Back, W., Cllerry, R.N. and Hanshaw , B.B. 1966. Chemical equilibrium between the waters and minerals of a carbonate aquifer. Nat'l. Speleol. Soc. Bull., v . 28. Back, W. and Hanshaw, B.B. 1971. Geochemical interpretations of ground-water flow systems. Water Resour. Bull. v. 7, No. 5. p. 1008-1016. Baetsle, R.H. and Souffriau. 1967 . Installation of chemical barriers in aquifers and their significance in accidental contamination in disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground. lnt'l. Atomic Energy Conf., Vienna, May 29 -June 2. Baier, D.C. and Wesner, G.M. 1971. Reclaimed waste water for ground-water recharge. Water Resour. Bull., v. 7, No. 5, p. 991-1001. Balcer, C.H. et al. 1969. Developing a State water plan: ground-water conditions in Utah. Utah Div. of Water Resour. Coop. lnvs. Rep't. No. 7. Salt Lake City, Utah. Baker, V.R. 1973. Geomorphology and hydrology of karst drainage basins and cave channel networks in east central New York. Water Resour . Res., v. 9, No. 3, p. 695-706 . Banks, R.B. and Iqbal, A. 1964. Dispersion and absorption in porous media flow. Jour. Hydraul. Div., Am. Soc. Civil Eng., v. 90 (HYS), p. 13-31. Bannerman, R.R. 1973. Problems associated with development of ground-water in igneous and metamorphic rocks a case study in Ghana. Ground Water. v. 11, No. 5, p. 31-34. Barberan, J. and Herrera, I. 1966a. Uniqueness theorems and the speed of propagation of signals in viscoelastic materials. Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., v. 23, No. 3, p. 1 73-190. Barberan, J. and Herrera, I. 1966b. The speed of propagation of signals in viscoelastic materials, in Modem Developments in the Mechanics of Continua, Eskinazi, S. (Ed.) Academic Pre~. p. 175-182. Barksdale, H.C. et al. 1968. Ground water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the lower Delaware River. N.J. Dep't. Conserv. and Econ. Develop., Div . Water Policy and Supply. Spec. Rep 't. No. 13, 190 p.


48 Parker and Johnson Barraclough, J.T. 1966. Waste injection into a deep limestone in northwestern Aorida. Ground Water, v. 4, No. 1, p. 22-24. Batz, M.E. 1964. Deep well disposal of nylon waste water. Chem. Eng. Prog., v. 60, No. 10, p. 85-8& Baver, L.E. et al. 1973. Soil Physics (4th Ed.). John Wiley and Sons, N.Y., N.Y. 498 p. Bear, J. 1972. Dynamics of fluids in porous media. American Elsevier, N.Y., N.Y. 700 p. Bear, J. and Dagan G. 1964a. Some exact solutions of interface problems by means of the hodograph method. lour. Geophys. Res., v. 69, No. 8. p. 1563-1572. Bear, J. and Martin, J. 1965. On the movement of water bodies injected into aquifers. Jour. Hydrol, v. 3, No. 1, p. 37-57. Bear, J ., Zaslavsky, D. and Ir may, S. (Eds.) 196 8. Physical principles of water percolation and seepage. Unesco, Paris, France. 465 p. Beaumont, P. 1968. Qanats on the Varamin Plain, Iran, Inst. of British Geogr. Trans., v. 45, p. 169-179. Bear, J. and Braester, C. 1969. On the flow of two immiscible fluids in fractured porous media. Symp. on the fund. of transport phenomena in porous media. lnt1. Assoc. for Hydraul Res., Haifa, Pt. 3, p. 21-39. Beaumont, P. 1973. A traditional method of ground-water utilization in the Middle East. Ground Water v. 11, No. 5, p. 23-30. Beck, A.E. 1965. Measuring heat flow on land in Terrestrical heat flow, Geophys, Monogr. No. 8, W.H.K. Lee (Ed.) Arn. Geophys. Union. Washington, D.C. p. 24-51. Bedinger, M.S. 1967. An electric analog study of the geometry of limestone solution. Ground Water, vo. 5, No. 1, p. 24-28. Bedinger, M.S. and Sniegocki, R.T. 1972. Definition of hydrologic units for water studies in Arkansas. Water Resour. Res., v. 8, No. 1, p. 217-221. Behnke, J.J. 1969. Clogging in surface spreading operations for artifial ground water recharge. Water Resour. Res., v. 5, No. 4, p. 870-876. Behnke, J.J. and Haskell, E.E. Jr., 1968. Ground-water nitrate distribution beneath Fresno, California. Am. Water Works A~c. Jour., v. 60, p. 4 77-480. Bennett, T.W. 1970. On the design and construction of infiltration galleries. Ground Water, v. 8, No. 3, p. 16-24. Bernhart, A.P. 1973. Protection of water-supply wells from contamination by wastewater. Ground Water, v . 11, No. 3, p. 9-15. Berry, F.A. F. 1969. Relative factors influencing membrane filtration effects in geologic environments. Chem. Geol., v. 4, p. 295-301. Berund, J.E., Rebhun, M. and Kahana, Y . 1967. Use of storm runoff for artificial recharge. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Trans., v. 10, No. 5. Bianchi, W .C. and Haskell, E.E. Jr., 1964. Field measurement of soil-water movement during ground-water recharge. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. Trans., v. 7, No. 3, p. 341-343. Bianchi, W .C. and Muckel, D.C. 1970. Ground-water recharge hydrology. U.S. Dep't. Agric., Agric. Res. Service, ARS-41-161. Biere, A.W. 1970. Spurious cycles in water resources systems. Water Resources Bull., v. 6, No. 6, p. 885-892. Birman, J.H. 1969. Geothermal exploration for ground-water. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 80, No. 4., p. 617-630. Blair, A.H. 1970. Well screens and gravel packs. Ground Water, v. 8, No. 1, p. 10-21. Biswas, A.K. 1970. History of hydrology. American Elsevier Puhl. Co., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., N.Y., N.Y. 10017~ ~336 p. Bittinger, M.W. 1972. Survey of interstate and international aquifer problems. Ground Water, v. 10, No. 2, p. 4-54. Blank, N.R. and Schroeder, M.C. 1973. Geologic classification of aquifers. Ground Wafer. v.11, No. 2, p. 3-5. Boas, M.L 1966. Mathematical models in the physical sciences. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., N.Y. Bodner, R., Ward, S.1-1. and Morrison, H.F. 1968. On induced electrical polarization and ground water . Geophys., v . 33, No. 5, p. 805-821. Bond, D.C . 1972. Hydrodynamics in deep aquifers of the Illinois basin. Ill. Geol. Survey Circ. No. 4 70. Bond, J.G., Williams, R.E., and Shadid, 0. 1972. Delineation of areas for terrestrial disposal of waste water. Water Resour. Res., v. 8, No. 6, p. 1560-1573.


RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 49 Bostock, C.A. 1971 . Estimating truncation error in image-well theory. Water Resour. Res., v . 7, No. 6, p. 1658-1660. Boulton, N.S. 1964. Analysis of data from nonequilibriurn pumping tests allowing for delayed yield from storage; discussion. Proc. Inst. Ovil Eng., v. 28, p. 603-610. Boulton, N.S. 1970. Analysis of data from pumping tests in unconf'med, anisotropic aquifers. Jour. HydroL v. 10, No. 4. p. 369-378. Boulton, N.S. and Pontin, J.M.A. 1971. An extended theory of delayed yield from storage applied to pumping tests in unconfined anisotropic aquifers. lour. Hydrol., v. 14, No. 1, p. 53. Bourgeois, J.D., Brownell, J.D., Kirk, J.W. and Larsen, C.H. 1973. Canada's largest well. Ground Water, v. 12, No. 1, p. 39-46. , Bowen, R. and Williams, P.W. 1972. Tritium analyses of ground water from the Gort Lowland of western Ireland. Experientia, v. 28, No. 5, p. 497-498. Bowen, R. and Williams, P.W. 1973. Geohydrologic study of the Gort Lowland and adjacent areas of western Ireland using environmental iotopes. Water Resour . Res., v. 9, No. 3, p. 753-758. Boyd, D.W. 1968. Simulation via time-partitioned linear programming: A ground and surface water allocation model for the Gallatin Valley of Montana. Mont. Joint Water Resour. Res. Center, Bouman. Reo't. No. 10. 212 o. Braunstein, Jules (Ed). 1974. Undergrowtd waste management and artificial recharge, 2 vols., 46 papers. Arn. Assoc. Petrol. Geol, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, Okla. 74101 , 931 p. Bredehoeft, J .D. 1971. Comment on "Numerical solution to the convective diffusion equation" by Oster, C.A., Sonnichen, J.C. and Jaske, R.T., Water Resour. Res., v. 7, No. 3, p. 755-757. Bredehoeft, J.D. and Pinder, G.F. 1973. Mass Transport in flowing groundwater. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, No. 1, p. 194-210. Brester, E. 1973. Simultaneous transport of solutes and water under transient unsaturated flow conditions. Water Resom. Res., v. 9, No. 4, p. 975-986. Briggs, G.F. and Fiedler, A.G. (Eds). 1966. Ground water and wells, a reference book for the water-well industry. Edward E. Johnson, Inc., St. Paul, Minn. 440 p. Brooks, R.H. and Corey, A.T. 1964. Hydraulic properties of porous media and their relationship to drainage design. ASAE Trans., v. 7, No. 1, p. 26-28. Brown, C.B. and Buiges, S.J. 1973. Steady state ground motions caused by single-well pumping. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, No. 5, p. 1420-1427. Brown, G. Jr. and Deacon, R . . 1972. Economic optimization of a single cell aquifer. Water Resour. Res., v. 8, No. 3, p. 557-564. Brown, M.C. 1973. Mass balance and spectral analysis applied to karst hydrologic networks. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, No. 3, p. 749-752. Brown, M.C, Wigley, T.M. and Ford, D.C. 1969. Water budget studies in karst aquifers. Jour . Hydrol., v. 9, p. 113-116. Brown, D.L 1971. Techniques for quality-of-water interpretations from calibrated geophysical logs, Atlantic Coast area. Ground Water, v. 9, No. 4, p. 25-38. Brucker, R.W., Hess, J.W. and White, W.B. 1972. Role of vertical shafts in the movement of ground water in carbo~te aquifers. Ground Water v. 10, No. 6, p. 5-13. Bruington, A.E. 1972. Salt-water intrusion into aquifers. Water Resour. Bull., v. 8, No. 1 , p. 150-160. Brune, G., 1970. How much undeiground water storage capacity does Texas have? Water Resources Bull., v. 6, No. 4, p. 58-601. Brutsaert, W.F. 1971. A functional iteration technique for solving the Richards equation applied to two-dimensional infiltration problems. Water Resour. Res., v. 7, No. 6, p. 1583-1596. Brutsaert, W.F., Breitenbach, E.A. and Sunada, D.K. 1971. Computer analysis of free surface well flow. lour. Irrig. Drain. Div., Arn. Soc. Civil Eng., v. 97 (IR3), p. 405. Burke, A.R. and Bird, P.F. 1966. A new mechanism for the formation of vertical shafts in carboniferous limestone. Nature. v. 210, p. 831-832. Burt, O.R. 1964a. The economics of conjunctive use of ground and surface water. Hilgardia, v. 36, No. 2, p. 31-111. Burt, O.R. 1964b. Optimal resource use over time with an application of groundwater. Manag. Sci. v. 11, p. 80-93. Burt, O.R. 1970. Groundwater storage control under institutional restrictions. Water Resour. Res., v. 6, No. 6, p. 1540-1548. Busch, C., Matlock, W. and Fogel, M. 1966. Utilization of water resources in a coastal groundwater basin. lour. Soil & Water Conserv., v. 21, p. 163-169.


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RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 61 Langmuir, D. 1969. Geochemistry of iron in a coastal-plain growtd water of the Camden, New Jersey area. U.S. Geol. Survey. Prof. Pap. 650-C, p. 224-235. Lattrnan, LH. and Pari7.ek, R.R. 1964. Relationship between fracture traces and the occurrence of ground water in carbonate rocks. Jour. HydroL, v. 2, no. 2, p. 73-91. Lawson, -D.W. 1971. Improvements in the finite-difference solution of two-dimensional dispersion problems. Water Resour. Res., v . 7, no. 3, p. 721-725. Lee, S.H. and Bagley , E.S. 1972. Ground water and land values in southwestern Kansas. Ground Water, v. 10, no. 6, p. 27-36. Leeden, F.D.V. 1971. Ground water a selected bibliography . Water information CeJiter, Port Washington, N.Y. 116 p. Le Grand, H.E. and Stringfield, V.T. 1966. Development of permeability and storage in tertiary limestones of the southeastern states. USA, lnt'l. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. Bull, v. 11, no. 4, p. 61 73. Le Grand, H.E. and Stringfield, V.T . 1971 . Water levels in carbonate rocks. Ground Water, v . 9, no. 3, p. 4-10. Lennox, D.H. 1966. Analysis and application of step-drawdown test. Jour. Hyd. Div., Arn. Soc. Civil Eng., HY6, Nov. Leopold, L.B. 1968. Hydrologic effects of urban land use a guidebook on the hydrologic effects of urban land use. U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. No. 554. Lesser-Jones, H. 1967. Confined fresh-water aquifers in limestone, exploited in north of Mexico with deep wells below sea level, in Hydrot of Fract. Rocks, Proc. Dubrovnik Syrnp., Oct. 1965, Publ. no. 74, Int'l. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol, v. II, p. 526-539. Lewis, D.C. and Bmgy, R.H. 1964. Hydraulic characemtics of fractured and jointed rock . Ground Water v. 2, no. 3, p. 4-9. U, W.-H. and Canale, R.P. 1967. Dispersion from sources in non-uniform seepage flow . Jour. Hydraul. Div., Arn. Soc. Civil Eng., v. 93 (HY3), p. 64-79. li, W.-H. and Yeh, G.-T. 1968. Dispersion at the interface of miscible liquids in a soil. Water Resour . Res., v. 4, no. 2; p. 369-3 77. U, W.-H. 1973. Differential equations of hydraulic transients, dispersion, and ground-water flow. Prentiss-Hall, Englewood aiffs, N.J. 316 p. Liakopolous, A. 1965. Variation of permeability tensor ellipsoid in hornogenous anisotrophic soils. Water Resour. Res. v. 1, no. 1, p. 135. Lieber, M., Perhnutter, N.M. and Frauenthal, H.L. 1964. Cadmium and hexavalent chromium in Nassau County groundwater (Long Island, N.Y.). Arn. Water Works. Assoc. Jour. v. 56, no. 6, p. 739-747 . Lieber, M., Perhnutter, N.M. _ and Frauenthal, H.L. 1964. Cadmium and hexavalent chromium in Nassau , County groundwater (Long Island, N. Y.). Arn. Water Works. Assoc. Jour. v . 56, no. 6, p. 739-747. Liggett, J.A. and Woolhiser, D.A., 1967 . Difference solutions of the shallow-water equation. Jour. Eng. Mech. Div., Am. Soc. Civ il. Eng., v. 93 (EM2), p. 39-71. Lin, C.L 1972. Digital simulation of the Boussinesq equation for a water table aquifer. Water Resour . Res., v.-8, no. 2, p. 691~98. Lln, C.L 1973. Digital simulation of an outwash aquifer. Ground Water, v . 11, no. 2 , p. 38-43. Lindstrom, F .F. and Boersma, L 1970. Theory of chemical transport with simultaneous sorption in water saturated porous medium. Soil Sci. v. 110, no. 1, p. 1. Linsley , R.K. and Franzini , J.B. 1972. Water resources engineering (2nd Ed . ) . McGraw-Hill Book Co . , N.Y ., N.Y . 690 p. List, E.J. and Brooks, N.H. 1967. Lateral dispersion in saturated porous media. Jour. Geophys. Res. v . 72, no. 10, p. 2531-2541. Lohman, S.W. 1972a. Ground-water hydraulics, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 708a. 70 p. Lohman, S . W ., 1972b. Definitions of selected ground-water terms revisions and conceptual refinements. U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 198, 21 p. Longwell, P.A. 1969. Mechanics of fluid flow. McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y ., N . Y . p. 67-112 . Lovell, R.E. 1971. Collective adjustment of the parameters o f the mathematical model of a large aquifer. Report No. 4, Dep't. of Hydrol and Dep't . of Syst. Eng., Univ. of Ariz., Tucson , p . 26-27 ; 71-73 ; 80-85. Lovell, R.E., Duckstein, L. and Kisiel, C.C. 1972. Use of subjective information in estimation of aquifer parameters. Water Resour. Res. v. 8, no. 3, p. 68~90.


62 Parker and Johnson Luce, C.F. (

RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 63 Marino, M.A. and Yeh, W .W-G. 1973 . Identification of parameters in finite leaky aquifer systems. Am. Soc. Civil Engr 's., Jour. Hydraul. Div. , v. 99, no. 2, p. 319-336. Martin, W.E. and Archer , T . 1971 . Cost of pumping irrigation water in Arizona, 1891 to 196 7. Water Resour. Res., v. 7 , no . 1 , p. 23-31. Meisler , H. and Becker , A .E. 196 7. Hydrogeologic significance of calcium-magnesium ratios in ground water from carbonate rocks in the Lancaster Quadrangle southeastern Pennsylvania. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 575-C, p. 232-235. . Merkel, R.H. 1972. The use of resistivity techniques to delineate acid mine drainage in grounq water. Ground Water, v. 10, no. 5, p. 38-42. Merkel, R.H. and Kaminski, J .T. 1972. Mapping ground water by using electrical resistivity with a buried concrete source. Ground Water, v. 10, no. 2, p. 18-25 . Meyboom, P. 1966. Current trends in Hydrogeology. Earth Sci. Rev . v. 2, p. 345-364. Meyboom, P. 1967. Groundwater studies in the Assinboine River drainage basin, 2, hydrologic characteristics of phreatophytic vegetation in south-central Saskatchewan, Canada. Geol. Survey of Canada Bull. 139, p. 1-64. Michael, E.D. 1971. Use of ground water in developing the Mekong Delta, Republic of Viet Nam. Ground Water, v. 9, no. 1, p. 20-24. Miller, W.D., 1971. Subsurpass distribution of nitrates below commercial cattle feedlots, Texas High Plains. Water Resources Bull., v. 7, no. 5 , p. 941-950. Milligan, J .H. 1969. Optimizing ~onjunction use of ground water and surface water. Utah State Univ., Logan, Rep. PRWG 42-4T . Milligan, J.H. 1970. Optimizing conjunctive use of ground water and surface water. Utah Water Res. Lab. Utah State Univ., Logan, Utah, 160 p. Mink, J.F. 1964. Groundwater temperatures in a tropical island environment. Jour. Geophys. Res., v . 69, no. 24, p. 5225-5230. Mobasheri, F. and Grant, S. 1973. Effect of including water price on the conjunctive operation of a surface water and groundwater system. Water Resour. Res., v . 9, no. 2, p. 463-469. Moench, A. 1971. Ground-water fluctuations in response to arbitrary pumpage. Ground Water, v . 9, no. 2, p. 4-8. Moench, A.F. 1973. Analytical solutions to the one-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equation for flow through porous media. Water Resour . Res., v . 9, no. 5, p. 1378-1384. Moench, A.F. and Kisiel, C.C. 1970. Application of the convolution relation to estimating recharge from an ephemeral stream. Water Resour. Res. v . 6, no. 4, p. 1087-1094. Moench, A.F., Schict, R.J. and Visocky, A.P. 1972. A systems study of future groundwater developme nt costs in the Chicago region. Water Resour . Bull. , v . 8, no . 2, p. 328. Mogg, J.L. 1969. Step-drawdown test needs critical review. Ground Water, v. 7 , no . 1 , p. 28-34. Mogg, J.L. 1972. Practical corrosion and incrustation guide lines for water wells. Ground Water , v. 10 , no. 2, p. 6-11. Molz, F.J. 1974. Comment on the "Equation for one-dimensional flow of ground water, 1, the vigorous theory, by Guiseppi Gambolate." Water Resour . Res., v . 10, no. 1 , p. 133-134. Reply : Gambolati, G., p. 135. Monroe, W.H. 1970. A glossary of karst terminology . U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper . 1899-K, p. 1-26. Morley , L.W. (Ed). 1969. Mining and groundwater geophysics. Canada Dep't. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Canada 772 p. Moulder, E.A. and Jenkins, C.T. 1969. Analog-digital models of stream-aquifer systems. Ground Water, v. 7, no . 5, p. 19-24. Mualem, Y. 1973. Interface refraction at the boundary between two porous media. Water Resour. Res., v . 9, no:'-2~:-~~9-41,4. Muskat, M. 1965. F~~f.:h.omogeneous fluids. J . W . Edwards, Ann Arbor , Mich. Nace, R.L. 1969. Human use of ground water in R.J. Charley (Ed.) Water , Earth and Man. London, Methuen and Co., Ltd . , p. 285-294. Nace, R.L., 1973a . Problems of underground storage of wastes. U.S. Geol. Survey Jour. Res., v . 1, no. 6, p. 719-723. Nace, R.L., 1973b. Ground water in perspective. Water Resour . Bull. , v . 9 , no . 1, p. 18-24 . Nadji, M. and Voigt, R. 1972. "Exploration for hidden water" by Mohammed Karaji -The oldest testbook on hydrology? v. 10, no. 5, p. 43-46.


64 Parker and Johnson Nalluswami, M., Longenbaugh, R.A. and Sunada, D.K. 1972. Finite element method for hydro dynamic dispersion equation with mixed partial derivatives. Water Resour. Res. v. 8, no. 5, p. 1247-1250. Narasimhan, T.N. 1968. Ratio method for determining characteristics of ideal, leaky and bounded aquifers. Bull, Int'l. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol., v. 13, no. 1 , p. 70. Nawrocki, M.A. 1971 . Comparison of methods for evaluating aquifer characteristics. Ground Water , v. 9, no. 4, p. 6-11. Nelson, R.W. 1966. Flow in heterogenous porous mediums. 1 . Darcian-type description of two-phase systems. Water Resour . Res. , v . 2 , no. 3 , p. 487-495. Nelson, A.G . and Bush, C.D. 1967 . Costs of pumping water in central Arizona. Arizona Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. no. 182, p. 1-44 . Neuman, S.P. and Witherspoon, P .A. 1971. Analysis of nonsteady flow with a free surface using the finite element method. Water Resour . Res., v . 7, no. 3 , p. 611-623. Neuman, S.P . 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resour . Res., v . 8, no. 4 , p. 1031-1045. Neuman, S.P. and Witherspoon, P.A. 1972. Field determination of the hydraulic properties of leaky . multiple aquifer systems. Water Resour . Res., v. 8, no. 5, p. 1284-1298. Neuman, S.P. 1973. Calibration of distributed parameter groundwater flow models viewed as multiple-objective decision process under uncertainity . Water Resour. Res., v. 9, no. 4, p. 1006-1021. Neuman, S.P. and Witherspoon, P . A. 1971. Flow in multiple-aquifer systems, in Sea-Water intrusion: Aquitards in the Coastal Ground Water Basin of Oxnard Plain, Ventrua County, Calif. Dep't. Water Resour. Bull. 63-4, p. 21-62. Nield, D.A. 1968. Onset of thermohaline convection in a porous medium. Water Resour. Res., v. 4, no. 3 , p. 553-560. Nieswand, G .ff. and Granstrom , M.L. 1971 . A chance constrained approach to the conjunctive use of surface waters and groundwaters. Water Resour . Res., v. 7, no. 6, p. 1425-1426. Nightingale, ff.I. , 1970 . Statistical evaluation of salinity and nitrate content and trends beneath urban and agricultural areas Fresno , California, Ground Water , v . 8, no. 1, p. 22-28. Nightingale, ff.I. and Bianchi, W.C. 1973. Ground-water recharge for urban use: Leaky Acres project. Ground Water, v. 11, no. 6, p. 36-43 . Nimr, A.E. 1973. Effect of accretion on dynamics of groundwater between two channels. Water Resour. Res., v . 9, no. 4, p. 1058-1064. N o r ris, S.E. and Eagon, H.B. Jr . 1971. Recharge characteristics of a watercourse aquifer system at Springfield, Ohio. Ground Water v . 9 , no. 1 , p. 30-41. Norris, S . E . 1 972. Use o f gamma l ogs in determining the character of unconsolidated sediments and well construction features. Ground Water , v. 10, no. 6, p. 14. N o r ris , S.E. and Fidler, R.E. 1971 . Availability of ground water from limestone and dolomite aquifers in northwest Ohio and its relation to geologic structure, in Geological Survey Research 1971. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 750-B, p. 229-235. Oleson, H.W. 1969. Simultaneous fluxes of liquid and charge through saturated kaolinite. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. v . 33 , p. 338-344. Olson, R.A., Seim, E.C. and Muir, J . 1973. Influence of agricultural practices on water quality in Nebraska: a survey of streams, groundwater and precipitation. Water Resour. Bull., v. 9, no. 2, p. 301-311. Oliver, Henry, 1972. Irrigation and water resources engineering. Crane, Russak and Co., N.Y., N.Y. 190 p. Ongley, E.D. 1968. An analysis of the meandering tendency of Serpentine Cave, N.S.W. Jour. Hydrol., v. 6, p. 15 3 2. Orlob, G . T. and Krone, R.B. Movement o f coliform bacteria through porous media. San. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Calif., Final Report to U.S.P.H.S. ORSANCO, 1970 Perspect ive on the regulation of underground injection of wastewaters. Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Comm. , 414 Walnut St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 45202. Padar, F . V . 1968. Health department surveillance of ground-water quality, in Proc. 4th Am. Water Resour. Conf., A.W.R.A., Urbana, Ill. p. 414-425. Parizek, R.R. 1970. Waste water renovation and conservation. Penn State Univ. Stud. No. 23, University Park, Penna.


RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 65 Parizek, R.R. and Drew, L.H. 1966. Random drilling for water in carbonate rocks. Inst. for Res. on land and water resour., Penn. State Univ., Publ. no. 3-66, 22 p. Parizek; R.R. 1971. Prevention of coal mine drainage formation by well dewatering. Penna. Dep't. Envir. Resour. Spec. Report No. 5R-82. Papadopolous, S.S. 1965. Nonsteady flow to a well in an infinite anisitrophic aquifer . Symp. de Dubrovnik, lnt1. Assoc. Sci. HydroL, p. 21-31. Papadopolous, S.S., Bredehoeft, J.D. and Cooper, H.H. 1973. On the analysis of "Slug Test" data. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, no. 4, p. 108701089. Parker, G.G., Hely, A.G., Kejghton, W.B. and Olmsted, F.H. 1964. Water resources of the 9elaware River basin. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 381. 200 p. Parker, G.G. , Shown, L.M. and Ratzlaff, K.W. 1964. Officer's Cave, a pseudokarst feature in altered tuff and volcanic ash of the John Day Formation in eastern Oregon. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v. 75, no. 5, p. 393402. Parker, G.G. and Jenne, E.A. 1967. Structural failure of western highways caused by piping. Nati. Res. Council, N.A.S., Highway Res. Bd., Symp. on subsurface drainage., v. 203, p. 57-76. Parker, G.G. 1973a. On the developing energy crisis and our water resources. The Hydroscope. SWFWMD, Brooksville, Fla., v. 4, no. 3, p. 34. Parker, G.G. 1973b. Highlights of water management in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Ground Water, v. 11, no. 3, p. 16-25. Parker, G.G. 1973c. On water resource conditions in the vicinity of Pinellas County's Eldridge Wilde well field, Florida. The Hydroscope, SWFWMD, Brooksville, Fla., v. 4, no. 4, p. 14. Parkhomenko, E.I. 1967. Electrical properties of rocks. Plenum Press, N. Y., N.Y. Parlange, J.-Y. 1971. Theory of water movement in soils, 3, two and three dimensional absorption. Soil Sci., v. 112, no. 5, p. 313-317. Parsons, M.L. 1970. Groundwater thermal regime in a glacial complex. Water Resour. Res., v . 6, no. 6, p. 1701-1 720. Pasternak, H. 1969. A method for determining the optimal location of an interface. Technion, Faculty of Ind. asid. Mgm't. Eng., Ha ifa, Israel. 16 p. Payne, B.R. 1967. Contribution of isotope techniques to the study of some hydrologic problems, in Isotopic Techniques in the Hydrologic Cycle, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., v. 11, Stout, G.E. (Ed.), AGU, Washington, D.C., p. 62. Payne, B.R. 1968. Flow through fractures and tubular openings. Guidebook on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology. Tech. Rep. Series. No. 91, Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. p. 197-202. Peake, E. and Hodgson, G.W. 1966. Alkanes in aqueous systems; 1, Exploratory investigations on the accomodation of C20 C33 n-alkanes in distilled water and occurrence in natural water systems. Am. Oil and Chem. Soc. Jour. v. 43, no. 4, p. 215-222. Pearson, F.J., Jr., and White, D.E. 1967. Carbon 14 ages and flow rates of water in Carrizo Sand, Atascosa County, Texas. Water Resour. Res., v. 3, no. 1, p. 251-261. Pearson, F .J. and Friedman, I. 1970. Sources of dissolved carbonate in an aquifer free of carbonate materials. Water Resour. Res., v . 6, no. 6 , p. 1775-1781. Pereira, H. C. 1973. Land use and water resources. Cambridge Univ . Press., N.Y. , N.Y. 246 p. Perez, A.I., Huber, W.C., Heaney, J.P. and Hyatt, E.E. 1972. A water quality model for a conjunctive surface-groundwater system: an overview. Water Resour. Bull., v. 8, no. 5, p. 900-908. Perkins, T. K., Johnson, O.C. and Hoffman, R.N. 1964. Mechanics of viscous fingering in miscible systems. Soc. Petrol. Eng. Jour., Dec. 1965, p. 301-316. Perlmutter, N.M. and Lieber, M. 1970. Dispersal of plating wastes and sewage contaminants in groundwater and surface water. South Farmingdale-Massapequa area, Nassau County, New York. U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1879-G, p. 1-67. Peter, Y. 1970. Model tests for a horizontal well. Ground water, v. 8, no. 5, p. 30-34. Peters, H. J. 1966. Hydrologic data for planning and management of ground-water basins, in Proc. of 1965 Bien. Conf. on Ground-Water Recharge, Devel. and Mgm't., Schiff , L. (Ed.), Agric. Res. Service, Fi:esno, Calif. Peters, H. J. et al. 1969. Review of ground-water level measurement program. Calif. State Dep't. Water Resour., Sacramento, Calif., Office Rep't., 41 p. Peters, H. J. 1972. Criteria for groundwater level data networks for hydrologic and modeling purposes. Water Resour. Res., v. 8, no. 1, p. 194-200. Peters, H. J. and Rose, J. L. 1968. Water conservation by reclamation and recharge. Jour. Sanit. Eng. Div. Am. Soc. Civil Eng., v. 94 (SA4), p. 625-639 .


66 Parker and Johnson Peterson, F. L 1972. Water development on tropic volcanic islands -type example: Hawaii. Ground Water, v. 10, no. 5, p. 18-23. Pfannkuch, H. 0. 1969. Elsevier's dictionary of hydrogeology in English, French and German. Elsevier Puhl Co., N.Y ., N.Y. Philip, J. R. 1968. The theory of absorption in aggregated media. Aus. Jour. Soil Res., v. 6, p. 1-19. Philip, J. R. 1969. Theory of infiltration. Advan. Hydrosci. v. 5, p. 215-296. Phillips, K. N., Newcomb, R. C., Swenson, H. A. and Laird, L. B. 1965. •u. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1649, 150 p. Pinder, G. F. 1970. A digital model for aquifer evaluation. U.S. Geol. Survey Tech. Manual, Bk. 7, ch. C-1, 18 p. Pinder, G. F. and Jones, J. F. 1969. Determination of the ground-water component of peak discharge from the chemistry of the total runoff. Water Resour. Res., v. 5. No. 2. Pinder, G. F. and Frind, E. 0. 1972. Application of Galerkin's procedure to aquifer analysis. Water Resour. Res., v. 8, no. 1, p. 108-120. Pinder, G. F ., Frind, E. 0. and Papadopolous, S. S. 1972. Functional coefficients in the analysis of groundwater flow using finite elements. Water Resour . Res., v. 9, no. 1, p. 222-226. Pinder, G. F., Frind, E. 0. and Papadopolous, S. S. l 973. Functional coefficients in the analysis of groundwater flow. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, no. 1, p. 222-226. Piper, A. M. 1965. Has the United States enough water? U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1797, 27 p. Piper, A. M. 1970. Disposal of wastes by injection undeiground neither myth nor millenium. U. S. Geol Survey Circ. No. 631, 15 p. Piskin, R. 1973. Evaluation of nitrate content of ground water in Hall County, Nebraska. Ground Water, v. 11, no. 6, p. 4-13. Pitty, A. F. 1966. An approach to the study of karst water. Hull Univ. 0cc. Papers in Geogr., No. 5, 70 p. Poland, J. F. and Evenson, R. E. 1966 . Hydrogeology and land subsidence, Great Central Valley, California, in Calif. Div. Mines and Geol. Bull. No. 190. p. 239-247. Poland, J. F. 1969. Status of present knowledge and needs for additional research on compaction of aquifer systems, in Land Subsidence. Int 1. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. Tokyo. v. 1, p. 11-21. Poland, J. F. and Davis, G. H. 1969. Land subsidence due to the withdrawal of fluids, in Engineering Geology II, Varnes, D. J . and Kiersch, G. (Eds.)Geol. Soc. Am., Boulder, Col, p.187. Poland, J. F. and Masterman, L J. 1969. Reconnaissance investigation of the subsidence of Venice and suggested steps towards its control. UNESCO, Paris. 24 p. Poreh, M. 1965. The dispersivity tensor in isotropic and axisymmetric mediums. four. Geophys. Res., v. 70, no. 16, p. 3909-3914. Prats, M. 1966. The effect of horizontal fluid flow on thermally induced convection currents in porous media. Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 71, no. 20, p. 4835-4838. Price, H. S., Cavendish, J. C. and Varga, R. S. 1968. Numerical methods of higher order accuracy for diffusion-convection equations. Soc. Petrol. Eng. lour., v . 8, no. 3, p. 293-303. Prickett, T. A. 1965. Type-curve solution to aquifer tests under water-table conditions. Ground Water , v. 3, no. 3, p. 5-14. Prickett, T. A. 1967. Designing pumped-well characteristics into electric analogue models. Ground water, v. 5, no. 4. Prickett, T. A. and Lonnquist, C. G. 1971. Selected digital computer techniques for groundwater resourc.e evaluation. Ill. State Water Surv. Bull. no. 55, 6 2 p. Proctor, J. F. and Marine, I. W . 1965. Geologic, hydro logic and safety considerations on the storage of radioactive wastes in a vault excavated in crystalline rock. Nuclear Sci. and Eng., v. 22, p. 350-365. Puri, M. L and Sen, P. K. 1971. Nonparametric method in multivariate analysis. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., N. Y., 440 p. Purtyman, W. D. and Cooper, J . B. 1969 . Development of groundwater supplies on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos-County, N. M., in Geological Survey Res. 1969. USGS Prof. Paper 650-B, p. 149-153. Raats, P .A.C. and Scotter, D.R. 1968. Dynamically similar motion of two miscible constituents in porous mediums. Water Resour. Res., v. 4, no. 3, p. 561-568. Raats, P .A.C. and Gardner, W.R. 1971. Empirical relationships between pressure head and hydraulic conductivity and some observations on radically symmetric flow. Water Resour. Res., v . 7, p. 921-928.


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RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 73 Webster, D.S., Proctor, J.F. and Marine, I.W. 1970. Two-well tracer test in fractured crystalline rock. U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1544-1, 22 p. Weeks, E.P. 1964. Use of water-level recession curves to determine the hydraulic properties of glacial outwash in Portage County, W'1SCOnsin, in Geol. Survey Res., 1964 : U.S . Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 501-B, p. 181-184. Weist, W.G., Jr., 1964. Geology and ground-water resources of Yuma County, Colorado. U.S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1539-J. Weissman, W. Jr., Harbaugh, T.H. and Knapp, J.W. 1973. Introduction to hydrology Intext Chandler, N.Y., N.Y. 415 p. Welge, H.J. and Weber, A.G. 1964. Use of two-dimensional methods for calculating well ~ning behavior. Trans. Soc. Petrol. Eng. AIME, v. 231, p. 345-355. Wesner, G.M. and Baier, D.C., 1970. Injection of reclaimed wastewater into confined aquifers. Am. Water Works. Assoc. Jour., v. 62, no. 3, p. 203-210. White, G.F.4(Ed.). 1969. Water, health and society, Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, Ind. 400 p. White, W.B. 1969. Conceptual models of carbonate aquifers. Ground Water. v. 7 , no. 3, p. 15-21. White, W.B. and Schmidt, V.A. 1966. Hydrology of a karst area in east central West Virginia. Water Resour. Res. v. 2, no. 3, p. 549-560. White, W.B. and Poulson, T.L 1969. The cave environment. Science, v. 2 , no. 3, p. 549-560. White,-W.B. et al 1970. The central Kentucky karst. Geograph. Rev ., v . 60, p. 88-115. Whitesides, D.V. 1970. Common errors in developing a ground-water aquifer. Ground Water , v. 8, no. 4, p. 25-28. Wiener, A. 1972. The role of watex in development. McGraw-Hill Book Co. , N. Y ., N. Y. 483 p. Wierenga, P.J., Hagan, R.M. and Nielsen, D.R. 1970. Soil temperature profiles during infiltration and redistribution of cool and warm irrigation water. Water Resour. Res., v . 6, no. 1, p. 230-238. Williams, R.A., Lai, R. Y., and Karadi, G.M. 1972. Nonsteady flow to a well with time-dependent drawdown. Water Resour. Bull., v. 8, no. 2, p. 294-303. Williams, D.E. 1970. Use of alluvial faults in the storage and retention of ground water. Ground Water, v. 8, no. 5, p. 25-29. Williams, R.E., Eier, D.C. and Wallace, A.T. 1969. Feasibility of the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation, fertilization and groundwater recharge in Idaho. Idaho Bur. Mines. and Geol., Moscow, Pam. No. 143,110 p. Wilson, C.W. and Beckett, F.E. (Eds.). 1968. Municipal sewage effluent for irrigation. The Louisiana Tech. Alumni Foundation. Routon, La. 169 p. Wilson, J.F. 1%7. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing, in U .S. Geol. Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, sec. A, p. 1-33. Wilson, L.G. 1971 . Observations on water content changes in stratified sediments during pit recharge. Ground Water, v. 9, no. 3, p. 29-40. Wilson, LG. et al. 1969. The design of an experimental artificial recharge well at Tucson, Arizona. Annals of arid zone, v. 8, no. 2, p 267-274. Winograd, I.J. 1971. Hydrogeology of ash flow tuff: a preliminary statement. Water Resour. Res., v. 7, no. 4, p. 994-1006. Winter, T.C. 1972. An approach to the design of statewide or regional groundwater information systems. Water Resour. Res., v. 8, no. 1, p. 222-230. Wismer, D.A., Perrine, R.L and Haimes, Y.Y. 1970. Modelling and identification of aquifer systems of high dimension. Automatica, v. 6, p. 77-86. Witherspoon, P.S. and Neuman. 1967. Evaluating a slightly permeable caprock in aquifer gas storage, 1 , caprock of infinite thickness. Jour. Petrol. Technol., v. 19, p. 949-955. Wolanski, E.J. and Wooding, R.A. 1973. Steady seepage flow to sink pairs symmetrically situated above and below a horizontal diffusing interface, 1, Parallel line sinks. Water Resour. Res., v. 9, no. 2, p. 415-425. Wolff, R.G. 1970a. Field and laboratory determination of the hydraulic diffusivity of a confining bed. Water Resour. Res., v . 6, no. 1 , p. 194-203. Wolff, R.G. 1970b. Relationship between horizontal strain near a well and reverse water level fluctuation. Water Resour. Res., v. 6 , no. 6, p. 1 721-1 728. Wolff, R.G. and Olsen, H.W. 1968. Piezometer for monitoring rapidly-chaning pore pressures in saturated days. Water Resour. Res., v . 4, no. 4, p. 839-843. Wolff, R.G. and Papadopolous, S.S. 1972. Determination of the hydraulic diffusivity of a heterogeneous confining bed. Water Resour. Res. v . 8, no. 4, p. 1051-1058.


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RESEARCH AND ADVANCES IN GROUND-WATER RESOURCES STUDIES 75 Zienkiewicz, O.C. and Parekh, 1970. Transient field problems: two-dimensional and three-dimensional analysis by isoparametric finite eJements. Int'l. lour. Numer. Meth. in Eng., v. 2, p. 61-71. Zimmerman, U., Munnich, K.O. and Roether, W. 1967. Downward movement of soil moisture traced by means of hydrogen isotopes, in Isotope Techniques in the Hydrologic Cycle, Stout, G . E . (Ed.), Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, D.C., Monograph No. 11. Zitta, V.L. and Wiggert, J.M. 1971. Flood routing in channels with bank storage. Water Resour ., Res., v. 7 , no. 5, p. 1341-1345.


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