Water management in the southwest Florida water management district - draft - December 8th, 1972

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Water management in the southwest Florida water management district - draft - December 8th, 1972

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Water management in the southwest Florida water management district - draft - December 8th, 1972
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon)
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box 3


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Everglades (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00640 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.640 ( USFLDC Handle )

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WATER MANAGEJ:.ffiNT IN THE SOill'HWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT, FLORIDA By Garald G. Parker, C.P.G. 1/ DRAFT The Southwest Florida Water Management District comprises an areaof nearly 10,000 square miles and 15 counties situated in central-western Florida. "Big" government is loathed in Florida just as it is generally elsewhere in the United States and it took a nearly catastrophic set of weather circumstances in 1959 and 1960 to convince citizens of this region that local government is too small, too weak and too provincial in outlook to solve such destructive floods as those that plagued this region in March 1959, and again in March 1960, and September 1960. As a matter of fact, this region has experienced alternating flood P-nd drought throughout recorded history. But as long as the population was sparse and the demands for water supply were small the people could tolerate the vagaries of Nature. For exam?le, the flood of September 1933, might have been more disastrous than those of 1959 and 1960, but in 1933 neither the population was so large nor were the present numerous structures, many located in flood prone areas, then in existence. Likewise, the area had experienced numero~s droug3ts of one or two-to-three years duration in those years prior to 1960 but people had always been able "to make out" because their small needs for water could be met by existing sources. Now we are experiencing, generally over the whole District, a drought of unprecedented proportions with 10 years of subnormal precipitation out of the last 12 years , and with an accumulated rainfall deficiency of about 100 inches or more. 1/ Chief Hydrologis t and Senior Scientist, Brooksville, Florida 33512


With a long-term average annual precipitation for the District of 55 inches, the deficiency is almost that of two years of expected rainfall. Such conditions of extreme drought and flood, complicated by an exploding populat'ion with a vast thirst for water, have created water-supply and flood-protection problems of such large magnitudes that local governments and county --cannot successfully combat them. village, city Accordingly "Big Government" in the form of a regional ~lood-control agency was requested by local citizens and the State Legislature responded by passing Chapter 61-691, Florida Statutes, which established the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The act became law on July 1, 1961. Its Section 1 states: "For the purpose defined in Chapter 378, Florida Statutes, and to facilitate the creation and initial operation of a district under said Chapter, Southwest Florida Water Management District is hereby created a public corporation for carrying out and effectuating the provisions of said Chapter. Other than as herein provided, Southwest Florida Water Management District shall operate under and be governed by the provisions of Chapter 378, Florida Statutes, as amended from time to time." Chapter 378, Florida Statutes, is known as the Flood Control Act. It prescribes rules and regulations governing the establishment of flood-control and water-management districts. Among other things this act provides for cooperation with agencies of the federal government to effect flood control management (378.01) and establishes a water-resources development account (378.03) in the general revenue fund of the state which is to provide financial assistance to districts established under its authority, including the funds as grants-in-aid to purchase lands required for such purposes as water-storage areas, canal or reservoir sites and bridges. The members of the Board of Governors, as provided in Chapter 61-691, were appointed by the Governor and met for their organizational meeting on -2-


August 28, 1961, at the Capitol in Tallahassee, Florida. By March 6, 1962, the entire District was organized into eleven River Basins each with its own Ba.sin Board operating at the grass-roots level, to levy taxes, build and operate flood-control and other water-management structures within limits of their river-basin boundaries, and to be responsible for carrying out the provisions of Chapter 61-691 in their respective boundaries. Each Basin Board, however, is responsible for its actions to the 9-member Board of Governors of the District. In the meantime, members of the Florida Delegation to the U.S. Congress were busy arranging through the Committees on Public Works in both the House and the Senate of the 87th Congress for aid of the U.S. Government under the provisions of the River and Harbor and Flood C.ontrol Acts. This resulted in the establishment of the Four River Basins, Florida, Project as described in House Document No. 585, 87th Congress, 2d Session, 1962. Under this authority and with funds provided by the U. s. Congress, the State of Florida's general revenue fund (water-resources development account) and local supplemental taxes, the U. s. Army Corps of Engineers and the Southwest Florida Water Management District began work on the Four River Basins Project on October 23, 1962. The District staff at that time consisted of only three persons, but additional personnel were rapidly added and work has since progressed in an orderly manner on the flood-control aspects of the Four River Basins Project. Early in the project, efforts were expended in getting work started on the Tampa Bypass Canal, with its several water-control structures and planned canal system to route damaging floods around the periphery of Tampa instead of through it; on the outdoor recreation plan to allow and provide for citizen use of flood-control properties and other works-of-the-District such as reservoirs and -3-


flood-detention areas for such activities as hunting, fishing and camping; on the Lake Tarpon project to prevent flooding and to seal off salt-water from access to the lake, thus allowing it to eventually become a fresh~water lake; to acquire lands in the huge Green Swamp for flood-detention areas and, hopefully, for later release as water supplies to the downstream urban areas; to improve navigation and water conservation on the Withlacoochee River by construction at the Wysong Locks and llim of the inflatable "~abridam"; on the purchase of a huge flood-detention area in the lower Hillsborough River to serve also as a site for a big, new well field to serve the growing needs of the City of Tampa; on the replacement of an antiquated and worn-out dam on the Oklawaha at Moss Bluff with a bigger, new locks and dam; on the construction of the Masaryktown Bypass Canal to prevent a reoccurrence of some of the worst flooding experienced in the District during the 1960 flood; on the construction of the Tsala Apopka Outfall Canal on the Withlacoochee River in Citrus County; and on numerous other smaller projects. Works such as these, including the building and occupancy of a new headquarters office and service center on a beautiful oak-and-pine forested site 7 miles south of Brooksville, occupied the chief attention of the staff until early 1969. At that time, owing to growing pressure on the District to regulate the drilling of wells and the uncontrolled development of ground water, the decision was made to establish a Ground Water Hydrology Division for these purposes. This was done in March 1969, but was quickly reoriented into a Hydrologic Division when it became apparent that ground water and surface water in this District are only different sides of the same coin. With the activation of the new Hydrologic Division, the-nucleus was available for the establishment, under Chapter 373.142, of a Water Regulatory District. This was accomplished in July 1969, with the new organization having the same Board of Governors and the same District boundaries as the original District. -4-


The staff wrote the draft of a proposed regulatory law and on October 1, 1969, Chapter 357R-1, Florida Administration Code, 110rders of the Southwest Florida Water Management Di.strict (Regulatory)" became effective. Chapter 357R-1 defined the rules and regulations for the development, control, conservation and use of water resources, with particular reference to ground-water resources in the District. Its several sections provided for: (1) Purposes and definitions; (2) Registration of well drillers; (3) Construction of.wells; (4) Inventory of wells and water uses; (5) Civil action for damages; and (6) Penal provisions. Under these regulations the registration of all well drillers and engineering laboratory drillers drilling holes of two-inches in diameter or larger was begun on January 1, 1970; all drillers of good repute and adequate experience were 11grandfathered" in during this first year but any not registered by January 1, 197 1 , were required to take both a written test in the office and a demonstration test of drilling skills using their own rigs "on the job." In the office IBM card systems were set up for data control, data filing and retrieving, and data processing. Before many months had passed the staff was processing an average of nearly 1,000 well permits and well-completion reports each month and to date have registered 1,107 drillers. A total of 22,939 well-drilling permits have been processed from January 1, 1970 to date. Owing to weaknesses and incomplete coverage of our initial rules and regulations (357R-1), a revision was made and adopted as Chapter 16CC, Florida Administrative Code, on February 3, 1972 . Later, on July 1 , 1972 , in order to gain tighter control over the overlapping and at times duplicatory operations of our Engineering and Hydrologic Divisions, these were combined into a Water Resources Di.vision which also absorbed the biologists of the Environmental Team, previously a unit loosely attached to the Executive Director' s Office. This new organization allows for better use of personnel, equipment and facilities, -5-


and the organization within one Division of ad hoc teams of hydrologists, geologists, engineers and biologists to attack practically any problem of environmental, water resources, or engineering concern. Although the Four River Basins Project is still the largest in terms of money and manpower expended on Di.stri~t programs, the problems relating to water-supply are rapidly taking the major emphasis of our future planning. Scarcely a day passes -if ever -that water-or water-related problems somewhere in the District do not make newspaper headlines. Or, saying it another way, water and water-related problems are always in the news and by far the most of these relate to water supply in some way . In order to find solutions to these water problems and to manage water adequately, it is necessary that we understand the nature and occurrence of our water resources. Thus we need to know at least this: How much of what kind of water is where and how it varies in space and time. To gain this understanding we rely largely upon a large and comprehensive cooperative arrangement with the U . s. Geological Survey to develop both the systematic and special basic data needed for management purposes. The information supplied as a result of this cooperative agreement covers such areas as flows and stages of streams; flows and stages of ground-water; study and description of both the chemical and biologic quality of both ground and surface waters; investigation and description of lakes, aquifers and aquicludes; preparation of water-table and potentiometric maps for various places at different times of the year; evaluation and description of the water resources of areas of particular interest, such as, for example, the Green Swamp, the Gulf Coastal zone of salt-water encroachment, the 11world' s biggest orange grove", the phosphate-mining district and others such as one or more contiguous counties not previously studied. Topical studies include such matters as deep-well disposal of waste waters; the effects of spray-irrigation disposal of sewage effluent; the recharge of aquifers; the development of aquifer and river-basin digital models; and ground-water -surface water relationships


in the formation of sinkholes. This cooperative arrangement, covering fiscal years 1963 through 1972, has amounted to a total of $4,220,300 of which the District has contributed one half and the Survey the other half. The program has steadily grown from its inception and is now funded (1972 FY) at $607,000 (both sides included), but it is still not large enough to cover our needs. In addition to the work done and data assembled by the U. s. Geological Survey from this cooperative program, our own staff of 24 water-resources professionals and six subprofessionals gather a vast amount of field information both personally and from well-completion reports filed by the well drillers operating in the Di.strict. Such data are filed, stored and later retrieved by use of IBM computer facilities supplemented with standard filing and storage systems. Special studies of all available data are combined to make management decisions on all levels ranging from the granting or denial of a permit for a new well or the plugging and abandonment of an old one to decisions regarding whether or not a new well field may be developed and if so, where it may be drilled and conditions of its drilling, completion and subsequent operation. Environmental assessment of proposed land developments, drainage proposals, eutrophication control schemes for lakes and reservoirs, and many other similar or related studies are purused. The staffers making these studies and management decisions, some of which are in the form of recommendations for action either to the District Governing Board or any of the eleven Di.strict Basin Boards, consist (as of 12-01-72) of 3 biologists, 11 engineers, 3 geologists, 4 hydrologists, 3 hydrogeologists, and 6 hydrotechnologists. Additionally our staff engages in a wide variety of "people-service" functions. These include such matters as: (1) Preparation and publication of "The Hydroscope", the monthly journal printed for keeping our public informed not only of current important happenings affecting the water resources of the Di.strict but enlightening our non-professional readers on interesting or current technical matters. Recent topics have included articles on how to interpret and utilize -7-


potentiometric maps, the meaning and value of hydrographs, the nature of our water-supply problems and how to use the water-budget approach in solution of adequacy of our water resources for future population growth and water demands, and many others; (2) Participation in meetings of learned and scientific societies, engineering and professional associations, public forums, seminars and the giving of talks or speeches befor~ Boards of County Connnissioners, City Councils, scholastic groups ranging from college level to the elementary school, and active membership in citizen-sponsored action groups seeking such ends as new and improved water-treatment and/or sewage-treatment plants or the end to a scheme of land development that could be damaging to the water resources or to the environment; (3) Planning for the acquisition of new flood-water detentio areas and/or new well-fields that would be integral parts of a regional watersupply system for selected parts of our urbanizing areas and their conjunctive use for citizen enjoyment, including camping, fishing, hunting, bird-lor.e, school "Outdoor Classrooms", nature trails, canoeing courses, and others. Now, at this point, it may be well to describe the nature of some of the water-supply problems we are working upon and some of the answers to these problems that are either proposed or have been determined. The number one problem relates to how much water is available for watersupply purposes and how much water can be withdrawn for consumptive use. Currently we can only derive "ball-park" values, because, with the kinds of basic data available to work with, this is the best that can be done at the present time. To quantify the water-supply situation we make use of the water-budget method, but all the values we plug into our equations are only approximations. Precipitation, for example, is measured at widely scattered stations over the District and some of the records are short; few exceed 50 years. Thus, precipitation values are not nearly as good as needed. Runoff, the discharge measured in surface streams, is perhaps less well de~ined than precipitation. -8-


Runoff records are shorter, few being longer than 30 years, and, to avoid tidal conditions in theestuarial sections of our coastal streams, gaging stations are generally several miles or more inland from the stream mouths. Thus the runoff increment in the stretch between the gaging station and the stream mouth must be estimated. Ground-water discharge into these lower, tidal portions of the streams and into the Gulf of Mexico via shore-zone seeps and submarine springs cannot be measured directly so must be estimated. Storage and flow of ground water in the aquifers cannot be measured directly as is streamflow, therefore, such information must be derived indirectly from study of pumping-test data that give us approximate values of the coefficients of transmissibility, storage, and leakance, and from potentiometric and watertable maps that provide us with gradients and lengths of flow sections through the saturated thickness of the aquifers. Additionally, there is no direct way of measuring the evapotranspiration losses. Generally evapotranspiration (Et) values are derived as a residual by subtracting runoff (R) from precipitation (P), all in inches of water. This works better the longer the period of record and should be at least a year long. By starting and stopping each water-budget period at the same time of year the complete annual cycle of wet and dry periods will be complete, and no accounting should therefore have to be made 0 changes in storage in either ground-or surface-water bodies. If significant changes in storages have been made these, then, must be plugged into the right-hand side of the equation. Runoff is essentially the measure of the total potential water crop, but it is only a potential, not an actual measure of what can be taken for consumptive use. Some water must be left to maintain the flow in the streams and to prevent lakes, swamps and marshes from drying out. For once-only uses it appears that here in Southwest Florida Water Management District we'd be lucky indeed if we could capture and use more than 1/3 R. How much would this be, and how many people would it supply with the amount of water theywill need? -9-


First, let's calculate the yield. One inch of R from one square mile for one year is approximately 17.4 million gallons. 1/3 x 15" = 5", the expected water crop, and 5" x 17.4 mgy/mi 2 = 87 mil.gal./mi2/yr. From 10,000 sq. mi. in the District, the ball-park value of the water crop would be 870 million gallons, or 0.87 tgy (trillion gallons a year). District water-use data are still in process of being computed and in• absence of actual values we estimate that the usage is about 1,000 gpcd. This compares with U. s. Geological Survey figures for the 1970 national use at 1,800 gpcd. Our rate of use here is less than the national inasmuch as there is less heavy industry and smaller agricultural uses here than in the industrial East and the irrigated West. None-the-less, our phosphate and citrus industries are large users and run the gpcd figures up from around 200-250 gpcd for some of our cities and 100 gpcd for village uses to this higher District-wide value. The population of the District is now about 1.75 million people and it is generally forecast that this will double by about 1985. Given 1.75 million persons and 1,000 gpcd once-only usages, our current water demand is about 365,000 gpcy (gallons per capita per year). This is equal to 638.75 bgy or 0.64 tgy. With an available average annual water crop of 0.87 tgy and a water use of 0.64 tgy we currently have a surplus of 0.23 tgy, or enough water for a population increase of about 630,000 persons. Thus, on the basis of these calculations, we will be using all of the available water crop before 1985 and water-mining will begin on a large scale unless ways are found either to increase the water crop or cut down on usage, or both. So we have cause for concern, but not for alarm. Even if, before 1985 we do use all the annual water crop,we will not be running out of fresh water. The great Floridan Aquifer (our huge 11water barrel") underlies the State everywhere and here averages more than a thousand feet thick. Totally, under the 10,000 square miles of the District the Floridan Aquifer stores more fresh water -10-


than is stored in all of the Great Lakes combined. However, there is a limit to the amount that we may ''mine" from this great aquifer, for much of its fresh water is in dead storage, a dead storage imposed by the Ghyben-Hergberg Principle of salt water -fresh water relationships. The Floridan peninsula is surrounded by ocean water and everywhere, at some depth, is underlain by salt water some of which is more than three times as salty as the ocean. So, except for relatively short periods of time, we dare not draw the regional water level down below sea level. Thus we can only safely use that part of this huge lens of fresh water that is above sea level and this is a comparatively small part of the total volume in storage. If we were to manage our ground-water withdrawals so poorly as to deplete the top storage (the part above sea level) the bottom storage (the part below sea level) will slowly shrink in direct proportion (1:40 ratio) to top-storage depletion and as a consequence salt water would move both inland from the Gulf and upward from below. Once this happens it would be practically impossible to get the salt water pushed back out. However, even salt-water encroachment has its better side for it furnishes us with an almost limitless supply of brackish water suitable for sweetening for water-supply purposes. Recent break-throughs in the reverse osmosis method have apparently made this method competitive with development and transport of fresh-water supplies via pipelines from distant well fields. The newest, and probably the most efficient desalination plant in the U. s., is the 0.5 mgd RO (reverse osmosis) plant at Rotunda West on Charlotte County's Placita Peninsula, about 20 miles west of Punta Gorda. This new plant was installed in 1972 at a cost of $385,000, including pumps, wells and treatment plant. Rotunda plans to expand this plant to 2 mgd in the near future. Cost of treating brackish water -11-


from wells at the site and reducing the 7,000 ppm chloride to less than 250 ppm are expected to be about 50 cents a thousand gallons. The company calculates that it can sell such water to their consumers at 85 cents a thousand gallons and make a profit. The salty waste water produced is piped tq the nearby Gulf of Mexico where it mingles harmlessly with the salty waters of the Gulf. In summary, water-management controls are needed to prevent this region and our District from going hydrologically bankrupt. It appears that by about 1985, or before, we will be using all of the average annual water crop and, then, unless action is taken in time to forestall it, we will be mining water. Some of the things which we will be doing are: A. Augment present sources by: a. Reducing runoff losses to the ocean and Gulf. Some devices used will be: 1. F~tablish and utilize additional flood-retention reservoirs. 2. Create recharge facilities in association with such reservoirs to hurry floodwaters into aquifer storage. 3. Establish salt-water control dams on tidal canals and streams and place these dams as near the shoreline as feasible. Hold a fresh-water head behind each dam at least 2 feet above mean high tide and higher if possible. These dams will not only prevent bleeding off of freshwater, but will prevent salt-water encroachment both in the dannned-off section of the canals and streams and in the aquifer at depths directly related to the height to which fresh-water head can be held above msl (mean sea level) --each foot of fresh-water above msl depresses encroaching salt water by 40 feet. b. Reduce Et (evapotranspiration) losses. This can best be accom--12-


plished by lowering the water table in swampy and marshy places below the reach of water-wasting plants. Choices of areas will have to be made to decide what areas can be utilized and what ones not used. Some areas must be saved from lowering the water level in order to preserve natural forest and swamp environments for esthetics as well as sanctuaries for wildlife and human enjoyment. c. Reduce waste of water: 1. Increase charges for water, possibly including waterseverance taxes for large, non-public supplies, so as to obtain the joint benefits of augmenting income (needed to pay for increased costs of water supply and management) and causing water users to be concerned with wasting. The more costly the water, the less the people are likely to waste it. 2. Require reuse of water for those industrial and agricultural effluents that are practicably reusable. Oncethrough-the-mill and then discharge to the ocean should not be tolerated. 3. Many irrigators now put far too much water on their crops. Educate irrigators to crop needs and allow only what is really required. Some economics of irrigation water requirements could be effected by using high-grade sewage effluent instead of fresh water from wells. A gallon of such water used in this manner saves a gallon from being pumped from a well field. 4. Thousands of abandoned artesian wells are now flowing to waste, depleting the aquifers and causing salt-water intrusion. Each of these wells should be plugged securely -13-


from bottom to top. d. Augment present supplies: 1. Reuse of water (c-2 and c-3 above) is a means of augmenting current supplies. 2. Preventing salt-water encroachment is an augmentation of existing supplies. 3. Recycling sewage wastes is one of our bigges't source of ''new" water. Most municipal sewage is 99% reusable water. Being run through "tertiary" (extended secondary treatment) to reduce impurities of all kinds to be at least as good as water naturally available in the aquifers and streams of the area, would make such water available for reuse and essentially make this region's water supply self-sufficient for the next thirty years or so. This can be done, but at a cost. It is a cost that, eventually, we probably must pay. The question isn't if we should do ll., the question is only when shall we do it? 4. Capture as much of flood flow as we can and inject it into the only large storage reservoir we have --the Floridan Aquifer. This can be accomplished best by developing flooddetention reservoirs with discharge channels and works leading to those parts of the Southwest Florida Water Management District where large drawdowns of water level have created billions of gallons of available storage volume. Some such storage capacity exists in the areas of pumping influence from every large well field in the District, but the largest potential storage is in the areas of large drawdown around the phosphate production and citrus irrigational areas, mostly in Polk, eastern Hillsborough and -14-


eastern Manatee Counties. 5. Locate and operate regional well fields and recharge facilities so as to manage withdrawals and replacements (recharge) scientifically. Well field supplies could be hooked up into regional systems much as the electrical industry has done their generator plants. 6. In the shore-zone region which has been invaded by saltwater encroachment, unlimited supplies of saline water are available. This water ranges from nearly as salty as the ocean to only slightly more salty than normal ground water. Most of it a mile or so inland is only mildly saline (1,000 to 7,000 ppm) and can be economically reclaimed for use. This will be more costly than use of fresh water (if it were locally available), but is comparable to the cost of developing and transporting fresh water from distant well fields and maybe considerably cheaper than reclaiming sewage effluent. Some day we will do this, and it may not be far off, particularly if the coastal counties cannot obtain (or control) the fresh water they will have to obtain from outside their county boundaries. We must remember that the coastal strip is at the downstream end of nature's pipeline; the upstream end is in those inland counties, mostly to the east, and included within the boundaries of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. 7. Import water from great distanc~s, such as from the aquifer upgradient from Weekiwachee Springs, Chassahowitzka Springs, Homosassa Springs, Crystal River Springs and others. But this will be extremely costly, probably much -15-


more costly than other means previously mentioned. Engineering studies will need to be made to evaluate just how much these alternatives will cost. Then, with such knowledge, the taxpayers will be in a position to make the necessary choices. B. Mine the aquifers: The Floridan aquifer and its associated overlying shallow system of water-table and low-pressure artesian aquifers contain far more ground water in storage than all the Great Lakes combined. In the District, for example, the upper 1,000 feet or more is generally filled with fresh water inland from the 40 foot contour on the potentiometric surface. However, salt water underlies this aquifer system everywhere and bounds it on the west all along the shore. If the aquifer is overpumped, salt-water encroo.chment follows. Tampa and St. Petersburg, to name only two large users, lost their original well fields to salt-water encroachment in the 19201s; now other coastal cities, such as New Port Richey, are undergoing the same loss. Additionally thousands of private wells in the shore-zone that extends generally inland to about the 10 foot contour on the potentiometric surface either have been lost to salt-water encroachment or are in imminent danger of becoming lost. Great care must be taken that the aquifer not be mined of its fresh water with resultant salt-water encroachment. Detailed research must be made to develop better knowledge of the aquifer's hydrologic characteristics so that realistic,.effective management decisions can be reached. Right now we have some usable generalized information and hydrologic understandings that will serve to guide us until better and more -16-


GGP:ld 12-08-72 detailed data are available. We can make do, then, for a while. But,we can' t afford to dally. The situation is upon us now. -17-


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