Water, water everywhere nor a drop to drink - final - September 26th, 1974


previous item | next item

Citation
Water, water everywhere nor a drop to drink - final - September 26th, 1974

Material Information

Title:
Water, water everywhere nor a drop to drink - final - September 26th, 1974
Creator:
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon), 1905-2000
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Location:
Box 3

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Everglades (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )

Notes

Abstract:
The title, from Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" is an over-dramatization of a direful situation that we cannot allow to befall the citizens of Florida. Statewide we are not yet in the sad situation of the Ancient Mariner and his companions, nor we need ever to be if we but use our resources wisely and well, nonetheless, there are areas, such as Pinellas County, which has outgrown its peninsular supply and therefore, to avoid drinking salty water, has developed inadequate supplies inland. However, our water resources, which seem limitless to most laymen, definitely are finite and cannot continue to be developed haphazardly as has been the practice in the past. Even though they are renewable, they are renewable only within limits. Our problem is in determining what these limits are, how they vary from place to place and from time to time and how to manage the resources so as to prevent depletion, pollution, or salt-water encroachment. Carefully developed water budgets for our larger stream basins and ground-water basins will define the water crop that we develop from any or all the basins, and thus determine the people-carrying capacity of such areas. If we consumptively used the water crop we either must reduce wastes, and import, manufacture (desalinate), or re-use water again and again and thus augment and extend the natural water crop. But this will be achieved only at great expense, something the American people are not used to nor yet ready to pay. It would behoove us to learn well the magnitude of our natural water crop and the costs of its development, then manage our uses so as to live within its limitations. In any case, the cheap water in Florida is almost all developed already. Crea ting larg·e additional supplies will drive costs of water and sewerage treatment up beyond belief and may in the long run, act as a brake on the population explosion we are now experiencing.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
Resource Identifier:
032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00644 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.644 ( USFLDC Handle )

Postcard Information

Format:
Book

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE NOR ANY DROP TO DRINK BY GARALD G. PARKER!/ September 26, 1974 ABSTRACT The title, from Coleridge's "Rli.me-of the Ancient Mariner" is an over-dramatization of a direful situation that we cannot allow to befall the citizens of Florida. Statewide we are not yet in the sad situation of the Ancient Mariner and his companions, nor we need ever to be if we but use our resources wisely and well, nonethe-less, there are areas, such as Pinellas County, which has outgrown its peninsular supply and therefore, to avoid drinking salty water, has developed inadequate supplies inland. However, our water resources, which seem limitless to most laymen, definitely are finite and cannot continue to be developed haphazardly as has been the practice in the past. Even though they are renewable, they are renewable only within limits. Our problem is in determining what these limits are, how they vary from place to place and from time to time and how to manage the resources so as to prevent depletion, pollution, or salt-water encroachment. Carefully developed water budgets for our larger stream basins and ground-water basins will define the water crop that we develop from any or all the basins, and thus determine the people-carrying capacity of such areas. If we consumptively used the water crop we either must reduce wastes, and import, manufacture (desalinate), or re-use water again and again and thus augment and extend the natural water crop. But this will be achieved only at great expense, something the American people are not used to nor yet ready to pay. It would behoove us to learn well the magnitude of our natural water crop and the costs of its development, then manage our uses so as to live within its limitations. In any case, the cheap water in Florida is almost all developed already. Crea ting large additional supplies will drive costs of water and sewerage treatment up beyond belief and may in the long run, act as a brake on the population explosion we are now experiencing. 1/ Certified Professional Geologist. Chief Hydrologist and Senior Scientist, Southwest Florida Water Management District.

PAGE 2

GREEN SWAMP CALCULATIONS (1) G.G.P •• 05-17-74 1. Divide G.S. area into 5 ~~gments on USGS pot map of 5/73. 2 • . Pick gradients on pot. _ segments as follows: Line A-A' Line 8-8' Line C-C' Line D-D' Line E-E' (SW, toward P o5 District) 30' in 8 mi. (W, toward Crjstal Sp9.) 25' in 6 mi. (NW, toward Dade City} 25' in 6.5 mi. (Northeast, toward Orlando)30' in 10 mi. (East toward Davenport) 30' in 10 mi. 3. Measure L (length of fiow area in segments) on following pot. contours: Line A-A', 100' contour Line 8-8', 90' tontour Line C-C', 90' contour Line D-D', 90' contour Line E-E', 90' contour 4. Use T values for these 5 areas taken from Pride, Myersand Cherry (FSG RI42, p.85, T.11) as follows: Line A-A' (SW) 600,000 gpd/ft. Line 8-8' (W) 200,000 gpd/ft. Line C-C' (NW) 1,200,000 gpd/ft. Line D-D' (NE) 300,000 gpd/ft. Line E-E (E) 200,000_gpd/ft. 5. Then: A-A' Q = 600,000 x 30/8 x 30 = 67.50 mgd. B-8' Q = 500,000 X 25/6 X 24.5 = 51.04 mgd. C-C' : Q = 1,200,000 x 25/7.5 x 19 = 76.00 mgd. D-D' Q = 300,000 x 30/10 x 22.5 20.25 mgd. E-E' Q = 200,000 x 30/10 x 22.5 = 26.77 mgd. 6. And, total flow from all 5 segments is 24i.36 mgd. ::: BS.1 • 7. Calculations of yield per units area: a • . 870 mi2 in Green Swamp b. Total est. outflow= 241.4 mgd. 2 c. 241.4 mgd ~870 mi~= 277,470 ~pd/mi (yield} d. 111 outflow/yr.= 17.4 mgy. 2 e. 17.4 mgd: 365 days= 47,671 gpd/mi (yield) f. 277,470 47,671 = 5.8 in/yr. outflow 8. Est. total outflow from FloridanAquifer is 5.8 inches or~ 6 inches 9. Average p-::::!53 in. 10. 5311 -6 11 = 47" Et+ SW0 (711) 11. ••• GW O 611 + sw":::.-7 = 1311 total outflow 12. 53" -13" = 40" ft; 40/53 :: .75 or-Et== 75 % of P. A.

PAGE 3

ESTIMATES OF GREEN SWAMP WATER PRODUCTION POTENTIAL A.VERY CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATION OF AQUIFER OUTFLOW FROM GREEN SWAMP ' Use pot. map showing g. -w. bas1ns (05-73) and an average ( very conservative) T value= 200,000 gpd/ft. (U.S.G.S. letter to C. of E., 09-20-72). 1. Line A-A' (segment flowing into P205 District from N): T = 200,000; I = 301/8 mi; L = 30 mi. along 100' pot. contour. Q = 200,000 x 30/8 X 30 = 22.50 mgd. 2. Line 8-81 (segment flowing into Hills. R. Basin N. Crystal Spring). T = 200,000; I -25'/6 mi.; L = 24.5 mi. along 90' pot. contour. Q = 200,000 X 25/6 X 24.5 = 20.42 mgd. 3. _Line C-C' (segment fl owing into Wi thl acoochee R. near Dade City) T = 200,000; I= 25'/7.5 mi; L = 19 mi. along 901 contour. Q = 200,000 X 25/7.5 X 14 = 12.67 mgd. 4. Line D-01 (segment flowing toward Orlando) T = 200,000: I= 30'/10 mi.; L = 22.5 along 901 contour. Q = 200,000 x 30/10 x 22.5 = 13.50 mgd. 5. Line E-E' (segment flowing toward Lake Tohopeliga) T = 200,000, I= 30'/6.5 mi.; L = 29 mi. along 90' contour Q = 200,000 x 30/10 X 22.5 = 26.77 mgd • . Sum of outflow, 5 s~gment_s above, equals 95.86 _ mgd.~ ~!:'" b~i (~4 -C\'lJ B. REALISTIC ESTIMATE OF AQUIFER OUTFLOW FROM GREEN SWAMP According to Stewart (FGS Info. Circ. No. 23, p. 40, 1959) T = 1,000,000 in a Green Swamp Fla. Aq. well 1,200' deep, 26" diam .. pumping 6,500 gpm for 8 hrs. Pride, Myersand Cherry (FGS Rep't. Inv. No. 42, p. 85, Table II) give estimates of T from 5 Green Swamp area sites as fol 1 ows: 1. Davenport -Horse Creek Area 2. Eastern Area 3. Northeastern Area 4. Southwestern Area 5. Dade City Area . T = 200,000 t = 300,000 T = 500,000 T = 600,000 T = 1,200,000 Using that values of T for the 5 sites indicated in Section A, we get the following values: 1. Line A -A' (Southwestern, toward P 2o5 District) T = 600,000 Q = 600,000 X 30/8 X 30 = 67.5 mgd. 2. Line B -81 (West, toward Crystal Springs) T = 1,200,000 Q = 500,000 X 25/6 X 24.5 = 51.04 mgd. 3. Line C -C' (Northwestern toward Dade City) T = 500,000 Q = 1,200,000 X 25/7.5 X 19 = 76 mgd. 4. Line D -01 (Northeastern toward Orlando) T = 300,000 Q = 300,000 X 30/10 X 22.5 = 20.25 mgd. -1-

PAGE 4

5.. Line E . -E' (East, toward Davenport-Horse Creek) _ 200,000 Q = 200,000 X 30/10 X 22.5 = 26.7T mgd. . . . . . . .... Sum of outflow, 5 segments above, equals 241.36 mgd. This estimate of total -~round'-~ater ?utflow ~eelllS-far more reasonab the ver -tz'f I ~'iconservat1ve. est1mate 1n A, wh1ch was 95.86 mgd. For-example, f ow-from..--"-~t "::-':: ~l Crystal Springs (in segment B -B') averages 42 mgd alone, which fs morec -.,. than.twice the entire estimated-flow for the entire segment. Obviously, a. T of 200,000 for-this. segment is about 3 x too low .. Likewise, the segment:: A A' which flows into "The Great Red Hole" and probably furnishes about half the pumpage-from that area, about 500 mgd, is much too -low. Estimates -in A gives a value of about 22.5 mgd; and estimate in B is 67.5 mgd. It may~: well be that T 2 mgd is much more likely to be a truer value (Wilson find~ such values in the De Soto Co. area of Tropical River Groves). If this: value were substituted for-r= 600,000 in B.1 (above) the Q would then be Q = 2,000,000 x 30/8x30 = 225 mgd or about half of total pumpage from the area of "The Great Red Hole". C. VALIDITY OF EXISTING DATA: NEED FOR BETTER INFORMATION The foregoing points up the great need for detailed exploration of the ground-water systems of the Green Swamp Area and supports the decision by both the SWFWMD and the USGS to engage in a definitive 3-year study of . the hydrology and geology of the area. The res\,Jlts of this study will not only tell us where and how much recharge-takes place but will enable us to neasure ground-water recharge withreasonable accuracy and the outflow in detail sufficient for aquifer management purposes. ' Lacking this detail, the Survey in Clyde Conover's lett~ r . to la~s Garland, dated 09-20-72 estimated a value of T = 200,000 because tests ofFloridan Aquifer wells tapping the upper 250 feet of the 2,000 feet of the aquifer, indicated values ranging from 150,000 to 293,000 in the area of SWFWMD's FDA's. Likewise the Survey found it necessary to estimate values of leakance and on the basis of past experience elsewhere decreased indicated values in the range of 0.022 to 0.036 gpd/ft2 to 0.001 gpd/ft2. This is pretty skimpy estimating, but no adverse. criticism of the Survey is intended in making this observati on. It only points up another aspect of our great lack of adequate hydrologic data upon which to base management decisions. I've checked the survey mathematics in this letter and find no errors. The mathematics are OK, but the data they used . inay be . several hundred percent in error. D. ESTIMATES OF WELLFIELD YIELD & DRAWDOWN EFFECT IN GREEN SWAMP With little more to go on than the Survey did in making their conservative estimates, I suspect that a wellfield in the FDA's would yield 80 to 100 mgd with drawdowns of the same order of magnitude, i.e., lower the potentiornetric surface 20-30 feet over about 15 mi2 and 10 to 20 feet over about 25 mi2 . However, these values are only estimates and final values can only be determined by the aquifer evaluations to be made from the cooperative survey --District investigations earlier mentioned. 241,3 0,,,,,_,J = E. MONETARY VALUE OF GREEN SWAMP WELL FIELD PUMPAGES Pf; Of'/", t.fl)(),()()']tg• ,,_,,,-re-r ,,,.. 'tu/--Va 1 ue of such water, at 36 cents per thousand gallons produced at a ?f.l 61_,, rate of 80 mgd, would be $28,800 per day or $10,512,000 per year. Or, if produced at a rate of 100 mgd would bring in a return of $13,140,000 per year. -2-

PAGE 5

F. POPULATION GREEN SWAMP WELL FIELD PUMPAGE WOULD SUPPORT Sale of such water would be to an urbanizing society of chiefly homes, small businesses {no heavy ~ndustry); light commercial uses and dwindling agricultural needs. A per capita use of 200 gallons per person would be expected to satisfy the re~uirements of such a population developing chiefly around the southern and eastern peripheries of the Green Swamp. At 200 gpcd, 80 mgd would provide water supplies for 400,000 persons and 100 mgd would suffice for 500,000. G. PROJECTED POPULATION AND REGIONAL USE OF GREEN SWAMP WELLFIELD WATER SUPPLY It is my judgement that all this water--and perhaps more-will be needed for population growth chiefly in Polk, Osceola, Orange and Lake Counties. Population projections for these four counties, given in Florida Statistical Abstracts (1973), are as follows: County 1972 1975 1980 1985 Polk 249,000 274,600 319,300 355,900 Osceola 31,400 38,700 50,100 65,200 Orange 385,000 439,400 52s;100-: 602;100 Lake 732460 78,500 87,500 100,400 Total 738,860 831,200 982,600 1,123,600 When these values are plotted on graph paper it is readily seen that they form straightline curves and may well be about 20 per cent in error (too low). Correcting for this, excepting 1972 which is a measured and not projected value, the forecast would be as follows: Totals 1972 738,860 1975 997,440 1980 1,179,120 H. WATER-USE REQUIREMENTS OF REGIONAL USE AREA 1985 1,348,320 Allowing a water use of 200 gpcd, water requirements for the four counties would be: Totals .1972 ---i47.7 mgd. 1975 199.5 mgd. I. COMPARISON OF WATER SUPPLY VS. DEMAND 1980 235.8 mgd. 1985 269.6 mgd. It was estimated {B) that the total ground-water outflow is in the order of 241 mgd., or a yield of about 277,500 gpd/mi2 for the 870 sq. mi. area of the Green Swamp. This equals 5.811 or approximately 6 inches of groundwater outflow. Putting this into the familiar water-budget equation of P -R = -Et we get: P{5311)-R{l311)=Et(4011). 1311 = 6-" GW0 + 7" SW0 • . These values compare favorably with values obtained from other methods of estimating Rand Et for the Green Swamp area in which Et has been established -3-

PAGE 6

as being in the range of. 70 -7511 per year, and_ give credence ~o the values derived herein. ' 1 This 1311 of outflow repres.ents 611 of water• that has been recharged 'from rain falling on the Green Swamp .Area, seeping downward into the Floridan Aquifer and flowing outwardly in all directions from a central high near Polk City, pl us 711 of streamfl ow. 'If one neglected the surface-water outflow and depended solely upon capturing ground-water flow, the potential water crop would be about 241 _mgd. -But common sense tells us that we cannot withdraw all this water and use it consumptively. Were we to do so the streams would dry up, the swamp and other wet:-lands vegetation die and be replaced with desert-type plants such as turkey and blackjack oaks, long-leaf pines, saw palmetto, gallberry and~ certain bunch grasses. Perhaps it would be safe to use consumptively about one-third of this total outflow, or about 80 mgd. This would provide, at 200 gpcci. water for a hew population of 400,000 people. If this much (80 mgd) were withdrawn but by careful usage only 25 per cent were lost to consumptive use and the rest, 60 mgd. returned to the aquifer by recharge practices, the usable water supply would be raised to 140 mgd, or enough water for 700,000 people. This is quite possible to accomplish and inasmuch as the waste . water must be cleaned up to very high standards (almost to drinking water quality before being discharged to the environment) the cost of .furtherrefining it for human uses would not be excessive; and for agricultural and many commercial uses it could be re-used again and again with only secondary treatment. The nutrients left in the secondary-treated water, nitrates and phosphates particularly, make such treated effluents highly valuable for plant watering. This may, in fact, be the only way to go to avoid importation of water from distant source~ such as the Apalachicola or Suwannee Rivers. -4-

PAGE 8

ing .. . e So ....... 0 .


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close


  • info Info

    There are both PDF(s) and Images(s) associated with this resource.

  • link PDF(s)



  • link Image(s)

    <- This image

    Choose Size
    Choose file type



Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.