Development improvements of the Three Sisters Springs area, Crystal River, Citrus County Florida - January 8th, 1985

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Development improvements of the Three Sisters Springs area, Crystal River, Citrus County Florida - January 8th, 1985

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Development improvements of the Three Sisters Springs area, Crystal River, Citrus County Florida - January 8th, 1985
Parker, Garald G. (Garald Gordon)
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Box 1


Subjects / Keywords:
Aquifers -- Hydrogeology -- Everglades (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Hydrology -- Florida -- Biscayne Aquifer (Fla.) ( lcsh )

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University of South Florida
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University of South Florida
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The University of South Florida Libraries believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries.
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032968560 ( ALEPH )
891343127 ( OCLC )
G16-00665 ( USFLDC DOI )
g16.665 ( USFLDC Handle )

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• • • OR ~t0A L TYPEb C~ . ~l..O l 07=-t'!-(C,e FILES DEVELOPMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS OF THE THREE SISTERS SPRINGS AREA, CRYSTAL RIVER, CITRUS COUNTY, FLORIDA by Garald G. Parker, Sr., CPH, CPG!/ A REPORT PREPARED FOR HARVEY AND LINDA GOODMAN January 1985 JAN. 0 8 1985 l/ Certified Professional Hydrologist, No. 127 Certified Professional Geologist, No. 691 C~P ~ , of>-N, z


• • CONTENTS Introduction Geochemistry of Natural Waters Color Specific Conductance Silica Iron Calcium Magnesium Sodium and potassium Sulfate Chloride Fluoride Hardness Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH) Corrosiveness Samples and Sampling Ci.rculation Channels and the Effects on Water Quality The Proposed Channels Estimated Cost of Proposed Channels Lake Heating by use of Flowing Artesian Wells Summary i Page 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 9 9 10 10 11 20 22 22 28


• • • ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Title number 1 Index map to the Three Sisters Springs Area 2 Index map to the Three Sisters Springs Area showing proposed channels "H" and "L" linking Lake Linda with existing tidal canals 3 4 Shape, depths, and floor conditions of Lake Linda as measured and observed in February 1983 Monthly and Yearly average atmospheric temperatures, estimated fo~ Crystal River, from Weeki Wachee records by U.S. Weather Service Climatic Data, Annual Sunnnary, Florida, 1983, v. 87, No. 13 ii Page 12 19 23 26


• • • TABLES Number 1 Quality of water from Three Sisters Project Area 2 From Lake Linda, center of lake, #830217 3 From S.E. Sister almost 10', #GGP-1 4 From main canal almost 880'E. of Three Sisters Outflow channel, #GGP-2 Page 13 14 15 16 5 From Lake Linda, E. end, oppos~te Sea Level gage, #GGP-3 17 6 From Lake Linda, W. end, GGP #4 18 iii


• • • REPORT ON THE QUALITY OF WATER FROM THE THREE SISTERS PROJECT, CRYSTAL RIVER, FLORIDA AND RELATED, PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES by Garald G. Parker, Sr., CPH, CPG, Consultant_!_! Introduction To show either the compatibility or noncompatibility of the water of Lake Linda with that of the waters of the Three Sisters Springs and adjacent tidal canals connecting with Crystal River, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) has requested a report on this subject. Accordingly, five 1-gallon samples of water were collected and chemical analyses made by the Thornton Laboratories, Inc., of 1145 E. Cass Street, Tampa, FL • . Additionally, the owners of the property that includes the Three Sisters Springs have requested descriptions of certain developmental projects and costs thereof. These matters are included in this report. Geochemistry of the Natural Waters The mineral constitutents of natural waters generally reflect the composition and solubility of the rock materials with which the waters have been in contact. In Florida the mineral lllatter in surface and ground waters is derived not only from rocks and rock materials, but also through ion exchange. Still another source of mineralization is sea water that has contaminated some surface and ground waters near the coast and along the tidal canals. 1./ Parker & Associates, P.O. Box 270089, Tampa, FL 33688


• • • Color In water analysis the term "color" refers to the appearance of water that is free of suspended matter. Water for domestic use and for some industrial uses should be free from perceptible color. All of the surface waters and some of the ground waters in west central Florida are colored to some extent. Waters in the Three Sisters Area are almost colorless. Natural color in surface and ground waters is caused almost entirely by organic matter extracted from leaves, roots, and other substances in the ground. The Hazen platinum-cobalt scale is the connnonly adopted standard in the United States for measuring color in water. The unit of color is that being produced by 1 mg of platinum per liter, dissolved as platinic chloride, with the addition. of enough cobalt chloride to give a color matching the shade of the natural water. The figures for color given in the table of analyses represent units on this platinumcobalt scale. Specific Conductance The specific conductance of a water is a measure of its ability to conduct an electric current. Specific conductance, which is the reciprocal of specific resistance in ohms, is expressed in reciprocal ohms at 25c (770F). In order that the use of awkwardly small figures may be avoided, the measured values of specific conductance are multiplied by 105 . 2


• • • The specific conductance of a water is a function of the amount and kind of the dissolved mineral matter. It varies with the concentration and also with the degree of ionization of the minerals in solution. It is of value in determining the volume to be used for anaylsis, and, particularly in coastal areas of Florida, in determining the extent to which surface and ground water are contaminated with sea water. Silica Silica (Si02 ) is dissolved from practically all rocks and rock materials. Its state in natural waters is not definitely known, but in reports of anaylses it is assumed to be in the colloidal state, taking no part in the equilibrium between acids and bases. In Florida, the concentration of silica, in those waters in which it was determined, generally ranges from about 2 to 20 ppm, with an average of somewhat less than 10 ppm. The silica in a water may be precipitated with otherscal~forming materials in steam boilers. This may be a serious matter in the operation of highpressure boilers. Otherwise, silica is of comparatively little importance in determination of water use. Iron Iron (Fe) is dissolved from practically all soils and rocks and frequently from iron pipes. Soft waters low in mineral content and other waters of low pH will dissolve iron from iron pipes and particularly from hot-water lines and boilers. The quantity of iron in ground water is not so uniform over large areas as the quantity of calcium and other constituents. Wells, close together, have been found to differ considerably in the quantity of iron in their waters. Surface waters in Florida generally contain less than 0.1 ppm of iron but ground waters may contain from a few hundredths of a part to 3 to 4 ppm and even larger amounts occur in some wells . _!/ppm means parts per million, equivalent to mg/L, milligrams per liter. 3


• • • Water furnished to consumers by public supplies should not contain more than about 0.2 ppm of iron. Water that contains much more than this amount of iron is not suitable because of the appearance of "redwater," or reddish-brown sediment caused by the oxidation of the iron. The iron will make stains on white porcelain, enameled ware and fixtures, and on clothing or other fabrics; high-grade paper and ice. must have water practically free from iron. The excess iron may be removed by simple aeration and filtration from most waters but some waters require the addition of lime or some other substance. Calcium Calcium (Ca) is dissolved in large quantities from limestone, which is largely calcium carbonate. Corals and shells are also nearly all calcium carbonate. Calcium, therefore, occurs in considerable quantities in all ground waters in Florida. Calcium carbonate is not very soluble in pure water, but when enough carbon dioxide is available, large quantities of calcium carbonate go into solution as bicarbonate. Calcium is the main cause of the hardness of waters in Florida. Bicarbonate (Hco3 ) in natural waters results from the action by carbon dioxide (dissolved in the water) on carbonate rocks. A few natural waters contain carbonate (co3), but generally its presence in samples is the result of the action of the water on the sample bottle or of previous treatment of the water. Surface and ground waters that have not been in contact with limestone may have less than 20 ppm of bicarbonate. The ordinary surface and ground waters in west central Florida, however, have about 150 to 400 ppm of bicarbonate • 4


• • • Bicarbonate is the principal acid radical in nearly all waters used j for public supplies. Its relationaship to hardness is discussed below. Magnesium Magnesium (Mg) is dissolved from practically all rocks but mainly from dolomite and dolomitic limestones. The limestones of the upper part of the Florida.PAquifer contain littl. e magnesium,. " therefore ~he ~round waters carry only small quantities. Magnesium is one of the abundant constituents of sea water and therefore will be found in large quantities in ground water contaminated with sea water, or with salts embedded in the deposits of ancient seas, such as the rocks in the lower part of the Floridan Aquifer. Magnesium and calcium are the only elements that cause appreciable hard-•ness in most natural waters. Sodium and Potassium Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are dissolved from almost all rocks, but they make up only a small part of the dissolved mineral matter in most of the surface and ground waters in this area. As sea water is mainly a solution of connnon salt (sodium chloride), considerable quantities of sodium are found in waters contaminated with s ea water or in waters with salts enclosed in the older marine deposits. The quantity of sodium may be from 5 to 30 ppm in an ordinary surface or ground water or several hundred parts per million in a highly mineralized water. The quantity of potassium is generally comparatively small. Natural waters that contain only 3 or 4 ppm of sodium and potassium are likely to contain about equal quantities of the two. As the total quantity of these constituents increase• , the proportion of potassium becomes less. In waters carrying from 30 to 50 ppm 5 J


• • • of both .these constituents, the ratio of sodium to potassium may vary from about 4:1 to 10:1. For waters that carry increasing amounts of sodium, the ratio of sodium to potassium even larger. Sulfate Sulfate {so4 ) is dissolved in large quantities from gypsum {calcium sulfate) in the rocks and s-0il. It is also formed by the oxidation of sulfides of iron,and sulfates from this source cause seriouspollution of streams in parts of the country where the opening of mines has exposed large quantities of iron sulfide to the action of air and water. Sulfate itself has little effect on the general use of a water. Magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate may be present in sufficient quantity to give a bitter taste. Sulfate in a hard water may increase the cost of softening and will form a much more troublesome scale in a steam boiler • Chloride Chloride {Cl) is an abundant constituent of sea water and is dissolved in small quantities from rock materials. Many of the surface waters of Florida have less than 15 ppm of chloride, but ground waters with 100 ppm, or more, are not uncommon. Chloride, like sodium, with which it forms sodium chloride (common salt), has little effect on water for ordinary uses unless there is enough present to give a salty taste. Waters high in chloride may be-corrosive to plumbing and steam boilers and harmful to irrigated,,crops. Fluoride Fluoride {F) has been reported elsewhere to be as prevalent as chloride in groundwater. However, the quantity in natural waters is very much less 6


• • • than that of chloride. Surface waters in west-central Florida do not contain. m~re than 0.6 ppm of fluoride and usually less than 0.3 ppm was found. Fluoride concentrations in Flo. i,ida'. public supplies generally range from Oto 0.3 ppm. Fluoride in water is associated with the dental defect known as mottled enamel if children drink water with fluoride higher than 2.4 during the cal~ification or formation of their teeth. Normally formed teeth have not been known to become mottled later, regardless of the fluoride content of the drinking water. Teeth having mottled enamea!.. become a dull chalky white color, which, in many cases, later takes on a characteristic darkbrown stain. It is generally recognized that water containing 1 ppm, or less, of fluoride will have no deleterious effect on tooth enamel and waters with slightly higher concentrations are used for public supplies without noticeable effect. There is no evidence to show that fluoride concentrations in potable surface and ground waters in central Florida are sufficient to produce mottled enamel on children's teeth. Quantities of fluoride not produce mottled enamel have a beneficial effect on teeth by reduction of the incidence of dental carries (decay). Hardness Hardness of water is most commonly recognized by a lack of suds in washing. Most of the figures for hardness giv~n in the tables of analyses were calculated from the determinations of quantities of calcium and magne-sium. In addition to causing trouble in the use of soap, these constituents are active agents in the formation of scale in steam boilers and other vessels in which water is heated or evaporated • 7


• • • Hardness may be of two kinds--carbonate and noncarbonate. Carbonate hardness, sometimes referred to as temporary hardness, is caused by calciumand-magnesium bicarbonate. Much of the carbonate hardness can be re-moved by boiling or by treatment with lime. Noncarbonate hardness, often called permanent hardness, is caused by calcium and magnesium-sulfate (chloride and nitrate) and is more difficult and costly to remove. Both forms of hardness may be entirely removed by passing the water through a zeolite-type of water softner., but water softened by this method:-. still contains approximately the original quantity of dissolved mineral matter. Water with a hardness of less than 60 ppm is generally rated as soft, and its treatment for the removal of hardness is rarely justified. Hardness between 60 and 120 ppm does not seriously interfere with the use of water for most purposes, but it does slightly increase the consumption of soap, and its removal by a softening process is profitable for laundries and allied industries. Hardness between 120 and 200 ppm is troublesome for many industrial processes and requires treatment for the prevention of scale in boilers. Hardness above 200 ppm is objectionable for most industrial and domestic uses • . -Water ,having a hardness of from 200 to 400 ppm is used by many people who obtain their water supplies from privately owned wells and is also furnished by some larger public supplies. There is an increasing tendency, however, for cities to soften their water supplies if the raw water has a hardness in excess of 150 ppm. Where municipal water supplies are softened, an attempt is generally made to reduce the hardness to about 85 ppm • 8


• • • -~ydrogen Sul ide Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that gives the characteristic odor to sulfur waters. It is formed during the decomposition of eggs and other organic materials that contain considerable sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide in ground waters is commonly formed by the reduction of sulfates. Many ground waters in Florida carry small quantities of 'hydrogen:sulfide, but it usually disappears quickly when 'the water is allowed to srand in an open vessel. Treatment for the removal of iron will insure the removal of hyrdogen sulfide from most of these waters. Hydrogen sulfide was _ detected in all 5 samples taken from waters of the Three Sisters area, however it was barely noticeable and measured less than 0.04 ppm. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration (pH) The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a water, as indicated by the hydroion concentration, is of importance with reference to the corrosiveness and the proper treatment for coagulati'on at the water-treatn,ient -plant. The hydrogen~ •ion concentration is commoniy reported as pH. Technically, pH is the number of moles of ionized hydrog~n per liter, or to put it more simply, it is a number denoting the degree of acidity or J alkalinity. A pH :value of 7. 0 represents neutrality, which means that the water is neither acid nor alkaline. Values higher than 7.0 denote decreasing acidity. Waters that have a pH of less than 7.0 are, likely to be corrosive, while waters that ave a pH of more than 7.0 are less likely to be corrosive. Other factors entering into chemical equilibrium, however, make it impossible to correlate corrosive characteristics of waters on the basis of pH alone. 9


• • • Corrosiveness The corrosiveness of water is that property which makes the water aggressive to metal surfaces and frequently causes trouble by the appearance of "red-water." fhe disadVB.ntages of iron in a water supply have been previously discussed. However, in addition .to the trouble caused by iron in water, corrosion causes the deterioration of water pipes, steam boilers, and water-heating equipment. Many waters that do not appreciably corrode cold-water lines will aggressively attack hot-water lines, because raising the temperature of the water greatly increases its corrosivity. Corrosion of p .ipe lines, resulting in tuberculation causes economic losses due to increased friction and loss of flow. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, free acid, and acid-generating salts are the principal constituents in water that cause corrosion. A method has been developed for computing the corrosive tendency of a water, providing that the content of calcium and dissolved mineral matter, the total alkalinity, and the pH of the water are known. In a genetal way, very soft waters tend to be corrosive and hard waters tend to be noncorrosive. Waters containing appreciable amounts of sea water, however, and waters in which sodium chloride is present in moderately large amounts, are likely to be corrosive. Corrosion may be checked by protective coatings, by the addition of lime, soda ash, or other chemicals that adjust the pH, and by the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium silicate, or certain other chemicals. Samples and Sampling All samples were taken by use of a boat from a depth of 3 feet below the water surface. Temperature of the water was measured in degrees Fahrenheit, 10 '


• • • conditions of the site noted, e.g., whether the bottom was weed-free or not, the water clear or not, odor noticeable or not, and other related matters. The samples were then placed in an ice chest and immediately transported to the chemistry laboratory in Tampa. Analyses were performed in accordance with "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," APHA, Latest Edition. Figure 1, an index map of the area, gives location of each sample site. Chemical quality of each sample is recorded on the summary sheet, Table 1, "Quality of Water from the Three Sisters Project Area," and on Tables 2, 3 , 4 , 5 , and 6 • Circulation Channels and the Effects on Water Quality Examination and comparison of the data listed in the tables indicates that water from each source, i.e. Lake Linda, the Three Sisters Springs, and the adjacent tidal canals are of excellent quality and are compatible. That is, if Lake Linda were to be connected to existing canals on the west and south as shown in Figure 2, there would be no deterioration of any of the connecting bodies of water. The two channels would allow free circulation of water through Lake Linda, whether to: .the west or.:_the east, , depending upon differences in tidal stages with time in the tidal canals. It is not anticipated that connecting channel "L" to the tidal canal on the south through Three Sisters Springs would in any way change the normal springs discharge of artesian Floridan Aquifer water. The springs are expected to continue to function as they do currently; and,as their chemistry isso similar, with only relatively minor differences, with waters of the tidal canals and Lake Linda, the waters are compatible and no deterioration of water would occur anywhere in the connected system • 11


GATO tll.ANA-r• 1'V (PRO 0) ,, ,..,,_.,, ---EXPLANA1lON. WATE~ SAMPl..\WG. . SIT~S. C, 0'2-1'?-!53. X1 ~ X%, )f3. )(4, 5Aftf PLED 10-os-e4-. l 10-,0-&9-II -Z..ti-8+ SPRlN&S 5rX) loet;l I I I I I f ": .. ...,. b' . Cl TR1UEr , . COUN:TY, -,= L.:O R \ 1:) A 12


• PARAMETER Total Dissolved solids Volatile Fixed Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sodium+Potassium (Na+K) Iron (Fe) Total Hardness (as CaC03 ) • Carbonate . . No.n.:....carbonate Sulfate (so4 ) Fluoride (F) Chloride (Cl) Salt Equivalent (NaCl) Alkalinity (as CaC03) Phenophalein Methyl Orange Carbonate (as Caco 3 ) Bicarbonate (as Caco 3 ) Hydroxide . _ (as Caco3 ) pH value Color TABLE 1. QUALITY OF WATER FROM THREE SISTERS PROJECT AREA Analyses from Thornton Labs., 1145 E. Cass Street, Tampa, FL Temperature in F Values give in MGL ,(=PPM) SAMPLING SITES ARE SHOWN ON THE INDEX MAP, FIGURE 1 No. 830217 : ' No. 1-GGP No. 2-GGP No. 3-GGP No. 4-GGP 'Desirable Allowable Lake 3 Sisters Canal 02-17-83 10-05-84 10-05-~ 126 76 50 37 5.4 5.1 0.02 114 110 4~0 ' 1.0 0.06 7.9 13 110 0 110 0 110 0 186 30 156,.i 31 4.0 8.1 0.014 94 88 ' 6. O i 4.0 0.07 12 20 88 0 88 0 88 0 168 38 130 31 3.6 6.2 0.017 102 90 12 4.0 0.0 8.8 15 90 0 90 0 90 0 Lake Lake by EPA & 10-05-84 10-05-84 DER 154 34 120 26 4.0 4.7 0.040 80 79 1. , 0 3.0 0.07 6.7 11 79 0 79 0 79 0 156 38 118 26 5.2 4.7 0.032 86 75 11 3.0 0.06 7.4 12 75 0 75 0 75 0 200 30 30 1.0 120 50 1.4-2.4 25 250 5001./ 250 1.6-3.4 250 {Flatinum Cobalt) Odor 7.3 5.0 2 7.8 2.0 0 8.0 2.0 1.0 7.7 8.0 1.0 8.0 7.0 1.0 6.0-8.5 5.0-9.0 0-20 75~ Carbon Dioxide •(free) ogen Sulfide (H2S) Total Organic Carbon Specific Conductance Temperature 11 5.8 220 62 11 y 11 :!} 2.6 .04 26 260 740 1.7 0.04 23 220 740 3.2 0.04 22 200 74 1.5 0.04 23 180 740 If other less mineralized water is avialable 20 100 70 Only because of stains on painted surface, concrete, clothing, etc. Not a limit. Average of raw Florida waters is 188 mg/L Depends upon use intended 13


• • • TWX 810 876-9134 TABLE Z THORNTON LABORATORIES. INC. 114!1 EAST CASS STREET TAMPA. FLORIDA 33601 March 18, 1983 ANALYTICAL ANO CONSULTING CHEMISTS TELEPHONE (813) 229-2541 P. 0 . BOX 2880 Laboratory Number 583582 Sample of Date Received Surface Water February 18, 1983 Sample Collector G. &. Parker, Jr. Collection Location Lake Linda For Parker & Associates P.O. Box 270089 Time of Collection Tampa, Florida 33618 Mai;~s: From Lake Linda, Crystal River Area, Citrus county 3' Lake level CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS PARAMETER mg/1 Total Dissolved Solids ................ __ 1_2_6 __ _ Volatile Solids ................... -~7_6 ___ _ Fixed Solids .................... __ 5 ....... 0 ___ _ Calcium (Ca) ........................ __ 3_7 ___ _ Magnesium (Mg) ..................... _ __.S ........ _4 __ _ Sodium and Potassium (Na) ............ ---=-5 ..... __ l....._ __ Iron (Fe) ................. Less .. than ..... _0 ___ • __ 0.......,2~--Total Hardness as CaCOa .............. __ 1_14 ___ _ Carbonate ...................... ____ 1 __ 1 __ 0:_ __ Non-carbonate ................... __ 4 ____ _ Sulfate (S04) ............. utfJS .. tb~ l __ --,,.. ___ _ Fluoride(F) ........................ __ 0_._0_6 __ _ Chloride (Cl) ........................ _ __.7 ............... 9 __ _ Equivalent to Salt (NaCl) ........... _ . __ l.-3 ___ _ Alkalinity as CaCOa ................. _ _..;1 ___ 1 ___ 0 __ _ Phenophthalein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 ------Methyl Orange ................... _.....;l~lc;;;_O __ _ Carbonate as CaCOa .................. __ 0 ____ _ Bicarbonate as CaCOa ................. -~l.-1~0'---Hydroxide as CaCOa .................. ---'-0 ___ _ pH Value ........................... __ 7_. ___ 3 __ _ Color, Platinum-Cobalt Scale . . . . . . . . . . . 5 _ _..;;;... ___ _ Odor .................. ; ........... -~2 ___ _ Carbon Dioxide (Free) ................ __ l_l ___ _ d1JJa~~~r~~ige .................... ---,..2~20-,,----,,----I t t t . y ••••••••••••••••• n erpre a 10n: ~-----Total Organic Carbon •••••••• s.8 *U.S.P.H.S. 500 0.30 250 0.6 -1.2 250 15 MAR. 1 9 1983 Analysis a~cording to "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," APHA, Latest Edition. 14


• • • TWX 810 876-9134 THORNT LAB TPA TABLE .B. THORNTON LABORATORIES, INC. 1145 EAST CASS STREET TAMPA, FLORIDA 33601 2880 ANALYTICAL ANO CONSUL TING CHEMISTS TELEPHONE (813) 223-9702 P . O . BOX 2880 WEIL WA'1ER CllDllCAL ANALYSIS ,4M PU: #JO, GGP-l FHA/VA November 13, 1984 laboratory Nunber 609524 Sanpling Locatim 3 Sisters Project Date Received For October 5, 1984 Parker & Associates P.O. Box 270089 Tarrpa, FL 33688 Sanpling Date and Tine 10-5-84 1030 hrs. -3 ft. Surface Water Sam pie -#,r11 Sanple 'J.'Ent)erature s;~. SlST~~ a+-c1 740 Clear Marks GGP/JVN po•ht""-' ,o~t.t>ff-S ... shora. Pararreter Total Dissolved Solids Volatile Solids Fixed Solids Calcium (ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sodium and Potassium (Na) Iron (Fe) Total Hardnes _ s as cam3 carbonate Non-carbonate Sulfate (004) Fluoride (F) Chloride (Cl) Equivalent to Salt (NaCl) Alkalinity as caCD3 Phenophthalein Methyl Orange carbonate as cam3 Bicarbonate as cam3 Hydroxide as cam3 pH Value Color, Platinum-Cobalt Scale Odor carbon Dioxide (Free) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Total Organic Carbon CERrl.F .iCA'IE OF ANALYSIS rng/1 186 30 156 31 4.0 8.1 0.014 94 88 6 4.0 0.07 12 20 88 0 88 0 88 0 7.8 2 0 2.6 < 0.04 26 Sp:cific Conductance (umhos/cm) 260 *U.S.P.H.S. All results expressed in rng/1 unless otherwise noted. Limit* 500 0.30 250 0.6-1.2 250 15 NOV. 2 6 198t /..nalysis according to "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 1'.PHA, Latest Edition. Laboratory ID #84147 15 'lIDRNlUN IAEORNIORIFS, IOC.


. , ,. • • • TWX 810 876-9134 THOANT LAB TPA TABLc4. Laboratory Nlmi:>er 609526 THORNTON LABORATORIES, INC. 1145 EAST CASS STREET TAMPA, FLORIDA 33601 2880 ANALYTICAL ANO CONSUL TING CHEMISTS WELL 'WA'IER CllEJllCAL ANMaYSIS TELEPHONE (813) 223-9702 P . O. BOX 2880 FF..A/VA sAN\1=>L.e t,..\0, ('.-cc-P-2. November 13, 1984 Locatim 3 Sisters Project Date Received October 5, 1984 For Parker & Associates Sanpling Date and Time 10-5-84 1045 hrs. P.O. Box 270089 3 1 ~0 'SURt:"A-a::" Tampa, FL 33688 I C!A~/lrL ~E?lJTt="R Sanl:>le 'l'enllerature . ~740 Cl~ . E. oc= ~-s1-s-re-R-s

• • • TWX 810 876-9134 THORNT LAB TPA TABl.E" 5. THORNTON LABORATORIES, INC. 1145 EAST CASS STREET TAMPA , FLORIDA 33601 2880 ANALYTICAL AND CONSUL TING CHEMISTS WELL WMm cmJ4ICAL ANM.YSIS FHA/VA November 13, 1984 TELEPHONE (813) 223-9702 P . O . BOX 2880 Laboratory NlmDer 609523 Sanpling Locatim 3 Sisters Project Date Received For October 5, 1984 Parker & Associates P.O. Box 270089 Tampa, FL 33688 Sanpling Date and Time 10-5-84 1145 hrs. -3 ft. surface Water Livid.a Sanple Tatperature Marks Sample from East End of Lake,...Opposite the USGS GAGE GGP/JVN Parameter Total Dissolved Solids Volatile Solids Fixed Solids Calcitnn (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sodium and Potassitnn (Na)+(>-<) Iron (Fe) Total Hardness as Ca(X)3 Carbonate Non-carbonate Sulfate (S04) Fluoride (F) Chloride (Cl) Equivalent to Salt (NaCl) Alkalinity as CaC03 Phenophthalein Methyl Orange Carbonate as Ca

• • TWX 810 876-9134 THORNT LAB TPA THORNTON LABORATORIES, INC. 1145 EAST CASS STREET TAMPA, FLORIDA 33601 2880 ANALYTICAL AND CONSUL TING CHEMISTS TELEPHONE (813) 223-9702 P.O . BOX 2880 WELL WMER CIIEJllCAL ANALYSIS TABLE 6 FFJ/v"'A sarnp \e-No. 6GP-4" -November 13, 1984 Laboratory Nuni:>er 609525 Sanpling Location 3 Sisters Project Date Received For October 5, 1984 Parker & Associates P.O. Box 270089 Tampa, FL 33688 Sanpling Date and Tire 10-5-84 1200 hrs. -3 ft. Surface Water Marks Sanple Teuperature Sarrple from West End of Lake Linda GGP/JVN/LG Parameter Total Dissolved Solids Volatile Solids Fixed Solids calcium (ca) Magnesium (Mg) Sodium and Potassium (Na) Iron (Fe) Total Hardness as caCD3 Carbonate Non-carbonate Sulfate (004) Fluoride (F) Chloride (Cl) Equivalent to Salt (NaCl) Alkalinity as cacn3 Phenophthalein Methyl Orange carbonate as cacn3 Bicarbonate as caCD3 Hydroxide as CaCD3 pH Value Color, Platinum-Cobalt Scale Odor carbon Dioxide (Free) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2s) Total Organic carbon CERrnLCATE OF ANALYSIS my'l 156 38 118 26 5.2 4.7 0.032 86 75 11 3.0 0.06 7.4 12 75 0 75 0 75 0 8.0 7 1 1.5 < 0.04 23 SF,ecific Conductance (t.nrhos/cm) 180 *U.S.P.H.S. All results expressed in ffi9/l unless otherwise noted. Limit* 500 0.30 250 0.6-1.2 250 15 740 Clear NOV. 2 6 1881. ~nalysis according to "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and wastewater", APP.A, Latest Edition. Laboratcry ID #84147 'lIDRN'ION LAOORldORIES, DC. 18


WATE~ SAMPl.\~G. SITES. 0'2-l'?-e3. X1, ><2-, )f3, )(4, ~AW1PLE'O 10-os-a4-. 1 10• 10-c91-I1-L6-84-SQ? ,oeo f I II I I I If FTG . 2::-INDEX' MAP TO 1'fl4E T,-rRe:i::-~s1sTE~:, 5PRl'\.JGS_ A _REA SHOWING PROPOSED. CHANNEL5"H"8J"C LrNKING LAKE • LINDA WIT~ EXISTING TlDAL CANALS 19


• • • • As can be seen on Table 1, all waters are of the calcium bicarbonate type, typical of natural waters in an uncontaminated terrane. Total dissolved solids and hardness are both considerably below EPA and DER maximum standards. Iron content is variable and measured in .hundreths of a ppm, but much lower than EPA's 3.0 maximum limit. Sulfate in all waters is extremely low, highest measured being only 0.4 ppm in Three Sisters and the nearby canal, whereas EPA maximum standard is 250 ppm. The same may be said of the fluoride content, being measured in the samples in hundreths of a ppm whereas EPA maximum standard ranges from 1.6 to 3.4. Chloride is remarkably low for waters in a coastal area. Sea water chloride count is about 21,000 ppm whereas the highest chloride in the waters of the Three Sisters area, is only 12 ppm. The pH ison the alkaline side, ranging from about 7.3 to 8. EPA acceptable ranges are 5.0 to 9.0. Color values also are low ranging from 2.0 in the Three Sisters and the adjacent tidal canal to 8.0 in Lake Linda. These values (up to 8) are imperceptible to the human eye. All-in-all, the waters of the Three Sisters Area are of excellent quality such as would be desired by any municipality as a source of water supply. The Proposed Channels Channels "H" and "L" are proposed to be dredged 10 feet deep: .and 10 feet wide in the creamy-white, permeable Ocala Limestone, the country rock of the area. This rock also, in the Three Sisters Area, is the uppermost 250 feet of the 2,000 foot thick Florid an Aquifer, which is the source of spring waters discharged through the permeable floors of the Three Sisters Springs, the Idiots Delight Springs, which now discharge through the floor of the tidal canal immediately south of the Three Sisters, and of the huge 20


• • • springs that discharge ih Kings Bay and elsewhere in the Crystal River Area. So far as is known, there are no spring vents discharging directly into Lake Linda although it is probable that the lake receives some artesian seepage through its permeable floor. Probably most of its water is obtained by lateral flow of ground water from the shallow, uppermost, partially perched ground-water body that is directly recharged by precipitation. This is largely inferred from the water temperature differences between that of the Three Sisters and the adjacent tidal canal waters which range from about 74F in winter to 76F in summer --ideal temperatures for manatees as well as for humans. The lake, however, is known to range from 620F on February 3, 1983 to 74F on October 5, 1984. On very cold days the lake temperature may drop below 62F but there are -:m:;.: recorded measure-ments to verify this. In anyev.enn ; :water in the 60F range probably would be shunned by manatees. More about this in a later section • The channels connecting Lake Linda with the nearby tidal canals and Three Sisters Springs offer four useful objectives: (1) to allow free-flow through Lake Linda thus preventing stagnation; (2) to allow manatees in the tidal canals access to Lake Linda, a safe haven for these gentle planteaters which not only would be out of harm's danger from the flesh-cutting propellers of speedboats but would, by eating hydrilla, improve the appearance and the utility of the lake; (3) raising the temperature to a more nearly uniform stage comparable to that of the tidal canals and the Three Sisters Springs; and (4) creation of a "canoe trail" over a circuit of about 0.8 miles' length. The following distances, as measured on Figure 2, give both segmental and total lengths of the proposed canoe trail: A-B (Channel "H"), 500 ft. ; B-C 1, 130 ft. ; (Channel "L"), 530 ft.; D-E, 350 ft.; E-F, 1,160 ft.; F-A, 530 ft. for a total length of 4,200 ft. (400/5289 = 0.795 mi. or about 8/10 of a mile). 21


• • • Estimated Cost of Proposed Channels Dimensions of Channel "H" are 10ft. x 10ft. x 500ft. and those of Channe11'L'1are 10ft. x 10ft. x 530ft. The combined length of the two channels is about 1030ft. It is believed that the dredging can be contracted at $6/yd 3 . • This cost includes the dumping of the spoil along the banks but does not include its spreading or levelling over the adjacent irregular land surface which, it is my understanding, the owners desire to do. With the estimated quantity of dredging and _costs per yd3 , the dredging cost then would be: 1,030' long x 10' wide x 10' deep= 103,000 27ft3/yd3 = 3,815 yd 3 x $6.00 = $22,890; rounded off it becomes $23,000. Lake Heating by use of Flowing Artesian Wells The shape, depths, and conditions of the floor of Lake Linda as measured and observed in February 1983, are shown in Figure 3. Calculations of its 3 average water content shows it to be about 5,163,000 ft: = 118.3 ac/ft = 38,700,000 gallons (rounded to nearest hundred -thousand). As indicated earlier in this report, recorded water temperatures of the lake at -3ft_-surface were 620F on February 17, 1983 and 74F on October 5, 1984. These probably are not extremes. Doubtless on coldest winter days the lake temperatures may all to about 60F and on hottest summer days may rise to about 76F. The higher temperature would appeal to manatees -or human bathers and swimmers, whereas: 60F water would not • 22


• • THREE SISTERS SPRINGS PROJECT Near Crystal River, Citrus County Florida Property of HARVEY AND LINDA GOODMAN Explanation .3-Planned Data Site. Numerator is site number. Denomrimator is depthJ •u feet below level of lake. XlO Supplemental depth site. Generally marks an abrupt depth change. Symbols: ST=Silt; SD=Sand; RK=Rock; RKY=Rocky '--25...-contour in feet on lake bottom. Contour interval is 5 feet. closed contour around a depression Note: Lake was dredged in Ocala Limestone,so its walls and floor are limestone. Deeper parts are over-dredged. Some of the deeper parts may be silt of ancient sinkholes or areas where the rock is very soft and therefore more easily dredged out. Near the south end of transect "H", a small sinkhole was observed with an outflow of lake water. A thick mat of hydrilla covers the lake bottom almost everywhere, the plants range up to almost 8 ft. long. • SCALE 1•: I 00' 1


• • • Under changed conditions in the lake obtained by circulation of warmer waters from the canals and the Three Sisters, it may well be that low winter lake temperatures would be raised to the range of 65-70F, but until experience shows how much the through-the-lake~flow affects the temperature of the lake, there is no way of preparing a firm estimate. We know however, from U.S. Geological Survey measurements, that Floridan Aquifer artesian water flows at or '.above the land surface in coastal Citrus County springs at temperatures ranging from 74 to 76F and averages about 7SF the year around. We have measured the temperature of flow from the Three :sisters and the Idiots Delight Springs nearby at 74F. in Oct., 1984. Accordingly, we can expect continued flow at a minimum of 74F from artesian wells drawing water from the Floridan Aquifer at this site. Any such wells drilled to discharge into the lake would have the effect of raising cold-weather lake temperatures, the amount of temperature rise in the lake being controlled by the amount of artesian water introduced into the lake at given lake temperatures. To gain an idea of how many artesian wells would be needed, under the most adverse conditions of lake temperatures and with no warming of lake waters induced by warmer water introduced through circulatory canals, the following calculations were made: Given: (1) 38,700,00 gal.,lake water at 600F. (2) 74F artesian water available in any needed quantity (3) 1 gal. @60F + 3 gal. @ 74oF = 4 gal. @ 70.SF (60F + 740F + 740.F + 740F = 282T 4 = 70.SOF) • 24


• • • Using this information, it is calculated that 9,675,000 gal. of 60F lake water plus 29,250,000 gal of 74F artesian well water would raise the temperature of the entire lake to 70.SOF. And, using standard wellflow design values, one 12-in. diameter well operating under a 9-in. artesian head, would produce 3,474,750 g/d of 74F water. 29,250,000 • 3,474,750 gpd = 8.5 wells. As one can not get 8.5 wells, 9 would be needed to meet this worst-case condition, as from mid-January to midFebruary. A 9-inch arteasian head for free-flowing wells at the Lake Linda site appears to be about a normal available head. Precise data on artesianhead duration in the Three Sisters area are not available, but reasoning from U.S. Geological Survey potentiometric maps with some readings of wells to the N, E, and S, the head ranges from about 0.5 ft. above mean sea level to about 2 feet. A value of 0.75 ft. (9 inches) of artesian head appears to be reasonable for our calculations. Unlike inland areas where seasonal potentiometric levels may rise or fall as much as 10 feet seasonally, the coastal area of artesian discharge varies less than a foot seasonally. In the Three Sisters area the potentiometric level probably averages about 1 foot above sea level. Inasmuch as the temperature of the water in shallow lakes, such as that in Lake Linda, tends to follow with some lag the rise and fall of ambient air temperature, and the water in shallow, water-table aquifers reflects average long-term air temperatures of a given region, it is reasonable to use monthly average air temperature of the area as a basis for determining how many 12-in. flowing arteasian wells will need to be in operation at any given time. Figure 4 is designed to show this • 25


--1 ----.,._.__. I I 1 -_c--r ----(_ : . t I


• • • Thus,starting in January with its monthly long-term average temperature of 57.9F, all 9 of the 12-inch wells would need to be flowing to raise the temperature of Lake Linda's water to 70F, but as temperatures rise in the spring of the year, say in mid-May, only 5 wells would be needed to maintain a 70F temperature in Lake Linda. Then, about April 20, average temperatures will be at or near 700F and the one flowing well could be closed off. After mid-August the monthly average temperature starts falling and by about November 10, one well would again need to be turned on l Likewise, by about December 10 another well would need to be flowing again. And So, until mid-January additional flowirig: wells would be needed at regular intervals to keep the lake heated to about 70F. Then the cycle repeats itself. Now, all this supposes that SWFWMD would give permits to drill and operate the thermal wells which will cost about $10,500.00 per well. Each well would be drilled to a depth of about 250' below sea level. Total cost of the 9, 12-inch, open hole (uncased below first hard limestone rock in the Floridan: , •.Aquifer) wells is estimated to be about $ 94,500.00. But no wells should be drilled for thermal heating until we know how much heat the through-flowing channel waters will impart to the lake. It may well be that no wells will be needed at all as the lake becomes as warm as the adjacent canals, or nearly as warm. It may be that only one~or two or three wells would be needed. If it appears that one or more thermal wellls will be required then will be the time to prepare a formal request of SWFWMD for the needed permit • 27


• • • On another tack, SWFWMD might be willing to permit one or two trial wells to be low-head fountains discharging into the lake and helping to maintain lake levels a bit higher than they might be otherwise. If this appears to be a desirable objective, waiting to see the effects of the circulatory channels on the lake would not be necessary. In that case a permit could be sought at an early date. Summary Two circulatory-water channels are needed to be established and maintain~ circulation through Lake Linda. One, Channel "H," 10' x 10' x 500' would connect the northwest corner of Lake Linda with the the existing fresh-water tidal canal to the west. The second, Channel "L," :. 10' x 10' x 530" would connect th~ southeastern end of Lake Linda with the fresh-water tidal canal on the south by way of Three Sisters Springs • Geochemical and hydrogeological studies show this proposal to be feasible. No chemical or biological change of any consequence would accrue as result of linking these bodies of water because these waters are chemically similar and are compatible. Advantages to be obtained are: (1) Creation of through-the~lake circulation of canal waters and waters of Three Sisters Springs thus preventing stagnation of the lake; (2) manatees could gain access to Lake Linda as a refuge from crippling or deathly motorboat encounters. Not only would the manatee enjoy the safety of the lake, they would improve it by devouring the heavy growth of hydrilla that now infests the lake; (3) the temperature of Lake Linda should be raised considerably in the winter to more nearly match the temperature of the adjoining canals and that of the Three Sisters; and (4) a picturesque canoe trail 0.8 mi. long would be created . 28


• • • In case the through-flowing waters from the tidal canals and the Three Sisters do not raise the temperature of Lake Linda's waters sufficiently during the cold weather, the temperature might be raised by the. use .of free-flowing artesian well water. Wells 12 inches in diameter and about 250 feet deep, operating with an average artesian head of only 9 inches above sea level, would each contribute about 3.47 mgd (million gallons a day) of fresh water suitable for public water supplies. Nine such wells, each costing about $10,500.00 would be needed to raise Lake Linda's cold-weather temperature of 60F to 70.5F, but these 9 wells would only be needed to flow about 45 days a year, from about December 1 throught February 15. Gradually, as temperatures rise through spring, successive wells would be cut off periodically until, by about mid-April they could all be shut down and would not have to be started on line again until early November • If it is decided by the owners, Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Goodman, to make use of the wells as thermal sources of heat in the winter, approval will have to be obtained from SWFWMD for the drilling and use ~f the wells as described above. In any event, thermal wells will not be needed until it is demonstrated that the circulatory channels flow does not heat Lake Linda's cold-weather 60F water to about 700F. Should the circulatory channels equalize Lake Linda's winter-weather water temperature with that of: the rearby tidal canals, no thermal wells would be required. Or, if the channels only raise the lake temperature a few degrees, then an appropriate number (less than 9) would be required. It is recommended that a start be made on the dredging of the circulatory-water channels at the ear,lli.est possible time and that water-temperature monitoring be begun at 4 stations: (1) Lake Linda at the USGS tidal staff gage; (2) in the tidal channel at Goodman's mooring dock; 29


• • • (3) in the Three Sisters Springs near the southeastern border; and (4) Lake Linda in the western end at point near where the circulatory water channel would connect with the lake. The data gathered would be crucial in determining, first, if thermal wells are needed, and second, if thermal wells are put into service, their efficiency of heating the lake. Garald G. Parker, Sr., CPH, CPG Consultant GGP:bep Jl Os 1984 30


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